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Sample records for carrageenan

  1. Carboxymethyl Carrageenan Based Biopolymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobarak, N.N.; Jumaah, F.N.; Ghani, M.A.; Abdullah, M.P.; Ahmad, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper highlights the potential of carboxymethyl carrageenan based on iota and kappa to be utilized as host polymer. • The highest conductivity were achieved up to ∼10 −3 S cm −1 by carboxymethyl carrageenan without the addition of plasticizer. • The electrochemical stability windows of the films were electrochemically stable up to 3.0 V. - Abstract: A series of biodegradable carboxymethyl carrageenan based polymer electrolytes, which are carboxymethyl kappa carrageenan (sulphate per disaccharide) and carboxymethyl iota carrageenan (two sulphates per disaccharide), have been prepared by a solution casting technique with different ratios of lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) salts. Interestingly, the lithium ions tended to interact with the carbonyl group in the different modes of symmetry, as observed from reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. In the carboxymethyl kappa carrageenan electrolytes, as the concentration of LiNO 3 increased, the asymmetric stretching peak of the carbonyl bond became dominant because it can be observed clearly with the shifting of the peak from 1592 to 1602 cm −1 due to the interaction between the lithium ion and the carbonyl group, while the broad O-H stretching peak became sharp and intense. However, for the carboxymethyl iota carrageenan, the asymmetry stretching mode of the carbonyl group shifted from 1567 to 1599 cm −1 , as the salt concentration increased. The shifting of the C-O-C peak also occurred in the iota-based electrolytes. However, the changes in the peak that represented SO 4 2− symmetric stretching were only detected when the ion pair formation was observed. It was proposed that the peak shifting was due to the presence of the lithium ion pathway, forming a dative bond between the lithium and oxygen in the carbonyl group. Accordingly, as more peak shifting was observed, the number of the ion pathways also increased. This hypothesis was supported by the impedance

  2. Emerging applications of radiation-modified carrageenans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, Lucille V., E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Aranilla, Charito T.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2014-10-01

    The Philippines supplies almost half of the world’s processed carrageenan as ingredient for different applications. In order to maintain the country’s competitive advantage, R and D on radiation processed carrageenan with various potential applications had been undertaken. PVP-carrageenan hydrogels for wound dressing had been developed. A carrageenan-based radiation dose indicator can detect radiation dose of as low as 5 kGy. Irradiated carrageenan has also been tested as plant growth promoter. Irradiated carrageenans have been found have been found to contain some antioxidant properties which increase with increasing dose and concentration. Carboxymethyl carrageenans had also been developed that shows promising effect as super water absorbent for soil conditioner in plants.

  3. Antioxidant activity potential of gamma irradiated carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Racadio, Charles Darwin T.; Aranilla, Charito T.; De la Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of irradiated κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans were investigated using the hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay. The degree of oxidative inhibition increased with increasing concentration and dose. The type of carrageenan had also an influence on its antioxidant activity which followed the order of lambda< iota< kappa. Increase in oxidative property with radiation dose can be attributed mainly to the depolymerization of the carrageenans with corresponding increase in reducing sugar. The antioxidant properties of these carrageenan oligomers were lower than that of ascorbic acid and galactose sugar. - Highlights: • The antioxidant capacity of gamma irradiated κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans increased with increasing concentration and dose. • The type of carrageenan had an influence on its antioxidant activity which followed the order of lambda< iota< kappa. • Increase in oxidative property with radiation dose can be attributed mainly to the depolymerization of the carrageenans with corresponding increase in reducing sugar

  4. Radiation processing of carrageenan using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, L.V.; Aranilla, C.T.; Relleve, L.; Dela Rosa, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Electron beam accelerator has been widely employed in the modification of natural polymers for the development of materials used in biomedical and agricultural applications. The carrageenans are among these materials that show a vast potential for these types of applications. Previous studies at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute focused on the utilization of gamma radiation to modify the carrageenans. Radiation degradation of carrageenan found valuable use as plant growth promoter. Hydrogels for burn dressing using blends of carrageenan and synthetic polymers have also been made using gamma radiation. While previous studies have been focused on the use of gamma radiation to modify the carrageenans, recent studies expanded the technology to electron beam. Concretely, researches are along the following two areas: a) Degradation studies of aqueous carrageenan using the LEEB and b) Preparation of blend polysaccharide derivatives such as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) with kappa-carrageenan (KC) by EB radiation. These works were done at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE) by two PNRI colleagues under the nuclear researcher exchange program of the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The first area had already been reported and discussed in the last project meeting held in Malaysia. (author)

  5. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  6. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu

    2001-01-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  7. Macromolecular complexes of lysozyme with kappa carrageenan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonov, Y.A.; Zhuravleva, I.L.; Cardinaels, R.; Moldenaers, P.

    2018-01-01

    We present a structural study of the complexation and binding of lysozyme (Lys) with kappa carrageenan (kCG) by means of turbidity measurements, phase analysis, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering, differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSMC), confocal laser scanning (CLSM) microscopy,

  8. Pharmacological importance of sulphated polysaccharide carrageenan from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii in comparison with commercial carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Arumugampillai Manimehalai; Sanjivkumar, Muthusamy; Chandran, Manohar Navin; Palavesam, Arunachalam; Immanuel, Grasian

    2016-12-01

    Pharmacological properties of native carrageenan (κ) extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii and commercial carrageenan (Sigma-Aldrich) were evaluated using in vitro antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic studies. Phytochemical analysis of native and commercial carrageenans showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, gums & mucilages and carbohydrate. Both native and commercial carrageenans exhibited better antioxidant activities such as total antioxidant capacity (87±0.47 and 82.6±0.47μg A.A/g), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (61.4±0.27 and 58.66±0.31μg/ml), nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (80.42±0.22 and 73.66±0.22μg/ml), DPPH radical scavenging activity (56.26±0.20 and 53.67±0.082μg/ml) and reducing power assay (46.57±0.32 and 42.54±0.27μg/ml) at the maximum concentration of 100μg/ml carrageenans. These results indicated that native carrageenan from K. alvarezii possessed better antioxidant potential in comparison with commercial carrageenan. Anticancer activities of both carrageenans showed excellent inhibition on the growth of breast, colon, liver and osteosarcoma cell lines at the maximum concentration of 150μg/ml. Native carrageenan exhibited an excellent anticancer activity on colon carcinoma cell lines (67.66±0.168%) with the IC 50 value of 73.87μg/ml and commercial carrageenan possessed a potent inhibition on the growth of breast cancer cell lines (67.33±0.077%) with the IC 50 value of 123.8μg/ml. These results clearly indicated the beneficial effect of native and commercial carrageenans as anticancer agents being a free radical scavenger. Anti-diabetic property of both carrageenans showed inhibition effect on α- glucosidase enzyme. The inhibitory effect depends on concentration of carrageenans and it was recorded that maximum (74.49±1.05 and 67.42±0.63) inhibitory effect of α- glucosidase enzyme at 500μg/ml concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of Thiolated Carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchaoin, Wongsakorn; Bonengel, Sonja; Hussain, Shah; Huck, Christian W; Ma, Benjamin N; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to generate and characterize a thiolated carrageenan. Thiolated carrageenan (carrageenan-SH) was synthesized from kappa (κ)- and iota (ι)-carrageenan by bromine replacement of the hydroxyl moieties followed by substitution to thiol groups using thiourea. Thiolated κ- and ι-carrageenan exhibited 176.57 ± 20.11 and 109.51 ± 18.26 μmol thiol groups per gram polymer, respectively. The resazurin test in Caco-2 cells revealed no toxic effect of both thiolated carrageenans at a concentration below 0.1% (w/v). Regarding efflux pump inhibitory effect, cellular accumulation of multidrug-resistance protein 2 substrate, sulforhodamine 101, was 1.38- and 1.35-fold increased in cells treated with thiolated κ- and ι-carrageenan, respectively. Modification of κ- and ι-carrageenan led to 3.9- and 2.0-fold increase in dynamic viscosity of mucus-thiolated carrageenan mixture within 4 h. Furthermore, residence time of κ- and ι-carrageenan-SH on porcine intestinal mucosa was 6.4- and 1.8-fold prolonged, respectively, as demonstrated by rotating cylinder method, indicating improved mucoadhesive properties. Hence, thiolation of carrageenans led to novel pharmaceutical excipients for various applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Hybrid carrageenans: isolation, chemical structure, and gel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliou, Loic

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid carrageenan is a special class of carrageenan with niche application in food industry. This polysaccharide is extracted from specific species of seaweeds belonging to the Gigartinales order. This chapter focuses on hybrid carrageenan showing the ability to form gels in water, which is known in the food industry as weak kappa or kappa-2 carrageenan. After introducing the general chemical structure defining hybrid carrageenan, the isolation of the polysaccharide will be discussed focusing on the interplay between seaweed species, extraction parameters, and the hybrid carrageenan chemistry. Then, the rheological experiments used to determine the small and large deformation behavior of gels will be detailed before reviewing the relationships between gel properties and hybrid carrageenan chemistry. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-clinical safety evaluation of intranasal iota-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebar, Alexandra; Koller, Christiane; Seifert, Jan-Marcus; Chabicovsky, Monika; Bodenteich, Angelika; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Carrageenan has been widely used as food additive for decades and therefore, an extended oral data set is available in the public domain. Less data are available for other routes of administration, especially intranasal administration. The current publication describes the non-clinical safety and toxicity of native (non-degraded) iota-carrageenan when applied intranasally or via inhalation. Intranasally applied iota-carrageenan is a topically applied, locally acting compound with no need of systemic bioavailability for the drug's action. Animal experiments included repeated dose local tolerance and toxicity studies with intranasally applied 0.12% iota-carrageenan for 7 or 28 days in New Zealand White rabbits and nebulized 0.12% iota-carrageenan administered to F344 rats for 7 days. Permeation studies revealed no penetration of iota-carrageenan across nasal mucosa, demonstrating that iota-carrageenan does not reach the blood stream. Consistent with this, no relevant toxic or secondary pharmacological effects due to systemic exposure were observed in the rabbit or rat repeated dose toxicity studies. Data do not provide any evidence for local intolerance or toxicity, when carrageenan is applied intranasally or by inhalation. No signs for immunogenicity or immunotoxicity have been observed in the in vivo studies. This is substantiated by in vitro assays showing no stimulation of a panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines by iota-carrageenan. In conclusion, 0.12% iota-carrageenan is safe for clinical use via intranasal application.

  12. Non-clinical safety evaluation of intranasal iota-carrageenan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hebar

    Full Text Available Carrageenan has been widely used as food additive for decades and therefore, an extended oral data set is available in the public domain. Less data are available for other routes of administration, especially intranasal administration. The current publication describes the non-clinical safety and toxicity of native (non-degraded iota-carrageenan when applied intranasally or via inhalation. Intranasally applied iota-carrageenan is a topically applied, locally acting compound with no need of systemic bioavailability for the drug's action. Animal experiments included repeated dose local tolerance and toxicity studies with intranasally applied 0.12% iota-carrageenan for 7 or 28 days in New Zealand White rabbits and nebulized 0.12% iota-carrageenan administered to F344 rats for 7 days. Permeation studies revealed no penetration of iota-carrageenan across nasal mucosa, demonstrating that iota-carrageenan does not reach the blood stream. Consistent with this, no relevant toxic or secondary pharmacological effects due to systemic exposure were observed in the rabbit or rat repeated dose toxicity studies. Data do not provide any evidence for local intolerance or toxicity, when carrageenan is applied intranasally or by inhalation. No signs for immunogenicity or immunotoxicity have been observed in the in vivo studies. This is substantiated by in vitro assays showing no stimulation of a panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines by iota-carrageenan. In conclusion, 0.12% iota-carrageenan is safe for clinical use via intranasal application.

  13. Controlling carrageenan structure using a novel formylglycine-dependent sulfatase, an endo-4S-iota-carrageenan sulfatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préchoux, Aurélie; Genicot, Sabine; Rogniaux, Hélène; Helbert, William

    2013-06-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides that are found in the cell walls of red algae. These polysaccharides have gelling and texturizing properties that are widely appreciated in industrial applications. However, these functional properties depend strongly on the sulfation of the moieties of the carrabiose repetition unit. Here we aimed to monitor the sulfate composition of gelling carrageenan. To do so, we screened and purified from Pseudoalteromonas atlantica a 4S-iota carrageenan sulfatase that converts ι-carrabiose into α-carrabiose units. The sequence of this protein matched the annotated Q15XH3 (Uniprot databank) formylglycine-dependent sulfatase found in the P. atlantica genome. With pure enzyme, ι-carrageenan could be transformed into a hybrid ι-/α-carrageenan or pure α-carrageenan. Analysis of the distribution of the carrabiose moieties in hybrid carrageenan chain using enzymatic degradation with Alteromonas fortis ι-carrageenase, coupled with chromatography and NMR spectroscopy experiments, showed that the sulfatase has an endo mode of action. The endo-character and the specificity of the sulfatase made it possible to prepare hybrid κ-/ι-/α-carrageenan and κ-/α-carrageenan starting from κ-/ι-carrageenan.

  14. Degradation of carrageenan by low energy electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relleve, L.; Aranilla, C.; Abad, L.; Dela Rosa, A.; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yagi, Toshiaki; Kume, Tamikazu; Yoshii, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    Degradation of κ-carrageenan using vessel-type low energy electron accelerator was investigated. Carrageenan with different molecular weights were obtained from irradiation of high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) κ-carrageenan. Other results presented were obtained from degradation studies of carrageenan by gamma rays. The decrease in molecular weight was accompanied by partial desulfation. From comparison of radiation degradation yield (Gd), it was found that the susceptibility to radiation of the three types of carrageenans in aqueous/gel forms follows the order of λ->ι->>κ- and could have been influenced by their conformational state. κ-carrageenan with molecular weight of ca. 10,000 showed strong growth promotion effect for potato in tissue culture. (author)

  15. Rheological properties of agar and carrageenan from Ghanaian red seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis on the hydrocolloids extracted from H. musciformis (and K. alvarezii) indicated κ-carrageenan, C. crenulata hydrocolloids were mainly ι-carrageenan, and the H. dentata hydrocolloids were agar. Gelling temperatures ranged from 32 to 36 °C for the κ-carrageenan hydrocolloid samples...... comparable with κ-carrageenan from K. alvarezii, whereas the H. dentata agar properties were different from those of a commercial agar sample. This work shows that certain red seaweed species in Ghana contain hydrocolloids with desirable properties for high value applications....... and Cryptonemia crenulata, expected to hold carrageenan, contained 21–26% by weight of galactose. A commercial Kappaphycus alvarezii carrageenan sample had 30% galactose residues by weight. Hydropuntia dentata, expected to contain agar, contained 15% by weight of galactose-monomers. Fourier transform infrared...

  16. Complexation between carrageenan and methylene blue for sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2013-11-01

    Theoretical studies on the methylene blue (MB)-carrageenans complexation at solution and solid states have been carried out via ultraviolet spectrophotoscopy and reflectometry methods. The equilibrium constant (Ka) of the MBcarrageenans complexation follows the order of Iota > Lambda > Kappa carrageenans, which indicated Iota-carrageenan forms a stable complex. MB-carrageenan complexation reaction showed decrease in Ka value from 210.71 ppm-1 to 114.57 ppm-1 when the reaction temperature increased from 298 K to 323 K. Le Chatelier's principle and mass action law explained that the MB-carrageenan complexation was an exothermic reaction (ΔH=-18.54 kJmol-1) that release heat. Thus MB-carrageenan complex was less stable at high temperature and tend to dissociate into free MB and carrageenan molecules. It was also supported by the van't Hoff equation. The reaction is a spontaneous process (ΔG=-13.23 kJmol-1) where the randomness of the molecules reduced (ΔS=-17.83 Jmol-1K-1) due to complexation. Besides, linear regression of the concentration and absorption of the MB-carrageenan reaction obeys the Beer Lambert law, which elucidated that the complexation process was not affected by any concentration dependent factors such as aggregation and self-quenching. Moreover, linear Benesi Hilderbrend plot revealed that the interaction between MB and carrageenan was a reversible and stoichiometric reaction with 1:1 ratio. However, the molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) and molar adsorption coefficient (μa) of the MB-carrageenan complex were lower compared to free MB, described that the complex was less adsorptive. The sensor constructed based on these theoretical investigations showed response behavior that was similar with solution test as both have attraction for carrageenans in the sequence of Iota-, Lambda-, Kappa- carrageenans. Likewise, carrageenan sensor was more selective towards Iota-carrageenan than to Lambda- and Kappa-carrageenans, and no response observed when

  17. Theoretical study of hydrogen bond interactions of fluvastatin with ι-carrageenan and λ-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Anastasios G; Sigalas, Michael P

    2011-07-01

    The binding of the reductase inhibitor drug fluvastatin, hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, with the hydrophilic ι- or λ-carrageenan polymers, serving as potential controllers of the drug's release rate, have been studied at the density functional level of theory with the B3LYP exchange correlation functional. Three low energy conformers of fluvastatin have been calculated. The vibrational spectroscopic properties calculated for the most stable conformer were in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. A series of hydrogen bonded complexes of the most stable conformer of fluvastatin anion with low molecular weight models of the polymers have been fully optimized. In almost all, intermolecular H-bonds are formed between the sulfate groups of ι- or λ-carrageenan and fluvastatin's hydroxyls, resulting in a red shift of the fluvastatin's O - H stretching vibrations. Cooperative intramolecular H-bonds within fluvastatin or ι-, λ-carrageenan are also present. The BSSE and ZPE corrected interaction energies were estimated in the range 281-318 kJ mol⁻¹ for ι-carrageenan - fluvastatin and 145-200 kJ mol⁻¹ for λ-carrageenan - fluvastatin complexes. The electron density (ρ (bcp)) and Laplacian (∇²ρ (bcp)) properties at critical points of the intermolecular hydrogen bonds, estimated by AIM (atoms in molecules) calculations, have a low and positive character (∇²ρ(bcp) > 0), consistent with the electrostatic character of the hydrogen bonds. The structural and energetic data observed, as well as the extent of the red shift of the fluvastatin's O - H stretching vibrations upon complex formation and the properties of electron density show a stronger binding of fluvastatin to ι- than to λ-carrageenan.

  18. Seasonal changes in Carrageenan and other biochemical constituents of Hypnea musciformis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Solimabi; Dass, B.; Kamat, S.Y.; DeSouza, L.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Carrageenan content was maximum in winter. Near inverse relationship was observed between the total carbohydrate and carrageenan. Protein levels were highest when the nitrogenous nutrients were high...

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of Ruta graveolens Linn on carrageenan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema in wistar male rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Voveran. These extracts were given (ip) in a concentration of 20 and 50 mg/kg b.w. before carrageenan injection.

  20. Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of papillomavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Buck

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Certain sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV types are causally associated with the development of cervical cancer. Our recent development of high-titer HPV pseudoviruses has made it possible to perform high-throughput in vitro screens to identify HPV infection inhibitors. Comparison of a variety of compounds revealed that carrageenan, a type of sulfated polysaccharide extracted from red algae, is an extremely potent infection inhibitor for a broad range of sexually transmitted HPVs. Although carrageenan can inhibit herpes simplex viruses and some strains of HIV in vitro, genital HPVs are about a thousand-fold more susceptible, with 50% inhibitory doses in the low ng/ml range. Carrageenan acts primarily by preventing the binding of HPV virions to cells. This finding is consistent with the fact that carrageenan resembles heparan sulfate, an HPV cell-attachment factor. However, carrageenan is three orders of magnitude more potent than heparin, a form of cell-free heparan sulfate that has been regarded as a highly effective model HPV inhibitor. Carrageenan can also block HPV infection through a second, postattachment heparan sulfate-independent effect. Carrageenan is in widespread commercial use as a thickener in a variety of cosmetic and food products, ranging from sexual lubricants to infant feeding formulas. Some of these products block HPV infectivity in vitro, even when diluted a million-fold. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether carrageenan-based products are effective as topical microbicides against genital HPVs.

  1. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and

  2. Carrageenan: a natural seaweed polysaccharide and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Maheriya, Pankaj M; Jani, Girish K; Solanki, Himanshu K

    2014-05-25

    Polysaccharides have been gaining interesting and valuable applications in the food and pharmaceutical fields. As they are derived from the natural source, they are easily available, non-toxic, cheap, biodegradable and biocompatible. Carrageenan is one among them, which fulfills the criteria of polysaccharide; it is a natural carbohydrate (polysaccharide) obtained from edible red seaweeds. The name Carrageenan is derived from the Chondrus crispus species of seaweed (Rhodophyceace) known as Carrageen Moss or Irish Moss, and Carraigin. A demand based on its application has been widely increasing in food and pharmaceutical sectors. Carrageenan has gained wide applications in experimental medicine, pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetics, and food industries. Through keen references of the reported literature on carrageenan, in this review, we have described about carrageenan, its properties, extraction and refining, and its food and pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of oxidized κ-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingjin; Ge, Liming; Lyu, Yongbo; Zi, Yaxin; Li, Xinying; Li, Defu; Mu, Changdao

    2017-10-15

    The oxidized κ-carrageenans with different oxidation levels were prepared through the hydrogen peroxide and copper sulfate redox system. The oxidation level of oxidized κ-carrageenan was successfully controlled by adjusting the dosage of hydrogen peroxide. The results showed that the microtopography of oxidized κ-carrageenan changed from rough granules to smooth flakes, mainly resulting from the easily melting property of oxidized κ-carrageenan induced by introduced carboxyl and aldehyde groups. Especially, the antibacterial activity of oxidized κ-carrageenans against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was systematically investigated. The results showed that the oxidized κ-carrageenan could damage the bacterial cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane and suppress the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The oxidized κ-carrageenan possessed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, which may be used as a new antibacterial agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioactive compounds in industrial red seaweed used in carrageenan production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naseri, Alireza; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The main seaweed species used in industrial scale for carrageenan production are Kappaphycus alvarezii, Eucheuma denticulatum, Chondrus crispus, Gigartina sp. and also Furcellaria lumbricalis as a source of furcellaran (Danish Agar) is also classified together with carrageenan. The chemical...... compositions of these five industrial red seaweeds were evaluated. Protein, lipid and total phenolic content, total amino acid and composition, fatty acid profile, tocopherol content and pigment composition were analyzed. The results demonstrate that there is potential possibility to develop a method...

  5. Iota-Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of rhinovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Christiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs are the predominant cause of common cold. In addition, HRVs are implicated in the worsening of COPD and asthma, as well as the loss of lung transplants. Despite significant efforts, no anti-viral agent is approved for the prevention or treatment of HRV-infection. Results In this study we demonstrate that Iota-Carrageenan, a sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweed, is a potent anti-rhinoviral substance in-vitro. Iota-Carrageenan reduces HRV growth and inhibits the virus induced cythopathic effect of infected HeLa cells. In addition, Iota-Carrageenan effectively prevents the replication of HRV1A, HRV2, HRV8, HRV14, HRV16, HRV83 and HRV84 in primary human nasal epithelial cells in culture. The data suggest that Iota-Carrageenan acts primarily by preventing the binding or the entry of virions into the cells. Conclusion Since HRV infections predominately occur in the nasal cavity and the upper respiratory tract, a targeted treatment with a product containing Iota-Carrageenan is conceivable. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether Iota-Carrageenan-based products are effective in the treatment or prophylaxis of HRV infections.

  6. Potential of carrageenans to protect drugs from polymorphic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andrea G; Wartewig, Siegfried; Picker, Katharina M

    2003-07-01

    Carrageenans were analysed in mixture with polymorphic drugs to test their potential for minimising polymorphic or pseudopolymorphic transitions, which are induced by the tableting process. The kappa-carrageenans Gelcarin GP-812 NF and Gelcarin GP-911 NF and the iota-carrageenan Gelcarin GP-379 NF were tested in comparison to the well-known tableting excipients microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD). Amorphous indomethacin was chosen as model drug since its well-known recrystallisation behaviour can be mechanically stimulated. Further on, theophylline monohydrate was used. Its dehydration is induced by tableting. Pure materials and mixtures containing 20% (w/w) drug were compressed up to different maximum relative densities. The data obtained during tableting were analysed by three-dimensional (3D) modelling. Afterwards tablets were broken and examined by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy in order to determine the degree of transformation inside the tablet. For quantitative interpretation, the intensities of representative bands were used. Thermal analysis was used additionally. Using 3D modelling a decrease of plastic deformation can be noticed in the order HPMC>MCC>carrageenans, whereas DCPD represents an exception because of brittle fracture. Best hindrance of polymorphic transformation showed the carrageenans, the hindrance was slightly worse for HPMC. MCC and DCPD could not hinder transformation. A complete protection of the amorphous form could not be achieved. For theophylline monohydrate, the results were similar.

  7. Europium ion as a probe for binding sites to carrageenans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Ana P.; Goncalves, Rogeria R.; Serra, Osvaldo A. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil); Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil)], E-mail: medzaniquelli@ffclrp.usp.br; Wong, Kenneth [Laboratorio de Fisico-Quimica, Centro de Pesquisas de Paulinia, Rhodia Brasil, Paulinia, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    Carrageenans, sulfated polysaccharides extracted from red algae, present a coil-helix transition and helix aggregation dependence on the type and concentration of counterions. In this study, we focus attention on a mixed valence counterion system: Eu{sup 3+}/Na{sup +} or K{sup +} with different gel-forming carrageenans: kappa, iota, and kappa-2. Results of stationary and time-dependent luminescence showed to be a suitable tool to probe ion binding to both the negatively charged sulfate group and the hydroxyl groups present in the biopolymer. For lower europium ion concentrations, a single longer decay emission lifetime was detected, which was attributed to the binding of europium ion to the carrageenan sulfate groups. An additional decay ascribed to europium binding to hydroxyl groups was observed above a threshold concentration, and this decay was dependent on the carrageenan charge density. Symmetry of the europium ion microenvironment was estimated by the ratio between the intensities of its emission bands, which has been shown to depend on the concentration of europium ions and on the specificity of the monovalent counterion bound to the carrageenan.

  8. Europium ion as a probe for binding sites to carrageenans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ana P.; Goncalves, Rogeria R.; Serra, Osvaldo A.; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D.; Wong, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Carrageenans, sulfated polysaccharides extracted from red algae, present a coil-helix transition and helix aggregation dependence on the type and concentration of counterions. In this study, we focus attention on a mixed valence counterion system: Eu 3+ /Na + or K + with different gel-forming carrageenans: kappa, iota, and kappa-2. Results of stationary and time-dependent luminescence showed to be a suitable tool to probe ion binding to both the negatively charged sulfate group and the hydroxyl groups present in the biopolymer. For lower europium ion concentrations, a single longer decay emission lifetime was detected, which was attributed to the binding of europium ion to the carrageenan sulfate groups. An additional decay ascribed to europium binding to hydroxyl groups was observed above a threshold concentration, and this decay was dependent on the carrageenan charge density. Symmetry of the europium ion microenvironment was estimated by the ratio between the intensities of its emission bands, which has been shown to depend on the concentration of europium ions and on the specificity of the monovalent counterion bound to the carrageenan

  9. Carrageenan Extracted from Eucheuma cottonii Through Variant of Drying Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pralisa Putri Novy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan is a derivative product of seaweed that used in various fields such as pharmacy, food and cosmetics. One of the most widely used carrageenan from seaweed was Eucheuma cottonii sp. The research was conduct to determine the effect of post-harvest seaweed pre-treatment on yields of Carrageenan. The first pre-treatment done by using the fresh seaweed that has been washed clean then directly dried. The second pre-treatment, washed seaweed soaked with clean water for seven days and then dried with a dryer. Drying time for the first and second pre-treatments is varied, then dried seaweed extracted with water to produce carrageenan. The analyses performed were moisture content of seaweed and yields of Carrageenan. The results of the research found that the initial moisture content of seaweed on the second pre-treatment was greater than the first pre-treatment. The variation of drying time on the first pre-treatment did not affect significantly on the yields, but in the second pre-treatment, yield of carageenan increased with accumulation drying time.

  10. Physico Chemical Characteristic of Kappa Carrageenan Degraded Using Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Febriansyah Siregar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractKappa carrageenan is polysaccharide that widely used in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile and printing industries as coagulate agent, stabilizer and gelling agent. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is strong oxidator to degrade polysaccharide. Hydrogen peroxide has some advantades such as cheap, easy to get and savety environment. Degradation method using hydrogen peroxide is a technology based on establishment radical hydoxile reactive that attack the glycosidic of polysaccharides as a result reducing in molecular weight of polysaccharide. The aims of this study were to analyze the effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature and degradation time to molecular weight of refined kappa carrageenan. Structural changes on kappa carrageenan degradation were characterized by viscometer, SEM and FTIR. Hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature and degradation time were significantly reducing molecular weight and changes in the structural function of refined kappa carrageenan. The lowest molecular weight of refined kappa carrageenan degraded was obtained from the treatment 3% of hydrogen peroxide at temperature 80°C and degradation time for 4 hours.

  11. Carrageenan as a dry strength additive for papermaking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Liu

    Full Text Available Carrageenans are commercially important sulfated gums found in various species of red seaweeds (Rhodophyta, wherein they serve a structural function similar to that of pectins in land plants. In this study, carrageenan was used independently or in combination with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM and/or Al2(SO43 to explore its application as a dry strength additive in papermaking. Strength index determination, ash content detection, FTIR characterization and SEM observation were performed on prepared handsheets. The results showed that with 0.6% Al2(SO43 and 0.2% carrageenan as additives, the tensile index increased by 13.53% and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC retention increased by 57.06%. With 0.6% Al2(SO43, 0.2% carrageenan and 0.03% CPAM as additives, PCC retention increased by 121% while the tensile index did not fall compared to handsheets without additives, indicating that carrageenan could enhance the strength of handsheets and be used as an anionic dry strength agent.

  12. Characterization of ι-carrageenan and its derivative based green polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumaah, Fatihah Najirah; Mobaraka, Nadhratun Naiim; Ahmad, Azizan; Ramli, Nazaruddin [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The new types of green polymer electrolytes based on ι-carrageenan derivative have been prepared. ι-carrageenan act as precursor was reacted with monochloroacetic acid to produce carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan. The powders were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to confirm the substitution of targeted functional group in ι-carrageenan. The green polymer electrolyte based on ι-carrageenan and carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan was prepared by solution-casting technique. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity ι-carrageenan film were higher than carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan which 4.87 ×10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} and 2.19 ×10{sup −8} S cm{sup −1}, respectively.

  13. Follistatin Alleviates Synovitis and Articular Cartilage Degeneration Induced by Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yamada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activins are proinflammatory cytokines which belong to the TGFβ superfamily. Follistatin is an extracellular decoy receptor for activins. Since both activins and follistatin are expressed in articular cartilage, we hypothesized that activin-follistatin signaling participates in the process of joint inflammation and cartilage degeneration. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of follistatin in a carrageenan-induced mouse arthritis model. Synovitis induced by intra-articular injection of carrageenan was significantly alleviated by preinjection with follistatin. Macrophage infiltration into the synovial membrane was significantly reduced in the presence of follistatin. In addition, follistatin inhibited proteoglycan erosion induced by carrageenan in articular cartilage. These data indicate that activin-follistatin signaling is involved in joint inflammation and cartilage homeostasis. Our data suggest that follistatin can be a new therapeutic target for inflammation-induced articular cartilage degeneration.

  14. Calibration of the BASS acoustic current meter with carrageenan agar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A.T.; Williams, A.J.; Martini, M.

    1993-01-01

    The BASS current meter can measure currents down to the millimeter per second range. Due to the dependence of zero offset on pressure, determining a sensor referenced velocity requires accurate in situ zeroing of the meter. Previously, flow was restricted during calibration by placing plastic bags around the acoustic volume. In this paper, bacterial grade and carrageenan agars are used in the laboratory to create a zero flow condition during calibration and are shown to be acoustically transparent. Additionally, the results of open ocean and dockside carrageenan and plastic bag comparisons are presented. Carrageenan is shown to reliably provide a low noise, zero mean flow environment that is largely independent of ambient conditions. The improved zeros make millimeter per second accuracy possible under field conditions.

  15. NMR study on the network structure of a mixed gel of kappa and iota carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bingjie; Du, Lei; Matsukawa, Shingo

    2016-10-05

    The temperature dependencies of the (1)H T2 and diffusion coefficient (D) of a mixed solution of kappa-carrageenan and iota-carrageenan were measured by NMR. Rheological and NMR measurements suggested an exponential formation of rigid aggregates of kappa-carrageenan and a gradual formation of fine aggregates of iota-carrageenan during two step increases of G'. The results also suggested that longer carrageenan chains are preferentially involved in aggregation, thus resulting in a decrease in the average Mw of solute carrageenans. The results of diffusion measurements for poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) suggested that kappa-carrageenan formed thick aggregates that decreased hindrance to PEO diffusion by decreasing the solute kappa-carrageenan concentration in the voids of the aggregated chains, and that iota-carrageenan formed fine aggregates that decreased the solute iota-carrageenan concentration less. DPEO in a mixed solution of kappa-carrageenan and iota-carrageenan suggested two possibilities for the microscopic network structure: an interpenetrating network structure, or micro-phase separation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Study Of Calcium And Potassium Different Nature Strength Gel Kappa-Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петро Васильович Гурський

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of certain organic and mineral salts of potassium and calcium for strength gel kappa-carrageenan. The influence of the mass concentration of individual calcium for strength gels with different content kappa-carrageenan. Grounded mass concentration of some calcium salts for use in the composition of the jelly for sweet and savory dishes based on kappa-carrageenan

  17. Application of iota and kappa carrageenans to traditional several food using modified cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Baarri, A. N.; Legowo, A. M.; Rizqiati, H.; Widayat; Septianingrum, A.; Sabrina, H. N.; Arganis, L. M.; Saraswati, R. O.; Mochtar, Rr C. P. R.

    2018-01-01

    Carrageenan has been known well as hydrocolloids that forming viscous dispersions and gels when dispersed in water. The carrageenan has not been widely applied to traditional foods. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the effect of kappa and iota carrageenans in traditional food models using modified cassava flour, sugar, and coconut milk. The textural properties, i.e. hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and adhesiveness have been measured using texture analyzer. The study indicated that traditional food models added kappa carrageenan at 2% generated remarkably higher in the hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness than those added iota carrageenan. On the other hand, the reserve result were found in the adhesiveness parameter. As conclusion, kappa carrageenan scan be potentially used for producing traditional foods based on the hard-texture-oriented foods whereas iota carrageenan can be used for the traditional foods with better adhesiveness.

  18. Trichilia monadelpha Bark Extracts Inhibit Carrageenan-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous (TWE), alcoholic (TAE) and petroleum ether extract (TPEE) of T. ... The reference anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and dexamethasone) inhibited the chick-carrageenan-induced footpad oedema, with maximal inhibitions of ...

  19. Towards the Synthesis of Diverse Types of Carrageenan Oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnaert, Christine; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    Carrageenans are a family of linear sulfated polysaccharides that are extracted from red seaweeds.They play important roles in the biology of algae and furthermore they have many important industrial applications, such as gelling agent in the food industry. The idealized structures of the 10 known...

  20. On the structure of K/l-hybrid carrageenans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, F. van de; Peppelman, H.A.; Rollema, H.S.; Tromp, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    The coil-to-helix transition and temperature dependence of the viscosity of commercial κ/ι-hybrid carrageenans produced by the red algae Sarcothalia crispata, Mazaella laminarioides, and Chondrus crispus were studied using rheometry and optical rotation. The structure of these κ/ι-hybrid

  1. Radiolysis studies of kappa carrageenan for bio based materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.

    2010-01-01

    Kappa (κ-) carrageenan oligomers are known to have several biological activities such as anti-HIV, anti-herpes, anti tumor and antioxidant properties. Recent progress in the development of radiation modified κ-carrageenan has resulted in new applications such as plant growth promoter, radiation dose indicator and hydrogels for wound dressing. This study would investigate on the changes in chemical structure, gelation and conformational transition behavior and molecular size of κ-carrageenan at doses from 0 to 200 kGy and would be correlated to these functions for the development of bio-based materials. Pulse radiolysis studies on κ-carrageenan was carried out to determine what transient species directly affects the degradation rate of κ-carrageenan in aqueous solution. The results reveal that there is no seeming reaction of the hydrated electron with κ-carrageenan. OH reacts with κ-carrageenan at a fast rate of approximately 1.2 x 10 9 M-1a-1. This value was influenced by conformational change from helix to coil by the addition of the metal ion Na +, reduction of molecular weight by the hydrolysis reaction and reduction of reactive sites by seasonally or irradiation. Most applications from the radiation degradation of polysaccharides started with the use of the ''hit and miss'' process where polysaccharides were irradiated at a certain dose range and finding out which dose is suitable for a specific function. Measurement of the radiation degradation yield (G d ) at different conditions can give an approximation of the Mw at an absorbed dose. This will allow the production of oligomers with a specified Mw. With the use of the G d both in solid and in aqueous solution, one can also make a rough calculation whether it is more economical to irradiateκ-carrageenan in solid r in aqueous solution. Results of this experiment reveal that the radiation yields (G d ) of κ-carrageenan in solid and in aqueous (1%) were as follows: 2.5, 1.7 and 1.2 x 10-7 mol J-1 for

  2. On the employment of lambda carrageenan in a matrix system. III. Optimization of a lambda carrageenan-HPMC hydrophilic matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonferoni, MC; Rossi, S; Ferrari, F; Bertoni, M; Bolhuis, GK; Caramella, C

    1998-01-01

    The lambda carrageenan/HPMC ratio in matrix tablets has been optimized in order to obtain pH-independent release profiles of chlorpheniramine maleate, a freely soluble drug. Release profiles in acidic (pH 1.2) and neutral (pH 6.8) media were fitted according to the Weibull and the power law models.

  3. Radiation Processed Materials from Carrageenan for Agricultural Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Aranilla, Charito T.; De la Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2010-01-01

    The radiation degradation yield (Gd) of κ- carrageenan was determined at different conditions. The computed Gd were as follows: 2.5, 1.7 and 1.2 for solid in atmosphere, solid in vacuum and at 1% aqueous solution, respectively. Chemical structure of irradiated κ-carrageenan at different doses (1% aqueous and solid in air and in vacuum) was investigated using several methods (UV-Vis / FT-IR / NMR spectroscopy / reducing sugar analysis / sulfate and carboxylic acid analysis). The chemical and spectral analyses of the radiolytic products indicated increasing reducing sugars, carbonyl, carboxylic acids, and sulfates with increasing doses which reach a maximum level at a certain dose depending on the irradiation condition. NMR data also revealed an intact structure of the oligomer irradiated at 100 kGy in the specific fraction that contains an Mw = (3-10) kDa. (author)

  4. Formation of carrageenan-CaCO{sub 3} bioactive membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Lucas F.B.; Maniglia, Bianca C.; Pereira, Lourivaldo S.; Tapia-Blácido, Delia R.; Ramos, Ana P., E-mail: anapr@ffclrp.usp.br

    2016-01-01

    The high biocompatibility and resorbability of polymeric membranes have encouraged their use to manufacture medical devices. Here, we report on the preparation of membranes consisting of carrageenan, a naturally occurring sulfated polysaccharide that forms helical structures in the presence of calcium ions. We incorporated CaCO{sub 3} particles into the membranes to enhance their bioactivity and mechanical properties. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction data confirmed CaCO{sub 3} incorporation into the polymeric matrix. We tested the bioactivity of the samples by immersing them in a solution that mimics the ionic composition and pH of the human body fluid. The hybrid membranes generated hydroxyapatite, as attested by X-ray diffraction data. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopies aided investigation of membrane topography before and after CaCO{sub 3} deposition. The wettability and surface free energy, evaluated by contact angle measures, increased in the presence of CaCO{sub 3} particles. These parameters are important for membrane implantation in the body. Moreover, membrane stiffness was up to 110% higher in the presence of the inorganic particles, as revealed by Young's modulus. - Highlights: • Hybrid kappa and iota carrageenan-CaCO{sub 3} membranes were formed. • The hybrid membrane's origin hydroxyapatite after exposure to simulated body fluid • The carrageenan's specificity to bind Ca{sup 2+} ions tailors the surface properties.

  5. Carbohydrate availability of arroz caldo with lambda-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumelod, B D; Ramirez, R P; Tiangson, C L; Barrios, E B; Panlasigui, L N

    1999-07-01

    Total available carbohydrate (sugars and starches) and total dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) make up the total carbohydrate content of a food. Soluble fiber decreases the availability of glucose by delaying its absorption in the proximal small intestine, thus reducing the postprandial glucose levels (Jenkins et al., 1978; Schneeman, 1987a). Carrageenan, a seaweed extract, is a good source of soluble fiber (Montaño et al., 1985). This study aimed to determine the effect of carrageenan incorporation into arroz caldo on carbohydrate availability by monitoring the postprandial blood glucose levels of normal subjects. Control and experimental arroz caldo samples were prepared and subjected to proximate analysis and feeding studies. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content of the experimental (2.03%) was about thrice that of the control (0.68%). Using randomized crossover design, preweighed 55 g available carbohydrate serving portions of control and experimental arroz caldo samples, with 3.45 and 14.84 g TDF, respectively, were fed to ten fasting normal subjects then their postprandial blood glucose levels were determined at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min intervals. Results of the short-term in vivo study showed that the mean postprandial glycaemic responses of subjects after consuming the experimental sample were significantly lower than the levels after consuming the control at 15, 45, and 90 min (P arroz caldo than control (147.29 +/- 53.34). The hypoglycaemic effect of carrageenan may prove useful in the prevention and management of metabolic conditions such as diabetes.

  6. Chemical and Spectral Characterization of The Ozonation Products of κ-Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetyaningrum Aji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kappa (κ- carrageenan oligomers are known to have several biological activities. Recent progress in the development of modified κ-carrageenan has resulted low molecular of κ-carrageenan. Ozone is a powerful oxidant and considered for depolymerization of κ-carrageenan. However, few studies have investigated the changes in κ-carrageenan properties associated with ozone treatment. This study would investigate on the changes in chemical structure after ozonation process. The experiments were carried out in a glass reactor equipped with an ozone bubble diffuser. Ozone with concentration of 80 ± 2 was bubbled into the solution. The ozone treatment was conducted at different times, i.e., 0 (control, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes. The experiments were conducted at pH 7 and constant stirring speed (200 rpm. Ozone-treated κ-carrageenan was dried at 60 ºC for 24 h in a forced air oven. The chemical and spectral analyses of κ-carrageenan after ozonation process were carried out using UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. These changes are seen in the UV spectra as a high intensity of absorbance peak at 290 nm. It is shows that ozonation of κ-carrageenan leads to some chemical changes such as the formation of carbonyl, carboxyl or double bonds.The FT-IR spectra reveals that the chemical structure of degraded κ-carrageenan, in term of sulfate content, is only slightly affected by the ozone treatment.

  7. Potential of sago starch/carrageenan mixture as gelatin alternative for hard capsule material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana Dewi; Pranoto, Yudi; Anggraheni, Frida Dwi; Marseno, Djagal Wiseso

    2017-03-01

    In order to replace gelatin in capsule shell production, blends of sago starch and carrageenan were developed. Films and capsules were prepared with 10% (w/v) of sago starch, 25% (w/w starch) of glycerol and various carrageenan concentration (1, 2, 3% w/w starch) in two different kappa/iota-carrageenan ratio (1:3 and 3:1). The resulted films and capsules were characterized by mechanical property, water vapor and oxygen permeability. In addition, moisture absorption and solubility of capsule in acid solution were investigated. The results reveal that addition of carrageenan makes the films stronger and less permeable. Higher kappa-carrageenan content improved tensile strength and barrier properties of the films, whereas higher iota-carrageenan content produced films with higher elongation, moisture absorption and capsule solubility in acid solution. Capsule with 2% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa-/iota-ratio 3:1 had the lowest moisture absorption, whereas capsule with 3% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa/iota ratio 1:3 had the highest solubility. It is illustrated that sago starch/carrageenan blends can be used as hard capsule material.

  8. In vitro safety evaluation of human nasal epithelial cell monolayers exposed to carrageenan sinus wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanpour, Mahnaz; Murphy, Jae; Smith, Jason L P; Vreugde, Sarah; Psaltis, Alkis James

    2017-12-01

    Carrageenans have shown to reduce the viral load in nasal secretions and lower the incidence of secondary infections in children with common cold. Despite the widespread use of carrageenans in topical applications, the effect of carrageenans on the sinonasal epithelial barrier has not been elucidated. We investigate the effect of different carrageenans on the sinonasal epithelial barrier and inflammatory response in vitro. Iota and Kappa carrageenan delivered in saline irrigation solutions applied to air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary human nasal epithelial cells from chronic rhinosinusitis patients and controls. Epithelial barrier structure was assessed by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and immunolocalization of F actin. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF), toxicity, and inflammatory response was studied. Kappa or Iota carrageenan in the different solutions was not toxic, did not have detrimental effects on epithelial barrier structure and CBF. Rather, application of Kappa carrageenan significantly increased TEER and suppressed interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion in ALI cultures from CRS patients. Kappa or Iota carrageenan solution was safe and did not negatively affect epithelial barrier function. Kappa carrageenan increased TEER and decreased IL-6 production in CRS patients, indicating positive effects on epithelial barrier function in vitro. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  9. Food additive carrageenan: Part II: A critical review of carrageenan in vivo safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Myra L

    2014-03-01

    Carrageenan (CGN) is a seaweed-derived high molecular weight (Mw) hydrocolloid, primarily used as a stabilizer and thickener in food. The safety of CGN regarding its use in food is reviewed. Based on experimental studies in animals, ingested CGN is excreted quantitatively in the feces. Studies have shown that CGN is not significantly degraded by low gastric pH or microflora in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Due to its Mw, structure and its stability when bound to protein, CGN is not significantly absorbed or metabolized. CGN also does not significantly affect the absorption of nutrients. Subchronic and chronic feeding studies in rodents indicate that CGN at doses up to 5% in the diet does not induce any toxicological effects other than soft stools or diarrhea, which are a common effect for non-digestible high molecular weight compounds. Review of several studies from numerous species indicates that food grade CGN does not produce intestinal ulceration at doses up to 5% in the diet. Effects of CGN on the immune system following parenteral administration are well known, but not relevant to food additive uses. The majority of the studies evaluating the immunotoxicity potential were conducted with CGN administered in drinking water or by oral gavage where CGN exists in a random, open structured molecular conformation, particularly the lambda form; hence, it has more exposure to the intestinal mucosa than when bound to protein in food. Based on the many animal subchronic and chronic toxicity studies, CGN has not been found to affect the immune system, as judged by lack of effects on organ histopathology, clinical chemistry, hematology, normal health, and the lack of target organ toxicities. In these studies, animals consumed CGN at orders of magnitude above levels of CGN in the human diet: ≥1000 mg/kg/d in animals compared to 18-40 mg/kg/d estimated in the human diet. Dietary CGN has been shown to lack carcinogenic, tumor promoter, genotoxic, developmental, and

  10. The effect of addition of selected carrageenans on viscoelastic properties of model processed cheese spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Černíková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 0.25% w/w κ-carrageenan and ι‑carrageenan on viscoelastic properties of processed cheese were studied using model samples containing 40% w/w dry matter and 45 and 50% w/w fat in dry matter. Experimental samples of processed cheese were evaluated after 14 days of storage at the temperature of 6 ± 2 °C. Basic parameters of processed cheese samples under study (i.e. their dry matter content and pH were not different (P ≥ 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences in values of storage modulus G´ [Pa], loss modulus G'' [Pa] and tangent of phase shift angle tan δ [-] for the reference frequency of 1 Hz between processed cheese with κ‑carrageenan applied in the form of powder and in the form of aqueous dispersion (P ≥ 0.05. The addition of 0.25% w/w κ‑carrageenan and ι‑carrageenan (in the powder form resulted in an increase in storage (G´ and loss (G'' moduli and a decrease in values of tan δ (P < 0.05. As compared with control (i.e. without added carrageenans, samples of processed cheese became firmer. Iota-carrageenan added in the powder form in concentration of 0.25% w/w showed a more intensive effect on the increase in firmness of processed cheese under study than κ‑carrageenan (P < 0.05.

  11. The effect of ileotransversostomy on carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1983-01-01

    By oral administration of degraded carrageenan a colitis-like disease can be induced in guinea pigs which almost exclusively affects the caecum. To study the effect of degraded carrageenan on the distal colon and rectum, an ileotransversostomy was performed. In the non-operated group of animals...

  12. The Effects of plasticizers and palmitic acid toward the properties of the carrageenan Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heru Wibowo, Atmanto; Listiyawati, Oktaviana; Purnawan, Candra

    2016-02-01

    Varied plasticizers and palmitic acid additive have been added in the carrageenan film. The film was made by mixing of the carrageenan and plasticizers (glycerol, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol) with composition of 92:3, 90:6, 87:9, 84:12, 81:15(%w/w) and in the presence of palmitic acid as additive with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% of total weight. Casting method was used for the film molding and drying at 60oC with the oven for 12 hours. To investigate the effects of plasticizers and additive, some mechanical tests on film were performed. The test result concludes that plasticizers in the film decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation break of the carrageenan film. The additive of palmitic acid decreased the tensile strength of the carrageenan film and also decreased the-the water absorbance of the film. The highest tensile strength of films made was with the formulation of carrageenan: PEG with composition of 92:3 (% w/w). The highest elongation break of the film was for carrageenan:PVA with the composition of 81: 15 (%w/w) and carrageenan:palmitic acid:PEG with the composition of 92: 3: 1 (%w/w). The lowest water absorption of the film was achieved for carrageenan:PVA:palmitic acid with the composition of 87: 3: 5 (%w/w).

  13. Cationization of kappa- and iota-carrageenan--Characterization and properties of amphoteric polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Tamara; Prado, Héctor J; Bonelli, Pablo R; Cukierman, Ana L; Fissore, Eliana L; Gerschenson, Lia N; Matulewicz, María C

    2015-08-01

    Commercial kappa- and iota carrageenans were cationized with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. For kappa-carrageenan three derivatives with different degrees of substitution were obtained. Native and amphoteric kappa-carrageenans were characterized by NMR and infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy; methanolysis products were studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Young moduli and the strain at break of films, differential scanning calorimetry, rheological and flocculation behavior were also evaluated; the native and the amphoteric derivatives showed different and interesting properties. Cationization of iota-carrageenan was more difficult, indicating as it was previously observed for agarose, that substitution starts preferentially on the 2-position of 3,6-anhydrogalactose residues; in iota-carrageenan this latter unit is sulfated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodegradable Composite Films based on κ-carrageenan Reinforced by Cellulose Nanocrystal from Kenaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zarina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Through alkali treatment, bleaching, and sulfuric acid hydrolysis, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs were prepared from kenaf fibers and were used as reinforcement materials in biocomposites based on κ-carrageenan. Biocomposites in the form of films were prepared by solution casting of a mixture of κ-carrageenan, glycerol, and various amounts of CNCs (0 to 8 wt%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR revealed that alkali treatment followed by bleaching totally removed lignin and hemicellulose from the kenaf. Morphological analysis of the fibers, cellulose, and κ-carrageenan of biocomposite films were carried out using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The effects of filler content on the mechanical and thermal stability of the k-carrageenan biocomposite films were analyzed through tensile strength measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. At an optimum CNC content of 4%, the κ-carrageenan biocomposite films showed good dispersion, superior mechanical properties, and improved thermal stability.

  15. Multi-step carboxymethylation of kappa-Carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranilla, Charito Tranquilan; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Bayquen, Aristea V.

    2008-01-01

    Many polysaccharide derivatives have been prepared by carboxymethylation reactions in order to increase the range of potential applications of these natural polymers in the chemical, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Carboxymethylation of kappa-carrageenan was attempted for the first time to synthesize derivatives with various degree of substitution. A multistep carboxymethylation was performed under heterogeneous reaction conditions, in isopropyl alcohol/water slurry medium, with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution for activation, and monochloroacetic acid for etherification. The derivatives obtained had average degree of substitutions from 1.20 to 1.92 as determined by potentiometric back-titration. Chemical and structural characterization were accomplished by Gel Permeation Chromatography, Elemental analysis, FT-IR Spectroscopy, 1 H N and 13 C NMR Spectroscopy. The relative reactivity of the hydroxyl groups in κ-carrageenan dimer unit proceeded in the order O-C2 G4S > O-C6 G4S >O-C2 AG at a ratio of 1:0.6:O.4. (author)

  16. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, K.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Biology; Bird, K.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States). Center for Marine Science Research

    1994-09-01

    The accumulation of six heavy metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb was measured in living and lzophilized algal thalli. The agar producing algae were Gracilaria tikvahiae and Gelidium pusillum. The carrageenan producing macroalgae were Agardhiella subulata and the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte phases of Chondrus crispus. These produce primarily iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, respectively. At heavy metal concentrations of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, living thalli of Gracilaria tikvahiae generally showed the greatest amount of accumulation of the 6 heavy metals tested. The accumulation of Pb was greater in the living thalli of all four species than in the lyophilized thalli. Except for Agardhiella subulata, lyophilized thalli showed greater accumulation of Ni, Cu and Zn. There was no difference in heavy metal accumulation between living and lyophilized thalli in the accumulation of Cd. Manganese showed no accumulation at the tested concentration. There did not appear to be a relationship between algal hydrocolloid characteristics and the amounts of heavy metals accumulated. (orig.)

  17. Characterisation and Radiation Modification of Carrageenan in the Solid State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulrez, S.; Al-Assaf, S.; Phillips, G.O.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the modification of kappa-carrageenan in the solid state using gamma radiation (in the dose range of 1-25kGy) in the presence of unsaturated alkyne gas. The results showed maximum production of hydrogel at 5kGy with nearly 80% of starting material being converted to hydrogel form in the absence of a gellin agent. Higher irradiation doses at 25kGy resulted in reducing the hydrogel proportion to ~40% due to degradation. The molecular weight and distribution was determined by GPC-MALLS and the results showed a decrease in the mass recovery and molecular weight of the soluble fraction at 60C. The molecular weight results were in agreement with hydrogel data determined from the filtration method. There was an optimum increase in the viscosity, elasticity and mechanical strength at 5kGy which was followed by a decrease in the gel strength at higher doses (25kGy). Our study demonstrates the potential production of novel hydrogel based carrageenan obtained by irradiation in the absence of metal ions with possible new applications. A mechanism for the radiation induced cross-linking to produce superhelical aggregates in the absence of a gelling agent is proposed. (author)

  18. Semi-commercialization of PVP-carrageenan hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relleve, Lorna S.; Abad, Lucille V.; Aranilla, Charito T.; Dela Rosa, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) has developed the PVP-Carrageenan hydrogel wound dressing by radiation processing. The PVP-Carrageenan hydrogel has undergone clinical testing for burn and bedsores. It has already a pending patent application (No. 1-2000-02471) at the Philippine Patent Office. The techno-economic feasibility study has also been completed. In order to commercialize this product, a project on semi-commercialization in partnership with the investor was proposed to Technology Incubation for Commercialization (TECHNICOM), a technology transfer program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). TECHNICOM was established in 2003 under the National Science and Technology Plan (2002-2020) as a strategic technology transfer program. The program aims to identify key technological breakthroughs especially those generated by R and D institutes. It can intervene through the following: technology assessment/commercial prototype development; business plan/feasibility study preparation; intellectual property rights protection; technology valuation negotiation and licensing; semi-commercial production assistance and training/consultancy services. High technology applications with commercial potentials are given priority. Under semi-commercialization stage, government funds will be provided to match private sector investment in the commercial application of a particular technology innovation. This will lessen the risk of commercialization and ensure commitment from the investors. Commercial success in the shortest time is ensured since scientist can then work closely with the private sector at the production floor while testing the gaps in the technology. (author)

  19. EFFECT OF OZONATION PROCESS ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF κ-CARRAGEENAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJI PRASETYANINGRUM

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available κ-Carrageenan is a sulfated galactan extracted from red algae (Rhodophyceae which has many functions. However, nonfood applications of κ-carrageenan have been limited by its superior gelling and viscosity properties. The effect of ozonation on physicochemical and rheological properties of κ-carrageenan solution at different pH was investigated. κ-Carrageenan solution was prepared in the ratio of 1:100 (w/v and was treated with dissolved ozone with concentration of 80±2 ppm. This ozonation was conducted at different times and pH. The viscosity of ozone-treated κ-carrageenan solution was analyzed using Brookfield viscometer and the sulfate content was determined using FT-IR spectra and barium chloride-gelatin method. The results show that the viscosity of ozone-treated κ-carrageenan decreases appreciably with time. The highest percentage reduction in viscosity occurs at pH 3, followed by pH 7 and 10. The FT-IR spectra reveals that the chemical structure of degraded κ-carrageenan, in term of sulfate content, is only slightly affected by the ozone treatment.

  20. λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder S. Sangha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ-, lambda(λ-, and kappa(κ-carrageenan at 1 g·L−1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS and lipoxygenase (LOX, were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid (JA dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection.

  1. Carrageenans as a new source of drugs with metal binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotimchenko, Yuri S; Khozhaenko, Elena V; Khotimchenko, Maxim Y; Kolenchenko, Elena A; Kovalev, Valeri V

    2010-04-01

    Carrageenans are abundant and safe non-starch polysaccharides exerting their biological effects in living organisms. Apart from their known pro-inflammation properties and some pharmacological activity, carrageenans can also strongly bind and hold metal ions. This property can be used for creation of the new drugs for elimination of metals from the body or targeted delivery of these metal ions for healing purposes. Metal binding activity of different carrageenans in aqueous solutions containing Y(3+) or Pb(2+) ions was studied in a batch sorption system. The metal uptake by carrageenans is not affected by the change of the pH within the range from 2.0 to 6.0. The rates and binding capacities of carrageenans regarding metal ions were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and BET sorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and constants, and the sorption isothermal data could be explained well by the Langmuir equation. The results obtained through the study suggest that kappa-, iota-, and lambda-carrageenans are favorable sorbents. The largest amount of Y(3+) and Pb(2+) ions are bound by iota-carrageenan. Therefore, it can be concluded that this type of polysaccharide is the more appropriate substance for elaboration of the drugs with high selective metal binding properties.

  2. Carrageenans as a New Source of Drugs with Metal Binding Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri S. Khotimchenko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenans are abundant and safe non-starch polysaccharides exerting their biological effects in living organisms. Apart from their known pro-inflammation properties and some pharmacological activity, carrageenans can also strongly bind and hold metal ions. This property can be used for creation of the new drugs for elimination of metals from the body or targeted delivery of these metal ions for healing purposes. Metal binding activity of different carrageenans in aqueous solutions containing Y3+ or Pb2+ ions was studied in a batch sorption system. The metal uptake by carrageenans is not affected by the change of the pH within the range from 2.0 to 6.0. The rates and binding capacities of carrageenans regarding metal ions were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and BET sorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and constants, and the sorption isothermal data could be explained well by the Langmuir equation. The results obtained through the study suggest that κ-, ι-, and λ-carrageenans are favorable sorbents. The largest amount of Y3+ and Pb2+ ions are bound by i-carrageenan. Therefore, it can be concluded that this type of polysaccharide is the more appropriate substance for elaboration of the drugs with high selective metal binding properties.

  3. Antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity of Carrageenan from Hypnea musciformis Wulfen

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Solimabi; Das, B.

    Pharmacological studies on K-carrageenan extracted from Hypnea musciformis have shown that it antagonizes histamine-induced spasm in guineapig ielum and possesses anti-inflammatory activity against rat hind paw oedema induced by commercial...

  4. A review on synthesis, properties and applications of natural polymer based carrageenan blends and composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Tabasum, Shazia; Nasif, Muhammad; Sultan, Neelam; Aslam, Nosheen; Noreen, Aqdas; Zuber, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    Carrageenan is a natural polysaccharide extracted from edible red seaweeds of Rhodophycea class. It has been used as a viscosity increasing or gelling agent for prolonged and controlled drug release, food, pharmaceuticals and other industries. However, in spite of wide range of applications, carrageenan has some drawbacks and adverse effects on the biological systems, so its modifications with natural and synthetic polymers are carried out. This review article presents different sources and properties of carrageenans with special emphasis on natural polymer based carrageenan blends and composites and their applications in controlled drug delivery system, wound dressing and tissue engineering because of their biodegradability and biocompatibility, food industry as thickening/gelling materials, cosmeceuticals and making polyelectrolyte complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Population Studies and Carrageenan Properties in Eight Gigartinales (Rhodophyta from Western Coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight carrageenophytes, representing seven genera and three families of Gigartinales (Florideophyceae, were studied for 15 months. The reproductive status, dry weight, and carrageenan content have been followed by a monthly random sampling. The highest carrageenan yields were found in Chondracanthus acicularis (61.1%, Gigartina pistillata (59.7%, and Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (58.0%. Species of Cystocloniaceae family produces predominantly iota-carrageenans; Gigartinaceae family produces hybrid kappa-iota carrageenans (gametophytic plants and lambda-family carrageenans (sporophytic plants; Phyllophoraceae family produces kappa-iota-hybrid carrageenans. Quadrate destructive sampling method was used to determine the biomass and line transect. Quadrate nondestructive sampling method, applied along a perpendicular transect to the shoreline, was used to calculate the carrageenophytes cover in two periods: autumn/winter and spring/summer. The highest cover and biomass were found in Chondrus crispus (3.75%–570 g/m2, Chondracanthus acicularis (3.45%–99 g/m2, Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (2.45%–207.5 g/m2, and Mastocarpus stellatus (2.02%–520 g/m2.

  6. Optimization of the extraction of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Webber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to optimize an alternative method of extraction of carrageenan without previous alkaline treatment and ethanol precipitation using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. In order to introduce an innovation in the isolation step, atomization drying was used reducing the time for obtaining dry carrageenan powder. The effects of extraction time and temperature on yield, gel strength, and viscosity were evaluated. Furthermore, the extracted material was submitted to structural analysis, by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR, and chemical composition analysis. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation. Carrageenan yield and gel viscosity were influenced only by the extraction temperature. However, gel strength was influenced by both, extraction time and extraction temperature. Optimal extraction conditions were 74 ºC and 4 hours. In these conditions, the carrageenan extract properties determined by the polynomial model were 31.17%, 158.27 g.cm-2, and 29.5 cP for yield, gel strength, and viscosity, respectively, while under the experimental conditions they were 35.8 ± 4.68%, 112.50 ± 4.96 g.cm-2, and 16.01 ± 1.03 cP, respectively. The chemical composition, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy analyses showed that the crude carrageenan extracted is composed mainly of κ-carrageenan.

  7. Population studies and carrageenan properties in eight Gigartinales (Rhodophyta) from Western Coast of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leonel

    2013-01-01

    Eight carrageenophytes, representing seven genera and three families of Gigartinales (Florideophyceae), were studied for 15 months. The reproductive status, dry weight, and carrageenan content have been followed by a monthly random sampling. The highest carrageenan yields were found in Chondracanthus acicularis (61.1%), Gigartina pistillata (59.7%), and Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (58.0%). Species of Cystocloniaceae family produces predominantly iota-carrageenans; Gigartinaceae family produces hybrid kappa-iota carrageenans (gametophytic plants) and lambda-family carrageenans (sporophytic plants); Phyllophoraceae family produces kappa-iota-hybrid carrageenans. Quadrate destructive sampling method was used to determine the biomass and line transect. Quadrate nondestructive sampling method, applied along a perpendicular transect to the shoreline, was used to calculate the carrageenophytes cover in two periods: autumn/winter and spring/summer. The highest cover and biomass were found in Chondrus crispus (3.75%-570 g/m(2)), Chondracanthus acicularis (3.45%-99 g/m(2)), Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (2.45%-207.5 g/m(2)), and Mastocarpus stellatus (2.02%-520 g/m(2)).

  8. [In vitro anti-angiogenic action of lambda-carrageenan oligosaccharides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Min; Yan, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Feng; Lin, Jing; Xu, Wei-Feng

    2007-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the inhibition effect of lambda-carrageenan oligosaccharides on neovascularization in vitro by chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model and human umbilical vein endothelial cell ( HUVEC). lambda-Carrageenan oligosaccharides caused a dose-dependent decrease of the vascular density of CAM, and adversely affected capillary plexus formation. At a high concentration of 1 mg x mL(-1), this compound inhibited the endothelial cell proliferation, while low concentration of lambda-carrageenan oligosaccharides ( 95%). Different cytotoxic sensitivity of lambda-carrageenan oligosaccharides in three kinds of cells was observed, of which HUVEC is the most sensitive to this oligosaccharides. The inhibitory action of lambda-carrageenan oligosaccharides on the endothelial cell invasion and migration was also observed at relatively low concentration (150 - 300 microg x mL(-1)) through down-regulation of intracellular matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) expression on endothelial cells. Current observations demonstrated that lambda-carrageenan oligosaccharides are potential angiogenesis inhibitor with combined effects of inhibiting invasion, migration and proliferation.

  9. Discovery of a novel iota carrageenan sulfatase isolated from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genicot, Sabine M; Groisillier, Agnès; Rogniaux, Hélène; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Barbeyron, Tristan; Helbert, William

    2014-01-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of some marine red algae. These polysaccharides are widely used as gelling, stabilizing, and viscosifying agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Since the rheological properties of these polysaccharides depend on their sulfate content, we screened several isolated marine bacteria for carrageenan specific sulfatase activity, in the aim of developing enzymatic bioconversion of carrageenans. As a result of the screening, an iota-carrageenan sulfatase was detected in the cell-free lysate of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora strain Psc(T). It was purified through Phenyl Sepharose and Diethylaminoethyl Sepharose chromatography. The pure enzyme, Psc ι-CgsA, was characterized. It had a molecular weight of 115.9 kDaltons and exhibited an optimal activity/stability at pH ~8.3 and at 40 ± 5°C. It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Psc ι-CgsA specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-S sulfate of iota-carrageenan. The purified enzyme could transform iota-carrageenan into hybrid iota-/alpha- or pure alpha-carrageenan under controlled conditions. The gene encoding Psc ι-CgsA, a protein of 1038 amino acids, was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the sequence analysis revealed that Psc ι-CgsA has more than 90% sequence identity with a putative uncharacterized protein Q3IKL4 from the marine strain Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, but besides this did not share any homology to characterized sulfatases. Phylogenetic studies show that P. carrageenovora sulfatase thus represents the first characterized member of a new sulfatase family, with a C-terminal domain having strong similarity with the superfamily of amidohydrolases, highlighting the still unexplored diversity of marine polysaccharide modifying enzymes.

  10. Quantification of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornshøj, Bettina Høj; Kobbelgaard, Sara; Blakemore, William R; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Bixler, Harris J; Klinger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the European Commission placed a limit on the amount of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed (PES) of 5 mg kg(-1). Formaldehyde is not used in carrageenan and PES processing and accordingly one would not expect free formaldehyde to be present in carrageenan and PES. However, surprisingly high levels up to 10 mg kg(-1) have been found using the generally accepted AOAC and Hach tests. These findings are, per proposed reaction pathways, likely due to the formation of formaldehyde when sulphated galactose, the backbone of carrageenan, is hydrolysed with the strong acid used in these conventional tests. In order to minimise the risk of false-positives, which may lead to regulatory non-compliance, a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed. Initially, carrageenan or PES is extracted with 2-propanol and subsequently reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form the chromophore formaldehyde-DNPH, which is finally quantified by reversed-phase HPLC with ultraviolet light detection at 355 nm. This method has been found to have a limit of detection of 0.05 mg kg(-1) and a limit of quantification of 0.2 mg kg(-1). Recoveries from samples spiked with known quantities of formaldehyde were 95-107%. Using this more specific technique, 20 samples of carrageenan and PES were tested for formaldehyde. Only one sample had a detectable content of formaldehyde (0.40 mg kg(-1)), thus demonstrating that the formaldehyde content of commercial carrageenan and PES products are well below the European Commission maximum limit of 5 mg kg(-1).

  11. Discovery of a novel iota carrageenan sulfatase isolated from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Marie Genicot

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of some marine red algae. These polysaccharides are widely used as gelling, stabilizing, and viscosifying agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Since the rheological properties of these polysaccharides depend on their sulfate content, we screened several isolated marine bacteria for carrageenan specific sulfatase activity, in the aim of developing enzymatic bioconversion of carrageenans. As a result of the screening, an iota-carrageenan sulfatase was detected in the cell-free lysate of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora strain PscT. It was purified through Phenyl Sepharose and Diethylaminoethyl Sepharose chromatography. The pure enzyme, Psc -CgsA, was characterized. It had a molecular weight of 115.9 kDaltons and exhibited an optimal activity/stability at pH ~8.3 and at 40°C ± 5°C. It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Psc -CgsA specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-S sulfate of iota-carrageenan. The purified enzyme could transform iota-carrageenan into hybrid iota-/alpha- or pure alpha-carrageenan under controlled conditions. The gene encoding Psc -CgsA, a protein of 1038 amino acids, was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the sequence analysis revealed that Psc -CgsA has more than 90% sequence identity with a putative uncharacterized protein Q3IKL4 from the marine strain Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, but besides this did not share any homology to characterized sulfatases. Phylogenetic studies show that P. carrageenovora sulfatase thus represents the first characterized member of a new sulfatase family, with a C-terminal domain having strong similarity with the superfamily of amidohydrolases, highlighting the still unexplored diversity of marine polysaccharide modifying enzymes.

  12. The Role of Carrageenan and Carboxymethylcellulose in the Development of Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Van Limbergen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the exact pathophysiology remains unknown, the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is influenced by the interplay between genetics, the immune system, and environmental factors such as diet. The commonly used food additives, carrageenan and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, are used to develop intestinal inflammation in animal models. These food additives are excluded from current dietary approaches to induce disease remission in Crohn’s disease such as exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN using a polymeric formula. By reviewing the existing scientific literature, this review aims to discuss the role that carrageenan and CMC may play in the development of IBD. Animal studies consistently report that carrageenan and CMC induce histopathological features that are typical of IBD while altering the microbiome, disrupting the intestinal epithelial barrier, inhibiting proteins that provide protection against microorganisms, and stimulating the elaboration of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Similar trials directly assessing the influence of carrageenan and CMC in humans are of course unethical to conduct, but recent studies of human epithelial cells and the human microbiome support the findings from animal studies. Carrageenan and CMC may trigger or magnify an inflammatory response in the human intestine but are unlikely to be identified as the sole environmental factor involved in the development of IBD or in disease recurrence after treatment. However, the widespread use of carrageenan and CMC in foods consumed by the pediatric population in a “Western” diet is on the rise alongside a corresponding increase in IBD incidence, and questions are being raised about the safety of frequent usage of these food additives. Therefore, further research is warranted to elucidate the role of carrageenan and CMC in intestinal inflammation, which may help identify novel nutritional strategies that hinder the development of the disease or prevent

  13. Synthesis and electrical properties of polyaniline/iota-carrageenan biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Rios, Alejandro; Olmedo-Martínez, Jorge L; Farías-Mancilla, Bárbara; Hernández-Escobar, Claudia A; Zaragoza-Contreras, E Armando

    2014-09-22

    Polyaniline/iota-carrageenan (ι-CGN) biocomposites were synthesized via in situ methodology using ammonium persulfate as the oxidizing agent. Both ionic (band at 1131 cm(-1)) and hydrogen bond (bands at 2500 and 3500 cm(-1)) interactions between polyaniline and ι-CGN were determined by infrared spectroscopy. Such intermolecular interactions provided the biocomposites with a cross-linked structure that provided the materials with hydrogel behavior. Biocomposite electro-conductivity, determined by the 4-probe technique, was in the range of semiconductors (10(-3) to 10(-2) S cm(-1)); whereas electro-activity, assessed by cyclic voltammetry, showed the oxidation-reduction transitions typical of polyaniline. Based on the properties of polyaniline and ι-CGN, some applications for the new materials in the field of biosensor design, electrochemical capacitors, or tissue engineering scaffolds are possible. It is worth saying that both electro-conductive and electro-active properties of polyaniline/ι-CGN biocomposites are reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of K-Carrageenan/Nanosilica Biocomposite Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh R. Rane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to improve the performance properties of K-carrageenan (K-CRG by utilizing nanosilica (NSI as the reinforcing agent. The composite films were prepared by solution casting method. NSI was added up to 1.5% in the K-CRG matrix. The prepared films were characterized for mechanical (tensile strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break, thermal (differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, barrier (water vapour transmission rate, morphological (scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, and crystallinity properties. Tensile strength, tensile modulus, and crystallinity were found to have increased by 13.8, 15, and 48% whereas water vapour transmission rate was found to have decreased by 48% for 0.5% NSI loaded K-CRG composite films. NSI was found to have formed aggregates for concentrations above 0.5% as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Melting temperature, enthalpy of melting, and degradation temperature of K-CRG increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG. Contact angle also increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG, indicating the decrease in hydrophilicity of the films improving its water resistance properties. This knowledge of the composite film could make beneficial contributions to the food and pharmaceutical packaging applications.

  15. Release of Tenofovir from Carrageenan-Based Vaginal Suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toral Zaveri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbicides are an active area of research for HIV prevention, being developed as a woman-initiated method of prevention during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have produced microbicide prototypes in the form of semisoft vaginal suppositories prepared from carrageenan and conducted both qualitative and quantitative studies using these prototypes to determine the physical properties that drive acceptability and possibly adherence. In order to ensure that the suppositories function as effective drug delivery vehicles, we have conducted in vitro dissolution studies in water, vaginal simulant fluid (VSF and semen simulant fluid (SSF with suppositories loaded with the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir (TFV. TFV was released via diffusion and matrix erosion in water or by diffusion out of the matrix in VSF and SSF. Diffusion studies were conducted in two different volumes of VSF and SSF. The volume of VSF/SSF into which TFV diffused and the size of the suppositories determined the rate of diffusion from the suppositories. About 45%–50% of the encapsulated TFV diffused out of the suppositories within the first two hours, irrespective of suppository size, diffusion medium (VSF/SSF and the volume of medium. Prior work indicates that a short waiting period between insertion and coitus is highly desired by women; present data suggest our microbicide prototypes have rapid initial release followed by a slow release curve over the first 24 h.

  16. Evaluation of polyethylenimine/carrageenan multi-layer for antibacterial activity of pathogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briones, Annabelle V.; Bigol, Urcila G.; Sato, Toshinori

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of multi-layer of polyethylenimine (PEI) and carrageenan (κ,ι, λ) for potential use as coating on biomaterial surface. The multi-layer of PEI/carrageenan was formed using the layer-by-layer assembly absorption technique and was monitored by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and bio molecular interaction analysis. All samples were prepared in phosphate buffer solution and applied to mica disk alternately. The micrographs showed the formation of bi-layer of polyethylenimine and carrageenan (κ, ι, λ) as observed in the change of height of the layer and surface morphology. The bimolecular binding of carrageenan with polyethylenimine was also investigated using a biosensor. The sensorgram showed that PEI interacted molecularly with carrageenan. Results were: 1,916.08 pg/nm 2 for kappa type; 1,844.1 pg/nm 2 for iota type and 6,074.24 pg/nm 2 for lambda type. The multi-layer showed antibacterial activity against Enterobacter cloaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcal strains (Enterococcus faecalis (EF) 29212 and 29505). (author)

  17. Synthesis and characterization of modified κ-carrageenan for enhanced proton conductivity as polymer electrolyte membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Wei Yi Liew

    Full Text Available Polymer electrolyte membranes based on the natural polymer κ-carrageenan were modified and characterized for application in electrochemical devices. In general, pure κ-carrageenan membranes show a low ionic conductivity. New membranes were developed by chemically modifying κ-carrageenan via phosphorylation to produce O-methylene phosphonic κ-carrageenan (OMPC, which showed enhanced membrane conductivity. The membranes were prepared by a solution casting method. The chemical structure of OMPC samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR spectroscopy. The conductivity properties of the membranes were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The characterization demonstrated that the membranes had been successfully produced. The ionic conductivity of κ-carrageenan and OMPC were 2.79 × 10-6 S cm-1 and 1.54 × 10-5 S cm-1, respectively. The hydrated membranes showed a two orders of magnitude higher ionic conductivity than the dried membranes.

  18. Development and characterization of carrageenan/grapefruit seed extract composite films for active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-07-01

    Carrageenan-based antimicrobial films were developed by incorporation of grape fruit seed extract (GSE) at different concentration into the polymer using a solvent casing method and their physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were examined. The carrageenan/GSE composite films appeared yellowish tint due to the polyphenolic compounds in the GSE. SEM analysis showed rough surface with sponge like structures on the cross section of the films. FT-IR results indicated at GSE had good compatibility with carrageenan. The amorphous structure of polymer films was not changed by the incorporation of GSE. But, the addition of GSE increased moisture content, water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity of the films. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased with increasing content of GSE, however, the elongation at break increased significantly up to 6.6μg/mL of GSE then decreased thereafter. Thermal stability of the films was not influenced by GSE incorporation. The carrageenan/GSE composite films exhibited great antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens. These results suggest that the carrageenan-based composite films have a high potential for being used as an antimicrobial or active food packaging applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Leaching-resistant carrageenan-based colorimetric oxygen indicator films for intelligent food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Chau Hai Thai; Won, Keehoon

    2014-07-23

    Visual oxygen indicators can give information on the quality and safety of packaged food in an economic and simple manner by changing color based on the amount of oxygen in the packaging, which is related to food spoilage. In particular, ultraviolet (UV)-activated oxygen indicators have the advantages of in-pack activation and irreversibility; however, these dye-based oxygen indicator films suffer from dye leaching upon contact with water. In this work, we introduce carrageenans, which are natural sulfated polysaccharides, to develop UV-activated colorimetric oxygen indicator films that are resistant to dye leakage. Carrageenan-based indicator films were fabricated using redox dyes [methylene blue (MB), azure A, and thionine], a sacrificial electron donor (glycerol), an UV-absorbing photocatalyst (TiO2), and an encapsulation polymer (carrageenan). They showed even lower dye leakage in water than conventional oxygen indicator films, owing to the electrostatic interaction of anionic carrageenan with cationic dyes. The MB/TiO2/glycerol/carrageenan oxygen indicator film was successfully bleached upon UV irradiation, and it regained color very rapidly in the presence of oxygen compared to the other waterproof oxygen indicator films.

  20. The effect of temperature and time of extraction on the quality of Semi Refined Carrageenan (SRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriyanto Heri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Euchema cottonii is a good source of kappa-carrageenan and can be found cultivated in the Indonesia coastal areas in which one of them is in Banten Province. Carrageenans have many applications and are utilized in human food and pet-food industry. Carrageenans are also utilized in non-food industry such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, printing and textile formulations. Hence, the present study features on the cooking process cooking time and cooking temperature. The effects of these parameters on carrageenan quality such as gel viscosity and gel strength were studied. The process of extraction of carrageenan was conducted with variations temperature: 60, 70, and 80 °C and the variation of time: 1, 2, and 3 hours. Alkaline substance used was KOH with 8% concentration and the ratio of solvent to dry seaweed 8:1. From the present investigation, it was observed that SRC extraction reached the best condition at temperature 70 °C for 2 hours with the value of yield 30.20%, 5.90% moisture content, 18.34% ash content, sulfate content of 6.94%, viscosity of 190 cP, and the gel strength 714.45 g / cm2. The treatment of temperature and extraction time significantly affected the quality of the SRC yield parameter, viscosity and gel strength.

  1. Status report on the collaborative project on the sans of K-carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calix, V.S.

    2006-01-01

    In the 2001 Beijing workshop, the Philippines proposed studies on the SANS of a natural biopolymer carrageenan. Several studies were submitted which were reviewed and evaluated by the Japanese scientist (1). On the basis of the economic importance and support of the Philippine government, in addition to it satisfying the requirement of FNCA, the proposal was accepted to be conducted in collaboration with the Prof. M. Shibayama of ISSP-Tokyo University. Two studies were proposed by the Philippines: 1. Structural investigation of γ-irradiated K-carrageenan. 2. Structural investigation of K-carrageenan/PVP blend cross linked by γ-irradiation. The report discusses the progress of the different activities related to the proposed studies done in the Philippines and the one currently being undertaken under the MEXT Exchange Program at JAERI, Tokai by a researcher who joined the group of Prof. M. Shibayama. (author)

  2. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkiflee Kuedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior.

  3. In vitro inhibition of human papillomavirus following use of a carrageenan-containing vaginal gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novetsky, Akiva P; Keller, Marla J; Gradissimo, Ana; Chen, Zigui; Morgan, Stephanie L; Xue, Xiaonan; Strickler, Howard D; Fernández-Romero, José A; Burk, Robert; Einstein, Mark H

    2016-11-01

    To assess in vitro efficacy of Divine 9, a carrageenan-based vaginal lubricant that is being studied as a microbicide to inhibit HPV16 pseudovirus (PsV) infection. Sexually active US women between 19 and 35years without prior HPV vaccination or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were instructed to use Divine 9 vaginally with an applicator either before sex only or before and after intercourse. Women who applied a single dose of gel returned for cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) collection 1, 4 or 8-12h after intercourse versus those who applied gel before and after intercourse returned 1, 4 or 8-12h after the second gel dose. Carrageenan concentrations were assessed using an ELISA assay and the inhibitory activity was assessed using a PsV-based neutralization assay against HPV16 infection. Carrageenan concentrations and the percentage of PsV16 inhibition were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Thirteen women were enrolled and thirty specimens from different time-points were assessed. 87% of CVL samples had detectable carrageenans with levels decreasing over time from intercourse. 93% of CVL samples had detectable PsV16 inhibition with median inhibition of 97.5%. PsV16 inhibition decreased over time, but remained high, with median inhibition of 98.1%, 97.4% and 83.4% at 1, 4 and 8-12h, respectively. Higher carrageenan concentrations were associated with higher levels of PsV16 inhibition (rho=0.69). This is the first report of a human study investigating in vitro HPV inhibition of a carrageenan-based vaginal lubricant with CVL collected after sexual intercourse. We demonstrate excellent efficacy in preventing PsV16 infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Facial synthesis of carrageenan/reduced graphene oxide/Ag composite as efficient SERS platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yuhong; Wang, Zhong; Fu, Li; Peng, Feng, E-mail: yuhongzhengcas@gmail.com [Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China); Wang, Aiwu [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong (Hong Kong)

    2017-01-15

    In this paper, we reported the preparation of carrageenan/reduced graphene oxide/Ag composite (CA-RGO-Ag) by a wet chemical method at room temperature using carrageenan, graphene oxide and silver nitrate as starting materials. As-prepared composite was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. Results showed that the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and silver nitrate was achieved simultaneously by addition of NaBH{sub 4} . Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study showed that the obtained composite give an intensive and enhanced Raman scattering when Rhodamine B was used as a probing molecule. (author)

  5. Radiation effects on agar, alginates and carrageenan to be used as food additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliste, A.J.; Vieira, F.F.; Mastro, N.L. del

    2000-01-01

    Agar, alginates and carrageenan are hydrocolloids that induce stabilization of physical properties of the food product during shelf life and prevention of undesirable changes such as moisture migration, gas cell coalescence or textural profile changes. In this work, agar, alginates and carrageenan was irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10 kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of these irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. (author)

  6. Radiation effects on agar, alginates and carrageenan to be used as food additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, A.J. E-mail: nlmastro@net.ipen.br; Vieira, F.F.; Mastro, N.L. del

    2000-03-01

    Agar, alginates and carrageenan are hydrocolloids that induce stabilization of physical properties of the food product during shelf life and prevention of undesirable changes such as moisture migration, gas cell coalescence or textural profile changes. In this work, agar, alginates and carrageenan was irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10 kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of these irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. (author)

  7. Positron annihilation lifetime studies of sol-gel transition of carrageenan gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Y.; Ito, K.; Li, H.L.; Ujihara, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime measurement was applied to study the sol-gel transition of anionic polysaccharide aqueous solutions in terms of free-volume parameters the size, intensity, and size distribution of free volumes of the gelation of K-form κ-carrageenan solutions as a function of temperature. Slight variations of free volume size and intensity against temperature were observed near 295 K. The correlation of free-volume data with other physical properties vibrational spectra (IR and Raman), conductivity, SAXS, elastic measurement, differential scanning calorimetry were investigated to understand the mechanism of sol-gel transition of carrageenan. (author)

  8. Features of blood serum protein spectrum and cytokine spectrum of rats with chronic carrageenan-induced intestinal inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Tkachenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that features of modern diet might be considered as a possible source of inflammatory diseases of gastrointestinal tract. Particular attention is paid to the role of different food additives in the development of intestinal inflammation, including the food additive E407, known as carrageenan. A model of chronic carrageenan-induced gastroenterocolitis of moderate severity has been elaborated, which allows us to study carrageenan-induced intestinal inflammation. In particular, the features of blood serum protein spectrum and cytokine spectrum in chronic carrageenan-induced intestinal inflammation are not studied. The female Wistar rats have been used for the experiment. Chronic carrageenan-induced gastroenterocolitis has been reproduced by the free access of animals to 1% solution of carrageenan in drinking water. Laboratory animals have been divided into 3 groups. Group № 1 consisted of experimental animals, who consumed food additive carrageenan during 2 weeks and group № 2 included experimental animals, who consumed food additive carrageenan during 4 weeks. Group № 3 consisted of intact healthy animals. The development of gastroenterocolitis has been proved morphologically and biochemically. Manipulations with animals have been carried out in accordance with the provisions of the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes (Strasbourg, 1986. It has been established that the disease has been associated with dysproteinemia. The level of α1-globulins increased after 2 weeks of carrageenan consumption and has been normalized in animals, who consumed carrageenan during 4 weeks. The similar changes have been observed for α2-globulins level. It could be explained by production of acute phase proteins, such as α1-acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, α2-macroglobulin, ceruloplasmin, etc. The intake of carrageenan also caused

  9. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Rachmawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW. Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. SANS contrast in iota-carrageenan gels and solutions in D2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Denef, B.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    SANS of Na+-iota-carrageenan in D2O/saline solutions was measured as a function of concentration, temperature and type of counterions (K+ or Na+). High and low scattering-contrasted gels and solutions were detected. High contrast is caused by aggregation of low-hydrated chains at high concentration...

  11. Iota-carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of influenza A virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Leibbrandt

    Full Text Available The 2009 flu pandemic and the appearance of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 influenza strains highlight the need for treatment alternatives. One such option is the creation of a protective physical barrier in the nasal cavity. In vitro tests demonstrated that iota-carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of influenza A virus infection, most importantly also of pandemic H1N1/2009 in vitro. Consequently, we tested a commercially available nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in an influenza A mouse infection model. Treatment of mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza A PR8/34 H1N1 virus with iota-carrageenan starting up to 48 hours post infection resulted in a strong protection of mice similar to mice treated with oseltamivir. Since alternative treatment options for influenza are rare, we conclude that the nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan is an alternative to neuraminidase inhibitors and should be tested for prevention and treatment of influenza A in clinical trials in humans.

  12. Effect of different vehicles in carrageenan suspension on the rate of the inflammatory response of chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Maria Backx Noronha Madeira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the pattern of edema, increased vascular permeability and cellular exudation elicited by the injection of different carrageenan suspensions into the foot pad of 80 male chicks, three to four-week old. Carrageenan suspensions at 0.5% were prepared in: Ringer Locke solution (RL, glucose aqueous solution 0.1% (G, demineralized water (W or phosphate buffered saline (PBS. The foot pad volume and vascular permeability were evaluated by pletismography and by Evans blue extravasation, respectively, before and at 0:15, 0:30, 1:00, 1:30, 2:00, 2:30, 3:00, 3:30 and 4:00 hours after injury. Cellular exudation was observed in thin sections of stained tissue 0:30, 1:30, 2:30 and 4:00 hours after injection of the carrageenan or vehicle only. The inflammatory response varied according to the carrageenan suspension used. Suspension C/PBS induced a less intense inflammatory response in foot pads of chicks than C/W, C/G and C/RL suspensions.

  13. Prevention of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice by anti-CD30 ligand monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Di Marco, Roberto; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2004-01-01

    CD30 ligand (CD30L) and its receptor CD30 are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor superfamilies that play a major role in inflammation and immune regulation. To gain insight into the in vivo role of CD30L/CD30 in inflammatory diseases, we have used carrageenan (CAR)-induce...

  14. Diethylcarbamazine Attenuates the Development of Carrageenan-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlene Lima Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diethylcarbamazine (DEC is an antifilarial drug with potent anti-inflammatory properties as a result of its interference with the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of DEC in a mouse model of acute inflammation (carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity induced the accumulation of fluid containing a large number of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs as well as infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased expression of interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Carrageenan also induced the expression of nuclear factor-κB. The oral administration of DEC (50 mg/Kg three days prior to the carrageenan challenge led to a significant reduction in all inflammation markers. The present findings demonstrate that DEC is a potential drug for the treatment of acute lung inflammation.

  15. Construction of biosensor systems for determining the pathophysiological potential of carrageenan variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Angela; End, Caroline; Christiansen, Helle

    2009-01-01

    In vitro systems for monitoring safety of nutritional additives are desirable for high-throughput screenings and as a substitute for animal models. Carrageenan (CGN) is a sulfated polysaccharide widely used as a thickener and texturizer in human nutrition and is intensely discussed regarding its...

  16. Chemical investigation of carrageenan from the red alga Sarconema filiforme (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) of Indian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Mehta, Gaurav K; Prasad, Kamalesh; Meena, Ramavtar; Siddhanta, Arup K

    2011-09-01

    Sulphated galactan (SF(A)) containing alpha (alpha), iota (i) and pyruvated alpha-carrageenans (17.6:18.8:25.3 mol %) was extracted and characterized from Sarconema filiforme of Indian waters. The SF(A) and its alkali modified derivative (SF(AM)) were composed of D-galactose, 3, 6-anhydro-D-galactose, 6-O-methylated-D-galactose (64.5:23.0:9.8 and 59.6:29.8:7.6 mol %) respectively. The linkage analysis, physicochemical analysis, infra red and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of SFA along with linkage analysis of the desulphated derivative (SF(D)) of SFA, reveals that it was a hybrid/combination of alpha/iota carrageenan as well as 3-linked 4',6'-O-(1-carboxyethylidene)-galactose (pyruvated alpha carrageenan) and 6-O-methylated alpha-carrageenan. The flow behavior of SF(A) obtained from rheological measurements suggested strong network formation in presence of 1% aqueous KCl and CaCl2 solutions.

  17. PROTEOLYTIC DEGRADATION OF POLY (ADP-RIBOSE POLYMERASE IN RATS WITH CARRAGEENAN-INDUCED GASTROENTEROCOLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the activity of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase in small intestinal homogenate of rats with chronic carrageenan-induced gastroenterocolitis, as well as mechanisms of regulation of the enzyme in this pathology. Twenty Wistar Albino Glaxo rats were divided into two groups. Animals of group 1 (n = 10 consumed 1 % carrageenan solution for 28 days, which resulted in the development of gastroenterocolitis confirmed morphologically. The control group consisted of intact animals (n = 10. The activity of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in the homogenate of small intestine, as well as caspase-3, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 serum levels were determined. Obtained data were statistically processed using the Mann-Whitney U test and calculating median and interquartile range (Me, 25th–75th percentile with the help of the GraphPad Prism 5 application. The development of carrageenan-induced gastroenterocolitis was accompanied by an increase in caspase-3, MMP-2, MMP-9 concentrations in blood serum and a decrease in the activity of PARP in small intestinal homogenates. The reduced activity of PARP in chronic carrageenan-induced gastroenterocolitis may be due to the proteolysis of this enzyme under the action of caspase-3, MMP-2, and MMP-9.

  18. Radioprotection potential of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan used as food additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del

    2002-01-01

    Carrageenans are a group of natural carbohydrates that are present in the structure of certain varieties of red algae (Rhodophyceae). They are used in emulsions, for syneresis control and to grow up, to promote adhesiveness and dispersion. In the industry of foods they can be used for instance, as thickness and gelling agents, alone or together with other additives. The processing of foods by radiation is increasing considerably, because the efficiency of the process in the industrial decontamination of products. The objective of this work was to study the action of the ascorbic acid as potential radioprotector of the carrageenan against 60 Co gamma radiation effects, using the viscosity as parameter. Samples of commercial carrageenan dissolved at 1,0% were irradiated in the presence or not of ascorbic acid, with doses of 0.0 kGy; 1.0 kGy; 2.5 kGy; 5.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. After the irradiation the relationships viscosity/dose were established for the temperature of 60 deg C. For the dose of 10.0 kGy a better protecting effect of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan was seen. The implications of the use of this antioxidant is discussed as a form of minimizing the effect of the radiation in irradiated foods. (author)

  19. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Carrageenan at Different Temperatures, Isolated from Hypnea musciformis from Karachi Coast Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid Mahmood, Syed; Bi, Fatima; Taj, Noor; Seema; Farhan, M.; Shahid, M.; Azmat, Rafia; Uddin, Fahim

    This study describe the basic tools like viscosity measurements and thermodynamic parameters of the polysaccharide isolated from Hypnea musciformis (red algae) of Karachi Coast (Pakistan) showed characteristics of κ-carrageenan. An IR spectrum showed a fairly sharp band at 1210, 1225 cm-1 corresponding to sulphate ester and is in accordance with the high sulphate content of κ-carrageenan. Viscosity measurements revealed a linear relationship with increase in concentration and decreased with the rise in temperature of aqueous solutions of κ-carrageenan. Thermodynamic parameters were determined by the change in viscosity data as a function of temperature and concentration. The free energy change of activation (Î'Gη) increased regularly as the concentration of aqueous κ-carrageenan increased, as well as rises in temperature. Higher values of free energy change of activation, (Î'Gη) showed the higher association of κ-carrageenan with water at given temperature. The values of entropy change of activation (Î'Sη) of viscous flow also increased with the increase in concentration and temperature of aqueous κ-carrageenan solution. The high negative values of entropy change of activation (Î'Sη) showed that the solution of κ-carrageenan was more ordered in initial state than the activated one.

  20. Effect of carrageenans alone and in combination with casein or lipopolysaccharide on human epithelial intestinal HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, E V; Kuz'mich, A S; Byankina, A O; Yermak, I M

    2017-10-01

    The research described here was focused on the effect on human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers of sulfated red algal polysaccharides (κ-, λ-, and κ/β-carrageenans) alone and in combination with casein or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). HT-29 cells were investigated under normal and stress conditions; stress was induced by exposure to ethanol. Cell viability was monitored with a real-time system. The change in binding properties of negatively sulfated red algal polysaccharides assessed by the measurement of free carrageenans in mixtures with casein or McCoy's 5 A culture medium by means of toluidine blue O. Low sulfate content and the presence of 3,6-anhydogalactose are prerequisites for the recovery of ethanol-exposed HT-29 cells by carrageenans. Analysis of carrageenan binding ability confirmed that casein and LPS should affect carrageenan activity. Whether the combined action of the mucin-containing layer and carrageenans or the action of carrageenans alone was responsible for enhanced cell viability under stress conditions induced by ethanol is a subject for further research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2843-2850, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Characterization of radiation modified κ-carrageenan oligomers for bio-based materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Aranilla, Charito T.; Racadio, Darwin T.; Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2011-01-01

    κ-carrageenan oligomers are known to have several biological activities such as anti-HIV, anti-herpes, antitumor and antioxidant properties. Recent progress in the development of radiation modified κ-carrageenan has resulted in new applications such as plant growth promoter, radiation dose indicator and hydrogels for wound dressing. This presentation would touch on the changes in chemical structure, gelation and conformational transition behavior and molecular size of κ-carrageenan at doses from 0 to 200 kGy and would be correlated to these functions for the development of bio-based materials. Chemical and spectral analyses were carried out using UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, reducing sugar analysis, free sulfate and carboxylic acid analysis. The chemical and spectral analyses of the radiolytic products indicated increasing reducing sugars, carbonyl, carboxylic acids, and sulfates with increasing doses which reached a maximum level at a certain dose depending on the irradiation condition. Values were very much lower in solid irradiation (in vacuum and in air) as compared to aqueous irradiation. NMR data also revealed an intact structure of the oligomer irradiated at 100 kGy in the specific fraction that contains an Mw = (3-10) kDa. κ-carrageenan oligomers exhibited antioxidant properties as determined by hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay. The degree of oxidative inhibition increased with increasing dose which can be attributed to higher reducing sugar. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments showed that a dose of up to 50 kGy, sol-gelation transition was still observed. Beyond 50 kGy, no gelation took place, instead appearance of fast relax-carrageenan mode in characteristic decay time function was observed at doses of (75-150) kGy. Optimum peak intensity was found at 100 kGy (mol wt. 5-10 kDa) which coincides with the optimum plant growth promoter effect in κ-carrageenan

  2. Influence of lambda-carrageenan on the release of systematic series of volatile flavor compounds from viscous food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylaite, Egle; Ilgunaite, Z.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2004-01-01

    -liquid partition coefficients K (37degreesC) of a total of 43 aroma compounds were determined in pure water and in the lambda-carrageenan solutions by static headspace gas chromatography. Mass transfer of the aroma compounds in water and in the thickened lambda-carrageenan solutions which had a wide viscosity...... range was assessed by dynamic headspace gas chromatography. K(37degreesC) increased as the carbon chain increased within each homologous series. Esters exhibited the highest volatility, followed by aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols. Under equilibrium, no overall effect of lambda-carrageenan was found...

  3. Exposure to Common Food Additive Carrageenan Alone Leads to Fasting Hyperglycemia and in Combination with High Fat Diet Exacerbates Glucose Intolerance and Hyperlipidemia without Effect on Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Bhattacharyya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared. Results. Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state. Conclusions. Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

  4. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Ultrasound-Assisted Depolymerization of κ-Carrageenan

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    Ratnawati Ratnawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted depolymerization of κ-carrageenan has been studied at various temperatures and times. The κ-carrageenan with initial molecular weight of 545 kDa was dispersed in water to form a 5 g/L solution, which was then depolymerized in an ultrasound device at various temperatures and times. The viscosity of the solution was measured using Brookfield viscometer, which was then used to find the number-average molecular weight by Mark-Houwink equation. To obtain the kinetics of κ-carrageenan depolymerization, the number-average molecular weight data was treated using midpoint-chain scission kinetics model. The pre-exponential factor and activation energies for the reaction are 2.683×10-7 mol g-1 min-1 and 6.43 kJ mol-1, respectively. The limiting molecular weight varies from 160 kDa to 240 kDa, and it is linearly correlated to temperature. The results are compared to the result of thermal depolymerization by calculating the half life. It is revealed that ultrasound assisted depolymerization of κ-carrageenan is faster than thermal depolymerization at temperatures below 72.2°C. Compared to thermal depolymerization, the ultrasound-assisted process has lower values of Ea, ΔG‡, ΔH‡, and ΔS‡, which can be attributed to the ultrasonically induced breakage of non-covalent bonds in κ-carrageenan molecules. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 18th January 2016; Accepted: 19th January 2016 How to Cite: Ratnawati, R., Prasetyaningrum, A., Wardhani, D.H. (2016. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Ultrasound-Assisted Depolymerization of κ-Carrageenan. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11(1: 48-58. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.415.48-58 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.415.48-58

  5. Carrageenan-Induced Colonic Inflammation Is Reduced in Bcl10 Null Mice and Increased in IL-10-Deficient Mice

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    Sumit Bhattacharyya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The common food additive carrageenan is a known activator of inflammation in mammalian tissues and stimulates both the canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-κB activation. Exposure to low concentrations of carrageenan (10 μg/mL in the water supply has produced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin signaling in C57BL/6 mice. B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 10 (Bcl10 is a mediator of inflammatory signals from Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 in myeloid and epithelial cells. Since the TLR4 signaling pathway is activated in diabetes and by carrageenan, we addressed systemic and intestinal inflammatory responses following carrageenan exposure in Bcl10 wild type, heterozygous, and null mice. Fecal calprotectin and circulating keratinocyte chemokine (KC, nuclear RelA and RelB, phospho(Thr559-NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK, and phospho(Ser36-IκBα in the colonic epithelial cells were significantly less (P<0.001 in the carrageenan-treated Bcl10 null mice than in controls. IL-10-deficient mice exposed to carrageenan in a germ-free environment showed an increase in activation of the canonical pathway of NF-κB (RelA activation, but without increase in RelB or phospho-Bcl10, and exogenous IL-10 inhibited only the canonical pathway of NF-κB activation in cultured colonic cells. These findings demonstrate a Bcl10 requirement for maximum development of carrageenan-induced inflammation and lack of complete suppression by IL-10 of carrageenan-induced inflammation.

  6. Mechanical and solubility properties of bio-nanocomposite film of semi refined kappa carrageenan/ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputri, Apriliana Eka; Praseptiangga, Danar; Rochima, Emma; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this present work is to develop semi refined kappa carrageenan based bio-nanocomposite film as an alternative to synthetic petroleum based food packaging materials. Among natural polymers, carrageenan is one of the most promising material, since it is a renewable bioresource. The ZnO nanoparticles (0.5%; 1.0%; 1.5% w/w carrageenan) was incorporated into carrageenan polymer to prepare bio-nanocomposite films, where ZnO acts as reinforcement for carrageenan matrix. The mechanical and solubility properties of the prepared films were investigated as a function of ZnO concentration. The results indicated that the addition of ZnO exhibits greater solubility compared to the neat film. The elongation at break is insignificantly different on the films with and without addition ZnO. The tensile strength of the film was highest for the sample with 0.5% ZnO. These mechanical and solubility properties suggest that bio-nanocomposite film of semi refined kappa carrageenan and nanoparticle ZnO can be effectively used as food packaging material.

  7. Hydrophobic lappaconitine loaded into iota-carrageenan by one step self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenxiu; Saldaña, Marleny D A; Zhao, Yujia; Wu, Lingling; Dong, Tungalag; Jin, Ye; Zhang, Ji

    2016-02-10

    New data on the loading of pH-sensitive lappaconitine loaded into iota-carrageenan (LA-ICG) is provided. This LA-ICG ionic biopolymer was prepared by one step self-assembly. The LA-ICG was characterized in terms of the loading capacity, lappaconitine (LA) releasing behavior, pH-sensitivity, and analgesic properties. Iota-carrageenan (ICG) high loading capacity reached up to 26.18% (w/w). Also, the LA, loaded with ICG, was released faster in an acidic environment than that in neutral or alkaline environments. Animal analgesic experiments showed that the LA-ICG of low molecular weight had earlier onset time and longer duration than the LA. These results suggest that the ICG of low molecular weight has great potential to achieve the synergistic effect of LA. In addition, the ICG can be used as a novel natural polymeric carrier for loading a hydrophobic alkaloid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enzymatic degradation of hybrid iota-/nu-carrageenan by Alteromonas fortis iota-carrageenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanneau, Diane; Boulenguer, Patrick; Mazoyer, Jacques; Helbert, William

    2010-05-07

    Hybrid iota-/nu-carrageenan was water-extracted from Eucheuma denticulatum and incubated with Alteromonas fortis iota-carrageenase. The degradation products were then separated by anion-exchange chromatography. The three most abundant fractions of hybrid iota-/nu-carrageenan oligosaccharides were purified and their structures were analyzed by NMR. The smallest hybrid was an octasaccharide with a iota-iota-nu-iota structure. The second fraction was composed of two decasaccharides with iota-iota-iota-nu-iota and iota-[iota/nu]-iota-iota structures. The third fraction was a mixture of dodecasaccharides which contained at least a iota-iota-iota-iota-nu-iota oligosaccharide. The carbon and proton NMR spectra of the octasaccharides were completely assigned, thereby completely attributing the nu-carrabiose moiety for the first time.

  9. Evaluation of the swelling behaviour of iota-carrageenan in monolithic matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, András; Buchholcz, Gyula; Sovány, Tamás; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2015-08-10

    The swelling properties of monolithic matrix tablets containing iota-carrageenan were studied at different pH values, with measurements of the swelling force and characterization of the profile of the swelling curve. The swelling force meter was linked to a PC by an RS232 cable and the measured data were evaluated with self-developed software. The monitor displayed the swelling force vs. time curve with the important parameters, which could be fitted with an Analysis menu. In the case of iota-carrageenan matrix tablets, it was concluded that the pH and the pressure did not influence the swelling process, and the first section of the swelling curve could be fitted by the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Micro-mesoporous carbon spheres derived from carrageenan as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Bing; Liu, Pei-Fang; Lu, Hai-Ting

    2014-12-01

    The polysaccharide carrageenan is used as a natural precursor to prepare micro-mesoporous carbon spheres. The carbon spheres were synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization of carrageenan, and subsequent chemical activation by KOH at different temperatures. The obtained micro-mesoporous carbon spheres have high surface area (up to 2502 m2 g-1) and large pore volume (up to 1.43 cm3 g-1). Moreover, the micro- and mesoporosity can be finely tuned be modifying the activation temperatures in the range of 700-900 °C. The carbon spheres activated at 900 °C present high specific capacitance of 230 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and good ion transport kinetics. The good capacitive performance can be ascribed to the high specific surface area, well-controlled micro- and mesoporosity and narrow pore size distribution.

  11. Effect of carrageenan addition on the yield and functional properties of charqui (Jerked Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Rocha Garcia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the application of carrageenan (CAR to improve the functional properties of the jerked beef (JF and to increase its processing yield. JB produced from Vastus lateralis with CAR (1.0% at 25ºC and NaCl (15.0% had approximately 15.0% higher moisture and a 32.0% higher processing yield in comparison to the control samples.JB-CAR presented shear force approximately 5.0 and 20% lower in the samples uncooked salted and desalted cooked, respectively, and sensorial acceptance above 80%. The results demonstrated the possibility of applying carrageenan to jerked beef in order to obtain an increase in the processing yield and a tender product while maintaining the sensorial quality and its intermediate-moisture meat product nature.

  12. Growth and substrate consumption of Nitrobacter agilis cells immobilized in carrageenan: part 1. Dynamic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gooijer, C D; Wijffels, R H; Tramper, J

    1991-07-01

    The modeling of the growth of Nitrobacter agilis cell immobilized in kappa-carrageenan is presented. A detailed description is given of the modeling of internal diffusion and growth of cells in the support matrix in addition to external mass transfer resistance. The model predicts the substrate and biomass profiles in the support as well as the macroscopic oxygen consumption rate of the immobilized biocatalyst in time. The model is tested by experiments with continuously operated airlift loop reactors containing cells immobilized in kappa-carrageenan. The model describes experimental data very well. It is clearly shown that external mass transfer may not be neglected. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis of the parameters at their values during the experiments revealed that apart from the radius of the spheres and the substrate bulk concentration, the external mass transfer resistance coefficient is the most sensitive parameter for our case.

  13. Conservation of Williams pear using edible coating with alginate and carrageenan

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    Kessiane Silva de Moraes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical parameters of Williams pear, stored at 25 ºC for 15 days, with and without edible coating. Edible coatings prepared with alginate 2% and carrageenan 0.5% were tested. The analyses carried out on the samples were: weight loss, pH, soluble solids, firmness, and color. The edible coatings were characterized in terms of mechanical properties, permeability, thickness, and opacity. The results show that the application of edible coatings with carrageenan and alginate in pears influenced physical and chemical characteristics such as weight loss, pH, total soluble solids, color, and firmness of the fruit. However, the alginate coating showed the best results on pear conservation since it had lower water vapor permeability and greater tensile strength, and therefore it can be used as a protective film on these fruits.

  14. Evaluation of stress-strain for characterization of the rheological behavior of alginate and carrageenan gels

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    E.J. Mammarella

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The stress-strain of samples deformed until failure and the relaxation response after 50% deformation of the initial height under constant stress were obtained. Uniaxial compression and stress-relaxation tests enabled satisfactory differentiation of the mechanical resistance of gels with different alginate and carrageenan concentrations. Higher values for initial force at the beginning of the relaxation test were associated with higher calcium uptake by the gels. An increment of failure stress during the uniaxial compression tests for higher concentration of calcium in the gel structure was also observed. The maximum amount of cation uptake was higher than the theoretical value for saturation of all the carboxylic groups available in alginate molecules due to structural rearrangements. Stress-relaxation tests indicated that the residual stress of the gel increased with kappa-carrageenan concentration.

  15. The addition of nanochitosan suspension as filler in carrageenan-tapioca biocomposite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochima, Emma; Fiyanih, Elisah; Afrianto, Eddy; Subhan, Ujang; Praseptiangga, Danar; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    This research aimed to investigate the effect of nanochitosan (CSNPs) suspension by beads milling method as filler in carrageenan-tapioca biocomposite film. In addition, the antibacterial activity of CSNPs as filler with two food pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and then influence of nano fillers for appearance of films were observed. The incorporation of CSNPs suspension with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 (%v/v) in carrageenan-tapioca film exhibited antibacterial activity againts both bacteria. CSNPs had slightly higher antimicrobial activity against E. coli aureus compared to S. aureus at all concentrations due to different mechanisms. Therefore, the best antimicrobial activity was obtained from 1 wt%. Furthermore the best antimicrobial activity was characterized by means of the thickness and transparency. The result showed that the thickness of film was 0.059 mm and the transparency was 87.88. It was concluded that the incorporation of CSNPs suspension 1 wt% in carrageenan-tapioca composite film is suitable for developing active packaging.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Lactobacillus on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Amdekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus were used to assess the anti-inflammatory properties in carrageenan induced acute inflammatory model. Materials and Methods. Diclofenac sodium was used as standard drug at concentration of 150 mg/kg of body weight. Culture of Lactobacillus  2×107 CFU/ml was given orally. Edema was induced with 1% carrageenan to all the groups after one hour of the oral treatments. Paw thickness was checked at =1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 24 hours. Stair climbing score and motility score were assessed at =24 hours. Cytokines assay for IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α was performed on serum samples. Results. Lactobacillus showed a statistically significant decrease in paw thickness at <0.001. L. acidophilus and L. casei decreased by 32% and 28% in paw thickness. They both significantly increased the stair climbing and motility score. Lactobacillus treatment significantly downregulated IL-6 and TNF-α while upregulated IL-10 at <0.0001. Conclusion. L. casei and L. acidophilus significantly decreased the inflammatory reactions induced by carrageenan. This study has also proposed that Lactobacillus ameliorated the inflammatory reaction by downregulating the proinflammatory cytokines pathway.

  17. Physicochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Carrageenan and Gelatine Hydrosols and Hydrogels Incorporated with Acidic Electrolyzed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Brychcy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on investigation of the effects of usage of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW with different sodium chloride concentration (0.001%, 0.01%, and 0.1% for the preparation of carrageenan and gelatine hydrosols and hydrogels. To determine physiochemical properties of hydrosols, the pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP, available chloride concentration (ACC and rheological parameters such us gelation and flow temperatures were measured. The samples were also characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT IR and texture profile analysis (TPA. Additionally, the article contains an analysis of antibacterial activity of carrageenan and gelatine hydrosols incorporated with acidic electrolyzed water, against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The FT IR spectra demonstrated that the structure of gelatine and carrageenan are not significantly affected by electrolyzed NaCl solution components. Furthermore, TPA analysis showed that the use of AEW did not cause undesirable changes in hydrogels layer. The microbiological analysis confirmed inhibition of bacterial growth by hydrosols to about 2.10 log reduction. The results showed that the range of reduction of microorganisms depends on the type AEW used. This might be explained by the fact that the lowest pH and the highest ACC values of hydrosols were obtained for samples with the longest period of exposure to electrolysis (10 min and the highest amount of NaCl (0.1% w/v. These results suggest that hydrogels and hydrosols incorporated with AEW may be used for food preservation.

  18. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

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    Qiang Shao

    Full Text Available The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 and cytopathic effect (CPE inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731 and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04 replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8, A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN, A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26, A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08, and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07 viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  19. Characterization of low molecular weight fragments from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan used as plant growth promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Aurigue, Fernando B.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Montefalcon, Djowel Recto V.; Lopez, Girlie Eunice P.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation degraded κ-carrageenan (1% solution at absorbed doses of 20 kGy and 30 kGy) were tested for its plant growth promoter (PGP) effect on pechay plants under hydroponics condition. Results revealed that higher PGP effects were found in κ-carrageenan irradiated at an absorbed dose of 30 kGy. Mw of irradiated κ-carrageenan as measured by GPC were determined to be 7362 Da and 6762 Da for 20 kGy and 30 kGy, respectively. Fractionation of the irradiated κ-carrageenan (30 kGy) was done to separate different Mw fractions using Mw cut-off filters of 1 kDa, 3 kDa, and 5 kDa. The PGP effect of the different retentates showed that biological activity in plants followed the order of 5 kDa>3 kDa>1 kDa using hydroponics condition but the reverse was observed in the order of 1 kDa>3 kDa>5 kDa when absorbed in plants by foliar spraying. GPC chromatogram indicated at least three (3) low molecular weight (LMW) fragments from radiation modified κ-carrageenan solution with an Mw<2000 Da. A fragment has also been identified with an Mw of as low as 160 Da which was produced under acidic (un-neutralized) condition. This may be attributed to the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF).

  20. Anti-ulcer, anti-protozoan and anti-cancer activities of irradiated κ-carrageenan: some biological effects of irradiated food grade-carrageenan on various gastrointestinal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deocaris, Custer C.; Cruz, Angela C; Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.; De Guzman, Roche Ray C.; Abilo, Rhea Mae L.; Gutierrez, Ana Kamila O.; Deocaris, Chester C.

    2001-01-01

    κ carrageenan and its radiolytic products are both shown to strongly inhibit pepsin activity based on our in vitro peptic ulcer model. Generated Lineweaver-Burke (LB) plots resemble the trend for competitive inhibition except that the changes in the slopes are too large rendering Km to approach a negative value. Our observations corroborate with the published dual behavior of carrageenan in inhibiting peptic ulcers, that is, by exerting simultaneously both enzyme (E) competitive inhibition and substrate (S) occlusion. Irradiated-carrageenan does not display anti-protozoan activity against Tetrahymena and pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica, and anti-tumor potential based on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) nauplus tests and the MTT assay with human MCF7 breast carcinoma cell line. (Author)

  1. Physico-mechanical analysis data in support of compatibility of chitosan/κ-carrageenan polyelectrolyte films achieved by ascorbic acid, and the thermal degradation theory of κ-carrageenan influencing the properties of its blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiyar Shahbazi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the complementary data regarding compatibilization of chitosan/κ-carrageenan polyelectrolyte complex for synthesizing of a soft film using ascorbic acid. It includes the thermal-theory for estimating the degradation of κ-carrageenan, as reflected in alteration of the structural properties of the blend. The data has been provided to demonstrate that the blend solution based on chitosan, a polycation, and κ-carrageenan, a polyanion polymer, produces an incompatible polyelectrolyte composite, susceptible to coaservative phase separation. We present further data on water resistance, water barrier property, mechanical parameters, scanning electron micrograph, as well as contact angle image dataset of the chitosan/κ-carrageenan film. The physical data were collected by water solubility and water permeability assays, with a view to elucidate the role of ascorbic acid in the compatibility of polyelectrolyte blends. The mechanical data is obtained from a stress–strain curve for evaluation of tensile strength and elongation at break point of the chitosan/κ-carrageenan film. The microstructure observations were performed using scanning electron micrograph. These dataset confirm fabrication of a soft film in the presence of ascorbic acid, with reduced heterogeneities in the polyelectrolyte film structure. The κ-carrageenan was also treated by a thermal process, prior to inclusion into the chitosan solution, to investigate the impact of this on the mechanical and structural features of the resulting blend. We present the required data and the theoretical analysis supporting the thermal chain degradation of a polymer and its effects on behavior of the film. Additional information, characterizing the hydrophobicity of the surface of the blend layers is obtained by measuring water contact angles using a contact anglemeter.

  2. Application of Essential Oils from Galanga Rhizome in Edible Coating Carrageenan as Antibacterial on Tilapia Fishball

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    Fajar Bayu Senoaji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish ball is a perishable food product. One of an alternative method which could be applied to delay the deterioration process was using carrageenan edible coating with the addition of galangal rhizome’s essential oil as an antibacterial agent. The aim of this study was to find out whether the addition of carrageenan edible coating with galangal rhizome’s essential oil could increase the shelf life of the tilapia fish ball during cold storage or not. This study was used experimental laboratories with the completely randomized design used factorial (2x6 two factors include essential oils concentrations (0%, dan 1% and storage time (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 with three repetitions. The shelf life of the fish ball observed by sensory, TPC, TVBN, pH, Aw, moisture content, and gel strength test. The parametric data were analyzed by the ANOVA, while the non-parametric was using the Kruskal Wallis test. As the result, the fish ball with the 1% treatment was still acceptable until 15 days of storage compared with the control which only lasts for 9 days. The other results were the sensory test was 6.63≤π≤6.95, TPC value was 1.07x105 cfu/g, TVBN value was 30.33±1.68 mgN%, the moisture content was 61.38%±0.47, the Aw was 0.89±0.006, the pH was 6.24±0.0, and the gel strength was 721.19±1.61 g.cm. The treatment of 1% essential oil addition to carrageenan edible coating was significantly different (p<0.05 compared to the control treatment during cold storage to the characteristic of tilapia fish ball.

  3. Sinularin from Indigenous Soft Coral Attenuates Nociceptive Responses and Spinal Neuroinflammation in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Rat Model

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    Zhi-Hong Wen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three decades ago, the marine-derived compound sinularin was shown to have anti-edematous effects on paw edema induced by carrageenan or adjuvant. To the best of our knowledge, no new studies were conducted to explore the bioactivity of sinularin until we reported the analgesic properties of sinularin based on in vivo experiments. In the present study, we found that sinularin significantly inhibits the upregulation of proinflammatory proteins, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and upregulates the production of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells according to western blot analysis. We found that subcutaneous (s.c. administration of sinularin (80 mg/kg 1 h before carrageenan injection significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced nociceptive behaviors, including thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, and hindpaw weight-bearing deficits. Further, s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced microglial and astrocyte activation as well as upregulation of iNOS in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Moreover, s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg inhibited carrageenan-induced tissue inflammatory responses, redness and edema of the paw, and leukocyte infiltration. The results of immunohistochemical studies indicate that s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg could upregulate production of TGF-β1 in carrageenan-induced inflamed paw tissue. The present results demonstrate that systemic sinularin exerts analgesic effects at the behavioral and spinal levels, which are associated with both inhibition of leukocyte infiltration and upregulation of TGF-β1.Three decades ago, the marine-derived compound sinularin was shown to have anti-edematous effects on paw edema induced by carrageenan or adjuvant. To the best of our knowledge, no new studies were conducted to explore the bioactivity of sinularin until we reported the

  4. Amylmetacresol/2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol, hexylresorcinol, or carrageenan lozenges as active treatments for sore throat

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    Morokutti-Kurz M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Martina Morokutti-Kurz, Christine Graf, Eva Prieschl-Grassauer Marinomed Biotechnologie GmbH, Vienna, Austria Abstract: Up to 80% of sore throats are caused by viruses. Several over the counter products are available which provide symptomatic, not causal relief. For such lozenges, containing the antiseptics and local anesthetics amylmetacresol (AMC and 2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol (DCBA or hexylresorcinol (HR, recently an additional virucidal effect was published. Therefore, we tested a set of Strepsils® lozenges, containing either HR (Max [#2] or AMC/DCBA (Original [#3], Extra Strong [#4], Warm [#5], Orange and Vitamin C [#6], Sugar free Lemon [#7], Children/Strawberry [#8] and Soothing Honey and Lemon [#9] for their antiviral efficiency against representatives of respiratory viruses known to cause sore throat: human rhinovirus (HRV 1a, HRV8, influenza virus A H1N1n, Coxsackievirus A10, and human coronavirus (hCoV OC43. The lozenges were tested head to head with Coldamaris® lozenges (#1, which contain the patented antiviral iota-carrageenan. None of the tested AMC/DCBA or HR containing lozenges shows any antiviral effectiveness against HRV8 at the tested concentrations, whereas all are moderately active against HRV1a. Only lozenge #5 shows any activity against hCoV OC43 and Coxsackievirus A10 at the tested concentrations. Similarly, only lozenge #3 is moderately active against influenza A H1N1n virus. The data indicates that neither the isolated effect of the active ingredients nor the pH but rather one or more of the excipients of the specific formulations are responsible for the antiviral effect of some of the AMC/DCBA or HR containing lozenges. In contrast, carrageenan-containing lozenges are highly active against all viruses tested. In another experiment, we showed that binding and inactivation of virus particles by iota-carrageenan are fast and highly effective. During the residence time of the lozenge in the mouth, the viral titer is

  5. Stereomicroscopic and histologic changes in the colon of guinea pigs fed degraded carrageenan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1980-01-01

    A colitis-like state induced in Guinea Pigs fed degraded carrageenan orally. By means of a combined semimacroscopic and histologic technique the course of the disease was followed during 28 days. The changes were primarily seen and became most prominent in the caecum. The first lesions were...... observed following 24 hours of treatment as small rounded foci initially with degenerative changes and inflammation in the surface epithelium, later forming superficial focal ulcerations. Ulcerative changes gradually progressed during the experiment, forming linear and later large, geographical ulcerations...

  6. Characterization of k-carrageenan/Locust bean gumbased films with b-carotene emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Joana; Silva, H. D.; Rojas, R.; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Vicente, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    New bio-based materials have been exploited to develop biodegradable and edible films as an effort to extend shelf life and improve quality of food while reducing packaging waste. The objective of this study was to investigate physicochemical properties of k-carrageenan/locust bean gum (k-car/LBG) films with different bcarotene emulsion concentrations. To prepare oil-in-water emulsions, b-carotene (0.03% v/v) was dissolved in mediumchain triglycerides (MCTs), and the solution was mixed ...

  7. Chemical analysis and biorefinery of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii for efficient production of glucose from residue of carrageenan extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarin, Fernando; Cedeno, Fernando Roberto Paz; Chavez, Eddyn Gabriel Solorzano; de Oliveira, Levi Ezequiel; Gelli, Valéria Cress; Monti, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    Biorefineries serve to efficiently utilize biomass and their by-products. Algal biorefineries are designed to generate bioproducts for commercial use. Due to the high carbohydrate content of algal biomass, biorefinery to generate biofuels, such as bioethanol, is of great interest. Carrageenan is a predominant polysaccharide hydrocolloid found in red macroalgae and is widely used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, we report the biorefinery of carrageenan derived from processing of experimental strains of the red macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii. Specifically, the chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of the residue produced from carrageenan extraction were evaluated to determine the conditions for efficient generation of carbohydrate bioproducts. The productivity and growth rates of K. alvarezii strains were assessed along with the chemical composition (total carbohydrates, ash, sulfate groups, proteins, insoluble aromatics, galacturonic acid, and lipids) of each strain. Two strains, brown and red, were selected based on their high growth rates and productivity and were treated with 6 % KOH for extraction of carrageenan. The yields of biomass from treatment with 6 % KOH solution of the brown and red strains were 89.3 and 89.5 %, respectively. The yields of carrageenan and its residue were 63.5 and 23 %, respectively, for the brown strain and 60 and 27.8 %, respectively, for the red strain. The residues from the brown and red strains were assessed to detect any potential bioproducts. The galactan, ash, protein, insoluble aromatics, and sulfate groups of the residue were reduced to comparable extents for the two strains. However, KOH treatment did not reduce the content of glucan in the residue from either strain. Glucose was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis for 72 h using both strains. The glucan conversion was 100 % for both strains, and the concentrations of glucose from the brown and red strains were 13.7 and 11.5 g L(-1

  8. Protective effect of Arbutus unedo aqueous extract in carrageenan-induced lung inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotto, Sofia; Esposito, Emanuela; Di Paola, Rosanna; Ciampa, Anna; Mazzon, Emanuela; de Prati, Alessandra Carcereri; Darra, Elena; Vincenzi, Simone; Cucinotta, Giovanni; Caminiti, Rocco; Suzuki, Hisanori; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we show that an aqueous extract of Arbutus unedo L. (AuE), a Mediterranean endemic plant widely employed as an astringent, diuretic and urinary anti-septic, in vitro down-regulates the expression of some inflammatory genes, such as those encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and intracellular adhesion molecule-(ICAM)-1, exerting a inhibitory action on both IFN-gamma-elicited STAT1 activation and IL-6-elicited STAT3 activation. To evaluate further the effect of AuE in animal models of acute inflammation, we examined whether AuE administration attenuates inflammatory response of murine induced by intrapleural injection of carrageenan. For this purpose we studied: (1) STAT1/3 activation, (2) TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 production in pleural exudate, (3) lung iNOS, COX-2 and ICAM-1 expression, (4) neutrophil infiltration, (5) the nitration of cellular proteins by peroxynitrite, (6) lipid peroxidation, (7) prostaglandin E2 and nitrite/nitrate levels and (8) lung injury. We show that AuE strongly down-regulates STAT3 activation induced in the lung by carrageenan with concomitant attenuation of all parameters examined associated with inflammation, suggesting that STAT3 should be a new molecular target for anti-inflammatory treatment. This study demonstrates that acute lung inflammation is significantly attenuated by the treatment with AuE.

  9. Magnetically tunable elasticity for magnetic hydrogels consisting of carrageenan and carbonyl iron particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumata, Tetsu; Honda, Atomu; Kanazawa, Hiroki; Kawai, Mika

    2012-10-11

    A new class of magnetoelastic gel that demonstrates drastic and reversible changes in storage modulus without using strong magnetic fields was obtained. The magnetic gel consists of carrageenan and carbonyl iron particles. The magnetic gel with a volume fraction of magnetic particles of 0.30 exhibited a reversible increase by a factor of 1400 of the storage modulus upon a magnetic field of 500 mT, which is the highest value in the past for magnetorheological soft materials. It is considered that the giant magnetoelastic behavior is caused by both high dispersibility and high mobility of magnetic particles in the carrageenan gel. The off-field storage modulus of the magnetic gel at volume fractions below 0.30 obeyed the Krieger-Dougherty equation, indicating random dispersion of magnetic particles. At 500 mT, the storage modulus was higher than 4.0 MPa, which is equal to that of magnetic fluids, indicating that the magnetic particles move and form a chain structure by magnetic fields. Morphological study revealed the evidence that the magnetic particles embedded in the gel were aligned in the direction of magnetic fields, accompanied by stretching of the gel network. We conclude that the giant magnetoelastic phenomenon originates from the chain structure consisting of magnetic particles similar to magnetic fluids.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of linezolid on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Obara, Shigeaki; Kuroda, Yuko; Kizu, Junko

    2015-12-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of linezolid has recently been reported using in vitro experimental models. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of linezolid has not yet been demonstrated using in vivo experimental models. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of linezolid and other anti-MRSA agents using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The pretreatment with 50 mg/kg linezolid significantly suppressed edema rates, compared with control (5% glucose), with edema rates at 0.5 and 3 h after the administration of carrageenan being 17.3 ± 3.5 and 30.8 ± 3.0%, respectively. On the other hand, edema rates were not suppressed by the pretreatments with 50 mg/kg vancomycin, teicoplanin, arbekacin, and daptomycin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that linezolid exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were observed at linezolid concentrations that are achievable in human serum with conventional dosing. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the anti-inflammatory activities of linezolid, in addition to its antimicrobial effects, have a protective effect against destructive inflammatory responses in areas of inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanical and water barrier properties of agar/κ-carrageenan/konjac glucomannan ternary blend biohydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Wang, Long-Feng

    2013-07-01

    Multicomponent hydrogel films composed of agar, κ-carrageenan, konjac glucomannan powder, and nanoclay (Cloisite(®) 30B) were prepared and their mechanical and water barrier properties such as water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water solubility (WS), water uptake ratio (WUR), water vapor uptake ratio (WVUR) were determined. Mechanical, water vapor barrier, and water resistance properties of the ternary blend film exhibited middle range of individual component films, however, they increased significantly after formation of nanocomposite with the clay. Especially, the water holding capacity of the ternary blend biopolymer films increased tremendously, from 800% to 1681% of WUR for agar and κ-carrageenan films up to 5118% and 5488% of WUR for the ternary blend and ternary blend nanocomposite films, respectively. Water vapor adsorption behavior of films was also tested by water vapor adsorption kinetics and water vapor adsorption isotherms test. Preliminary test result for fresh spinach packaging revealed that the ternary blend biohydrogel films had a high potential for the use as an antifogging film for packaging highly respiring agricultural produce. In addition, the ternary blend nanocomposite film showed an antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carboxymethylated ɩ-carrageenan conjugated amphotericin B loaded gelatin nanoparticles for treating intracellular Candida glabrata infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparna, V; Melge, Anu Rohit; Rajan, V K; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R; Gopi Mohan, C

    2018-04-15

    Intercellular Candida glabrata infections are difficult to treat due to poor penetration of drugs into the fungal niche. Delivering amphotericin B (Amp B) into the macrophages where the pathogen inhabits is an effective solution. We are studying the macrophage targeting proficiency of ɩ-carrageenan for the delivery of Amp B using gelatin A nanoparticles (GNPs). The choice of gelatin A was the outcome of in silico inspections where the amino functionalized polymer having the best docking score with Amp B was selected. We prepared a sustained release formulation of amp B loaded carboxymethyl ɩ-carrageenan conjugated gelatin nanoparticles (CMC-Amp B-GNPs) with size 343±12nm and -25±5.3mV zeta potential. The formulations were found to be stable, biocompatible and non-haemolytic. Flow cytometry analysis showed 3 fold higher uptake of CMC-GNPs compared to the GNPs by RAW 264.7 cells. CMC-Amp B-GNPs showed enhanced antifungal activity than bare Amp B and Amp B-GNPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Three-Dimensional Supermacroporous Carrageenan-Gelatin Cryogel Matrix for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A tissue-engineered polymeric scaffold should provide suitable macroporous structure similar to that of extracellular matrix which can induce cellular activities and guide tissue regeneration. Cryogelation is a technique in which appropriate monomers or polymeric precursors frozen at sub-zero temperature leads to the formation of supermacroporous cryogel matrices. In this study carrageenan-gelatin (natural polymers cryogels were synthesized by using glutaraldehyde and 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC-NHS as crosslinking agent at optimum concentrations. Matrices showed large and interconnected pores which were in the range of 60–100 μm diameter. Unconfined compression analysis showed elasticity and physical integrity of all cryogels, as these matrices regained their original length after 90% compressing from the original size. Moreover Young’s modulus was found to be in the range of 4–11 kPa for the dry cryogel sections. These cryogels also exhibited good in vitro degradation capacity at 37 °C within 4 weeks of incubation. Supermacroporous carrageenan-gelatin cryogels showed efficient cell adherence and proliferation of Cos-7 cells which was examined by SEM. PI nuclear stain was used to observe cell-matrix interaction. Cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was checked by MTT assay which showed that cryogels are biocompatible and act as a potential material for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  14. Effect of Nigella Sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae ground seed extract on Carrageenan induced inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Parveen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa Linn (Family: Ranunculaceae Bengali name “kalo jera” is used as spice in Bengali foods. Native to Western Asia, Turkey, Iraq and Egypt, the black seed oil has been valued for its health benefits for centuries. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of stomach aches, asthma, bronchitis, coughs, fevers, tumour and as a tonic. The dried and grounded seed was extracted with ethanol and the extract was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw edema model. The extracts were administered orally at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, and statistically significant (p<0.05 anti-inflammatory effects were observed in a dose dependant manner. The extract showed 28.75% and 43.79% inhibition of inflammation at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight after first hour of the carrageenan administration which was comparable to that of standard drugs aspirin 40.52% and hydrocortisone 47.71% respectively. The result of this study supported the traditional medicinal uses of this seed. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2011; 5(1: 22-24

  15. Depolymerized products of lambda-carrageenan as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haimin; Yan, Xiaojun; Lin, Jing; Wang, Feng; Xu, Weifeng

    2007-08-22

    Since angiogenesis is involved in initiating and promoting several diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular events, this study was designed to evaluate the anti-angiogenesis of low-molecular-weight (LMW), highly sulfated lambda-carrageenan oligosaccharides (lambda-CO) obtained by carrageenan depolymerization, by CAM (chick chorioallantoic membrane) model and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Significant inhibition of vessel growth was observed at 200 microg/pellet. A histochemistry assay also revealed a decrease of capillary plexus and connective tissue in lambda-CO treated samples. lambda-CO inhibited the viability of cells at the high concentration of 1 mg/mL, whereas it affected the cell survival slightly (>95%) at a low concentration (lambda-CO among three kinds of cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory action of lambda-CO was also observed in the endothelial cell invasion and migration at relatively low concentration (150-300 microg/mL), through down-regulation of intracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2) expression on endothelial cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that lambda-CO is a potential angiogenesis inhibitor with combined effects of inhibiting invasion, migration, and proliferation.

  16. Utilization of cross-linked carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan as adsorbent for hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Princess Joyce R.; Punzalan, Mark Emile H.; Saturno, Rochelle Anne B.; Bayquen, Aristea V.

    2009-01-01

    The sorption behavior of cross-linked carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan as an alternative adsorbent for hexavalent chromium was studies. The κ-carrageenan had been carboxymethylated three times with 40% NaOH and monochloroacetic acid (MCA) in 80% isopropyl alcohol at 40 0 C. Carboxymethylated κ-carrageenan was crosslinked using Co 60 irradiation facility at PNRI. Batch experiments were conducted using prepared stock solution of Cr 6+ (70 ppm) under different sorption parameters at room temperature. These parameters include effects of pH, initial metal ion concentration, and contact time. Carboxymethylation and cross-linking was successfully achieved under optimum parameters. It was observed that cross-linked carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan best adsorbs chromium (VI) ion at pH 6, removing 41.59% of the metal ions present in the solution. Freundlich isotherm gave the highest correlation, R 2 , which is equal to 0.9880. This suggests the existence of mutilayer adsorption of the hexavalent chromium ions. Maximum adsorption was found to be at contact time of 2.5 hours and the concentration of the solution remains almost constant after 5 hours. The adsorption kinetics could be approximated favorably by the Lagergren pseudo-second-order kinetic model giving a correlation, R 2 , of 0.9985 and adsorption capacity, qmax, equal to 27.88 mg g +1 . (author)

  17. Effect of carrageenan on properties of biodegradable thermoplastic cassava starch/low-density polyethylene composites reinforced by cotton fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prachayawarakorn, Jutarat; Pomdage, Wanida

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We prepared the TPCS/LDPE composites modified by carrageenan and/or cotton fibers. • The IR O–H stretching peak of the modified composites shifts to lower wavenumber. • Stress and Young’s modulus of the modified composites increase significantly. • The modified composites degrade faster than the non-modified composite. - Abstract: Applications of biodegradable thermoplastic starch (TPS) have been restricted due to its poor mechanical properties, limited processability and high water uptake. In order to improve properties and processability, thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS) was compounded with low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The TPCS/LDPE blend was, then, modified by a natural gelling agent, i.e. carrageenan and natural fibers, i.e. cotton fibers. All composites were compounded and processed using an internal mixer and an injection molding machine, respectively. It was found that stress at maximum load and Young’s modulus of the TPCS/LDPE composites significantly increased by the addition of the carrageenan and/or the cotton fibers. The highest mechanical properties were obtained from the TPCS/LDPE composites modified by both the carrageenan and the cotton fibers. Percentage water absorption of all of the TPCS/LDPE composites was found to be similar. All modified composites were also degraded easier than the non-modified one. Furthermore, all the composites were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  18. Kappa-Carrageenan : a study on its physico-chemical properties, sol-gel transition and interaction with milk proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeren, T.H.M.

    1976-01-01

    In this thesis a characterization of the milkreactive polysaccharide κ-carrageenan by means of light scattering, viscosimetry and sedimentation experiments is presented. The disorder/order transitions occurring at the gelpoint of these substances are discussed in terms of a coil/double

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOME TEXTURE PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF CARRAGEENAN GELS AS A RESULT OF ITS DEFINED DIVERSIFIED FREEZING AND THAWING TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozłowicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Model samples of carrageenan gels based on water, milk and juice were air-blast frozen and frozen by immersion in glycol and in liquid nitrogen. The gel freezing rate was determined on the basis of the kinetics of freezing. Carrageenan gel samples were characterized by evaluation of its thawing drip loss and hardness determined with compression and penetration tests. Freezing in liquid nitrogen ensured the highest freezing rates. Thawing drip loss of gels significantly depended on the carrageenan content, pH of the solution, freezing method and freezing rate. The resulting relationships are linear functions with high determination coefficients. The results of compression and penetration tests prove the significant effect of the carrageenan content and pH on gel hardness. The higher carrageenan content in a sample, the higher compression force and penetration of the gel. Gel freezing resulted in lower hardness. Freezing conditions had a significant effect on the properties tested. The correlation between compression forces and penetration depending on the carrageenan content and the freezing method was described using regression equations with high determination coefficients. Gels based on milk and juice with 2.2% carrageenan content are recommended for immersion freezing at rates above 5.0 cm·h-1.

  20. Increase in the yield of mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] R. Wilczek) with storage of radiation-modified kappa-carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, F.B.; Montefalcon, D.R.V.; Dela Cruz, R.M.M.; Abad, L.V.

    2015-01-01

    Kappa-carrageenan is a sulphated polysaccharide naturally present in seaweeds. Upon gamma radiation, radiolysis produces low molecular weight κ-carrageenan with the cleavage of some of its sulphate groups. Consequently, the acidic solution may further hydrolyze κ-carrageenan. The study aims to determine the effects of application by foliar spraying of freshly prepared irradiated κ-carrageenan solution and those which has been stored for 3 months on the yield of potted mungbean (Vigna radiata) plants. Foliar application of radiation-modified κ-carrageenan solution on the Kulabo variety two weeks after sowing, at flower initiation, and at fruit formation stage resulted in 30.8% increase in pod yield and 50.2% increase in seed yield compared to plants similarly treated with NitroPlus inoculants only. Pod yield and seed yield advantage over the control plants (no inoculants and no fertilizer) were 57.2% and 83% respectively no fertilizer was used in all treatments. These result confirm the previous finding that irradiated κ-carrageenan solution sprayed every two weeks inoculants only. There was 200% yield advantage over the negative control. The increase in yield is attributed to the longer length of pod, higher number of seed per pod, heavier 100-seed weight. Interestingly, the 3 months-old solution gave better result compared to a freshly irradiated one. There was 26.5% and 26.8% difference in pod yield and seed yield, respectively. Compared with the Control plants of the Kulabo variety, those sprayed with stored κ-carrageenan solution had 105% advantage in seed yield. It was proposed that the degradation process of the oligo-κ-carrageenan continue during storage because of the acidic nature of the solution. Undoubtedly, irradiated κ-carrageenan solution has plant growth promoting activity that increase yield mung bean by spraying on the leaves at least three times before fruit development.(author)

  1. Fasitibant chloride, a kinin B2 receptor antagonist, and dexamethasone interact to inhibit carrageenan-induced inflammatory arthritis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Claudio; Giuliani, Sandro; Cialdai, Cecilia; Tramontana, Manuela; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Bradykinin, through the kinin B2 receptor, is involved in inflammatory processes related to arthropathies. B2 receptor antagonists inhibited carrageenan-induced arthritis in rats in synergy with anti-inflammatory steroids. The mechanism(s) underlying this drug interaction was investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Drugs inhibiting inflammatory mediators released by carrageenan were injected, alone or in combination, into the knee joint of pentobarbital anaesthetized rats 30 min before intra-articular administration of carrageenan. Their effects on the carrageenan-induced inflammatory responses (joint pain, oedema and neutrophil recruitment) and release of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, IL-1β, IL-6 and the chemokine GRO/CINC-1), were assessed after 6 h. KEY RESULTS The combination of fasitibant chloride (MEN16132) and dexamethasone was more effective than each drug administered alone in inhibiting knee joint inflammation and release of inflammatory mediators. Fasitibant chloride, MK571, atenolol, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin (B2 receptor, leukotriene, catecholamine and B1 receptor antagonists, respectively) and dexketoprofen (COX inhibitor), reduced joint pain and, except for the latter, also diminished joint oedema. A combination of drugs inhibiting joint pain (fasitibant chloride, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin, dexketoprofen, MK571 and atenolol) and oedema (fasitibant chloride, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin, MK571 and atenolol) abolished the respective inflammatory response, producing inhibition comparable with that achieved with the combination of fasitibant chloride and dexamethasone. MK571 alone was able to block neutrophil recruitment. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Bradykinin-mediated inflammatory responses to intra-articular carrageenan were not controlled by steroids, which were not capable of preventing bradykinin effects either by direct activation of the B2 receptor, or through the indirect effects mediated by release of eicosanoids

  2. Heparin-Functionalized chitosan/ κ-carrageenan complexes as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dofeliz, Joni L.; Rojas, Nina Rosario L.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based approaches to tissue regeneration are playing an increasingly important role in bone and cartilage repair. This is made possible through the use of growth factors, which are signaling molecules that induce a number of effects such as cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. But problems arise as these growth factors tend to be expensive, short-lived and slow moving through the extracellular matrix, making them very inefficient in their current form of introduction. One such growth factor is basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The general objective of this study is to construct heparin-functionalized chitosan/κ-carrageenan scaffolds, which when bound to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), may be used in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells for differentiation into cartilage. In this study, gels of semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPN) of chitosan and κ-carrageenan (2:4:1 blend ration) were prepared using calcium chloride as a cross-linker. The gels were then functionalized with heparin, which is known for its growth factor binding ability, using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) as cross-linker. The functionalized gels were then reshaped into scaffold on the wells of 48-well plates through freeze-dry method. The scaffolds were found to be realatively porous with pore sizes larger than 100 μm which satisfies the requirements for cell culture. Subsequent thermogravimetric analysis shows that the scaffolds were relatively stable with a degradation temperature of 277°C. Additionally, there was no observable separation of the individual degradation temperatures of chitosan and κ-carrageenan, confirming that a single miscible phase in the form of a semi-IPN structure was created. Results of scanning electron microscopy also showed that the scaffolds were stable under 2 hours of UV sterilization. The FTIR spectra of the heparinized PEC showed characteristic absorption bands (S=O asymetric stretch) in the area of 1160

  3. Study on the friction of κ-carrageenan hydrogels in air and aqueous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozbial, Andrew; Li, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the friction mechanism of polysaccharide hydrogels, which is the key component of human cartilage that has very low friction coefficient, is critical to develop next generation artificial joint replacement materials. In this study, the friction of the polysaccharide κ-carrageenan hydrogel was investigated to elucidate the effect of external load, cross-linking density, velocity, and environment on friction. Our experimental results show that (1) coefficient of friction (COF) decreases with normal load in air and remains constant in water, (2) increasing cross-linking density concurrently increases friction and is proportional to Young's modulus, (3) COF increases with testing velocity in both air and water, and (4) friction is reduced in aqueous environment due to the lubricating effect of water. The underlying frictional mechanism is discussed on the basis of water transport from bulk to surface and a previously proposed "repulsion-adsorption" model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of some plant starches and carrageenan as fat substitutes in chicken patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S K; Prabhakaran, P; Tanwar, V K; Biswas, S

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different flours on the physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of chicken patties. pH; cooking yield %; water holding capacity (WHC); proximate analysis (cooked); cholesterol content; and storage stability studies of control (Con) and sorghum flour (SF; 10%w/w), finger millet flour (FMF; 10%w/w), and carrageenan (Cgn; 0.5% w/w) treated chicken patties were observed in this study. Texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters like hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and sensory parameters were estimated on cooked patties. Highly significant (P cooked); and no significant (P > 0.05) difference in pH, WHC, and protein % among control and treatments were noticed. Storage stability was dependent on treatments and storage periods. Significant difference (P 0.05) between Con and treatments.

  5. Characterization of thermostable cellulase produced by Bacillus strains isolated from solid waste of carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listyaningrum, N. P.; Sutrisno, A.; Wardani, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Cellulase-producing bacteria was isolated from solid waste of carrageenan and identified as Bacillus licheniformis C55 by 16S rRNA sequencing. The optimum condition for cellulase production was obtained at pH and temperature of 8.0 and 50°C, respectively in a medium containing glucose as carbon source and 1.0% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to stimulate the cellulase production. Most remarkably, the enzyme retained its relative activity over 50% after incubation at 50°C for 90 minutes. Substrate specificity suggested that the enzyme is an endoglucanase. The molecular mass of Bacillus licheniformis C55 crude cellulase was found about 18 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis. This thermostable enzyme would facilitate development of more efficient and cost-effective forms of the process to convert lignocellulosic biomass into high-value products.

  6. Effect of ethamsylate on carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema: a comparison with indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, P R; Trigger, D J

    1990-12-01

    1. Ethamsylate (diethylammonium 2,5-dihydroxybenzene sulfonate, Dicynene), a systemic haemostatic agent with an unknown mechanism of action, was tested for anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test. 2. Ethamsylate was shown to be an effective anti-inflammatory agent with a time course and amplitude of effect similar to that of indomethacin, although the potency was only about 4% of that for indomethacin. 3. When ethamsylate and indomethacin were co-administered they did not show additive effects, suggesting that they do not share a common mode of action. It is proposed that ethamsylate, like indomethacin, may inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. Ulceration produced by indomethacin, it is suggested that it may prove to be a useful addition to, or replacement for, indomethacin in the treatment of inflammatory disorders.

  7. Activity of some Mexican medicinal plant extracts on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, M; David-Rivera, A D; Nava-Aguilar, V; Jimenez, A

    2004-07-01

    The extracts obtained from 14 plants of the Mexican medicinal flora were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The i.p. administration of the extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced a high reduction of edema with 70% of the plant extracts. Oenothera rosea methanol extract, Sphaeralcea angustifolia chloroform extract, Acaciafarnesiana, Larrea tridentata and Rubus coriifolius methanol extracts as well as the aqueous extract of Chamaedora tepejilote were demonstrated to be particularly active against the induced hind-paw edema. Moderate inhibition of edema formation was also demonstrated with the methanol extracts of Astianthus viminalis, Brickellia paniculata, C. tepejilote and Justicia spicigera.

  8. High Performances of Artificial Nacre-Like Graphene Oxide-Carrageenan Bio-Nanocomposite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenkun; Chen, Tao; Li, Yi; Lei, Jia; Chen, Xin; Yao, Weitang; Duan, Tao

    2017-05-16

    This study was inspired by the unique multi-scale and multi-level 'brick-and-mortar' (B&M) structure of nacre layers. We prepared the B&M, environmentally-friendly graphene oxide-carrageenan (GO-Car) nanocomposite films using the following steps. A natural polyhydroxy polymer, carrageenan, was absorbed on the surface of monolayer GO nanosheets through hydrogen-bond interactions. Following this, a GO-Car hybridized film was produced through a natural drying process. We conducted structural characterization in addition to analyzing mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the films. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the nanocomposite films had a similar morphology and structure to nacre. Furthermore, the results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) were used to explain the GO-Car interaction. Analysis from static mechanical testers showed that GO-Car had enhanced Young's modulus, maximum tensile strength and breaking elongation compared to pure GO. The GO-Car nanocomposite films, containing 5% wt. of Car, was able to reach a tensile strength of 117 MPa. The biocompatibility was demonstrated using a RAW264.7 cell test, with no significant alteration found in cellular morphology and cytotoxicity. The preparation process for GO-Car films is simple and requires little time, with GO-Car films also having favorable biocompatibility and mechanical properties. These advantages make GO-Car nanocomposite films promising materials in replacing traditional petroleum-based plastics and tissue engineering-oriented support materials.

  9. High Performances of Artificial Nacre-Like Graphene Oxide-Carrageenan Bio-Nanocomposite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkun Zhu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was inspired by the unique multi-scale and multi-level ‘brick-and-mortar’ (B&M structure of nacre layers. We prepared the B&M, environmentally-friendly graphene oxide-carrageenan (GO-Car nanocomposite films using the following steps. A natural polyhydroxy polymer, carrageenan, was absorbed on the surface of monolayer GO nanosheets through hydrogen-bond interactions. Following this, a GO-Car hybridized film was produced through a natural drying process. We conducted structural characterization in addition to analyzing mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the films. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses showed that the nanocomposite films had a similar morphology and structure to nacre. Furthermore, the results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Thermogravimetric (TG/DTG were used to explain the GO-Car interaction. Analysis from static mechanical testers showed that GO-Car had enhanced Young’s modulus, maximum tensile strength and breaking elongation compared to pure GO. The GO-Car nanocomposite films, containing 5% wt. of Car, was able to reach a tensile strength of 117 MPa. The biocompatibility was demonstrated using a RAW264.7 cell test, with no significant alteration found in cellular morphology and cytotoxicity. The preparation process for GO-Car films is simple and requires little time, with GO-Car films also having favorable biocompatibility and mechanical properties. These advantages make GO-Car nanocomposite films promising materials in replacing traditional petroleum-based plastics and tissue engineering-oriented support materials.

  10. Physicochemical data on aqueous polymeric systems of methyl cellulose and lambda- and kappa-carrageenan: SAXS, rheological, densitometry, and sound velocity measurements

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    Jure Cerar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available General as well as more specific physicochemical data obtained by studying the structure and various dynamical properties of aqueous polymer systems of methyl cellulose, λ−carrageenan, and κ−carrageenan are presented in graphical and numeric tabular form. The data provide basic polymer characterization info as also a specific structural and dynamical info for aqueous solutions of three industrially very important polymers (food additives that are available commercially. The commercial availability has much bigger impact to applications, research and connected advances, when the basic substances are well characterized – a feature that is still missing for many commercially available polymers unfortunately. Keywords: Food-grade polymers, Basic polymer characterization, Methyl cellulose, kappa-Carrageenan, lambda-Carrageenan

  11. Efficacy Study of Carrageenan as an Alternative Infused Material (Filler in Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate Porous 3D Scaffold

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    Nor Syamimi Che Johari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric porous 3D scaffold plays an important role in culturing mammalian cells as ex vivo model. However, the scaffold used is ineffective due to its structural and cell acceptability weaknesses. Therefore, this research attempts to overcome the weaknesses by using carrageenan from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii as an alternative infused material (filler of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV porous 3D scaffold. The 3D scaffold was conventionally fabricated using the solvent-casting particulate-leaching (SCPL method. Carrageenan was later infused into 3D porous scaffolds under vacuum pressure and freeze-drying process. Five carrageenan concentrations were prepared and its physicochemical properties such as pH and viscosity were carried out on each concentration to determine the best solutions to produce a new composite 3D structure. The preliminary result shows that carrageenan concentrations of 2, 4, and 6% (w/v were considered the best solutions for the infusion process due to its stable rheology properties. The pH and viscosity profiles of three selected carrageenan solutions were exhibited in the range of 9.00–9.20 and 0.047–1.144 Pa·s, respectively. Moreover, the incorporated carrageenan gel fraction was in the range of 4.30% to 14.95% (w/w which was determined by gravimetric analysis and dye staining method (visual assessment. The well-infused carrageenan 3D scaffold was further characterized based on its internal morphology and degradability study. The vertical cross-sections of the scaffolds revealed homogeneous accumulation of dried gelatinous carrageenan which was covered throughout its pores wall. The degradation rate (K of the carrageenan infused 3D scaffold was between 0.01±1.66 (mg/day and 0.03±3.23 (mg/day. The higher the carrageenan concentration used, the faster the degradation rate occurring (p2 weeks. In conclusion, the usage of carrageenan as a composite material exhibits its great potential to be

  12. Plant growth promoter effect of radiation degraded Kappa-carrageenan on mungbean (Vigna radiate [L.] R. Wilczek) and peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, L.V.; Magsino, G.; Aurigue, F.B.; Montefalcon, D.V.; Lopez, G.E.P.; Dela Cruz, R.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Kappa Carrageenan are hydrophilic polymers that comprise the main structural polysaccharides of numerous species of seaweed Eucheuma. They are composed of D-galactose units linked alternately with α(1,3) D-galactose-4-sulfated and β(1-4)-3,6-anhydro-D-galactose. Earlier studies indicate that irradiated κ-carrageenan enchances the growth of some plants such as rice bokchoi, and mustard. This study aims to determine the effects of radiation modified κ-carrageenan solution on mungbean and peanut plants and to identify its effective molecular weight range as plants growth promoter. Oligomers from radiation modified κ-carrageenan solution on mungbean and peanut plants. Results on plants sprayed with PGP revealed improvement of the agronomic traits of mungbean and peanut plants. Best PGP effects were manisfested in oligo-carrageenan sprayed plants treated with inoculants + fertilizer with an increase in yield of 200% and 154% for mungbean and peanuts, respectively. Likewise, spraying with oligo-carrageenan alone increased yield by 127% and 140%. Recent studies conducted on the effect of radiation modified κ-carrageenan on rice plants indicated an average of 30% increase in yield of rice in three (3) multi-location sites (Laguna, Nueva Ecija and Bulacan). Plants indicated resistance against Tungro virus. It also showed improved stem strength, enhancing its lodging resistance. The radiation modified κ-carrageenan solution which had an Mw of 6.9 kDa was fractionated into different molecular weight cut-offs of 5 kDa, 3 kDa and 1 kDa. Analysis by gel permeation chromatography of these samples indicated Mw of 5.2 kDa, 4.0 kDa, and 3.8 kDa, respectively. Treatment of pechay by foliar spraying of these solution indicated that plant growth promoter effect increased in the order of 1kDa > 3kDa > 5kDa. (author)

  13. Chemical and Electrochemical Synthesis of Polypyrrole Using Carrageenan as a Dopant: Polypyrrole/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafizur Rahaman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, iota-carrageenan (IC and kappa-carrageenan (KC are used as dopants for the chemical and electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy. The composites of chemically synthesized PPy with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs were prepared using an in situ technique. Both the dialyzed and non-dialyzed IC and KC were used as dopants for electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole. Chemically synthesized PPy and PPy/MWNTs composites were studied by ultraviolet visible (UV-vis absorption spectra to investigate the effect of the concentration and the incorporation of MWNTs. In addition, the electrical, thermal, mechanical, and microscopic characterizations of these films were performed to examine the effect of the dopants and MWNTs on these properties, along with their surface morphology. The films of electrochemically polymerized PPy were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectra, scanning electron microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The results were then compared with the chemical polymerized PPy.

  14. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of carrageenan, agarans and alginates to be used as food additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    1999-01-01

    Carrageenan, agarans and alginates are phycocolloids, which change the consistence of the foodstuff and prevent undesirable changes such as moisture migration or textural profile changes. These phycocolloids are additives used in large scale for all kind of food products. They are not absorbed for the human organism and do not introduce extra calories in the diet. The process of irradiation, is an alternative method of great potential, because do not increase the temperature and it is highly in the decontamination of food ingredients. In this work, agar alginates and carrageenan were irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of the irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. The viscosity of these hydrocolloids shows a decrease when submitted to an irradiation with doses until 10 kGy. (author)

  15. Use of antioxidants substances to protect the hydrocolloids carrageenan, agaran and alginates used in food industry when exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    2006-01-01

    Carrageenan, agaran e alginates are hydrocolloids largely employed in every kind of food products as stabilizing agent and viscosity builder. The human body does not absorb them, so they do not introduce extra calories in the diet. Irradiation is presented as an important alternative method in food preservation because do not induce temperature increase being of good efficiency in cold food ingredients decontamination. In this work aqueous solutions of carrageenan, agar e sodium alginate were gamma irradiated (0-10 kGy) in presence of ascorbic acid, roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract and soy isoflavone. Edible polysaccharide solutions showed to be suitable systems for the evaluation of ionizing radiation effects as they presented a singular radiosensitivity through viscosity changes. The results obtained showed that in general the antioxidants employed had a radioprotective action that can be of importance in the future commercial applications of food irradiation. (author)

  16. Drug Release Kinetics and Front Movement in Matrix Tablets Containing Diltiazem or Metoprolol/λ-Carrageenan Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggero Bettini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the moving boundaries and the associated drug release kinetics in matrix tablets prepared with two complexes between λ-carrageenan and two soluble model drugs, namely, diltiazem HCl and metoprolol tartrate aiming at clarifying the role played by drug/polymer interaction on the water uptake, swelling, drug dissolution, and drug release performance of the matrix. The two studied complexes released the drug with different mechanism indicating two different drug/polymer interaction strengths. The comparison between the drug release behaviour of the complexes and the relevant physical mixtures indicates that diltiazem gave rise to a less soluble and more stable complex with carrageenan than metoprolol. The less stable metoprolol complex afforded an erodible matrix, whereas the stronger interaction between diltiazem and carrageenan resulted in a poorly soluble, slowly dissolving matrix. It was concluded that the different stability of the studied complexes affords two distinct drug delivery systems: in the case of MTP, the dissociation of the complex, as a consequence of the interaction with water, affords a classical soluble matrix type delivery system; in the case of DTZ, the dissolving/diffusing species is the complex itself because of the very strong interaction between the drug and the polymer.

  17. The effect of combination of sugar palm fruit, carrageenan, and citric acid on mechanical properties of biodegradable film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinanda, S. A.; Nastabiq, M.; Raharjo, S. H.; Hayati, S. K.; Yaqin, M. A.; Ratnawati

    2017-11-01

    Biodegradable film is a type of plastic material that can be degraded naturally and is usually made of organic material. The material commonly used is polysaccharides. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of the combination of sugar palm fruit, carrageenan, and citric acid (CA) on the mechanical properties of the biodegradable films, such as tensile strength, elongation and film thickness. The experiment begins with dissolving the sugar palm fruit porridge and carrageenan with ratios of 1:0, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1 in water. The mixture was heated using a heater and magnetic stirrer at 80° C for 10 minutes. Glycerol and citric acid (CA) were added to the solution and stirred for 5 minutes. Each film solution was printed on a modified acrylic and, dried for 18 hours in an oven at 55° C. The formed film layer was then removed from the acrylic mold and inserted in a desiccatorsat 23° C for 1 hour. Then the film analyzed for its tensile strength, elongation using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA), and thickness. The optimum result shown by sugar palm fruit and carrageenan ratio of 1:1 with 1% citric acid (CA).

  18. Low-fat meat sausages with fish oil: optimization of milk proteins and carrageenan contents using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, L; Andrés, S C; Califano, A N

    2014-03-01

    Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of milk proteins and 2:1 κ:ι-carrageenans on cooking loss (CL), weight lost by centrifugation (WLC) and texture attributes of low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil. A central-composite design was used to develop models for the objective responses. Changes in carrageenans affected more the responses than milk proteins levels. Convenience functions were calculated for CL, WLC, hardness, and springiness of the product. Responses were optimized simultaneously minimizing CL and WLC; ranges for hardness and springiness corresponded to commercial products (20 g of pork fat/100 g). The optimum corresponded to 0.593 g of carrageenans/100 g and 0.320 g of milk proteins and its total lipid content was 6.3 g/100 g. This formulation was prepared and evaluated showing a good agreement between predicted and experimental responses. These additives could produce low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil with good nutritional quality and similar characteristics than traditional ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterisation of Prosopis juliflora seed gum and the effect of its addition to κ-carrageenan systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azero, Edwin G.; Andrade, Cristina T.

    2006-01-01

    The galactomannan from Prosopis juliflora (PJ galactomannan) was extracted from milled seeds in water at 50 deg C. Its structural and solution properties were characterised in comparison with a commercial sample of guar gum (GG galactomannan). After partial degradation, the resulting samples were submitted to 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. The mannose to galactose (M/G) ratios of PJ (M/G = 1.64) and GG (M/G = 1.85) galactomannans were estimated from the relative peak areas of the corresponding C-1 lines. Expansion of the C-4 lines revealed differences in the fine structure of the two galactomannans. The intrinsic viscosity determined for the GG sample, [η] = 10.3 dL g -1 , was slightly higher than that determined for PJ galactomannan, [η] = 9.4 dL g -1 . Dynamic experiments carried out at the same concentrations showed similar viscoelastic behaviours for the two gums. No enhancement in the storage modulus (G') was observed for κ-carrageenan/PJ mixed solution in 0.1 mol L -1 KCl at 1.0 g L -1 total polymer concentration, in relation to κ-carrageenan alone. Self-supporting gels obtained by mixing κ-carrageenan and PJ or GG galactomannans in 0.25 mol L -1 KCl at 10 g L -1 total polymer concentration displayed similar mechanical properties. (author)

  20. Characterisation of Prosopis juliflora seed gum and the effect of its addition to {kappa}-carrageenan systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azero, Edwin G. [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Andrade, Cristina T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano]. E-mail: ctandrade@ima.ufrj.br

    2006-09-15

    The galactomannan from Prosopis juliflora (PJ galactomannan) was extracted from milled seeds in water at 50 deg C. Its structural and solution properties were characterised in comparison with a commercial sample of guar gum (GG galactomannan). After partial degradation, the resulting samples were submitted to {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy. The mannose to galactose (M/G) ratios of PJ (M/G = 1.64) and GG (M/G = 1.85) galactomannans were estimated from the relative peak areas of the corresponding C-1 lines. Expansion of the C-4 lines revealed differences in the fine structure of the two galactomannans. The intrinsic viscosity determined for the GG sample, [{eta}] = 10.3 dL g{sup -1}, was slightly higher than that determined for PJ galactomannan, [{eta}] = 9.4 dL g{sup -1}. Dynamic experiments carried out at the same concentrations showed similar viscoelastic behaviours for the two gums. No enhancement in the storage modulus (G') was observed for {kappa}-carrageenan/PJ mixed solution in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} KCl at 1.0 g L{sup -1} total polymer concentration, in relation to {kappa}-carrageenan alone. Self-supporting gels obtained by mixing {kappa}-carrageenan and PJ or GG galactomannans in 0.25 mol L{sup -1} KCl at 10 g L{sup -1} total polymer concentration displayed similar mechanical properties. (author)

  1. Air drying modelling of Mastocarpus stellatus seaweed a source of hybrid carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arufe, Santiago; Torres, Maria D.; Chenlo, Francisco; Moreira, Ramon

    2018-01-01

    Water sorption isotherms from 5 up to 65 °C and air drying kinetics at 35, 45 and 55 °C of Mastocarpus stellatus seaweed were determined. Experimental sorption data were modelled using BET and Oswin models. A four-parameter model, based on Oswin model, was proposed to estimate equilibrium moisture content as function of water activity and temperature simultaneously. Drying experiments showed that water removal rate increased significantly with temperature from 35 to 45 °C, but at higher temperatures drying rate remained constant. Some chemical modifications of the hybrid carrageenans present in the seaweed can be responsible of this unexpected thermal trend. Experimental drying data were modelled using two-parameter Page model (n, k). Page parameter n was constant (1.31 ± 0.10) at tested temperatures, but k varied significantly with drying temperature (from 18.5 ± 0.2 10-3 min-n at 35 °C up to 28.4 ± 0.8 10-3 min-n at 45 and 55 °C). Drying experiments allowed the determination of the critical moisture content of seaweed (0.87 ± 0.06 kg water (kg d.b.)-1). A diffusional model considering slab geometry was employed to determine the effective diffusion coefficient of water during the falling rate period at different temperatures.

  2. Gelam honey attenuates carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation via NF-κB pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Zuhair Hussein

    Full Text Available The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Gelam honey in inflammation induced rats via NF-κB signalling pathway. Rats paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the right hind paw. Rats were pre-treated with Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o. and NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o., in two time points (1 and 7 days. Our results showed that Gelam honey at both concentrations suppressed the gene expressions of NF-κB (p65 & p50 and IκBα in inflamed rats paw tissues. In addition, Gelam honey inhibited the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB and decreased the cytosolic degradation of IκBα dose dependently in inflamed rats paw tissues. The immunohistochemical expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were also decreased in inflamed rats paw tissues when treated with Gelam honey. The results of our findings suggest that Gelam honey exhibits its inhibitory effects by attenuating NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and inhibiting IκBα degradation, with subsequent decrease of inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α.

  3. Controlled drug release from cross-linked κ-carrageenan/hyaluronic acid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aassar, M R; El Fawal, G F; Kamoun, Elbadawy A; Fouda, Moustafa M G

    2015-01-01

    In this work, hydrogel membrane composed of; kappa carrageenan (κC) and hyaluronic acid (HA) crosslinked with epichlorohydrine is produced. The optimum condition has been established based on their water absorption properties. Tensile strength (TS) and elongation (E%) for the formed films are evaluated. The obtained films were characterized by FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal analysis. All membranes were loaded with l-carnosine as a drug model. The swelling properties and kinetics of the release of the model drug from the crosslinked hydrogel membrane were monitored in buffer medium at 37°C. The equilibrium swelling of films showed fair dependency on the high presence of HA in the hydrogel. Moreover, the cumulative release profile increased significantly and ranged from 28% to 93%, as HA increases. SEM explored that, the porosity increased by increasing HA content; consequently, drug release into the pores and channels of the membranes is facilitated. In addition, water uptake % increased as well. A slight change in TS occurred by increasing the HA% to κC, while the highest value of strain for κC membrane was 498.38% by using 3% HA. The thermal stability of the κC/HA was higher than that of HA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Review for carrageenan-based pharmaceutical biomaterials: favourable physical features versus adverse biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhan, Xiudan; Wan, Jianbo; Wang, Yitao; Wang, Chunming

    2015-05-05

    Carrageenan (CRG) is a family of natural polysaccharides derived from seaweeds and has widely been used as food additives. In the past decade, owing to its attractive physicochemical properties, CRG has been developed into versatile biomaterials vehicles for drug delivery. Nevertheless, studies also emerged to reveal its adverse effects on the biological system. In this review, we critically appraise the latest literature (two thirds since 2008) on the development of CRG-based pharmaceutical vehicles and the perspective of using CRG for broader biomedical applications. We focus on how current strategies exploit the unique gelling mechanisms, strong water absorption and abundant functional groups of the three major CRG varieties. Notably, CRG-based matrices are demonstrated to increase drug loading and drug solubility, enabling release of orally administrated drugs in zero-order or in a significantly prolonged period. Other amazing features, such as pH-sensitivity and adhesive property, of CRG-based formulations are also introduced. Finally, we discuss the adverse influence of CRG on the human body and then suggest some future directions for the development of CRG-based biomaterials for broader applications in biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. k-Carrageenan/poly vinyl pyrollidone/polyethylene glycol/silver nanoparticles film for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Moustafa M G; El-Aassar, M R; El Fawal, G F; Hafez, Elsayed E; Masry, Saad Hamdy Daif; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Biopolymer composite film containing k-carrageenan (KC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was formulated by dissolving KC and PVP in water containing PEG. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), was produced by Honeybee and added to solution. Finally, all solutions were poured onto dishes and dried overnight at 40°C to form the final films. Tensile strength (TS) and elongation (E %) is evaluated. The water contact angle is inspected. Thermal properties (TGA) and swelling behavior for water were considered. Fungal activity is also examined. Morphology of all films was also explored using scanning electron microscope. AgNPs induced significant hydrophilicity to KC-PVP-PEG film with contact angle of 41.6 and 34.7 for KC-PVP-PEG-AgNPs. Films with AgNPs exhibited higher thermal stability and strength properties than other films without. Films with AgNPs explore lower swelling behavior than other films without. Both SEM and EDX proved the deposition of AgNPs on the surface of films. Films with AgNPs showed higher activity against pathogenic fungi compared with the chemical fungicide; fluconazole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Polyethylenimine/kappa carrageenan: Micro-arc oxidation coating for passivation of magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshirazi, A; Kharaziha, M; Golozar, M A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to combine micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and self-assembly technique to improve corrosion resistivity of AZ91 alloy. While a silicate-fluoride electrolyte was adopted for MAO treatment, polyethylenimine (PEI)/kappa carrageenan (KC) self-assembly coating was applied as the second coating layer. Resulted demonstrated the formation of forsterite-fluoride containing MAO coating on AZ91 alloy depending on the voltage and time of anodizing process. Addition of the second PEI/KC coating layer on MAO treated sample effectively enhanced the adhesive strength of MAO coated sample due to filling the pores with polymers and increase in the mechanical interlocking of coating to the substrate. Moreover, the corrosion evaluation considered by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed that double layered PEI/KC:MAO coating presented superior resistance to corrosion attack. It is envisioned that the proposed double layered PEI/KC:MAO coating could be useful for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocytes by carrageenan-activated macrophage-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, Y.P.; Cudkowicz, G.

    1978-01-01

    In the presence of 100 μg/ml of carrageenans (CAR), B6D2F 1 responder spleen cells failed to generate antiparent or anti-allogeneic cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro, but instead generated suppressor cells. Cultured CAR-treated cells added to mixtures of B6D2F 1 anti-B6 or B6D2F 1 anti-C3H cytotoxic effectors (induced in vitro) and the appropriate 51 Cr-labeled lymphoma targets reduced or abolished cytolysis (measured as 51 Cr release) depending on the ratio of suppressor to effector cells. Cultured spleen cells not exposed to CAR failed to inhibit both types of cytotoxicity. Presuppressor cells were associated with a splenic subpopulation independent of the thymus (i.e., present in spleens of athymic nude mice), were moderately adherent to Sephadex G-10 columns, but were not phagocytic or ''sticky'' to carbonyl iron particles. Activation of such cells by CAR was not prevented by in vitro exposure to 2000 rads of γ-rays before culture, nor facilitated by antigenic stimulation. The matured suppressor cells remained radioresistant and became strongly adherent to Sephadex G-10. The suppressors lacked surface Thy-1 alloantigen detectable by antibody and rabbit complement. Suppressor cell activity was not restricted by the immunologic specificity and major histocompatibility type of effectors

  8. κ-Carrageenan Enhances the Biomineralization and Osteogenic Differentiation of Electrospun Polyhydroxybutyrate and Polyhydroxybutyrate Valerate Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonoo, Nowsheen; Khanbabaee, Behnam; Steuber, Marc; Bhaw-Luximon, Archana; Jonas, Ulrich; Pietsch, Ullrich; Jhurry, Dhanjay; Schönherr, Holger

    2017-05-08

    Novel electrospun materials for bone tissue engineering were obtained by blending biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) or polyhydroxybutyrate valerate (PHBV) with the anionic sulfated polysaccharide κ-carrageenan (κ-CG) in varying ratios. In both systems, the two components phase separated as shown by FTIR, DSC and TGA. According to the contact angle data, κ-CG was localized preferentially at the fiber surface in PHBV/κ-CG blends in contrast to PHB/κ-CG, where the biopolymer was mostly found within the fiber. In contrast to the neat polyester fibers, the blends led to the formation of much smaller apatite crystals (800 nm vs 7 μm). According to the MTT assay, NIH3T3 cells grew in higher density on the blend mats in comparison to neat polyester mats. The osteogenic differentiation potential of the fibers was determined by SaOS-2 cell culture for 2 weeks. Alizarin red-S staining suggested an improved mineralization on the blend fibers. Thus, PHBV/κ-CG fibers resulted in more pronounced bioactive and osteogenic properties, including fast apatite-forming ability and deposition of nanosized apatite crystals.

  9. Improvement of Emulsifying Properties of Wheat Gluten Hydrolysate λ-Carrageenan Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Shui Wang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluten hydrolysate was prepared through limited enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten resulting from the byproducts of wheat starch. The enzyme applied in the present study was Protamex. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of pH, gluten hydrolysate (GHPλ-carrageenan (C ratio and reaction time on emulsifying properties of the GHP-C conjugate. The regression model for emulsion activity index (EAI was significant at p=0.001, while reaction time had a significant effect on EAI of the conjugate with regression coefficient of 4.25. The interactions of pH and GHP/ C ratio, and GHP/C ratio and reaction time significantly affected the EAI of the conjugate. Both the emulsifying property and nitrogen solubility index (NSI of GHP-C conjugate prepared under the optimal conditions increased more remarkably, compared to the control. The denaturation temperature of GHP-C conjugate obviously increased compared to wheat gluten. The addition of GHP-C conjugate had different effects on dough characteristics. Moreover, this conjugate can delay the increase in the bread crumb firmness during storage. It demonstrated that this conjugate couldimprove the dough characteristics and had anti-staling properties of bread.

  10. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sodium Valproate on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mj Khoshnood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABESTRACT: Introduction & objective: Inflammation is a body defensive response to the endogenous and exogenous stimulators such as chemical, radiation, trauma and invasive microorganism, which result pain and tissue necrosis. There are many natural and synthetic drugs for treatment of inflammation and lot of them are under investigation. Sodium valporate is an antiepileptic drug used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizure notably absence, myocolonic seizure, acute manic phase of bipolar disorder and prophylaxis of migraine. The previous observations showed sodium valporate increases level of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the central and peripheral nervous system. In acute inflammation, GABA showed a significant attenuation of paw edema and nociception. The aim of this study was evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of sodium valporate. Materials & Methods: In order to evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiexudative of sodium valporate doses of 200,400 and 600 mg/kg were investigated on rat paw edema that induced by carrageenan. In addition, the plasma leakage in the inflamed tissue was evaluated by application of trypan blue as intravenous injection. Dexamethason was used as positive control. Results: Results showed sodium valporate doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg decreased inflammatory and exudative effect as compared to control group. Conclusion: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of this drug were not evident but we can say sodium valporate in addition to already proved effects has anti-inflammatory effect.

  11. Chiroplasmonic magnetic gold nanocomposites produced by one-step aqueous method using κ-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnichaya, Marina V; Sukhov, Boris G; Aleksandrova, Galina P; Gasilova, Ekaterina R; Vakul'skaya, Tamara I; Khutsishvili, Spartak S; Sapozhnikov, Anatoliy N; Klimenkov, Igor V; Trofimov, Boris A

    2017-11-01

    Novel water-soluble chiroplasmonic nanobiocomposites with directly varied gold content were synthesized by a one-step redox method in water using a biocompatible polysaccharide κ-carrageenan (industrial product from algae) as both reducing and stabilizing matrix. The influence of the reactants ratio, temperature, and pH on the reaction was studied and the optimal reaction parameters were found. The structure and the properties of composite nanomaterials were examined in solid state and aqueous solutions by using complementary physical-chemical methods X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopy of electron paramagnetic resonance, atomic absorption and optical spectroscopy, polarimetry including optical rotatory dispersion with registration of interphase-crossbred Cotton effect of a chiral polysaccharide matrix on plasmonic chromophore of gold nanoparticles, dynamic and static light scattering. The new perspective multi-purpose nanocomposites demonstrate a complex of chiroplasmonic and magnetic properties, imparted by both nanoparticles and radicals enriched chiral polysaccharide matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis of a biocopolymer carrageenan-g-poly(AAm-co-IA/ montmorilonite superabsorbent hydrogel composite

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    M. Sadeghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on kappa-carrageenan (κC has been prepared via graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm and itaconic acid (IA monomers in the presence of montmorolonite clay powder, methylenebisacrylamide (MBA as the crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS as initiator. Evidence of grafting and montmorolonite interaction was obtained by comparison of FTIR and TGA spectra of the initial substrates and the superabsorbent composite. A new absorption band at 1722 cm-1 in the composite spectrum confirmed montmorolonite-organic polymer linkages. Moreover, the morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The swelling of the superabsorbing hydrogels was also examined in solutions with pH values ranging between 1.0 and 13.0. Finally, the swelling behavior of these composite polymers was investigated in various salt solutions. Results indicated that the swelling capacity decreased with an increase in the ionic strength of the swelling medium. This behavior can be attributed to the charge screening effect of monovalent cations, as well as ionic crosslinking for multivalent cations.

  13. Thrombolytic effects in vivo of nattokinase in a carrageenan-induced rat model of thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping; Du, Ming; Yang, Xiulin; Chen, Qingquan; Chen, Hong; Lin, Dong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Nattokinase is a serine protease produced by Bacillus subtilis during the fermentation of the soybean product natto. The fibrinolytic activity and thrombolytic effects of nattokinase have been observed in vitro, but the effect in vivo has still to be researched. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the activity of nattokinase in vivo. To establish a rat model of thrombosis, κ-carrageenan was injected subcutaneously into the toes of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Histological examination confirmed thrombosis. The rats were then treated with varying doses of nattokinase and the resulting thrombolysis was histologically assessed. ELISA was used to determine the levels of the fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) and D-dimer, which are sensitive indices of fibrinolytic activity. Vermis kinase, a known thrombolytic agent, was used as a positive control. Biopsy results revealed partial thrombolysis in the tail vessels of the rats treated with nattokinase or vermis kinase. FDP and D-dimer levels were higher in rats treated with high-dose nattokinase than in those treated with saline. No difference in FDP or D-dimer levels was observed between rats treated with high-dose nattokinase and those treated with vermis kinase. Both the histological and physiological evidence from this study indicate that nattokinase exerts thrombolytic effects in vivo.

  14. Elucidation of release characteristics of highly soluble drug trimetazidine hydrochloride from chitosan-carrageenan matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Linlin; Shao, Yang; Tian, Ye; Li, Conghao; Li, Ying; Mao, Shirui

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the underlying drug release characteristics from matrix tablets based on the combination of chitosan (CS) and different types of carrageenans [kappa (κ)-CG, iota (ι)-CG, and lambda (λ)-CG]. Highly soluble trimetazidine hydrochloride (TH) was used as a model drug. First, characteristics of drug release from different formulations were investigated, and then in situ complexation capacity of CG with TH and CS was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Erosion and swelling of matrix were also characterized to better understand the drug-release mechanisms. Effects of pH and ionic strength on drug release were also studied. It was found that not only ι-CG and λ-CG could reduce the burst release of TH by the effect of TH-CG interaction, CS-ι-CG- and CS-λ-CG-based polyelectrolyte film could further modify the controlled-release behavior, but not CS-κ-CG. High pH and high ionic strength resulted in faster drug release from CS-κ-CG- and CS-ι-CG-based matrix, but drug release from CS-λ-CG-based matrix was less sensitive to pH and ionic strength. In conclusion, CS-λ-CG-based matrix tablets are quite promising as controlled-release drug carrier based on multiple mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The effects of sucrose on the mechanical properties of acid milk proteins-kappa-carrageenan gels

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    E. Sabadini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties have been widely correlated with textural characteristics to determine the interactions during the process formation of dairy gel. These interactions are strongly affected by process conditions and system composition. In the present study, the rheological of acid-induced protein dairy gels with (2(7-3 and without (2(6-2 sucrose and subjected to small and large deformations were studied using an experimental design. The independent variables were the sodium caseinate, whey protein concentrate (WPC, carrageenan and sucrose concentrations as well as stirring speed and heat treatment time and temperature. Mechanical deformation tests were performed at 0.1, 1, 5, and 9 mm/s up to 80% of initial height. A heavy dependence of rupture stress on increasing crosshead speed and the formation of harder gels with the addition of sucrose were observed. Moreover the elastic and viscous moduli, obtained by fitting the Maxwell model to stress relaxation data, increased with increasing addition of sucrose. These results can be explained by preferential hydration of the casein with sucrose, causing an induction of casein-polysaccharide and casein-casein interactions.

  16. Influence of structural features of carrageenan on the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes with chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volod'ko, A V; Davydova, V N; Glazunov, V P; Likhatskaya, G N; Yermak, I M

    2016-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) of carrageenans (CG)-κ-, κ/β-, λ-and x-CG with chitosan were obtained. The formation of PEC was detected by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and by centrifugation in a Percoll gradient. The influence of the structural peculiarities of CG on its interaction with chitosan was studied. The results of centrifugation showed that x-CG with a high degree of sulphation (SD) was completely bound to chitosan, unlike low SD κ-CG and κ/β-CG. Binding constant values showed there was a high affinity of CG for chitosan. CG with flexible macromolecule conformation and high SD exhibited the greatest binding affinity for chitosan. The full-atomic 3D-structures of the PEC κ-CG: chitosan in solution have been obtained by the experiments in silico for the first time. The amino groups of chitosan make the largest contribution to the energy of the complex formation by means of hydrogen and ionic bonds. The most probable complexes have stoichiometries of 1:1 and 1:1.5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the effects of crocin, safranal and diclofenac on local inflammation and inflammatory pain responses induced by carrageenan in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir-Abbas; Eghdami, Karim; Samadi, Farzad; Erfanparast, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Crocin and safranal are the active substances of saffron and have many biological properties. In the present study, we compared the effects of crocin, safranal and diclofenac on local inflammation and its induced pain in rats. Local inflammation was induced by intraplantar (ipl) injection of carrageenan (100 μl, 2%). Paw thickness was measured before and after carrageenan injection. Inflammatory pain responses including cold allodynia, mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia were assessed using acetone spray and von Frey filament tests, respectively. The number of neutrophils in inflammatory zone was counted 6.5 h after injection of carrageenan. Carrageenan produced edema, cold allodynia, mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia and caused neutrophil infiltration in paw tissues. Crocin at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, safranal at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg and diclofenac (as a reference drug) at a dose of 10 mg/kg attenuated edema, suppressed inflammatory pain responses and decreased the number of neutrophils. The present study showed anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities for crocin, safranal and diclofenac in carrageenan model of local inflammation and inflammatory pain.

  18. Preparation and characterization of semi-refined kappa carrageenan-based edible film for nano coating application on minimally processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, Godras Jati; Praseptiangga, Danar; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji; Maimuni, Bawani Hindami

    2016-02-01

    Shorter and easier processing of semi-refined kappa carrageenan extracted from Euchema cottonii red seaweed result in cheaper price of the polysaccharide. In this study, edible film was prepared from the semi-refined carrageenan without any salt addition. The effect of the carrageenan concentration (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% w/v) on physical and mechanical properties of the edible film was studied. Edible film thickness and tensile strength increased but elongation at break and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) decreased as the concentration increased. Based on the characteristic of the edible film, formulation using 2% carrageenan was recommended. The edible film demonstrated the characteristic as follow: 0.054 mm thickness, 21.14 MPa tensile strength, 12.36% elongation at break, and 9.56 g/m2.hour WVTR. It was also noted the carrageenan-based edible film indicated potential physical and mechanical characteristics for nano coating applications on minimally processed food.

  19. Effect of process conditions on the gel viscosity and gel strength of semi-refined carrageenan (SRC produced from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awang Bono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kappaphycus alvarezii or commonly known Euchema cottonii is a good source of kappa-carrageenan and can be found cultivated in the coastal areas of Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia. Carrageenans have many applications and are utilized in human food and pet-food industry. Carrageenans are also utilized in non-food industry such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, printing and textile formulations. Currently, the Southeast Asian region is producing semi refined carrageenan (SRC. There are various works in producing SRC; however, there are limited efforts to develop the optimization of cooking process parameters. Hence, the present study features on the cooking process (alkaline treatment where the parameters (concentration of potassium hydroxide solution, cooking time and cooking temperature and the ranges are identified experimentally. The effects of these parameters on carrageenan quality such as gel viscosity and gel strength were studied. The optimization of cooking process parameters and the experimental design was conducted based on the Central Composite Design (CCD of Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The experimental result showed that gel viscosity increases with the decrease of cooking time, cooking temperature and potassium hydroxide (KOH concentration (% w/w. In contrast, gel strength increases as cooking time, cooking temperature and KOH concentration (% w/w increases. From the optimization, the best conditions for alkaline treatment found were cooking temperature 80 °C, cooking time 30 min and KOH concentration 10 (% w/w which are similar to current practice in industry.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of longan seed extract in carrageenan stimulated Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Ching-Hsiao Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Longan seeds have been used as a folk medicine in China. Longan seed extract (LSE is known for antioxidative, antiproliferative, hypoglycemic, and hypouremic effects. However, its anti-inflammatory effect has not been shown. Materials and Methods: In this study, Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were given LSE orally (vehicle, 10, and 30 mg/kg for 3 days to its test anti-inflammatory effect by injecting λ-carrageenan (CARR in the right hind paw or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, IP. For the positive control, animals were given aspirin (20 mg/kg orally and treated likewise. Serum or tissue samples from treated rats were collected after 3 hr of stimulation. Regarding the in vitro study, BV2 microglial cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence of LSE or normal saline for 10 min or 24 hr for Western blot and ELISA assay, respectively. Results: LSE reduced CARR-induced edema in the experimental animals. LSE also reduced LPS/CARR-induced nitric oxide (NO, interleukin-1β (IL1β, IL6, and COX2 productions. These inflammatory factors were also reduced dose dependently by LSE in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that LSE inhibited LPS activated c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, and p38 MAP kinases signaling pathways, caspase-3, inducible NO synthase, and COX2 expressions. Conclusion: LSE pretreatment suppressed CARR- and LPS-induced inflammations and these effects might be through the inhibition of MAP kinases signaling pathways and inflammatory factors.

  1. Evaluation of the protective effect of pentoxifylline on carrageenan-induced chronic non-bacterial prostatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajighorbani, Mahboobeh; Ahmadi-Hamedani, Mahmood; Shahab, Elaheh; Hayati, Farzad; Kafshdoozan, Khatereh; Keramati, Keivan; Amini, Amin Hossein

    2017-06-01

    Chronic non-bacterial prostatitis (CNP) is the most common type of prostatitis and oxidative stress (OS) was shown to be highly elevated in prostatitis patients. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on CNP induced by carrageenan in rats. Male adult Wistar rats (n = 30) were divided into control, CNP and three treatment groups (n = 6) including CNP + cernilton and CNP + PTX groups. CNP was induced by single intraprostatic injection of 1% carrageenan (100 µl). Rats in treatment groups received orally cernilton 100 mg/kg and PTX at 50 and 100 mg/kg 1 week after CNP induction for 21 days. Prostatic index (PI), prostatic specific antigen (PSA), tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), serum lipid peroxidation (MDA), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and histopathological changes were compared between groups. There were significant increase of PI, serum levels of PSA, TNF-α and MDA in CNP group at 29 day. In treatment groups, significant reduction in PI, serum levels of PSA, TNF-α, MDA and creatinine was observed especially in rats treated with dose of 50 mg/kg of PTX. In CNP group, histopathological changes of the prostate such as leucocyte infiltration, large involutions and projection into the lumen and reducing the volume of the lumen were observed as well. Whereas PTX, especially at dose of 50 mg/kg, could improve the above-mentioned changes remarkably in CNP treated rats. For the first time, our findings indicated that PTX improved CNP induced by carrageenan in rats.

  2. Biopolymer electrolytes based on blend of kappa-carrageenan and cellulose derivatives for potential application in dye sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudhziah, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, I.; Mohamed, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan was used as the principle host for developing new biopolymer electrolytes based on the blend of carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose. The blending of carboxymethyl cellulose into carboxymethyl kappa-carragenan was found to be a promising strategy to improve the material properties such as conductive properties. The electrolyte samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, ionic transference number measurement and linear sweep voltammetry in order to investigate their structural, thermal and electrochemical properties. Impedance study showed that the ionic conductivity increased with the increment of ammonium iodide concentration. The highest room temperature ionic conductivity achieved was 2.41 × 10 −3 S cm −1 at 30 wt% of the salt. The increment of conductivity was due to the increase of formation of transient cross-linking between the carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose chains and the doping salt as indicated the T g trend. The conductivity was also attributed by the increase in the number of charge carriers in the biopolymer electrolytes system. The interactions between polymers and salt were confirmed by FTIR study. The transference number measurements showed that the conductivity was predominantly ionic. Temperature dependent conductivity study showed that conductivity increased with the reciprocal of temperature. The conductivity-temperature plots suggested that the conductivity obeyed the Vogel–Tammann–Fulcher relation and the activation energy for the best conducting sample was 0.010 eV. This system was used for the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells, FTO/TiO 2 -dye/CMKC/CMCE-NH 4 I + I 2 /Pt. The fabricated cell showed response under light intensity of 100 mW cm −2 with efficiency of 0.13% indicating that the blend biopolymer

  3. Procyanidin B2 ameliorates carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in rats via anti-inflammatory and activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Renzong; Wang, Jiye

    2017-11-04

    Prostatitis is one of the most prevalent problems in andriatry and urinary surgery. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of procyanidin B2 (PB) on carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in rats. Results showed that PB significantly decreased the prostatic index and enhanced the body weight inhibited by carrageenan. Biochemical results revealed that PB significantly lowered the prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and alleviated oxidative stress in serum. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in prostatic homogenate were also significantly decreased after PB treatment. We also found evidence that PB treatment reversed the suppression of Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and increased the expressions of NQO1 and HO-1 in the prostate glands. In conclusion, treatment with PB attenuates carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis via anti-inflammatory and activation of the Nrf2 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of tumbling time, injection rate and k-carrageenan addition on processing, textural and color characteristics of pork Biceps femoris muscle

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    Livia PATRAŞCU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of tumbling time (0-9 hours, injection rate (20-50% and k carrageenan addition (0.25 - 0.5% on quality characteristics of cooked pork Biceps femoris muscle have been studied. Properties of injected and tumbled meat samples were determined by measuring processing characteristics (tumbling yield, cooking yield and expressible moisture, color (L*, a*, b*, Hue angle and Chroma and texture (firmness, toughness, adhesiveness, work of adhesion and fracturability. Increasing tumbling time up to 9 h led to better hydration properties and increased the cooking yield for all samples, both with 0.25% and 0.5% of k-carrageenan addition. It also decreased the firmness and toughness of the evaluated samples. Biceps femoris samples containing a higher level of k-carrageenan were tenderer than those containing less polysaccharide. Neither injection rate nor tumbling time affected the color components of the analyzed samples.

  5. Improvement of mechanical properties of hydrogel by irradiation of polymers in aqueous solution with κ-carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, K.; Yoshii, F.; Zhai, M.

    2000-01-01

    Predominate radiation reaction of κ-carrageenan (KC) hydrogel is the main chain scission of KC. The gel strength of KC hydrogel decreased with increasing irradiation dose. However, KC was found to enhances the radiation crosslinking of synthetic water-soluble polymer (SWSP) such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(N-vinylpyrolidone) (PVP) in aqueous solution. The gel strength of SWSP hydrogel increased with increasing dose when KC was blended. Probably the radiation degraded KC radicals are recombined with radicals of PVP and PEO. The hydrogel thus prepared absorbs huge amounts of water due to the presence of strong hydrophilic -OSO 3 - groups in KC. (author)

  6. Improvement of mechanical properties of hydrogel by irradiation of polymers in aqueous solution with {kappa}-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, K.; Yoshii, F. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Aranilla, C.T. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon (Philippines); Zhai, M. [Department of Technical Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2000-03-01

    Predominate radiation reaction of {kappa}-carrageenan (KC) hydrogel is the main chain scission of KC. The gel strength of KC hydrogel decreased with increasing irradiation dose. However, KC was found to enhances the radiation crosslinking of synthetic water-soluble polymer (SWSP) such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(N-vinylpyrolidone) (PVP) in aqueous solution. The gel strength of SWSP hydrogel increased with increasing dose when KC was blended. Probably the radiation degraded KC radicals are recombined with radicals of PVP and PEO. The hydrogel thus prepared absorbs huge amounts of water due to the presence of strong hydrophilic -OSO{sub 3}{sup -} groups in KC. (author)

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus topical gel on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Semreen, Mohammad H; Naddaf, Ahmad R

    2006-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus extracts was studied in comparison with diclofenac sodium topical gel (diclosal Emulgel), using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in Albino rats. Gel formulation was prepared containing 6% of each extract in gel base, namely sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC). The kinetics of drug release from the prepared formulation was studied separately in each case. Results showed that the release follows the Higuchi square root equation. The pharmacological screening revealed that the percent reduction of edema for Achillea extract and Ruscus extract were 48.1% and 18.8%, respectively, while diclosal Emulgel produced 47% reduction of edema.

  8. Carrageenan type effect on soybean oil/soy protein isolate emulsion employed as fat replacer in panela-type cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Nery, E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to modify the fatty acid profile of panela-type cheese (a Mexican fresh cheese, emulsified soybean oil with soy protein isolate and different carrageenan (iota, kappa or lambda was employed as fat replacer. The replacement of milk fat in panela-type cheese resulted in higher cheese yield values and moisture content, besides a concomitant lower fat phase and higher protein content, due to a soy protein isolate in emulsified soybean oil. Fat replacement resulted in a harder but less cohesive, spring and resilient texture, where differences in texture could be attributed to the specific carrageenan-casein interactions within the rennet coagulated cheese matrix. The FTIR analysis showed that the milk fat replacement changed the fatty acid profile, also in function of the type of carrageenan employed. Lambda carrageenan containing emulsions improved moisture retention and maintained the textural properties of panela-type cheese.Para modificar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los quesos tipo panela (queso fresco popular en México, se utilizó aceite de soja emulsionado con aislado de proteína de soja y diferentes carrageninas (iota, kappa o lambda como sustituto de la grasa. Reemplazar la grasa de la leche en el queso tipo panela resultó en mayor rendimiento quesero y mayor contenido de humedad, además de una concomitante menor fase grasa y mayor contenido de proteína, debido al aislado de proteína de soja en el aceite de soja emulsionado. La sustitución de la grasa dio como resultado una textura más dura, pero menos cohesiva, elástica y resiliente, donde estas diferencias podrían ser atribuidas a la interacción especifica entre carrageninas-caseinas en la matriz coagulada del queso. El análisis de FTIR muestra que reemplazar la grasa de la leche cambia el perfil de ácidos grasos, también en función del tipo de carragenina empleado. Las emulsiones con lambda carrageninas mejoraron la retención de humedad y mantuvieron las

  9. UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties of semi refined iota carrageenan packaging film incorporated with ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoirunnisa, Assifa Rahma; Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, Camellia; Rochima, Emma; Praseptiangga, Danar

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to develop film for food packaging application with high UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties. Semi refined iota carrageenan (SRiC) nanocomposite films prepared by addition of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as nanofiller using solution casting method. The effect of nanofiller with different concentration (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% w/w carrageenan) on UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties of films were tested. The water barrier properties of the films were studied by measuring water vapor permeability (WVP) and the optical properties of the films were studied by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 280 nm for UV-screening test and at 660 nm for transparency test. WVP value of carrageenan films with addition of ZnO is low compared to a control carrageenan film and the lowest WVP value was found for the film with addition of 1.5% of ZnO. These result indicate that the addition of ZnO had a positive effect on the water barrier properties of the carrageenan matrix. Increase in the concentration of nanofiller leads to an increase in the UV-screening properties. Among all the films, carrageenan film with 1.5% ZnO has the highest UV-screening. The result showed that adding 0.5% and 1.0% of ZnO was insignificantly affect transparency of the films, however the transparency decreased sligthly when 1.5% ZnO was added. In conclusion, incorporating no more than 1.0% of ZnO to the films can obtain films with high UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties and suitable for food packaging application.

  10. Release-Active Dilutions of Diclofenac Enhance Anti-inflammatory Effect of Diclofenac in Carrageenan-Induced Rat Paw Edema Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sakat, Sachin S.; Mani, Kamaraj; Demidchenko, Yulia O.; Gorbunov, Evgeniy A.; Tarasov, Sergey A.; Mathur, Archna; Epstein, Oleg I.

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the effect of technologically treated diclofenac (release-active dilutions of diclofenac (RAD of diclofenac)) on anti-inflammatory activity of diclofenac in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. Ninety male Wistar albino rats (6–8 weeks) divided into nine groups (n = 10) were used. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.1 ml of a 1 % solution in normal saline). Diclofenac alone was studi...

  11. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of kappa-Carrageenan Beads Containing Silver Nanoparticles with Dye Adsorption and Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we used a simple and totally green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles using kappa-carrageenan as reducing and stabilizing agent. The beads were prepared in aqueous medium by microwave heating, and then followed by cross-linking with K+ cations without using any additional toxic and expensive chemical agents. The preparation method of the carrageenan-based beads is easy, fast, simple, effective, and safe. The synthesized beads loaded with were characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra, transmition electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. The as-prepared beads were evaluated to remove cationic crystal violet dye from aqueous solutions. The thermodynamic parameters shown that the sorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. The kinetics and isotherm of crystal violet adsorption were found to well fit to pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the obtained beads was examined using the nutrient agar disc diffusion method.

  12. Development of Carrageenan Hydrogel as a Sustained Release Matrix Containing Tocotrienol-Rich Palm-Based Vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, C.M.; Zafarizal Aldrin Azizul Hasan; Norashikin Ahmad; Hazimah, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Topically applied hydrogel system as a general therapeutic mask for transdermal delivery of hydrophobic actives is not efficient due to the differences in polarity between the actives and the polymer network. This work presents a study on developing hydrogels based on carrageenan as a matrix for the delivery of a hydrophobic type of active, i.e. tocotrienol-rich palm-based vitamin E (TRPE) into the skin. The strength and flexibility of the hydrogel were increased by the inclusion of guar gum, potassium citrate and glycerine. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results indicated a higher quantity of water in the hydrogel with glycerine while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed three types of water molecules existed in the hydrogel. The hydrogel was non-irritating according to OECD Test Guideline No. 439 for in vitro skin irritation test. The hydrogel with TRPE fluids was able to permeate the polysulfone membrane and bioavailability of TRPE improved with the inclusion of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil mixture. Therefore, a carrageenan-based hydrogel with locust bean, guar gum, glycerine, potassium citrate and TRPE was successfully developed with good strength and flexibility and without any potential irritancy. The good bioavailability of TRPE-loaded in the hydrogel can be used for skin care application. (author)

  13. Carrageenan-based semi-IPN nanocomposite hydrogels: Swelling kinetic and slow release of sequestrene Fe 138 fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Bahrami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite hydrogels based on kappa-carrageenan were synthesized by incorporating natural sodium montmorillonite (Cloisite nanoclay. Acrylamide (AAm and methylenebisacrylamide (MBA were used as a monomer and a crosslinker, respectively. Effects of reaction variables on the swelling kinetics were studied. The results revealed that the rate of swelling for nanocomposites with high content of MBA was higher than those of nanocomposites consisting of low content of MBA. Similar to the effect of MBA, the rate of swelling enhanced as the carrageenan content was decreased. The influence of clay content on swelling rate was not remarkable. The experimental swelling data were evaluated by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The swelling data described well by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Sequestrene Fe 138 (Sq as an agrochemical was loaded into nanocomposites and releasing of this active agent from nanocomposites was studied. The clay-free hydrogel released the whole loaded Sq; whereas the presence of clay restricted the release of Sq.

  14. Synthesis of superabsorbent hydrogel by radiation crosslinking of acrylic acid, semi-refined kappa-carrageenan and sugarcane bagasse blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jizmundo, Leonie-Lou Dominguez

    2015-04-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels have three-dimensional networks that enable it to exhibit great water absorption capacity leading to its promising applications. However, existing commercial hydrogels are mainly acrylic acid which causes environmental problems. In this study, the incorporation of agricultural waste as filler and polysaccharide from natural sources as binder for the production of superabsorbent hydrogel was done to reduce the use of acrylic acid as well as its environmental impact while adding value to the incorporated materials. A series of superabsorbent hydrogel with the blend of acrylic acid, semi-refined kappa carrageenan and sugarcane bagasse were synthesized by radiation crosslinking. The gel fraction and swelling capacity of the hydrogels were determined and studied. The characterizations were facilitated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). In the results obtained from analyses, the characteristic peaks of acrylic acid and sugarcane bagasse were observed in the FTIR spectra and the three step peaks if synthesized hydrogel in its TGA implies an improvement in thermal stability of the product. The synthesized superabsorbent hydrogel blends had exhibited comparable gel fraction to that of the polyacrylic acid hydrogel, had great swelling capacity, and achieved equilibrium degree of swelling within 72-96 hours. The optimum synthesized superabsorbent hydrogel is 3% semi-refined kappa-carrageenan, 3% sugarcane bagasse, 15% acrylic acid neutralize up to 50% and irradiated at 15kGy dose which exhibited a swelling of 599.53 and gel fraction of 39.73. (author)

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of permanganate oxidation of iota- and lambda-carrageenan polysaccharides as sulfated carbohydrates in acid perchlorate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Refat M; Fawzy, Ahmed; Ahmed, Gamal A; Zaafarany, Ishaq A; Asghar, Basim H; Takagi, Hideo D; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2011-10-18

    The kinetics of oxidation of iota- and lambda-carrageenan as sulfated carbohydrates by permanganate ion in aqueous perchlorate solutions at a constant ionic strength of 2.0 mol dm(-3) have been investigated spectrophotometrically. The pseudo-first-order plots were found to be of inverted S-shape throughout the entire courses of reactions. The initial rates were found to be relatively slow in the early stages, followed by an increase in the oxidation rates over longer time periods. The experimental observations showed first-order dependences in permanganate and fractional first-order kinetics with respect to both carrageenans concentration for both the induction and autoacceleration periods. The results obtained at various hydrogen ion concentrations showed that the oxidation processes in these redox systems are acid-catalyzed throughout the two stages of oxidation reactions. The added salts lead to the prediction that Mn(III) is the reactive species throughout the autoacceleration periods. Kinetic evidence for the formation of 1:1 intermediate complexes was revealed. The kinetic parameters have been evaluated and tentative reaction mechanisms in good agreement with the kinetic results are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary study of semi-refined carrageenan (SRC) as secondary gelling agent in natural rubber (NR) latex foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhazariah, S.; Azura, A. R.; Azahari, B.; Sivakumar, R.

    2017-12-01

    Semi-refined carrageenan (SRC) product is considerably cheaper and easier to produce as a natural polysaccharide, which was utilized in food and other product application. However, the application in latex is limited. The aim of this work is to evaluate the SRC produced from low industrial grade seaweed (LIGS) in the latex foam application. The FTIR spectra showed the SRC produced as kappa type carrageenan with lower sulfur content compared to native LIGS. NR latex foam is produced by using the Dunlop method with some modifications. The effect of SRC loading as a secondary gelling agent in NR latex foam is investigated. The density and morphology of the NR latex foam with the addition of the SRC are analyzed. NR latex foam density increased with SRC loading and peaked at 1.8 phr SRC. The addition of SRC has induced the bigger cell size compared to the cell size of the control NR latex foam, as shown in the optical micrograph. It can be concluded that SRC LIGS could be acted as secondary gelling agent in NR latex foam.

  17. Chitosan and Kappa-Carrageenan Vaginal Acyclovir Formulations for Prevention of Genital Herpes. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Pilar Sánchez-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations have been developed for the controlled release of acyclovir, which may prevent the sexual transmission of the herpes simplex virus. Drug release studies were carried out in two media: simulated vaginal fluid and simulated vaginal fluid/simulated seminal fluid mixture. The bioadhesive capacity and permanence time of the bioadhesion, the prepared compacts, and compacted granules were determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate. Swelling processes were quantified to confirm the release data. Biocompatibility was evaluated through in vitro cellular toxicity assays, and the results showed that acyclovir and the rest of the materials had no cytotoxicity at the maximum concentration tested. The mixture of hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose with chitosan- or kappa-carrageenan-originated mucoadhesive systems that presented a complete and sustained release of acyclovir for a period of 8–9 days in both media. Swelling data revealed the formation of optimal mixed chitosan/hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose gels which could be appropriated for the prevention of sexual transmission of HSV.

  18. Corrosion inhibition of iota-carrageenan natural polymer on aluminum in presence of zwitterion mediator in HCl media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, Mohammad M.; Maayta, A.K.; Al-Mustafa, Jamil A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Inhibition of Al by ι-carrageenan in the presence of zwitterion mediator was investigated. ► Considerable improvement in inhibition efficiency observed in the presence of zwitterion mediator. ► Coherent physical adsorption layer was evidenced by kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. ► Small but consistent fractured island layers observed after acid exposure as revealed by SEM images. - Abstract: ι-Carrageenan a natural polymer has been used as corrosion inhibitor of aluminum in presence of pefloxacin mesylate, acting as zwitterionic mediator, in acidic medium. Considerable improvement in inhibition efficiency occurred in the presence of the mediator. Activation energy of corrosion and other thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy, standard enthalpy, and standard entropy of the adsorption process revealed better and well-ordered physical adsorption layers in presence of pefloxacin. Adsorption isotherms in absence or presence of pefloxacin mediator appropriately fit in the Langmuir isotherms. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images demonstrated smooth, glossy, and relatively coherent adsorption layers of the inhibitor on the metal surface in aqueous solution. After the exposure to 2.0 M HCl for 2 h, a smaller but consistent regular shaped fractured layer is obtained.

  19. Aspidosperma pyrifolium Has Anti-Inflammatory Properties: An Experimental Study in Mice with Peritonitis Induced by Tityus serrulatus Venom or Carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Lima, Maíra Conceição Jerônimo de; Oliveira Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica; Furtado, Allanny Alves; Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Siqueira, Emerson Michell da Silva; Oliveira, Ruth Medeiros; Oliveira Rocha, Hugo Alexandre; Ferreira Rocha, Keyla Borges; Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio da; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas

    2017-11-11

    Scorpions of the genus Tityus are responsible for the majority of envenomation in Brazil, the Tityus serrulatus species being the most common and dangerous in South America. In this approach, we have investigated the ability of the aqueous extract from the leaves of Aspidosperma pyrifolium in reducing carrageenan-induced inflammation and the inflammation induced by T. serrulatus envenomation in mice. We also evaluated the cytotoxic effects of this extract, using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) assay and the results revealed that the extract is safe. Analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry with Diode Array Detection (LC-DAD-MS) showed one major chemical component, the flavonoid rutin and phenolics compounds. For in vivo studies in carrageenan-induced peritonitis model, mice received extracts, dexamethasone, rutin or saline, before administration of carrageenan. For venom-induced inflammation model, animals received T. serrulatus venom and were, simultaneously, treated with extracts, antivenom, rutin or saline. The extract and rutin showed a reduction in the cell migration into the peritoneal cavity, and in the same way the envenomated animals also showed reduction of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration and vasodilation in lungs. This is an original study revealing the potential action of A. pyrifolium against inflammation caused by Tityus serrulatus venom and carrageenan, revealing that this extract and its bioactive molecules, specifically rutin, may present potential anti-inflammatory application.

  20. Radioprotection potential of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan used as food additive; Potencial radioprotetor do acido ascorbico sobre a carragenana utilizada como aditivo alimenticio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajaliste@net.ipen.br; nlmastro@net.ipen.br

    2002-07-01

    Carrageenans are a group of natural carbohydrates that are present in the structure of certain varieties of red algae (Rhodophyceae). They are used in emulsions, for syneresis control and to grow up, to promote adhesiveness and dispersion. In the industry of foods they can be used for instance, as thickness and gelling agents, alone or together with other additives. The processing of foods by radiation is increasing considerably, because the efficiency of the process in the industrial decontamination of products. The objective of this work was to study the action of the ascorbic acid as potential radioprotector of the carrageenan against {sup 60} Co gamma radiation effects, using the viscosity as parameter. Samples of commercial carrageenan dissolved at 1,0% were irradiated in the presence or not of ascorbic acid, with doses of 0.0 kGy; 1.0 kGy; 2.5 kGy; 5.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. After the irradiation the relationships viscosity/dose were established for the temperature of 60 deg C. For the dose of 10.0 kGy a better protecting effect of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan was seen. The implications of the use of this antioxidant is discussed as a form of minimizing the effect of the radiation in irradiated foods. (author)

  1. Specific effect of the linear charge density of the acid polysaccharide on thermal aggregation/ disaggregation processes in complex carrageenan/lysozyme systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonov, Y.; Zhuravleva, I.; Cardinaels, R.M.; Moldenaers, P.

    2017-01-01

    We study thermal aggregation and disaggregation processes in complex carrageenan/lysozyme systems with a different linear charge density of the sulphated polysaccharide. To this end, we determine the temperature dependency of the turbidity and the intensity size distribution functions in complex

  2. Fuzzy Clustering-Based Modeling of Surface Interactions and Emulsions of Selected Whey Protein Concentrate Combined to i-Carrageenan and Gum Arabic Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gums and proteins are valuable ingredients with a wide spectrum of applications. Surface properties (surface tension, interfacial tension, emulsion activity index “EAI” and emulsion stability index “ESI”) of 4% whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a combination with '- carrageenan (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.5...

  3. Optimization of formulation of cmc-na, xanthan gum and carrageenan affecting the physicochemical properties of papaya-wolfberry beverage using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geo, J.Z.H.; Zong, G.L.P.

    2013-01-01

    CMC-Na, xanthan gum and carrageenan are widely employed in food industry. They were used for its thickening properties of aqueous solutions or emulsifying abilities. The present work aims to optimize the formula of the three stabilizers in the process of papaya-wolfberry beverage by response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the models were significantly (p<0.05) fitted for describing the viscosity and cloudiness of papaya-wolfberry beverage. The results also indicated that the linear terms of CMC-Na and xanthan gum were the most significant (p<0.05) variables affecting the viscosity, while xanthan gum and carrageenan were the most significant (p<0.05) variable affecting the cloudiness. The interaction of CMC-Na and xanthan gum behaved extremely significant for viscosity. From the optimization procedure, the best formula for viscosity was obtained at the combined level of 0.0652% (w/w) CMC-Na, 0.1070% (w/w) xanthan gum and 0.1485% (w/w) carrageenan, and the other group of 0.0623% (w/w) CMC-Na, 0.1375% (w/w) xanthan gum and 0.1461% (w/w) carrageenan for cloudiness. The results of our study would be used to improve the quality of papaya-wolfberry beverage and increase its economic efficiency. (author)

  4. κ-Carrageenan Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin-8 Secretion by Stimulating the Bcl10-NF-κB Pathway in HT-29 Cells and Aggravates C. freundii-Induced Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The dietary usage of carrageenan as common food additive has increased observably over the last 50 years. But there is substantial controversy about its safety. Methods. We investigated whether the κ-carrageenan could enhance lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-8 expression by studying its actions on the TLR4-NF-κB pathway. The aggravating effect of κ-carrageenan on Citrobacter freundii DBS100-induced intestinal inflammation was also investigated in a mouse model. Results. Our data show that κ-carrageenan pretreatment promoted LPS-induced IL-8 expression in HT-29 cells. Although CD14, MD-2, and TLR4 were upregulated, the binding of LPS was not enhanced. However, the pathway of Bcl10-NF-κB was triggered. Interestingly, κ-carrageenan competitively blocked the binding of FITC-LPS. Furthermore, pretreatment with κ-carrageenan for one week previous to gavage with C. freundii DBS100 markedly aggravated weight loss, mortality, and colonic damage. The secretion of cytokines was unbalanced and the ratio of Tregs was decreased significantly. In addition, κ-carrageenan, together with C. freundii DBS100, enhanced the transcription and secretion of TLR4 and NF-κB. Conclusions. κ-Carrageenan can synergistically activate LPS-induced inflammatory through the Bcl10-NF-κB pathway, as indicated by its aggravation of C. freundii DBS100-induced colitis in mice. General Significance. Our results suggest that κ-carrageenan serves as a potential inflammatory agent that magnifies existing intestinal inflammation.

  5. Juiciness improvement of frozen battered shrimp burger using modified tapioca starch, sodium alginate, and iota-carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongkarn Kijroongrojana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A battered shrimp burger, as a new value-added shrimp product, was developed by increasing the juiciness of a frozen battered shrimp burger using a mixture of hydrocolloids. The formulations of hydrocolloid mixtures containing modified tapioca starch (MTS, sodium alginate (AL, and iota-carrageenan (CA were optimized. Juiciness measurements were defined and analyzed by 13 trained panelists. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA as well as moisture and fat contents of the products were analyzed. The mixture of MTS and AL had an impact on moisture content and juiciness scores, while CA influenced the hardness. The product made using the optimized formulation (0.3% MTS + 0.7% AL had a higher moisture content andjuiciness scores (p0.05. However, higher springiness and gumminess were found in the control burger (p0.05.

  6. Effects of xanthan, guar, carrageenan and locust bean gum addition on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Zeynep Ozben; Yılmaz, Ismail; Demirci, Ahmet Şukru

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of xanthan gum, guar gum, carrageenan and locust bean gum on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs. Meatball samples were produced with three different formulations including of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% each gum addition and gum added samples were compared with the control meatballs. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on raw and cooked samples separately. Moisture contents of raw samples decreased by addition of gums. There were significant decreases (p meatball samples formulated with gum when compared with control. Ash contents and texture values increased with gum addition to meatballs. Meatball redness decreased with more gum addition in raw and cooked meatball samples, which means that addition of gums resulted in a lighter-coloured product. According to sensory analysis results, locust bean gum added (1%) samples were much preferred by the panelists.

  7. Models of Inflammation: Carrageenan- or Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-Induced Edema and Hypersensitivity in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarson, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    Animal models of inflammation are used to assess the production of inflammatory mediators at sites of inflammation, the processing of pain sensation at CNS sites, the anti-inflammatory properties of agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and the efficacy of putative analgesic compounds in reversing cutaneous hypersensitivity. Detailed in this unit are methods to elicit and measure carrageenan- and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced cutaneous inflammation. Due to possible differences between the dorsal root sensory system and the trigeminal sensory system, injections into either the footpad or vibrissal pad are described. In this manner, cutaneous inflammation can be assessed in tissue innervated by the lumbar dorsal root ganglion neurons (footpad) or by the trigeminal ganglion neurons (vibrissal pad). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. In vivo evaluation method of the effect of nattokinase on carrageenan-induced tail thrombosis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Seitaro; Hagimori, Masayori; Ogasawara, Masayoshi; Arakawa, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    Thrombosis is characterized by congenital and acquired procatarxis. Nattokinase inhibits thrombus formation in vitro. However, in vivo evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of nattokinase against thrombosis remains to be conducted. Subcutaneous nattokinase injections of 1 or 2 mg/ml were administered to the tails of rats. Subsequently, κ-carrageenan was intravenously administered to the tails at 12 h after nattokinase injections. The mean length of the infarcted regions in the tails of rats was significantly shorter in rats administered 2 mg/ml of nattokinase than those in control rats. Nattokinase exhibited significant prophylactic antithrombotic effects. Previously, the in vitro efficacy of nattokinase against thrombosis had been reported; now our study has revealed the in vivo efficacy of nattokinase against thrombosis. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Carrageenan activates monocytes via type-specific binding with interleukin-8: an implication for design of immuno-active biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Weng-I; Zhang, Guangpan; Li, Xin; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Dong, Lei; Wang, Chunming

    2017-02-28

    Polymers that can activate the immune system may become useful biomaterials tools, given that the mechanisms underlying their actions are well understood. Herein, we report a novel type of interaction between polymers and immune cells - in studying the influence of the three major types of carrageenan (CGN) polysaccharides on monocyte behaviour in vitro, we found only the λ-type induced monocyte adhesion and this action requires the presence of an adequate amount of serum. Further analyses indicated λ-CGN bound interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the serum and activated the cultured monocytes through an IL-8-dependent pathway. This is the first demonstration that a polymer, with a renowned immunostimulatory effect, activates the immune system via binding and harnessing the function of a specific cytokine in the microenvironment. This is a new mechanism underlying polymer-immunity interactions that may shed light on future design and application of biomaterials tools targeting the immune system for a wide variety of therapeutic applications.

  10. The anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiollah Hajhashemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Recently anti-inflammatory effects of antidepressants have been demonstrated. Venlafaxine belongs to newer antidepressants with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibition property. The pain alleviating properties of venlafaxine in different pain models such as neurogenic pain, diabetic neuropathy, and fibromyalgia have been demonstrated. Anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and also its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and determine possible underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods: We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of intraperitoneal (IP and intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. Results: Our results showed that both IP (50 and 100 mg/kg and ICV (50 and 100 μg/rat injection of venlafaxine inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Also IP and ICV administration of venlafaxine significantly decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α production. Finally, we tried to reverse the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine by yohimbine (5 mg/kg, IP, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. Our results showed that applied antagonist failed to change the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that venlafaxine has potent anti-inflammatory effect which is related to the peripheral and central effects of this drug. Also we have shown that anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine is mediated mostly through the inhibition of IL-1β and TNF-α production and decreases MPO activity in the site of inflammation.

  11. Bixa Orellana L Leaf infusion as an Anti-inflammatory Agent in Carrageenan-induced Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Munggarani Yusuf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the characteristics of inflammation is swelling or edema. Inflammation can be treated with traditional medicine, such as Bixa orellana L. Bixa orellana L leaf contains flavonoid and tannin responsible for its anti-inflammatory effect. This study was conducted to analyse the ability of Bixa orellana L leaf infusion (BOLI to suppress paw edema in carrageenan-induced Wistar rats. Methods: This study was conducted in the Animal Laboratory of Department of Pharmacology and Therapy Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran in October 2012. Bixa orellana L leaves were procured from Lembang, Bandung, and were botanically identified at the Herbarium of Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor. Thirty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Group 1 was given 5 mL aquades as a control, three groups received BOLI with 0,09 g; 0,18 g; and 0,36 g dosage respectively; and group 5 was given 0,9 mg diclofenac. At 1 hour after treatment, all rats were induced by carrageenan injection subcutaneously. Paw edema changes were quantified at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 24 hour afterwards. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test Results: Based on paw edema inhibition percentage, 0.18 g of BOLI was shown most effective (16.97% compared to 0.09 g (10.96% and 0.36 g (7.50%. Interestingly, no significant differences of anti-inflammatory effect were observed between groups that were treated with 0,18 g of BOLI and diclofenac (p > 0,005. Conclusions: The BOLI can suppress inflammation comparable to diclofenac. The effective dosage is 0.18 g/200 g BW/day.

  12. Iota-carrageenan/chitosan/gelatin scaffold for the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived MSCs in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjie; Yang, Boguang; Qian, Yufeng; Wang, Qiyu; Han, Ruijin; Hao, Tong; Shu, Yao; Zhang, Yabin; Yao, Fanglian; Wang, Changyong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we have developed ι-carrageenan/chitosan/gelatin (CCG) scaffold containing multiple functional groups (-NH2 , -OH, -COOH, and -SO3 H) to resemble the native extracellular matrix (ECM), using the ion-shielding technology and ultrasonic dispersion method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the CCG scaffolds suggests that the formation of CCG network involves electrostatic interactions between ι-carrageenan (ι-CA) and chitosan/gelatin, and the covalent cross-linking among amino groups of chitosan and/or gelatin. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation reveals that the porous structure of scaffolds can be modulated by the ratio of ι-CA to chitosan/gelatin. The swelling ratio of the hydrogels increases as the ι-CA contents increase. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we found that the double helix structure of ι-CA is only stabilized at low contents of ι-CA in the CCG scaffolds (e.g., 5 wt %). The scaffolds containing 5% ι-CA showed the best protein adsorption capacity (4.46 ± 0.63 μg protein/mg scaffold) and elastic modulus (5.37 ± 1.03 MPa). In addition, the CCG scaffolds exhibit excellent support for adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) attachment and proliferation, and they can improve the osteogenic differentiation and neovascularization capacities of ADMSCs. Overall, we conclude that the CCG may represent an ideal scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Molecular view of the interaction between iota-carrageenan and a phospholipid film and its role in enzyme immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Thatyane M; de Sousa e Silva, Heurison; Furriel, Rosa P M; Leone, Francisco A; Miranda, Paulo B; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D

    2009-05-28

    Proteins incorporated into phospholipid Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films are a good model system for biomembranes and enzyme immobilization studies. The specific fluidity of biomembranes, an important requisite for enzymatic activity, is naturally controlled by varying phospholipid compositions. In a model system, instead, LB film fluidity may be varied by covering the top layer with different substances able to interact simultaneously with the phospholipid and the protein to be immobilized. In this study, we immobilized a carbohydrate rich Neurospora crassa alkaline phosphatase (NCAP) in monolayers of the sodium salt of dihexadecylphosphoric acid (DHP), a synthetic phospholipid that provides very condensed Langmuir films. The binding of NCAP to DHP Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films was mediated by the anionic polysaccharide iota-carrageenan (iota-car). Combining results from surface isotherms and the quartz crystal microbalance technique, we concluded that the polysaccharide was essential to promote the interaction between DHP and NCAP and also to increase the fluidity of the film. An estimate of DHP:iota-car ratio within the film also revealed that the polysaccharide binds to DHP LB film in an extended conformation. Furthermore, the investigation of the polysaccharide conformation at molecular level, using sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFG), indicated a preferential conformation of the carrageenan molecules with the sulfate groups oriented toward the phospholipid monolayer, and both the hydroxyl and ether groups interacting preferentially with the protein. These results demonstrate how interfacial electric fields can reorient and induce conformational changes in macromolecules, which may significantly affect intermolecular interactions at interfaces. This detailed knowledge of the interaction mechanism between the enzyme and the LB film is relevant to design strategies for enzyme immobilization when orientation and fluidity properties of the film provided by the

  14. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of carboxymethylated κ-carrageenan aluminum hydrogel microbeads for prolonged release of mefenamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beron, Pia Maria G.; Cruzado, Shervin T.; Dela Cruz, Sharmaine F.; Estanislao, Fides Mae L.; Evangelista, Charina Joy; Mandocdoc, Larra Minnellie W.; Salas, Sharlaine B.; Tiu, Mark Brian C.; Carigma, Andrea Q.; Bayquen, Aristea V.

    2012-01-01

    Polymers that swell in an aqueous medium have been widely used to formulate controlled-release dosage forms. This study aims to prepare carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan (CMKC) microbeads and evaluate its potential for controlled release of mefenamic acid in comparison to the positive control, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) microbeads. The powdered κ-carrageenan was carboxymethylated and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the carboxy methylation. Aqueous solutions of CMC (3% w/v) and CMKC (3%, 4%, 5% w/v) were prepared as microbeads using ionotropic gelation technique. Microbeads were loaded with mefenamic acid by suspending it in the aqueous solution (0.5% w/v) of the drug for 72 hours. Particle size and surface morphology were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to determine a significant difference between the release activity of the drug-loaded CMKC and CMC microbeads. Differential Scanning Calorimetry was performed on the drug, drug- free, and drug-loaded microbeads of CMC and CMKC. Two-way ANOVARM showed significant interaction in % drug release of the three groups being analyzed in respect to time effect (p≤0.001) and group effect (p≤0.001). Post Hoc Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that 3% CMC and 4% CMKC has equal average % drug release values and is significantly higher compared to the commercial mefenamic acid. Also, one way ANOVA showed that 3% CMC was able to release the drug with no significant difference in time (p = 0.159), while 4% CMKC (p < 0.001) and the commercial mefenamic acid (p≤0.001) were able to release the drug with significant difference in time (author)

  15. Preventive Effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on Thrombosis in κ-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model.

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    Ning Ma

    Full Text Available Based on the prodrug principle, aspirin eugenol ester (AEE was synthesized, which can reduce the side effects of aspirin and eugenol. As a good candidate for new antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory medicine, it is essential to evaluate its preventive effect on thrombosis. Preventive effect of AEE was investigated in κ-carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombosis model. AEE suspension liquids were prepared in 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na. AEE was administrated at the dosage of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg. Aspirin (20 mg/kg, eugenol (18 mg/kg and 0.5% CMC-Na (30 mg/kg were used as control drug. In order to compare the effects between AEE and its precursor, integration of aspirin and eugenol group (molar ratio 1:1 was also designed in the experiment. After drugs were administrated intragastrically for seven days, each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg BW κ-carrageen dissolved in physiological saline to induce thrombosis. The length of tail-thrombosis was measured at 24 and 48 hours. The blank group just was given physiological saline for seven days without κ-carrageenan administrated. The results indicated that AEE significantly not only reduced the average length of thrombus, PT values and FIB concentration, but also reduced the red blood cell (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB, hematocrit (HCT and platelet (PLT. The effects of AEE on platelet aggregation and anticoagulant in vitro showed that AEE could inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP-induced platelet aggregation as dose-dependence but no notable effect on blood clotting. From these results, it was concluded that AEE possessed positive effect on thrombosis prevention in vivo through the reduction of FIB, PLT, inhibition of platelet aggregation and the change of TT and PT values.

  16. Efficacy and safety of an antiviral Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study in volunteers with early symptoms of the common cold

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    Weinmüllner Regina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The common cold, the most prevalent contagious viral disease in humans still lacks a safe and effective antiviral treatment. Iota-Carrageenan is broadly active against respiratory viruses in-vitro and has an excellent safety profile. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of an Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray in patients with common cold symptoms. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory trial, 35 human subjects suffering from early symptoms of common cold received Iota-Carrageenan (0.12% in a saline solution three times daily for 4 days, compared to placebo. Results Administration of Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray reduced the symptoms of common cold (p = 0.046 and the viral load in nasal lavages (p = 0.009 in patients with early symptoms of common cold. Pro-inflammatory mediators FGF-2, Fractalkine, GRO, G-CSF, IL-8, IL-1α, IP-10, IL-10, and IFN-α2 were reduced in the Iota-Carrageenan group. Conclusions Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray appears to be a promising treatment for safe and effective treatment of early symptoms of common cold. Larger trials are indicated to confirm the results.

  17. Sodium Caseinate-Carrageenan Biopolymeric Nanocomplexes as a Carrier of Vitamin D: Study of Complex Formation, Particles Size and Encapsulation Efficiency

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    Maryam Khoshmanzar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The protein-polysaccharide complex-based nanocapsule is one type of polymeric nanocarrier which can be potentially useful for encapsulation of hydrophobic nutraceuticals. In this research, caseinate-carrageenan complex was used for encapsulation of vitamin D. The complex formation between caseinate and carrageenan was carried out by lowering the pH under isoelectric point of protein. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and differential scanning colorimetry (DSC confirmed complex formation between carrageenan, caseinate and vitamin D. The particle size of 1% caseinate particles was in the range of 150-300 nanometer and by addition of vitamin D the particle size increased to 450-750 nanometer. Moreover, carrageenan of all concentrations (at constant concentration of caseinate (1% and pH4.9 resulted in lower particle size below 100 nanometer. The stability of caseinate and its complex formation with carrageenan showed that encapsulation was achieved at 45% efficiency and also vitamin D stability (during 5 days storage was higher in nanocomplex compared to pure caseinate particles (60-63% compared to 53%. The complex formation between caseinate and carrageenan was carried out by pH decreasing under isoelectric point of protein. The FTIR and DSC confirmed complex formation between carrageenan, caseinate and vitamin D. The particle size of caseinate 1% particles were in the range of 150 -300 nanometer and with adding vitamin D, particle size increased to 450-750 nanometer. Moreover, adding carrageenan at all used concentration (at constant concentration of caseinate (1% and pH4.9 resulted in reduced particle size to less than 100 nanometer and vitamin D stability (during 5 days storage was higher (60-63% in nanocomplex compared to pure caseinate particles (53%.The protein-polysaccharide complex based nanocapsule is one type of the polymeric nanocarriers which can potentially be used for encapsulation of hydrophobic nutraceuticals. In

  18. The Effect of Multidentate Biopolymer Based on Polyacrylamide Grafted onto Kappa-Carrageenan on the Spectrofluorometric Properties of Water-Soluble CdS Quantum Dots

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    Ghasem Rezanejade Bardajee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fluorescent composite based on CdS quantum dots immobilized on the multidentate biopolymer matrix is prepared through the graft copolymerization of the acrylamide onto kappa-Carrageenan. A variety of techniques like thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was used to confirm the structure of the obtained samples. To investigate the spectrofluorometric properties, fluorescence spectroscopy of the obtained quantum dots was studied.

  19. Optical transparency and mechanical properties of semi-refined iota carrageenan film reinforced with SiO2 as food packaging material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, Afifah Iswara; Praseptiangga, Danar; Rochima, Emma; Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, Camellia

    2018-02-01

    Food packaging is important for protecting food from environmental influences such as heat, light, water vapor, oxygen, dirt, dust particles, gas emissions and so on, which leads to decrease the quality of food. The most widely used type of packaging in the food industry is plastic which is made from synthetic polymers and takes hundreds of years to biodegrade. Recently, food packaging with high bio-degradability is being developed using biopolymer combined with nanoparticles as reinforcing agent (filler) to improve its properties. In this study, semi-refined iota carrageenan films were prepared by incorporating SiO2 nanoparticles as filler at different concentrations (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% w/w carrageenan) using solution casting method. The optical transparency and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation at break) of the films were analyzed. The results showed that incorporation of SiO2 nanoparticles to carrageenan matrix on optical transparency of the films. For the mechanical properties, the highest tensile strength was found for incorporation of 0.5% SiO2, while the elongation at break of the films improved with increasing SiO2 concentration.

  20. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Anshul Kumar; Abraham, Robinson J J; Appa Rao, V; Babu, R Narendra

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), tyrosine value (TV), extract release volume (ERV), Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV), instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV) and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application.

  1. Degraded iota-carrageenan can induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhe; Han, Ya-Xin; Han, Xiao-Rui

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a high-grade malignant bone tumor. Therefore, using both in vitro and in vivo assays, the effects of degraded iota-Carrageenan (ι-CGN) on a human osteosarcoma cell line, HOS, were examined. Degraded ι-CGN was observed to induce apoptosis and G(1) phase arrest in HOS cells. Moreover, degraded ι-CGN suppressed tumor growth in established xenograft tumor models. Accordingly, the survival rate of these mice was significantly higher than that of mice bearing tumors treated with native ι-CGN or PBS. In addition, the formation of intratumoral microvessels was inhibited following treatment with degraded ι-CGN. In Western blot assays, degraded ι-CGN was found to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Overall, these studies demonstrate the antitumor activity of degraded ι-CGN toward the OS cell line, HOS. Moreover, valuable insight into the mechanisms mediated by degraded ι-CGN was obtained, potentially leading to the identification of novel treatments for OS. However, additional studies are needed to confirm these results in other cell types, particularly in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  2. Quality evaluation of probiotic capsule prepared from alginate, carrageenan and tofu waste flour based on bacterial activity and organoleptic test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhardina, V.; Ermaya, D.; Aisyah, Y.; Haryani, S.

    2018-02-01

    Probiotic capsule is an innovation in functional food sector. It is used to preserve the living cells of probiotic bacteria during processing and storage. In this research, the improvement of probiotic viability is studied by using two kinds of encapsulating biomaterials and different concentration of tofu waste flour. Extrusion is selected method for encapsulation process. The purpose of this study is to examine the quality of probiotic capsule by evaluating the lactic acid bacteria performance and its physical characteristic. The article provides the data of probiotic bacteria activity related to their living cells present in capsule, activity in fermentation media compare to uncapsulated bacteria, and panelists’ preferences of capsule’s physical properties. The data is analyzed statistically by using ANOVA. The result shows that variables in this study affect the number of bacteria, their metabolic activity in producing acid during fermentation, and physical appearance of the capsule. Combination of alginate and tofu waste flour allows the multiplication of bacteria to a high number, and forms elastic, yellow and cloudy capsule, while with carrageenan, it causes the growth of a few numbers of bacteria which affects to a moderate pH and produces elastic, creamy and transparent capsule.

  3. Polyox and carrageenan based composite film dressing containing anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory drugs for effective wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Joshua S; Pawar, Harshavardhan V; Tetteh, John

    2013-01-30

    Polyethylene oxide (Polyox) and carrageenan based solvent cast films have been formulated as dressings for drug delivery to wounds. Films plasticised with glycerol were loaded with streptomycin (30%, w/w) and diclofenac (10%, w/w) for enhanced healing effects in chronic wounds. Blank and drug loaded films were characterised by texture analysis (for mechanical and mucoadhesive properties), scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, swelling, in vitro drug release and antibacterial studies were conducted to further characterise the films. Both blank and drug loaded films showed a smooth, homogeneous surface morphology, excellent transparency, high elasticity and acceptable tensile (mechanical) properties. The drug loaded films showed a high capacity to absorb simulated wound fluid and significant mucoadhesion force which is expected to allow effective adherence to and protection of the wound. The films showed controlled release of both streptomycin and diclofenac for 72 h. These drug loaded films produced higher zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli compared to the individual drugs zones of inhibition. Incorporation of streptomycin can prevent and treat chronic wound infections whereas diclofenac can target the inflammatory phase of wound healing to relieve pain and swelling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of elasticity and hydration of composite hydrogel based on collagen-iota carrageenan as a corneal tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinawati, M.; Triastuti, J.; Pursetyo, K. T.

    2018-04-01

    The cornea is a refractive element of the eye that serves to continue the stimulation of light into the eye it has a clear, transparent, elastic and relatively thick tissue. Factors caused corneal blindness, are dystrophy, keratoconus, corneal scaring. Hydrogels can be made from polysaccharide derivatives that have gelation properties such as iota carrageenan. Therefore, it is a need to develop composite hydrogel based collagen-iota carragenan as an engineeried corneal tissue with high elasticity and hydration properties. Collagen hydrogel has a maximum water content an has equlibrium up to 40 %, less than the human cornea, 81 % and under normal hydration conditions, the human cornea can transmit 87 % of visible light. In addition, the refractive index on the surface of the cornea with air is 1.375-1.380. Based on this study, it is necessary to conduct research on the development and composition of hydrogel composite collagen-iota carrageen hydrogen based on. The best result was K5 (5:5) treatment, which has the equilibrium water content of 87.07 % and viscosity of 10.7346 Pa.s.

  5. Release mechanism of doxazosin from carrageenan matrix tablets: Effect of ionic strength and addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Petra; Pavli, Matej; Baumgartner, Saša; Kogej, Ksenija

    2017-08-30

    The polyelectrolyte matrix tablets loaded with an oppositely charged drug exhibit complex drug-release mechanisms. In this study, the release mechanism of a cationic drug doxazosin mesylate (DM) from matrix tablets based on an anionic polyelectrolyte λ-carrageenan (λ-CARR) is investigated. The drug release rates from λ-CARR matrices are correlated with binding results based on potentiometric measurements using the DM ion-sensitive membrane electrode and with molecular characteristics of the DM-λ-CARR-complex particles through hydrodynamic size measurements. Experiments are performed in solutions with different ionic strength and with the addition of an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). It is demonstrated that in addition to swelling and erosion of tablets, the release rates depend strongly on cooperative interactions between DM and λ-CARR. Addition of SDS at concentrations below its critical micelle concentration (CMC) slows down the DM release through hydrophobic binding of SDS to the DM-λ-CARR complex. On the contrary, at concentrations above the CMC SDS pulls DM from the complex by forming mixed micelles with it and thus accelerates the release. Results involving SDS show that the concentration of surfactants that are naturally present in gastrointestinal environment may have a great impact on the drug release process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Polyaniline - Carrageenan - Polyvinyl Alcohol Composite Material Synthesized Via Interfacial Polymerization, its Morphological Characteristics and Enhanced Solubility in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbo, R. C. K.; Marquez, M. C.

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, conducting polyaniline (PAni) has been a popular interest of research in the field of conducting polymers due to its relatively low cost, ease of production, good conductivity, and environmental stability. Many studies however, have focused on improving its short-comings such as its limited processability and solubility in common solvents. In this study, PAni, soluble in water was produced via interfacial polymerization with chloroform as the organic solvent. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and kappa(κ), iota(ι) and lambda(λ) - carrageenan (κCGN, ιCGN, λCGN) were added to the aqueous layer to stabilize PAni in the medium. FTIR and UV-Vis absorption spectra of the solutions as well as the fabricated film confirmed the existence of PAni emeraldine salt (PAni-ES). FTIR spectrum also confirmed the peaks corresponding to the interaction of PAni with the CGNs. Moreover, PVA-CGN played a very large role on the stability of the PAni nanofibers integrated on the PVA-CGN matrix. The morphologies of the products were further investigated using SEM and TEM. Polymer electrolyte for supercapacitor or an interfacial layer for organic solar cell is being targeted as potential application of the synthesized water soluble PAni.

  7. Hemostatic granules and dressing prepared from formulations of carboxymethyl cellulose, kappa-carrageenan and polyethylene oxide crosslinked by gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Bin Jeremiah D.; Aranilla, Charito T.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Cruz, Veriza Rita C.; Vista, Jeanina Richelle; Abad, Lucille V.

    2018-03-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage remains a persistent problem especially in anatomical areas where compression and tourniquet cannot be applied. Hemostatic agents are materials which can achieve control of bleeding in acute, life-threatening traumatic coagulopathy. In this study, we prepared biocompatible hydrogel-based hemostat crosslinked by ionizing radiation. Granules made from carboxymethyl cellulose and dressing from kappa carrageenan and polyethylene oxide were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, and gel analysis. Gamma radiation with a dose of 25 kGy was used for sterilization process. Stability studies indicate that the products remain effective with a shelf life of up to 18 months based on accelerated aging. Both hemostatic agents were demonstrated to be effective in vitro blood clotting assays showing a low blood clotting index, high platelet adhesion capacity and accelerated clotting time. Hemostat granules and dressing were also used in a femoral artery rat bleeding model where hemorrhage control was achieved in 90 s without compression and resulted in 100% survival rate after a 7 and 14-day observation.

  8. PENGARUH KONSUMSI KAPPA-KARAGENAN TERHADAP GLUKOSA DARAH TIKUS WISTAR (Ratus norvegicus DIABETES [The Effect of Kappa-Carrageenan Consumption on Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Wistar Rat (Ratus norwegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kappa-carrageenan consumption on blood glucose level were studied on diabetic male wistar rat (Ratus norvegicus.The rats were made diabetic by aloxan injection, and then were given that a ration contains 5, 10, 15, 20% (w/w kappa-carrageenan, standard ration (negative control, and parental glibenklamid (positive control. The results showed that the standard ration could not reduce blood glucose from hyperglycemic to normal level, while the ration contained kappacarrageenan could. The higher kappa-carrageenan seaweed level in the ration has higher capacity to decrease blood glucose level. The ration containing 20% and 15% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose in 18 and 21 days, respectively.The effect of this ration was similar to that of glibenklamid which reduced blood glucose to normal level in 18 days. The ration containing 5 and 10% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose level; Blood glucose leve return to normal on the 21st day.

  9. Thermodynamics of kappa-Carrageenan-Amphiphilic Drug Interaction as Influenced by Specific Counterions and Temperature: A Microcalorimetric and Viscometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh; Caram-Lelham

    1998-07-15

    The adsorption of amphiphilic drug molecules to a polyelectrolyte, kappa-carrageenan, has been shown to be related to hydrophobicity of drug and the conformation of the polyanion which in turn can be regulated by choice of counterion. The binding is of a strongly cooperative nature and the degree of cooperativity has been found to be related to the self-aggregation tendency of the drug molecules. This system has been examined by titration microcalorimetry and capillary viscometry to determine the thermodynamics of the binding phenomenon. The titration calorimetry data confirms the trends and conclusions drawn regarding the factors that control the binding. Viscometry shows that although there is a change in size of the polymeric chains when the drug molecules are adsorbed, the effect is primarily due to charge neutralization and not a conformation change. This allows the microcalorimetry data to be analyzed to recover the enthalpy of binding of the drug molecules to the polymer. Earlier published equilibrium binding data has been analyzed to determine the binding constants and free energy changes in the process (-25 to -90 kJ/mol). A phenomenological model has been derived for the cooperative binding process for this purpose. The binding process is primarily enthalpy driven with the major part of enthalpy change (-10 to -40 kJ/mol) arising from the aggregation of bound drug molecules, i.e., from hydrophobic interactions; the process is also entropically favorable. The size of these aggregates in polymer-bound state is of the order of 2-5 molecules of drug, similar to the pre-micellar aggregates of the drugs in solution. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  10. Phototherapy with low intensity laser in carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory process in mice paw - dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneguzzo, Daiane Thais

    2010-01-01

    The importance of modulation of inflammation on the treatment of inflammatory diseases and the difficulty in determining the laser irradiation parameters has led us to study the effects of different protocols of phototherapy with low intensity laser (power, energy, time and place of irradiation) in the treatment and prevention of edema in acute inflammatory process using the experimental model of paw edema induced by carrageenan (CGN) in three strains of mice (Balb-c, Swiss and C57BL/6). The first stage of the study evaluated different combinations of energy (1J and 3J) with different powers (30, 60 and 100mW) in Balb-C mice paw irradiated 1 and 2h after injection of CGN. The second stage studied different combinations of location (foot, inguinal lymph nodes and both) and exposure time (2 and 1h before, 1h and immediately before the CGN, 1 and 2h and 3.5 and 4.5h after CGN) using fixed irradiation parameters (1J, 100mW, 35J/cm 2 , spot area of 0.028 cm 2 ). The third stage compared different strains of mice Balb-c and C57BL/6) in the best local and time parameters found in step 2. At all stages, we evaluated the change in paw volume by plethysmography and inflammatory infiltrate by histomorphometry or analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO). The results showed that laser phototherapy treated and prevented edema and modulated the inflammatory process with paw and inguinal lymph nodes irradiations accordingly with the parameters and mice strain used. (author)

  11. Effects of intraplantar botulinum toxin-B on carrageenan-induced changes in nociception and spinal phosphorylation of GluA1 and Akt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikandar, Shafaq; Gustavsson, Ynette; Marino, Marc J; Dickenson, Anthony H; Yaksh, Tony L; Sorkin, Linda S; Ramachandran, Roshni

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) delivered into the skin and muscle in certain human and animal pain states may exert antinociceptive efficacy though their uptake and transport to central afferent terminals. Cleavage of soluble N-methylaleimide-sensitive attachment protein receptor by BoNTs can impede vesicular mediated neurotransmitter release as well as transport/insertion of channel/receptor subunits into plasma membranes, an effect that can reduce activity-evoked facilitation. Here, we explored the effects of intraplantar botulinum toxin- B (BoNT-B) on peripheral inflammation and spinal nociceptive processing in an inflammatory model of pain. C57BL/6 mice (male) received unilateral intraplantar BoNT (1 U, 30 μL) or saline prior to intraplantar carrageenan (20 μL, 2%) or intrathecal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), substance P or saline (5 μL). Intraplantar carrageenan resulted in edema and mechanical allodynia in the injected paw and increased phosphorylation of a glutamate subunit (pGluA1ser845) and a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (pAktser473) in spinal dorsal horn along with an increased incidence of spinal c-Fos positive cells. Pre-treatment with intraplantar BoNT-B reduced carrageenan evoked: (i) allodynia, but not edema; (ii) pGluA1 and pAkt and (iii) c-Fos expression. Further, intrathecal NMDA and substance P each increased dorsal horn levels of pGluA1 and pAkt. Intraplantar BoNT-B inhibited NMDA, but not substance P evoked phosphorylation of GluA1 and Akt. These results suggest that intraplantar toxin is transported centrally to block spinal activation and prevent phosphorylation of a glutamate receptor subunit and a kinase, which otherwise contribute to facilitated states. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A model of peripheral microvascular injury: irreversible caudal necrosis induced in carrageenan-inflamed rats treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and mild chilling: a pluricausal thrombo-haemorrhagic phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, M W; Rainsford, K D

    1985-01-01

    A florid tail injury was observed in carrageenan-inflamed rats previously treated with acidic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs to suppress paw inflammation and then exposed to mild chilling (7-10 degrees C for 10-16 h). All three treatments, i.e. NSAI drug + carrageenan paw oedema + mild chilling treatment, were required for the development of this condition. Histological observations suggest that the tissue necrosis was initiated by a primary disturbance of the peripheral vasculature. The possible involvement of suppressed prostaglandin (PG) production in the aetiology of this condition is indicated by the fact that it was totally reversed by prior treatment with PGE2. This appears to be a classical pluricausal thrombohaemorrhagic phenomenon (of Selye), with cold-stress being the sensitizer and carrageenan and NSAI drugs being the challenger. The possibilities are considered of employing this tail injury model as a convenient method of developing drugs to control microvascular disturbances in man.

  13. EFFECT OF COMMERCIALLY MANUFACTURED KAPPA SEMI-REFINED CARRAGEENAN (SRC WITH DIFFERENT PHOSPHATE SALTS ON YIELD, TEXTURAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF BEEF MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Murugesan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphate salts such as SDP, TSP, SHMP, DSP, TPPP, TKPP and STPP were blended with semi-refined kappa carrageenan (SRC individually and their aqueous solution was injected into the fresh beef meat. The highest weight gain (24% in fresh meat was obtained from injection of blend made with SRC and STPP as compared to other blends and control sample after forzen storage. Similarly, it also showed low cooking loss (24% with good testural and sensory proerties as compared to other blends. It can be concluded from the presnt study that blend of SRC and STPP can be used in beef meat for yield and quality improvement.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effect of bee pollen ethanol extract from Cistus sp. of Spanish on carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki Yoko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bee pollen, a honeybee product, is the feed for honeybees prepared themselves by pollens collecting from plants and has been consumed as a perfect food in Europe, because it is nutritionally well balanced. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of bee pollen from Cistus sp. of Spanish origin by a method of carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, and to investigate the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action and also to elucidate components involved in bee pollen extracted with ethanol. Methods The bee pollen bulk, its water extract and its ethanol extract were administered orally to rats. One hour later, paw edema was produced by injecting of 1% solution of carrageenan, and paw volume was measured before and after carrageenan injection up to 5 h. The ethanol extract and water extract were measured COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities using COX inhibitor screening assay kit, and were compared for the inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The constituents of bee pollen were purified from the ethanol extract subjected to silica gel or LH-20 column chromatography. Each column chromatography fractions were further purified by repeated ODS or silica gel column chromatography. Results The bee pollen bulk mildly suppressed the carrageenan-induced paw edema and the water extract showed almost no inhibitory activity, but the ethanol extract showed relatively strong inhibition of paw edema. The ethanol extract inhibited the NO production and COX-2 but not COX-1 activity, but the water extract did not affect the NO production or COX activities. Flavonoids were isolated and purified from the ethanol extract of bee pollen, and identified at least five flavonoids and their glycosides. Conclusions It is suggested that the ethanol extract of bee pollen show a potent anti-inflammatory activity and its effect acts via the inhibition of NO production, besides the inhibitory activity of COX-2

  15. Corrigendum to “Rheological properties of agar and carrageenan from Ghanaian red seaweeds” [Food Hydrocolloids 63 (2017) 50–58

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    . G., Penninkhof, B., Rudolph, B., & De Ruiter, G. A. (1999). A novel high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic method for the analysis of carrageenans and agars containing 3,6-anhydrogalactose. Analytical Biochemistry, 268, 213-222. Table 3 Overview of seaweed type (hydrocolloid source......), hydrocolloid extraction method (direct water-extraction or after alkali treatment), hydrocolloid and monomer1 yields, and sulfate levels [data given as means ± SD]. Different roman superscript letters indicate significant differences (P agar yields, monosaccharides...

  16. Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Semi Refined Kappa Carrageenan-based Composite Edible Film and Its Application on Minimally Processed Chicken Breast Fillet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, D.; Maimuni, B. H.; Manuhara, G. J.; Muhammad, D. R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Kappa-carrageenan (KC) is one of the most interesting biopolymers that is composed of a linear chain of sulfated galactans and extracted from red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii. It shows good potential for development as a source of biodegradable or edible films. However, KC films do not have good water vapor barrier properties, as they are intrinsically hydrophilic. Palmitic acid (PA) as hydrophobic material was incorporated into semi-refined kappa-carrageenan (SRKC) edible films in order to improve water vapor barrier properties. In this study, composite films based on SRKC incorporating PA were prepared and their applications on minimally processed chicken breast fillet were evaluated. Composite SRKC-based films with varying concentrations of PA (5%, 10%, and 15% w/w) were obtained by a solvent casting method. Their mechanical and barrier properties were investigated. Results showed that the incorporation of PA in films caused an increase in thickness, but decrease in water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) as the concentration of PA increased (from 5% to 15% w/w). Composite SRKC-based edible film incorporating 15% w/w of PA presented better water vapor barrier properties as compared to other films with 5% and 10% w/w PA incorporation. Thus, formulation containing 15% w/w PA was used as a wrapping material for film application on minimally processed chicken breast fillet. The application results showed that the incorporation of PA in film caused an effect (p 0.05) change the color of minimally processed chicken breast fillet.

  17. Sex Difference in Oxytocin-Induced Anti-Hyperalgesia at the Spinal Level in Rats with Intraplantar Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation.

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    Chow, Lok-Hi; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Wu, Wan-Chuan; Chang, En-Pei; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated intrathecal administration of oxytocin strongly induced anti-hyperalgesia in male rats. By using an oxytocin-receptor antagonist (atosiban), the descending oxytocinergic pathway was found to regulate inflammatory hyperalgesia in our previous study using male rats. The activity of this neural pathway is elevated during hyperalgesia, but whether this effect differs in a sex-dependent manner remains unknown. We conducted plantar tests on adult male and female virgin rats in which paw inflammation was induced using carrageenan. Exogenous (i.t.) application of oxytocin exerted no anti-hyperalgesic effect in female rats, except at an extremely high dose. Female rats exhibited similar extent of hyperalgesia to male rats did when the animals received the same dose of carrageenan. When atosiban was administered alone, the severity of hyperalgesia was not increased in female rats. Moreover, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) was expressed at higher levels in the spinal cords of female rats compared with those of male rats. Oxytocin-induced anti-hyperalgesia exhibits a sex-dependent difference in rats. This difference can partially result from the higher expression of IRAP in the spinal cords of female rats, because IRAP functions as an enzyme that degrades oxytocin. Our study confirms the existence of a sex difference in oxytocin-induced anti-hyperalgesia at the spinal level in rats.

  18. Ceftriaxone and clavulanic acid induce antiallodynia and anti-inflammatory effects in rats using the carrageenan model

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    Ochoa-Aguilar A

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Ochoa-Aguilar,1,2 Rosa Ventura-Martinez,1 Marco Antonio Sotomayor-Sobrino,1 Ruth Jaimez,1 Ulises Coffeen,3 Ariadna Jiménez-González,2 Luis Gerardo Balcázar-Ochoa,1 Rafael Pérez-Medina-Carballo,2 Rodolfo Rodriguez,1 Ricardo Plancarte-Sánchez4 1Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, México; 2Research Department, Mexican Faculty of Medicine, La Salle University, Mexico City, México; 3Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Mexico City, México; 4Pain Clinic, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Mexico City, México Introduction: Ceftriaxone (CFX and clavulanic acid (CA are 2 β-lactam molecules widely used as antibiotics. However, several reports of their antiallodynic properties have been published in recent years. Although this effect has been considered mostly due to a GLT1 overexpression, these molecules have also been proven to induce direct immunomodulation. In this work, we determine the acute analgesic effect of CFX and CA in an inflammatory pain model and assess if their administration may induce anti-inflammatory effects. Methods: The carrageenan (Carr test was used as an inflammatory pain model. Both mechanical and thermal responses were analyzed after CFX and CA administration at different times. A plethysmometer was used to determine inflammation. Also, TNF-α and IL-10 serum concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Both CFX and CA induced a significant thermal antiallodynic effect 3 and 24 h after administration. Furthermore, CA induced a mechanical antiallodynic effect 30, 60, and 90 min after administration. Moreover, a significant anti-inflammatory effect was found for both molecules 24 h after Carr injection. Also, both CA and CFX modulated TNF-α and IL-10 serum concentrations at different times. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence that both CFX and CA cause an analgesic effect on a Carr

  19. Role of MCP-1 in pleural effusion development in a carrageenan-induced murine model of pleurisy.

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    Lansley, Sally M; Cheah, Hui Min; Lee, Y C Gary

    2017-05-01

    Exudative pleural effusions affect over 1500 patients per million population each year. The pathobiology of pleural exudate formation remains unclear. Our recent study revealed monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) as a key driver of fibrinolytic-induced exudate effusion while another study found a role for MCP-1 in malignant effusion formation. In the present study, we further evaluated the role of MCP-1 in the development of pleural effusion in a mouse model of acute pleural inflammation. λ-Carrageenan (CAR) was injected into the pleural cavity of CD1 mice and pleural effusion volume measured up to 16 h post-injection. Pleural effusion and serum protein and MCP-1 concentrations were measured and differential cell counts performed in fluids. Mice were also treated with either intraperitoneal (i) anti-MCP-1 antibody or isotype control or (ii) an MCP-1 receptor (CCR2) antagonist or vehicle control 12 h prior to and at the time of CAR injection. Intrapleural CAR induced significant pleural fluid accumulation (300.0 ± 49.9 μL) in mice after 4 h. Pleural fluid MCP-1 concentrations were significantly higher than corresponding serum MCP-1 (144 603 ± 23 204 pg/mL vs 3703 ± 801 pg/mL, P pleural fluid formation was seen both with anti-MCP-1 antibody (median (interquartile range, IQR): 36 (0-168) μL vs controls 290 (70-436) μL; P = 0.02) or CCR2 antagonist (153 (30-222) μL vs controls 240 (151-331) μL, P = 0.0049). Blockade of MCP-1 activity significantly reduced inflammatory pleural effusion formation in a CAR model. Together with recent successes in MCP-1 blockade in other effusion formation models, our data strongly support clinical evaluation of MCP-1 antagonists as a novel approach to pleural fluid management. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Lessons learned from a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study with a iota-carrageenan nasal spray as medical device in children with acute symptoms of common cold

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    Fazekas Tamas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common cold is caused by a variety of respiratory viruses. The prevalence in children is high, and it potentially contributes to significant morbidity. Iota-carragenan, a polymer derived from red seaweed, has reduced viral load in nasal secretions and alleviated symptoms in adults with common cold. Methods We have assessed the antiviral and therapeutic activity of a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in children with acute symptoms of common cold. A cohort of 153 children between 1–18 years (mean age 5 years, displaying acute symptoms of common cold were randomly assigned to treatment with a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan (0.12% as verum or 0.9% sodium chloride solution as placebo for seven days. Symptoms of common cold were recorded and the viral load of respiratory viruses in nasal secretions was determined at two consecutive visits. Results The results of the present study showed no significant difference between the iota carrageenan and the placebo group on the mean of TSS between study days 2–7. Secondary endpoints, such as reduced time to clearance of disease (7.6 vs 9.4 days; p = 0.038, reduction of viral load (p = 0.026, and lower incidence of secondary infections with other respiratory viruses (p = 0.046 indicated beneficial effects of iota-carrageenan in this population. The treatment was safe and well tolerated, with less side effects observed in the verum group compared to placebo. Conclusion In this study iota-carrageenan did not alleviate symptoms in children with acute symptoms of common cold, but significantly reduced viral load in nasal secretions that may have important implications for future studies. Trial registration ISRCTN52519535, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN52519535/

  1. Lessons learned from a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study with a iota-carrageenan nasal spray as medical device in children with acute symptoms of common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazekas, Tamas; Eickhoff, Philipp; Pruckner, Nathalie; Vollnhofer, Georg; Fischmeister, Gustav; Diakos, Christopher; Rauch, Margit; Verdianz, Maria; Zoubek, Andreas; Gadner, Helmut; Lion, Thomas

    2012-09-05

    Common cold is caused by a variety of respiratory viruses. The prevalence in children is high, and it potentially contributes to significant morbidity. Iota-carragenan, a polymer derived from red seaweed, has reduced viral load in nasal secretions and alleviated symptoms in adults with common cold. We have assessed the antiviral and therapeutic activity of a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in children with acute symptoms of common cold. A cohort of 153 children between 1-18 years (mean age 5 years), displaying acute symptoms of common cold were randomly assigned to treatment with a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan (0.12%) as verum or 0.9% sodium chloride solution as placebo for seven days. Symptoms of common cold were recorded and the viral load of respiratory viruses in nasal secretions was determined at two consecutive visits. The results of the present study showed no significant difference between the iota carrageenan and the placebo group on the mean of TSS between study days 2-7. Secondary endpoints, such as reduced time to clearance of disease (7.6 vs 9.4 days; p = 0.038), reduction of viral load (p = 0.026), and lower incidence of secondary infections with other respiratory viruses (p = 0.046) indicated beneficial effects of iota-carrageenan in this population. The treatment was safe and well tolerated, with less side effects observed in the verum group compared to placebo. In this study iota-carrageenan did not alleviate symptoms in children with acute symptoms of common cold, but significantly reduced viral load in nasal secretions that may have important implications for future studies. ISRCTN52519535, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN52519535/

  2. Structural Modification of Fish Gelatin by the Addition of Gellan, κ-Carrageenan, and Salts Mimics the Critical Physicochemical Properties of Pork Gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Li Cheng; Kong, Karmaine; Yang, Hongshun

    2018-05-01

    Pork gelatin is not suitable for halal and kosher application; however, fish gelatin (FG) can be modified for use as a pork gelatin (PG) mimetic. Herein, low-acyl gellan (GE), κ-carrageenan (KC), and salts (CaCl 2 or KCl) were combined with a 180 Bloom tilapia FG. A formulation comprising 5.925% (w/v) FG + 0.025% (w/v) GE + 3mM CaCl 2 best matched the physicochemical properties of PG. The modification increased the FG gel strength from 115 ± 2 to 149 ± 2 g (matching the 148 ± 2 of PG), while the T m increased from 27.9 ± 1.0 to 32.4 ± 0.8 °C (matching the 33.1 ± 0.3 °C of PG). Nanoaggregates (diameter between 150 and 300 nm) could be an important structural factor affecting the physicochemical properties, as both PG and GE-modified FG showed a similar frequency distribution in this size group (57.4 ± 1.6% (PG) compared with 56.3 ± 2.2% (modified FG)). To further explore the differences between KC and GE in modifying of FG's structure, the FG-KC and FG-GE gels were compared. The zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results for the FG-KC gel supported an associative interaction with complex formation, as indicated from the large aggregates and amorphous phase under atomic force microscopy (AFM). Contrastingly, a segregative FG-GE interaction took place in presence of CaCl 2 . These structures and interaction differences between FG-GE and FG-KC influenced the macro-properties of FG, possibly explaining the differences in the modification of the melting temperature of FG. A diagram representing the interaction-structure-physicochemical properties was proposed to explain the differences between the FG-GE and FG-KC gels. Certain people cannot consume any pork product or derivatives for religious reasons, thus it is essential to find a pork gelatin (PG) substitute for food product development. The commonly used polysaccharides, gellan and carrageenan, together with salt, can be added to fish gelatin (FG) to match the

  3. Kaempferol attenuates COX-2 expression in IL-6-induced macrophages and carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema by targeting STAT3 and NF-kB

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    Anandita Basu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols are reported to possess varied pharmacological activities, viz. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-allergic actions. Here, we report the efficacy of Kaempferol (kae to attenuate expression of IL-6 induced cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2, an inducible isoform of cycloxygenase enzyme family that catalyzes synthesis of inflammatory mediators, prostanoids and prostaglandins. IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in both acute and chronic inflammation. Our results showed that kae attenuated COX-2 expression at both mRNA and protein level in IL-6-induced THP1 macrophages. This attenuation of COX-2 expression by kae involved dose-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation of STAT3 (Tyr 705 and NF-kB p65 (Ser 536 leading to their deactivation and reduced nuclear localization in THP-1 macrophages. Moreover, kae modulates COX-2 expression as well as STAT3 and NF-kB activation in carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema model. RT-PCR and western blot analysis from paw tissues were harvested after kae injection (i.p followed by carrageenan-treatment in sub-plantar region of right hind paw. Results showed that kae attenuated COX-2 expression and STAT3 and NF-kB activation in carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema, suggesting that inhibition of both IL-6-STAT3-COX-2 and IL-6-NFkB-COX-2 axes by kae might be stimulus-independent. To understand binding affinity of kae with NF-kB and STAT3, docking analysis was performed using Patchdock server. From our findings, we observed strong binding affinity and transient interaction in both NF-kB/kae and STAT3/kae complexes. We noticed negative atomic contact energy and greater interface area for both the complexes. Selected complexes obtained from Patchdock were refined using Firedock online server which also suggested similar negative binding energy profile. It is plausible that kae attenuates COX-2 expression by directly binding to both STAT3 and NF-kB proteins and inhibiting their activation and

  4. Synthesis of Polyvinyl Pirrolidone (PVC /Κ-Carrageenan Hydrogel Prepared by Gamma Radiation Processing As a Function of Dose and PVP Concentration

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    Erizal Erizal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to prepare a biomaterial to be used in health care. A series of hydrogels based on polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP/κ-Carrageenan (KC has been prepared by radiation technique. PVP (5-15% were mixed with ΚC (2% and irradiated by gamma rays at the doses from 25 kGy to 35 kGy (dose rate 7 kGy/h at room temperature. The chemical change of hydrogels was characterized using Fourier Transform infra Red (FTIR. Gel fraction, water absorption and water evaporation were determined gravimetrically. Tensile strength and elongation at break was measured using Instron meter. It was found that with the increase irradiation dose and PVP concentration, the gel fraction and tensile strength of hydrogels increase. In contrast the elongation at break and water absorption of hydrogels decrease. The hydrogel of PVP/KC hydrogel produced by gamma radiation can be considered for wound dressings.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of yellow konjac flour-κ-carrageenan mixed gels and red koji rice extracts on the properties of restructured meat using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjanarko, Simon Bambang; Amalia, Qory; Hermanto, Mochamad Bagus; Mubarok, Ahmad Zaki

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of two independent variables, yellow konjac flour-κ-carrageenan (KFC) mixed gels and red koji rice (RKR) extracts for the development of restructured meat product, was investigated using central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). The assessed physical characteristics were hardness, water holding capacity (WHC), and color (° hue ) of the restructured meat products. The second order regression models with high R 2 value were significantly fitted to predict the changes in hardness, WHC and color. The results showed that the predicted optimum formula of restructured meat were the addition of KFC mixed gels at 10.21% and RKR extracts at 6.11%. The experiments results validate these optimum formula and found to be not statistically different at 5% level. Thus, the RSM was successfully employed and can be used to optimize the formulation of restructured meat.

  6. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice.

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    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    Full Text Available Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histopathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model.

  7. Proliferating effect of radiolytically depolymerized carrageenan on physiological attributes, plant water relation parameters, essential oil production and active constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minu; Khan, M Masroor A; Uddin, Moin; Naeem, M; Qureshi, M Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Carrageenan has been proved as potent growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form. However, relatively little is known about its role in counteracting the adverse effects of drought stress on plants. In a pot experiment, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud.), grown under different water stress regimes [(100% field capacity (FC), 80% FC and 60% FC)], was sprayed with 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1 of gamma irradiated carrageenan (ICA). Foliar application of ICA mitigated the harmful effects of drought stress to various extents and improved the biochemical characteristics, quality attributes and active constituents (citral and geraniol) of lemongrass significantly. Among the applied treatments, ICA-80 mg L-1 proved the best in alleviating detrimental effects of drought. However, drought stress (80 and 60% FC), irrespective of the growth stages, had an adverse impact on most of the studied attributes. Generally, 60% FC proved more deleterious than 80% FC. At 80% FC, application of ICA-80 mg L-1 elevated the essential oil (EO) content by 18.9 and 25%, citral content by 7.33 and 8.19% and geraniol content by 9.2 and 8.9% at 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP), respectively, as compared to the deionized-water (DW) spray treatment (80% FC+ DW). Whereas, at 60% FC, foliar application of 80 mg L-1 ICA significantly augmented the EO content by 15.4 and 17.8% and active constituents viz. citral and geraniol, by 5.01 and 5.62% and by 6.06 and 5.61% at 90 and 120 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control (water-spray treatment).

  8. Proliferating effect of radiolytically depolymerized carrageenan on physiological attributes, plant water relation parameters, essential oil production and active constituents of Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. under drought stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu Singh

    Full Text Available Carrageenan has been proved as potent growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form. However, relatively little is known about its role in counteracting the adverse effects of drought stress on plants. In a pot experiment, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud., grown under different water stress regimes [(100% field capacity (FC, 80% FC and 60% FC], was sprayed with 40, 80 and 120 mg L-1 of gamma irradiated carrageenan (ICA. Foliar application of ICA mitigated the harmful effects of drought stress to various extents and improved the biochemical characteristics, quality attributes and active constituents (citral and geraniol of lemongrass significantly. Among the applied treatments, ICA-80 mg L-1 proved the best in alleviating detrimental effects of drought. However, drought stress (80 and 60% FC, irrespective of the growth stages, had an adverse impact on most of the studied attributes. Generally, 60% FC proved more deleterious than 80% FC. At 80% FC, application of ICA-80 mg L-1 elevated the essential oil (EO content by 18.9 and 25%, citral content by 7.33 and 8.19% and geraniol content by 9.2 and 8.9% at 90 and 120 days after planting (DAP, respectively, as compared to the deionized-water (DW spray treatment (80% FC+ DW. Whereas, at 60% FC, foliar application of 80 mg L-1 ICA significantly augmented the EO content by 15.4 and 17.8% and active constituents viz. citral and geraniol, by 5.01 and 5.62% and by 6.06 and 5.61% at 90 and 120 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control (water-spray treatment.

  9. Fabrication of micropatterned alginate-gelatin and k-carrageenan hydrogels of defined shapes using simple wax mould method as a platform for stem cell/induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignesh, S; Gopalakrishnan, Aswathi; M R, Poorna; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R; Mony, Ullas

    2018-06-01

    Micropatterning techniques involve soft lithography, which is laborious, expensive and restricted to a narrow spectrum of biomaterials. In this work we report, first time employment of patterned wax moulds for generation of micropatterned alginate-gelatin and κ-carrageenan (κ-CRG) hydrogel systems by a novel, simple and cost effective method. We generated and characterized uniform and reproducible micropatterned hydrogels of varying sizes and shapes such as square projections, square grooves, and circular grids and crisscrossed hillocks. The rheological analysis showed that κ-carrageenan hydrogels had higher gel strength when compared to alginate-gelatin hydrogels. Human Mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPSCs) were found to be cytocompatible with these hydrogels. This micropatterned hydrogel system may have potential application in tissue engineering and also in understanding the basic biology behind the stem cell/iPSC fate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of carrageenan, agarans and alginates to be used as food additives; Efeito da radiacao gama na viscosidade de carragenanas, agaranas e alginatos utilizados na industria alimenticia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    1999-07-01

    Carrageenan, agarans and alginates are phycocolloids, which change the consistence of the foodstuff and prevent undesirable changes such as moisture migration or textural profile changes. These phycocolloids are additives used in large scale for all kind of food products. They are not absorbed for the human organism and do not introduce extra calories in the diet. The process of irradiation, is an alternative method of great potential, because do not increase the temperature and it is highly in the decontamination of food ingredients. In this work, agar alginates and carrageenan were irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of the irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. The viscosity of these hydrocolloids shows a decrease when submitted to an irradiation with doses until 10 kGy. (author)

  11. Use of antioxidants substances to protect the hydrocolloids carrageenan, agaran and alginates used in food industry when exposed to radiation; Uso de substancias antioxidantes na resposta a radiacao dos hidrocoloides carragenanas, agaranas e alginatos utilizados na industria alimenticia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    2006-07-01

    Carrageenan, agaran e alginates are hydrocolloids largely employed in every kind of food products as stabilizing agent and viscosity builder. The human body does not absorb them, so they do not introduce extra calories in the diet. Irradiation is presented as an important alternative method in food preservation because do not induce temperature increase being of good efficiency in cold food ingredients decontamination. In this work aqueous solutions of carrageenan, agar e sodium alginate were gamma irradiated (0-10 kGy) in presence of ascorbic acid, roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract and soy isoflavone. Edible polysaccharide solutions showed to be suitable systems for the evaluation of ionizing radiation effects as they presented a singular radiosensitivity through viscosity changes. The results obtained showed that in general the antioxidants employed had a radioprotective action that can be of importance in the future commercial applications of food irradiation. (author)

  12. Therapeutic effects of Qian-Yu decoction and its three extracts on carrageenan-induced chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keda; Zeng, Xiaobin; Chen, Yonggang; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Hui; Wu, Jinhu

    2017-01-25

    Qian-Yu decoction (QYD) is a traditional Chinese medicinal recipe composed of Radix astragali (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge var. mongholicus (Bunge) P.K. Hsiao, Fabaceae ), Herba epimedii (Epimedium brevicornum Maxim., Berberidaceae), Herba leonuri (Leonurus japonicus Houtt., Lamiaceae), Cortex phellodendri (Phellodendron chinense Schneid., Rutaceae) and Radix achyranthis bidentatae (Achyranthes bidentata Bl., Amaranthaceae). This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic activity of QYD against carrageenan-induced chronic prostatic/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in rats and further elucidate its effective components. Three types of components, total polysaccharides, total flavonoids and total saponins were separately extracted from QYD. Carrageenan-induced CP/CPPS rats were intragastrically administered with lyophilized product of QYD, individual extracts and all the combined forms of extracts for three weeks. Prostatic index (PI) was determined and histopathological analysis was performed. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PEG2) in rat prostate tissues were measured using ELISA. The production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was evaluated by an enzymatic activity assay, and the release of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by a nitrate/nitrite assay. Treatment with QYD significantly ameliorated the histological changes of CP/CPPS rats and reduced the PI by 44.3%, with a marked downregulation of TNF-α (42.8% reduction), IL-1β (45.3%), COX-2 (36.6%), PGE2 (44.2%), iNOS (54.1%) and NO (46.0%). Each of three extracts attenuated the symptom of CP/CPPS, but much more weakly than QYD. The combined administration of three extracts showed efficacy comparable to that of QYD while better than that of any combination of two extracts. A principal component analysis of the six inflammatory mediators as variables indicated that the effects of TS on CP

  13. A new strategy for the modification of a carbon paste electrode with carrageenan hydrogel for a sensitive and selective determination of arsenic in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Claudia; Arancibia, Verónica; Triviño, Juan José

    2018-09-01

    An adsorptive stripping voltammetric method for the determination of As(III) and As total in water samples using a carrageenan modified carbon paste electrode is presented for the first time (CAR-CPE). The modified electrode was prepared in different ways: by adding CAR in solid form or as a hydrogel together with graphite and paraffin, as well as adsorbing CAR by applying a potential on an unmodified carbon paste electrode. The best results were obtained when CAR was incorporated as hydrogel (HCAR-CPE). The selection of the ratio amounts for electrode preparation was carried out applying a multivariate experimental design. Variables like amount of graphite (U 1 ), HCAR (U 2 ) and paraffin (U 3 ) were optimized using a (2 K +2K+C) model. The results showed that the amount of HCAR was the most significant factor, and the adequate U 1 :U 2 :U 3 ratio to prepare the electrode was: 493 mg of graphite, 214 μL of paraffin and 134 μL of carrageenan as gel. The optimum parameters for the determination of As(III) were pH = 3.25 (0.01 mol L -1 H 3 PO 4 /H 2 PO 4 - solution); E acc = -0.50 V and t acc = 30 s. The electrode presents good linear behavior concentration range from 0.50 to 6.70 μg L -1 , with a limit of detection of 0.22 μg L -1 . The relative standard deviation was 5.0% at the 1.5 μg L -1 As(III) level (n = 16). The method was validated by quantifying As(III) in spiked tap water from laboratory (RE: 3.0%), and it was applied for the determination of As total in water samples from the Loa River (North of Chile) prior reduction of As(V) with Na 2 S 2 O 3 solution, obtaining 814.00 ± 0.03 μg L -1 . The results of the proposed method were compared with those obtained by adsorptive stripping voltammetry with HMDE and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oligo-Carrageenan Kappa-Induced Reducing Redox Status and Increase in TRR/TRX Activities Promote Activation and Reprogramming of Terpenoid Metabolism in Eucalyptus Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR/thioredoxin(TRX system induced by oligo-carrageenan (OC kappa in Eucalyptus globulus activate secondary metabolism increasing terpenoid synthesis, trees were sprayed on the leaves with water, with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of NAD(PH, ascorbate (ASC and (GSH synthesis and TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO and auranofine, respectively, and with OC kappa and cultivated for four months. The main terpenoids in control Eucalyptus trees were eucalyptol (76%, α-pinene (7.4%, aromadendrene (3.6%, silvestrene (2.8%, sabinene (2% and α-terpineol (0.9%. Treated trees showed a 22% increase in total essential oils as well as a decrease in eucalyptol (65% and sabinene (0.8% and an increase in aromadendrene (5%, silvestrene (7.8% and other ten terpenoids. In addition, treated Eucalyptus showed seven de novo synthesized terpenoids corresponding to carene, α-terpinene, α-fenchene, γ-maaliene, spathulenol and α-camphenolic aldehyde. Most increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids have potential insecticidal and antimicrobial activities. Trees treated with CHS-828, lycorine, BSO and auranofine and with OC kappa showed an inhibition of increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids. Thus, OC kappa-induced reducing redox status and activation of TRR/TRX system enhance secondary metabolism increasing the synthesis of terpenoids and reprogramming of terpenoid metabolism in Eucalyptus trees.

  15. A High-Throughput Oxidative Stress Biosensor Based on Escherichia coli roGFP2 Cells Immobilized in a k-Carrageenan Matrix

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    Lia Ooi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors fabricated with whole-cell bacteria appear to be suitable for detecting bioavailability and toxicity effects of the chemical(s of concern, but they are usually reported to have drawbacks like long response times (ranging from hours to days, narrow dynamic range and instability during long term storage. Our aim is to fabricate a sensitive whole-cell oxidative stress biosensor which has improved properties that address the mentioned weaknesses. In this paper, we report a novel high-throughput whole-cell biosensor fabricated by immobilizing roGFP2 expressing Escherichia coli cells in a k-carrageenan matrix, for the detection of oxidative stress challenged by metalloid compounds. The E. coli roGFP2 oxidative stress biosensor shows high sensitivity towards arsenite and selenite, with wide linear range and low detection limit (arsenite: 1.0 × 10−3–1.0 × 101 mg·L−1, LOD: 2.0 × 10−4 mg·L−1; selenite: 1.0 × 10−5–1.0 × 102 mg·L−1, LOD: 5.8 × 10−6 mg·L−1, short response times (0–9 min, high stability and reproducibility. This research is expected to provide a new direction in performing high-throughput environmental toxicity screening with living bacterial cells which is capable of measuring the bioavailability and toxicity of environmental stressors in a friction of a second.

  16. Oligo-carrageenan kappa-induced reducing redox status and increase in TRR/TRX activities promote activation and reprogramming of terpenoid metabolism in Eucalyptus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Cutiño, Marlen; Moenne, Alejandra

    2014-06-05

    In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin(TRX) system induced by oligo-carrageenan (OC) kappa in Eucalyptus globulus activate secondary metabolism increasing terpenoid synthesis, trees were sprayed on the leaves with water, with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of NAD(P)H, ascorbate (ASC) and (GSH) synthesis and TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and auranofine, respectively, and with OC kappa and cultivated for four months. The main terpenoids in control Eucalyptus trees were eucalyptol (76%), α-pinene (7.4%), aromadendrene (3.6%), silvestrene (2.8%), sabinene (2%) and α-terpineol (0.9%). Treated trees showed a 22% increase in total essential oils as well as a decrease in eucalyptol (65%) and sabinene (0.8%) and an increase in aromadendrene (5%), silvestrene (7.8%) and other ten terpenoids. In addition, treated Eucalyptus showed seven de novo synthesized terpenoids corresponding to carene, α-terpinene, α-fenchene, γ-maaliene, spathulenol and α-camphenolic aldehyde. Most increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids have potential insecticidal and antimicrobial activities. Trees treated with CHS-828, lycorine, BSO and auranofine and with OC kappa showed an inhibition of increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids. Thus, OC kappa-induced reducing redox status and activation of TRR/TRX system enhance secondary metabolism increasing the synthesis of terpenoids and reprogramming of terpenoid metabolism in Eucalyptus trees.

  17. Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice by Oral Administration of Anthocyanin Mixture from Wild Mulberry and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside

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    Neuza Mariko Aymoto Hassimotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are flavonoids which demonstrated biological activities in in vivo and in vitro models. Here in the anti-inflammatory properties of an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AF extracted from wild mulberry and the cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, were studied in two acute inflammation experimental models, in the peritonitis and in the paw oedema assays, both of which were induced by carrageenan (cg in mice. In each trial, AF and C3G (4 mg/100 g/animal were orally administered in two distinct protocols: 30 min before and 1 h after cg stimulus. The administration of both AF and C3G suppresses the paw oedema in both administration times (P<0.05. In the peritonitis, AF and C3G reduced the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN influx in the peritoneal exudates when administered 1 h after cg injection. AF was more efficient reducing the PMN when administered 30 min before cg. Both AF and C3G were found to suppress mRNA as well as protein levels of COX-2 upregulated by cg in both protocols, but the inhibitory effect on PGE2 production in the peritoneal exudates was observed when administered 30 min before cg (P<0.05. Our findings suggest that AF and C3G minimize acute inflammation and they present positive contributions as dietary supplements.

  18. The Effect of Lithium Iodide to the Properties of Carboxymethyl κ-Carrageenan/Carboxymethyl Cellulose Polymer Electrolyte and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance

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    Siti Rudhziah Che Balian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the solid biopolymer electrolytes based on a carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose blend complexed with lithium iodide of various weight ratios. The complexation of the doping salt with the polymer blend was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Ionic conductivity of the film was determined by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 4 MHz and in the temperature range of 303–338 K. The ionic conductivity increased with the increase in lithium iodide concentration as well as temperature. The membrane comprising 30 wt % of lithium iodide was found to give the highest conductivity of 3.89 × 10−3 S·cm−1 at room temperature. The increase in conductivity was associated with the increase in the number as well as the mobility of the charge carries. The conductivity increase with temperature followed the Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher model. The fabricated dye-sensitive solar cell, FTO/TiO2-dye/CMKC/CMCE-LiI (30 wt % +I2/Pt exhibited the highest conversion efficiency of 0.11% at a light intensity of 100 mW·cm−2. This indicated that the biopolymer blend electrolyte system has potential for use in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  19. Optimization of the extraction of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii using response surface methodology Otimização da extração de carragenana de Kappaphycus alvarezii utilizando metodologia de superfície de resposta

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    Vanessa Webber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to optimize an alternative method of extraction of carrageenan without previous alkaline treatment and ethanol precipitation using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. In order to introduce an innovation in the isolation step, atomization drying was used reducing the time for obtaining dry carrageenan powder. The effects of extraction time and temperature on yield, gel strength, and viscosity were evaluated. Furthermore, the extracted material was submitted to structural analysis, by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR, and chemical composition analysis. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation. Carrageenan yield and gel viscosity were influenced only by the extraction temperature. However, gel strength was influenced by both, extraction time and extraction temperature. Optimal extraction conditions were 74 ºC and 4 hours. In these conditions, the carrageenan extract properties determined by the polynomial model were 31.17%, 158.27 g.cm-2, and 29.5 cP for yield, gel strength, and viscosity, respectively, while under the experimental conditions they were 35.8 ± 4.68%, 112.50 ± 4.96 g.cm-2, and 16.01 ± 1.03 cP, respectively. The chemical composition, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy analyses showed that the crude carrageenan extracted is composed mainly of κ-carrageenan.Este estudo tem como objetivo otimizar um método alternativo para extração de carragenana sem tratamento alcalino prévio e sem precipitação com etanol através da Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta (RSM. A fim de inovar a etapa de isolamento, a secagem por atomização foi adaptada, o que reduziu o tempo para a obtenção do pó seco. Os efeitos da temperatura e do tempo de extração sobre o rendimento, força do gel e de viscosidade foram avaliados. Além disso, o material extraído foi submetido a análises estruturais por

  20. The nonnucleoside reverse transcription inhibitor MIV-160 delivered from an intravaginal ring, but not from a carrageenan gel, protects against simian/human immunodeficiency virus-RT Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravantinou, Meropi; Singer, Rachel; Derby, Nina; Calenda, Giulia; Mawson, Paul; Abraham, Ciby J; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Goldman, Daniel; Kenney, Jessica; Villegas, Guillermo; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Piatak, Michael; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Teleshova, Natalia; Robbiani, Melissa

    2012-11-01

    We previously showed that a carrageenan (CG) gel containing 50 μM MIV-150 (MIV-150/CG) reduced vaginal simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-RT infection of macaques (56%, p>0.05) when administered daily for 2 weeks with the last dose given 8 h before challenge. Additionally, when 100 mg of MIV-150 was loaded into an intravaginal ring (IVR) inserted 24 h before challenge and removed 2 weeks after challenge, >80% protection was observed (p<0.03). MIV-160 is a related NNRTI with a similar IC(50), greater aqueous solubility, and a shorter synthesis. To objectively compare MIV-160 with MIV-150, herein we evaluated the antiviral effects of unformulated MIV-160 in vitro as well as the in vivo protection afforded by MIV-160 delivered in CG (MIV-160/CG gel) and in an IVR under regimens used with MIV-150 in earlier studies. Like MIV-150, MIV-160 exhibited potent antiviral activity against SHIV-RT in macaque vaginal explants. However, formulated MIV-160 exhibited divergent effects in vivo. The MIV-160/CG gel offered no protection compared to CG alone, whereas the MIV-160 IVRs protected significantly. Importantly, the results of in vitro release studies of the MIV-160/CG gel and the MIV-160 IVR suggested that in vivo efficacy paralleled the amount of MIV-160 released in vitro. Hundreds of micrograms of MIV-160 were released daily from IVRs while undetectable amounts of MIV-160 were released from the CG gel. Our findings highlight the importance of testing different modalities of microbicide delivery to identify the optimal formulation for efficacy in vivo.

  1. Mast cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines roles in assessment of grape seeds extract anti-inflammatory activity in rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema

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    Amany Ahmed Mohamed Abd-Allah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Reactive oxygen species (ROS-produced oxidative disorders were involved at the pathophysiology of many inflammatory processes via the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antioxidant defense system suppression. Although herbal antioxidants as mono-therapy relief many inflammatory diseases including, autoimmunity rheumatoid arthritis, but as combination therapy with other proven anti-inflammatory drugs in order to decreasing their toxic impacts has not yet been studied clearly, especially against chemical substances that’s induced local inflammation with characteristic edema. Materials and Methods: Grape seeds extract (GSE at a concentration of 40 mg/kg B. wt alone or in combination with indomethacin (Indo. at a dose of 5 mg/Kg B. wt orally given for 10 days prior (gps VI, VII, VIII or as a single dose after edema induction (gps IX, X, XI in rat's left hind paw by sub-planter single injection of 0.1 carrageenan: saline solution (1% (gp. V to assess the prophylactic and therapeutic anti-inflammatory activities of both through  the estimation of selective inflammatory mediators and oxidative damage-related biomarkers as well as tissue mast cell scoring. Furthermore, both substances were given alone (gps II, III, IV for their  blood, liver and kidney safety evaluation comparing with negative control rats (gp. I which kept without medication. Results: A marked reduction on the inflammatory mediators, edema volume and oxidative byproducts in edema bearing rats' prophylactic and treated with grape seeds extract and indomethacin was observed. Indomethacin found to induce some toxicological impacts which minimized when administered together with GSE. Conclusion: GSE is a safe antioxidant agent with anti-inflammatory property.

  2. The Novelty in Fabrication of Poly Vinyl Alcohol/κ-Carrageenan Hydrogel with Lactobacillus bulgaricus Extract as Anti-inflammatory Wound Dressing Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fawal, Gomaa F; Yassin, Abdelrahman M; El-Deeb, Nehal M

    2017-07-01

    Material barrier properties to microbes are an important issue in many pharmaceutical applications like wound dressings. A wide range of biomaterials has been used to manage the chronic inflamed wounds. Eight hydrogel membranes of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) with κ-carrageenan (KC) and Lactobacillus bulgaricus extract (LAB) have been prepared by using freeze-thawing technique. To evaluate the membranes efficiency as wound dressing agents, various tests have been done like gel fraction, swelling behavior, mechanical properties, etc. The antibacterial activities of the prepared membranes were tested against the antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates. In addition, the safety usage of the prepared hydrogel was checked on human dermal fibroblast cells. The anti-inflammatory properties of the prepared hydrogel on LPS-PBMC cell inflammatory model were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The analysis data of TGA, SEM, gel fraction, and swelling behavior showed changes in properties of prepared PVA\\KC\\LAB hydrogel membrane than pure PVA hydrogel membrane. The antibacterial activities of the prepared membranes augmented in LAB extract-prepared membranes. Out of the eight used hydrogel membranes, the PVAKC4 hydrogel membrane is the safest one on fibroblast cellular proliferation with a maximum proliferation percentage 97.3%. Also, all the used hydrogel membrane showed abilities to reduce the concentration of IL-2 and IL-8 compared with both negative and positive control. In addition, almost all the prepared hydrogel membrane showed variable abilities to downregulate the expression of TNF-α gene with superior effect of hydrogel membrane KC1. PVA/KC/LAB extract hydrogel membrane may be a promising material for wound dressing application and could accelerate the healing process of the chronic wound because of its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.

  3. Electroacupuncture Reduces Carrageenan- and CFA-Induced Inflammatory Pain Accompanied by Changing the Expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8, rather than Nav1.9, in Mice Dorsal Root Ganglia.

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    Huang, Chun-Ping; Chen, Hsiang-Ni; Su, Hong-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Several voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) from nociceptive nerve fibers have been identified as important effectors in pain signaling. The objective of this study is to investigate the electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia mechanism by changing the expression of Navs in mice dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We injected carrageenan and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the mice plantar surface of the hind paw to induce inflammation and examined the antinociception effect of EA at the Zusanli (ST36) acupoint at 2 Hz low frequency. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by using electronic von Frey filaments, and thermal hyperalgesia was assessed using Hargreaves' test. Furthermore, we observed the expression and quality of Navs in DRG neurons. Our results showed that EA reduced mechanical and thermal pain in inflammatory animal model. The expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 was increased after 4 days of carrageenan- and CFA-elicited inflammatory pain and further attenuated by 2 Hz EA stimulation. The attenuation cannot be observed in Nav1.9 sodium channels. We demonstrated that EA at Zusanli (ST36) acupoint at 2 Hz low-frequency stimulation attenuated inflammatory pain accompanied by decreasing the expression of Nav1.7 and 1.8, rather than Nav1.9, sodium channels in peripheral DRG neurons.

  4. In vitro and in vivo ocular safety and eye surface permanence determination by direct and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of ion-sensitive hydrogels based on gellan gum and kappa-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; González Barcia, Miguel; Gil-Martínez, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Lema, Isabel; Argibay, Barbara; Blanco Méndez, José; Lamas, Maria Jesus; Otero-Espinar, Francisco Javier

    2015-08-01

    Gellan gum, kappa-carrageenan and alginates are natural polysaccharides able to interact with different cations that can be used to elaborate ion-activated in situ gelling systems for different uses. The interaction between fluid solutions of these polysaccharides and cations presents into the tear made these biopolymers very interesting to elaborate ophthalmic drug delivery systems. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of mixtures of these polymers to obtain ion-activated ophthalmic in situ gelling systems with optimal properties for ocular use. To achieve this purpose different proportion of the biopolymers were analyzed using a mixture experimental design evaluating their transparency, mechanical properties and bioadhesion in the absence and presence of simulated tear fluid. Tear induces a rapid sol-to-gel phase transition in the mixtures forming a consistent hydrogel. The solution composed by 80% of gellan gum and 20% kappa-carrageenan showed the best mechanical and mucoadhesive properties. This mixture was evaluated for rheological behavior, microstructure, cytotoxicity, acute corneal irritancy, ex-vivo and in vivo ocular toxicity and in vivo corneal contact time using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) techniques. Result indicates that the system is safe at ophthalmic level and produces an extensive ocular permanence higher than 6h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of different energy delivery settings in laser and LED phototherapies in the inflammatory process of rat's TMJ induced by carrageenan.

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    de Castro, Isabele C V; Rosa, Cristiane B; Carvalho, Carolina M; Aragão, Juliana S; Cangussu, Maria Cristina T; Dos Santos, Jean N; Pinheiro, Antonio L B

    2015-11-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are mostly inflammatory conditions widespread in the population. Previous studies have shown positive effects of either laser or light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapies on treating TMDs, but their action and mechanism in the inflammatory infiltrate of the temporomandibular joint are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess, through histological analysis, the effectiveness of using laser light (λ 780 nm, 70 mW, continous wave (CW), 10 J) and LED (λ 850 ± 10 nm, 100 mW, CW, 10 J) on the inflammation of the temporomandibular joint of rats induced by carrageenan. Forty-five animals were divided into three groups with five animals each according to the experimental times of 2, 3, and 7 days: inflammation, inflammation+laser phototherapy, and inflammation+LED phototherapy. The first irradiation was performed 24 h after induction with an interval of 48 h between sessions. After animal death, specimens were processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and picrosirius. Then, the samples were examined histologically. Data were statistically analyzed. The inflammation group showed mild to moderate chronic inflammatory infiltrate between bone trabecules of the condyle. Over the time course of the study in the laser group, the region of the condyle presented mild chronic inflammation and intense vascularization. In the LED group, the condyle showed aspects of normality and absence of inflammation in some specimens. In all the time points, the laser-irradiated groups showed greater amount of collagen deposition in the condyle (p = 0.04) and in the disc (p = 0.03) when compared to the inflammation and LED groups, respectively. Laser- and LED-treated groups demonstrate a smaller number of layers of the synovial membrane when compared to the non-irradiated groups. It was concluded that, in general, laser and LED phototherapies resulted in a reduction of inflammatory infiltrate in the

  6. New multilayer coating using quaternary ammonium chitosan and κ-carrageenan in capillary electrophoresis: application in fast analysis of betaine and methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Luciano; Della Betta, Fabiana; Costa, Ana Carolina O; Vaz, Fernando Antonio Simas; Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Fávere, Valfredo T; Micke, Gustavo A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new multilayer coating with crosslinked quaternary ammonium chitosan (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan; HACC) and κ-carrageenan for use in capillary electrophoresis. A new semi-permanent multilayer coating was formed using the procedure developed and the method does not require the presence of polymers in the background electrolyte (BGE). The new capillary multilayer coating showed a cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) of around 30×10(-9) m(2) V(-1) s(-1) which is pH-independent in the range of pH 2 to 10. The enhanced EOF at low pH obtained contributed significantly to the development of a fast method of separation. The multilayer coating was then applied in the development of a fast separation method to determine betaine and methionine in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The BGE used to determine the betaine and methionine concentrations was composed of 10 mmol L(-1) tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, 40 mmol L(-1) phosphoric acid and 10% (v/v) ethanol, at pH 2.1. A fused-silica capillary of 32 cm (50 µm ID×375 µm OD) was used in the experiments and samples and standards were analyzed employing the short-end injection procedure (8.5 cm effective length). The instrumental analysis time of the optimized method was 1.53 min (approx. 39 runs per hour). The validation of the proposed method for the determination of betaine and methionine showed good linearity (R(2)>0.999), adequate limit of detection (LOD <8 mg L(-1)) for the concentration in the samples and inter-day precision values lower than 3.5% (peak area and time migration). The results for the quantification of the amino acids in the samples determined by the CZE-UV method developed were statistically equal to those obtained with the comparative LC-MS/MS method according to the paired t-test with a confidence level of 95%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolamento, fracionamento e atividade anticoagulante de iota-carragenanas da Solieria filiformis Isolation, fractionation and anticoagulant activity of iota-carrageenans from Solieria filiformis

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    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo isolar, fracionar e avaliar o potencial anticoagulante de iota-carragenanas (i-CARs da rodofícea Solieria filiformis, quando obtidas por dois métodos de extração (M I e M II. As i-CARs foram isoladas com papaína bruta em tampão acetato de sódio 0,1M (pH 5,0, contendo cisteína 5mM e EDTA 5mM (M I ou água (80°C (M II e, em seguida, determinada sua composição química de carboidratos totais, sulfato livre (SL e proteínas contaminantes. As i-CARs foram submetidas à cromatografia de troca iônica (DEAE-celulose usando um gradiente de cloreto de sódio, sendo avaliado o tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA e tempo de protrombina das frações obtidas e comparadas à heparina (193UI mg-1. Uma fração anticoagulante também foi submetida ao procedimento de eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. A diferença no rendimento de i-CARs entre os métodos foi 10,14%. A composição química de SL (29,40% e o fracionamento, por DEAE-celulose, indicaram o M I mais eficiente na obtenção de i-CARs, comparado ao M II. O TTPA também foi somente alterado para as i-CARs do M I. Contudo, a atividade anticoagulante in vitro de uma fração rica (8,52UI mg-1 foi inferior à da heparina.This study aimed to isolate, fractionate and evaluate the anticoagulant potential of iota-carrageenans (i-CARs from Solieria filiformis when two extraction methods (M I and M II were used. i-CARs were isolated with papain in 0.1M sodium acetate (pH 5.0 containing 5mM cystein and 5mM EDTA (M I or water (80°C (M II, and then their chemical composition of total carbohydrates, free sulfate (FS and contaminant proteins were determined. i-CARs were submitted to anion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose using a sodium chloride gradient,being evaluated the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT and prothrombin time of obtained fractions and compared to heparin (193IU mg-1. A rich fraction of anticoagulant was also submitted to 0

  8. Phosphate-Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide Formation from Agar, Gellan, and κ-Carrageenan and Recovery of Microbial Cultivability via Catalase and Pyruvate.

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    Kawasaki, Kosei; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2017-11-01

    Previously, we reported that when agar is autoclaved with phosphate buffer, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is formed in the resulting medium (PT medium), and the colony count on the medium inoculated with environmental samples becomes much lower than that on a medium in which agar and phosphate are autoclaved separately (PS medium) (T. Tanaka et al., Appl Environ Microbiol 80:7659-7666, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02741-14). However, the physicochemical mechanisms underlying this observation remain largely unknown. Here, we determined the factors affecting H 2 O 2 formation in agar. The H 2 O 2 formation was pH dependent: H 2 O 2 was formed at high concentrations in an alkaline or neutral phosphate buffer but not in an acidic buffer. Ammonium ions enhanced H 2 O 2 formation, implying the involvement of the Maillard reaction catalyzed by phosphate. We found that other gelling agents (e.g., gellan and κ-carrageenan) also produced H 2 O 2 after being autoclaved with phosphate. We then examined the cultivability of microorganisms from a fresh-water sample to test whether catalase and pyruvate, known as H 2 O 2 scavengers, are effective in yielding high colony counts. The colony count on PT medium was only 5.7% of that on PS medium. Catalase treatment effectively restored the colony count of PT medium (to 106% of that on PS medium). In contrast, pyruvate was not as effective as catalase: the colony count on sodium pyruvate-supplemented PT medium was 58% of that on PS medium. Given that both catalase and pyruvate can remove H 2 O 2 from PT medium, these observations indicate that although H 2 O 2 is the main cause of reduced colony count on PT medium, other unknown growth-inhibiting substances that cannot be removed by pyruvate (but can be by catalase) may also be involved. IMPORTANCE The majority of bacteria in natural environments are recalcitrant to laboratory culture techniques. Previously, we demonstrated that one reason for this is the formation of high H 2 O

  9. Effect of chitosan molecular weight on the formation of chitosan-pullulanase soluble complexes and their application in the immobilization of pullulanase onto Fe3O4-κ-carrageenan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jie; Xu, Enbo; Li, Xingfei; Wu, Zhengzong; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan; Zhan, Xiaobei

    2016-07-01

    The interactions between pullulanase and chitosans of different molecular weights (Mw) were comprehensively studied, and their applications in pullulanase immobilization onto Fe3O4-κ-carrageenan nanoparticles upon chitosan-pullulanase complexation were also evaluated. Chitosan (CS) complexation with pullulanase was found to be dependent on pH and chitosan Mw. The critical pH of structure-forming events during complexation shifted significantly (pproperties of immobilized pullulanase. Pullulanase immobilized upon CS-50 complexation exhibited the most desirable enzymatic properties. These results indicated that the complexation behavior was mainly dependent on chitosan Mw. This study presents a technique for the production of immobilized pullulanase upon complexation that exhibits potential for applications in continuous syrup production. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. STAT3 and NF-κB are common targets for kaempferol-mediated attenuation of COX-2 expression in IL-6-induced macrophages and carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema

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    Anandita Basu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2 is the inducible isoform of cycloxygenase enzyme family that catalyzes synthesis of inflammatory mediators, prostanoids and prostaglandins, and therefore, can be targeted by anti-inflammatory drugs. Here, we showed a plant polyphenol, kaempferol, attenuated IL-6-induced COX-2 expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells suggesting its beneficial role in chronic inflammation. Kaempferol deactivated and prevented nuclear localization of two major transcription factors STAT3 and NF-κB, mutually responsible for COX-2 induction in response to IL-6. Moreover, STAT3 and NF-κB were simultaneously deactivated by kaempferol in acute inflammation, as shown by carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema model. The concomitant reduction in COX-2 expression in paw tissues suggested kaempferol’s role in mitigation of inflammation by targeting STAT3 and NF-κB.

  11. Influência do amido e carragena nas propriedades texturiais de surimi de tilápia (Oreochomis sp. Influence of starch and carrageenan on textural properties on tilapia (Oreochomis sp. surimi

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    Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas carcaças residuais da filetagem industrial de tilápias (Oreochomis sp. na obtenção de carne de pescado separada mecanicamente (CPSM para elaboração de surimi. Amidos de diferentes fontes, como milho ceroso, milho ceroso modificado e mandioca, e o polissacarídeo carragena foram usados como ingredientes, e estudados seus efeitos no comportamento do gel de surimi. O surimi elaborado a partir de carcaças residuais da filetagem industrial, apresentou um rendimento final de 25% (peso/peso. A análise instrumental de textura apresentou um efeito fortalecedor, em relação à força de penetração dos amidos no gel de surimi, sendo esse efeito proporcional à viscosidade (r = 0,81, pFillet frames from industrial processing of tilapias (Oreochomis sp. was utilized to obtained minced meat for surimi. Starch from differents sources ( waxy maize starch, modified waxy maize starch and tapioca and the polysaccharide carrageenan was utilized like additives, and then studied their effects on surimi gel behaviour. Tilapia surimi showed a yield of 25% (weight/weight. The instrumental analysis of texture showed a strong effect of starch in relation to penetration force in surimi gel, these effect was proportional to starches viscosity (r = 0,81, p<0,05, studied by Brabender amylograph, by other hand, both starch and carrageenan showed a decresed in viscoelasticity of surimi gel (p<0,005.

  12. Effects of Locus Bean Gum, Kappa Carrageenan and Iota Carrageenan on the Syneresis, Texture and Some Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Ham / Efecto de la Goma de Algarrobo, la Carragenina Kappa y la Carragenina Iota Sobre la Sinéresis, Textura y Algunas C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Sepúlveda Cossio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluated the effect of the additionof locus bean gum (LBG, Kappa carrageenan (KC and Iotacarrageenan (IC on some characteristics of cooked ham. For this purpose, a 2% mixture of LBG: KC: IC was added to the formula of a cooked ham standard brine, established according to the following ratios of 14 treatments (T: (T1: 100% IC; (T2: 100% KC; (T3: 50: 50 LBG: KC mixture; (T4: 50: 50 LBG: IC mixture; (T5: 33.33: 66.67KC: IC mixture; (T6: 66.67: 33.33 KC: IC mixture; (T7: 25: 75 LBG: KC mixture; (T8: 25: 75 LBG: IC mixture; (T9: 50: 16.17: 33.33 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T10: 50: 33.33: 16.17 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T11: 25: 56.25: 18.75 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T12: 25: 18.75: 56.25 LBG: KC: ICmixture; (T13: 12.5: 43.75: 43.75 LBG: KC: IC mixture and (T14: 37.5: 31.25: 31.25 LBG: KC: IC mixture. For all brines, the cooked ham was prepared and extended to 100%, and characteristics of hardness and elasticity were evaluated 14 and 28 days after manufacturing, through a texture analysis profile (TAP; along with syneresis in the packaging (purges by gravimetric analysis and, hardness, elasticityand general appearance; and sensory attributes through a sensory analysis. The lowest syneresis was shown for T11 and the lowest predicted syneresis by a third grade polynomial was shown in the mixtures 18.12: 64.46: 17.42 and 16.36: 65.56: 18.08 of LBG: KC: IC for days 14 and 28, respectively, with a syneresis value of 0.88%and 2.83%; the highest instrumental hardness (TAP was found inT7, and the highest predicted hardness at 14 days was found in mixture 24.72: 75.28 of LBG: KC, with a value of 22.74 N, while the highest predicted elasticity coinciding with a high hardness region was found in mixture 26.21: 67.82 : 8.98 of LBG: KC: IC, with a value of 0.93. In the sensory analysis, T7 and T11 (sampling points closer to these optimal were those that received the best scores in the evaluated parameters.

  13. Study of the inflammatory process induced by injection of carrageenan or formalin in the rat temporomandibular joint Estudo do processo inflamatório induzido pela injeção de carragenina ou de formalina na articulação temporomandibular de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Cruvinel Goulart; Francisco Antônio dos Santos Correia; Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado de Sousa; João Gualberto de Cerqueira Luz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the injection of two phlogistic agents, carrageenan and formalin, in the rat TMJ, and the inflammatory process induced by these substances. In this study, a total of 45 adult rats were distributed in two experimental groups and a control group. The animals were sacrificed after three hours, 24 hours, three days, seven days, and 15 days after a single injection of each substance. Histological data initially demonstrated an inflammatory proce...

  14. Conservation of Williams pear using edible coating with alginate and carrageenan Conservação de pera Williams utilizando coberturas comestíveis compostas de alginato e carragena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessiane Silva de Moraes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical parameters of Williams pear, stored at 25 ºC for 15 days, with and without edible coating. Edible coatings prepared with alginate 2% and carrageenan 0.5% were tested. The analyses carried out on the samples were: weight loss, pH, soluble solids, firmness, and color. The edible coatings were characterized in terms of mechanical properties, permeability, thickness, and opacity. The results show that the application of edible coatings with carrageenan and alginate in pears influenced physical and chemical characteristics such as weight loss, pH, total soluble solids, color, and firmness of the fruit. However, the alginate coating showed the best results on pear conservation since it had lower water vapor permeability and greater tensile strength, and therefore it can be used as a protective film on these fruits.O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os parâmetros físico-químicos da pera Williams, com e sem cobertura comestível, armazenada a 25 ºC por 15 dias. Foram testadas coberturas de alginato 2% e carragena 0,5%. As análises realizadas nas amostras foram: perda de massa fresca, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, firmeza e cor. As coberturas comestíveis foram caracterizadas por meio das propriedades mecânicas, de permeabilidade, espessura e opacidade. Os resultados mostraram que a aplicação de coberturas comestíveis com carragena e alginato em peras influenciou as características físico-químicas, como perda de massa fresca, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, cor e firmeza das frutas. Entretanto, a cobertura de alginato mostrou os melhores resultados na conservação de peras. Filmes de alginato apresentaram menor permeabilidade ao vapor de água e maior tensão de ruptura, servindo como uma barreira protetora à fruta.

  15. Oligo-carrageenan kappa-induced reducing redox status and activation of TRR/TRX system increase the level of indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellin A3 and trans-zeatin in Eucalyptus globulus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alberto; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Zúiga, Gustavo; Moenne, Alejandra

    2014-08-20

    Eucalyptus globulus trees treated with oligo-carrageenan (OC) kappa showed an increase in NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione levels and activation of the thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin (TRX) system which enhance photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth. In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and the activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin (TRX) increased the level of growth-promoting hormones, trees were treated with water (control), with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of ascorbate synthesis, lycorine, glutathione synthesis, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), NADPH synthesis, CHS-828, and thioredoxin reductase activity, auranofine, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for four additional months. Eucalyptus trees treated with OC kappa showed an increase in the levels of the auxin indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin A3 (GA3) and the cytokinin trans-zeatin (t-Z) as well as a decrease in the level of the brassinosteroid epi-brassinolide (EB). In addition, treatment with lycorine, BSO, CHS-828 and auranofine inhibited the increase in IAA, GA3 and t-Z as well as the decrease in EB levels. Thus, the reducing redox status and the activation of TRR/TRX system induced by OC kappa increased the levels of IAA, GA3 and t-Z levels determining, at least in part, the stimulation of growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  16. Iota-carrageenans from Solieria filiformis (Rhodophyta and their effects in the inflammation and coagulation=Iota-carragenanas da rodofícea Solieria filiformis e seus efeitos na inflamação e coagulação

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    Norma Maria Barros Benevides

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical analyses are important tools for discovering new bioactive compounds for medical clinic. This study aimed at isolating iota-carrageenans (ι-CARs from Solieria filiformis (Rhodophyta by enzymatic extraction (EE, refined hot-water extraction (RHWE and hot-water extraction (HWE, and test (EE, s.c. their anti-inflammatory effects in the peritonitis model using the Lambda-carrageenan (700 µg cavity-1, i.p. as an inflammatory stimuli in rats. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT was also evaluated in ι-CARs fractions, obtained by ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose, using rabbit plasma and compared to heparin (193 IU mg-1. The results showed that the ι-CARs (EE (3 or 9 mg kg-1 containing 89.92% total sugars, 29.02% sulfate and absence of contaminant proteins inhibited (p 0.05. Similar chromatography profiles were obtained among the methods; however, with fractions revealing different pattern on charge density by electrophoresis. Fractions had no virtually effects on APTT (1.16, 1.73 and 1.59 IU mg-1 for EE, RHWE and HWE, respectively. Further investigations to better understanding the actions of S. filiformis ι-CARs (EE in the inflammatory response are suggested.Análises bioquímicas são ferramentas importantes para a descoberta de novos compostos bioativos para clínica médica. Neste estudo, iota-carragenanas (ι-CARs da rodofícea Solieria filiformis foram isoladas (extração enzimática (EE, extração aquosa a quente refinada (EAQR ou extração aquosa a quente (EAQ e testadas (EE; s.c. no modelo de peritonite, usando-se a Lambda-carragenana (700 µg cavidade-1; i.p. como um estímulo flogístico, para averiguar seus efeitos anti-inflamatórios em ratos. O tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA também foi avaliado em frações de ι-CARs, obtidas por cromatografia de troca iônica (DEAE-celulose, usando plasma de coelho e comparadas à heparina (193 UI mg-1. Verificaram-se que ι-CARs (EE (3 ou 9 mg

  17. Towards the Synthesis of Carrageenan Oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnaert, Christine

    plants. Only very few reports are dealing with algae. However, land plants have algae ancestors and getting a better knowledge of algae cell walls could help understand the evolution of plant cell walls. Furthermore, some components specific to algae cell walls are very valuable in the industry. Indeed......, the polysaccharides present in the plant cell wall vary depending on the plant species and change during the developmental stage of the plant. This makes it very challenging to address the function of individual components in living cells as well as study the physical properties of each particular molecule....... Alternatively, structurally defined oligosaccharides can be used as models for the more complex polysaccharide components. This would enable to investigate a range of properties such as cell wall biosynthesis and protein-carbohydrate interactions, but also the physical properties of the pure oligosaccharides...

  18. Inhibition of carrageenan-induced expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA by low level laser therapy in a rat paw edema model Inibição da expressão de RNA mensageiro de pré-calicreínas tecidual e plasmática pela laserterapia em modelo de edema de pata induzido pela carragenina em ratos

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    Moisés P. Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROND: Low level laser therapy (LLLT has been used clinically in order to treat inflammation, where tissue and plasma prekallikrein have crucial importance. Plasma prekallikrein (PPK is synthesized by the hepatocytes and secreted into the bloodstream, where it participates in the surface-dependent activation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, kinin generation and inflammation. Tissue prekallikrein is associated with important disease states (including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegeneration and has been utilized or proposed as clinically important biomarker or therapeutic target of interest. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if LLLT modulates tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA expression in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. METHODS: Experimental groups were assigned as followed: A1 (Control-saline, A2 (Carrageenan-only, A3 (laser 660nm only and A4 (Carrageenan + laser 660nm. Edema was measured by a plethysmometer. Subplantar tissue was collected for the quantification of prekallikreins mRNA by Real time-Polymerase Chain Reaction. RESULTS: A significantly decrease in the edema was observed after laser irradiation. Expression of prekallikreins increased after carrageenan injection. Tissue and plasma prekallikrein mRNA expression significantly decreased after LLLT's 660nm wavelength. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins is modulated by LLLT, which can be used in clinical practice due to its anti-inflammatory effects.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A laserterapia de baixa potência tem sido usada para o tratamento de processos inflamatórios diversos em que a calicreína tecidual e a plasmática possuem participação ativa. A pré-calicreína plasmática (PPK é sintetizada pelos hepatócitos e secretada na corrente sanguínea, onde participa da ativação da coagulação, fibrinólise, geração de cininas e inflamação. A pré-calicreína tecidual está associada com importantes doenças (incluindo c

  19. Caracterização tecnológica de sobremesas lácteas achocolatadas cremosas elaboradas com concentrado protéico de soro e misturas de gomas carragena e guar Technological characterization of creamy chocolate dairy desserts prepared with whey protein concentrate and a mixture of carrageenan and guar gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Hideko Lemos Nikaedo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de sobremesas lácteas tem apresentado importante crescimento nesta última década, justificado pelo progresso tecnológico em ingredientes e processos. Neste trabalho efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química e sensorial de sobremesas lácteas achocolatadas cremosas, nas quais o concentrado protéico de soro - CPS (3,0; 2,0 e 1,0% foi usado com o leite em pó integral (5,0; 6,0 e 7,0%, carragena (0,05; 0,15 e 0,25%, goma guar (0,25; 0,15 e 0,05%, chocolate em pó (2,8%, açúcar (11,5% e sorbato de potássio (0,08%. Os resultados mostram que é viável utilizar o CPS em substituição ao leite em pó, oferecendo um produto com menores teores de gordura e de sólidos totais, e maior teor de proteínas. O produto apresentou melhor qualidade nutricional, além da redução calórica, favorecendo seu consumo por pessoas preocupadas com a saúde. A sobremesa elaborada com 1,00% de CPS, 7,00% de leite em pó, 0,05% de carragena e 0,25% de goma guar foi considerada a melhor pelos provadores, com aceitabilidade acima do valor 4 (bom.The consumption of dairy desserts has boomed in the last few decades, due to the technological progress in the development of ingredients and processes. In this study the physicochemical and sensory characterization of creamy chocolate dairy desserts were carried out. Whey powder concentrate - WPC (3.0; 2.0 and 1.0% was used with whole milk powder (5.0; 6.0 and 7.0%, carrageenan (0.05; 0.15 and 0.25%, guar gum (0.25; 0.15 and 0.05%, cocoa powder (2.8%, sugar (11.5% and potassium sorbate (0.08%, according to the trial. The results showed that it is possible to use WPC, replacing whole milk powder, and therefore creating a product with low fat and total solids, and high protein content. The final product presented better nutritional quality, besides reduced caloric value, which favors the consumption by people concerned with health. The experimental dairy dessert prepared with 1.00% WPC, 7.00% whole milk

  20. Study of the inflammatory process induced by injection of carrageenan or formalin in the rat temporomandibular joint Estudo do processo inflamatório induzido pela injeção de carragenina ou de formalina na articulação temporomandibular de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cruvinel Goulart

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the injection of two phlogistic agents, carrageenan and formalin, in the rat TMJ, and the inflammatory process induced by these substances. In this study, a total of 45 adult rats were distributed in two experimental groups and a control group. The animals were sacrificed after three hours, 24 hours, three days, seven days, and 15 days after a single injection of each substance. Histological data initially demonstrated an inflammatory process represented by acute infiltration, which later became mixed, and finally chronic in both experimental groups. Hyperplasia of the synovial membrane was observed after three days, being intense at seven days, and present after 15 days only in the formalin group. Local saline injection in the control group caused no inflammatory reaction. It was concluded that a single local injection of carrageenan or formalin was enough to induce inflammatory reaction in the TMJ and periarticular soft tissues, and that the resulting processes were similar, but more persistent in the formalin group.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da injeção de dois agentes flogísticos, ou seja, carragenina ou formalina, na ATM do rato, e a evolução do quadro inflamatório provocado por essas substâncias. Foram utilizados 45 ratos, divididos em dois grupos experimentais e um grupo controle. Os animais foram sacrificados em lotes de três de cada grupo após três horas, 24 horas, três dias, sete dias e 15 dias da injeção. Histologicamente a reação inflamatória em ambos os grupos experimentais iniciou-se com infiltrado inflamatório agudo, tornando-se misto e depois crônico. Sinais de hiperplasia da membrana sinovial foram observados aos três dias, intensos aos sete dias, estando presentes aos 15 dias somente no grupo da formalina. A injeção de solução salina (grupo controle não provocou reação inflamatória. No presente trabalho foi concluído que uma

  1. SHORT-TERM PERORAL TOXICITY OF UNDEGRADED CARRAGEENAN IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, E.

    1973-01-01

    or organ weights. The treatment resulted, however, in changes in the intestinal flora: the total counts of aerobic bacteria were decreased in the colon and rectum and the number of Lactobacilli was reduced in the rectum. No ulcerative colitis or erosions of the mucous membrane of caecum and colon were...

  2. Effect of Achyranthes bidentata Blume extract on carrageenan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle cell in the human prostate [18]. In addition, other evidence suggests that pro-fibrotic effects of TGF-β may be partly mediated by. CTGF [19]. As another potent profibrotic factor,. CTGF is implicated in fibroblast proliferation, cellular adhesion, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis [20]. Previous studies.

  3. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in κ-carrageenan

    CERN Document Server

    Ravindra, Pogaku

    2015-01-01

    This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For...

  4. EFECTO DE LA ADICIÓN DE CARRAGENINA KAPPA I.II Y GOMA TARA SOBRE CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CALIDAD DEL JAMÓN DE CERDO PICADO Y COCIDO EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF KAPPA I.II CARRAGEENAN AND TARA GUM ON QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COOKED AND CHOPPED PORK HAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alonso Restrepo Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron sinéresis, color y dureza instrumental y, sensorialmente las características de olor, sabor, color y dureza en jamones inyectados, cocidos y picados de cerdo, los cuales se habían elaborado aplicando en la salmuera de inyección una mezcla de hidrocoloides compuesta por carragenina kappa I.II y goma tara en una proporción de 79:21, en niveles del 1% y 1,2%, usando tres repeticiones para el estudio. Los jamones así elaborados se compararon contra un jamón testigo, elaborado sin el uso de estos hidrocoloides. Los valores obtenidos para los atributos, se analizaron mediante un diseño de una sola vía, con 5 repeticiones en el tiempo (0, 10, 20, 28 y 34 días, dando un arreglo factorial. Los resultados muestran que el tratamiento 2 (1,2% presentó la menor liberación de agua y la mayor dureza. No se registró diferencia entre los tratamientos y el testigo para la característica elasticidad. El testigo mostró las mejores características de color, olor y sabor sensoriales. La edad influyó en las características dureza y sinéresis en forma determinante, señalando el período desde el día 15 hasta el día 28 como aquel en que más se agudiza la sinéresis, siendo ésta más notable en el testigo que no contenía hidrocoloide.Characteristics of quality, color, texture and sineresis (instrumental and, odor, flavor, color and hardness (sensory of injected, cooked and chopped pork hams were assessed, which were manufactured using a mix of hydrocolloids in the brine of injection comprised by kappa I.II carrageenan and tara gum in a 79:21 ratio, at levels of 1% and 1.2%, using three replicates for the study; the finished hams were compared with a control ham, manufactured without the use of these hydrocolloids. The values obtained for the attributes, were analyzed through a one way design, with 5 repetitions in time (0, 10, 20, 28 and 34 days, providing a factorial arrangement. The results showed that the treatment 2 (1

  5. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR SOBRE LA INFLUENCIA DE LA CARRAGENINA KAPPA, KAPPA I.II Y GOMA TARA EN LA VISCOSIDAD Y TIXOTROPÍA DE LAS SALMUERAS DE INYECCIÓN PARA JAMONES COCIDOS PICADOS DE CERDO PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF KAPPA, KAPPA I.II CARRAGEENAN AND TARA GUM IN THE VISCOSITY AND THIXOTROPY OF INJECTION BRINES FOR COOKED CHOPPED HAMS OF PORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alexander Molina Cote

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio determinó el efecto que sobre la viscosidad y la tixotropía de una salmuera de masajeo para jamones picados cocidos de cerdo, tiene la adición de carragenina kappa, carragenina kappa I.II y goma tara, cuando son usadas a un nivel del 1% en la salmuera. Para tal efecto se incorporaron seis mezclas distintas de hidrocoloides provenientes de la carragenina kappa, kappa I.II y goma tara (individualmente, en mezclas binarias y mezclas terciarias, en una salmuera de inyección y masajeo para jamones; a las cuales se les determinó su comportamiento viscoso y tixotrópico a 4 ºC. Los datos obtenidos de índice de tixotropía (máximos, se analizaron mediante un modelo cuadrático derivado de un arreglo de mezclas. Los resultados mostraron que todas las salmueras se comportaron tixotrópicamente, presentando mayor área de histéresis, las mezclas que contenían goma tara. El modelo usado para el índice de tixotropía arrojó, con un nivel de significancia de 0,05, que la relación óptima, es la que contiene la mezcla de carragenina kappa I.II-goma tara (79% y 21%. Adicionalmente, las salmueras que contenían carragenina kappa, carragenina kappa I.II y carragenina kappa-carragenina kappa I.II presentaron menor viscosidad que las mezclas que contenían goma tara.The aim of this study was to determine the thixotropy´s effect of a massage brine in cooked chopped pork hams with addition of kappa, kappa I.II carrageenan, tara gum and their mixtures, when were used at 1% injection level of brine to meat. Six mixtures were evaluated. A protocol for thixotropy measurement adjusted to the conditions of brines used taking in account salinity, pH, temperature and shear stress. Data obtained from thixotropy index (maximum were analyzed with quadratic model derived from blends array. Results showed thixotropic measurement to brines presented a very small area, showing structural changes, but with very fast recovery. It was observed

  6. Neutrophils and the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 mediate carrageenan-induced antinociception in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana L. Pagano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously shown that the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 secreted by neutrophils mediates the antinociceptive response in an acute inflammatory model induced by the intraperitoneal injection of glycogen in mice.

  7. Effect of addition of semi refined carrageenan on mechanical characteristics of gum arabic edible film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyorini, D.; Nurcahyani, P. R.

    2016-04-01

    Currently the seaweed is processed flour and Semi Refined Carraagenan (SRC). However, total production is small, but both of these products have a high value and are used in a wide variety of products such as cosmetics, processed foods, medicines, and edible film. The aim of this study were (1) to determine the effect of SRC on mechanical characteristics of edible film, (2) to determine the best edible film which added by SRC with different concentration. The edible film added by SRC flour which divided into three concentrations of SRC. There are 1.5%; 3%; and 4.5% of SRC, then added 3% glycerol and 0.6% arabic gum. The mechanical properties of the film measured by a universal testing machine Orientec Co. Ltd., while the water vapor permeability measured by the gravimetric method dessicant modified. The experimental design used was completely randomized design with a further test of Duncan. The result show SRC concentration differences affect the elongation breaking point and tensile strength. But not significant effect on the thickness, yield strength and the modulus of elasticity. The best edible film is edible film with the addition of SRC 4.5%.

  8. RETRACTED: Novel drug delivery carrier from alginate-carrageenan and glycerol as plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Darmokoesoemo

    Full Text Available This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors-in-Chief.After a thorough investigation, the Editors have concluded that the acceptance of this article was based upon the positive advice of at least three illegitimate reviewer reports. The reports were submitted from email accounts which were provided to the journal as suggested reviewers during the submission of the article. Although purportedly real reviewer accounts, the Editors have concluded that these were not of appropriate, independent reviewers.This manipulation of the peer-review process represents a clear violation of the fundamentals of peer review, our publishing policies, and publishing ethics standards. Apologies are offered to the reviewers whose identities were assumed and to the readers of the journal that this deception was not detected during the submission process.

  9. Gelled vegetable desserts containing pea protein, k-carrageenan and starch

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Isabel; Nunes, M.C.; Raymundo, Anabela

    2006-01-01

    Due to recent animal diseases, cholesterol in take worries and strong demand for healthy food, there is a greater pressure for the direct consumption of vegetable proteins in food products. In this work, the objective is to develop alternative of strictly vegetable origin desserts based on gelled systems with required physical structure and perceived texture. For this reason, it is important to control the properties of the biopolymer mixtures and understand the phase separation beha...

  10. NATURAL POLYMERS: CELLULOSE, CHITIN, CHITOSAN, GELATIN, STARCH, CARRAGEENAN, XYLAN AND DEXTRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Zohra Benabid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers have been investigated for drug fields. They are widely being studied because of their non-toxic and biocompatible in nature. Biopolymers are used in industries as diverse as paper, plastics, food, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.This review covers different natural polymers, recent techniques applied in their processing and characterization. Advanced applications of natural polymers, including chitin, chitosan, alginate, etc., are discussed.

  11. Optimization of carrageenan-based jelly products added with nutrients for reducing osteoporosis risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athaillah, Zatil Afrah; Eviana, Irma; Pudjiraharti, Sri; Haryono, Agus

    2017-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a main concern, particularly in aging populations and more specifically in elderly women. Introducing functional foods that contains nutrients that have been scientifically proven to bring beneficial effects for bone metabolism is one of potential mechanism to reduce its prevalence. In this study, optimization of jelly products containing the necessary nutrients was conducted. We investigated the effect of adding skim milk, at particular concentrations, to gelling temperature of the sol, syneresis of the gels, and texture profile of the gels. Furthermore, green tea and ginger extract were added to the formulation and consumer preference on color and taste was analyzed. Our findings demonstrated that no significant difference in gelling temperature and syneresis was found as skim milk concentration was increased from 0.64 to 2.51%. Texture profile analysis data suggested that adding skim milk contributed to increased firmness, toughness, stringiness, and initial stiffness of the gels. In general, panellist could accept both color and taste of green tea and ginger jellies, as the median values were between 6 and 7 in the 9-point rating hedonic scale. These findings suggested that addition of nutrients beneficial for bone health can be conducted to jelly products with good sensory acceptance.

  12. Carrageenan :the difference between PNG and KCL gel precipitation method as Lactobacillus acidophilus encapsulation material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setijawati, D.; Nursyam, H.; Salis, H.

    2018-04-01

    The study on the effects of using of materials and methods in the preparation of the microcapsules Lactobacillus acidophilus towards the viability has been done. The research method used is experimental laboratory design. Variable research was kind of material (A) as the first factor with sub factor (A1 = Eucheuma cottonii) (A2 = Eucheuma spinosum) (A3 = mixture of Eucheuma cottonii and Eucheuma spinosum 1:1 ratio), while the second factor is a method of extraction to produce caragenan (B) with sub factor (B1 = Philipine Natural Grade modification) (B2 = KCl gel Press Precipitation). Analysis of different influences uses Analysis Of Varians followed by Fisher’s test. Analysis of data uses Mini tab 16. The results shows that the kind of extraction factors and methods gave significantly different effects on the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus. The highest mean of Viablity obtained in the treatment of materials with a mixture of Eucheuma cottonii and Eucheuma spinosum and used KCl Gel Press method is equal to 7.14 log (CFU / mL). It is ssuggested using of kappa-iota carrageenanmixture asencapsulation material with KCl Gel Press method on Lactobacillus acidophilus microencapsulation process because it treatment gavethe highest average of Lactobacillus acidophilus viability.

  13. Adhesion and viability of two enterococcal strains on covalently grafted chitosan and chitosan/kappa-carrageenan multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratskaya, S.; Marinin, D.; Simon, F.; Synytska, A.; Zschoche, S.; Busscher, H. J.; Jager, D.; van der Mei, H. C.

    Chitosans are natural aminopolysaccharides, whose low cytotoxicity suggests their potential use for nonadhesive, antibacterial coatings on biomaterials implant surfaces. Here, the antiadhesive behavior and ability to kill bacteria upon adhesion ("contact killing") of chitosan coatings were evaluated

  14. Technological characterization of creamy chocolate dairy desserts prepared with whey protein concentrate and a mixture of carrageenan and guar gum

    OpenAIRE

    Nikaedo, Patrícia Hideko Lemos; Amaral, Florence Franco; Penna, Ana Lúcia Barretto

    2004-01-01

    O consumo de sobremesas lácteas tem apresentado importante crescimento nesta última década, justificado pelo progresso tecnológico em ingredientes e processos. Neste trabalho efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química e sensorial de sobremesas lácteas achocolatadas cremosas, nas quais o concentrado protéico de soro - CPS (3,0; 2,0 e 1,0%) foi usado com o leite em pó integral (5,0; 6,0 e 7,0%), carragena (0,05; 0,15 e 0,25%), goma guar (0,25; 0,15 e 0,05%), chocolate em pó (2,8%), açúcar (11,5...

  15. Stability of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) essential oil in microcapsules made of whey protein isolate, guar gum, and carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehyar, Ghadeer F; Al-Ismail, Khalid M; Al-Isamil, Khalid M; Al-Ghizzawi, Hana'a M; Holley, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    The effects of microencapsulating cardamom essential oil (CEO) in whey protein isolate (WPI) alone and combined with guar gum (GG) and carrageen (CG) on microencapsulation efficiency, oil chemical stability, and microcapsule structure were investigated. Freeze-dried microcapsules were prepared from emulsions containing (w/w): 15% and 30% WPI; 0.1% GG, and 0.2% CG as wall materials with CEO (at 10% of polymer concentration) as core material, and physical properties and chemical stability were compared. Bulk density of microcapsules was highest in WPI without GG or CG and in 30% WPI + GG microcapsules, and was more affected by moisture content (r = -0.6) than by mean particle diameter (d43 ; r = -0.2) and span (r = 0.1). Microcapsules containing only WPI had the highest entrapped oil (7.5%) and microencapsulation efficiency (98.5%). The concentrations of 1,8-cineole and d-limonene were used as indicators for microcapsule chemical stability since they were the main components of CEO. Microcapsules retained higher (P ≤ 0.05) concentrations of both components than non-microencapsulated CEO during 16 wk storage at 20 ºC, but higher loss of both components was noted at 35 ºC. Microencapsulated d-limonene was reduced faster than 1,8-cineole regardless of temperature. The 30% WPI and 30% WPI + GG microcapsules retained CEO best throughout storage at both storage temperatures. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that WPI microcapsules had smooth surfaces, were relatively homogenous and regular in shape, whereas GG and CG addition increased visual surface porosity and reduced shape regularity. It was concluded that the best formulation for encapsulating CEO was 30% WPI. Encapsulating cardamom essential oil in whey protein isolate alone or combined with guar gum produced dried powders that effectively retained and chemically stabilized CEO, and therefore enhanced its handling and storability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Rapid Retort Processing of Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-04

    cyclodextrin, xanthan gum , ι-carrageenan, λ-carrageenan, κ-carrageenan, guar gum , locust bean gum , xanthan gum and starch. To improve the flavor of the...Cyclodextrin and κ-carrageenan were not effective in preventing synerisis. Guar gum and locust bean gum , and λ-carrageenan resulted in products with a slimy...Laboratory batches were prepared by hydrating the xanthan gum and pregelatinized starch in water which contained the salt and citric acid. The powdered

  17. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione syntheses and TRR/TRX activities enhancing photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eGonzález

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the effect of OC kappa in redox status, photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus globulus, trees were treated with water (control, with OC kappa at 1 mg mL-1, or treated with inhibitors of NAD(PH, ascorbate (ASC and glutathione (GSH syntheses and thioredoxin reductase (TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO and auranofin, respectively, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for 4 months. Treatment with OC kappa induced an increase in NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses, TRR and thioredoxin (TRX activities, photosynthesis, growth and activities of basal metabolism enzymes such as rubisco, glutamine synthetase (GlnS, adenosine 5´-phosphosulfate reductase (APR, involved in C, N and S assimilation, respectively, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes. Treatment with inhibitors and OC kappa showed that increases in ASC, GSH and TRR/TRX enhanced NADPH synthesis, increases in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced ASC and GSH syntheses, and only the increase in NADPH enhanced TRR/TRX activities. In addition, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH and TRR/TRX enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Moreover, the increase in NADPH, ASC and TRR/TRX enhanced activities of rubisco, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes, the increase in GSH, NADPH, and TRR/TRX enhanced APR activity, and the increase in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced GlnS activity. Thus, OC kappa increases NADPH, ASC and GSH syntheses leading to a more reducing redox status, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH syntheses and TRR/TRX activities are cross-talking events leading to activation of photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  18. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione syntheses and TRR/TRX activities enhancing photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alberto; Moenne, Fabiola; Gómez, Melissa; Sáez, Claudio A; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Moenne, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the effect of OC kappa in redox status, photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus globulus, trees were treated with water (control), with OC kappa at 1 mg mL(-1), or treated with inhibitors of NAD(P)H, ascorbate (ASC), and glutathione (GSH) syntheses and thioredoxin reductase (TRR) activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), and auranofin, respectively, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for 4 months. Treatment with OC kappa induced an increase in NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses, TRR and thioredoxin (TRX) activities, photosynthesis, growth and activities of basal metabolism enzymes such as rubisco, glutamine synthetase (GlnS), adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), involved in C, N, and S assimilation, respectively, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes. Treatment with inhibitors and OC kappa showed that increases in ASC, GSH, and TRR/TRX enhanced NADPH synthesis, increases in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced ASC and GSH syntheses, and only the increase in NADPH enhanced TRR/TRX activities. In addition, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH, and TRR/TRX enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Moreover, the increase in NADPH, ASC and TRR/TRX enhanced activities of rubisco, Krebs cycle, and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes, the increase in GSH, NADPH, and TRR/TRX enhanced APR activity, and the increase in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced GlnS activity. Thus, OC kappa increases NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses leading to a more reducing redox status, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH syntheses, and TRR/TRX activities are cross-talking events leading to activation of photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  19. Supramolecular structure of methyl cellulose and lambda- and kappa-carrageenan in water: SAXS study using the string-of-beads model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogsa, Iztok; Cerar, Jure; Jamnik, Andrej; Tomšič, Matija

    2017-09-15

    A detailed data analysis utilizing the string-of-beads model was performed on experimental small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) curves in a targeted structural study of three, very important, industrial polysaccharides. The results demonstrate the quality of performance for this model on three polymers with quite different thermal structural behavior. Furthermore, they show the advantages of the model used by way of excellent fits in the ranges where the classic approach to the small-angle scattering data interpretation fails and an additional 3D visualization of the model's molecular conformations and anticipated polysaccharide supramolecular structure. The importance of this study is twofold: firstly, the methodology used and, secondly, the structural details of important biopolymers that are widely applicable in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of psyllium (isubgol) husk as an alternative gelling agent for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... of gelling agents including carrageenans (Liners et al.,. 2005), alginates .... uronic acid 3%) is soluble in hot water, forming a highly viscous solution .... Evidence for the recognition of a secondary structure of carrageenan.

  1. Torsion Induced Traumatic Optic Neuropathy (TITON): Animal Model for Diagnostics, Drugs Delivery, and Therapeutics for Injuries to the Cental Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    optimization of gel mechanical and swelling properties to mechanically assist the recovery process. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...polysaccharides including gellan, three varieties of alginate, iota -carrageenan, kappa-carrageenan, xanthan gum, cellulose, carboxymethylcelluose...and pullulan. The most promising candidates were collagen gels alone or in combination with alginate, iota -carrageenan, or gellan gum. Studies are

  2. Matrix properties affect the sensory perception of emulsion-filled gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Wijk, de R.A.; Velde, van de F.; Aken, van G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The breakdown properties and sensory perception of emulsion-filled gels with different matrices were studied at varying emulsion concentrations. The gel matrices used were cold-set whey protein isolate (WPI), gelatin, ¿-carrageenan and a mixture of ¿-carrageenan and ¿-carrageenan. The oil-in-water

  3. Characterization and evaluation physical properties biodegradable plastic composite from seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deni, Glar Donia; Dhaningtyas, Shalihat Afifah; Fajar, Ibnu; Sudarno

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and evaluation of biodegradable plastic composed of a mixture PVA - carrageenan - chitosan was conducted in this study. Obtained data were then compared to commercial biodegradable plastic. Characteristic of plastic was mechanical tested such as tensile - strength and elongation. Plastic degradation was studied using composting method for 7 days and 14 days. The results showed that the increase carrageenan will decrease tensile-strength and elongation plastic composite. In addition, increase carrageenan would increase the degraded plastics composite.

  4. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Cerezo, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a λ-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author)

  5. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN KARAGINAN DENGAN LEVEL YANG BERBEDA TERHADAP KOMPOSISI KIMIA, KUALITAS FISIK, SENSORIS DAN MIKROSTRUKTUR SOSIS AYAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ismanto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various microfloras residing in the human colon are significantly affected by dietary fiber. Shortage of dietary fiber in the human daily consumption contributes to gastrointestinal metabolic and cardiovascular disease. One source of dietary fiber is a type of various seaweeds. This research was conducted to determine the effect of carrageenan addition on restructured meat products quality (chemical, physical, sensory and microstructure. There were four treatments in this experiment, (1 chicken sausages without carrageenan addition, (2 chicken sausage with 3% carrageenan addition , (3 chicken sausage with 6% carrageenan addition, and (4 chicken sausage with 9% carrageenan addition. The parameters observed were chemical composition (collagen, fat, water, protein, physical quality (pH, tenderness, water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss, sensory properties (colour, textures, taste, flavor, acceptability and microstructure. Chemical composition and physical qualities data were analyzed using Anova. The differences between means were analyzed using Least Significant Different (LSD. Sensory properties data were tested using Method of Successive Interval (MSI. The results showed that the addition of carrageenan at different levels significantly (P<0,05 affected water content and pH value. The addition of carrageenan at different levels also affected taste of chicken sausages. The addition of carrageenan at different levels had no effect on color, aroma, texture, tenderness, and acceptability. Microstructure analysis showed that addition of carragenan lead to the appearence of gel network. (Key words: Carrageenan, Chicken sausages, Chemical composition, Physical quality, Sensory quality, Miacrostructure

  6. Studies on the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyrexic activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioactivity of this compound was assessed using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats and carrageenan-induced pulmonary oedema in mice for the antiinflammatory activity, while acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice and zymosan-induced fever in rats were used for analgesic test. Materials and Methods: Rats ...

  7. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of 3-indolyl pyridine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    obtained from sea weed (rhodophyceae) and when injected causes the release of histamine 5-HT, bra- dykininins and prostaglandins. It produce inflamma- tion and oedema. 3.1a Preparation of 1% carrageenan solution: Carrageenan (1 g) was dissolved in 0.9% saline and the maximum volume administered to the rat was.

  8. Microwave-assisted facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silver nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized in aqueous medium by a green, rapid and costefficient synthetic approach based on microwave irradiation. In this study, iota-carrageenan (I-carrageenan) is used both as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticles is determined using UV–vis, ...

  9. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of the essential oil and active compounds from Cordia verbenacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Giselle F; Fernandes, Elizabeth S; da Cunha, Fernanda M; Ferreira, Juliano; Pianowski, Luiz F; Campos, Maria M; Calixto, João B

    2007-03-21

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae) and some of its active compounds were evaluated. Systemic treatment with the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea (300-600mg/kg, p.o.) reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, myeloperoxidase activity and the mouse oedema elicited by carrageenan, bradykinin, substance P, histamine and platelet-activating factor. It also prevented carrageenan-evoked exudation and the neutrophil influx to the rat pleura and the neutrophil migration into carrageenan-stimulated mouse air pouches. Moreover, Cordia verbenacea oil inhibited the oedema caused by Apis mellifera venom or ovalbumin in sensitized rats and ovalbumin-evoked allergic pleurisy. The essential oil significantly decreased TNFalpha, without affecting IL-1beta production, in carrageenan-injected rat paws. Neither the PGE(2) formation after intrapleural injection of carrageenan nor the COX-1 or COX-2 activities in vitro were affected by the essential oil. Of high interest, the paw edema induced by carrageenan in mice was markedly inhibited by both sesquiterpenic compounds obtained from the essential oil: alpha-humulene and trans-caryophyllene (50mg/kg, p.o.). Collectively, the present results showed marked anti-inflammatory effects for the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea and some active compounds, probably by interfering with TNFalpha production. Cordia verbenacea essential oil or its constituents might represent new therapeutic options for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  10. EFECTO DE LA ADICIÓN DE CARRAGENINA KAPPA I.II Y GOMA TARA SOBRE CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CALIDAD DEL JAMÓN DE CERDO PICADO Y COCIDO EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF KAPPA I.II CARRAGEENAN AND TARA GUM ON QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COOKED AND CHOPPED PORK HAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Alonso Restrepo Molina; Fabio Alexander Molina Cote; Kenneth Roy Cabrera Torres

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluaron sinéresis, color y dureza instrumental y, sensorialmente las características de olor, sabor, color y dureza en jamones inyectados, cocidos y picados de cerdo, los cuales se habían elaborado aplicando en la salmuera de inyección una mezcla de hidrocoloides compuesta por carragenina kappa I.II y goma tara en una proporción de 79:21, en niveles del 1% y 1,2%, usando tres repeticiones para el estudio. Los jamones así elaborados se compararon contra un jamón testigo, elaborado sin el ...

  11. Radiation degradation of marine polysaccharides by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    The radiation degradations of marine polysaccharides by both gamma Co-60 and electron beam irradiations are investigated. Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides can be produced by degradation of corresponding polysaccharides including marine polysaccharides such as alginates, chitin chitosan and carrageenan. The viscosity of alginate, chitosan and carrageenan solution decreases markedly with increase of the low energy electron beam irradiation time and the beam current. Furthermore, the viscosity is reduced sharply in short time for polysaccharide solution with low concentration, for instance carrageenan solution of 1%. (author)

  12. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. De Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a {lambda}-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Diarrhoea1 Activities of a Steroidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    one, indomethacin and carrageenan type IV were obtained from. Sigma Chemical Company (St. Louis, MI, USA). 2-nitrobenzaldehyde was obtained from Aldrich. Chemical Company (Gillingham, Dorset,. England). Aspirin B.P. was obtained from ...

  14. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 6, No 10 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory activity of Ruta graveolens Linn on carrageenan induced paw edema in wistar male rats · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Ratheesh, A Helen ...

  15. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and diuretic activity of Ludwigia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2014-10-11

    Oct 11, 2014 ... paw edema, acetic acid-‐induced writhing, and diuresis in mice were ... KEY WORDS: Ludwigia hyssopifolia Linn; Anti-‐inflammatory .... experimental animals were placed into ... The time kinetics of carrageenan-‐induced.

  16. Role of green tea on nicotine toxicity on liver and lung of mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR_Mohsen

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... formation of lipid peroxidative products (Zhen et al.,. 2007). Antioxidant .... mg/kg green tea for three weeks showing normal lung structure with ..... injury in experimental model of carrageenan induced pleurisy in mice. Resp.

  17. Functional properties of milk drinks flavored with mangaba pulp and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    luiz eduardo nascimento

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... In this context, the functional properties of. *Corresponding ..... properties of fermented milk drinks. .... samples showed typical colony formation, which results .... skim milk in the presence of pectin and kappa-carrageenan.

  18. Adsorption of Cu(II) and Cr(VI) ions by chitosan: Kinetics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... dimensional structure of the molecules to chelate and remove ions of a specific ... alginates, carrageenan, lignins, proteins, chitin and chitin derivatives. Another ... formation of a chitosan chelate with Cu ions is shown in Fig.1.

  19. A review of Bridelia ferruginea, Combretum glutinosum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... biological and pharmacological properties on veterinary medicine. Methodology and ..... showed inhibition against the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species .... Bridelia ferruginea by DPPH and carrageenan-induced.

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and membrane stabilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kemi Akinwunmi

    2015-05-27

    May 27, 2015 ... metabolic processes and are formed at the physiological condition required for ... structures in their vicinity by capturing their electron through oxidation. ..... powder using a carrageenan-induced paw swelling model (Vijay and ...

  1. Effect of alkaline treatment on the sulfate content and quality of semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... quality of semi-refined carrageenan prepared from seaweed Kappaphycus ... importance for industry to deliver a standard product and to develop new ..... alkaline extraction media (compared to pure water) have also been ...

  2. Preparation, characterization and mechanical properties of k ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... Nanocomposite; k-Carrageenan; SiO2 nanoparticles; mechanical strength; antimicrobial activity. 1. Introduction ... Silicon dioxide (SiO2)-filled polymer matrix com- posites have ... by using the agar disk diffusion method. 2.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, in this experiment 80% methanol crude extract of the leaves of M. stenopetala ... The negative control group was orally given 0.5 ml of distilled water. ... tail flick, acetic acid induced writhing, and carrageenan induced paw oedema tests.

  4. Adoptive transfer of immune enhancement of experimental ulcerative colitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Onderdonk, A B; Steeves, R M; Cisneros, R L; Bronson, R T

    1984-01-01

    Previous experiments with the carrageenan model for ulcerative colitis have shown that the inflammatory response in guinea pigs can be enhanced by immunization with and subsequent feeding of Bacteroides vulgatus to experimental animals. The present studies showed that only certain strains of B. vulgatus are capable of provoking immune enhancement of ulcerative colitis. Animals were fed carrageenan and various strains of viable B. vulgatus after immunization with a strain of B. vulgatus isolat...

  5. Epidemic models for phase transitions: application to a physical gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, A. H.; Pekcan, O.; Kara, S.; Ogrenci, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Carrageenan gels are characterized by reversible sol-gel and gel-sol transitions under cooling and heating processes and these transitions are approximated by generalized logistic growth curves. We express the transitions of carrageenan-water system, as a representative of reversible physical gels, in terms of a modified Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible epidemic model, as opposed to the Susceptible-Infected-Removed model used to represent the (irreversible) chemical gel formation in the previous work. We locate the gel point Tc of sol-gel and gel-sol transitions and we find that, for the sol-gel transition (cooling), Tc > Tsg (transition temperature), i.e. Tc is earlier in time for all carrageenan contents and moves forward in time and gets closer to Tsg as the carrageenan content increases. For the gel-sol transition (heating), Tc is relatively closer to Tgs; it is greater than Tgs, i.e. later in time for low carrageenan contents and moves backward as carrageenan content increases.

  6. PENINGKATAN KECEPATAN PROSES PENGERINGAN KARAGINAN MENGGUNAKAN PENGERING ADSORPSI DENGAN ZEOLIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Djaeni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drying carrageenan product still deals with low product quality and energy efficiency. The drying with airdehumidified by activated natural zeolite has a potential for drying the product. In this concept, air as dryingmedium was contacted with zeolite to reduce its relative humidity. Hence, the driving force of drying increasesand the process can be conducted at moderate temperature (40-60oC to retain the quality. This research looksinto the effectiveness of adsorption dryer with zeolite for drying carrageenan. The natural zeolite is activated byheating 300-400oC for 2-3 hours. The zeolite is then used to dehumidify the ambient air as drying medium. Inthis work, the effect of drying temperature and carrageenan thickness on water content in carrageenan duringthe drying were studied. Results showed with air velocity 3.0 m/sec, thickness of carrageenan 1-2 mm,operational drying time 3 hours and air temperature 40-60oC, water content in carrageenan can be reducedfrom 82.0% to 25%. This result is very promising for industrial application.

  7. Rheological behavior of pork Biceps femoris muscle influenced by injection-tumbling process and brine type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia PĂTRAŞCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of tumbling time (1-9 h, injection rate (20, 30, 40, and 50 % and k-carrageenan addition (0, 0.25, and 0.5 % on the rheological characteristics of pork Biceps femoris muscle were assessed. The results of the creep-recovery tests were analyzed using Burger’s equation. Increasing tumbling time up to 9 h along with injection rate also increased compliance values and decreased viscosity. K-carrageenan addition showed the occurrence of a more gel-like structure of the brine-meat system, causing further increase of the compliance and strain values. Samples injected with brine were more elastic compared to those containing k-carrageenan. A longer mechanical treatment provided a softer like matrix. Mathematical modeling of creep-compliance data showed a decreasing tendency for viscosity values with k-carrageenan addition. Discrete retarded elastic compliance values increased when adding k-carrageenan to meat-brine system. Addition of k-carrageenan did not affect the equilibrium compliance values.

  8. Edematogenic activity of a sulfated galactan from the red marine algae Gelidium crinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assreuy, Ana Maria Sampaio; Amorim, Renata Morais Ferreira; Brizeno, Luiz André Cavalcante; de Paulo Pereira, Lívia; de Sousa, Albertina Antonielly Sydney; Aragão, Gislei Frota; Pereira, Maria Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    The red algae Gelidium crinale (Turner) Gaillon (Gelidiaceae), encountered along the Southeast and Northeast Brazilian sea coast, contains a sulfated galactan presenting a similar saccharide backbone compared to λ carrageenan. Inflammatory effects of other galactans were reported, but not for that obtained from G. crinale (SG-Gc). To investigate the in vivo edematogenic effect of SG-Gc in comparison to λ carrageenan. SG-Gc was isolated by ion exchange chromatography. Paw edema was induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) intraplantar injection of SG-Gc or λ carrageenan and evaluated by hydroplethysmometry. Data were expressed as the increase in paw volume subtracted from the basal volume or area under curve-AUC. To investigate the participation of early and late-phase inflammatory mediators, rats were treated with pyrilamine, compound 48/80, indomethacin, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or pentoxifylline before SG-Gc. SG-Gc edematogenic effect was initiated at 0.5 h, peaked at 2 h (1.26 ± 0.05 mL) and lasted until 6 h (0.21 ± 0.03 mL), whereas the carrageenan-induced edema started at 1 h. The first phase (1-3 h) of SG-Gc-induced edema was 176 ± 15 (AUC) versus carrageenan (114.5 ± 14), whereas the second phase (3-5 h) was 95 ± 12 (AUC) versus carrageenan (117.5 ± 11). Treatment with compound 48/80, pyrilamine, indomethacin, L-NAME, and pentoxifylline inhibited the effect of SG-Gc by 32, 40, 69, 72, and 49%, respectively. SG-Gc and λ carrageenan induce different profile of inflammatory response in the paw edema model, that involves histamine, cytokines, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide (NO), but with different degree of participation.

  9. Sintesis membran Poliuretan dari Karagenan dan 2, 4 Toylulene diisosianat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Marlina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the synthesis of Polyurethane (PU Membrane from Carrageenan and 2,4 toylulene diisocyanante (TDI. The PU membrane made from the Gracilaria sp of red seaweed has rendement of 60.5% from the total weight of the dried sea grass. The produced Carrageenan has pure properties with containing many OH groups which can be used to synthesize membrane. The dope solution to produce good membrane was made at the temperature of 60 oC for the reaction of 5 minutes by varying concentration of carrageenan 5-35 % (b/v. PU membrane was constructed using petri dish with the thickness of about 0.1 mm. To control the thickness of the membrane, the volume of dope solution was used about 12 mL, and the membrane was produced with 10 cm in diameter. The membrane had been synthesized at the temperature of 60 oC with varied concentration of Carrageenan 15% (b/v to the toylulene diisocyanate (TDI. The produced membrane has the optimal properties with the tensile strength of 340 kgf/mm2, the elongation percentage of 9%, the glass temperature transition of 243.6 oC and the melting point of 423.02 oC. The optimum PU membrane obtained was good in mechanical and physical properties, strong, elastic and transparent. Keywords: carrageenan, flux, membrane, polyurethane, rejection factor, TDI

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble) N. Chao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong-Hua; Feng, Rui-Zhang; Li, Qun; Wei, Qin; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Tao, Cui; Jia, Ren-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil from C. longepaniculatum was evaluated by three experimental models including the dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema in mice, the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat and the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. The influence of the essential oil on histological changes and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) production associated with carrageenan-induced rat paw edema was also investigated. The essential oil (0.5, 0.25, 0.13 ml/kg b.w.) showed significantly inhibition of inflammation along with a dose-dependent manner in the three experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil was occurred both in early and late phase and peaked at 4 h after carrageenan injection. The essential oil resulted in a dose dependent reduction of the paw thickness, connective tissue injury and the infiltration of inflammatory cell. The essential oil also significantly reduced the production of PGE2, histamine and 5-HT in the exudates of edema paw induced by carrageenan. Both the essential oil and indomethacin resulted relative lower percentage inhibition of histamine and 5-HT than that of PGE2 at 4 h after carrageenan injection.

  11. Mutu Organoleptik dan Total Bakteri Asam Laktat Yogurt Sari Jagung dengan Penambahan Susu Skim dan Karagenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premy Puspitawati Rahayu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze sensory evaluation quality and total lactic acid bacteria of corn yogurt added with skim milk and carrageenan. This research used experimental laboratory method with completely randomized design and four replications. The treatment used were skim milk with concentration (2.5; 3; 3.5% b/v dan carrageenan (0.5; 0.75; 1 % b/v. The result showed that the treatment gave significant different effect (p 0.05 on the total lactic acid bacteria, organoleptic (aroma and color. The addition of various of skim milk, and carrageenan concentrations gave total of total lactic acid bacteria, organoleptic (color, aroma and texture was 2.83 x 108-4.4 x 108 CFU/ml; white to yellowness; acidness to acid; and thickness to thick. The best treatment of this research is the addition of skim 5% and carrageenan 0.75% with total lactic acid bacteria 4.4 x 108, the aroma is acidness, the color is yellowness, the texture is thickness. It could be concluded that the addition of skim milk and carrageenan in corn yogurt production can be accepted by consumers and increase the activity of lactic acid bacteria

  12. Surface characterization of selected polymer thin films by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innis, Vallerie Ann A.

    2006-01-01

    Development of available x-ray characterizations tools for grazing incidence techniques was done to be able to probe nano-size thin films. Alignment of a Philips x-ray powder diffractometer was improved to let it perform as an x-ray reflectometer. X-ray reflectometry was coupled with total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Evaluation of the performance of this grazing incidence techniques was done by preparing polymer thin films of carboxymethylcellulose, carrageenan and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The thickness of the films were varied by varying the process parameters such as concentration, spin speed and spin time. Angle-dispersive total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy profiles of three films showed film formation only in carrageenan and PVP. For both carrageenan and PVP, an increase in concentration yielded a corresponding increase in intensity of the fluorescent or scattered peaks. XRR profiles of carrageenan thin films yielded a mean value for the critical angle close to quartz substrate. Thickness measurements of the prepared carrageenan thin films showed that concentration was the main determinant for final film thickness over the other process parameters. Sulfur fluorescent intensity derived from the TXRF measurement showed a linear relationship with the measured thickness by XRR. For PVP, measured critical angle is lower than quartz. Poor adhesion of the polymer onto the substrate yielded a limited number of thickness measurements made from the XRR profiles. (Author)

  13. Effect of exposure to radiation on the inflammatory process and its influence by diclofenac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.; Kenawy, S.; Khayyal, M.T.; Roushdy, H.; Saleh, S.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of radiation exposure on the inflammatory process was studied in rats using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema and adjuvant-induced arthritis tests. Irradiation (0.5,1 and 2 Grays) resulted in a significant augmentation of the tissue response to carrageenan and the early phase of adjuvant-induced arthritis, but suppressed the late phase. Diclofenac(1-5 mg kg -1 ) effectively reduced the exaggerated inflammatory response in irradiated animals in both the carrageenan paw oedema and adjuvant-induced arthritis tests. The drug also had a prophylactic value in guarding against the induction of radiation damage. The inflammatory responses produced by irradiation and the benefits obtained by drug treatment may be related to changes in tissue prostaglandin levels and/or changes in the immune system. (author)

  14. Marine Compounds with Therapeutic Potential in Gram-Negative Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yermak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the potential use of compounds, including lipid A, chitosan, and carrageenan, from marine sources as agents for treating endotoxemic complications from Gram-negative infections, such as sepsis and endotoxic shock. Lipid A, which can be isolated from various species of marine bacteria, is a potential antagonist of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide (LPSs. Chitosan is a widespread marine polysaccharide that is derived from chitin, the major component of crustacean shells. The potential of chitosan as an LPS-binding and endotoxin-neutralizing agent is also examined in this paper, including a discussion on the generation of hydrophobic chitosan derivatives to increase the binding affinity of chitosan to LPS. In addition, the ability of carrageenan, which is the polysaccharide of red alga, to decrease the toxicity of LPS is discussed. We also review data obtained using animal models that demonstrate the potency of carrageenan and chitosan as antiendotoxin agents.

  15. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsielleae and other facultative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochuba, G U; von Riesen, V L

    1980-01-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebsiella oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carrageenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and Pectobacterium (38%). Pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant. PMID:7396489

  16. Fermentation optimization and enzyme characterization of a new ι-Carrageenase from Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora ASY5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new ι-carrageenase-producing strain was screened from mangroves and authenticated as Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora ASY5 in our laboratory. The potential application of this new strain was evaluated. Results: Medium compositions and culturing conditions in shaking flask fermentation were firstly optimized by single-factor experiment. ι-Carrageenase activity increased from 0.34 U/mL to 1.08 U/mL after test optimization. Optimal fermentation conditions were 20°C, pH 7.0, incubation time of 40 h, 15 g/L NaCl, 1.5% (w/v yeast extract as nitrogen source, and 0.9% (w/v ι-carrageenan as carbon source. Then, the crude ι-carrageenase was characterized. The optimum temperature and pH of the ι-carrageenase were 40°C and 8.0, respectively. The enzymatic activity at 35–40°C for 45 min retained more than 40% of the maximum activity. Meanwhile, The ι-carrageenase was inhibited by the addition of 1 mmol/L Cd2+ and Fe3+ but increased by the addition of 1 mmol/L Ag+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, and Al3+. The structure of oligosaccharides derived from ι-carrageenan was detected using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS. The ι-carrageenase degraded ι-carrageenan, yielding disaccharides and tetrasaccharides as main products. Conclusions: The discovery and study of new ι-carrageenases are beneficial not only for the production of ι-carrageenan oligosaccharides but also for the further utilization in industrial production. Keywords: Disaccharides, Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, Enzyme properties, Fermentation optimization, Galactans, Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora, Sulfated linear polysaccharides, Tetrasaccharides, ι-Carrageenan oligosaccharides, ι-Carrageenan, ι-Carrageenase-producing strain

  17. Cell immobilization by radiation polymerization-a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan bin Hj Mohd; Abu Bakar bin Salleh; Che Nyonya binti Abd Razak; Meheran binti Hamenudin; Kamaruzaman bin Ampon; Wan Md Zin bin Wan Yunus; Mahiran binti Basri

    1991-01-01

    An extracellular lipase producing fungus, Rhizopus rhizopodi formis was immobilised using radiation-induced polyHEMA, alginate and k-carrageenan. Immobilizations were done on spores since they showed better resistance against gamma radiation. The simultaneous radiation immobilization technique was found to be unsuitable because of contamination. Post-radiation immobilization using polyHEMA yielded 2-3 times more enzyme than the free cells. The value, however was slightly lower than the ones given by the cells immobilised using alginate or k-carrageenan, but the radiation-induced polymer was stronger and less likely to disintegrate

  18. Seaweed Hydrocolloid Production: An Update on Enzyme Assisted Extraction and Modification Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Agar, alginate, and carrageenans are high-value seaweed hydrocolloids, which are used as gelation and thickening agents in different food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. The annual global production of these hydrocolloids has recently reached 100,000 tons with a gross market......-made modifications of the hydrocolloids to obtain specific functionalities. This review provides an update of the detailed structural features of κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans, agars, and alginate, and a thorough discussion of enzyme assisted extraction and processing techniques for these hydrocolloids....

  19. DMBT1 functions as pattern-recognition molecule for poly-sulfated and poly-phosphorylated ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    End, Caroline; Bikker, Floris; Renner, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    at unraveling the molecular basis of its function in mucosal protection and of its broad pathogen-binding specificity. We report that DMBT1 directly interacts with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and carrageenan, a structurally similar sulfated polysaccharide, which is used as a texturizer and thickener in human...... dietary products. However, binding of DMBT1 does not reduce the cytotoxic effects of these agents to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. DSS and carrageenan compete for DMBT1-mediated bacterial aggregation via interaction with its bacterial-recognition motif. Competition and ELISA studies identify poly...

  20. Examination of some protective conditions on technological properties of irradiated food grade polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeil Pietranera, M.S. E-mail: pietrane@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Narvaiz, P. E-mail: narvaiz@cae.cnea.gov.ar

    2001-02-01

    Corn and cassava starches, agar-agar and kappa carrageenan, polysaccharides used as food additives, were gamma irradiated with doses suitable for microbial decontamination. Starches were analysed in paste and pudding viscosity and paper chromatography; agar and carrageenan, in viscosity and compression tests on gels and custards. Afterwards, substances were added to verify whether they could prevent irradiation technological impairment. Results revealed significant differences between control and irradiated samples in most determinations. No added substance was able to protect the functional properties of these additives. (author)

  1. Influences of the selected additives on the weight loss and organoleptic properties of marinated mussels and squids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Guldas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of seven different solutions prepared from various additives (carrageenan, konjac flour, phosphate, yeast extract, xanthan gum and maltodextrin were used to test for the first time in the marination of experimental seafood. The additives were added into the marination solutions and the samples were analyzed before and after marination. Statistically, the experimental solutions did not cause significant changes in pH, acidity and salt content of the samples (P P < 0.01. The organoleptic properties (mouth feel, flavour and softness of mussels and squids were also improved by carrageenan LM addition.

  2. Preparation and analysis of multilayer composites based on polyelectrolyte complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation); Orekhov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Chernyakov, D. D. [St. Petersburg State Chemical Pharmaceutical Academy (Russian Federation); Baklagina, Yu. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation); Romanov, D. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Grebenshchikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kononova, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation); Volod’ko, A. V.; Ermak, I. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, V. V., E-mail: klechvv@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Skorik, Yu. A., E-mail: yury-skorik@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    A method for preparing multilayer film composites based on chitosan has been developed by the example of polymer pairs: chitosan–hyaluronic acid, chitosan–alginic acid, and chitosan–carrageenan. The structure of the composite films is characterized by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that the deposition of a solution of hyaluronic acid, alginic acid, or carrageenan on a chitosan gel film leads to the formation of a polyelectrolyte complex layer at the interface, which is accompanied by the ordering of chitosan chains in the surface region; the microstructure of this layer depends on the nature of contacting polymer pairs.

  3. Contribution of non-immune phagocytes to protection of mice against Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, Sumiaki; Seno, Masao; Tsuchiya, Choji; Noritake, Masayuki; Wasada, Kazunori

    1980-01-01

    Bacterial kinetics of Vibrio cholerae 569B in the local infection of mice was examined after the γ-ray-irradiation or the treatment with carrageenan. In the control mice, bacterial number decreased exponentially. In the mice treated with carrageenan gave similar tendency. In the irradiated mice, however, decrease in bacterial number was not as significant and the clearance was never observed. From these results, it is concluded that the protection against V. cholerae local infection depends mainly on polymorphonuclear cells in the early phase. (author)

  4. Screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gel formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ochoa Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of vaginal drug delivery formulations requires special attention to vehicle properties that optimize vaginal coating and retention. The aim of the present work was to perform a screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gels formulated with carbomer or carrageenan in binary combination with a second polymer (carbomer, guar or xanthan gum. The gels were characterised using in vitroadhesion, spreadability and leakage potential studies, as well as rheological measurements (stress and frequency sweep tests and the effect of dilution with simulated vaginal fluid (SVF on spreadability. Results were analysed using analysis of variance and multiple factor analysis. The combination of polymers enhanced adhesion of both primary gelling agents, carbomer and carrageenan. From the rheological point of view all formulations presented a similar behaviour, prevalently elastic and characterised by loss tangent values well below 1. No correlation between rheological and adhesion behaviour was found. Carbomer and carrageenan gels containing the highest percentage of xanthan gum displayed good in vitro mucoadhesion and spreadability, minimal leakage potential and high resistance to dilution. The positive results obtained with carrageenan-xanthan gum-based gels can encourage the use of natural biocompatible adjuvants in the composition of vaginal products, a formulation field that is currently under the synthetic domain.

  5. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Profile of n-Hexane Fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of n-hexane extract of the whole plant of Viola betonicifolia Sm, family: Violaceace. Methods: The n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia (VBHF) was tested for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activities (carrageenan-induced and histamine-induced ...

  6. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Careya arborea stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanol extract of Careya arborea (MECA). The effects of MECA on the acute and chronic phases of inflammation were studied in carrageenan, dextran and mediators (histamine and serotonin) induced paw oedema and cotton ...

  7. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of water extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of the water extract of the plant in experimental animal models (anti-inflammatory action by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, the analgesic activity by acetic acid-induced writhing response method. The water extract of I. asarifolia in doses of ...

  8. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extract of Hippobromus pauciflorus (L.f) Radlk leaves at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight were evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in male rats. Antiinflammatory activity was studied by using carrageenan and histamine induced oedema right hind paw volume while the ...

  9. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits in selected experimental animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pedalium murex Linn., with doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by Lambda-carrageenan ...

  10. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF CHAMOMILE ESSENTIAL OIL IN MICE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabian, D.; Juhás, Štefan; Bukovska, A.; Bujňáková, D.; Grešáková, L.; Koppel, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2011), s. 111-116 ISSN 1335-3683 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : inflammation * carrageenan paw oedema * TNBS colitis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://www.cvzv.sk/slju/11_3/Fabian-SJAS-3-2011.pdf

  11. Steroids block the anti-inflammatory effects of low level laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.; Albertini, Regiane; Lopes-Martins, Patricia Sardinha L.; Iversen, Vegard V.; Bjordal, Jan M.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Concomitant use of multiple therapies is common in musculoskeletal and airway disorders. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is considered a promising therapy in arthritis, tendinopathies and rhinitis. We designed two animal studies to assess if the expected anti-inflammatory effect LLLT could be affected by resection of the adrenal gland or concomitant use of the cortisol antagonist mifepristone. Methods: Two studies were performed, with 40 male Wistar rats and with 40 Balb C male mice respectively.. In both studies, four groups received carrageenan and one control group received saline. At 1, 2, and 3 hours after injections, LLLT irradiation was performed with a dose of 7.5 J/cm2. In the rat study, two of the carrageenan groups had the adrenal gland dissected. In the mice study, two of the carrageenan-injected groups were in addition pre-treated with orally administered mifepristone. Results: In the rat paw study, LLLT reduced edema significantly compared to the carrageenan only group (1.5 vs 0.9 ml, peffect of LLLT could be totally blocked by adding the cortisol antagonist mifepristone ( pSteroid therapy should not be used concomitantly with LLLT, as the anti-inflammatory effect of LLLT is lost if cortisol receptors are downregulated.

  12. A Novel Enzyme Portfolio for Red Algal Polysaccharide Degradation in the Marine Bacterium Paraglaciecola hydrolytica S66T Encoded in a Sizeable Polysaccharide Utilization Locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Schultz-Johansen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine microbes are a rich source of enzymes for the degradation of diverse polysaccharides. Paraglaciecola hydrolytica S66T is a marine bacterium capable of hydrolyzing polysaccharides found in the cell wall of red macroalgae. In this study, we applied an approach combining genomic mining with functional analysis to uncover the potential of this bacterium to produce enzymes for the hydrolysis of complex marine polysaccharides. A special feature of P. hydrolytica S66T is the presence of a large genomic region harboring an array of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes notably agarases and carrageenases. Based on a first functional characterization combined with a comparative sequence analysis, we confirmed the enzymatic activities of several enzymes required for red algal polysaccharide degradation by the bacterium. In particular, we report for the first time, the discovery of novel enzyme activities targeting furcellaran, a hybrid carrageenan containing both β-carrageenan and κ/β-carrageenan motifs. Some of these enzymes represent a new subfamily within the CAZy classification. From the combined analyses, we propose models for the complete degradation of agar and κ/β-type carrageenan by P. hydrolytica S66T. The novel enzymes described here may find value in new bio-based industries and advance our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for recycling of red algal polysaccharides in marine ecosystems.

  13. 75 FR 28488 - Silver Nitrate; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... ( regulations.gov ) under the docket number EPA-HQ-OPP- 2009-0663. Silver nitrate is a water soluble inorganic... polymers and fatty acids; carriers such as clay and diatomaceous earth; thickeners such as carrageenan and... for which there is reliable information.'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in...

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    They are effective but associated with reappearance of symptoms after discontinuation. ... renal function in renal or cardiac and cirrhotic patients, hypersensitivity, etc. ... plants can be a source of newer anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs. ... Lambda-carrageenan induced paw oedema procedure was performed to ...

  15. Assessment of the Extracts of Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fischer for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indomethacin and acetylsalicylic acid were the reference drugs for antiinflamatory and analgesic evaluations, respectively. Phytochemical screening of the flower extract was carried out by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Results: The results of evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activities induced by carrageenan and ...

  16. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Profile of n-Hexane Fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    inflammatory activities (carrageenan-induced and histamine-induced edema models) in BALB/c mice. Results: VBHF exhibited significant (p ... The analgesic effect of VBHF was dose-dependent in acetic acid pain model while the extract was a weak ... In Pakistan, it is found in Swat, Hazara and. Dir and used as antipyretic, ...

  17. Anti-inflammatory polysaccharides of Azadirachta indica seed tegument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Paulo Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, or Indian neem is a plant used to treat inûammatory disorders. Total polysaccharide (TPL and FI (fractioned by ion exchange chromatography from the seed tegument of A. indica were evaluated in models of acute inflammation (paw edema/peritonitis using Wistar rats. Paw edema (measured by hydroplethysmometry was induced s.c. by Λ-carrageenan (300 µg, histamine (100 µg, serotonin (20 µg, compound 48/80 (10 µg, prostaglandin (PGE2 30 µg or L-arginine (15 µg. Peritonitis (analyzed for leukocyte counts/protein dosage was induced i.p. by carrageenan (500 mg or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP 50 ng. Animals were treated i.v. with TPL (1 mg/kg or FI (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg 30 min before stimuli. FI toxicity (at 0.1 mg/kg, i.v. for seven days was analyzed by the variation of body/organ mass and hematological/biochemical parameters. TPL extraction yielded 1.3%; FI, presenting high carbohydrate and low protein content, at 0.1 mg/kg inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (77%, serotonin (54%, PGE2 (69% and nitric oxide (73%, and the peritonitis elicited by carrageenan (48% or fMLP (67%, being well tolerated by animals. FI exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, revealing to be important active component in traditionally prepared remedies to treat inflammatory states.

  18. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of methanol fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of crude methanol fruit extract of Quercus incana (QI), as well as its acute toxicity and phytochemical profile. Methods: Two animal models were used: Wistar rats for carrageenan-induced paw inflammation and Swiss albino mice for acetic ...

  19. A Novel Enzyme Portfolio for Red Algal Polysaccharide Degradation in the Marine Bacterium Paraglaciecola hydrolytica S66T Encoded in a Sizeable Polysaccharide Utilization Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Johansen, Mikkel; Bech, Pernille K; Hennessy, Rosanna C; Glaring, Mikkel A; Barbeyron, Tristan; Czjzek, Mirjam; Stougaard, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Marine microbes are a rich source of enzymes for the degradation of diverse polysaccharides. Paraglaciecola hydrolytica S66 T is a marine bacterium capable of hydrolyzing polysaccharides found in the cell wall of red macroalgae. In this study, we applied an approach combining genomic mining with functional analysis to uncover the potential of this bacterium to produce enzymes for the hydrolysis of complex marine polysaccharides. A special feature of P. hydrolytica S66 T is the presence of a large genomic region harboring an array of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) notably agarases and carrageenases. Based on a first functional characterization combined with a comparative sequence analysis, we confirmed the enzymatic activities of several enzymes required for red algal polysaccharide degradation by the bacterium. In particular, we report for the first time, the discovery of novel enzyme activities targeting furcellaran, a hybrid carrageenan containing both β-carrageenan and κ/β-carrageenan motifs. Some of these enzymes represent a new subfamily within the CAZy classification. From the combined analyses, we propose models for the complete degradation of agar and κ/β-type carrageenan by P. hydrolytica S66 T . The novel enzymes described here may find value in new bio-based industries and advance our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for recycling of red algal polysaccharides in marine ecosystems.

  20. 78 FR 43093 - Richard C. Theuer; Filing of Food Additive Petition and Citizen Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... [Docket Nos. FDA-2013-F-0700 and FDA-2013-P-0472] Richard C. Theuer; Filing of Food Additive Petition and... proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to prohibit the use of carrageenan and salts of... that Richard C. Theuer, Ph.D., 7904 Sutterton Ct., Raleigh, NC 27615, has filed a food additive...

  1. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

  2. Effects of short- and long-term feeding of L-carnitine and congeners on the production of eicosanoids from rat peritoneal leucocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); G.R. Elliott (G.); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek); I.L. Bonta

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe effect of short- and long-term feeding with L-carnitine, L-acetyl carnitine and L-propionyl carnitine on the production of eicosanoids front in vitro stimulated carrageenan-induced rat peritoneal macrophages was investigated. Both young (4 weeks) and old (18 months) rats were used. A

  3. Effect of short- and long-term feeding of L-carnitine and its congeners on the production of eicosanoids from rat peritoneal leukocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrelds, I.M.; Elliott, G.R.; Zijlstra, F.; Bonta, I.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of short- and long-term feeding with L-carnitine, L-acetyl carnitine and L-propionyl carnitine on the production of eicosanoids from in vitro stimulated carrageenan-induced rat peritoneal macrophages was investigated. Both young (4 weeks) and old (18 months) rats were used. A lower number

  4. Role of natural polysaccharides in radiation formation of PVA hydrogel wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Lalit

    2004-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based radiation processed hydrogel dressing (HDR) are now produced in India. Natural polysaccharides have been observed to bring desirable characteristics to the HDR. Presence of polysaccharides like Agar and Carrageenan in formulations significantly affect mechanical properties and water absorption properties of HDR. These changes have been explained due to variation in degree of crosslinking and network structure during irradiation. (author)

  5. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanoilc and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous ethanoic and methanolic extracts of Citrus Sinensis Peel were investigated for antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Indomethacin. These extracts were given(IP) in a concentration of 20, and 70mg/kg with extract with a concentration ...

  6. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanoilc and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Aqueous ethanoic and methanolic extracts of Citrus Sinensis Peel were investigated for anti- inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats, and compared to a positive control drug,. Indomethacin. These extracts were given(IP) in a concentration of 20, and 70mg/kg with extract with a ...

  7. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, carrageenan-induced paw oedema and air pouch models. No death was recorded when WAP .... treatment. A single high dose as recommended by the. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ... The visual observations included changes in the skin and fur, locomotor ...

  8. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of some Anthranilic Acid and 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Structures of newly synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental ... δ3.53 ppm and a triplet atδ5.62 ppm confirmed the formation of the isoxazoline ... acute conditions was investigated using the carrageenan induced rat paw ...

  9. Anti-inflammation activity and chemical composition of flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... inflammatory activity in vivo (carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats). The oil (100 ... pharmacological properties of H. coronarium flowers essential .... reaction with K3[Fe(CN)6], under formation of the colored complex ...

  10. Anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrhoeal properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... properties of Faidherbia albida in rats. A. Y. Tijani1*. , M. O. Uguru2 ..... extract significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited formation of oedema in rat paw than ... other models of inflammation like carrageenan, are its longer duration of ...

  11. Short Communication: Improved Stability and Efficacy of Diclofenac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An oleogel-based formulation of diclofenac diethylamine (DFDA) was prepared and evaluated for enhanced stability and efficacy. Efficacy was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema method on albino rats and compared with marketed emulgels. The present findings revealed that the developed oleogel ...

  12. Controlled release of diclofenac sodium from pH-responsive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto kappa-carrageenan, using ammonium persulfate ... troscopy was carried out to confirm the chemical structure of the hydrogel. ... of hydrogel systems and influence of pH of the ... Finally, the gel product was poured into 100 mL of ... chemical reaction during the matrix formation.

  13. Time dependence in jamming and unjamming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, A.

    2009-01-01

    Three different food systems have been studied: emulsion/polymer mixtures, gelatin gels and carrageenan gels. Typically, samples are trapped, or jammed, far from equilibrium. The simple jamming paradigm suggests that, once in the jammed state, these systems are static. This useful approximation is

  14. Onoja et al, Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med., (2017) 14 (6): 56 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ONOJA SAM

    2017-11-15

    Nov 15, 2017 ... Materials and Methods: The plant material was extracted using cold maceration method in 80% hydromethanol. The acute oral toxicity test was performed using ..... Egg-albumin, carrageenan and acetic acid induces inflammation and pain sensation through stimulation of inflammatory mediators (cytokine ...

  15. Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-07

    Oct 7, 2013 ... confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin. Conclusion: Our results ... Keywords: essential oils; rose geranium; citronellol; anti-inflammatory effect; skin inflammation; histopathology; carrageenan; croton ... acquiring synthetic drugs, their insufficient supplies, the side effects ...

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... The Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) is a popular traditional medicinal plant in India. This study was intended to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of S. cumini seed in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  17. Microwave-assisted facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    greener methods, natural compounds,17 plant extracts18 and microorganisms19 have ... I-carrageenan are soft, flexible and fast setting. They have been extensively used in the food industry as a thickening and gelling agent. In recent times ...

  18. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of Secamone afzelii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This study re-ports the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of S. afzelii. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the carrageenan-induced paw oedema method in 7 day old chicks and antioxi-dant property by the 2 ...

  19. Effect of alkaline treatment on the sulfate content and quality of semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the present investigation, it was observed that sulfate removal and quality improvement with increasing concentration of KOH for cooking seaweed is not statistically significant; therefore, seaweed can be subjected to lower concentration of KOH treatment (6 to 12%) to produce semi-refined carrageenan on commercial ...

  20. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Isoorientin Isolated from Tubers of Pueraria tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotha Anilkumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is the major causative factor of different diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. Anti-inflammatory drugs are often the first step of treatment in many of these diseases. The present study is aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory properties of isoorientin, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor isolated from the tubers of Pueraria tuberosa, in vitro on mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 and in vivo on mouse paw edema and air pouch models of inflammation. Isoorientin reduced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cell line in vitro and carrageenan induced inflammatory animal model systems in vivo. Cellular infiltration into pouch tissue was reduced in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. Isoorientin treated RAW 264.7 cells and animals showed reduced expression of inflammatory proteins like COX-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX, and interleukin 1-β (IL-1-β both in vitro and in vivo. The antioxidant enzyme levels of catalase and GST were markedly increased in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. These results suggest that isoorientin, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, not only exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS induced RAW cells and carrageenan induced inflammatory model systems but also exhibits potent antioxidant properties.

  1. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kappa-Carrageenan (KCG) films have been formulated as a packaging material. ... aureus and Escherichia coli strains compared to polymer film. ... for KCG films containing SiO 2 nanoparticles to enhance the shelf-life of foods in the form of ...

  2. The Effect of the Application of Edible Coatings on or before Ultraviolet Treatment on Postharvested Longan Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Gie Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of application of edible coating on or before ultraviolet treatment on postharvest longan fruits. The treated longan fruits were examined for weight loss, respiration rate, surface color changes, enzymatic activities (PPO, POD, and PAL, and total phenolic contents throughout the 7 storage days at ambient temperature. In addition, coat homogeneity was examined and cell structure of longan flesh at the end of storage was observed. The results showed that when UV was applied before coating (i.e., chitosan or carrageenan, it had relatively lower PPO and PAL activities and retained higher TPC in longan pericarp. However, the changes in enzymatic activities did not affect the surface lightness and browning index as they were more influenced by the type of coating, in which combination treatments with carrageenan showed higher surface lightness and lower browning index compared to treatment combinations containing chitosan. However, when UV treatment preceded coating, the combinations of UV plus chitosan coating produced lower PPO and PAL activities and retained better cell structure with less damage than the combinations of UV plus carrageenan coating. UV plus carrageenan coating showed relatively higher weight loss and respiration rate, with cell structure exhibiting bigger intercellular spaces at the end of storage. Therefore, application of UV treatment followed by chitosan coating was found to be the best treatment combination for controlling enzymatic activities and reducing senescence rate of longan fruits.

  3. Preparation and sensory perception of fat-free foams : Effect of matrix properties and level of aeration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minor, M.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Zoet, F.D.; Wijk, de R.A.; Aken, van G.A.

    2009-01-01

    The sensory perception of fat-free model foams with a consistency between pourable (liquid; xanthan thickened) and spoonable (semi-solid; gelled; carrageenan thickened) and varying level of aeration was studied. At low air contents (5, 10% v/v) perception is largely determined by the matrix

  4. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science - Vol 3, No 1 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on Tanzanian Hypneaceae: Seasonal Variation in Content and Quality of Kappa-Carrageenan from Hypnea musciformis (Gigartinales : Rhodophyta) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MSP Mtolera, AS Buriyo, 43-49 ...

  5. Assessment of the Extracts of Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fischer for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    induced by antidromic stimulation of sensory fibres of rat sciatic nerve. Br J Pharmacol,. 1998; 123:936-942. 16. Gamache DA, Povlishock JT, Ellis EF. Carrageenan induced brain inflammation, characterization of the model. J Neurosurg, 1986; 65:679-685. 17. Garcia-Pastor P, Randazzo A., Gomez-Paloma L,. Alcaraz MJ ...

  6. Synthesis, Spectroscopic and Pharmacological Studies of Bivalent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    A series of metal complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) having the general composition [M(L)2X2] [where L .... determined by carrageenan induced paw oedema model. The .... C–N deformation.21 In each complex, two thiourea ligands coor-.

  7. Anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Extracts of Terminalia citrina fruits were evaluated at doses of 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg in albino mice for preventive effect in inflammatory edema, peripheral pain sensation and pyrexia. Carrageenan induced paw edema method was utilized to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity.

  8. Polymers selection for a liquid inoculant of Azospirillum brasilense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we used a method of accelerated degradation to select a polymer and a concentration to maintain cell stability of a liquid inoculant based on the strain C16 Azospirillum brasilense. A screening at 45°C was made to compare the protectant effect of five polymers on the viability of the strain (p/v): carrageenan ...

  9. Selective macrophage inhibition abolishes warfarin-induced reduction of metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, B.

    1980-01-01

    Warfarin administered to tumor-bearing mice reduces the number of spontaneous lung metastases. Both macrophage inhibitors silica and carrageenan abolish the warfarin-induced decrease in tumour metastasis, which strongly supports the concept that the antitumour effect of coumarin derivatives is

  10. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carrageenan and histamine-induced rat paw oedema were conducted to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity, while acetic acid-induced writhing test was conducted to assess the analgesic activity of the plant. The extract was administered intraperitoneally (i.p) to rats at graded doses of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight (BWt).

  11. Comparative study on the effects of negatively-charged biopolymers on chitosan-based gels for the development of instantaneous gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno, Austin Ed B.; Chakraborty, Soma

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric electrolytic complexes are solutions of charged/ionized chains. These solutions of positive and negative charge can be combined to make instantaneous networks bonded by electrostatic interactions, a gel network. These electrostatic interaction allows for easy application in injectable gels as the network can be temporarily distributed with the application of force and reformed on the relief of it. Possible applications for these injectable gels include drug delivery and wound-healing. κ-Carrageenan, dextran sulfate, alginate, and chitosan are polyelectrolytic biocompatible polymers which are widely studied and used for a variety of biomedical applications. Gel networks are made by combining a negatively-charged (κ-Carrageenan, dextran sulfate, or alginate) and positively charged (chitosan) solutions. The strong electrostatic interaction between the opposite charges from the gel network and the inherent biocompatibility of the polymers allow future biomedical applications. Quat 188-modified chitosan has additional sites for electrostatic bonding, can be dissolved in neutral, basic, and acidic pH, and has shown inherent antibacterial activity. The objectives of this study are the following: to formulate chitosan-based gels mixing solutions of chitosan with solutions of either κ-Carrageenan, dextran sulfate, or alginate, study the gelation of the gels as function of time and pH (4, 7, and 9) using UV-Vis, characterize the chitosan-based gels through DSC and DMA, characterize the physiological degradation of the chitosan-based gels, and compare results with those from Quat 188-modified chitosan-based gels. Polyelectrolytic solutions of chitosan and negatively-charged biopolymer of similar viscosities were mixed. It was determined from the UV-Vis spectroscopy of the chitosan-carrageenan gels under pH7 buffer that the increase of concentration by a factor of 5 for 0.006M-0.0095M and 1.25 for 0.0095M-0.0150M Chitosan-Carrageenan gels improved gelation by the

  12. Participation of the NO/cGMP/K+ATP pathway in the antinociception induced by Walker tumor bearing in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, A.L.R.; Pinheiro, C.A.; Oliveira, G.J.; Torres, J.N.L.; Moraes, M.O.; Ribeiro, R.A.; Vale, M.L.; Souza, M.H.L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Implantation of Walker 256 tumor decreases acute systemic inflammation in rats. Inflammatory hyperalgesia is one of the most important events of acute inflammation. The L-arginine/NO/cGMP/K + ATP pathway has been proposed as the mechanism of peripheral antinociception mediated by several drugs and physical exercise. The objective of this study was to investigate a possible involvement of the NO/cGMP/K + ATP pathway in antinociception induced in Walker 256 tumor-bearing male Wistar rats (180-220 g). The groups consisted of 5-6 animals. Mechanical inflammatory hypernociception was evaluated using an electronic version of the von Frey test. Walker tumor (4th and 7th day post-implantation) reduced prostaglandin E 2 - (PGE 2 , 400 ng/paw; 50 µL; intraplantar injection) and carrageenan-induced hypernociception (500 µg/paw; 100 µL; intraplantar injection). Walker tumor-induced analgesia was reversed (99.3% for carrageenan and 77.2% for PGE 2 ) by a selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME; 90 mg/kg, ip) and L-arginine (200 mg/kg, ip), which prevented (80% for carrageenan and 65% for PGE 2 ) the effect of L-NAME. Treatment with the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (100% for carrageenan and 95% for PGE 2 ; 8 µg/paw) and the ATP-sensitive K + channel (KATP) blocker glibenclamide (87.5% for carrageenan and 100% for PGE 2 ; 160 µg/paw) reversed the antinociceptive effect of tumor bearing in a statistically significant manner (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed an intrinsic peripheral antinociceptive effect of Walker tumor bearing in rats. This antinociceptive effect seemed to be mediated by activation of the NO/cGMP pathway followed by the opening of KATP channels

  13. Design, development, physicochemical, and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of transdermal patches containing diclofenac diethylammonium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Priyanka; Mukherjee, Biswajit

    2002-09-01

    In this study, matrix-type transdermal patches containing diclofenac diethylamine were prepared using different ratios of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ethylcellulose (EC) by solvent evaporation technique. The drug matrix film of PVP and EC was casted on a polyvinylalcohol backing membrane. All the prepared formulations were subjected to physical studies (moisture content, moisture uptake, and flatness), in vitro release studies and in vitro skin permeation studies. In vitro permeation studies were performed across cadaver skin using a modified diffusion cell. Variations in drug release profiles among the formulations studied were observed. Based on a physicochemical and in vitro skin permeation study, formulation PA4 (PVP/EC, 1:2) and PA5 (PVP/EC, 1:5) were chosen for further in vivo experiments. The antiinflammatory effect and a sustaining action of diclofenac diethylamine from the two transdermal patches selected were studied by inducing paw edema in rats with 1% w/v carrageenan solution. When the patches were applied half an hour before the subplantar injection of carrageenan in the hind paw of male Wistar rats, it was observed that formulation PA4 produced 100% inhibition of paw edema in rats 12 h after carrageenan insult, whereas in the case of formulation PA5, 4% mean paw edema was obtained half an hour after the carrageenan injection and the value became 19.23% 12 h after the carrageenan insult. The efficacy of transdermal patches was also compared with the marketed Voveran gel and it was found that PA4 transdermal patches produced a better result as compared with the Voveran gel. Hence, it can be reasonably concluded that diclofenac diethylamine can be formulated into the transdermal matrix type patches to sustain its release characteristics and the polymeric composition (PVP/EC, 1:2) was found to be the best choice for manufacturing transdermal patches of diclofenac diethylamine among the formulations studied. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. In situ synthesis of magnetic CaraPVA IPN nanocomposite hydrogels and controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza; Etemadi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels that focused on targeted drug delivery were synthesized by incorporation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), kappa-carrageenan (Cara), and magnetite Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles were obtained in situ in the presence of a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol/kappa-carrageenan (CaraPVA). The produced magnetite-polymers were cross-linked with freezing–thawing technique and subsequent with K + solution. The synthesized hydrogels were thoroughly characterized by transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. The dynamic swelling kinetic models of hydrogels were analyzed according to the first- and second-order kinetic models and were found that the experimental kinetics data followed the second-order model well. Drug loading and release efficiency were evaluated by diclofenac sodium (DS) as the model drug. The in vitro drug release studies from hydrogels exhibited significant behaviors on the subject of physiological simulated pHs and external magnetic fields. Investigation on the antibacterial activity revealed the ability of drug-loaded hydrogels to inactivate the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. The mucoadhesive properties of the hydrogels were studied and the hydrogels containing kappa-carrageenan showed good mucoadhesiveness in both simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. - Highlights: • In situ synthesis of magnetic kappa-carrageenan/PVA nanocomposite hydrogel. • Low salt sensitivity of magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels was observed. • The release of diclofenac sodium from hydrogels was pH-dependent. • The release of diclofenac sodium from magnetic hydrogels was affected by external magnetic field. • The hydrogels containing carrageenan component showed high mucoadhesiveness

  15. In situ synthesis of magnetic CaraPVA IPN nanocomposite hydrogels and controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza, E-mail: grmnia@maragheh.ac.ir; Etemadi, Hossein

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels that focused on targeted drug delivery were synthesized by incorporation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), kappa-carrageenan (Cara), and magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles were obtained in situ in the presence of a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol/kappa-carrageenan (CaraPVA). The produced magnetite-polymers were cross-linked with freezing–thawing technique and subsequent with K{sup +} solution. The synthesized hydrogels were thoroughly characterized by transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. The dynamic swelling kinetic models of hydrogels were analyzed according to the first- and second-order kinetic models and were found that the experimental kinetics data followed the second-order model well. Drug loading and release efficiency were evaluated by diclofenac sodium (DS) as the model drug. The in vitro drug release studies from hydrogels exhibited significant behaviors on the subject of physiological simulated pHs and external magnetic fields. Investigation on the antibacterial activity revealed the ability of drug-loaded hydrogels to inactivate the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. The mucoadhesive properties of the hydrogels were studied and the hydrogels containing kappa-carrageenan showed good mucoadhesiveness in both simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. - Highlights: • In situ synthesis of magnetic kappa-carrageenan/PVA nanocomposite hydrogel. • Low salt sensitivity of magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels was observed. • The release of diclofenac sodium from hydrogels was pH-dependent. • The release of diclofenac sodium from magnetic hydrogels was affected by external magnetic field. • The hydrogels containing carrageenan component showed high

  16. Mechanisms of immunological eradication of a syngeneic guinea pig tumor: participation of a component(s) of recipient origin in the expression of systemic adoptive immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, S.; Fonseca, L.S.; Kato, H.; Zbar, B.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of carrageenan and trypan blue on the expression of adoptive immunity to the syngeneic guinea pig line 10 hepatoma were investigated. Adoptive immunity was assessed by observing dermal tumor growth in recipients of immune cells and by bioassays in which tumor challenge sites were transplanted into secondary hosts. Carrageenan abrogated transferred immunity in treated animals as evidenced by dermal tumor growth and by development of fatal ascites tumors in peritoneal cavities of the secondary hosts. Trypan blue, on the other hand, did not abrogate transferred immunity in treated animals. However, the i.p. bioassay revealed the presence of line 10 cells in the tumor challenge sites 10 days after adoptive transfer. In vitro and in vivo exposure of immune spleen cells to carrageenan or trypan blue had no significant effect on the subsequent adoptive transfer, indicating that the inhibitory activity of these agents cannot be attributed to direct toxicity to immune lymphoid cells. Tumor challenge sites taken from carrageenan or trypan blue-treated animals 5 days after adoptive transfer failed to grow progressively when transplanted s.c. into secondary hosts. This observation suggests the presence of immune cells at tumor challenge sites. Thus, the inhibitory effects were unlikely due to interference with recirculation of the i.v.-transferred immune cells. Adoptive immunity was not influenced in guinea pigs that received a lethal dose of irradiation (500 rads). These results demonstrate that a recipient component(s) sensitive to carrageenan and trypan blue but resistant to radiation is essential to the expression of adoptive immunity

  17. In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of lovastatin in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Gonçalves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Statins are among the most prescribed drugs in recent clinical practice. They are also known for their pleiotropic actions, which are independent of their lipid-lowering properties. The effect of lovastatin was investigated against carrageenan-induced paw edema in male Wistar rats (200-250 g and on leukocyte migration, as measured by carrageenan-induced peritonitis in male Swiss mice (20-25 g, which are models of acute inflammation. Lovastatin (administered 1 h prior to carrageenan, at oral doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg, markedly attenuated paw edema formation in rats at the 4th hour after carrageenan injection (25, 43, and 37% inhibition, respectively. Inhibitions of 20, 45 and 80% were observed in the leukocyte migration, as evaluated by carrageenan-induced peritonitis in mice with lovastatin doses of 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg, as compared to controls. Furthermore, lovastatin (administered 1 h before initiation reduced the nociceptive effect of the formalin test in mice, at both phases, at doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg: first phase (51, 65, and 70%, respectively and second phase (73, 57, and 66% inhibition of licking time, respectively. The anti-nociceptive activity of lovastatin was inhibited by naloxone (3 mg/kg, sc. Lovastatin (0.01, 0.1, and 1 µg/mL inhibited by 23, 79, and 86%, respectively, the release of myeloperoxidase from human neutrophils. Leukocyte (predominantly neutrophils infiltration was almost completely reduced by lovastatin treatment, as observed in the model of acute paw edema with hematoxylin and eosin staining. In addition, lovastatin decreased the number of cells expressing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity. Therefore, the alterations in leukocyte activity and cytokine release could contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of lovastatin.

  18. Aplikasi Pelapis Bionanokomposit berbasis Karagenan untuk Mempertahankan Mutu Buah Mangga Utuh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Meindrawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mango is one of Indonesia export comodities which vulnerable to decay during transportation and storage.Coating is known as an effective method to overcome such shortcomings of mango during storage. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of carrageenan-based bionanocomposite coating application for maintaining quality of mango type Gedong gincu stored at 20 oC as well as characterize the mechanical and water vapor barier properties of resulting film. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs (1 % w/w carrageenan and beeswax (3 % v/v solution, as hydrophobic component, were incorporated into carrageenan polymer to produce bionanocomposite solution. The results showed the mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of carrageenan films were improved by the addition of beeswax and ZnO NPs. N1B1 (carrageenan + beeswax + ZnO NPs emerged as the most effective coating formulation to delay the change of weight loss, firmness, CO2 production, total acidity as well as alteration in color parameters (L, a and b of mango during storage. Carrageenan-based bionanocomposite coating was potential as alternative method to keep the quality of mango during storage. Abstrak Mangga merupakan salah satu komoditas ekspor Indonesia yang rentan mengalami kerusakan selama transportasi dan penyimpanan. Pelapisan dikenal sebagai metode yang efektif untuk mengatasi masalah mangga selama penyimpanan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengkaji pengaruh aplikasi pelapis bionanokomposit berbasis karagenan dalam mempertahankan kualitas mangga jenis Gedong gincu yang disimpan pada suhu 20 oC serta mengkarakterisasi sifat mekanis dan barier uap air dari film yang dihasilkan. Nanopartikel seng oksida (NP-ZnO (1% b/b karagenan dan beeswax (3 % v/v larutan, sebagai komponen hidrofobik, diinkorporasikan ke dalam polimer karagenan untuk menghasilkan larutan bionanokomposit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan sifat mekanis serta barier uap air dari film karagenan mampu

  19. Evaluation of in vivo and in vitro biological activities of different extracts of Cuscuta arvensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Ufuk; Küpeli-Akkol, Esra; Sekeroglu, Nazim

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, the potential effects of extracts from the whole plant of Cuscuta arvensis were studied in mice using the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model for antiinflammatory activity and the p-benzoquinone-induced writhing reflex for the assessment of antinociceptive activity. In order to obtain the extracts, the whole plant of C. arvensis was extracted with different solvents such as n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The methanolic and water extracts inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw edema and p-benzoquinone-induced writhing reflex, whereas the other extracts showed only mild inhibitory antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities in these in vivo models. Additionally, the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts had higher scavenging ability then the non polar extracts.

  20. Role of homoeopathic mother tinctures in rheumatoid arthritis: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of present preliminary study was to assess the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-arthritic effect of some homoeopathic mother tinctures viz. Ricinus communis (RCMT, Rauwolfia serpentina (RSMT, Bellis perennis (BPMT, Curcuma longa (CLMT, Terminalia arjuna (TAMT and Tribulus terresteris (TTMT. Materials and Methods: Paw oedema was induced by administration of 0.1ml 1% carrageenan in normal saline into right hind paw. Degree of inflammation was evaluated according to paw swelling. Arthritis was induced by Complete Freund′s Adjuvant (CFA injection in metatarsal footpad of Wistar albino rats. Result: Curcuma longa and Tribulus terresteris mother tinctures reduced hind paw swelling decreased the paw volume in Carrageenan treated rats. Thus, revealed potent activity against inflammation. All homoeopathic mother tinctures showed peripheral analgesic activities in hot plate induced thermal algesia in mice.

  1. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis

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    Saurabh Bhatia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis. Materials and Methods: Aqueous (POR and alcoholic (PE fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Results: Among the fractions POR showed better activity.  POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05 reduced abdominal writhes than PE.  In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p

  2. Synthesis of novel 2-mercapto benzothiazole and 1,2,3-triazole based bis-heterocycles: their anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Syed; Alam, Mohammad Mahboob; Mulakayala, Naveen; Mulakayala, Chaitanya; Vanaja, G; Kalle, Arunasree M; Pallu, Reddanna; Alam, M S

    2012-03-01

    A focused library of novel bis-heterocycles encompassing 2-mercapto benzothiazole and 1,2,3-triazoles were synthesized using click chemistry approach. The synthesized compounds have been tested for their anti-inflammatory activity by using biochemical cyclooxygenase (COX) activity assays and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema. Among the tested compounds, compound 4d demonstrated a potent selective COX-2 inhibition with COX-2/COX-1 ratio of 0.44. Results from carrageenan-induced hind paw edema showed that compounds 4a, 4d, 4e and 4f posses significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to the standard drug Ibuprofen. The compounds showing significant activity were further subjected to anti-nociceptive activity by writhing test. These four compounds have shown comparable activity with the standard Ibuprofen. Further ulcerogenic studies shows that none of these compounds causing gastric ulceration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrocolloid-based nutraceutical delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Youngren, Susanne R. (Purdue)

    2012-07-11

    Nutraceuticals are important due to their inherent health benefits. However, utilization and consumption are limited by their poor water solubility and instability at normal processing and storage conditions. Herein, we propose an elegant and novel approach for the delivery of nutraceuticals in their active form using hydrocolloid matrices that are inexpensive and non-toxic with generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Iota-carrageenan and curcumin have been chosen as models of hydrocolloid and nutraceutical compounds, respectively. The iota-carrageenan network maintains a stable organization after encapsulating curcumin molecules, protects them from melting and then releases them in a sustained manner. These findings lay a strong foundation for developing value-added functional and medicinal foods.

  4. Cultivation of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii in Brazil and its pharmacological potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hayashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales is a red algae widely cultivated as the main source of raw material for the carrageenan industry. This hydrocolloid is normally used in the food industry as a gelling and stabilizing agent. The facility of its commercial farming based on vegetative propagation promoted the success of the aquaculture of this macroalgae that consequently stimulated studies focusing on new potential uses of this resource. This work presents a brief review of the studies related to K. alvarezii cultivation in southern and southeastern Brazil, the latest discoveries in the world concerning pharmacological studies with this species and the advantages of the use of carrageenan as a source of dietary fiber, cholesterol reducer, and antioxidant, anti-viral and anti-cancer compounds, as well as the effects in hemagglutination activity.

  5. Cultivation of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii in Brazil and its pharmacological potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hayashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales is a red algae widely cultivated as the main source of raw material for the carrageenan industry. This hydrocolloid is normally used in the food industry as a gelling and stabilizing agent. The facility of its commercial farming based on vegetative propagation promoted the success of the aquaculture of this macroalgae that consequently stimulated studies focusing on new potential uses of this resource. This work presents a brief review of the studies related to K. alvarezii cultivation in southern and southeastern Brazil, the latest discoveries in the world concerning pharmacological studies with this species and the advantages of the use of carrageenan as a source of dietary fiber, cholesterol reducer, and antioxidant, anti-viral and anti-cancer compounds, as well as the effects in hemagglutination activity.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of Heliotropium strigosum in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haroon; Khan, Murad Ali; Gul, Farah; Hussain, Sajjid; Ashraf, Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    The current project was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of crude extract of Heliotropium strigosum and its subsequent solvent fractions in post carrageenan-induced edema and post xylene-induced ear edema at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The results revealed marked attenuation of edema induced by carrageenan injection in a dose-dependent manner. The ethyl acetate fraction was most dominant with 73.33% inhibition followed by hexane fraction (70.66%). When the extracts were challenged against xylene-induced ear edema, again ethyl acetate and hexane fractions were most impressive with 38.21 and 35.77% inhibition, respectively. It is concluded that various extracts of H. strigosum possessed strong anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. © The Author(s) 2012.

  7. Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of New Alkyl-Substituted Phthalimide 1H-1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalom Pôrto de Oliveira Assis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four new 1,2,3-triazole phthalimide derivatives with a potent anti-inflammatory activity have been synthesized in the good yields by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction from N-(azido-alkylphthalimides and terminal alkynes. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by injecting carrageenan through the plantar tissue of the right hind paw of Swiss white mice to produce inflammation. All the compounds 3a–c and 5a–c exhibited an important anti-inflammatory activity; the best activity was found for the compounds 3b and 5c, which showed to be able to decrease by 69% and 56.2% carrageenan-induced edema in mice. These compounds may also offer a future promise as a new anti-inflammatory agent.

  8. Development, characterization and potential applications of edible film from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moey, Siah Watt; Abdullah, Aminah; Ahmad, Ishak

    2014-09-01

    A new patent pending process is proposed in this study to produce edible film directly from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii). Seaweed together with other ingredients had been used to produce the film through casting technique. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on the edible film to examine the thickness, colour, transparency, solubility, tensile strength, elongation at break, water permeability rate, oxygen permeability rate and surface morphology. The produced film was transparent, stretchable, sealable and have basic properties for applications in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, toiletries and also agricultural industries. Edible film was successfully developed directly from dry seaweed instead of using alginate and carrageenan. The edible film processing method developed in this research was easier and cheaper compared with the method by using alginate and carrageenan.

  9. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  10. Marine bioactive compounds: stereospecific anti-inflammatory activity of natural and synthetic cordiachromene A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benslimane, A F; Pouchus, Y F; Verbist, J F; Petit, J Y; Khettab, E N; Welin, L; Brion, J D

    1992-01-01

    A new synthesis is proposed for cordiachromene A (CCA), a bioactive component of the ascidian Aplidium antillense Gravier, using a method producing a racemic mixture. The anti-inflammatory activities of a natural extract and a chemically synthetic form of CCA were assessed in vivo by carrageenan-induced rat-paw edema. The activity of synthetic CCA was confirmed by a test on kaolin-induced granuloma in the rat. Strong activities were measured for both CCA, but comparison of results of the first test suggests that only the natural optically active isomer has an anti-inflammatory effect. CCA is similar to indomethacin in its effect on carrageenan-induced rat-paw edema and ten times as active as phenylbutazone.

  11. R and D on utilization of indigenous materials for hydrogel wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Md. Embadul; Dafader, Nirmal Chandra; Khan, Ruhul Amin

    2008-01-01

    Utilization of indigenous materials for the preparation of hydrogel wound dressing is highlighted in this report. Hydrogels were prepared by two different formulations using PVP and PVA separately. Considering the price of the main two raw materials PVA was chosen for the next course of development. To reduce the cost of raw materials further flour was added to the PVA formulation. Ingredients concentrations for preparing good quality hydrogel were optimized. PVA containing both carrageenan and flour produces hydrogel with good properties. PVA containing 0.75% of both carrageenan and flour produces hydrogel of desirable properties. Seminar and demonstration about the usefulness of hydrogel for wound dressing were arranged at a city hospital. (author)

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of local soft tissue inflammation using gadolinium-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paajanen, H.; Brasch, R.C.; Schmiedl, U.; Ogan, M.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical inflammation was induced subcutaneously in 10 rats using carrageenan mucopolysaccharide. Dual spin echo (SE) imaging of inflammatory loci was performed employing a 0.35 tesla resistive magnet. In addition, gadolinium-DTPA was administrated intravenously into 5 rats to evaluate the potential benefits of paramagnetic contrast medium for the detection and characterization of inflammatory loci. T2 weighted SE images demonstrated the edematous lesions as zones of high intensity. This was attributed to the increased relaxation times of lesions when compared to the adjacent soft tissue. The inflammation was also delineated on T1 weighted SE images, but only after injection of paramagnetic Gd-DTPA. Carrageenan mucopolysaccharide-induced lesions provide a useful experimental model for in viva evaluation of soft tissue inflammation using magnetic resonance imaging. No special benefit of paramagnetic contrast enhancement was demonstrated in this model of local edema. (orig.)

  13. N-acetylcysteine Ameliorates Prostatitis via miR-141 Regulating Keap1/Nrf2 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Liang; Huang, Yu-Hua; Yan, Chun-Yin; Wei, Xue-Dong; Hou, Jian-Quan; Pu, Jin-Xian; Lv, Jin-Xing

    2016-04-01

    Chronic prostatitis was the most common type of prostatitis and oxidative stress was reported to be highly elevated in prostatitis patients. In this study, we determined the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on prostatitis and the molecular mechanism involved in it. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control group (group A, n = 20), carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP) model group (group B, n = 20), and carrageenan-induced CNP model group with NAC injection (group C, n = 20). Eye score, locomotion score, inflammatory cell count, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression, and Evans blue were compared in these three groups. The expression of miR-141 was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Moreover, protein expressions of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1) and nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target genes were examined by Western blot. Luciferase reporter assay was performed in RWPE-1 cells transfected miR-141 mimic or inhibitor and the plasmid carrying 3'-UTR of Keap1. The value of eye score, locomotion score, inflammatory cell count, and Evans blue were significantly decreased in group C, as well as the expression of COX2, when comparing to that of group B. These results indicated that NAC relieved the carrageenan-induced CNP. Further, we found that NAC increased the expression of miR-141 and activated the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-141 mimic could suppress the activity of Keap1 and stimulate the downstream target genes of Nrf2. In addition, miR-141 inhibitor could reduce the effect of NAC on prostatitis. NAC ameliorates the carrageenan-induced prostatitis and prostate inflammation pain through miR-141 regulating Keap1/Nrf2 signaling.

  14. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gulecha, Vishal; Sivakumar, T; Upaganlawar, Aman; Mahajan, Manoj; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FR...

  15. Citral reduces nociceptive and inflammatory response in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.; Guimarães, Adriana G.; Santana, Marilia T. de; Araújo, Bruno E.S.; Moreira, Flávia V.; Bonjardim, Leonardo R.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Siqueira, Jullyana S.; Antoniolli, Ângelo R.; Botelho, Marco A.; Almeida, Jackson R. G. S.; Santos, Márcio R. V.

    2011-01-01

    Citral (CIT), which contains the chiral enantiomers, neral (cis) and geranial (trans), is the majority monoterpene from Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus. The present study aimed to evaluate CIT for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in rodents. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied by measuring nociception through acetic acid and formalin tests, while inflammation was verified by inducing peritonitis and paw edema with carrageenan. All tested doses of CIT...

  16. [Biologically active compounds from the aqueous extract of Urtica dioica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H; Willer, F; Kreher, B

    1989-10-01

    From the water extract of the roots of Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) a polysaccharide fraction was isolated which revealed activity in the carrageenan rat paw edema model and lymphocyte transformation test. Ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration of this fraction afforded 4 different polysaccharides, one of which reduced dose dependent hemolysis in the classical pathway of the complement test. The Urtica dioica lectin (UDA) was reisolated and found to stimulate the proliferation of human lymphocytes.

  17. Rheological characterization of gel-in-oil-in-gel type structured emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashok; Dumlu, Pinar; Vermeir, Lien; Lewille, Benny; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of multiple emulsions where both the enclosed and the external water phases are structured using a combination of two non-gelling biopolymers. Emulsions (with gelled inner water droplets and gelled water continuous phase) were created using a simple 'one-step' process where the oil phase (triglyceride oil and polyglycerol polyricinoleate) and the water phase (containing a combination of locust bean gum and carrageenan) were emulsified at an elevated temperature (70 d...

  18. Effects of Carriers, Emulsifiers, and Biopesticides for Direct Silk Treatments on Caterpillar Feeding Damage and Ear Development in Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, P J; Schultz, B B; Hazzard, R V

    2017-04-01

    In the northeastern United States, control of Lepidopteran pests of sweet corn, particularly corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)], is difficult using organic methods. The direct application of corn oil and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to corn silk has been shown to reduce ear damage from corn earworm in past studies; these studies sought to optimize this method by evaluating additional carrier and biopesticide mixtures that comply with the United States Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and National Organic Standards. Carriers, which are liquids used to dissolve the biopesticide and deliver it into the tip of the ear, may have phytotoxic or insecticidal properties. Experiments conducted from 2001 to 2005 evaluated caterpillar damage and ear development effects from carriers (vegetable and paraffinic oils and carrageenan), biopesticides (Bt, spinsosad, and neem), and three emulsifiers in various combinations when applied directly to the tips of the ears 5-7 d after silk initiation. There were no effects of emulsifiers on ear quality, except for slight reduction in caterpillar damage in one of the two years. There were no differences among corn, soy, canola, and safflower oils in corn earworm control or tip development. The carrageenan carrier had the least effect upon ear development as measured by the length of nonpollinated kernels at the tip, compared to corn oil or paraffinic oil (JMS Stylet Oil), which caused the greatest tip damage as well as an oily discoloration. The carrier-pesticide combinations with the best ear quality overall were spinosad in carrageenan or corn oil, and Bt in carrageenan. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Atividade antiinflamatória de carboidrato produzido por fermentação aquosa de grãos de quefir

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira,Maria E. C.; Santos,Marcelo H.; Pereira,Ivan O.; Ferraz,Vany; Barbosa,Luiz C. A.; Schneedorf,José M.

    2008-01-01

    Kefir, a symbiont microorganism suspension, presents benefic effects to health. Some kefir grains were cultivated in brown sugar, allowing to isolate a substance named CSQ. This was evaluated on a biologic essay of mouse foot edema, presenting an inhibitory activity of 30+4 % against carrageenan after the stimulus. It was observed that a cultivation mean containing sucrose, and not the milky mean, lead to the production of different sugar polymeric chains of kefir. The results in vivo suggest...

  20. Atividade antiinflamatória de carboidrato produzido por fermentação aquosa de grãos de quefir Anti-inflammatory activity of carbohydrate produced from aqueous fermentation of kefir

    OpenAIRE

    Maria E. C. Moreira; Marcelo H. Santos; Ivan O. Pereira; Vany Ferraz; Luiz C. A. Barbosa; José M. Schneedorf

    2008-01-01

    Kefir, a symbiont microorganism suspension, presents benefic effects to health. Some kefir grains were cultivated in brown sugar, allowing to isolate a substance named CSQ. This was evaluated on a biologic essay of mouse foot edema, presenting an inhibitory activity of 30+4 % against carrageenan after the stimulus. It was observed that a cultivation mean containing sucrose, and not the milky mean, lead to the production of different sugar polymeric chains of kefir. The results in vivo suggest...

  1. Assessment of phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory potential of Boerhavia procumbens Banks ex Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Jasia; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Haq, Ihsan Ul

    2016-08-01

    Boerhavia procumbens is traditionally used in the treatment of various disorders including jaundice and gonorrhea, is a refrigerant, and exhibits anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the phytochemical classes, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract (BPME) and different fractions (n-hexane (BPHE), ethyl acetate (BPEE), n-butanol (BPBE), and residual aqueous fraction (BPAE)) of B. procumbens against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of B. procumbens, 42 Sprague Dawley male rats (150-200 g) were randomly divided into seven groups. Group I received distilled water and group II was treated with diclofenac potassium (10 mg/kg) body weight (bw) orally. Groups III, IV, V, VI, and VII were administered BPME, BPHE, BPEE, BPBE, and BPAE (200 mg/kg bw) orally, 1 h before the treatment with carrageenan (10 mg/kg bw) in rats. Anti-inflammatory effects of B. procumbens were determined by estimating the inhibition of edema at 1st, 2nd, and 3rd hour after carrageenan injection. Qualitative analysis of methanol extract indicated the composition of diverse classes, namely, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, phlobatannins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids, and anthraquinones. Quantitative determination illustrated that BPBE and BPEE possessed the highest concentration of total phenolic (60.45 ± 2.1 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram sample) and total flavonoid content (68.05 ± 2.3 mg rutin equivalent per gram sample), respectively. A dose-dependent response for antioxidant activity was exhibited by all the samples. The sample with the highest aptitude for antioxidant activity was the BPBE for 2,2-azobis,3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was significantly (p antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential and accredit the local use of B. procumbens in various disorders.

  2. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Tetraclinis articulata L.

    OpenAIRE

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Doukkali, Zouhra; Bouidida, El Houcine; Touati, Driss; Nejjari, Rachid; El Guessabi, Lahcen; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oil (EO) from the leaves of the western Mediterranean and Moroccan endemic plant Tetraclinis articulata was analyzed by GC/MS and examined for its acute toxicity on mice, in order to establish the safe doses. Furthermore, the anti-Inflammatory activity was evaluated based on carrageenan and trauma induced rats paw edema and the antioxidant potential has been investigated using different methods including DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant ca...

  3. Development and validation of an animal model of prostate inflammation-induced chronic pelvic pain: evaluating from inflammation of the prostate to pain behavioral modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS is the most common type of prostatitis. Due to the lack of a suitable animal model partly, the pathogenesis for this condition is obscure. In the current study we developed and validated an animal model for nonbacterial prostatitis and prostate inflammation-induced chronic pelvic pain in rats with the use of intraprostatic injection of λ-carrageenan. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-350 g were used for the experiments. After intraprostatic injection of 3% λ-carrageenan, at different time points(after 24 h, 7 d, 14 d and 30 d of injection, radiant heat and von Frey filaments were applied to the scrotum of rats to measure the heat and mechanical thresholds respectively. Then the prostate was removed for histology, and cyclooxygenase (COX 2 protein expression was determined by Western-blot. Evans blue(50 mg/kg was also injected intravenously to assess for plasma protein extravasation at different time points after injection of λ-carrageenan. RESULTS: Compared to control group, inflamed animals showed a significant reduction in mechanical threshold (mechanical allodynia at 24 h and 7d(p = 0.022,0.046, respectively, and a significant reduction in heat threshold (thermal hyperalgesia at 24 h, 7d and 14 d(p = 0.014, 0.018, 0.002, respectively in the scrotal skin. Significant increase of inflammatory cell accumulation, COX2 expression and Evans blue extravasation were observed at 24 h, 7d and 14 d after injection. CONCLUSIONS: Intraprostatic λ-carrageenan injection induced neurogenic prostatitis and prostate inflammation pain, which lasted at least 2 weeks. The current model is expected to be a valuable preclinical tool to study the neurobiological mechanisms of male chronic pelvic pain.

  4. Antioxidant responses and photosynthetic behaviors of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Kappaphycus striatum (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae) during low temperature stress

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hu; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Litao; Pang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Background Kappaphycus are farmed in tropical countries as raw material for carrageenan, which is widely used in food industry. The sea area available for farming is one limiting factor in the production of seaweeds. Though cultivation is spreading into subtropical regions, the lower seawater temperature is an important problem encountered in subtropical regions for the farming of Kappaphycus. This research of physiological response to low temperature stress will be helpful for screening Kapp...

  5. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation attenuates CFA-induced hyperalgesia and inhibits spinal ERK1/2-COX-2 pathway activation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jun-Fan; Liang, Yi; Du, Jun-Ying; Fang, Jian-Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacologic treatment for pain relief. In previous animal studies, TENS effectively alleviated Complete Freund?s Adjuvant (CFA)- or carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. Although TENS is known to produce analgesia via opioid activation in the brain and at the spinal level, few reports have investigated the signal transduction pathways mediated by TENS. Prior studies have verified the importance of the activation of extr...

  6. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ganga Rao; P. Umamaheswara Rao; E. Sambasiva Rao; T. Mallikarjuna Rao; V.S. Praneeth. D

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. Methods: In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 20...

  7. Application of composite protective coatings on the surface of sausages with different water content

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Tyburcy; Patrycja Wasiak; Aneta Cegiełka

    2010-01-01

    Background. Emulsion coatings on the surface of sausages counteract weight loss during storage. Therefore they could be applied instead of synthetic foils, which are used for vacuum packaging. The aim of this study was the assessment of the properties of two emulsion coatings (with different carrageenan content) applied on the surface of two Polish sausages with various water content (kabanosy and frankfurterki). Material and methods. Sausages were coated with emulsions containing gelati...

  8. Alcoholic fermentation by immobilized yeast at high sugar concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcberg, I.B.; Margalith, P.

    1981-01-01

    Glucose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized by entrapment in agar, carrageenan, alginate and polyacrylamide gels, was compared to that of freely suspended cells at concentration of 10-50% (w.w.) sugar. The rate of ethanol production by the entrapped cells was 20-25% higher than that of the free cells. Concentrations of up to 14.5% w/w ethanol (30% glucose initial concentration) could be obtained. A number of hypotheses for the improved alcoholic fermentation are discussed.

  9. Antiinflammatory properties of a peptide derived from interleukin-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klementiev, Boris; Enevoldsen, Maj N; Li, Shizhong

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a potent antiinflammatory cytokine. However its use in the clinic is hampered by side effects. We here describe the identification of a novel synthetic peptide, termed Ph8, derived from α-helix C of IL-4, which interacts with IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα). Employing various...... and reduced acute inflammation in carrageenan-induced edema. Our findings indicate that Ph8 is a promising potential drug candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases....

  10. Central nervous system mast cells in peripheral inflammatory nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmeier Wilfried

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional aspects of mast cell-neuronal interactions remain poorly understood. Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of powerful pro-inflammatory mediators such as histamine and cytokines. Cerebral dural mast cells have been proposed to modulate meningeal nociceptor activity and be involved in migraine pathophysiology. Little is known about the functional role of spinal cord dural mast cells. In this study, we examine their potential involvement in nociception and synaptic plasticity in superficial spinal dorsal horn. Changes of lower spinal cord dura mast cells and their contribution to hyperalgesia are examined in animal models of peripheral neurogenic and non-neurogenic inflammation. Results Spinal application of supernatant from activated cultured mast cells induces significant mechanical hyperalgesia and long-term potentiation (LTP at spinal synapses of C-fibers. Lumbar, thoracic and thalamic preparations are then examined for mast cell number and degranulation status after intraplantar capsaicin and carrageenan. Intradermal capsaicin induces a significant percent increase of lumbar dural mast cells at 3 hours post-administration. Peripheral carrageenan in female rats significantly increases mast cell density in the lumbar dura, but not in thoracic dura or thalamus. Intrathecal administration of the mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglycate or the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk inhibitor BAY-613606 reduce the increased percent degranulation and degranulated cell density of lumbar dural mast cells after capsaicin and carrageenan respectively, without affecting hyperalgesia. Conclusion The results suggest that lumbar dural mast cells may be sufficient but are not necessary for capsaicin or carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia.

  11. Développement d'enzymes recombinants issus des bactéries marines P. carrageenovora et SW5 pour la production d'oligo-fucoïdanes et d'oligo-λ-carraghenane

    OpenAIRE

    Colin , Sébastien

    2005-01-01

    This work aimed to characterize and produce two new biocatalysts which hydrolyze two polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of red algae (γ-carrageenan) and brown algae (fucoidan). These extracellular endo-hydrolases are produced by two saprophytic marine bacteria, Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora, (y-Proteobacteria), and SW5 (Bacteroidetes). Following the purification ofwild-type proteins, their genes were cloned and sequenced. The recombinant activity obtained by overexpression in E. ...

  12. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC stem in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhen-Rung; Peng, Wen-Huang; Ho, Yu-Ling; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Ku, Yoe-Ray; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Ching-Ying; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the analgesic effect of the methanol extract of Kalanchoe gracilis (MKGS) stem in animal models by inducing writhing response with acetic acid and conducting formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect of MKGS was also estimated on mice with lambda-carrageenan induced paw edema model. In order to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of MKGS, we analyzed the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx) in the liver, and the levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the edema paw tissue. In the analgesic tests, MKGS (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased both the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the licking time in the late phase of the formalin test. In the anti-inflammatory test, MKGS (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased paw edema at the third, fourth, fifth and sixth hours after lambda-carrageenan had been administrated. Furthermore, MKGS increased the activities of SOD and GRx in liver tissues and decreased MDA level in the edema paws three hours after lambda-carrageenan was injected. MKGS also affected the levels of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and NO induced by lambda-carrageenan. All these results suggested that MKGS possessed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of MKGS might be related to the lowering of MDA level in the edema paw via increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GRx in the liver, as well as the decreases in the levels of TNF-alpha and NO, and the production of IL-1beta in inflamed tissues.

  13. Bilobalide, a unique constituent of Ginkgo biloba, inhibits inflammatory pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Michelle; Dolan, Sharron

    2013-08-01

    Standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 has been shown to inhibit inflammatory hyperalgesia in rats; however, the mechanism of action is not known. This study set out to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of bilobalide, a unique G. biloba constituent, in three well-characterized models of acute inflammatory pain. The effect of oral, intraplantar or intrathecal administration of bilobalide or drug-vehicle (0.25% agar; 10% ethanol in H2O) on responses to noxious thermal and mechanical stimulation of the hindpaw, and paw oedema were assessed in adult male Wistar rats before and after intradermal hindpaw injection of carrageenan (3%; 50 μl) or capsaicin (10 μg; 50 μl) or after hindpaw incision (n=6-8/group). Oral administration of bilobalide (10-30 mg/kg) significantly inhibited thermal hyperalgesia in response to carrageenan, capsaicin and paw incision, independent of dose, with an efficacy similar to that of diclofenac. In the carrageenan model, mechanical hypersensitivity and paw oedema were also significantly reduced after treatment with bilobalide (10-30 mg/kg). Intrathecal administration of bilobalide (0.5-1 μg) inhibited carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia, but had no effect on mechanical hypersensitivity or paw oedema (application≥2 μg induced adverse effects, precluding testing of higher doses). Intraplantar administration of bilobalide (30-100 μg) had no effect. These data show that bilobalide is a potent anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic agent, the therapeutic effects of which are mediated in part through a central site of action, and may account for the therapeutic action of the whole extract G. biloba.

  14. Oral Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide: Plasma and Tissue Levels and Spinal Anti-hyperalgesic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Petrosino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA is a pleiotropic lipid mediator with established anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic activity. Ultramicronized PEA (PEA-um has superior oral efficacy compared to naïve (non-micronized PEA. The aim of the present study was two-fold: (1 to evaluate whether oral PEA-um has greater absorbability compared to naïve PEA, and its ability to reach peripheral and central tissues under healthy and local inflammatory conditions (carrageenan paw edema; (2 to better characterize the molecular pathways involved in PEA-um action, particularly at the spinal level. Rats were dosed with 30 mg/kg of [13C]4-PEA-um or naïve [13C]4-PEA by oral gavage, and [13C]4-PEA levels quantified, as a function of time, by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry. Overall plasma levels were higher in both healthy and carrageenan-injected rats administered [13C]4-PEA-um as compared to those receiving naïve [13C]4-PEA, indicating the greater absorbability of PEA-um. Furthermore, carrageenan injection markedly favored an increase in levels of [13C]4-PEA in plasma, paw and spinal cord. Oral treatment of carrageenan-injected rats with PEA-um (10 mg/kg confirmed beneficial peripheral effects on paw inflammation, thermal hyperalgesia and tissue damage. Notably, PEA-um down-regulated distinct spinal inflammatory and oxidative pathways. These last findings instruct on spinal mechanisms involved in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of PEA-um in inflammatory pain.

  15. ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLIEFERA. LAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K.N. Venkataswera; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Loganathan, V.; Nathan, S. Shanmuganathan

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanolic (90%) extract of the leaves of M.Oliera Lam (Fam: Moringaceae) were studied for their anti inflammatory action in ale albino rats. Two extracts exhibited maximum action within two hours of challenge. The aqueous extract sowed significant (P<0.01) odema suppression similar to that of Ibuprofen at the first hour of carrageenan injection. The results confirms the folkers claim of the plant. PMID:22556890

  16. Anti-inflammatory, antiallodynic effects and quantitative analysis of gallic acid in spray dried powders from Phyllanthus niruri leaves, stems, roots and whole plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica G. Couto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects of spray dried powders starting from leaves, stems, roots, the mixture of leaves and stems, as well as the whole plant aqueous solutions of Phyllanthus niruri L., Phyllanthaceae, were assessed. Gallic acid, used as chemical marker, was quantified by HPLC in the spray dried powders. Carrageenan-induced inflammatory and allodynic responses in the mouse paw were used as pharmacological models. Quantitative and qualitative differences among chemical composition of different herb parts were observed. The oral administration of leaves or leaves plus stems spray dried powders (100 mg/kg significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced allodynic effect (42±5 and 54±3%, respectively. Additionally, the spray dried powders of leaves significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema (35±6%. The spray dried powders of roots, stems, or the mixture of leaves, stems and roots (100 mg/kg, p.o. did not exhibit antiallodynic or antioedematogenic effect in the same model. In conclusion, differences in the chemical composition of spray dried powders from P. niruri are reflected in their in vivo pharmacological actions. Despite of a direct relationship of anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects with the gallic acid content had been observed, especially in the spray dried powders of leaves, the use of spray dried powders of leaves plus stems showed to be more effective, suggesting a synergic effect between their constituents.

  17. Anti-inflammatory, antiallodynic effects and quantitative analysis of gallic acid in spray dried powders from Phyllanthus niruri leaves, stems, roots and whole plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica G. Couto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects of spray dried powders starting from leaves, stems, roots, the mixture of leaves and stems, as well as the whole plant aqueous solutions of Phyllanthus niruri L., Phyllanthaceae, were assessed. Gallic acid, used as chemical marker, was quantified by HPLC in the spray dried powders. Carrageenan-induced inflammatory and allodynic responses in the mouse paw were used as pharmacological models. Quantitative and qualitative differences among chemical composition of different herb parts were observed. The oral administration of leaves or leaves plus stems spray dried powders (100 mg/kg significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced allodynic effect (42±5 and 54±3%, respectively. Additionally, the spray dried powders of leaves significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema (35±6%. The spray dried powders of roots, stems, or the mixture of leaves, stems and roots (100 mg/kg, p.o. did not exhibit antiallodynic or antioedematogenic effect in the same model. In conclusion, differences in the chemical composition of spray dried powders from P. niruri are reflected in their in vivo pharmacological actions. Despite of a direct relationship of anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects with the gallic acid content had been observed, especially in the spray dried powders of leaves, the use of spray dried powders of leaves plus stems showed to be more effective, suggesting a synergic effect between their constituents.

  18. Optimization of Sugar Replacement with Date Syrup in Prebiotic Chocolate Milk Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemalilou, Sahar; Alizadeh, Ainaz

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate milk is one of the most commonly used non-fermentative dairy products, which, due to high level of sucrose, could lead to diabetes and tooth decay among children. Therefore, it is important to replace sucrose with other types of sweeteners, especially, natural ones. In this research, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the ingredients formulation of prebiotic chocolate milk, date syrup as sweetener (4-10%w/w), inulin as prebiotic texturizer (0-0.5%w/w) and carrageenan as thickening agent (0-0.04%w/w) in the formulation of chocolate milk. The fitted models to predict the variables of selected responses such as pH, viscosity, total solid, sedimentation and overall acceptability of chocolate milk showed a high coefficient of determination. The independent effect of carrageenan was the most effective parameter which led to pH and sedimentation decrease but increased viscosity. Moreover, in most treatments, date syrup and inulin variables had significant effects which had a mutual impact. Optimization of the variables, based on the responses surface 3D plots showed that the sample containing 0.48% (w/w) of inulin, 0.04% (w/w) of carrageenan, and 10% of date syrup was selected as the optimum condition.

  19. Effects of a new foam formulation of ketoprofen lysine salt in experimental models of inflammation and hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffonchio, L; Bestetti, A; Clavenna, G; Fedele, G; Ferrari, M P; Omini, C

    1995-05-01

    The anti-inflammatory and analgesic profile of a new topical foam formulation of ketoprofen lysine salt (CAS 57469-78-0, Artrosilene Schiuma, KLS-foam) was characterized in comparison with marketed gel formulations containing KLS (KLS-gel) or diclofenac diethylammonium salt (DCF-gel). KLS-foam dose-dependently inhibited oedema formation and hyperalgesia induced by subplantar injection of carrageenan or substance P, being more potent than KLS-gel. At equieffective anti-inflammatory doses, KLS-foam provided a more pronounced analgesic effect than DCF-gel. KLS-foam also markedly inhibited exudate formation and prostaglandin production induced by subcutaneous implantation of carrageenan soaked sponges. In carrageenan induced paw inflammation, KLS-foam provided the same anti-inflammatory effect as orally administered KLS, but induced significantly less gastric damages. Oral administration of KLS resulted in sustained systemic absorption of ketoprofen, whereas after topical application of KLS-foam no appreciable ketoprofen plasma levels were detected. These data support the anti-inflammatory and particularly the analgesic effectiveness of the new foam formulation of KLS, a finding that, together with the high gastric tolerability, further emphasizes the usefulness of KLS-foam in the treatment of localized flogistic diseases and associated pain.

  20. A glycoprotein with anti-inflammatory properties secreted by an Aspergillus nidulans modified strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. F. Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Total RNA from lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated rat macrophages used to treat protoplasts from an Aspergillus nidulans strain originated the RT2 regenerated strain, whose culture supernatant showed anti-inflammatory activity in Wistar rats. The protein fraction presenting such anti-inflammatory activity was purified and biochemically identified. The screening of the fraction responsible for such anti-inflammatory property was performed by evaluating the inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema in male Swiss mice. Biochemical analyses of the anti-inflammatory protein used chromatography, carbohydrates quantification of the protein sample, amino acids content analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Total sugar quantification revealed 32% glycosylation of the protein fraction. Amino acid analysis of such fraction showed a peculiar pattern presenting 29% valine. SDS-PAGE revealed that the protein sample is pure and its molecular weight is about 40kDa. Intravenous injection of the isolated substance into mice significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. The isolated glycoprotein decreased carrageenan-induced paw edema in a prostaglandin-dependent phase, suggesting an inhibitory effect of the isolated glycoprotein on prostaglandin synthesis.

  1. Alternative bioenergy through the utilization of Kappaphycus alvarezii waste as a substitution of substrate for biogas products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulita, R.; Agustono; Pujiastuti, D. Y.; Alamsjah, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Biogas is one of the renewable energy resources which are able to be developed by providing some sufficient renewable substances and manufactured from the fermentation process of organic substances metabolized by anaerobic bacteria. In this research, Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed waste from carrageenan processing and contents of rumen were used. This research aims to comprehend the carrageenan processing waste of macroalga K. alvarezii can be used as alternative source generating biogas. The research method is P0 (100 % of the contents of rumen), P1 (75 % of the contents of rumen and 25 % of seaweed waste), P2 (50 % of the contents of rumen and 50 % of seaweed waste), and P3 (25 % of the contents of rumen and 75 % of seaweed waste), and P4 (100 % of seaweed waste). The result showed that according to the quality determination of biogas based on SNI (Indonesia National Standard) 8019:2014, the K. alvarezii seaweed waste from carrageenan processing can be utilized as the alternative source of manufacturing biogas and got the methane gas resulted from the comparison method is P2 (50 % of the contents of rumen and 50 % of seaweed waste), with value of 58.61 %.

  2. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganga Rao, B; Umamaheswara Rao, P; Sambasiva Rao, E; Mallikarjuna Rao, T; Praneeth D, V S

    2012-10-01

    To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  3. LEAVES EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LINN FOR ANTIINFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY IN ANIMAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh N. Sharma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory andanalgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oraladministration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals.Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hindpaw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in pawvolume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan(1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy’s hotplate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanolextract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edemaand analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy’s hot platemethod and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showedanti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared withthe control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions werestatistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit ofMurraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  4. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  5. The Quality of Edible Film Made from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Skin Gelatin with Addition of Different Type Seaweed Hydrocolloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanti, H.; Hulu, J. M.; Setyaji, A.; Eliyanti, R. N.; Aliya, K.; Dewi, E. N.

    2018-02-01

    The functional properties of fish skin’s gelatin lower than mammals, hence the gelatin proteins needed a polysaccharides hydrocolloids to form a continuous and more cohesive network of edible film. Polysaccharides hydrocolloid (carrageenan, agar and alginate) containing phenol compounds was oxidized to be converted into quinone and it was expected to act as a cross linking agent. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics (thickness, tensile strength, elongation, solubility and water vapour transmition rate) of edible film made from nile tilapia skin gelatin by adding different type polyssacharide hydrocolloid. Edible film was made by mixture of gelatin 5 g and addition of carrageenan (C1), agar (C2), alginate (C3) concentration ; 0,5% (v/w), all the materials were poured into 100 ml destilled water that containing 10% glycerol (w/w). The solution was then heated on a hot plate stirer at 40°C for 30 min and dehydrated in a oven at 50°C. All data were analysed using ANAVA. Based on the result it can be seen that the addition of oxidized polisacarides hydrocolloid have a significant effect on tensile strength (TS), water vapor transmision rate, solubility and elongation at break properties, but did not in thickness. Edible film gelatin with the addition of alginate has better characteristics viewed by tensile strength (23.05 Kgf/cm2), water vapor transmission rate (0.61 gram/m2/hour) and thickness (0.16 mm) than carrageenan and agar.

  6. Release behavior and stability of encapsulated D-limonene from emulsion-based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzo, Eva; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Sensidoni, Alessandro; Tat, Lara; Beney, Laurent; Hambleton, Alicia; Peressini, Donatella; Voilley, Andrée

    2012-12-12

    Edible films may act as carriers of active molecules, such as flavors. This possibility confers to them the status of active packaging. Two different film-forming biopolymers, gluten and ι-carrageenans, have been compared. D-Limonene was added to the two film formulations, and its release kinetics from emulsion-based edible films was assessed with HS-SPME. Results obtained for edible films were compared with D-limonene released from the fatty matrix called Grindsted Barrier System 2000 (GBS). Comparing ι-carrageenans with gluten-emulsified film, the latter showed more interesting encapsulating properties: in fact, D-limonene was retained by gluten film during the process needed for film preparation, and it was released gradually during analysis time. D-Limonene did not show great affinity to ι-carrageenans film, maybe due to high aroma compound hydrophobicity. Carvone release from the three different matrices was also measured to verify the effect of oxygen barrier performances of edible films to prevent D-limonene oxidation. Further investigations were carried out by FT-IR and liquid permeability measurements. Gluten film seemed to better protect D-limonene from oxidation. Gluten-based edible films represent an interesting opportunity as active packaging: they could retain and release aroma compounds gradually, showing different mechanical and nutritional properties from those of lipid-based ingredients.

  7. Effects of composite surface coating and pre-drying on the properties of kabanosy dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburcy, Andrzej; Kozyra, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Coating of dry sausages with renewable materials could be an alternative to vacuum packaging. In this study kabanosy dry sausage was coated with a composite emulsion and stored for 7 or 15 days at 4-6 degrees C. Effects of different emulsion formulas (0.5 or 1% w/w of kappa-carrageenan and 5 or 10% w/w of glycerol) and pre-drying of coated sausages (at 50 degrees C for 1.5h) were investigated. Carrageenan concentration had a significant effect (Pemulsion adsorbed on the sausage surface but little influence on the barrier properties of the coatings. At both glycerol concentration levels, coatings had no visible cracks and were easily removed from the sausage surface after 7 and 15 days of storage. The colour values of coatings (L*, a*, and b*) changed along with the decreasing water activity during storage. Pre-drying of coated sausages reduced peeled product weight loss after storage. The financial analysis showed that among coatings tested the best proved to be the emulsion containing (w/w): 5% glycerol, 5% gelatin, 0.5% carrageenan, 20% lard, 20% beeswax, and 50% water. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary comparative study of anti-inflmmatory effect of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey: In vivo approach

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    Moussa Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of unheated and heat-treated of Sahara honey. Methods: A total of 24 Swiss albino mice weighing 25–35 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Anti-inflammatory effect was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.5 mL of a 1% solution in normal saline. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: The total phenolic content capacity of the Sahara honey before and after heat treatment was between 72 and 97.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of honey respectively. Administration of unheated honey (oral administration reduced significantly (P < 0.05. The carrageenan induced mice paw edema model at 1, 3 and 6 h for 21.85%, 5.43% and 80.43%, respectively. Administration of heat-treated honey showed insignificant inhibition of carrageenan and induced paw edema at 1 h (31.16%, 3 h (0.25% and 6 h (34.19%. The 50 mg/kg diclofenac exhibited percent reduction in paw volume 16.12%, 8.90% and 15.32% after 1 h, 3 h and 6 h, respectively, when compared with control animals. No toxicity was identified. Conclusions: Our results suggest that unheated Sahara honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the mice paw edema size while heat-treated Sahara honey decreases the antiinflammatory activity.

  9. Citral reduces nociceptive and inflammatory response in rodents

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    Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Citral (CIT, which contains the chiral enantiomers, neral (cis and geranial (trans, is the majority monoterpene from Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus. The present study aimed to evaluate CIT for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in rodents. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied by measuring nociception through acetic acid and formalin tests, while inflammation was verified by inducing peritonitis and paw edema with carrageenan. All tested doses of CIT had significant protection (p<0.001 against acetic acid (0.8% induced nociceptive behavior and the effects were also similar to morphine while formalin induced nociception was significantly protected (p<0.05 only at higher dose (200 mg/kg of CIT in the first phase of the test. CIT significantly reduce (p<0.001 nociceptive behavior emanating from inflammation in second phase at all the doses.The pretreatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, systemic treatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced (p<0.001 the leukocyte migration in the carrageenan-induced migration to the peritoneal cavity. Our investigation shows that CIT possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive effects. It was also verified an anti-inflammatory activity. All together these results suggest that CIT might represent important tool for treatment of painful conditions.

  10. Medium Optimization and Fermentation Kinetics for κ-Carrageenase Production by Thalassospira sp. Fjfst-332

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    Juanjuan Guo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective degradation of κ-carrageenan by isolated Thalassospira sp. fjfst-332 is reported for the first time in this paper. It was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and morphological observation using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. Based on a Plackett–Burman design for significant variables, Box–Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology were used to optimize the culture conditions. Through statistical optimization, the optimum medium components were determined as follows: 2.0 g/L κ-carrageenan, 1.0 g/L yeast extract, 1.0 g/L FOS, 20.0 g/L NaCl, 2.0 g/L NaNO3, 0.5 g/L MgSO4·7H2O, 0.1 g/L K2HPO4, and 0.1 g/L CaCl2. The highest activity exhibited by Thalassospira sp. fjfst-332 was 267 U/mL, which makes it the most vigorous wild bacterium for κ-carrageenan production. In order to guide scaled-up production, two empirical models—the logistic equation and Luedeking–Piretequation—were proposed to predict the strain growth and enzyme production, respectively. Furthermore, we report the fermentation kinetics and every empirical equation of the coefficients (α, β, X0, Xm and μm for the two models, which could be used to design and optimize industrial processes.

  11. Dolichos biflorus exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in an acute inflammatory model

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    Limi Elizabeth Mathew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dolichos biflorus (Muthira is a branched, suberect, and downing herb, native to most parts of India, and found at altitudes of up to 1000 m, whose seeds can be cooked and eaten. Nutrition plays a key role in building immunity and preventing noncommunicable diseases to a certain extent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of 70% methanolic extract of seeds of D. biflorus (DME in carrageenan-induced inflammation. DME exhibited maximum percentage of oedema inhibition at a dose of 50 mg/kg at the 3rd hour of carrageenan induction. The effect was higher than that of the standard drug Voveran. The activities of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, nitric oxide synthase, myeloperoxidase, and malondialdehyde showed significant (p < 0.05 reduction whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins C, and reduced glutathione level were increased significantly (p < 0.05 on treatment with DME. Also levels of the acute phase protein, ceruloplasmin, were brought to their normal range in DME-treated rats. Phytochemical analysis showed that the extract contains alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, proteins, and tannins, which may contribute to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Thus the results demonstrate the potential beneficiary effect of DME on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of an Edible Red Macroalgae Sarcodia ceylanica

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    Chieh-Chih Shih

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research so far has only shown that edible red macroalgae, Sarcodia ceylanica has the ability to eliminate free radicals and anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial properties. This study was conducted both in vitro and in vivo on the ethyl acetate extract (PD1 of farmed red macroalgae in order to explore its anti-inflammatory properties. In order to study the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of PD1, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS to induce inflammatory responses in murine macrophages. For evaluating the potential in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of PD1, we used carrageenan-induced rat paw edema to produce inflammatory pain. The in vitro results indicated that PD1 inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in macrophages. Oral PD1 can reduce carrageenan-induced paw edema and inflammatory nociception. PD1 can significantly inhibit carrageenan-induced leukocyte infiltration, as well as the protein expression of inflammatory mediators (iNOS, interleukin-1β, and myeloperoxidase in inflammatory tissue. The above results indicated that PD1 has great potential to be turned into a functional food or used in the development of new anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive agents. The results from this study are expected to help scientists in the continued development of Sarcodia ceylanica for other biomedical applications.

  13. Effect of use of citrus bagasse as functional product-extender on physicochemical and textural properties of cooked ham

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    José Antonio Aguilar-Rico

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The substitution effect of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse on physico-chemical characteristics of cooked ham was evaluated. A 33 factorial design was used, with substitution levels of 0, 50 and 100%. The results indicate that the substitution of potato starch for orange bagasse results in increase in the ham yield, but to replace the carrageenan and/or soy protein by orange bagasse, cause decrease in yield below that non-substituted ham. Moreover, if even yields increase with substitution of potato starch by orange bagasse, however, the textural characteristics of the product obtained showed deficiency in comparison with thenon-substituted ham. Apparently orange bagasse substitution does not alter the matrix stability formation in ham, so there was no significant difference in expressible moisture. Substitution of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse in ham has highest influence on pH and color parameters, this due probably to compounds presents in the fruit (citric acid and carotenoids. Orange bagasse has high potential as a novel source of dietary fiber in food industry.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities A of eugenol essential oil in experimental animal models

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    Apparecido N. Daniel

    Full Text Available Eugenia caryophyllata, popular name "clove", is grown naturally in Indonesia and cultivated in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Clove is used in cooking, food processing, pharmacy; perfumery, cosmetics and the clove oil (eugenol have been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions include use in dental care, as an antiseptic and analgesic. The objective of this study was evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of eugenol used for dentistry purposes following oral administration in animal models in vivo. The anti-inflammatory activity of eugenol was evaluated by inflammatory exudates volume and leukocytes migration in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests in rats. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests in mice. Eugenol (200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the volume of pleural exudates without changing the total blood leukocyte counts. At dose of 200 mg/kg, eugenol significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced edema, 2-4 h after injection of the flogistic agent. In the hot-plate test, eugenol administration (100 mg/kg showed unremarkable activity against the time-to-discomfort reaction, recorded as response latency, which is blocked by meperidine. Eugenol at doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg had a significant antinociceptive effect in the test of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing, compared to the control animals. The data suggest that eugenol possesses anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive activities.

  15. KARAKTERISTIK JELLY DRINK SINBIOTIK DARI SUSU KEDELAI DAN EKSTRAK BUAH NAGA MERAH (Hylocereus polyrhizus

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    Sri Winarti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Jelly drink is a gel-based beverage product, which can be made from hydrocolloid compounds by addition of sugars, acids, and or without other food additives, sinbiotics are a combination of probiotics and prebiotics. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect concentration of carrageenan and fermentation timt on the quality of jelly drink sinbiotik soy milk and red dragon fruit extract. The method used in this research is Completely Randomized Design with two factors. The first factor was the concentration of carrageenan (0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and the second factor of fermentation time (18 hours, 20 hours, 22 hours and 24 hours. To know the difference between treatments used Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT 5%. The results showed that the best treatment was the addition of carrageenan 0,8% and the  fermentation time of 24 hours which resulted jelly drink sinbiotik with pH value 3,7, total acid 1,02%, total lactic acid bacteria (BAL 11,13 log cfu/ml, total sugar 7.92%, 1.89% dissolved protein, total anthocyanin 0.645% and gel strength 3.27 N.

  16. The effects of NO3(-) supply on Mazzaella laminarioides (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) from southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Nelso P; Figueroa, Félix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Mansilla, Andrés; Matsuhiro, Betty; Barahona, Tamara; Plastino, Estela M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of nitrate supply on growth, pigments, mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), C:N ratios and carrageenan yield were investigated in Mazzaella laminarioides cultivated under solar radiation. This species is economically important in southern Chile where an increase of nitrogen in coastal waters is expected as a consequence of salmon aquaculture activity. Apical segments were cultivated in enriched seawater with five different NO3(-) concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.18, 0.38 and 0.75 mm) during 18 days. Although phycoerythrin and phycocyanin content, as well as C:N ratios, were reduced in the control treatment (without NO3(-) supply), when compared to NO3(-) treatments, total MAA concentration, carrageenan yield and growth rates were similar in all tested conditions. Nevertheless, during the experiment, an important synthesis of mycosporine-glycine took place in a nitrate concentration-dependent manner, with accumulation being saturated around 0.18 mm of nitrate. These results indicate that exposure to high NO3(-) concentration of more than 100 times the values observed in the nature did not impair the photoprotection system, as determined by MAAs, nor did it have a deleterious effect on growth or carrageenan yield of M. laminarioides, a late successional species from Chile. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide in Mice

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    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of one synthetic product, N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide (abbrev. FECA, by using animal model of λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of FECA was determined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and malondialdehyde (MDA in the edema paw tissue, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GRd in the liver. The results showed that FECA reduced the paw edema at three, four and five hours after λ-carrageenan administration. The levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α, and MDA in the λ-carrageenan-induced edema paws were reduced and the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in liver tissues were raised by FECA. These results suggested that FECA possessed anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be related to the decrease of the levels of COX-2, NO, and TNF-α in inflamed tissues and the increase in the MDA level by increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Elizabeth S; Passos, Giselle F; Medeiros, Rodrigo; da Cunha, Fernanda M; Ferreira, Juliano; Campos, Maria M; Pianowski, Luiz F; Calixto, João B

    2007-08-27

    This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of two sesquiterpenes isolated from Cordia verbenacea's essential oil, alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene. Our results revealed that oral treatment with both compounds displayed marked inhibitory effects in different inflammatory experimental models in mice and rats. alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene were effective in reducing platelet activating factor-, bradykinin- and ovoalbumin-induced mouse paw oedema, while only alpha-humulene was able to diminish the oedema formation caused by histamine injection. Also, both compounds had important inhibitory effects on the mouse and rat carrageenan-induced paw oedema. Systemic treatment with alpha-humulene largely prevented both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) generation in carrageenan-injected rats, whereas (-)-trans-caryophyllene diminished only TNFalpha release. Furthermore, both compounds reduced the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) expression, induced by the intraplantar injection of carrageenan in rats. The anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene were comparable to those observed in dexamethasone-treated animals, used as positive control drug. All these findings indicate that alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene, derived from the essential oil of C. verbenacea, might represent important tools for the management and/or treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  19. Effect of hydrocolloids on the physico-chemical and rheological properties of reconstituted sweetened yoghurt powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Dibyakanta; Mishra, Hari Niwas; Deka, Sankar Chandra

    2018-03-01

    The consistency of sweetened yoghurt (misti dahi) is a desired characteristic which is attributed to the casein protein network formation during fermentation. Unfortunately, this property is lost in reconstituted sweetened yoghurt (RSY) due to the irreversible nature of protein denaturation during spray drying. Therefore, this study aimed to increase the consistency of RSY using different hydrocolloids. The effects addition of guar gum, pectin, κ-carrageenan and gelatin (0.1%w/v each) on the physico-chemical, microbial, rheological and sensory properties of RSY were investigated. RSY with 40% total solids demonstrated the rheological properties which are very similar to those of fresh sweetened yoghurt. RSY containing different hydrocolloids further increased the rheological properties. The dynamic rheological study revealed that the magnitude of storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″), and loss tangent (tan δ) were significantly influenced by the addition of hydrocolloids and gelatin exhibited highest dynamic moduli in RSY. However, κ-carrageenan added RSY was preferred sensorially as the rheological properties were very close to gelatin added RSY. Addition of hydrocolloids significantly increased the starter bacteria count and pH and reduced water expulsion rate (P < 0.05). Addition of hydrocolloids can improve the rheological properties of reconstituted yoghurt. The study concluded that the addition of κ-carrageenan showed better results in terms of rheological and sensory properties of RSY. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Influence of Tableting on Enzymatic Activity of Papain along with Determination of Its Percolation Threshold with Microcrystalline Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manu; Sharma, Vinay; Majumdar, Dipak K.

    2014-01-01

    The binary mixture tablets of papain and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP), carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar were prepared by direct compression. Carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar provided maximum protection to enzyme activity compared to MCC and DCP. However, stability studies indicated highest loss of enzyme activity with carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar. Therefore, compression behaviour of different binary mixtures of papain with MCC at different compaction pressures, that is, 40–280 MPa, was studied according to Heckel equation. The compressibility studies of binary mixtures indicated brittle behavior of papain. The application of percolation theory on the relationship between critical density as a function of enzyme activity and mixture composition revealed the presence of percolation threshold for binary mixture. Papain-MCC mixture composition showed significant percolation threshold at 18.48% (w/w) papain loading. Microcrystalline cellulose provided higher protection during stability study. However, higher concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose, probably as dominant particles, do not protect the enzyme with their plastic deformation. Below the percolation threshold, that is, 18.48% (w/w) papain amount in mixture with plastic excipient, activity loss increases strongly because of higher shearing forces during compaction due to system dominance of plastic particles. This mixture range should therefore be avoided to get robust formulation of papain. PMID:27350972

  1. Development of hydroethanolic extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae using factorial design followed by antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory evaluation

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    Daniela Vieira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. R. Br., Convolvulaceae, is a medicinal plant that grows abundantly as a pan-tropical stand plant. The 3² (two factors and three levels factorial design, was applied to determine the best time and drug/solvent proportion to maximize the flavonoid content in the hydroethanolic extract by maceration process. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied at 5-20 mg/kg, i.p., using the writhing test and carrageenan-induced pleurisy models in mice. The optimized extract was able to inhibit more than 50% of abdominal writhing at 20 mg/kg, with 55.88%±2.4 of maximum inhibition. Indomethacin, used as positive control, inhibited 64.86% at 10 mg/kg. In the pleurisy model, the extract produced dose-dependent inhibition of the first phase of inflammation (4 h in the pleural cavity induced by injection of carrageenan (1% in mice. It inhibited 50%±0.82 (p<0.01 of exudation induced by carrageenan, and 60.88%±0.14 (p<0.01 of leukocyte migration to the pleural cavity. In conclusion, the results validate the technological conditions of the maceration process to produce an optimized bioactive herb extract for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory phytopharmaceuticals using 70 ºGL ethanol, a plant to solvent ratio of 12.5% (w/v, and ten days of maceration.

  2. Citral reduces nociceptive and inflammatory response in rodents

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    Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Citral (CIT, which contains the chiral enantiomers, neral (cis and geranial (trans, is the majority monoterpene from Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus. The present study aimed to evaluate CIT for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in rodents. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied by measuring nociception through acetic acid and formalin tests, while inflammation was verified by inducing peritonitis and paw edema with carrageenan. All tested doses of CIT had significant protection (p<0.001 against acetic acid (0.8% induced nociceptive behavior and the effects were also similar to morphine while formalin induced nociception was significantly protected (p<0.05 only at higher dose (200 mg/kg of CIT in the first phase of the test. CIT significantly reduce (p<0.001 nociceptive behavior emanating from inflammation in second phase at all the doses.The pretreatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, systemic treatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced (p<0.001 the leukocyte migration in the carrageenan-induced migration to the peritoneal cavity. Our investigation shows that CIT possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive effects. It was also verified an anti-inflammatory activity. All together these results suggest that CIT might represent important tool for treatment of painful conditions.

  3. Superficial dorsal horn neurons with double spike activity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo; Dickenson, Anthony H; Condés-Lara, Miguel

    2007-05-29

    Superficial dorsal horn neurons promote the transfer of nociceptive information from the periphery to supraspinal structures. The membrane and discharge properties of spinal cord neurons can alter the reliability of peripheral signals. In this paper, we analyze the location and response properties of a particular class of dorsal horn neurons that exhibits double spike discharge with a very short interspike interval (2.01+/-0.11 ms). These neurons receive nociceptive C-fiber input and are located in laminae I-II. Double spikes are generated spontaneously or by depolarizing current injection (interval of 2.37+/-0.22). Cells presenting double spike (interval 2.28+/-0.11) increased the firing rate by electrical noxious stimulation, as well as, in the first minutes after carrageenan injection into their receptive field. Carrageenan is a polysaccharide soluble in water and it is used for producing an experimental model of semi-chronic pain. In the present study carrageenan also produces an increase in the interval between double spikes and then, reduced their occurrence after 5-10 min. The results suggest that double spikes are due to intrinsic membrane properties and that their frequency is related to C-fiber nociceptive activity. The present work shows evidence that double spikes in superficial spinal cord neurones are related to the nociceptive stimulation, and they are possibly part of an acute pain-control mechanism.

  4. PENGARUH UMUR PANEN RUMPUT LAUT Eucheuma cottonii TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK, KIMIA DAN FUNGSIONAL KARAGENAN Effect of Harvest Time of Seaweed Eucheuma cottonii on Physical, Chemical and Fungsional Properties of Carra- geenan

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    Djagal W. Marseno

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different harvesting times of Eucheuma cottonii on both physical, chemical and functional properties of carrageenan. Seaweed Eucheuma cottonii was obtained from water territorial of Tablolong Kupang. The study was carried out into two steps. The first step was to investigate the effect of harvesting time of 30, 45, and 60 days after planting on physical and chemical properties of obtained carrageenan. The second step was to study the effect of functional properties of obtained carrageenan on viscocity and the stability of tomato sauce. The results showed that seaweed which was harvested in 45 days after planting has good physical and chemical properties of carrageenan in term of moisture 12.45 %; protein 5.03 %; extract ether 1.40 %; ash 21.29 %; carbohy- drate 72.28 %; sulphate 19.69 %; and crude extract 48.20 %. The obtained carrageenan at concentration of 1,5%, also give highest viscocity of 11.50-45 cps and gel strength of 0.8961-4.0709 kg/cm2. Further identification show that the obtained carrageenan produced was classified as kappa carrageenan and at 0,2 % (w/v was able to stabilize tomato sauce up to 86 % and viscosity of 60 cps after 2 weeks of storage at room temperature. ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian adalah mengkaji sifat fisik dan kimia karagenan yang diperoleh dari rumput laut Eucheuma cot- tonii pada umur panen yang berbeda dari perairan Tablolong Kupang dan mengetahui sifat fungsionalnya sebagai stabilizer dan thickener dalam saos tomat. Penelitian diawali dengan menanam rumput laut pada interval tanam yang berbeda, sehingga pada saat panen yang bersamaan diperoleh rumput laut dengan umur yang berbeda yaitu 30, 45,60 hari. Tahap berikutnya adalah ekstraksi dan karakterisasi karaginan yang dihasilkan, kemudian aplikasi karaginan yang diperoleh untuk menjaga stabilitas viskositas saos tomat pada konsentrasi karagenan (0,1 %, 0,15 %, 0,2 % b/v. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa

  5. Peningkatan kualitas karagenan rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dengan metode budidaya keranjang jaring

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    Ismail Failu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to analyze the quality of Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed carrageenan cultured using methods basket nets in waters of Baruta, Sangia, Wambulu, District of Buton, Southeast Sulawesi. The study consisted of three treatments in triplicates. Seaweed culture used different cultivation net-basket forms i.e. net-basket box, net-basket lantern, and longline without net-basket (control. Quality of K. alvarezii seaweed obtained in this study varied from each treatments. Daily growth rate in each treatment were not significantly different. Production of seaweed with a net-basket box (201.61 g/m2 was higher than the net-basket lanterns (183.22 g/m2, but not significantly different from control (196.98 g/m2. Carageenan yield value of control (46.74% was the highest of all treatments. The water content of carrageenan in each treatment was not significantly different and it ranged from 17.20–17.39%. The viscosity of carrageenan in net-basket lantern (179.40 cPs was the highest of all treatments. Carrageenan gel strength was the best treatment (702.53 g/cm². As conclusion, using the net-basket lantern  as cultivation method provided quality improvement of carrageenan in K. alvarezii seaweed. Keywords: Kappaphycus alvarezii, cultivation methods, carrageenan quality  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kualitas karagenan rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii yang dibudidaya menggunakan metode keranjang jaring di perairan Baruta, Kecamatan Sangia, Wambulu, Kabupaten Buton Sulawesi Tenggara. Penelitian terdiri atas tiga pelakuan dan tiga ulangan. Pemeliharaan rumput laut dilakukan dengan metode keranjang jaring berbeda yaitu metode keranjang jaring kotak, keranjang jaring lampion, dan longline tanpa menggunakan keranjang jaring (kontrol. Hasil pengamatan kualitas rumput laut K. alvarezii dalam penelitian ini bervariasi dari setiap perlakuan yang diberikan. Laju pertumbuhan harian pada setiap perlakuan tidak berbeda nyata

  6. Products Based on Bio-Resourced Materials for Agriculture. Radiation Processed Biodegradable Polymers, Plant Growth Promoters and Superabsorbent Polymers. Chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, K. A.; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Varshney, L. [Radiation Technology Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

    2014-07-15

    Radiation-processed natural polymers and their derivatives, namely starch, alginate, chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were explored for different agricultural applications such as biodegradable mulch films, super adsorbent polymers (SAPs), and plant growth promoters (PGPs). It was observed that gamma radiation-processed starch can lead to a better processability of starch/synthetic polymer alloys, and can offer tuneable biodegradability (as low as one month) with acceptable physico-mechanical properties. Acrylic acid/CMC-based SAP was prepared using {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, for soil conditioning. The equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the acrylic acid/CMC SAP was found to be 460 g/g. The field trial of the SAP was conducted on sorghum. It was found that, with the use of 20 kg/ha of SAP, the crop yield can be increased by almost 18.5% whereas the increase in plant height was 8.5%. A new super adsorbent polymer with a much higher water uptake capacity was also developed by adding a small fraction of carrageenan to neutralized acrylic acid (AA). This SAP had EDS of 800 g/g, with the addition of only 1% carrageenan. Experiments to check the soil conditioning efficacy of AA/carrageenan SAP are in progress. Oligomers of chitosan and alginates were prepared by gamma irradiation and were tried as plant growth promoters in wheat (Triticum aestivum), mung bean (Vigna radiata), linseed (Linum usitatissimum), mentha (Mentha arvensis), and lemon grass. The results suggest that these oligomers have a significant impact on the grain and oil yield. Large scale field trials on Mentha arvensis in collaboration with an industry are in progress, and efforts are going on to formulate a policy framework for the use of oligosaccharides as plant growth promoters. (author)

  7. Role of natural polysaccharides in radiation formation of PVA hydrogel wound dressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Lalit

    2007-02-01

    Radiation processed PVA-polysaccharides hydrogels have been observed to be suitable for producing transparent, flexible, mechanically strong, biocompatible, effective and economical hydrogel dressings. The dressings were formed in single stage irradiation process achieving gel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose. No synthetic plasticizers and additives were used. Different formulations containing poly-vinylalcohol (PVA) and polysaccharides selected from combinations of agar and carrageenan were used to make the dressings. The selected polysaccharides themselves form thermo-reversible gels and degrade on irradiation. Using concentration of polysaccharides as low as 0.5-2% resulted in increase of tensile strength from 45 g/cm 2 to 411 g/cm 2, elongation from 30% to 410% and water uptake from 25% to 157% with respect to PVA gel without polysaccharides. Besides improving mechanical strength, agar contributes more to elongation and carrageenan to mechanical strength of the gel dressing. PVA formulations containing the polysaccharides show significantly different pre-gel viscosities behaviour. Increasing the concentration of agar in the formulation to about 2% converts the sheet gel to paste gel useful for filling wound cavities. The results indicate that pre irradiation network structure of the formulation plays an important role in determining mechanical properties of the irradiated gel dressing. Formulations containing 7-9% PVA, 0.5-1.5% carrageenan and 0.5-1% agar gave highly effective usable hydrogel dressings. Scanning electron micrographs show highly porous structure of the gel. Clinical trials of wound dressing on human patients established safety and efficacy of the dressing. The dressing has been observed to be useful in treating burns, non-healing ulcers of diabetes, leprosy and other external wounds. The dressings are now being marketed in India under different brand names.

  8. Radiation processing of natural polymers for industrial and agricultural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; AbdEl-Rehim, H.; Diaa, D.A.; El-Barbary, A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation induced degradation technology is a new and promising application of ionizing radiation to develop viscose, pulp, paper, food preservation, pharmaceutical production, and natural bioactive agents industries. Controlling the degree of degradation, uniform molecular weight distribution, saving achieved in the chemicals (used in conventional methods) on a cost basis, and environmentally friendly process are the beneficial effects of using radiation technology in these industries. However, for some development countries such technology is not economic. Therefore, a great efforts should be done to reduce the cost required for such technologies. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses. The addition of some additives such as potassium per-sulfate (KPS), ammonium per-sulfate (APS), or H 2 O 2 to natural polymers (carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate) during irradiation process accelerates their degradation. The highest degradation rate of polysaccharides obtained when APS was used. The end product of irradiated CMC, chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate may be used as food additive or benefited in agricultural purposes. On the other hand, radiation crosslinking of PAAm or PNIPAAm is affected by the presence of natural polymer like CMC-Na and carrageenan due to their degradability which could be controlled according to its concentration in the bulk medium and irradiation dose. Accordingly, the gel content, thermo-sensitivity (LCST) and swelling properties of PNIPAAm based natural polymers could be controlled. The swelling of the prepared copolymer hydrogels was investigated for its possible use in personal care articles particularly diapers or as carriers for drug delivery systems. The prepared crosslinked copolymers possessed high and fast swelling properties in simulated urine media and the swelling ratios of CMC-Na/PAAm gels in urine are acceptable for diaper

  9. Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers for Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation induced degradation technology is a new and promising application of ionizing radiation to develop viscose, pulp, paper, food preservation, pharmaceutical production, and natural bioactive agents industries. Controlling the degree of degradation, uniform molecular weight distribution, saving achieved in the chemicals (used in conventional methods) on a cost basis, and environmentally friendly process are the beneficial effects of using radiation technology in these industries. However, for some development countries such technology is not economic. Therefore, a great effort should be done to reduce the cost required for such technologies. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses. The addition of some additives such as potassium per-sulfate (KPS), ammonium per-sulfate (APS), or H 2 O 2 to natural polymers (carboxy-methylcellulose (CMC), chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate) during irradiation process accelerates their degradation. The highest degradation rate of polysaccharides obtained when APS was used. The end product of irradiated CMC, chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate may be used as food additive or benefited in agricultural purposes. On the other hand, radiation crosslinking of PAAm or PNIPAAm is affected by the presence of natural polymer like CMC-Na and carrageenan due to their degradability which could be controlled according to its concentration in the bulk medium and irradiation dose. Accordingly, the gel content, thermo-sensitivity (LCST) and swelling properties of PNIPAAm based natural polymers could be controlled. The swelling of the prepared copolymer hydrogels was investigated for its possible use in personal care articles particularly diapers or as carriers for drug delivery systems. The prepared crosslinked copolymers possessed high and fast swelling properties in simulated urine media and the swelling ratios of CMC-Na /PAAm gels in urine are acceptable for diaper

  10. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  11. Laticifer proteins from Plumeria pudica inhibit the inflammatory and nociceptive responses by decreasing the action of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliana B. Fernandes

    Full Text Available AbstractSome publications have described the pharmacological properties of latices proteins. Thus, in the present study proteins from Plumeria pudica Jacq., Apocynaceae, latex were evaluated for anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Obtained data showed that an intraperitoneal administration of different doses of latex was able to reduce the paw edema induced by carrageenan in a dose-dependent manner (better dose 40 mg/kg; 72.7% inhibition at 3rd and 78.7% at 4th hour and the edema induced by dextran (40 mg/kg; 51.5% inhibition at 30 min and 93.0% at 1st hour. Inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan was accompanied by a reduction of myeloperoxidase activity. Pre-treating animals with latex (40 mg/kg also inhibited the paw edema induced by histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, prostaglandin E2, compound 48/80. Additionally, the latex (40 mg/kg reduced the leukocyte peritoneal migration induced by carrageenan and this event was followed by reduction of IL-1β and TNF-α in peritoneal fluid. The latex-treatment (40 mg/kg reduced the animal abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid and the first phase on paw licking model induced by formalin. When latex was treated with heat (at 100 °C for 30 min, anti-edematogenic and myeloperoxidase activities were significantly reduced, indicating the involvement of heat-sensitive proteins on anti-inflammatory effect. Our results evidence that latex fluids are a source of proteins with pharmacological properties.

  12. Role of natural polysaccharides in radiation formation of PVA-hydrogel wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshney, Lalit [ISOMED, Radiation Technology Development Section, Radio-Chemistry and Isotope Group, B.A.R.C, Mumbai 400 085 (India)]. E-mail: lalitv@barc.gov.in

    2007-02-15

    Radiation processed PVA-polysaccharides hydrogels have been observed to be suitable for producing transparent, flexible, mechanically strong, biocompatible, effective and economical hydrogel dressings. The dressings were formed in single stage irradiation process achieving gel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose. No synthetic plasticizers and additives were used. Different formulations containing poly-vinylalcohol (PVA) and polysaccharides selected from combinations of agar and carrageenan were used to make the dressings. The selected polysaccharides themselves form thermo-reversible gels and degrade on irradiation. Using concentration of polysaccharides as low as 0.5-2% resulted in increase of tensile strength from 45 g/cm{sup 2} to 411 g/cm{sup 2}, elongation from 30% to 410% and water uptake from 25% to 157% with respect to PVA gel without polysaccharides. Besides improving mechanical strength, agar contributes more to elongation and carrageenan to mechanical strength of the gel dressing. PVA formulations containing the polysaccharides show significantly different pre-gel viscosities behaviour. Increasing the concentration of agar in the formulation to about 2% converts the sheet gel to paste gel useful for filling wound cavities. The results indicate that pre irradiation network structure of the formulation plays an important role in determining mechanical properties of the irradiated gel dressing. Formulations containing 7-9% PVA, 0.5-1.5% carrageenan and 0.5-1% agar gave highly effective usable hydrogel dressings. Scanning electron micrographs show highly porous structure of the gel. Clinical trials of wound dressing on human patients established safety and efficacy of the dressing. The dressing has been observed to be useful in treating burns, non-healing ulcers of diabetes, leprosy and other external wounds. The dressings are now being marketed in India under different brand names.

  13. Purification, cloning, characterization and essential amino acid residues analysis of a new ι-carrageenase from Cellulophaga sp. QY3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ma

    Full Text Available ι-Carrageenases belong to family 82 of glycoside hydrolases that degrade sulfated galactans in the red algae known as ι-carrageenans. The catalytic mechanism and some substrate-binding residues of family GH82 have been studied but the substrate recognition and binding mechanism of this family have not been fully elucidated. We report here the purification, cloning and characterization of a new ι-carrageenase CgiA_Ce from the marine bacterium Cellulophaga sp. QY3. CgiA_Ce was the most thermostable carrageenase described so far. It was most active at 50°C and pH 7.0 and retained more than 70% of the original activity after incubation at 50°C for 1 h at pH 7.0 or at pH 5.0-10.6 for 24 h. CgiA_Ce was an endo-type ι-carrageenase; it cleaved ι-carrageenan yielding neo-ι-carrabiose and neo-ι-carratetraose as the main end products, and neo-ι-carrahexaose was the minimum substrate. Sequence analysis and structure modeling showed that CgiA_Ce is indeed a new member of family GH82. Moreover, sequence analysis of ι-carrageenases revealed that the amino acid residues at subsites -1 and +1 were more conserved than those at other subsites. Site-directed mutagenesis followed by kinetic analysis identified three strictly conserved residues at subsites -1 and +1 of ι-carrageenases, G228, Y229 and R254 in CgiA_Ce, which played important roles for substrate binding. Furthermore, our results suggested that Y229 and R254 in CgiA_Ce interacted specifically with the sulfate groups of the sugar moieties located at subsites -1 and +1, shedding light on the mechanism of ι-carrageenan recognition in the family GH82.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and betulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chiu, Tai-Hui; Lai, Shang-Chih; Lee, Chao-Ying

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study intended to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the 70% ethanol extract from Scoparia dulcis (SDE) and betulinic acid on λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of SDE and betulinic acid was examined by detecting the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the edema paw tissue and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver. The betulinic acid content in SDE was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the anti-inflammatory model, the results showed that SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and betulinic acid (20 and 40 mg/kg) reduced the paw edema at 3, 4 and 5 h after λ-carrageenan administration. Moreover, SDE and betulinic acid affected the levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α and IL1-β in the λ-carrageenan-induced edema paws. The activities of SOD, GPx and GRd in the liver tissue were increased and the MDA levels in the edema paws were decreased. It is suggested that SDE and betulinic acid possessed anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms appear to be related to the reduction of the levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α and IL1-β in inflamed tissues, as well as the inhibition of MDA level via increasing the activities of SOD, GPx and GRd. The analytical result showed that the content of betulinic acid in SDE was 6.25 mg/g extract.

  15. Acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs interact with morphine and tramadol analgesia for the treatment of neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Tomonari; Yamada, Toshihiko; Nonaka, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2015-06-01

    Although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen have no proven efficacy against neuropathic pain, they are frequently prescribed for neuropathic pain patients. We examined whether the combination of opioids (tramadol and morphine) with indomethacin or acetaminophen produce favorable effects on neuropathic pain and compared the efficacy for neuropathic pain with that for inflammatory pain. The carrageenan model was used as the inflammatory pain model while the tibial neuroma transposition (TNT) model was used as the neuropathic pain model. The tibial nerve is transected in the TNT model, with the tibial nerve stump then transpositioned to the lateral aspect of the hindlimb. Neuropathic pain (mechanical allodynia and neuroma pain) is observed after TNT injury. Drugs were administered orally. In the carrageenan model, all drugs produced anti-allodynic effects and all drug combinations, but not tramadol + indomethacin combination, produced synergistic anti-allodynic effects. In the TNT model, tramadol and morphine, but not acetaminophen and indomethacin, produced anti-neuropathic pain effects. In the combination, with the exception of morphine + acetaminophen combination, both acetaminophen and indomethacin reduced the 50% effective dose (ED50) of tramadol and morphine as compared with the ED50s for the single drug study in the TNT model. The ED50s of tramadol and morphine in the carrageenan combination test were not statistically significantly different from the ED50s in the TNT model combination study. The combination of opioids with indomethacin or acetaminophen produced a synergistic analgesic effect both in inflammatory and neuropathic pain with some exceptions. The efficacy of these combinations for neuropathic pain was not different from that for inflammatory pain.

  16. The contribution of the endogenous TRPV1 ligands 9-HODE and 13-HODE to nociceptive processing and their role in peripheral inflammatory pain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalem, Mohammad; Wong, Amy; Millns, Paul; Arya, Pallavi Huma; Chan, Michael Siang Liang; Bennett, Andrew; Barrett, David A; Chapman, Victoria; Kendall, David A

    2013-04-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) plays a fundamental role in the detection of heat and inflammatory pain responses. Here we investigated the contribution of two potential endogenous ligands [9- and 13- hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE)] to TRPV1-mediated noxious responses and inflammatory pain responses. 9- and 13-HODE, and their precursor, linoleic acid, were measured in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and in the hindpaws of control and carrageenan-inflamed rats by liquid chromatography/tandem electrospray mass spectrometry. Calcium imaging studies of DRG neurons were employed to determine the role of TRPV1 in mediating linoleic acid, 9-HODE- and 13-HODE-evoked responses, and the contribution of 15-lipoxygenase to the generation of the HODEs. Behavioural studies investigated the contribution of 9- and 13-HODE and 15-lipoxygenase to inflammatory pain behaviour. 9-HODE (35 ± 7 pmol g(-1)) and 13-HODE (32 ± 6 pmol g(-1)) were detected in hindpaw tissue, but were below the limits of detection in DRGs. Following exposure to linoleic acid, 9- and 13-HODE were detected in DRGs and TRPV1 antagonist-sensitive calcium responses evoked, which were blocked by the 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor PD146176 and an anti-13-HODE antibody. Levels of linoleic acid were significantly increased in the carrageenan-inflamed hindpaw (P PD146176 significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. This study demonstrates that, although 9- and 13-HODE can activate TRPV1 in DRG cell bodies, the evidence for a role of these lipids as endogenous peripheral TRPV1 ligands in a model of inflammatory pain is at best equivocal. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects and anti-oxidant capacity of Myrathius arboreus (Cecropiaceae) in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, Oluwafemi Gabriel; Ologe, Olufunmilayo; Alabi, Akinyinka; Tunde Yusuf, Ganiyu; Umukoro, Solomon

    2017-11-27

    Inflammation is involved in various diseases; search for safe treatments is warranted. Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Myrathius arboreus (EEMa) were studied in carrageenan-induced model, formaldehyde sub-acute-induced model, and in 48 h lipopolysaccharide-induced air pouch model of inflammation. EEMa membrane-stabilizing activities and anti-oxidant capacity were determined in vitro. In the carrageenan model EEMa (125, 250, or 500 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), or vehicle 3 mL/kg was administered orally in rats (n=5). After 1 h, 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan was injected into the right hind paw of rats. Change in edema sizes was measured for 3 h with plethysmometer. One-tenth milliliter (0.1 mL) of 2.5% formaldehyde was injected into the rat paw on the first day and the third day to induce sub-acute inflammation; changes in the edema sizes were determined, and percentages of inhibitions were calculated. Anti-inflammatory effects of EEMa were further examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced air-pouch based on leukocytes count, volume of exudates, levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, nitric oxides, and tumor necrosis factor released into the inflammatory fluids. EEMa-free radicals scavenging activities were studied in DPPH and reducing power tests. Membrane-stabilizing activities of EEMa were evaluated in the red blood cell lysis induced by thermal and hypotonic solution. EEMa (250, 500 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001; p<0.05) inhibition of inflammation when compared with vehicle. Also, EEMa (250, 500, or 1000 μg/mL) significantly stabilized membrane and produced free radical scavenging activities. M. arboreus possesses anti-inflammatory and the anti-oxidant properties that might benefit translational medicine.

  18. A sulfated galactan with antioxidant capacity from the green variant of tetrasporic Gigartina skottsbergii (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Tamara; Encinas, María V; Mansilla, Andrés; Matsuhiro, Betty; Zúñiga, Elisa A

    2012-01-10

    The water soluble polysaccharide produced by the green variant of tetrasporic Gigartina skottsbergii was found to be composed of D-galactose and sulfate groups in a molar ratio of 1.0:0.65. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy studies of the desulfated polysaccharide showed a major backbone structure of alternating 3-linked β-D-galactopyranosyl and 4-linked α-D-galactopyranosyl units, and minor signals ascribed to 3-O-methyl-substitution on the latter unit. Ethylation analysis of the polysaccharide indicated that the sulfate groups are mainly located at position O-2 of 4-linked α-D-galactopyranosyl residue and partially located at positions O-6 of the same unit and at position O-2 of 3-linked β-D-galactopyranosyl residue, and confirmed the presence of 3-O-methyl-galactose in minor amounts (4.4%). The sulfated d-galactan presents a similar structure to λ carrageenan but with much lower sulfation at position O-6 of the α-residue and at position O-2 of β-residue. The antioxidant capacity of the sulfated d-galactan was evaluated by the peroxyl radicals (ORAC method), hydroxyl radicals, chelating activity, and ABTS(+) assays. Kinetic results obtained in these assays were compared with those obtained for the commercial λ carrageenan. The antioxidant activity toward peroxyl radicals was higher for commercial λ carrageenan, this agrees with its higher content of sulfate group. The kinetics of the reaction of both polysaccharides with hydroxyl and ABTS(+) radicals showed a complex mechanism, but the antioxidant activity was higher for the polysaccharide from the green variant of tetrasporic Gigartina skottsbergii. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of Phenolic Compounds and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Phase of Anacardium occidentale L. Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Suênia de Araújo Vilar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The bark of A. occidentale L. is rich in tannins. Studies have described various biological activities of the plant, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory actions. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of the ethyl acetate phase (EtOAc of A. occidentale on acute inflammation and to identify and quantify its phenolic compounds by HPLC. The method was validated and shown to be linear, precise and accurate for catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallic acid. Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus were treated with saline, Carrageenan (2.5%, Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, Bradykinin (6 nmol and Prostaglandine E2 (5 µg at different concentrations of EtOAc - A. occidentale (12.5; 25; 50; and 100 mg/kg/weight p.o. for the paw edema test. Challenge was performed with carrageenan (500 µg/mL i.p. for the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg of EtOAc. Levels of cytokines IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were also measured. All EtOAc - A. occidentale concentrations reduced the edema. At 50 and 100 mg/kg, an anti-inflammatory response of the EtOAc was observed. Carrageenan stimulus produced a neutrophil count of 28.6% while 50 and 100 mg/kg of the phase reduced this to 14.5% and 9.1%, respectively. The EtOAc extract reduced levels of IL-1 and TNF-α. These results suggest that the EtOAc plays a modulatory role in the inflammatory response. The chromatographic method can be used for the analysis of the phenolic compounds of the EtOAc phase.

  20. Amorphization of thiamine chloride hydrochloride: A study of the crystallization inhibitor properties of different polymers in thiamine chloride hydrochloride amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioglu-Tuncil, Seda; Bhardwaj, Vivekanand; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

    2017-09-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions of thiamine chloride hydrochloride (THCl) were created using a variety of polymers with different physicochemical properties in order to investigate how effective the various polymers were as THCl crystallization inhibitors. THCl:polymer dispersions were prepared by lyophilizing solutions of THCl and amorphous polymers (guar gum, pectin, κ-carrageenan, gelatin, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)). These dispersions were stored at select temperature (25 and 40°C) and relative humidity (0, 23, 32, 54, 75, and 85% RH) conditions and monitored at different time points using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Moisture sorption isotherms of all samples were also obtained. Initially amorphous THCl was produced in the presence of ≥40% w/w pectin, κ-carrageenan, gelatin, and guar gum or ≥60% w/w PVP. Trends in polymer THCl crystallization inhibition (pectin≥κ-carrageenan>gelatin>guar gum≫PVP) were primarily based on the ability of the polymer to interact with THCl via hydrogen bonding and/or ionic interactions. The onset of THCl crystallization from the amorphous dispersions was also related to storage conditions. THCl remained amorphous at low RH conditions (0 and 23% RH) in all 1:1 dispersions except THCl:PVP. THCl crystallized in some dispersions below the glass transition temperature (T g ) but remained amorphous in others at T~T g . At high RHs (75 and 85% RH), THCl crystallized within one day in all samples. Given the ease of THCl amorphization in the presence of a variety of polymers, even at higher vitamin concentrations than would be found in foods, it is likely that THCl is amorphous in many low moisture foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, R.; Tozatti, M.G.; Silva, M.L.A.; Gimenez, V.M.M.; Pauletti, P.M.; Groppo, M.; Turatti, I.C.C.; Cunha, W.R.; Martins, C.H.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1. PMID:26200228

  2. Lack of effect of chronic pre-treatment with the FAAH inhibitor URB597 on inflammatory pain behaviour: evidence for plastic changes in the endocannabinoid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okine, Bright N; Norris, Leonie M; Woodhams, Stephen; Burston, James; Patel, Annie; Alexander, Stephen PH; Barrett, David A; Kendall, David A; Bennett, Andrew J; Chapman, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Elevating levels of endocannabinoids with inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a major focus of pain research, purported to be a safer approach devoid of cannabinoid receptor-mediated side effects. Here, we have determined the effects of sustained pharmacological inhibition of FAAH on inflammatory pain behaviour and if pharmacological inhibition of FAAH was as effective as genetic deletion of FAAH on pain behaviour. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Effects of pre-treatment with a single dose, versus 4 day repeated dosing with the selective FAAH inhibitor, URB597 (i.p. 0.3 mg·kg−1), on carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain behaviour and spinal pro-inflammatory gene induction were determined in rats. Effects of pain induction and of the drug treatments on levels of arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA), palmitoyl ethanolamide (PEA) and oleolyl ethanolamide (OEA) in the spinal cord were determined. KEY RESULTS Single, but not repeated, URB597 treatment significantly attenuated the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia (P < 0.001, vs. vehicle-treated animals). Neither mode of URB597 treatment altered levels of AEA, PEA and OEA in the hind paw, or carrageenan-induced paw oedema. Single URB597 treatment produced larger increases in AEA, PEA and OEA in the spinal cord, compared with those after repeated administration. Single and repeated URB597 treatment decreased levels of immunoreactive N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) in the spinal cord and attenuated carrageenan-induced spinal pro-inflammatory gene induction. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Changes in the endocannabinoid system may contribute to the loss of analgesic effects following repeated administration of low dose URB597 in this model of inflammatory pain. PMID:22595021

  3. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  4. Role of natural polysaccharides in radiation formation of PVA-hydrogel wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Lalit

    2007-01-01

    Radiation processed PVA-polysaccharides hydrogels have been observed to be suitable for producing transparent, flexible, mechanically strong, biocompatible, effective and economical hydrogel dressings. The dressings were formed in single stage irradiation process achieving gel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose. No synthetic plasticizers and additives were used. Different formulations containing poly-vinylalcohol (PVA) and polysaccharides selected from combinations of agar and carrageenan were used to make the dressings. The selected polysaccharides themselves form thermo-reversible gels and degrade on irradiation. Using concentration of polysaccharides as low as 0.5-2% resulted in increase of tensile strength from 45 g/cm 2 to 411 g/cm 2 , elongation from 30% to 410% and water uptake from 25% to 157% with respect to PVA gel without polysaccharides. Besides improving mechanical strength, agar contributes more to elongation and carrageenan to mechanical strength of the gel dressing. PVA formulations containing the polysaccharides show significantly different pre-gel viscosities behaviour. Increasing the concentration of agar in the formulation to about 2% converts the sheet gel to paste gel useful for filling wound cavities. The results indicate that pre irradiation network structure of the formulation plays an important role in determining mechanical properties of the irradiated gel dressing. Formulations containing 7-9% PVA, 0.5-1.5% carrageenan and 0.5-1% agar gave highly effective usable hydrogel dressings. Scanning electron micrographs show highly porous structure of the gel. Clinical trials of wound dressing on human patients established safety and efficacy of the dressing. The dressing has been observed to be useful in treating burns, non-healing ulcers of diabetes, leprosy and other external wounds. The dressings are now being marketed in India under different brand names

  5. Studies on Radiation Synthesis of Poly(vinyl alcohol)- Natural Polysaccharides Hydrogel Wound Dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, L.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation processed PVA-polysaccharides hydrogels have been observed to be suitable for producing transparent, flexible and mechanically strong, biocompatible, effective and economical hydrogel dressings(HD). The dressings were formed in single stage irradiation process achieving gel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose. No synthetic plasticizers and additives were used. Different formulations containing Poly-vinylalcohol, (PVA) and polysaccharides selected from combinations of agar and carrageenan were used to make the dressings. The selected polysaccharides themselves form thermo-reversible gels and degrade on irradiation. Using concentration of polysaccharides as low as 0.5 -2 % resulted in increase of tensile strength from 45 g/cm 2 to 400 g/cm 2 , elongation from 30 % to 410 % and water uptake from 25 % to 120% with respect to PVA gel without polysaccharides. Besides improving mechanical strength, agar contributes more to elongation and carrageenan to mechanical strength of the gel dressing. The polysaccharides show different pre-gel viscosities behaviour indicating different individual contribution to the PVA network. Increasing the concentration of agar in the formulation to about 2% converts the sheet gel to paste gel useful for filling wound cavities. The polysaccharides also provide desirable plasticizer and humectant effect into the dressing. Formulations containing 7-9% PVA, 0.5- 1.5 % carrageenan and 0.5-1% agar gave highly effective usable hydrogel dressings. Scanning Electron Micrographs show highly porous structure of the gel. Clinical trials of wound dressing on human patients established safety and efficacy of the dressing. The dressing has been observed to be useful in treating burns, non healing ulcers of Diabetes, Leprosy and other external wounds. The dressings are now being marketed in India under different brand names

  6. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanol Extract of Ficus Iteophylla Leaves in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulmalik, IA; Sule, MI; Musa, A M; Yaro, A H; Abdullahi, MI; Abdulkadir, MF; Yusuf, H

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg−1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and hot plate test in mice, while the anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. The ethanol extract at 100mgkg−1, 200mgkg−1,...

  7. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Teucrium chamaedrys Leaves Aqueous Extract in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Pourmotabbed; Amir Farshchi; Golbarg Ghiasi; Peyman Malek Khatabi

    2010-01-01

    Objective(s)Current study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Teucrium chamaedrys in mice and rats. Materials and MethodsFor evaluating of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, we used the carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw oedema, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick and formalin pain tests.ResultsThe extract of T. chamaedrys (50–200 mg/kg) and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) produced a significant (P< 0.01) inhibitio...

  8. ASIC1 and ASIC3 Play Different Roles in the Development of Hyperalgesia Following Inflammatory Muscle Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Walder, R.Y.; Rasmussen, L.A.; Rainier, J.D.; Light, A.R.; Wemmie, J.A.; Sluka, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) respond to acidosis that normally occurs after inflammation. We examined the expression of ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3 mRNAs in lumbar DRG neurons before and 24h after carrageenan-induced muscle inflammation. Muscle inflammation causes bilateral increases of ASIC2 and ASIC3, but not ASIC1 (neither ASIC1a nor ASIC1b) mRNA, suggesting differential regulation of ASIC1 versus ASIC2 and ASIC3 mRNA. Similar mRNA increases were observed following inflammation in knockou...

  9. Constant current chronopotentiometric stripping of sulphated polysaccharides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strmečki, S.; Plavšić, M.; Ćosović, B.; Ostatná, Veronika; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2009), s. 2032-2035 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/07/P497; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : sulphated polysaccharides * ióta-carrageenan * catalysis of hydrogen evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.243, year: 2009

  10. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2007-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  11. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F.

    2002-01-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use

  12. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Photosystem II Photochemistry and Phycobiliprotein of the Red Algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Their Implications for Light Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Xiangyu; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhu, Jianyi; Yao, Chunyan; Liu, Jianguo; Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein (PBP) genes of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii, raw material of κ -carrageenan used in food and pharmaceutical industries, were analyzed in this study. Minimum saturating irradiance (I k ) of this algal species was less than 115  μ mol m−2 s−1. Its actual PSII efficiency (yield II) increased when light intensity enhanced and decreased when light intensity reached 200  μ mol m−2 s−1. Under dim light, yield II declined at first and then increas...

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of Lippia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, S; Meckes, M; Pérez, C; Susunaga, A; Zavala, M A

    2005-10-31

    Lippia dulcis hexane and ethanol extracts were tested for its anti-inflammatory activity in several animal models. Hexane extract showed to be inactive, but the ethanol extract at doses of 400 mg/kg produced significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw oedema and reduced the weight of cotton pellet-induced granuloma, moreover, the topical application of 0.5 mg/ear of this extract inhibited the edema induced with TPA by 49.13%, an effect which is of less intensity than that produced by indomethacine at the same dose.

  15. Preclinical study of the interference of different nutritional diets on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions of etoricoxib

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchetti, Erica S.; Costa Dos Santos, Kelem; Perazzo, Fábio F.; Carvalho, José C. T.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the interference of the association of different types of nutritional diet in the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of etoricoxib in in vivo models. The following assays were used: a) Rat paw edema induced by carrageenan; b) Induction of the granulomatous tissue by cotton pellet; c) Dermatitis induced by croton oil; d) Vascular permeability by histamine in rats; e) Writhing test by acetic acid in mice; f) Formalin test in mice and; g) Stress-i...

  16. FORMULASI CINCAU JELLY DRINK (Premna oblongifolia L Merr SEBAGAI PANGAN FUNGSIONAL SUMBER ANTIOKSIDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Khoiriyah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objectives of this study were to make formulation of jelly drink product made from clump cincau leaf (Premna oblongifolia L Merr, to analyze hedonic and hedonic quality of the formulas, to analyze nutrient, fiber, and total phenol contents and antioxidative activity of the selected formula. The formulation was made to be three formulas, namely formula 1 (0.3% of carrageenan, formula 2 (0.4% of carrageenan, and formula 3 (0.5% of carrageenan. Ranking score showed the selected formula was the formula 1 (0.3% of carrageenan. Nutrient content of the selected formula showed that water, ash, protein, fat and carbohydrate level were 98.54%, 0.29%, 0.13%, 0.10%, and 0.95% (wet basis respectively. The total dietary fiber content of the selected formula was 2%, comprised of soluble 1.1% and insoluble dietary fiber 0.9%. The total phenol of the selected formula was 78.32 mg GAE/100g. Antioxidant activity of cincau jelly drink product which indicated by IC50 value was 1 045 μL, which is categorized as strong inhibitation capacity. The acceptance of the formula by consumers was 69.07% and it is categorized as moderate acceptance, with the most preference attribute was melon aroma.Keywords: cincau, dietary fiber, functional food, jelly drink, total phenolABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat formula jelly drink berbahan dasar cincau hijau (Premna oblongifolia L Merr, menganalisis organoleptik produk, kandungan gizi, serat, total fenol produk, dan aktivitas antioksidan dengan formula terpilih. Formula dibedakan menjadi tiga dengan perbedaan penambahan karagenan, yaitu formula 1 (0.3% karagenan, formula 2 (0.4% karagenan, dan formula 3 (0.5% karagenan. Nilai ranking menunjukkan bahwa formula terpilih adalah formula 1 (0.3% karagenan. Analisis proksimat menunjukkan kadar air, abu, protein, lemak dan karbohidrat secara berturut-turut yaitu 98.54%, 0.29%, 0.13%, 0.10%, dan 0.95% basis basah. Kadar serat pangan total formula terpilih

  17. Development and characterisation of modified poloxamer 407 thermoresponsive depot systems containing cubosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojarunchitt, Thunjiradasiree; Hook, Sarah; Rizwan, Shakila

    2011-01-01

    has the major draw back of fast erosion in aqueous environments which needs to be addressed. Three different concentrations of P407 (12%, 15% and 17% (w/v)) were formulated with various additives (methyl cellulose (MC), dextran, carrageenan and Pluronic-R (25R4)). The rheological characteristics...... and in vitro stability were investigated. The sol-gel transition temperature of P407 was lowered in the presence of the phytantriol cubosomes. The addition of MC and dextran did not affect the sol-gel transition temperature whereas 25R4 increased the gelation temperature. No transition was observed...

  18. EVALUASI CIRI MEKANIS DAN FISIS BIOPLASTIK DARI CAMPURAN POLI (ASAM LAKTAT DENGAN POLISAKARIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Paramawati

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate physical and mechanical characteristics of blend of polylactic acid (PLAand four types of polysaccharides, namely carrageenan, agar, tapioca, and garut starch. Agar and carrageenanshowed their ability to blend well with the PLA at a temperature of approximately 60ac, which was easilyobserved. Film sheets that were casted manually with better properties needed additives of triethanolamine oroleic acid, in terms of tensile strength, elastic modulus, and percent elongation at break which were categorizedas medium compared to other biodegradable plastics. Microstructure of the selected film revealed irregularformation of surface or amorphous, indicating that these films cannot be stored for a long period of time

  19. Inhibitory effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 on spinal nociceptive processing in rat pain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesawatsom, Pongsatorn; Burston, James; Hathway, Gareth; Bennett, Andrew; Chapman, Victoria

    2016-09-02

    Harnessing the actions of the resolvin pathways has the potential for the treatment of a wide range of conditions associated with overt inflammatory signalling. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) has robust analgesic effects in behavioural models of pain; however, the potential underlying spinal neurophysiological mechanisms contributing to these inhibitory effects in vivo are yet to be determined. This study investigated the acute effects of spinal AT-RvD1 on evoked responses of spinal neurones in vivo in a model of acute inflammatory pain and chronic osteoarthritic (OA) pain and the relevance of alterations in spinal gene expression to these neurophysiological effects. Pain behaviour was assessed in rats with established carrageenan-induced inflammatory or monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA pain, and changes in spinal gene expression of resolvin receptors and relevant enzymatic pathways were examined. At timepoints of established pain behaviour, responses of deep dorsal horn wide dynamic range (WDR) neurones to transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the hind paw were recorded pre- and post direct spinal administration of AT-RvD1 (15 and 150 ng/50 μl). AT-RvD1 (15 ng/50 μl) significantly inhibited WDR neurone responses to electrical stimuli at C- (29 % inhibition) and Aδ-fibre (27 % inhibition) intensities. Both wind-up (53 %) and post-discharge (46 %) responses of WDR neurones in carrageenan-treated animals were significantly inhibited by AT-RvD1, compared to pre-drug response (p < 0.05). These effects were abolished by spinal pre-administration of a formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX) antagonist, butoxy carbonyl-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe (BOC-2) (50 μg/50 μl). AT-RvD1 did not alter evoked WDR neurone responses in non-inflamed or MIA-treated rats. Electrophysiological effects in carrageenan-inflamed rats were accompanied by a significant increase in messenger RNA (mRNA) for chemerin (ChemR23) receptor and 5-lipoxygenase

  20. Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Stephen Ewart

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans, ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application.