WorldWideScience

Sample records for carrageenan

  1. THE PROPERTIES OF CARRAGEENAN GELS

    OpenAIRE

    Grubnik I.M., Gladukh Ye.V., Chernyaev S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies on the functional properties of carrageenan, depending on the concentration of sodium chloride and xanthan in gels. It is established that the main factors in the syneresis of carrageenan gels are its concentration, the presence of ions and gums in solution. If using sodium chloride there is a change in the structure of mesh of the resulting gel, which leads to an increase in syneresis.

  2. THE PROPERTIES OF CARRAGEENAN GELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubnik I.M., Gladukh Ye.V., Chernyaev S.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the functional properties of carrageenan, depending on the concentration of sodium chloride and xanthan in gels. It is established that the main factors in the syneresis of carrageenan gels are its concentration, the presence of ions and gums in solution. If using sodium chloride there is a change in the structure of mesh of the resulting gel, which leads to an increase in syneresis.

  3. Emerging applications of radiation-modified carrageenans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, Lucille V., E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Aranilla, Charito T.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2014-10-01

    The Philippines supplies almost half of the world’s processed carrageenan as ingredient for different applications. In order to maintain the country’s competitive advantage, R and D on radiation processed carrageenan with various potential applications had been undertaken. PVP-carrageenan hydrogels for wound dressing had been developed. A carrageenan-based radiation dose indicator can detect radiation dose of as low as 5 kGy. Irradiated carrageenan has also been tested as plant growth promoter. Irradiated carrageenans have been found have been found to contain some antioxidant properties which increase with increasing dose and concentration. Carboxymethyl carrageenans had also been developed that shows promising effect as super water absorbent for soil conditioner in plants.

  4. 21 CFR 172.620 - Carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.620 Carrageenan. The food additive carrageenan may...

  5. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  6. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  7. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of Thiolated Carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchaoin, Wongsakorn; Bonengel, Sonja; Hussain, Shah; Huck, Christian W; Ma, Benjamin N; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to generate and characterize a thiolated carrageenan. Thiolated carrageenan (carrageenan-SH) was synthesized from kappa (κ)- and iota (ι)-carrageenan by bromine replacement of the hydroxyl moieties followed by substitution to thiol groups using thiourea. Thiolated κ- and ι-carrageenan exhibited 176.57 ± 20.11 and 109.51 ± 18.26 μmol thiol groups per gram polymer, respectively. The resazurin test in Caco-2 cells revealed no toxic effect of both thiolated carrageenans at a concentration below 0.1% (w/v). Regarding efflux pump inhibitory effect, cellular accumulation of multidrug-resistance protein 2 substrate, sulforhodamine 101, was 1.38- and 1.35-fold increased in cells treated with thiolated κ- and ι-carrageenan, respectively. Modification of κ- and ι-carrageenan led to 3.9- and 2.0-fold increase in dynamic viscosity of mucus-thiolated carrageenan mixture within 4 h. Furthermore, residence time of κ- and ι-carrageenan-SH on porcine intestinal mucosa was 6.4- and 1.8-fold prolonged, respectively, as demonstrated by rotating cylinder method, indicating improved mucoadhesive properties. Hence, thiolation of carrageenans led to novel pharmaceutical excipients for various applications. PMID:26038249

  8. Non-Clinical Safety Evaluation of Intranasal Iota-Carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebar, Alexandra; Koller, Christiane; Seifert, Jan-Marcus; Chabicovsky, Monika; Bodenteich, Angelika; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Carrageenan has been widely used as food additive for decades and therefore, an extended oral data set is available in the public domain. Less data are available for other routes of administration, especially intranasal administration. The current publication describes the non-clinical safety and toxicity of native (non-degraded) iota-carrageenan when applied intranasally or via inhalation. Intranasally applied iota-carrageenan is a topically applied, locally acting compound with no need of systemic bioavailability for the drug’s action. Animal experiments included repeated dose local tolerance and toxicity studies with intranasally applied 0.12% iota-carrageenan for 7 or 28 days in New Zealand White rabbits and nebulized 0.12% iota-carrageenan administered to F344 rats for 7 days. Permeation studies revealed no penetration of iota-carrageenan across nasal mucosa, demonstrating that iota-carrageenan does not reach the blood stream. Consistent with this, no relevant toxic or secondary pharmacological effects due to systemic exposure were observed in the rabbit or rat repeated dose toxicity studies. Data do not provide any evidence for local intolerance or toxicity, when carrageenan is applied intranasally or by inhalation. No signs for immunogenicity or immunotoxicity have been observed in the in vivo studies. This is substantiated by in vitro assays showing no stimulation of a panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines by iota-carrageenan. In conclusion, 0.12% iota-carrageenan is safe for clinical use via intranasal application. PMID:25875737

  9. Degradation of carrageenan by low energy electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of κ-carrageenan using vessel-type low energy electron accelerator was investigated. Carrageenan with different molecular weights were obtained from irradiation of high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) κ-carrageenan. Other results presented were obtained from degradation studies of carrageenan by gamma rays. The decrease in molecular weight was accompanied by partial desulfation. From comparison of radiation degradation yield (Gd), it was found that the susceptibility to radiation of the three types of carrageenans in aqueous/gel forms follows the order of λ->ι->>κ- and could have been influenced by their conformational state. κ-carrageenan with molecular weight of ca. 10,000 showed strong growth promotion effect for potato in tissue culture. (author)

  10. Complexation between carrageenan and methylene blue for sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2013-11-01

    Theoretical studies on the methylene blue (MB)-carrageenans complexation at solution and solid states have been carried out via ultraviolet spectrophotoscopy and reflectometry methods. The equilibrium constant (Ka) of the MBcarrageenans complexation follows the order of Iota > Lambda > Kappa carrageenans, which indicated Iota-carrageenan forms a stable complex. MB-carrageenan complexation reaction showed decrease in Ka value from 210.71 ppm-1 to 114.57 ppm-1 when the reaction temperature increased from 298 K to 323 K. Le Chatelier's principle and mass action law explained that the MB-carrageenan complexation was an exothermic reaction (ΔH=-18.54 kJmol-1) that release heat. Thus MB-carrageenan complex was less stable at high temperature and tend to dissociate into free MB and carrageenan molecules. It was also supported by the van't Hoff equation. The reaction is a spontaneous process (ΔG=-13.23 kJmol-1) where the randomness of the molecules reduced (ΔS=-17.83 Jmol-1K-1) due to complexation. Besides, linear regression of the concentration and absorption of the MB-carrageenan reaction obeys the Beer Lambert law, which elucidated that the complexation process was not affected by any concentration dependent factors such as aggregation and self-quenching. Moreover, linear Benesi Hilderbrend plot revealed that the interaction between MB and carrageenan was a reversible and stoichiometric reaction with 1:1 ratio. However, the molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) and molar adsorption coefficient (μa) of the MB-carrageenan complex were lower compared to free MB, described that the complex was less adsorptive. The sensor constructed based on these theoretical investigations showed response behavior that was similar with solution test as both have attraction for carrageenans in the sequence of Iota-, Lambda-, Kappa- carrageenans. Likewise, carrageenan sensor was more selective towards Iota-carrageenan than to Lambda- and Kappa-carrageenans, and no response observed when

  11. Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of papillomavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Buck

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Certain sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV types are causally associated with the development of cervical cancer. Our recent development of high-titer HPV pseudoviruses has made it possible to perform high-throughput in vitro screens to identify HPV infection inhibitors. Comparison of a variety of compounds revealed that carrageenan, a type of sulfated polysaccharide extracted from red algae, is an extremely potent infection inhibitor for a broad range of sexually transmitted HPVs. Although carrageenan can inhibit herpes simplex viruses and some strains of HIV in vitro, genital HPVs are about a thousand-fold more susceptible, with 50% inhibitory doses in the low ng/ml range. Carrageenan acts primarily by preventing the binding of HPV virions to cells. This finding is consistent with the fact that carrageenan resembles heparan sulfate, an HPV cell-attachment factor. However, carrageenan is three orders of magnitude more potent than heparin, a form of cell-free heparan sulfate that has been regarded as a highly effective model HPV inhibitor. Carrageenan can also block HPV infection through a second, postattachment heparan sulfate-independent effect. Carrageenan is in widespread commercial use as a thickener in a variety of cosmetic and food products, ranging from sexual lubricants to infant feeding formulas. Some of these products block HPV infectivity in vitro, even when diluted a million-fold. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether carrageenan-based products are effective as topical microbicides against genital HPVs.

  12. 21 CFR 172.626 - Salts of carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of carrageenan. 172.626 Section 172.626 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.626 Salts of carrageenan. The food additive...

  13. 21 CFR 172.623 - Carrageenan with polysorbate 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carrageenan with polysorbate 80. 172.623 Section 172.623 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.623 Carrageenan with...

  14. SHORT-TERM PERORAL TOXICITY OF UNDEGRADED CARRAGEENAN IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, E.

    1973-01-01

    Undegraded carrageenan was administered orally to pigs at levels of 0 (control), 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight/day for 12 wk. No effects attributable to carrageenan treatment were seen with respect to behaviour, body-weight gain, feed utilization, haematology, blood chemistry, urine analysis or...... the intestinal mucosa are not considered to be a significant toxic effect....

  15. Visualization of carrageenan hydrogels by electron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Andrew; Øiseth, Sofia; Crameri, Sandra; Lundin, Leif

    2013-10-01

    The visualization of hydrogels and other forms of hydrated, soft matter pose a significant challenge for studies by electron microscopy. The main challenges can be subdivided into: (1) accurate preservation of structure, (2) ensuring a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio, and (3) acquisition of comprehensive datasets. A shortcoming in any of these areas will lead to measurement uncertainty. We demonstrate the characteristic differences between the polymer networks formed by the potassium and sodium forms of κ-carrageenan, in 3D and at a resolution sufficient to resolve fiber bundles. Finally, we discuss the uncertainties involved in quantitative measurements obtainable with current methodologies as well as prospects for improvement.

  16. In Situ Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles in Carrageenan Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Ana L. Daniel-da-Silva; Trindade, T; Goodfellow, Brian J.; Costa, Benilde F. O.; Correia, Rui N.; Gil, Ana M

    2007-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized in the presence of carrageenan polysaccharides using an in situ coprecipitation method. Iron coordination to the sulfate groups of the polysaccharide was confirmed by FTIR. The polysaccharide type ( , é, or ì) and concentration have been varied and their effects on particle morphology and chemical stability of the resultant nanocomposite investigated. The presence of carrageenan induces the formation of smaller particles, ...

  17. Enzyme-Assisted Preparation of Furcellaran-Like κ-/β-Carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préchoux, Aurélie; Genicot, Sabine; Rogniaux, Hélène; Helbert, William

    2016-02-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated galactans that are widely used in industrial applications for their thickening and gelling properties, which vary according to the amount and distribution of ester sulfate groups along the galactan backbone. To determine and direct the sulfation of κ-carrageenan moieties, we purified an endo-κ-carrageenan sulfatase (Q15XH1 accession in UniprotKB) from Pseudoalteromonas atlantica T6c extracts. Based on sequence analyses and exploration of the genomic environment of Q15XH1, we discovered and characterized a second endo-κ-carrageenan sulfatase (Q15XG7 accession in UniprotKB). Both enzymes convert κ-carrageenan into a hybrid, furcellaran-like κ-/β-carrageenan. We compared the protein sequences of these two new κ-carrageenan sulfatases and that of a previously reported ι-carrageenan sulfatase with other predicted sulfatases in the P. atlantica genome, revealing the existence of additional new carrageenan sulfatases. PMID:26585588

  18. Iota-Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of rhinovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Christiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs are the predominant cause of common cold. In addition, HRVs are implicated in the worsening of COPD and asthma, as well as the loss of lung transplants. Despite significant efforts, no anti-viral agent is approved for the prevention or treatment of HRV-infection. Results In this study we demonstrate that Iota-Carrageenan, a sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweed, is a potent anti-rhinoviral substance in-vitro. Iota-Carrageenan reduces HRV growth and inhibits the virus induced cythopathic effect of infected HeLa cells. In addition, Iota-Carrageenan effectively prevents the replication of HRV1A, HRV2, HRV8, HRV14, HRV16, HRV83 and HRV84 in primary human nasal epithelial cells in culture. The data suggest that Iota-Carrageenan acts primarily by preventing the binding or the entry of virions into the cells. Conclusion Since HRV infections predominately occur in the nasal cavity and the upper respiratory tract, a targeted treatment with a product containing Iota-Carrageenan is conceivable. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether Iota-Carrageenan-based products are effective in the treatment or prophylaxis of HRV infections.

  19. Characterization of ι-carrageenan and its derivative based green polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumaah, Fatihah Najirah; Mobaraka, Nadhratun Naiim; Ahmad, Azizan; Ramli, Nazaruddin [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The new types of green polymer electrolytes based on ι-carrageenan derivative have been prepared. ι-carrageenan act as precursor was reacted with monochloroacetic acid to produce carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan. The powders were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to confirm the substitution of targeted functional group in ι-carrageenan. The green polymer electrolyte based on ι-carrageenan and carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan was prepared by solution-casting technique. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity ι-carrageenan film were higher than carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan which 4.87 ×10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} and 2.19 ×10{sup −8} S cm{sup −1}, respectively.

  20. Characterization of ɽ -carrageenan and its derivative based green polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaah, Fatihah Najirah; Mobaraka, Nadhratun Naiim; Ahmad, Azizan; Ramli, Nazaruddin

    2013-11-01

    The new types of green polymer electrolytes based on ɽ -carrageenan derivative have been prepared. ɽ -carrageenan act as precursor was reacted with monochloroacetic acid to produce carboxymethyl ɽ -carrageenan. The powders were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to confirm the substitution of targeted functional group in ɽ -carrageenan. The green polymer electrolyte based on ɽ -carrageenan and carboxymethyl ɽ -carrageenan was prepared by solution-casting technique. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity ɽ -carrageenan film were higher than carboxymethyl ɽ -carrageenan which 4.87 ×10-6 S cm-1 and 2.19 ×10-8 S cm-1, respectively.

  1. Europium ion as a probe for binding sites to carrageenans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Ana P.; Goncalves, Rogeria R.; Serra, Osvaldo A. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil); Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil)], E-mail: medzaniquelli@ffclrp.usp.br; Wong, Kenneth [Laboratorio de Fisico-Quimica, Centro de Pesquisas de Paulinia, Rhodia Brasil, Paulinia, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    Carrageenans, sulfated polysaccharides extracted from red algae, present a coil-helix transition and helix aggregation dependence on the type and concentration of counterions. In this study, we focus attention on a mixed valence counterion system: Eu{sup 3+}/Na{sup +} or K{sup +} with different gel-forming carrageenans: kappa, iota, and kappa-2. Results of stationary and time-dependent luminescence showed to be a suitable tool to probe ion binding to both the negatively charged sulfate group and the hydroxyl groups present in the biopolymer. For lower europium ion concentrations, a single longer decay emission lifetime was detected, which was attributed to the binding of europium ion to the carrageenan sulfate groups. An additional decay ascribed to europium binding to hydroxyl groups was observed above a threshold concentration, and this decay was dependent on the carrageenan charge density. Symmetry of the europium ion microenvironment was estimated by the ratio between the intensities of its emission bands, which has been shown to depend on the concentration of europium ions and on the specificity of the monovalent counterion bound to the carrageenan.

  2. Europium ion as a probe for binding sites to carrageenans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrageenans, sulfated polysaccharides extracted from red algae, present a coil-helix transition and helix aggregation dependence on the type and concentration of counterions. In this study, we focus attention on a mixed valence counterion system: Eu3+/Na+ or K+ with different gel-forming carrageenans: kappa, iota, and kappa-2. Results of stationary and time-dependent luminescence showed to be a suitable tool to probe ion binding to both the negatively charged sulfate group and the hydroxyl groups present in the biopolymer. For lower europium ion concentrations, a single longer decay emission lifetime was detected, which was attributed to the binding of europium ion to the carrageenan sulfate groups. An additional decay ascribed to europium binding to hydroxyl groups was observed above a threshold concentration, and this decay was dependent on the carrageenan charge density. Symmetry of the europium ion microenvironment was estimated by the ratio between the intensities of its emission bands, which has been shown to depend on the concentration of europium ions and on the specificity of the monovalent counterion bound to the carrageenan

  3. NMR study on the network structure of a mixed gel of kappa and iota carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bingjie; Du, Lei; Matsukawa, Shingo

    2016-10-01

    The temperature dependencies of the (1)H T2 and diffusion coefficient (D) of a mixed solution of kappa-carrageenan and iota-carrageenan were measured by NMR. Rheological and NMR measurements suggested an exponential formation of rigid aggregates of kappa-carrageenan and a gradual formation of fine aggregates of iota-carrageenan during two step increases of G'. The results also suggested that longer carrageenan chains are preferentially involved in aggregation, thus resulting in a decrease in the average Mw of solute carrageenans. The results of diffusion measurements for poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) suggested that kappa-carrageenan formed thick aggregates that decreased hindrance to PEO diffusion by decreasing the solute kappa-carrageenan concentration in the voids of the aggregated chains, and that iota-carrageenan formed fine aggregates that decreased the solute iota-carrageenan concentration less. DPEO in a mixed solution of kappa-carrageenan and iota-carrageenan suggested two possibilities for the microscopic network structure: an interpenetrating network structure, or micro-phase separation. PMID:27312613

  4. Interactions between K-carrageenan and chitosan in nanolayered coatings - Structural and transport properties

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Pinheiro; Bourbon, A. I.; Medeiros, Bartolomeu G. de S.; Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes da; Silva, Maria do Carmo Hespanhol da; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G.; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Vicente, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The interactions between -carrageenan and chitosan, two oppositely charged polysaccharides, have been investigated through microcalorimetric and quartz crystal microbalance measurements. Microcalorimetric measurements show that -carrageenan/chitosan interaction is an exothermic process and that the alternate deposition of -carrageenan and chitosan results in the formation of a nanolayered coating mainly due to the electrostatic interactions existing between the two polyelectrol...

  5. Tensile and tear strength of carrageenan film from Philippine eucheuma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Annabelle V; Ambal, Wilhelmina O; Estrella, Romulo R; Pangilinan, Rolando; De Vera, Carlos J; Pacis, Raymund L; Rodriguez, Ner; Villanueva, Merle A

    2004-01-01

    The tensile and tear strength of carrageenan film from Philippines Eucheuma species were investigated using NEC tensilon universal-testing machine according to American Society for Testing Materials methods. These properties are important for assessing carrageenan film as packaging material. The kappa and iota types were used in the study. The effect of glycerine on the tensile and tear strength including elongation was also evaluated. Addition of glycerine tended to lower the tensile strength of the film and increase its elongation properties including the tear strength. Carrageenan film without glycerine was much stronger. Glycerine made the film more flexible and easy to deform. The composite film of carrageenan and konjac gum did not exhibit elongation. It also showed higher tensile strength than did the composite film of carrageenan and xanthan gum. Compared with iota-type carrageenan film, kappa-type carrageenan film without glycerine was more comparable to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film in terms of tensile strength as was the composite film of carrageenan-konjac gum. The kappa-type carrageenan film with glycerine was more comparable to LDPE film in terms of tear strength. The elongation reading for carrageenan film was lower than that for LDPE film. Morphologic studies showed that the carrageenan film had sets of pores distributed randomly at different places as compared to LDPE film. It also showed that the carrageenan film was more fibrous than LDPE film. PMID:15085409

  6. Follistatin Alleviates Synovitis and Articular Cartilage Degeneration Induced by Carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun; Abula, Kahaer; Inoue, Makiko; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Activins are proinflammatory cytokines which belong to the TGFβ superfamily. Follistatin is an extracellular decoy receptor for activins. Since both activins and follistatin are expressed in articular cartilage, we hypothesized that activin-follistatin signaling participates in the process of joint inflammation and cartilage degeneration. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of follistatin in a carrageenan-induced mouse arthritis model. Synovitis induced by intra-articular injection of carrageenan was significantly alleviated by preinjection with follistatin. Macrophage infiltration into the synovial membrane was significantly reduced in the presence of follistatin. In addition, follistatin inhibited proteoglycan erosion induced by carrageenan in articular cartilage. These data indicate that activin-follistatin signaling is involved in joint inflammation and cartilage homeostasis. Our data suggest that follistatin can be a new therapeutic target for inflammation-induced articular cartilage degeneration. PMID:25574420

  7. SHORT-TERM PERORAL TOXICITY OF UNDEGRADED CARRAGEENAN IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, E.

    1973-01-01

    Undegraded carrageenan was administered orally to pigs at levels of 0 (control), 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight/day for 12 wk. No effects attributable to carrageenan treatment were seen with respect to behaviour, body-weight gain, feed utilization, haematology, blood chemistry, urine analysis or...... organ weights. The treatment resulted, however, in changes in the intestinal flora: the total counts of aerobic bacteria were decreased in the colon and rectum and the number of Lactobacilli was reduced in the rectum. No ulcerative colitis or erosions of the mucous membrane of caecum and colon were...

  8. Radiolysis studies of kappa carrageenan for bio based materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappa (κ-) carrageenan oligomers are known to have several biological activities such as anti-HIV, anti-herpes, anti tumor and antioxidant properties. Recent progress in the development of radiation modified κ-carrageenan has resulted in new applications such as plant growth promoter, radiation dose indicator and hydrogels for wound dressing. This study would investigate on the changes in chemical structure, gelation and conformational transition behavior and molecular size of κ-carrageenan at doses from 0 to 200 kGy and would be correlated to these functions for the development of bio-based materials. Pulse radiolysis studies on κ-carrageenan was carried out to determine what transient species directly affects the degradation rate of κ-carrageenan in aqueous solution. The results reveal that there is no seeming reaction of the hydrated electron with κ-carrageenan. OH reacts with κ-carrageenan at a fast rate of approximately 1.2 x 109M-1a-1. This value was influenced by conformational change from helix to coil by the addition of the metal ion Na+, reduction of molecular weight by the hydrolysis reaction and reduction of reactive sites by seasonally or irradiation. Most applications from the radiation degradation of polysaccharides started with the use of the ''hit and miss'' process where polysaccharides were irradiated at a certain dose range and finding out which dose is suitable for a specific function. Measurement of the radiation degradation yield (Gd) at different conditions can give an approximation of the Mw at an absorbed dose. This will allow the production of oligomers with a specified Mw. With the use of the Gd both in solid and in aqueous solution, one can also make a rough calculation whether it is more economical to irradiateκ-carrageenan in solid r in aqueous solution. Results of this experiment reveal that the radiation yields (Gd) of κ-carrageenan in solid and in aqueous (1%) were as follows: 2.5, 1.7 and 1.2 x 10-7 mol J-1 for solid in

  9. Biofunctionalized magnetic hydrogel nanospheres of magnetite and {kappa}-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L; Fateixa, Sara; Trindade, Tito; Goodfellow, Brian J; Gil, Ana M [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guiomar, Antonio J [Department of Biochemistry and CNC, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Costa, Benilde F O [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, Nuno J O, E-mail: ana.luisa@ua.p [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Aragon, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-09-02

    Magnetic hydrogel {kappa}-carrageenan nanospheres were successfully prepared via water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions combined with thermally induced gelation of the polysaccharide. The size of the nanospheres (an average diameter () of about 50 and 75 nm) was modulated by varying the concentration of surfactant. The nanospheres contained superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (8 nm), previously prepared by co-precipitation within the biopolymer. Carboxyl groups, at a concentration of about 4 mmol g{sup -1}, were successfully grafted at the surface of these magnetic nanospheres via carboxymethylation of the {kappa}-carrageenan. The carboxylated nanospheres were shown to be thermo-sensitive in the 37-45 {sup 0}C temperature range, indicating their potential as thermally controlled delivery systems for drugs and/or magnetic particles at physiological temperatures. Finally, preliminary results have been obtained for IgG antibody conjugation of the carboxylated nanospheres and the potential of these systems for bio-applications is discussed.

  10. Biofunctionalized magnetic hydrogel nanospheres of magnetite and κ-carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L.; Fateixa, Sara; Guiomar, António J.; Costa, Benilde F. O.; Silva, Nuno J. O.; Trindade, Tito; Goodfellow, Brian J.; Gil, Ana M.

    2009-09-01

    Magnetic hydrogel κ-carrageenan nanospheres were successfully prepared via water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions combined with thermally induced gelation of the polysaccharide. The size of the nanospheres (an average diameter (∅) of about 50 and 75 nm) was modulated by varying the concentration of surfactant. The nanospheres contained superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (∅8 nm), previously prepared by co-precipitation within the biopolymer. Carboxyl groups, at a concentration of about 4 mmol g-1, were successfully grafted at the surface of these magnetic nanospheres via carboxymethylation of the κ-carrageenan. The carboxylated nanospheres were shown to be thermo-sensitive in the 37-45 °C temperature range, indicating their potential as thermally controlled delivery systems for drugs and/or magnetic particles at physiological temperatures. Finally, preliminary results have been obtained for IgG antibody conjugation of the carboxylated nanospheres and the potential of these systems for bio-applications is discussed.

  11. Carrageenans from red seaweeds as promoters of growth and elicitors of defense response in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pushp Sheel Shukla; Tudor eBorza; Critchley, Alan T; Balakrishnan ePrithiviraj

    2016-01-01

    Plants incessantly encounter abiotic and biotic stresses that limit their growth and productivity. However, conversely, plant growth can also be induced by treatments with various abiotic and biotic elicitors. Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides that represent major cellular constituents of seaweeds belonging to red algae (Rhodophyta). Recent research has unraveled the biological activity of carrageenans and of their oligomeric forms, the oligo carrageenans (OCs), as promoters of...

  12. Preparation and characterization of carboxymethylated carrageenan modified with collagen peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lihong; Tong, Jun; Tang, Chang; Wu, Huan; Peng, Min; Yi, Jiayan

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan collagen peptide (CMKC-COP) was via an imide-bond forming reaction between carboxyl groups in carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan (CMKC) and amino groups in collagen peptide in the presence of 1-ethyl-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxy sulfosuccinimide (NHS). CMKC-COP products were verified with infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results of degree of substitution (DS) of CMKC-COP was presented, which are depended on reaction time, molar ratio of collagen peptide to carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan and reaction temperature. The optimal reaction conditions were studied by means of single factor experiment. Also MTT assay was applied to evaluate the effects of CMKC-COP on proliferation of chick embryo fibroblasts. The animal experiment results indicated that the wound covered with CMKC-COP were completely filled with new epithelium within 2 weeks without any significant adverse side reactions. Therefore, the CMKC-COP showed the potentiality to repair skin in cosmetic, biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. PMID:26526172

  13. Carrageenan and agaran structures from the red seaweed Gymnogongrus tenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Recalde, Mercedes; Canelón, Dilsia J; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Matulewicz, María C; Cerezo, Alberto S; Ciancia, Marina

    2016-01-20

    The galactan system biosynthesized by the red seaweed Gymnogongrus tenuis (Phyllophoraceae) is constituted by major amounts of κ/ι-carrageenans, with predominance of ι-structures, which were isolated by extraction with hot water in high yield (∼ 45%). A small amount of non-cyclized carrageenans mostly of the ν-type was also obtained. Besides, 12% of these galactans are agaran structures, which were present in major quantities in the room temperature water extracts, but they were also found in the hot water extract. They are constituted by 3-linked β-D-galactose units partially substituted on C-6 with sulfate or single stubs of β-D-xylose and 4-linked residues that comprise α-L-galactose units partially sulfated or methoxylated on C-3 or sulfated on C-3 and C-6 and 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactose. Related structural patterns were previously found for agarans synthesized by other carrageenophytes. Results presented here show that these agarans are low molecular weight molecules independent of the carrageenan structures, with strong interactions between them. PMID:26572482

  14. Facile preparation of monolithic κ-carrageenan aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kathirvel; Ratke, Lorenz

    2014-05-14

    To the best of our knowledge, it is the first study reporting the synthesis of monolithic κ-carrageenan aerogels with meso- and macroporous structures, being unique in physical and chemical properties. We demonstrate a novel method to synthesize κ-carrageenan aerogels in which potassium thiocyanate was used as the source of specific ions. Aerogels were characterized by envelope density analysis, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray powder diffractometry and IR spectroscopy. By varying the concentration of κ-carrageenan between 0.5 and 3 wt%, the envelope density can be linearly increased from 40 to 160 kg m⁻³. The sulphate functional groups in the wet gel and the specific ions are the key factors controlling the volume shrinkage of aerogels which average about 66%. The aerogels exhibit a fibrillar structure similar to cellulose aerogels. The fibril thickness was observed to be 10-15 nm and the specific surface area was about 230 m² g⁻¹. The existing meso- and macroporous structures were confirmed by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The aerogels were completely pure, free of specific ions and confirmed to be amorphous by powder X-ray diffraction. Hence, these porous materials can provide a matrix with a chelating function which can be used as a host in many applications. PMID:24718695

  15. Kinetic study of κ-carrageenan degradation and its impact on mechanical and structural properties of chitosan/κ-carrageenan film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mahdiyar; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir; Ettelaie, Rammile; Rafe, Ali

    2016-05-20

    The purpose of the current research was to study κ-carrageenan degradation behavior under thermal treatment, and its influence on chitosan κ-carrageenan film properties. A pseudo-first-order reaction equation was applied by using reciprocal plots of κ-carrageenan molecular mass versus heating time, which showed a strong dependence on heating time. Incorporation of thermally treated κ-carrageenan into the chitosan had diminished both water resistance and water vapor permeability of the blend, in contrast to those for intact or untreated κ-carrageenan. A dramatic decrease of equilibrium moisture content and tensile strength were noticed, and these parameters were more affected by the longer times. Furthermore, the contact angle of the films was found to be a function of the heating time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed apparent agglomeration of κ-carrageenan through the thermal process. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the intact blend had the flattest surface, whilst the blend containing treated κ-carrageenan had high roughness. PMID:26917387

  16. Preparation of hybrid nano biocomposite κ-carrageenan/cellulose nanocrystal/nanoclay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakuwan, Siti Zarina; Ahmad, Ishak; Ramli, Nazaruddin

    2013-11-01

    Biodegradable composites film based on κ-carrageenan and nano particles as filler was prepared to study the mechanical strength of carrageenan composites. Solution casting technique was used to prepare_this biocomposite. Preparation of composite film and nano filler involve two stages, preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from kenaf with alkali treatment, bleaching, and hydrolysis followed by the preparation of two types of nano composite. Tensile test was carried on the composite film based on κ-carrageenan with the variation percentage of CNC and nano clay to obtain the optimum CNC and nano clay loading. After that hybrid nano-biocomposite film based on κ-carrageenan with the variation percentage of CNC/nano clay (OMMT) according to optimum value of composite carrageenan/CNC and composite carrageenan/nano clay film was prepared. The effect of nano filler on the mechanical properties of carrageenan films was examined. κ-carrageenan biocomposite increased with the optimum at 4% CNC and nano clay composition. Additional improvement of tensile strength with hybridization of CNC and nanoclay indicated better mechanical properties.

  17. The Effects of plasticizers and palmitic acid toward the properties of the carrageenan Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heru Wibowo, Atmanto; Listiyawati, Oktaviana; Purnawan, Candra

    2016-02-01

    Varied plasticizers and palmitic acid additive have been added in the carrageenan film. The film was made by mixing of the carrageenan and plasticizers (glycerol, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol) with composition of 92:3, 90:6, 87:9, 84:12, 81:15(%w/w) and in the presence of palmitic acid as additive with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% of total weight. Casting method was used for the film molding and drying at 60oC with the oven for 12 hours. To investigate the effects of plasticizers and additive, some mechanical tests on film were performed. The test result concludes that plasticizers in the film decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation break of the carrageenan film. The additive of palmitic acid decreased the tensile strength of the carrageenan film and also decreased the-the water absorbance of the film. The highest tensile strength of films made was with the formulation of carrageenan: PEG with composition of 92:3 (% w/w). The highest elongation break of the film was for carrageenan:PVA with the composition of 81: 15 (%w/w) and carrageenan:palmitic acid:PEG with the composition of 92: 3: 1 (%w/w). The lowest water absorption of the film was achieved for carrageenan:PVA:palmitic acid with the composition of 87: 3: 5 (%w/w).

  18. The inhibitory effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on carrageenan-induced nociception in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuka; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Matsuoka, Yoshikazu; Yabuki-Kawase, Akiko; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Maeda, Shigeru; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies showed that the administration of dexmedetomidine relieved hyperalgesia in the presence of neuropathic pain. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the local administration of dexmedetomidine is useful for relieving acute inflammatory nociception, such as postoperative pain. Thus, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on acute inflammatory nociception. Acute inflammatory nociception was induced by an intraplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the hindpaws of rats, and dexmedetomidine was also injected combined with carrageenan. The paw withdrawal threshold based on von Frey filament stimulation was measured until 12 h after injection. We compared the area under the time-curve (AUC) between carrageenan and carrageenan with dexmedetomidine. To clarify that the action of dexmedetomidine was via α2-adrenoceptors, we evaluated the effect of yohimbine, a selective antagonist of α2-adrenoceptors, on the anti-nociception of dexmedetomidine. As the results, the intraplantar injection of carrageenan with over 10 μM dexmedetomidine significantly increased AUC, compared to that with only carrageenan injection. This effect of dexmedetomidine was reversed by the addition of yohimbine to carrageenan and dexmedetomidine. These results demonstrated that the locally injected dexmedetomidine was effective against carrageenan-induced inflammatory nociception via α2-adrenoceptors. The findings suggest that the local injection of dexmedetomidine is useful for relieving local acute inflammatory nociception. PMID:26160316

  19. Structural characterization and antioxidant activities of κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides degraded by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Yang, Bingying; Wu, Yanmin; Liu, Yang; Gu, Xiao; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Chengjian; Cao, Hongzhi; Huang, Linjuan; Wang, Zhongfu

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, four kinds of κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides were obtained by the degradation of parent κ-carrageenan using free radical depolymerization, mild acid hydrolysis, κ-carrageenase digestion and partial reductive hydrolysis, respectively. Their structure types were accurately and comparatively elucidated by ESI-MS and CID MS/MS. The antioxidant activities of different degraded products were investigated by four different antioxidant assays, including superoxide radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The methods of depolymerization had an influence on the antioxidant activities of κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides obtained from κ-carrageenan. These results indicated that the antioxidant activities of κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides could be related to the degree of polymerization, the content of reducing sugar and sulfate groups, and the structure of reducing terminus. PMID:25704717

  20. Cationization of kappa- and iota-carrageenan--Characterization and properties of amphoteric polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Tamara; Prado, Héctor J; Bonelli, Pablo R; Cukierman, Ana L; Fissore, Eliana L; Gerschenson, Lia N; Matulewicz, María C

    2015-08-01

    Commercial kappa- and iota carrageenans were cationized with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. For kappa-carrageenan three derivatives with different degrees of substitution were obtained. Native and amphoteric kappa-carrageenans were characterized by NMR and infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy; methanolysis products were studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Young moduli and the strain at break of films, differential scanning calorimetry, rheological and flocculation behavior were also evaluated; the native and the amphoteric derivatives showed different and interesting properties. Cationization of iota-carrageenan was more difficult, indicating as it was previously observed for agarose, that substitution starts preferentially on the 2-position of 3,6-anhydrogalactose residues; in iota-carrageenan this latter unit is sulfated. PMID:25933524

  1. Carbohydrate availability of arroz caldo with lambda-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumelod, B D; Ramirez, R P; Tiangson, C L; Barrios, E B; Panlasigui, L N

    1999-07-01

    Total available carbohydrate (sugars and starches) and total dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) make up the total carbohydrate content of a food. Soluble fiber decreases the availability of glucose by delaying its absorption in the proximal small intestine, thus reducing the postprandial glucose levels (Jenkins et al., 1978; Schneeman, 1987a). Carrageenan, a seaweed extract, is a good source of soluble fiber (Montaño et al., 1985). This study aimed to determine the effect of carrageenan incorporation into arroz caldo on carbohydrate availability by monitoring the postprandial blood glucose levels of normal subjects. Control and experimental arroz caldo samples were prepared and subjected to proximate analysis and feeding studies. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content of the experimental (2.03%) was about thrice that of the control (0.68%). Using randomized crossover design, preweighed 55 g available carbohydrate serving portions of control and experimental arroz caldo samples, with 3.45 and 14.84 g TDF, respectively, were fed to ten fasting normal subjects then their postprandial blood glucose levels were determined at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min intervals. Results of the short-term in vivo study showed that the mean postprandial glycaemic responses of subjects after consuming the experimental sample were significantly lower than the levels after consuming the control at 15, 45, and 90 min (P arroz caldo than control (147.29 +/- 53.34). The hypoglycaemic effect of carrageenan may prove useful in the prevention and management of metabolic conditions such as diabetes. PMID:10719574

  2. Semi-commercialization of PVP-carrageenan hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) has developed the PVP-Carrageenan hydrogel wound dressing by radiation processing. The PVP-Carrageenan hydrogel has undergone clinical testing for burn and bedsores. It has already a pending patent application (No. 1-2000-02471) at the Philippine Patent Office. The techno-economic feasibility study has also been completed. In order to commercialize this product, a project on semi-commercialization in partnership with the investor was proposed to Technology Incubation for Commercialization (TECHNICOM), a technology transfer program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). TECHNICOM was established in 2003 under the National Science and Technology Plan (2002-2020) as a strategic technology transfer program. The program aims to identify key technological breakthroughs especially those generated by R and D institutes. It can intervene through the following: technology assessment/commercial prototype development; business plan/feasibility study preparation; intellectual property rights protection; technology valuation negotiation and licensing; semi-commercial production assistance and training/consultancy services. High technology applications with commercial potentials are given priority. Under semi-commercialization stage, government funds will be provided to match private sector investment in the commercial application of a particular technology innovation. This will lessen the risk of commercialization and ensure commitment from the investors. Commercial success in the shortest time is ensured since scientist can then work closely with the private sector at the production floor while testing the gaps in the technology. (author)

  3. Multi-step carboxymethylation of kappa-Carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many polysaccharide derivatives have been prepared by carboxymethylation reactions in order to increase the range of potential applications of these natural polymers in the chemical, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Carboxymethylation of kappa-carrageenan was attempted for the first time to synthesize derivatives with various degree of substitution. A multistep carboxymethylation was performed under heterogeneous reaction conditions, in isopropyl alcohol/water slurry medium, with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution for activation, and monochloroacetic acid for etherification. The derivatives obtained had average degree of substitutions from 1.20 to 1.92 as determined by potentiometric back-titration. Chemical and structural characterization were accomplished by Gel Permeation Chromatography, Elemental analysis, FT-IR Spectroscopy, 1H N and 13C NMR Spectroscopy. The relative reactivity of the hydroxyl groups in κ-carrageenan dimer unit proceeded in the order O-C2G4S > O-C6G4S >O-C2AG at a ratio of 1:0.6:O.4. (author)

  4. Carrageenans from red seaweeds as promoters of growth and elicitors of defense response in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushp Sheel Shukla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants incessantly encounter abiotic and biotic stresses that limit their growth and productivity. However, conversely, plant growth can also be induced by treatments with various abiotic and biotic elicitors. Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides that represent major cellular constituents of seaweeds belonging to red algae (Rhodophyta. Recent research has unraveled the biological activity of carrageenans and of their oligomeric forms, the oligo carrageenans (OCs, as promoters of plant growth and as elicitors of defense responses against pests and diseases. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which carrageenans and OCs mediate plant growth and plant defense responses. Carrageenans and OCs improve plant growth by regulating various metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and ancillary pathways, cell division, purine and pyrimidine synthetic pathways as well as metabolic pathways involved in nitrogen and sulfur assimilation. Carrageenans and OCs also induce plant defense responses against viroids, viruses, bacteria, fungi and insects by modulating the activity of different defense pathways, including salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene signaling pathways. Further studies will likely substantiate the beneficial effects of carrageenans and of OCs on plant growth and plant defense responses and open new avenues for their use in agriculture and horticultural industry.

  5. Green sonochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles at varying concentrations of κ-carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsupikhe, Randa Fawzi; Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor B.; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainudin, Norhazlin

    2015-07-01

    A green sonochemical method was developed for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in different concentrations of kappa carrageenan (κ-carrageenan). The κ-carrageenan was used as a natural eco-friendly stabilizer, and ultrasonic irradiation was used as a green reducing agent. The number of Ag-NPs increased with increasing κ-carrageenan concentrations. Formation of Ag/κ-carrageenan was determined by UV-visible spectroscopy where the surface plasmon absorption maximum was observed at 402 to 420 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the Ag-NPs are of a face-centered cubic structure. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum indicated the presence of Ag-NPs in κ-carrageenan. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image for the highest concentration of κ-carrageenan showed the distribution of Ag-NPs with an average particle size near to 4.21 nm. Scan electron microscopy (SEM) images illustrated the spherical shape of the Ag-NPs. The use of photo irradiation provides a green and economic feature to this work.

  6. λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd) Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangha, Jatinder S; Kandasamy, Saveetha; Khan, Wajahatullah; Bahia, Navratan Singh; Singh, Rudra P; Critchley, Alan T; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2015-05-01

    The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ)-, lambda(λ)-, and kappa(κ)-carrageenan at 1 g·L-1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and lipoxygenase (LOX), were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid (JA) dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection. PMID:26006710

  7. Antitumor and Adjuvant Activity of λ-carrageenan by Stimulating Immune Response in Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min; Shao, Bin; Nie, Wen; Wei, Xia-Wei; Li, Yu-Li; Wang, Bi-Lan; He, Zhi-Yao; Liang, Xiao; Ye, Ting-Hong; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2015-01-01

    λ-Carrageenan is a seaweed polysaccharide which has been generally used as proinflammatory agent in the basic research, however, how the immunomodulating activity of λ-carrageenan affects tumor microenvironment remains unknown. In this study, we found that intratumoral injection of λ-carrageenan could inhibit tumor growth in B16-F10 and 4T1 bearing mice and enhance tumor immune response by increasing the number of tumor-infiltrating M1 macrophages, DCs and more activated CD4(+)CD8(+) T lymphocytes in spleen. In addition, λ-carrageenan could enhance the secretion of IL17A in spleen and significantly increase the level of TNF-α in tumor, most of which was secreted by infiltrating macrophages. Moreover, λ-carrageenan exhibited an efficient adjuvant effect in OVA-based preventative and therapeutic vaccine for cancer treatment, which significantly enhanced the production of anti-OVA antibody. The toxicity analysis suggested that λ-carrageenan was with a good safety profile. Thus, λ-carrageenan might be used both as a potent antitumor agent and an efficient adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26098663

  8. Gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan nano gels as potential drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to produce, characterize and assess the potential of gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan nano gels for drug delivery system. The carboxy methylation of κ-carrageenan was carried out in 2 propanol, activated with appropriate amount of 16N sodium hydroxide and reacted with monochloroacetic acid as etherifying agent. The carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan was further subjected to gamma-irradiation followed by the formation of nano gels. In this study, nano gels were prepared from gamma irradiated carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan encapsulating a model redox indicator (methylene blue, neutral, with a pH range of 6.0-7.6), using reverse microemulsions combined with thermally induced gelation. Nano gels were characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Differential Thermal Analysis. In vitro drug loading and in vitro drug release studies were done. It was found that gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan has the potential for drug delivery system, prolonged release in particular. Furthermore, it was proven that the loading capacity,as well as the amount of drug release, increases with the dose of gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan nano gels. No significant interaction effect was seen among the different dose of gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan nano gels; a significant increase in the methylene blue release was observed with time. (author)

  9. Carrageenan-grafted magnetite nanoparticles as recyclable sorbents for dye removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L., E-mail: ana.luisa@ua.pt; Salgueiro, Ana M., E-mail: a38242@ua.pt; Creaney, Bianca, E-mail: bianca.creaney@gmail.com; Oliveira-Silva, Rui, E-mail: ruipedro.silva@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Department of Chemistry, CICECO, Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal); Silva, Nuno J. O., E-mail: nunojoao@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Department of Physics, CICECO, Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal); Trindade, Tito, E-mail: tito@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Department of Chemistry, CICECO, Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal)

    2015-07-15

    The efforts dedicated to improving water decontamination procedures have prompted the interest in the development of efficient, inexpensive, and reusable sorbents for the uptake of dye pollutants. In this work, novel sorbents consisting of carrageenan polysaccharides grafted to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared. κ- and ι-carrageenan were first chemically modified by carboxymethylation and then covalently attached via amide bond to the surface of aminated silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles, both steps monitored using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The kinetics and the equilibrium behavior of the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) adsorption onto the carrageenan sorbents were investigated. ι-carrageenan sorbents displayed higher MB adsorption capacity that was ascribed to high content of sulfonate groups. Overall, the pseudo-second order equation provided a good description of the adsorption kinetics. The κ-carrageenan sorbents followed an unusual Z-type equilibrium adsorption isotherm whereas the isotherm of ι-carrageenan sorbents, although displaying a conventional shape, could not be successfully predicted by isotherm models commonly used. Noteworthy, both sorbents were long-term stable and could easily be recycled by simply rinsing with KCl aqueous solution. The removal efficiency of κ-carrageenan sorbents was 92 % in the first adsorption cycle and kept high (>80 %) even after six consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles.

  10. Carrageenan-grafted magnetite nanoparticles as recyclable sorbents for dye removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efforts dedicated to improving water decontamination procedures have prompted the interest in the development of efficient, inexpensive, and reusable sorbents for the uptake of dye pollutants. In this work, novel sorbents consisting of carrageenan polysaccharides grafted to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared. κ- and ι-carrageenan were first chemically modified by carboxymethylation and then covalently attached via amide bond to the surface of aminated silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles, both steps monitored using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The kinetics and the equilibrium behavior of the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) adsorption onto the carrageenan sorbents were investigated. ι-carrageenan sorbents displayed higher MB adsorption capacity that was ascribed to high content of sulfonate groups. Overall, the pseudo-second order equation provided a good description of the adsorption kinetics. The κ-carrageenan sorbents followed an unusual Z-type equilibrium adsorption isotherm whereas the isotherm of ι-carrageenan sorbents, although displaying a conventional shape, could not be successfully predicted by isotherm models commonly used. Noteworthy, both sorbents were long-term stable and could easily be recycled by simply rinsing with KCl aqueous solution. The removal efficiency of κ-carrageenan sorbents was 92 % in the first adsorption cycle and kept high (>80 %) even after six consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles

  11. The effect of ileotransversostomy on carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1983-01-01

    By oral administration of degraded carrageenan a colitis-like disease can be induced in guinea pigs which almost exclusively affects the caecum. To study the effect of degraded carrageenan on the distal colon and rectum, an ileotransversostomy was performed. In the non-operated group of animals...... ulcerative lesions and changes in the mucosal surface structure were observed only in the caecum and proximal colon after administration of degraded carrageenan. Animals with ileotransversostomy had similar lesions, but the distal colon and rectum were also severely affected, with formation of crypt...

  12. Synthesis of Kappa-carrageenan oligomers via synergistic action of gamma radiation and hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the synthesis of k-carrageenan oligometers with the simultaneous action of gamma radiation and hydrogen peroxide was carried out. Effects on molecular weight and structure of k-carrageenan were assessed using GPC, UV-VIS and FT-IR. Radiation degradation yield (G(s)) and reaction rate constants (k) based on Mn values were also determined. The results showed that k-carrageenan oligomers with Mw of less than 10 kDa can be prepared easily at low doses (2.5-5 kGy) in the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (0.25-0.5%). The G(s)) and k values increased significantly with the presence of H2O2. Structural changes in k-carrageenan treated by the degradation agents were accompanied by appearance of UV peak at 260 nm and characteristic FT-IR band at 1728 cm-1. (Author)

  13. Diethylcarbamazine Attenuates the Development of Carrageenan-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Edlene Lima; Barbosa, Karla Patricia de Souza; Fragoso, Ingrid Tavares; Donato, Mariana Aragão Matos; Oliveira dos Santos Gomes, Fabiana; da Silva, Bruna Santos; Silva, Amanda Karolina Soares e; Rocha, Sura Wanessa Santos; Amaro da Silva Junior, Valdemiro; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2014-01-01

    Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) is an antifilarial drug with potent anti-inflammatory properties as a result of its interference with the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of DEC in a mouse model of acute inflammation (carrageenan-induced pleurisy). The injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity induced the accumulation of fluid containing a large number of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) as well as infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased expression of interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Carrageenan also induced the expression of nuclear factor-κB. The oral administration of DEC (50 mg/Kg) three days prior to the carrageenan challenge led to a significant reduction in all inflammation markers. The present findings demonstrate that DEC is a potential drug for the treatment of acute lung inflammation. PMID:24550603

  14. SANS study of surfactant ordering in kappa-carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evmenenko, G.; Theunissen, E.; Mortensen, K.;

    2001-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering using contrast variation by H2O/D2O has been applied for the structural investigation of kappa -carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) complexes. interaction of kappa -carrageenan with an ionic surfactant involves self-assembly of the surfactant molecules in con...... from the position and the half-width of the Braggs peaks of the scattering patterns. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Characterization and antioxidant properties of alcoholic extracts from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different extracts from unirradiated and gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan (solid and 1% w/v aqueous solution) were obtained with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) at concentrations of 40%, 60% and 80% v/v at room temperature. Physical and chemical properties of the different IPA extracts were analyzed by GPC, UV, and FT-IR. The extracts consisted of low molecular weight fragments with an average molecular weight (Mw) ranging from 2300 Da to 5000 Da. UV analyses of extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed varying maximum absorptions in the range of 265–280 nm. FT-IR spectra of all extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed all the important functional groups of carrageenan in the fingerprint region (4000–600 cm−1) and additional carbonyl C=O and C=C double bond peaks. Antioxidant properties of the different extracts were investigated using reducing power assay. The reducing power of extracts from the irradiated solution follows the order of 80%>60%>40% while no trend was observed for all extracts from irradiated solid κ-carrageenan. - Highlights: • Alcoholic extracts from irradiated κ-carrageenan (solid and 1% w/v) were obtained. • Extracts consisted of low molecular weight oligomers with Mw from 2300 to 5000 Da. • Structural analysis showed C=O and C=C functional groups in the extracts. • Fraction with Mw<2000 Da exhibited higher antioxidant potential

  16. Population Studies and Carrageenan Properties in Eight Gigartinales (Rhodophyta) from Western Coast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leonel

    2013-01-01

    Eight carrageenophytes, representing seven genera and three families of Gigartinales (Florideophyceae), were studied for 15 months. The reproductive status, dry weight, and carrageenan content have been followed by a monthly random sampling. The highest carrageenan yields were found in Chondracanthus acicularis (61.1%), Gigartina pistillata (59.7%), and Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (58.0%). Species of Cystocloniaceae family produces predominantly iota-carrageenans; Gigartinaceae family produces hybrid kappa-iota carrageenans (gametophytic plants) and lambda-family carrageenans (sporophytic plants); Phyllophoraceae family produces kappa-iota-hybrid carrageenans. Quadrate destructive sampling method was used to determine the biomass and line transect. Quadrate nondestructive sampling method, applied along a perpendicular transect to the shoreline, was used to calculate the carrageenophytes cover in two periods: autumn/winter and spring/summer. The highest cover and biomass were found in Chondrus crispus (3.75%–570 g/m2), Chondracanthus acicularis (3.45%–99 g/m2), Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (2.45%–207.5 g/m2), and Mastocarpus stellatus (2.02%–520 g/m2). PMID:24288514

  17. Optimization of the extraction of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Webber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to optimize an alternative method of extraction of carrageenan without previous alkaline treatment and ethanol precipitation using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. In order to introduce an innovation in the isolation step, atomization drying was used reducing the time for obtaining dry carrageenan powder. The effects of extraction time and temperature on yield, gel strength, and viscosity were evaluated. Furthermore, the extracted material was submitted to structural analysis, by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR, and chemical composition analysis. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation. Carrageenan yield and gel viscosity were influenced only by the extraction temperature. However, gel strength was influenced by both, extraction time and extraction temperature. Optimal extraction conditions were 74 ºC and 4 hours. In these conditions, the carrageenan extract properties determined by the polynomial model were 31.17%, 158.27 g.cm-2, and 29.5 cP for yield, gel strength, and viscosity, respectively, while under the experimental conditions they were 35.8 ± 4.68%, 112.50 ± 4.96 g.cm-2, and 16.01 ± 1.03 cP, respectively. The chemical composition, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy analyses showed that the crude carrageenan extracted is composed mainly of κ-carrageenan.

  18. The Analgesic Efficacy of Intra-Articular Acetaminophen in an Experimental Model of Carrageenan-Induced Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, Oguzhan; Canbay, Ozgur; Celebi, Nalan; Sahin, Altan; Konan, Ali; Atilla, Pergin; Aypar, Ulku

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen is one of the most common drugs used for the treatment of pain and fever.OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of intra-articular (IA) acetaminophen on carrageenan-induced arthritic pain-related behaviour and spinal c-Fos expression in rats.METHODS: The present study was performed using 20 Sprague Dawley rats. Forty microlitres of IA 0.9% NaCl was injected in the control group, and 40 μL of IA carrageenan was injected in the carrageenan group. One hour after carrageenan...

  19. Different phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms mediate carrageenan nociception and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rory A; Falk, Lovissa; Larsson, Mathilda; Leinders, Mathias; Sorkin, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) participate in signal transduction cascades that can directly activate and sensitize nociceptors and enhance pain transmission. They also play essential roles in chemotaxis and immune cell infiltration leading to inflammation. We wished to determine which PI3K isoforms were involved in each of these processes. Lightly anesthetized rats (isoflurane) were injected subcutaneously with carrageenan in their hind paws. This was preceded by a local injection of 1% DMSO vehicle or an isoform-specific antagonist to PI3K-α (compound 15-e), -β (TGX221), -δ (Cal-101), or -γ (AS252424). We measured changes in the mechanical pain threshold and spinal c-Fos expression (4 hours after injection) as indices of nociception. Paw volume, plasma extravasation (Evans blue, 0.3 hours after injection), and neutrophil (myeloperoxidase; 1 hour after injection) and macrophage (CD11b+; 4 hour after injection) infiltration into paw tissue were the measured inflammation endpoints. Only PI3K-γ antagonist before treatment reduced the carrageenan-induced pain behavior and spinal expression of c-Fos (P ≤ 0.01). In contrast, pretreatment with PI3K-α, -δ, and-γ antagonists reduced early indices of inflammation. Plasma extravasation PI3K-α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.05), and -γ (P ≤ 0.01), early (0-2 hour) edema -α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.001), and -γ (P ≤ 0.05), and neutrophil infiltration (all P ≤ 0.001) were all reduced compared to vehicle pretreatment. Later (2-4 hour), edema and macrophage infiltration (P ≤ 0.05) were reduced by only the PI3K-δ and -γ isoform antagonists, with the PI3K-δ antagonist having a greater effect on edema. PI3K-β antagonism was ineffective in all paradigms. These data indicate that pain and clinical inflammation are pharmacologically separable and may help to explain clinical conditions in which inflammation naturally wanes or goes into remission, but pain continues unabated. PMID:26313408

  20. Discovery of a novel iota carrageenan sulfatase isolated from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Marie Genicot

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of some marine red algae. These polysaccharides are widely used as gelling, stabilizing, and viscosifying agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Since the rheological properties of these polysaccharides depend on their sulfate content, we screened several isolated marine bacteria for carrageenan specific sulfatase activity, in the aim of developing enzymatic bioconversion of carrageenans. As a result of the screening, an iota-carrageenan sulfatase was detected in the cell-free lysate of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora strain PscT. It was purified through Phenyl Sepharose and Diethylaminoethyl Sepharose chromatography. The pure enzyme, Psc -CgsA, was characterized. It had a molecular weight of 115.9 kDaltons and exhibited an optimal activity/stability at pH ~8.3 and at 40°C ± 5°C. It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Psc -CgsA specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-S sulfate of iota-carrageenan. The purified enzyme could transform iota-carrageenan into hybrid iota-/alpha- or pure alpha-carrageenan under controlled conditions. The gene encoding Psc -CgsA, a protein of 1038 amino acids, was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the sequence analysis revealed that Psc -CgsA has more than 90% sequence identity with a putative uncharacterized protein Q3IKL4 from the marine strain Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, but besides this did not share any homology to characterized sulfatases. Phylogenetic studies show that P. carrageenovora sulfatase thus represents the first characterized member of a new sulfatase family, with a C-terminal domain having strong similarity with the superfamily of amidohydrolases, highlighting the still unexplored diversity of marine polysaccharide modifying enzymes.

  1. Discovery of a novel iota carrageenan sulfatase isolated from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genicot, Sabine; Groisillier, Agnès; Rogniaux, Hélène; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Barbeyron, Tristan; Helbert, William

    2014-08-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of some marine red algae. These polysaccharides are widely used as gelling, stabilizing, and viscosifying agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Since the rheological properties of these polysaccharides depend on their sulfate content, we screened several isolated marine bacteria for carrageenan specific sulfatase activity, in the aim of developing enzymatic bioconversion of carrageenans. As a result of the screening, an iota-carrageenan sulfatase was detected in the cell-free lysate of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora strain PscT. It was purified through Phenyl Sepharose and Diethylaminoethyl Sepharose chromatography. The pure enzyme, Psc ?-CgsA, was characterized. It had a molecular weight of 115.9 kDaltons and exhibited an optimal activity/stability at pH ~8.3 and at 40°C ± 5°C. It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Psc ?-CgsA specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-S sulfate of iota-carrageenan. The purified enzyme could transform iota-carrageenan into hybrid iota-/alpha- or pure alpha-carrageenan under controlled conditions. The gene encoding Psc ?-CgsA, a protein of 1038 amino acids, was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the sequence analysis revealed that Psc ?-CgsA has more than 90% sequence identity with a putative uncharacterized protein Q3IKL4 from the marine strain Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, but besides this did not share any homology to characterized sulfatases. Phylogenetic studies show that P. carrageenovora sulfatase thus represents the first characterized member of a new sulfatase family, with a C-terminal domain having strong similarity with the superfamily of amidohydrolases, highlighting the still unexplored diversity of marine polysaccharide modifying enzymes.

  2. Exosomes from Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Suppress Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivoraitė, Ugnė; Jarmalavičiūtė, Akvilė; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Ramanauskaitė, Giedrė; Vaitkuvienė, Aida; Kašėta, Vytautas; Biziulevičienė, Genė; Venalis, Algirdas; Pivoriūnas, Augustas

    2015-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the effects of human dental pulp stem cell-derived exosomes on the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice. Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation from the supernatants of stem cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) cultivated in serum-free medium. At 1 h post-carrageenan injection, exosomes derived from supernatants of 2 × 10(6) SHEDs were administered by intraplantar injection to BALB/c mice; 30 mg/kg of prednisolone and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Edema was measured at 6, 24, and 48 h after carrageenan injection. For the in vivo imaging experiments, AngioSPARK750, Cat B 750 FAST, and MMPSense 750 FAST were administered into the mouse tail vein 2 h post-carrageenan injection. Fluorescence images were acquired at 6, 24, and 48 h after edema induction by IVIS Spectrum in vivo imaging system. Exosomes significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced edema at all the time points studied (by 39.5, 41.6, and 25.6% at 6, 24, and 48 h after injection, respectively), to similar levels seen with the positive control (prednisolone). In vivo imaging experiments revealed that, both exosomes and prednisolone suppress activities of cathepsin B and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) at the site of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation, showing more prominent effects of prednisolone at the early stages, while exosomes exerted their suppressive effects gradually and at later time points. Our study demonstrates for the first time that exosomes derived from human dental pulp stem cells suppress carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice. PMID:25903966

  3. Development of edible films and coatings from alginates and carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli-Kafrani, Elham; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Masoudpour-Behabadi, Mahdieh

    2016-02-10

    The use of renewable resources, which can reduce waste disposal problems, is being explored to produce biopolymer films and coatings. Renewability, degradability, and edibility make such films particularly suitable for food and nonfood packaging applications. Edible films and coatings play an important role in the quality, safety, transportation, storage, and display of a wide range of fresh and processed foods. They can diminish main alteration by avoiding moisture losses and decreasing adverse chemical reaction rates. Also, they can prevent spoilage and microbial contamination of foods. Additionally, nanomaterials and food additives, such as flavors, antimicrobials, antioxidants, and colors, can be incorporated into edible films and coatings in order to extend their applications. Water-soluble hydrocolloids like polysaccharides usually impart better mechanical properties to edible films and coatings than do hydrophobic substances. They also are excellent barriers to oxygen and carbon dioxide. Recently, there has been much attention on carrageenan and alginate as sources of film-forming materials. Thus, this review highlights production and characteristics of these films. PMID:26686140

  4. Formation of carrageenan-CaCO3 bioactive membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas F B; Maniglia, Bianca C; Pereira, Lourivaldo S; Tapia-Blácido, Delia R; Ramos, Ana P

    2016-01-01

    The high biocompatibility and resorbability of polymeric membranes have encouraged their use to manufacture medical devices. Here, we report on the preparation of membranes consisting of carrageenan, a naturally occurring sulfated polysaccharide that forms helical structures in the presence of calcium ions. We incorporated CaCO3 particles into the membranes to enhance their bioactivity and mechanical properties. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction data confirmed CaCO3 incorporation into the polymeric matrix. We tested the bioactivity of the samples by immersing them in a solution that mimics the ionic composition and pH of the human body fluid. The hybrid membranes generated hydroxyapatite, as attested by X-ray diffraction data. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopies aided investigation of membrane topography before and after CaCO3 deposition. The wettability and surface free energy, evaluated by contact angle measures, increased in the presence of CaCO3 particles. These parameters are important for membrane implantation in the body. Moreover, membrane stiffness was up to 110% higher in the presence of the inorganic particles, as revealed by Young's modulus. PMID:26478280

  5. Release of Tenofovir from Carrageenan-Based Vaginal Suppositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Toral; Hayes, John E.; Ziegler, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    Microbicides are an active area of research for HIV prevention, being developed as a woman-initiated method of prevention during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have produced microbicide prototypes in the form of semisoft vaginal suppositories prepared from carrageenan and conducted both qualitative and quantitative studies using these prototypes to determine the physical properties that drive acceptability and possibly adherence. In order to ensure that the suppositories function as effective drug delivery vehicles, we have conducted in vitro dissolution studies in water, vaginal simulant fluid (VSF) and semen simulant fluid (SSF) with suppositories loaded with the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir (TFV). TFV was released via diffusion and matrix erosion in water or by diffusion out of the matrix in VSF and SSF. Diffusion studies were conducted in two different volumes of VSF and SSF. The volume of VSF/SSF into which TFV diffused and the size of the suppositories determined the rate of diffusion from the suppositories. About 45%–50% of the encapsulated TFV diffused out of the suppositories within the first two hours, irrespective of suppository size, diffusion medium (VSF/SSF) and the volume of medium. Prior work indicates that a short waiting period between insertion and coitus is highly desired by women; present data suggest our microbicide prototypes have rapid initial release followed by a slow release curve over the first 24 h. PMID:24999606

  6. Characterization of in vitro dengue virus resistance to carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Laura B; Damonte, Elsa B

    2016-07-01

    The λ-carrageenan (λ-car) is a potent and selective inhibitor of dengue virus (DENV) infection targeted to virus adsorption and internalization, due to the structural similarities with the mammalian cell receptor heparan sulfate. To further characterize the antiviral activity of λ-car, the selection and the phenotypic and genomic features of λ-car resistant DENV-2 variants are studied here in comparison to control virus. Resistant variants were rapidly selected in Vero cells after three passages in presence of the drug. No difference was detected in the growth profiles in Vero and C6/36 cells between resistant and control viruses. By contrast, the kinetics of adsorption and internalization of resistant variants in Vero cells was significantly diminished whereas entry to C6/36 cells was unaffected. By plaque purification and sequence analysis of the population, two types of resistant clones were found: some clones presented two mutations in E protein, K126E, and F422L; but other equally λ-car resistant clones had no mutations in E. Furthermore, no mutations were found in other viral proteins like prM, C, or NS1. The genomic disparity in E protein was also associated to differences in phenotype stability. The stable genomic resistance here described provides information about determinants in E protein involved in receptor binding and membrane fusion for uncoating. PMID:26694200

  7. Immobilization and Bioelectrochemistry of Hemoglobin Based on Carrageenan and Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Composite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛春; 张洋; 王璐; 贾能勤

    2012-01-01

    A novel biopolymer/room-temperature ionic liquid composite film based on carrageenan, room temperature ionic liquid (IL) [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4)] was explored for immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) and construction of biosensor. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalytic behaviors of Hb entrapped in the IL-carrageenan composite film on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were investigated. UV-vis spectroscopy demonstrated that Hb in the IL-carrageenan composite film could retain its native secondary structure. A pair of well-defined redox peaks of Hb was obtained at the Hb-IL-carrageenan composite film modified electrode through direct electron transfer between the protein and the underlying electrode. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) was 2.02 s 1, indicating great facilitation of the electron transfer between Hb and IL-carrageenan composite film modified electrode. The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward reduction of hydrogen peroxide with a linear range of 5.0 × 10-6 to 1.5 ×10-4 mol/L and the detection limit was 2.12 ×10 7 mol/L (S/N= 3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant KM^app for hydrogen peroxide was estimated to be 0.02 mmol/L, indicating that the biosensor possessed high affinity to hydrogen peroxide. In addition, the proposed biosensor showed good reproducibility and stability.

  8. Characterization and antioxidant properties of alcoholic extracts from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relleve, Lorna; Abad, Lucille

    2015-07-01

    Different extracts from unirradiated and gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan (solid and 1% w/v aqueous solution) were obtained with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) at concentrations of 40%, 60% and 80% v/v at room temperature. Physical and chemical properties of the different IPA extracts were analyzed by GPC, UV, and FT-IR. The extracts consisted of low molecular weight fragments with an average molecular weight (Mw) ranging from 2300 Da to 5000 Da. UV analyses of extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed varying maximum absorptions in the range of 265-280 nm. FT-IR spectra of all extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed all the important functional groups of carrageenan in the fingerprint region (4000-600 cm-1) and additional carbonyl C=O and C=C double bond peaks. Antioxidant properties of the different extracts were investigated using reducing power assay. The reducing power of extracts from the irradiated solution follows the order of 80%>60%>40% while no trend was observed for all extracts from irradiated solid κ-carrageenan.

  9. Evaluation of polyethylenimine/carrageenan multi-layer for antibacterial activity of pathogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of multi-layer of polyethylenimine (PEI) and carrageenan (κ,ι, λ) for potential use as coating on biomaterial surface. The multi-layer of PEI/carrageenan was formed using the layer-by-layer assembly absorption technique and was monitored by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and bio molecular interaction analysis. All samples were prepared in phosphate buffer solution and applied to mica disk alternately. The micrographs showed the formation of bi-layer of polyethylenimine and carrageenan (κ, ι, λ) as observed in the change of height of the layer and surface morphology. The bimolecular binding of carrageenan with polyethylenimine was also investigated using a biosensor. The sensorgram showed that PEI interacted molecularly with carrageenan. Results were: 1,916.08 pg/nm2 for kappa type; 1,844.1 pg/nm2 for iota type and 6,074.24 pg/nm2 for lambda type. The multi-layer showed antibacterial activity against Enterobacter cloaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcal strains (Enterococcus faecalis (EF) 29212 and 29505). (author)

  10. Effect of epichlorohydrin on the wet spinning of carrageenan fibers under optimal parameter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Xue, Zhixin; Yan, Miao; Liu, Jingjing; Xia, Yanzhi

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by the extensive application of carrageenans, this work prepared carrageenan fibers via wet spinning. The optimum spinning parameters were explored by means of an orthogonal test. According to the results of tensile test, dope concentration, draw ratio, coagulation bath temperature, and coagulation bath concentration set to 9%, 1.2, 15°C and 5%, respectively, were the optimum spinning conditions. These parameters were then applied to fabricate fibers treated with epichlorohydrin in a stretch bath. The result of tensile testing demonstrated a positive improvement in the intensity, and SEM showed obvious necking phenomenon of the crosslinked carrageenan fibers. The structures and special groups were characterized with X-ray diffraction and FTIR, and the results indicated the regularity of the net structure and the increase in ether bond and methylene. In some, crosslinking reactions in optimum parameter conditions yield excellent fibers and thus present promising applications. PMID:27312634

  11. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkiflee Kuedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior.

  12. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuedo, Zulkiflee; Sangsuriyawong, Anantita; Klaypradit, Wanwimol; Tipmanee, Varomyalin; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa

    2016-01-01

    Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior. PMID:27007359

  13. Influence of lambda-carrageenan on the release of systematic series of volatile flavor compounds from viscous food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylaite, Egle; Ilgunaite, Z.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge;

    2004-01-01

    , except with the most hydrophobic compounds. Analysis of flavor release under nonequilibrium conditions revealed a suppressing effect of lambda-carrageenan on the release rates of aroma compounds, and the extent of decrease in release rates was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the aroma......The effect of lambda-carrageenan addition level (0.1, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5% w/w) and viscosity on the release of systematic series of aroma compounds (aldehydes, esters, ketones, and alcohols) was studied in thickened viscous solutions containing lambda-carrageenan and 10 wt % of sucrose. Air......-liquid partition coefficients K (37degreesC) of a total of 43 aroma compounds were determined in pure water and in the lambda-carrageenan solutions by static headspace gas chromatography. Mass transfer of the aroma compounds in water and in the thickened lambda-carrageenan solutions which had a wide viscosity...

  14. Efficacy of a Carrageenan nasal spray in patients with common cold: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The common cold is the most widespread viral infection in humans. Iota-carrageenan has previously shown antiviral effectiveness against cold viruses in clinical trials. This study investigated the efficacy of a carrageenan-containing nasal spray on the duration of the common cold and nasal fluid viral load in adult patients. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 211 patients suffering from early symptoms of the common cold were treated for seven days. Application was performed three times daily with either a carrageenan-supplemented nasal spray or saline solution as placebo with an overall observation period of 21 days. The primary endpoint was the duration of disease defined as the time until the last day with symptoms followed by all other days in the study period without symptoms. During the study, but prior unblinding, the definition of disease duration was adapted from the original protocol that defines disease duration as the time period of symptoms followed by 48 hours without symptoms. Results In patients showing a laboratory-confirmed cold virus infection and adherence to the protocol, alleviation of symptoms was 2.1 days faster in the carrageenan group in comparison to placebo (p = 0.037). The primary endpoint that had been prespecified but was changed before unblinding was not met. Viral titers in nasal fluids showed a significantly greater decrease in carrageenan patients in the intention-to-treat population (p = 0.024) and in the per protocol population (p = 0.018) between days 1 and 3/4. Conclusions In adults with common cold virus infections, direct local administration of carrageenan with nasal sprays reduced the duration of cold symptoms. A significant reduction of viral load in the nasal wash fluids of patients confirmed similar findings from earlier trials in children and adults. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN80148028 PMID:24219370

  15. Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5μL of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice

  16. Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naho Maruyama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5 μL of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice.

  17. The Experimental Research (In Vitro) of Carrageenans and Fucoidans to Decrease Activity of Hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavliga, Stanislav N; Kompanets, Galina G; Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu

    2016-06-01

    The effect of carrageenans and fucoidans on the activity of Hantavirus is studied. It has been found that among carrageenans a significant antiviral effect is exerted by the ι-type, which decreases the viral titer by 2.5 log focus forming units per mL; among fucoidans, by a preparation from Laminaria cichorioides, which reduces the number of infected cells from 27.0 to 5.3 after pretreatment of both the macrophage culture and Hantavirus. The antiviral effect of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is shown to grow in direct proportion to the increase of dose of the preparation. PMID:26943130

  18. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Carrageenan at Different Temperatures, Isolated from Hypnea musciformis from Karachi Coast Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Junaid Mahmood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describe the basic tools like viscosity measurements and thermodynamic parameters of the polysaccharide isolated from Hypnea musciformis (red algae of Karachi Coast (Pakistan showed characteristics of κ-carrageenan. An IR spectrum showed a fairly sharp band at 1210, 1225 cm-1 corresponding to sulphate ester and is in accordance with the high sulphate content of κ-carrageenan. Viscosity measurements revealed a linear relationship with increase in concentration and decreased with the rise in temperature of aqueous solutions of κ-carrageenan. Thermodynamic parameters were determined by the change in viscosity data as a function of temperature and concentration. The free energy change of activation (ΔGη increased regularly as the concentration of aqueous κ-carrageenan increased, as well as rises in temperature. Higher values of free energy change of activation, (ΔGη showed the higher association of κ-carrageenan with water at given temperature. The values of entropy change of activation (ΔSη of viscous flow also increased with the increase in concentration and temperature of aqueous κ-carrageenan solution. The high negative values of entropy change of activation (ΔSη showed that the solution of κ-carrageenan was more ordered in initial state than the activated one.

  19. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Rachmawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW. Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Radioprotection potential of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan used as food additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrageenans are a group of natural carbohydrates that are present in the structure of certain varieties of red algae (Rhodophyceae). They are used in emulsions, for syneresis control and to grow up, to promote adhesiveness and dispersion. In the industry of foods they can be used for instance, as thickness and gelling agents, alone or together with other additives. The processing of foods by radiation is increasing considerably, because the efficiency of the process in the industrial decontamination of products. The objective of this work was to study the action of the ascorbic acid as potential radioprotector of the carrageenan against 60 Co gamma radiation effects, using the viscosity as parameter. Samples of commercial carrageenan dissolved at 1,0% were irradiated in the presence or not of ascorbic acid, with doses of 0.0 kGy; 1.0 kGy; 2.5 kGy; 5.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. After the irradiation the relationships viscosity/dose were established for the temperature of 60 deg C. For the dose of 10.0 kGy a better protecting effect of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan was seen. The implications of the use of this antioxidant is discussed as a form of minimizing the effect of the radiation in irradiated foods. (author)

  1. Influence of cyclodextrins on texture behavior and freeze-thaw stability of kappa-carrageenan gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Du, Lei; Zhang, Guangjie; Jin, Zhengyu; Liu, Hui

    2016-11-01

    The influences of cyclodextrins (CDs) on texture characteristics and freeze-thaw stability of κ-carrageenan gel were investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA) and synthesis test. The TPA results demonstrated that the texture behavior of gelatinized κ-carrageenan was obvious influenced by CDs. Hardness was strengthened at low CD concentrations (1-2%, w/w) and then weakened along with the increase of CD concentrations. Springiness was significantly weakened after the CDs were added. Gumminess showed the similar change as hardness and chewiness dropped along with the concentration increasing of CDs, while cohesiveness had little change after the addition of CDs. Moreover, CDs improved the freeze-thaw stability of gelatinized κ-carrageenan. In both texture behavior and freeze-thaw stability aspects, the influences of modified CDs were superior to that of natural CDs. According to the experimental results, a proposed model was given to illuminate the distribution of CDs in the gelatinized κ-carrageenan. PMID:27211687

  2. Diethylcarbamazine Attenuates the Development of Carrageenan-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlene Lima Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diethylcarbamazine (DEC is an antifilarial drug with potent anti-inflammatory properties as a result of its interference with the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of DEC in a mouse model of acute inflammation (carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity induced the accumulation of fluid containing a large number of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs as well as infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased expression of interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Carrageenan also induced the expression of nuclear factor-κB. The oral administration of DEC (50 mg/Kg three days prior to the carrageenan challenge led to a significant reduction in all inflammation markers. The present findings demonstrate that DEC is a potential drug for the treatment of acute lung inflammation.

  3. Characterization of radiation modified κ-carrageenan oligomers for bio-based materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    κ-carrageenan oligomers are known to have several biological activities such as anti-HIV, anti-herpes, antitumor and antioxidant properties. Recent progress in the development of radiation modified κ-carrageenan has resulted in new applications such as plant growth promoter, radiation dose indicator and hydrogels for wound dressing. This presentation would touch on the changes in chemical structure, gelation and conformational transition behavior and molecular size of κ-carrageenan at doses from 0 to 200 kGy and would be correlated to these functions for the development of bio-based materials. Chemical and spectral analyses were carried out using UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, reducing sugar analysis, free sulfate and carboxylic acid analysis. The chemical and spectral analyses of the radiolytic products indicated increasing reducing sugars, carbonyl, carboxylic acids, and sulfates with increasing doses which reached a maximum level at a certain dose depending on the irradiation condition. Values were very much lower in solid irradiation (in vacuum and in air) as compared to aqueous irradiation. NMR data also revealed an intact structure of the oligomer irradiated at 100 kGy in the specific fraction that contains an Mw = (3-10) kDa. κ-carrageenan oligomers exhibited antioxidant properties as determined by hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay. The degree of oxidative inhibition increased with increasing dose which can be attributed to higher reducing sugar. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments showed that a dose of up to 50 kGy, sol-gelation transition was still observed. Beyond 50 kGy, no gelation took place, instead appearance of fast relax-carrageenan mode in characteristic decay time function was observed at doses of (75-150) kGy. Optimum peak intensity was found at 100 kGy (mol wt. 5-10 kDa) which coincides with the optimum plant growth promoter effect in κ-carrageenan

  4. Exposure to Common Food Additive Carrageenan Alone Leads to Fasting Hyperglycemia and in Combination with High Fat Diet Exacerbates Glucose Intolerance and Hyperlipidemia without Effect on Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Unterman, Terry; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared. Results. Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state. Conclusions. Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse. PMID:25883986

  5. Isolation and characterization of kappa-carrageenan from hypnea musciformis (Red Alga) collected from Karachi coast, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypnea musciformis, collected from Karachi cost of Pakistan, was used for the isolation of a thickening and emulsifying agent, carrageenan. Various extraction were employed and the yield of carrageenan obtain was in the range of 34-44%. Total sugar contents were found to be 31.8-55.4% 3,6-Anhydrogalactose, a component of the total sugar, was present in the range of 19.9-27.6%. Sulphate and ash contents were high, 14.8-41% and 15.4-53%, respectively. The positive rotation of these polysaccharides indicated a predominance of alpha-D-glycosidic linkages in their structure. IR spectral studies showed kappa-carrageenan as the major phycolloid, with a very small contamination of iota-type carrageenan, whereas lambda-type was not detected. Polysaccharides obtained showed a positive elicitor activity in garden peas (pisum sativum). HPLC analysis indicated the presence of a single major component. (author)

  6. Hemostatic efficacy evaluation of radiation crosslinked carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan and chitosan with varying degrees of substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito; Barba, Bin Jeremiah D.; Vista, Jeanina Richelle M.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl derivatives of kappa-carrageenan and chitosan, with varying degrees of substitution, were synthesized by multi-step reaction technique and evaluated for hemostatic efficacy through in vitro assays. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of carboxymethyl group while 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated degrees of substitution ranging from 1.15-1.58 and 0.45-0.51 for carboxymethyl-κ-carrageenan and carboxymethylchitosan, respectively. Derivatives formed into paste consistency (30% w/v) were successfully crosslinked by gamma irradiation at 30 kGy. The data obtained from whole blood clotting and platelet adhesion assays showed a significant increase in hemostatic capability of κ-carrageenan and chitosan as a consequence of carboxymethylation and crosslinking modifications. In addition, the level of efficacy was comparable to that of a chitosan-based commercial product. These results suggest the potential of κ-carrageenan and chitosan derivatives for development into hemostatic agents.

  7. Encapsulation of lactase (β-galactosidase) into κ-carrageenan-based hydrogel beads: Impact of environmental conditions on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zipei; Zhang, Ruojie; Chen, Long; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-01

    Encapsulation of enzymes in hydrogel beads may improve their utilization and activity in foods. In this study, the potential of carrageenan hydrogel beads for encapsulating β-galactosidase was investigated. Hydrogel beads were fabricated by injecting an aqueous solution, containing β-galactosidase (26 U) and carrageenan (1 wt%), into a hardening solution (5% potassium chloride). Around 63% of the β-galactosidase was initially encapsulated in the hydrogel beads. Encapsulated β-galactosidase had a higher activity than that of the free enzyme over a range of pH and thermal conditions, which was attributed to the stabilization of the enzyme structure by K(+) ions within the carrageenan beads. Release of the enzyme from the beads was observed during storage in aqueous solutions, which was attributed to the relatively large pore size of the hydrogel matrix. Our results suggest that carrageenan hydrogel beads may be useful encapsulation systems, but further work is needed to inhibit enzyme leakage. PMID:26830562

  8. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Ultrasound-Assisted Depolymerization of κ-Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnawati Ratnawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted depolymerization of κ-carrageenan has been studied at various temperatures and times. The κ-carrageenan with initial molecular weight of 545 kDa was dispersed in water to form a 5 g/L solution, which was then depolymerized in an ultrasound device at various temperatures and times. The viscosity of the solution was measured using Brookfield viscometer, which was then used to find the number-average molecular weight by Mark-Houwink equation. To obtain the kinetics of κ-carrageenan depolymerization, the number-average molecular weight data was treated using midpoint-chain scission kinetics model. The pre-exponential factor and activation energies for the reaction are 2.683×10-7 mol g-1 min-1 and 6.43 kJ mol-1, respectively. The limiting molecular weight varies from 160 kDa to 240 kDa, and it is linearly correlated to temperature. The results are compared to the result of thermal depolymerization by calculating the half life. It is revealed that ultrasound assisted depolymerization of κ-carrageenan is faster than thermal depolymerization at temperatures below 72.2°C. Compared to thermal depolymerization, the ultrasound-assisted process has lower values of Ea, ΔG‡, ΔH‡, and ΔS‡, which can be attributed to the ultrasonically induced breakage of non-covalent bonds in κ-carrageenan molecules. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 18th January 2016; Accepted: 19th January 2016 How to Cite: Ratnawati, R., Prasetyaningrum, A., Wardhani, D.H. (2016. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Ultrasound-Assisted Depolymerization of κ-Carrageenan. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11(1: 48-58. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.415.48-58 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.415.48-58

  9. Carrageenan-Induced Colonic Inflammation Is Reduced in Bcl10 Null Mice and Increased in IL-10-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Xue, Liquan; Devkota, Suzanne; Chang, Eugene; Morris, Stephan; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2013-01-01

    The common food additive carrageenan is a known activator of inflammation in mammalian tissues and stimulates both the canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-κB activation. Exposure to low concentrations of carrageenan (10 μg/mL in the water supply) has produced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin signaling in C57BL/6 mice. B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 10 (Bcl10) is a mediator of inflammatory signals from Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 in myeloid and epithelial cells. Since the TLR4 signaling pathway is activated in diabetes and by carrageenan, we addressed systemic and intestinal inflammatory responses following carrageenan exposure in Bcl10 wild type, heterozygous, and null mice. Fecal calprotectin and circulating keratinocyte chemokine (KC), nuclear RelA and RelB, phospho(Thr559)-NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), and phospho(Ser36)-IκBα in the colonic epithelial cells were significantly less (P < 0.001) in the carrageenan-treated Bcl10 null mice than in controls. IL-10-deficient mice exposed to carrageenan in a germ-free environment showed an increase in activation of the canonical pathway of NF-κB (RelA) activation, but without increase in RelB or phospho-Bcl10, and exogenous IL-10 inhibited only the canonical pathway of NF-κB activation in cultured colonic cells. These findings demonstrate a Bcl10 requirement for maximum development of carrageenan-induced inflammation and lack of complete suppression by IL-10 of carrageenan-induced inflammation. PMID:23766559

  10. A Novel Zebrafish Model to Provide Mechanistic Insights into the Inflammatory Events in Carrageenan-Induced Abdominal Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-Ying; Feng, Chien-Wei; Hung, Han-Chun; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Chen, Chun-Hong; Chen, Wu-Fu; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Wang, Hui-Min David; Sung, Chun-Sung; Sun, Yu-Min; Wu, Chang-Yi; Liu, Wangta; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A suitable small animal model may help in the screening and evaluation of new drugs, especially those from natural products, which can be administered at lower dosages, fulfilling an urgent worldwide need. In this study, we explore whether zebrafish could be a model organism for carrageenan-induced abdominal edema. The research results showed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 1.5% λ-carrageenan in a volume of 20 µL significantly increased abdominal edema in adult zebrafish. Levels of the proinflammatory proteins tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were increased in carrageenan-injected adult zebrafish during the development of abdominal edema. An associated enhancement was also observed in the leukocyte marker, myeloperoxidase (MPO). To support these results, we further observed that i.p. methylprednisolone (MP; 1 µg), a positive control, significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation 24 h after carrageenan administration. Furthermore, i.p. pretreatment with either an anti-TNF-α antibody (1∶5 dilution in a volume of 20 µL) or the iNOS-selective inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG; 1 µg) inhibited carrageenan-induced abdominal edema in adult zebrafish. This new animal model is uncomplicated, easy to develop, and involves a straightforward inducement of inflammatory edema for the evaluation of small volumes of drugs or test compounds. PMID:25141004

  11. SANS contrast in iota-carrageenan gels and solutions in D2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Denef, B.; Mortensen, K.;

    1997-01-01

    SANS of Na+-iota-carrageenan in D2O/saline solutions was measured as a function of concentration, temperature and type of counterions (K+ or Na+). High and low scattering-contrasted gels and solutions were detected. High contrast is caused by aggregation of low-hydrated chains at high concentration...... of carrageenan in the presence of gel-promoting counterions. The aggregates do not disappear at 60 degrees C, although at this temperature the molecules should partially lose their ordered conformation. The network formation, observed by SANS, does not happen in high-contrast system immediately after cooling...... and takes a few hours to be completed at 12 degrees C. The minimum concentration sufficient for the high-contrast regime in 0.1 M KCl lies between 15 and 25 mg/ml....

  12. Anti-inflammatory potential of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. on carrageenan induced paw edema in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Ann Catherine; Muthukumar, S P; Halami, Prakash M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory ability of novel indigenous probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum MCC 2759, L. fermentum MCC 2760 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii MCC 2775 in a carrageenan induced acute inflammatory paw edema model. Probiotic cultures were administered to male Wistar rats via oral route. Carrageenan at a concentration of 1% was injected into hind paw of rats 30min after oral gavage on the 8th day of treatment regimen. Paw thickness (mm), stair climbing activity and motility score were the parameters used to score the inflammatory response. L. fermentum MCC 2759, L. fermentum MCC 2760 and L. delbrueckii MCC 2775 showed significant reduction in paw thickness (P40%) of the probiotic cultures used. Therefore, L. fermentum MCC 2759, L. fermentum MCC 2760 and L. delbrueckii MCC 2775 may be used as potent anti-inflammatory agents with probiotic health benefits. PMID:26314910

  13. Controlled release of acetylsalicylic acid from polythiophene/carrageenan hydrogel via electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairatwachapun, Sanita; Paradee, Nophawan; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2016-02-10

    Blends between polythiophene (PTh) and a carrageenan hydrogel were fabricated as the matrix for the electric field assisted drug release. The pristine carrageenan and the blend films were prepared by the solution casting using acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as the anionic model drug and Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and Ba(2+) as the crosslinking agents. The ASA was released by the Fickian diffusion mechanism. The diffusion coefficient decreased with increasing crosslinking ratio or decreasing crosslinking ionic radii. The diffusion coefficients were greater with the applied electrical potentials by an order of magnitude relative to those without electric field. Moreover, the diffusion coefficients with PTh as the drug carrier were higher than those without PTh. Thus, the presence of the conductive polymer in the hydrogel blend coupled with applied electric field is shown here to drastically enhance the drug delivery rate. PMID:26686123

  14. Evaluation of the swelling behaviour of iota-carrageenan in monolithic matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, András; Buchholcz, Gyula; Sovány, Tamás; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2015-08-10

    The swelling properties of monolithic matrix tablets containing iota-carrageenan were studied at different pH values, with measurements of the swelling force and characterization of the profile of the swelling curve. The swelling force meter was linked to a PC by an RS232 cable and the measured data were evaluated with self-developed software. The monitor displayed the swelling force vs. time curve with the important parameters, which could be fitted with an Analysis menu. In the case of iota-carrageenan matrix tablets, it was concluded that the pH and the pressure did not influence the swelling process, and the first section of the swelling curve could be fitted by the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. PMID:25966465

  15. Hydrophobic lappaconitine loaded into iota-carrageenan by one step self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenxiu; Saldaña, Marleny D A; Zhao, Yujia; Wu, Lingling; Dong, Tungalag; Jin, Ye; Zhang, Ji

    2016-02-10

    New data on the loading of pH-sensitive lappaconitine loaded into iota-carrageenan (LA-ICG) is provided. This LA-ICG ionic biopolymer was prepared by one step self-assembly. The LA-ICG was characterized in terms of the loading capacity, lappaconitine (LA) releasing behavior, pH-sensitivity, and analgesic properties. Iota-carrageenan (ICG) high loading capacity reached up to 26.18% (w/w). Also, the LA, loaded with ICG, was released faster in an acidic environment than that in neutral or alkaline environments. Animal analgesic experiments showed that the LA-ICG of low molecular weight had earlier onset time and longer duration than the LA. These results suggest that the ICG of low molecular weight has great potential to achieve the synergistic effect of LA. In addition, the ICG can be used as a novel natural polymeric carrier for loading a hydrophobic alkaloid. PMID:26686125

  16. Micro-mesoporous carbon spheres derived from carrageenan as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Bing; Liu, Pei-Fang; Lu, Hai-Ting

    2014-12-01

    The polysaccharide carrageenan is used as a natural precursor to prepare micro-mesoporous carbon spheres. The carbon spheres were synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization of carrageenan, and subsequent chemical activation by KOH at different temperatures. The obtained micro-mesoporous carbon spheres have high surface area (up to 2502 m2 g-1) and large pore volume (up to 1.43 cm3 g-1). Moreover, the micro- and mesoporosity can be finely tuned be modifying the activation temperatures in the range of 700-900 °C. The carbon spheres activated at 900 °C present high specific capacitance of 230 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and good ion transport kinetics. The good capacitive performance can be ascribed to the high specific surface area, well-controlled micro- and mesoporosity and narrow pore size distribution.

  17. Conservation of Williams pear using edible coating with alginate and carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessiane Silva de Moraes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical parameters of Williams pear, stored at 25 ºC for 15 days, with and without edible coating. Edible coatings prepared with alginate 2% and carrageenan 0.5% were tested. The analyses carried out on the samples were: weight loss, pH, soluble solids, firmness, and color. The edible coatings were characterized in terms of mechanical properties, permeability, thickness, and opacity. The results show that the application of edible coatings with carrageenan and alginate in pears influenced physical and chemical characteristics such as weight loss, pH, total soluble solids, color, and firmness of the fruit. However, the alginate coating showed the best results on pear conservation since it had lower water vapor permeability and greater tensile strength, and therefore it can be used as a protective film on these fruits.

  18. Effect of carrageenan addition on the yield and functional properties of charqui (Jerked Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Rocha Garcia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the application of carrageenan (CAR to improve the functional properties of the jerked beef (JF and to increase its processing yield. JB produced from Vastus lateralis with CAR (1.0% at 25ºC and NaCl (15.0% had approximately 15.0% higher moisture and a 32.0% higher processing yield in comparison to the control samples.JB-CAR presented shear force approximately 5.0 and 20% lower in the samples uncooked salted and desalted cooked, respectively, and sensorial acceptance above 80%. The results demonstrated the possibility of applying carrageenan to jerked beef in order to obtain an increase in the processing yield and a tender product while maintaining the sensorial quality and its intermediate-moisture meat product nature.

  19. Determination of Immobilization Process Parameters of Corynebacterium glutamicum on Kappa carrageenan, Its Application in L-lysine Fermentation and The Investigation Into Its Storage Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Suong Thi Hong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    The parameters of the immobilized process of Corynebacterium glutamicum on kappa carrageenan were identified by Plackett-Burman matrix, and the experiments were designed by response surface methodology having the central composite designs (RSM-CCD). The maximum yield of cell immobilization on kappa carrageenan carrier reached at 78% ± 2%. Optimal parameters were 3 grams kappa carrageenan per 100 militters sterile water and 58.58 million cfu/mL, forming gels at 100C for 25 minutes ...

  20. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTY OF VANILLIN IN CARRAGEENAN INDUCED PAW EDEMA MODEL IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    SRIKANTH D, Vishma Hydie Menezes, Nischal Saliyan, Rathnakar UP*, Shiv Prakash G, Sahana D Acaharya, Ashok Shenoy K, Udupa AL

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Vanillinis known to have antimutagenic, anti-invasive and metastatic suppression potential. Antinociceptive property in acetic acid induced visceral pain models, antioxidant and hepato-protective properties of in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats have also been demonstrated. Objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of vanillin on acute inflammation induced by carrageenan in rats.Methods: Rats were assigned to five groups [Control, Asprin and three Vanillin groups,] of s...

  1. Radiation Processed Carrageenan Improves Plant Growth, Physiological Activities, and Alkaloids Production in Catharanthus roseus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Naeem, M.; Mohd Idrees; Tariq Aftab; M. Masidur Alam; Khan, M. Masroor A.; Moin Uddin; Lalit Varshney

    2015-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant that produces indole alkaloids used in cancer chemotherapy. Commercially important antineoplastic alkaloids, namely, vinblastine and vincristine, are mainly present in the leaves of C. roseus. Gamma-rays irradiated carrageenan (ICR) has been proven as plant growth promoting substance for a number of medicinal and agricultural plants. Considering the importance of ICR as a promoter of plant growth and alkaloids production in C....

  2. Density and Viscosity of Ternary Mixtures of kappa -Carrageenan, Sodium Chloride, and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Andresa V.; Rojas, Edwin E. Garcia; Giraldo-Zuniga, Abraham D.

    2013-02-01

    The viscosity and density of ternary mixtures containing kappa -carrageenan, sodium chloride, and water have been measured from (303 to 318) K at different values of pH. The presence of NaCl in the ternary systems produced an electro-viscous effect that influenced the viscosity and density of the system. The polynomial models used to correlate the viscosity and density gave good fits to the experimental data.

  3. Fabrication of κ-Carrageenan Fibers by Wet Spinning: Spinning Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Lingyan Kong; Ziegler, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the fabrication of κ-carrageenan fibers by a wet-spinning method and discusses three important spinning parameters: coagulation bath composition, spinning rate and post-spinning mechanical drawing. The as-spun fiber diameter decreased with KCl and ethanol concentration in the coagulation bath. In general, the ultimate tensile stress and elongation at break both increased for KCl concentration from 0.1 to 0.5 M with and without ethanol, with no significant change above ...

  4. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Shao

    Full Text Available The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 and cytopathic effect (CPE inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731 and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04 replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8, A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN, A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26, A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08, and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07 viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  5. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qiang; Guo, Qiang; Xu, Wen ping; Li, Zandong; Zhao, Tong tong

    2015-01-01

    The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) and cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731) and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04) replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8), A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN), A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26), A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08), and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07) viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731. PMID:25969984

  6. Subarachnoid meloxicam does not inhibit the mechanical hypernociception on carrageenan test in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanucha Fidelis da Luz Moura

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the antinociceptive effects of subarachnoid meloxicam on the mechanical hypernociception induced by carrageenan in rats. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial. Eighteen adult male Wistar rats underwent a cannula implantation into the subarachnoid space and were randomly divided into two groups: Group I received saline solution 5 µL, while Group II received meloxicam 30 mg. The mechanical hypernociception was induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan and evaluated using a digital analgesy meter every 30 min during a 4-h period. The results were recorded as the Δ withdrawal threshold (in g, calculated by subtracting the measurement value after treatment from baseline. RESULTS: The Δ withdrawal threshold mean values were lower in the group of patients treated with meloxicam over all time points between 45 and 165 min, however, there was no statistical significance (p = 0.835 for this difference. CONCLUSION: Subarachnoid meloxicam at a dose of 30 µg animal-1 did not suppress the mechanical hypernociception in a model of inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar administration of carrageenan in rats. The data suggest that other dosages should be investigated the drug effect is discarded.

  7. Caries-­preventive Effect of 1300ppm Fluoride and Carrageenan Containing Toothpaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Rahardjo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Various studies stated that the increase concentration of fluoride in toothpastes leads to the reduction of calcium loss in enamel. Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the difference between the effect of 1300ppm fluoride with carrageenan toothpaste and 1000ppm fluoride only toothpaste on roughness and hardness of enamel surface. Methods: Enamel specimens were obtained from 30 extracted human premolars. The enamel specimens were randomly assigned to one of the three groups, 1300ppm fluoride with carrageenan toothpaste, 1000ppm fluoride only toothpaste and toothpaste with no fluoride as a negative control. The samples were immersed in 1% citric acid with pH 4 for 150 seconds for demineralization, afterwards exposed to each toothpaste for 6 minutes. Results: The results demonstrated that toothpaste with 1300ppm fluoride with carregeenan has two times greater efficacy in triggering remineralization than toothpaste with 1000ppm fluoride only, with regards to surface roughness and hardness recovery in an in vitro caries model. Conclusion: The results suggested that treatment of enamel with toothpaste containing 1300ppm fluoride with carrageenan has high potential in inducing remineralization on enamel.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i1.125

  8. Phase diagrams of hybrid carrageenans extracted from Ahnfeltiopsis devoniensis and Chondrus crispus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Azevedo, G; Hilliou, L

    2016-01-20

    NaCl and KCl phase diagrams of two kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenans (KI) are established, and the rheological properties of obtained solutions and gels are reported. KI were extracted from Ahnfeltiopsis devoniensis and Chondrus crispus seaweeds and showed different chemical composition, 48 mol% of kappa carrageenan (K) and 52 mol% of iota carrageenan (I), and 78 mol% of K and 22 mol% of I, respectively. Phase diagrams are systematically compared those of blends of commercial K and I (K+I) showing equivalent chemical compositions. Results confirm that KI clearly differ from mixtures of K and I. K+I form gels at lower polysaccharide concentration and ionic strength, and exhibit gel separation from a liquid phase when large amount (>0.1 mol/L) of KCl is used. In contrast, no syneresis was found in KI gels formed under similar conditions. Both KI and K+I gels are strain hardening, and show a concentration scaling of the elasticity with exponents ranging from 1.1 to 3.2 depending on the type of salt and ionic strength. The strain at break of KI gels does not show salt specificity and is similar to the strain at break of K+I gels in KCl under similar salt and polysaccharide concentrations. K+I gels in NaCl are more fragile than in KCl, thus showing salt specificity. PMID:26572375

  9. De novo sequencing and comparative analysis of three red algal species of Family Solieriaceae to discover putative genes associated with carrageenan biosysthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Lipu; WANG Xumin; YU Jun; WU Shuangxiu; SUN Jing; WANG Liang; LIU Tao; CHI Shan; LIU Cui; LI Xingang; YIN Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    Betaphycus gelatinus, Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum of Family Solieriaceae, Order Gi-gartinales, Class Rhodophyceae are three important carrageenan-producing red algal species, which pro-duce different types of carrageenans, beta (β)-carrageenan, kappa (κ)-carrageenan and iota (ι)-carrageenan. So far the carrageenan biosynthesis pathway is not fully understood and few information is about the So-lieriaceae genome and transcriptome sequence. Here, we performed the de novo transcriptome sequencing, assembly, functional annotation and comparative analysis of these three commercial-valuable species using an Illumina short-sequencing platform Hiseq 2000 and bioinformatic software. Furthermore, we compared the different expression of some unigenes involved in some pathways relevant to carrageenan biosynthe-sis. We finally found 861 different expressed KEGG orthologs which contained a glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway (21 orthologs), carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms (16 orthologs), galactose metabolism (5 orthologs), and fructose and mannose metabolism (9 orthologs) which are parts of the carbohydrate me-tabolism. We also found 8 different expressed KEGG orthologs for sulfur metabolism which might be impor-tantly related to biosynthesis of different types of carrageenans. The results presented in this study provided valuable resources for functional genomics annotation and investigation of mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of carrageenan in Family Solieriaceae.

  10. Expression of the spinal 5-HT7 receptor and p-ERK pathway in the carrageenan inflammatory pain of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo Young; Ki, Hyoung Gon; Kim, Joung Min; Oh, Jin Myung; Yang, Ji Hoon; Kim, Woong Mo; Lee, Hyung Gon; Yoon, Myung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the inhibitory role of the 5-hydroxytrypatmine receptor 7(5-HT7R) on nociceptive processing is generally recognized, an excitatory effect associated with a reduced 5-HT7R expression has also been observed in the nerve injury model. In the carrageenan model, no significant effect is produced by the 5-HT7R activation, but the change in 5-HT7R expression has not been examined. Lesioning of the spinal serotonergic pathway enhances allodynia in the carrageenan model, but it also relieves several other pain states, including in the formalin model. While lesioning suppresses the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) of the spinal cord in the formalin model, its role in the carrageenan model has not been reported. Methods Following intraplantar injections of carrageenan, the spinal 5-HT7R expression was examined using Western blotting in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effect of serotonergic pathway lesioning with intrathecal 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on the expression of the phospho-ERK was measured. Results The expression of the 5-HT7R in the carrageenan model was not significantly different from that of naive animals. The expression of the spinal p-ERK in the carrageenan model was significantly increased, but returned to the level of a naive rat 1 hour after the carrageenan injection. However, it remained significantly higher 1 hour after the injection in the animals treated with 5,7-DHT than in the naive and control rats. Conclusions The expression of the spinal 5-HT7R is not altered by peripheral inflammation with carrageenan, suggesting that the lack of antinociceptive effect of the 5-HT7R activation is partly attributable to the absence of changes in the expression of the 5-HT7R in the spinal cord. The extended increase of the spinal p-ERK might be related to the enhanced pain behavior in the animals with lesions of the spinal serotonergic pathway in the carrageenan model. PMID:25844136

  11. Carrageenan-induced inflammation promotes ROS generation and neutrophil extracellular trap formation in a mouse model of peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Cristiane R; Funchal, Giselle A; Luft, Carolina; de Oliveira, Jarbas R; Porto, Bárbara N; Donadio, Márcio V F

    2016-04-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a combination of DNA fibers and granular proteins, such as neutrophil elastase (NE). NETs are released in the extracellular space in response to different stimuli. Carrageenan is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from Chondrus crispus, a marine algae, used for decades in research for its potential to induce inflammation in different animal models. In this study, we show for the first time that carrageenan injection can induce NET release in a mouse model of acute peritonitis. Carrageenan induced NET release by viable neutrophils with NE and myeloperoxidase (MPO) expressed on DNA fibers. Furthermore, although this polysaccharide was able to stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by peritoneal neutrophils, NADPH oxidase derived ROS were dispensable for NET formation by carrageenan. In conclusion, our results show that carrageenan-induced inflammation in the peritoneum of mice can induce NET formation in an ROS-independent manner. These results may add important information to the field of inflammation and potentially lead to novel anti-inflammatory agents targeting the production of NETs. PMID:26786873

  12. Characterization of low molecular weight fragments from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan used as plant growth promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Aurigue, Fernando B.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Montefalcon, Djowel Recto V.; Lopez, Girlie Eunice P.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation degraded κ-carrageenan (1% solution at absorbed doses of 20 kGy and 30 kGy) were tested for its plant growth promoter (PGP) effect on pechay plants under hydroponics condition. Results revealed that higher PGP effects were found in κ-carrageenan irradiated at an absorbed dose of 30 kGy. Mw of irradiated κ-carrageenan as measured by GPC were determined to be 7362 Da and 6762 Da for 20 kGy and 30 kGy, respectively. Fractionation of the irradiated κ-carrageenan (30 kGy) was done to separate different Mw fractions using Mw cut-off filters of 1 kDa, 3 kDa, and 5 kDa. The PGP effect of the different retentates showed that biological activity in plants followed the order of 5 kDa>3 kDa>1 kDa using hydroponics condition but the reverse was observed in the order of 1 kDa>3 kDa>5 kDa when absorbed in plants by foliar spraying. GPC chromatogram indicated at least three (3) low molecular weight (LMW) fragments from radiation modified κ-carrageenan solution with an Mw<2000 Da. A fragment has also been identified with an Mw of as low as 160 Da which was produced under acidic (un-neutralized) condition. This may be attributed to the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF).

  13. Characterization of low molecular weight fragments from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan used as plant growth promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Aurigue, Fernando B.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Montefalcon, Djowel Recto V.; Lopez, Girlie Eunice P.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation degraded κ-carrageenan (1% solution at absorbed doses of 20 kGy and 30 kGy) were tested for its plant growth promoter (PGP) effect on pechay plants under hydroponics condition. Results revealed that higher PGP effects were found in κ-carrageenan irradiated at an absorbed dose of 30 kGy. Mw of irradiated κ-carrageenan as measured by GPC were determined to be 7362 Da and 6762 Da for 20 kGy and 30 kGy, respectively. Fractionation of the irradiated κ-carrageenan (30 kGy) was done to separate different Mw fractions using Mw cut-off filters of 1 kDa, 3 kDa, and 5 kDa. The PGP effect of the different retentates showed that biological activity in plants followed the order of 5 kDa>3 kDa>1 kDa using hydroponics condition but the reverse was observed in the order of 1 kDa>3 kDa>5 kDa when absorbed in plants by foliar spraying. GPC chromatogram indicated at least three (3) low molecular weight (LMW) fragments from radiation modified κ-carrageenan solution with an Mwhydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF).

  14. Anti-ulcer, anti-protozoan and anti-cancer activities of irradiated κ-carrageenan: some biological effects of irradiated food grade-carrageenan on various gastrointestinal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    κ carrageenan and its radiolytic products are both shown to strongly inhibit pepsin activity based on our in vitro peptic ulcer model. Generated Lineweaver-Burke (LB) plots resemble the trend for competitive inhibition except that the changes in the slopes are too large rendering Km to approach a negative value. Our observations corroborate with the published dual behavior of carrageenan in inhibiting peptic ulcers, that is, by exerting simultaneously both enzyme (E) competitive inhibition and substrate (S) occlusion. Irradiated-carrageenan does not display anti-protozoan activity against Tetrahymena and pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica, and anti-tumor potential based on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) nauplus tests and the MTT assay with human MCF7 breast carcinoma cell line. (Author)

  15. Sinularin from Indigenous Soft Coral Attenuates Nociceptive Responses and Spinal Neuroinflammation in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hong Wen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three decades ago, the marine-derived compound sinularin was shown to have anti-edematous effects on paw edema induced by carrageenan or adjuvant. To the best of our knowledge, no new studies were conducted to explore the bioactivity of sinularin until we reported the analgesic properties of sinularin based on in vivo experiments. In the present study, we found that sinularin significantly inhibits the upregulation of proinflammatory proteins, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and upregulates the production of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells according to western blot analysis. We found that subcutaneous (s.c. administration of sinularin (80 mg/kg 1 h before carrageenan injection significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced nociceptive behaviors, including thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, and hindpaw weight-bearing deficits. Further, s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced microglial and astrocyte activation as well as upregulation of iNOS in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Moreover, s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg inhibited carrageenan-induced tissue inflammatory responses, redness and edema of the paw, and leukocyte infiltration. The results of immunohistochemical studies indicate that s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg could upregulate production of TGF-β1 in carrageenan-induced inflamed paw tissue. The present results demonstrate that systemic sinularin exerts analgesic effects at the behavioral and spinal levels, which are associated with both inhibition of leukocyte infiltration and upregulation of TGF-β1.Three decades ago, the marine-derived compound sinularin was shown to have anti-edematous effects on paw edema induced by carrageenan or adjuvant. To the best of our knowledge, no new studies were conducted to explore the bioactivity of sinularin until we reported the

  16. Modification biological activity of S and R forms of Proteus mirabilis and Burkholderia cepacia lipopolysaccharides by carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabski, Michał; Barabanova, Anna; Gałczyńska, Katarzyna; Węgierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Dzidowska, Kamila; Augustyniak, Daria; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Lankoff, Anna; Yermak, Irina; Molinaro, Antonio; Kaca, Wiesław

    2016-09-20

    The modification of biological features of S and R forms of Proteus mirabilis and Burkholderia cepacia LPS by kappa/iota and kappa/beta carrageenans was shown in Limulus activation test, ELISA, human complement activation and apoptotic assay. The role of positively charged substituent Ara4N in lipid A was evaluated as a suspected major domain for interactions with sulphate groups of carrageenans.The experiments obtained by three serological methods indicated that not only lipid A part of LPS but also polysaccharide elements such as core and O-specific chain are involved in interaction with carrageenes. Carrageenans turned out to be non-cytotoxic for A549 cells and were able to inhibit the apoptotic effect caused by lipid A of P. mirabilis and B. cepacia. PMID:27261765

  17. Formation of κ-carrageenan-gelatin polyelectrolyte complexes studied by (1)H NMR, UV spectroscopy and kinematic viscosity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voron'ko, Nicolay G; Derkach, Svetlana R; Vovk, Mikhail A; Tolstoy, Peter M

    2016-10-20

    The intermolecular interactions between an anionic polysaccharide from the red algae κ-carrageenan and a gelatin polypeptide, forming stoichiometric polysaccharide-polypeptide (bio)polyelectrolyte complexes in the aqueous phase, were examined. The major method of investigation was high-resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Additional data were obtained by UV absorption spectroscopy, light scattering dispersion and capillary viscometry. Experimental data were interpreted in terms of the changing roles of electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds when κ-carrageenan-gelatin complexes are formed. At high temperatures, when biopolymer macromolecules in solution are in the state of random coil, hydrophobic interactions make a major contribution to complex stabilization. At the temperature of gelatin's coil→helix conformational transition and at lower temperatures, electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds play a defining role in complex formation. A proposed model of the κ-carrageenan-gelatin complex is discussed. PMID:27474666

  18. The monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 suppresses inflammatory pain in the mouse carrageenan model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Wise, Laura E.; Chen, Yugang; Gujjar, Ramesh; Mahadevan, Anu; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The present study tested whether the selective monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor JZL184 would reduce allodynia and paw edema in the carrageenan test. Main methods The anti-edematous and anti-allodynic effects of JZL184 were compared to those of PF-3845, an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and diclofenac, a non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Cannabinoid receptor involvement in the anti-edematous and anti-allodynic effects of JZL184 was evaluated by administration of the respective CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists rimonabant and SR144528 as well as with CB1(−/−) and CB2(−/−) mice. JZL184 (1.6, 4, 16, or 40 mg/kg) was administered for six days to assess tolerance. Key findings JZL184 administered before or after carrageenan significantly attenuated carrageenan-induced paw edema and mechanical allodynia. Complementary genetic and pharmacological approaches revealed that the anti-allodynic effects of JZL184 required both CB1 and CB2 receptors, but only CB2 receptors mediated its anti-edematous actions. Importantly, both the anti-edematous and anti-allodynic effects underwent tolerance following repeated injections of high dose JZL184 (16 or 40 mg/kg), but repeated administration of low dose JZL184 (4 mg/kg) retained efficacy. Significance These results suggest that the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 reduces inflammatory nociception through the activation of both CB1 and CB2 receptors, with no evidence of tolerance following repeated administration of low doses. PMID:22749865

  19. Nicorandil inhibits neutrophil recruitment in carrageenan-induced experimental pleurisy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tamires C; Coura, Giovanna M E; Melo, Ivo S F; Batista, Carla R A; Augusto, Paulo Sérgio A; Godin, Adriana M; Araújo, Débora P; César, Isabela C; Ribeiro, Lucas S; Souza, Danielle G; Klein, André; de Fátima, Ângelo; Machado, Renes R; Coelho, Márcio M

    2015-12-15

    Nicorandil is a drug characterized by the coupling of a nitric oxide (NO) donor to nicotinamide. We have previously demonstrated that nicotinamide exhibits activity in different models of pain and inflammation. Now, we investigated the effects induced by per os (p.o.) administration of nicorandil (25, 50 or 100mg/Kg) on neutrophil recruitment in a carrageenan-induced model of pleurisy in mice. Effects induced by nicorandil (100mg/kg) were compared with those induced by equimolar doses of nicotinamide (58mg/kg) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-nicotinamide (NHN; 79mg/kg). We also investigated whether effects on the production of inflammatory mediators play a role in the activity of nicorandil. P.o. nicorandil, 0.5h before and 1h after the i.pl. injection of carrageenan, reduced neutrophil recruitment. However, equimolar doses of nicotinamide or NHN failed to induce such effect. Single treatment (previous or late) with nicorandil (100mg/Kg, p.o.) also reduced neutrophils recruitment, although to a lesser extent when compared to the double treatment. Nicorandil reduced the concentrations of interleukin-1β, CXCL-1 and prostaglandin E2 in the pleural exudate. Concluding, we demonstrated the activity of nicorandil in a model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. This activity was characterized by reduction of the neutrophil accumulation and inhibition of production of inflammatory mediators. The effects induced by nicorandil on the leukocytes recruitment and production of inflammatory mediators contribute to a better understanding of its clinical benefits and indicate that these benefits may be due to its vasodilating and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26607465

  20. Optimization of Konjac Gel Texture Prepared with-κ-carrageenan and Sweeteners and their Applications in Orange Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Akesowan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of konjac proportion in 1% konjac/κ-carrageenan blend (25:75-50:50 and sweetener concentration (sucrose and xylitol at 2-20% and erythritol-sucralose at 0.25-2.5% on gel strength of konjac gels using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The statistical analysis revealed that all models of konjac gels with sweeteners were effective and adequate fitted. The most variable affecting gel strength was konjac/κ-carrageenan n blend. Quadratic effect of konjac/κ-carrageenan blend was more profound (p<0.001 on konjac gels with each sweetener. The variation of xylitol and sucrose had a linear effect (p<0.001 and a quadratic effect (p<0.05 on gel strength, respectively, while an increase in erythritol-sucralose had no significant effect. Also, the interaction between the two variables had no significant effect on gel strength. The optimal conditions for the highest gel strength were 1% konjac/κ-carrageenan (39.56:60.44 with 9.58% sucrose, 1% konjac/κ-carrageenan (39.87:60.13 with 2% xylitol and 1% konjac/κ-carrageenan (38.18:61.82 with 0.94% erythritol-sucralose. Orange konjac jellies made with three optimal conditions showed no significant differences in appearance and color. Most panelists preferred sweet and texture of the jelly with erythritol-sucralose than that with xylitol. Nevertheless, the jelly with sucrose significantly received the most scores of sweet and overall acceptance. The appropriate level of texture and sweet was evident on the jelly with sucrose, followed by that with erythritol-sucralose and xylitol, respectively.

  1. Characterization of k-carrageenan/Locust bean gumbased films with b-carotene emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Joana; Silva, H. D.; Rojas, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Vicente, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    New bio-based materials have been exploited to develop biodegradable and edible films as an effort to extend shelf life and improve quality of food while reducing packaging waste. The objective of this study was to investigate physicochemical properties of k-carrageenan/locust bean gum (k-car/LBG) films with different bcarotene emulsion concentrations. To prepare oil-in-water emulsions, b-carotene (0.03% v/v) was dissolved in mediumchain triglycerides (MCTs), and the solution was mixed ...

  2. Construction of biosensor systems for determining the pathophysiological potential of carrageenan variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Angela; End, Caroline; Christiansen, Helle;

    2009-01-01

    In vitro systems for monitoring safety of nutritional additives are desirable for high-throughput screenings and as a substitute for animal models. Carrageenan (CGN) is a sulfated polysaccharide widely used as a thickener and texturizer in human nutrition and is intensely discussed regarding its...... pathophysiological potential. Low molecular weight (lm) variants of CGN are considered to exert more profound pathophysiological effects in vivo than high molecular weight (hm) variants. We used a systematic approach to construct reporter systems allowing distinction between CGN-variants with different...

  3. Optimization of Konjac Gel Texture Prepared with-κ-carrageenan and Sweeteners and their Applications in Orange Jelly

    OpenAIRE

    Adisak Akesowan; Anchan Choonhahirun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of konjac proportion in 1% konjac/κ-carrageenan blend (25:75-50:50) and sweetener concentration (sucrose and xylitol at 2-20% and erythritol-sucralose at 0.25-2.5%) on gel strength of konjac gels using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The statistical analysis revealed that all models of konjac gels with sweeteners were effective and adequate fitted. The most variable affecting gel strength was konjac/κ-carrageenan n blend. Quadratic effect of konjac/κ-ca...

  4. Polymer electrolyte system based on carrageenan-poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) composite for dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. A.; Camacho, D. H.

    2015-06-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-κ-carregeenan polymer electrolyte blend was prepared and incorporated as the electrolyte system in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Polymer blends prepared with different κ-carrageenan concentrations and molecular weights were investigated. It was found that the conductivity of the polymer blend increases with higher κ-carrageenan concentration, and lowers with degraded κ-carregeenan. The polymer blend was incorporated in a DSSC and yielded a solar cell with efficiency (η) of 0.421%.

  5. Antiinflammatory activity of tenoxicam gel on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenoxicam is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, used in the treatment of inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the musculoskeletal system. It is from the oxicam group of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. It is widely prescribed for the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, extra-articular disorders, bursitis, tendonitis, and nonarticular rheumatic condition. Tenoxicam has some side effects when taken orally, viz., epigastric pain, heartburn, nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, peptic ulcer, and hepatic impairment. The aim of this study was to formulate topical gel containing 1% of tenoxicam in 1% carbopol-940 and PEG-4000 and to evaluate it for antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The studies were conducted on Wistar rats of either sex (160-180 g. The change in oedema volume of the rat hind paw was measured using mercury plethysmometer. The readings were measured in terms of volume displaced in millimetre using a micropipette that has mark to 10 divisions in 1 ml. The carbopol gel formulation of tenoxicam containing 15% of ethanol and 5% of sodium lauryl sulphate was significantly more effective against oedema formation than the other formulation of tenoxicam gel and compared to the marketed product of piroxicam gel. Results suggest that the 1% tenoxicam gel in carbopol-940 inhibited 52% of carrageenan-induced oedema formation as compared with the 44% inhibition obtained with marketed product of piroxicam gel.

  6. Interaction between κ- and ι-carrageenan and anthocyanins from Vaccinium myrtillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navikaite, Vesta; Simanaviciute, Deimante; Klimaviciute, Rima; Jakstas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas

    2016-09-01

    Anthocyanins (ATCs) from the Vaccinium myrtillus water extract have been incorporated into the κ-carrageenan (κ-CARG) or ι-carrageenan (ι-CARG) during complexation in dilute solutions or adsorption onto the microgranules of κ-CARG or ι-CARG cross-linked with epichlorohydrin. At the optimal weight ratio of CARG to ATC at 0.4:1 and the total ATCs and CARG concentration≤0.07g/L, stable dispersions of the κ-CARG/ATCs or ι-CARG/ATCs complex nanosize particles were obtained. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models have been used to describe the equilibrium adsorption of ATCs on cross-linked CARG. The introduction of ATCs into CARG and cross-linked CARG was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The data of the HPLC analysis showed that during adsorption on cross-linked ι-CARG microgranules ATCs are isolated from the crude water extract of wild bilberries, whereas other phenolics remain in the adsorption solution. After desorption from cross-linked CARG/ATC into different media the sufficiently pure and stable solutions of ATCs were obtained. PMID:27185113

  7. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action. PMID:23990384

  8. Ebselen Attenuates Lung Injury in Experimental Model of Carrageenan-Induced Pleurisy in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronilho, Fabricia; Florentino, Drielly; Silvestre, Fernanda; Danielski, Lucineia Gainski; Nascimento, Diego Zapelini; Vieira, Andriele; Kanis, Luiz Alberto; Fortunato, Jucelia Jeremias; Badawy, Marwa; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, Joao

    2015-08-01

    The study evaluates the role of Ebselen (Eb), an organoselenium compound in animal model of acute lung injury induced by carrageenan (CG). Wistar rats received saline or 2 % λ-carrageenan in the pleural cavity, and treatment with Eb (50 mg/kg intragastrically) or dexamethasone (Dx) (0.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal) after CG administration. After 4 h, rats were euthanized and the pleural exudate removed for analysis of the total cell count, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and nitrite/nitrate. Moreover, lung tissue were removed to verify the myeloperoxidase activity and oxidative damage. Eb showed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocyte influx, myeloperoxidase activity, and nitrite/nitrate concentration. Eb presented with an anti-inflammatory activity similar to Dx and an antioxidant activity better than Dx. This study suggests that Eb plays an important role against the oxidative damage associated with anti-inflammatory activity in animal model of acute lung injury, proving to be similar or potentially more effective than Dx. PMID:25616904

  9. Three-Dimensional Supermacroporous Carrageenan-Gelatin Cryogel Matrix for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Archana; Bhat, Sumrita; Vishnoi, Tanushree; Nayak, Vijayashree; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    A tissue-engineered polymeric scaffold should provide suitable macroporous structure similar to that of extracellular matrix which can induce cellular activities and guide tissue regeneration. Cryogelation is a technique in which appropriate monomers or polymeric precursors frozen at sub-zero temperature leads to the formation of supermacroporous cryogel matrices. In this study carrageenan-gelatin (natural polymers) cryogels were synthesized by using glutaraldehyde and 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC-NHS) as crosslinking agent at optimum concentrations. Matrices showed large and interconnected pores which were in the range of 60–100 μm diameter. Unconfined compression analysis showed elasticity and physical integrity of all cryogels, as these matrices regained their original length after 90% compressing from the original size. Moreover Young's modulus was found to be in the range of 4–11 kPa for the dry cryogel sections. These cryogels also exhibited good in vitro degradation capacity at 37 °C within 4 weeks of incubation. Supermacroporous carrageenan-gelatin cryogels showed efficient cell adherence and proliferation of Cos-7 cells which was examined by SEM. PI nuclear stain was used to observe cell-matrix interaction. Cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was checked by MTT assay which showed that cryogels are biocompatible and act as a potential material for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:23936806

  10. λ-Carrageenan P32 Is a Potent Inhibitor of Rabies Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhaochen; Tian, Dayong; Zhou, Ming; Xiao, Wenjie; Zhang, Yachun; Li, Mingming; Sui, Baokun; Wang, Wei; Guan, Huashi; Chen, Huanchun; Fu, Zhen F.; Zhao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Rabies, caused by rabies virus (RABV), is an acute, fatal encephalitic disease that affects many warm-blooded mammals. Currently, post-exposure prophylaxis regimens are effective for most rabies cases, but once the clinical signs of the disease appear, current treatment options become ineffective. Carrageenan has been reported as a potent inhibitor of many viruses. In this study, the λ-carrageenan (λ-CG) P32 was investigated for its potential role in inhibiting RABV infection. Our results show that P32 specifically inhibits the replication of several RABV strains but not vesicular stomatitis virus in multiple cell lines and shows low cytotoxicity. P32 mainly abrogated viral replication during the early stage of the post-adsorption period. Further studies demonstrated that P32 could affect not only viral internalization but also viral uncoating by blocking cell fusion mediated by RABV glycoprotein. Moreover, P32 can fully inhibit RABV infection in vitro during the post-adsorption period, whereas heparin and heparan sulfate, which possess similar structures to P32, showed significant but not complete inhibition of RABV infectivity. Collectively, our results indicate that λ-CG P32 is a promising agent that can inhibit RABV infection mainly by inhibiting viral internalization and glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion and can be used for the development of novel anti-RABV drugs. PMID:26465753

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of linezolid on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Obara, Shigeaki; Kuroda, Yuko; Kizu, Junko

    2015-12-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of linezolid has recently been reported using in vitro experimental models. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of linezolid has not yet been demonstrated using in vivo experimental models. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of linezolid and other anti-MRSA agents using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The pretreatment with 50 mg/kg linezolid significantly suppressed edema rates, compared with control (5% glucose), with edema rates at 0.5 and 3 h after the administration of carrageenan being 17.3 ± 3.5 and 30.8 ± 3.0%, respectively. On the other hand, edema rates were not suppressed by the pretreatments with 50 mg/kg vancomycin, teicoplanin, arbekacin, and daptomycin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that linezolid exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were observed at linezolid concentrations that are achievable in human serum with conventional dosing. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the anti-inflammatory activities of linezolid, in addition to its antimicrobial effects, have a protective effect against destructive inflammatory responses in areas of inflammation. PMID:26362409

  12. Development and characterization of a new hydrogel based on galactomannan and κ-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paulo A G; de Seixas, José R P C; Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Santos, Gustavo R C; Mourão, Paulo A S; Barros, Wilson; Correia, Maria T S; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2015-12-10

    A new hydrogel based on two natural polysaccharides was prepared in aqueous medium with 1.7% (w/v) galactomannan (from Cassia grandis seeds) and different concentrations of κ-carrageenan (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%w/v), CaCl2 (0.0, 0.1 and 0.2M) and pH (5.0, 5.5 and 6.0), using a full factorial design based on rheological parameters. The best formulation was obtained with 1.7% (w/v) galactomannan and 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan, containing 0.2M CaCl2 at pH 5.0. Nuclear magnetic resonance and scanning electron microscopy where used in order to characterize the hydrogel formulation. A shelf life study was carried out with this formulation along 90 days-period of storage at 4 °C, evaluating pH, color, microbial contamination and rheology. This hydrogel showed no significant changes in pH, no microbial contamination and became more translucent along the aging. Analyses by nuclear magnetic resonance and rheology showed a larger organization of the polysaccharides in the hydrogel matrix. The results demonstrated that this hydrogel was stable with possible applications in medical and cosmetic fields. PMID:26428171

  13. Three-Dimensional Supermacroporous Carrageenan-Gelatin Cryogel Matrix for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A tissue-engineered polymeric scaffold should provide suitable macroporous structure similar to that of extracellular matrix which can induce cellular activities and guide tissue regeneration. Cryogelation is a technique in which appropriate monomers or polymeric precursors frozen at sub-zero temperature leads to the formation of supermacroporous cryogel matrices. In this study carrageenan-gelatin (natural polymers cryogels were synthesized by using glutaraldehyde and 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC-NHS as crosslinking agent at optimum concentrations. Matrices showed large and interconnected pores which were in the range of 60–100 μm diameter. Unconfined compression analysis showed elasticity and physical integrity of all cryogels, as these matrices regained their original length after 90% compressing from the original size. Moreover Young’s modulus was found to be in the range of 4–11 kPa for the dry cryogel sections. These cryogels also exhibited good in vitro degradation capacity at 37 °C within 4 weeks of incubation. Supermacroporous carrageenan-gelatin cryogels showed efficient cell adherence and proliferation of Cos-7 cells which was examined by SEM. PI nuclear stain was used to observe cell-matrix interaction. Cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was checked by MTT assay which showed that cryogels are biocompatible and act as a potential material for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  14. Mechanical and water barrier properties of agar/κ-carrageenan/konjac glucomannan ternary blend biohydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Wang, Long-Feng

    2013-07-01

    Multicomponent hydrogel films composed of agar, κ-carrageenan, konjac glucomannan powder, and nanoclay (Cloisite(®) 30B) were prepared and their mechanical and water barrier properties such as water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water solubility (WS), water uptake ratio (WUR), water vapor uptake ratio (WVUR) were determined. Mechanical, water vapor barrier, and water resistance properties of the ternary blend film exhibited middle range of individual component films, however, they increased significantly after formation of nanocomposite with the clay. Especially, the water holding capacity of the ternary blend biopolymer films increased tremendously, from 800% to 1681% of WUR for agar and κ-carrageenan films up to 5118% and 5488% of WUR for the ternary blend and ternary blend nanocomposite films, respectively. Water vapor adsorption behavior of films was also tested by water vapor adsorption kinetics and water vapor adsorption isotherms test. Preliminary test result for fresh spinach packaging revealed that the ternary blend biohydrogel films had a high potential for the use as an antifogging film for packaging highly respiring agricultural produce. In addition, the ternary blend nanocomposite film showed an antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:23688456

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOME TEXTURE PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF CARRAGEENAN GELS AS A RESULT OF ITS DEFINED DIVERSIFIED FREEZING AND THAWING TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozłowicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Model samples of carrageenan gels based on water, milk and juice were air-blast frozen and frozen by immersion in glycol and in liquid nitrogen. The gel freezing rate was determined on the basis of the kinetics of freezing. Carrageenan gel samples were characterized by evaluation of its thawing drip loss and hardness determined with compression and penetration tests. Freezing in liquid nitrogen ensured the highest freezing rates. Thawing drip loss of gels significantly depended on the carrageenan content, pH of the solution, freezing method and freezing rate. The resulting relationships are linear functions with high determination coefficients. The results of compression and penetration tests prove the significant effect of the carrageenan content and pH on gel hardness. The higher carrageenan content in a sample, the higher compression force and penetration of the gel. Gel freezing resulted in lower hardness. Freezing conditions had a significant effect on the properties tested. The correlation between compression forces and penetration depending on the carrageenan content and the freezing method was described using regression equations with high determination coefficients. Gels based on milk and juice with 2.2% carrageenan content are recommended for immersion freezing at rates above 5.0 cm·h-1.

  16. The Intranasal Application of Zanamivir and Carrageenan Is Synergistically Active against Influenza A Virus in the Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokutti-Kurz, Martina; König-Schuster, Marielle; Koller, Christiane; Graf, Christine; Graf, Philipp; Kirchoff, Norman; Reutterer, Benjamin; Seifert, Jan-Marcus; Unger, Hermann; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva; Nakowitsch, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Background Carrageenan is a clinically proven and marketed compound for the treatment of viral upper respiratory tract infections. As infections caused by influenza virus are often accompanied by infections with other respiratory viruses the combination of a specific anti-influenza compound with the broadly active antiviral polymer has huge potential for the treatment of respiratory infections. Thus, the combination of the specific anti-influenza drug Zanamivir together with carrageenan in a formulation suitable for intranasal application was evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. Principal Findings We show in-vitro that carrageenan and Zanamivir act synergistically against several influenza A virus strains (H1N1(09)pdm, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7). Moreover, we demonstrate in a lethal influenza model with a low pathogenic H7N7 virus (HA closely related to the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus) and a H1N1(09)pdm influenza virus in C57BL/6 mice that the combined use of both compounds significantly increases survival of infected animals in comparison with both mono-therapies or placebo. Remarkably, this benefit is maintained even when the treatment starts up to 72 hours post infection. Conclusion A nasal spray containing carrageenan and Zanamivir should therefore be tested for prevention and treatment of uncomplicated influenza in clinical trials. PMID:26053018

  17. New bio-polymeric membranes composed of alginate-carrageenan to be applied as polymer electrolyte membranes for DMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini Cabello, S. D.; Mollá, S.; Ochoa, N. A.; Marchese, J.; Giménez, E.; Compañ, V.

    2014-11-01

    Novel polyelectrolyte membranes were prepared from pure solutions of alginate (Alg), carrageenan (Car) and their mixtures. The films were crosslinked and sulfonated and then, characterized by several techniques: ionic exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, mechanical thermal properties, and also functional properties such as methanol permeability and proton conductivity. The results show that Alg/Car membranes have a ductile behavior. Low carrageenan concentrations have a weak thermoprotective effect, which slightly delays both Tg and Tm of prepared membranes. The methanol permeability of Alg/Car membranes increase with the carrageenan content varying from 0.55 × 10-6 cm2 s-1 for Alg/Car 100/00 to 4.89 × 10-6 cm2 s-1 for Alg/Car 80/20. The Proton conductivities of the membranes increase with the carrageenan content from 9.79 × 10-3 S cm-1 for Alg/Car 100/00 until 3.16 × 10-2 S cm-1 for Alg/Car 80/20 at 90 °C. Finally the proton transfer mechanism is discussed in terms of the conductivity activation energy and the dependence of the proton diffusion coefficient with the temperature has been studied.

  18. Heparin-Functionalized chitosan/ κ-carrageenan complexes as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell-based approaches to tissue regeneration are playing an increasingly important role in bone and cartilage repair. This is made possible through the use of growth factors, which are signaling molecules that induce a number of effects such as cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. But problems arise as these growth factors tend to be expensive, short-lived and slow moving through the extracellular matrix, making them very inefficient in their current form of introduction. One such growth factor is basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The general objective of this study is to construct heparin-functionalized chitosan/κ-carrageenan scaffolds, which when bound to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), may be used in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells for differentiation into cartilage. In this study, gels of semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPN) of chitosan and κ-carrageenan (2:4:1 blend ration) were prepared using calcium chloride as a cross-linker. The gels were then functionalized with heparin, which is known for its growth factor binding ability, using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) as cross-linker. The functionalized gels were then reshaped into scaffold on the wells of 48-well plates through freeze-dry method. The scaffolds were found to be realatively porous with pore sizes larger than 100 μm which satisfies the requirements for cell culture. Subsequent thermogravimetric analysis shows that the scaffolds were relatively stable with a degradation temperature of 277°C. Additionally, there was no observable separation of the individual degradation temperatures of chitosan and κ-carrageenan, confirming that a single miscible phase in the form of a semi-IPN structure was created. Results of scanning electron microscopy also showed that the scaffolds were stable under 2 hours of UV sterilization. The FTIR spectra of the heparinized PEC showed characteristic absorption bands (S=O asymetric stretch) in the area of 1160

  19. A 90-day dietary study on kappa carrageenan with emphasis on the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Myra L; Nuber, David; Blakemore, William R; Harriman, Jay F; Cohen, Samuel M

    2007-01-01

    Groups of Fischer 344 rats (20/sex/group) received control or treated diets at levels of 0, 25,000 or 50,000 ppm kappa carrageenan with a molecular weight range (Mw) of 196,000-257,000 Da for 90 days. The Low Molecular Weight Tail (LMT) ranged between 1.9% and 12.0%<50 kDa (mean 7%) based on the results of a program initiated to develop a validated analytical method to measure the LMT. This is the first GLP dietary study in which carrageenan is characterized by percentage LMT. Clinical examinations were performed daily. Individual food consumption/body weight measurements were made weekly. Ophthalmic exam was conducted prior to and at the end of treatment. Hematology/serum chemistry and urinalysis evaluations were done at necropsy, as were organ weight determinations for adrenals, brain, heart, kidneys, liver, ovaries, spleen, testes and thyroid with parathyroids. Full histopathological evaluation of organs was conducted on the control and 50,000 ppm groups, including hematoxylin-eosin-stained cross sections of paraffin-embedded rolled colon. Clinical signs were limited to soft feces in high dose rats and to a lesser extent in low dose rats. There were no treatment-related effects on body weights, urinalysis, hematology or clinical chemistry parameters, or on organ weights or ophthalmic, macroscopic or microscopic findings. The gastrointestinal tract appeared normal in detailed histopathological evaluation using the Swiss roll technique. The NOAEL is 50,000 ppm in the diet (mean calculated test material consumption of 3394+/-706 mg/kg/day in males, 3867+/-647 mg/kg/day in females). The results of the study provide evidence that it is not necessary to characterize carrageenan by a specification for LMT (less than 5% below 50 kDa) as has been done in Commission Directive 2004/45/EC of 16 April 2004 (Commission Directive, 2004/45/EC of 16 April 2004 amending Directive 96/77/EC laying down specific purity criteria on food additives other than colors and sweeteners

  20. Stereomicroscopic and histologic changes in the colon of guinea pigs fed degraded carrageenan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1980-01-01

    A colitis-like state induced in Guinea Pigs fed degraded carrageenan orally. By means of a combined semimacroscopic and histologic technique the course of the disease was followed during 28 days. The changes were primarily seen and became most prominent in the caecum. The first lesions were...... observed following 24 hours of treatment as small rounded foci initially with degenerative changes and inflammation in the surface epithelium, later forming superficial focal ulcerations. Ulcerative changes gradually progressed during the experiment, forming linear and later large, geographical ulcerations....... Topographically the ulcerative process was strongly related to the larger submucosal vessels. Nonulcerated parts of the mucosa were not changed until following 7-14 days of treatment. The mucosa became bulging, granulated and finally villus-like. Accumulation of macrophages was found under the surface epithelium...

  1. Effect of some plant starches and carrageenan as fat substitutes in chicken patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S K; Prabhakaran, P; Tanwar, V K; Biswas, S

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different flours on the physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of chicken patties. pH; cooking yield %; water holding capacity (WHC); proximate analysis (cooked); cholesterol content; and storage stability studies of control (Con) and sorghum flour (SF; 10%w/w), finger millet flour (FMF; 10%w/w), and carrageenan (Cgn; 0.5% w/w) treated chicken patties were observed in this study. Texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters like hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and sensory parameters were estimated on cooked patties. Highly significant (P 0.05) difference in pH, WHC, and protein % among control and treatments were noticed. Storage stability was dependent on treatments and storage periods. Significant difference (P 0.05) between Con and treatments. PMID:26726332

  2. Estimation of thermal distribution in tissue-mimicking phantom made of carrageenan gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoon; Jung, Jihee; Kim, Moojoon; Ha, Kanglyeol

    2015-07-01

    To probe the temperature elevation effect caused by ultrasound, the use of a tissue-mimicking phantom was newly suggested. Carrageenan gel was adopted to realize not only the required transparency for visualization but also the acoustic characteristics similar to those of human tissue. To visualize the temperature elevation effect inside the phantom, thermochromic film with a critical temperature of discoloration was introduced. From the visualized image, the temperature elevation due to planar and focused ultrasound in the phantom was obtained quantitatively. To verify the suggested method, the bioheat equation was solved numerically by the Fourier transform method. The theoretical results show good agreement with experimental ones regarding the temperature distribution while plane and focused ultrasound was irradiated into the phantom.

  3. Release mechanism of omega-3 fatty acid in κ-carrageenan/polydextrose undergoing glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, Vilia Darma; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    A high-solid matrix of κ-carrageenan with polydextrose was developed to entrap α-linolenic acid, which is an omega-3 bioactive compound. Physicochemical analysis of this system utilised modulated DSC, dynamic oscillation in shear, ESEM, FTIR and WAX diffraction. The carbohydrate matrix was conditioned through an extensive temperature range to induce changes in molecular morphology and identify the network glass transition temperature. Thermally induced variation in phase morphology was employed to rationalise transportation patterns of the bioactive compound within the high-solid preparation. Thus, experimental observations using UV-vis spectroscopy modelled diffusion kinetics to document the mobility arresting effect of the vitrifying matrix on the micro-constituent. Within the glass transition region, results argue that free volume theory is the molecular process governing structural relaxation. Further, Less Fickian diffusion follows well the rate of molecular transport of α-linolenic acid as a function of time and temperature of observation in the condensed matrix. PMID:25933532

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of red pepper (Capsicum baccatum) on carrageenan- and antigen-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Fernando; Alves, Márcia K; Vieira, Sílvio M; Carvalho, Toni A; Leite, Carlos E; Lunardelli, Adroaldo; Poloni, José A; Cunha, Fernando Q; de Oliveira, Jarbas R

    2008-04-01

    Inflammation is a pivotal component of a variety of diseases, such as atherosclerosis and tumour progression. Various naturally occurring phytochemicals exhibit anti-inflammatory activity and are considered to be potential drug candidates against inflammation-related pathological processes. Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum (Willd.) Eshbaugh (Solanaceae) is the most consumed species in Brazil, and its compounds, such as capsaicinoids, have been found to inhibit the inflammatory process. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of C. baccatum have not been characterized. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of C. baccatum juice in animal models of acute inflammation induced by carrageenan and immune inflammation induced by methylated bovine serum albumin. Pretreatment (30 min) of rats with pepper juice (0.25-2.0 g kg(-1)) significantly decreased leucocyte and neutrophil migration, exudate volume and protein and LDH concentration in pleural exudates of a pleurisy model. This juice also inhibited neutrophil migration and reduced the vascular permeability on carrageenan-induced peritonitis in mice. C. baccatum juice also reduced neutrophil recruitment and exudate levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in mouse inflammatory immune peritonitis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the main constituent of C. baccatum juice, as extracted with chloroform, is capsaicin. In agreement with this, capsaicin was able to inhibit the neutrophil migration towards the inflammatory focus. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the anti-inflammatory effect of C. baccatum juice and our data suggest that this effect may be induced by capsaicin. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect induced by red pepper may be by inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the inflammatory site. PMID:18380920

  5. Metabolic pathway of 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose in carrageenan-degrading microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Bok; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lim, Hyun Seung

    2016-05-01

    Complete hydrolysis of κ-carrageenan produces two sugars, D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose (D-AnG). At present, however, we do not know how carrageenan-degrading microorganisms metabolize D-AnG. In this study, we investigated the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation by comparative genomic analysis of Cellulophaga lytica LIM-21, Pseudoalteromonas atlantica T6c, and Epulopiscium sp. N.t. morphotype B, which represent the classes Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Clostridia, respectively. In this bioinformatic analysis, we found candidate common genes that were believed to be involved in D-AnG metabolism. We then experimentally confirmed the enzymatic function of each gene product in the D-AnG cluster. In all three microorganisms, D-AnG metabolizing genes were clustered and organized in operon-like arrangements, which we named as the dan operon (3,6-d-anhydro-galactose). Combining bioinformatic analysis and experimental data, we showed that D-AnG is metabolized to pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate via four enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the following route: 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose → 3,6-anhydro-D-galactonate → 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-galactonate (D-KDGal) → 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-galactonate → pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The pathway of D-AnG degradation is composed of two parts: transformation of D-AnG to D-KDGal using two D-AnG specific enzymes and breakdown of D-KDGal to two glycolysis intermediates using two DeLey-Doudoroff pathway enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation. PMID:26875872

  6. Antiviral activity of lambda-carrageenan prepared from red seaweed (Gigartina skottsbergii) against BoHV-1 and SuHV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Jésica V; Novo, Sabrina Galdo; González, Marcelo J; Ciancia, Marina; Bratanich, Ana C

    2015-02-01

    The antiviral effect of polysaccharides has been known for many years. Carrageenans are considered a good alternative for the prevention of a wide range of diseases, mainly caused by enveloped viruses. The advantages lie on their high availability, low cost and low induction of resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of two viral pathogens of veterinary interest to the presence of lambda-carrageenan. This is the first report of a lambda-carrageenan having antiviral activity against animal viruses belonging to the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, BoHV-1 (bovine herpesvirus type 1) strain Cooper and SuHV-1 (suid herpesvirus type 1) strain Bartha. Lambda-carrageenan was able to reduce infectivity of both viruses with a more pronounced effect against BoHV-1. These results proved, as previously shown for human herpes virus type 1, that these compounds could be used as potential antiviral agents in the veterinary field. PMID:25435342

  7. Study on anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of clomipramine in carrageenan- and lipopolysaccharide-induced rat models of inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, Ilia; Delev, Delian; Petrova, Atanaska; Stanimirova, Irina; Draganova, Krassimira; Kostadinova, Ivanka; Murdjeva, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of clomipramine in carrageenan- and lipopolysaccharide-induced (LPS-induced) models of inflammation by investigating the changes in serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β after single and repeated administration of the drug. In order to study the effect of single and repeated doses of clomipramine on carrageenan-induced paw oedema, male Wistar rats were divided in five groups (n = 8): control, positive control group and three experimental groups treated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg bw clomipramine, respectively. The effect of single and repeated doses of clomipramine on serum cytokine levels was studied as animals were divided in four groups: two control groups treated with saline and two experimental groups treated with clomipramine 20 mg/kg bw. Carrageenan and LPS were injected immediately after clomipramine or saline injection. Serum cytokine concentrations were tested by enzyme immunoassay. Following acute administration only the highest dose that was used inhibited the carrageenan-induced inflammation. Oedema inhibition was observed with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg bw clomipramine after repeated administration. Single and repeated administration of clomipramine at a dose of 20 mg/kg bw did not significantly change the serum levels of TGF-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α when compared to the controls in carrageenan-induced inflammation. Following LPS-induced inflammation clomipramine significantly increased the serum levels of TGF-1β after repeated administration and decreased TNF-α in rats after single-dose and repeated pretreatment with 20 mg/kg bw clomipramine. A significant increase in the levels of IL-10 in relation to this inflammatory model was observed only in single dose treated animals. Clomipramine possesses an anti-inflammatory effect in the carrageenan-induced model of exudative inflammation. In LPS-induced inflammation

  8. Assessment of the inhibition of Dengue virus infection by carrageenan via real-time monitoring of cellular oxygen consumption rates within a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Lin, Yi-Syun; Wu, Chih-Wei; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic device combined with a light modulation system was developed to assess the inhibitory effect of carrageenan on Dengue virus (DENV) infection via real-time monitoring of cellular oxygen consumption rates (OCRs). Measuring cellular OCRs, which can reflect cellular metabolic activity, enabled us to monitor the process of viral infection in real time and to rapidly determine the antiviral activity of potential drugs/chemical compounds. The time variation of the cellular OCR of single cells that were infected in situ by DENV at different multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) values was first successfully measured within a microfluidic device. The influence of the timing of carrageenan treatment on DENV infection was then examined by real-time monitoring of cellular OCRs in three groups. Cells that were pre-treated with carrageenan and then infected with DENV served as a pre-treatment group, cells to which carrageenan was added simultaneously with DENV served as a virucide group, and cells that were pre-infected with DENV and then treated with carrageenan served as a post-treatment group. By monitoring cellular OCRs, we could rapidly evaluate the inhibitory effect of carrageenan on DENV infection, obtaining a result within 7 h and showing that carrageenan had strong and effective anti-DENV activity in the three groups. In particular, a strong inhibitory effect was observed in the virucide group. Moreover, once the virus enters host cells in the post-treatment group, the immediate treatment with carrageenan for the infected cells has higher efficiency of antiviral activity. Our proposed platform enables to perform time-course or dose-response measurements of changes in cellular metabolic activity caused by diseases, chemical compounds, and drugs via monitoring of the cellular OCR, with rapid and real-time detection. This approach provides the potential to study a wide range of biological applications in cell-based biosensing, toxicology, and drug discovery

  9. Use of antioxidants substances to protect the hydrocolloids carrageenan, agaran and alginates used in food industry when exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrageenan, agaran e alginates are hydrocolloids largely employed in every kind of food products as stabilizing agent and viscosity builder. The human body does not absorb them, so they do not introduce extra calories in the diet. Irradiation is presented as an important alternative method in food preservation because do not induce temperature increase being of good efficiency in cold food ingredients decontamination. In this work aqueous solutions of carrageenan, agar e sodium alginate were gamma irradiated (0-10 kGy) in presence of ascorbic acid, roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract and soy isoflavone. Edible polysaccharide solutions showed to be suitable systems for the evaluation of ionizing radiation effects as they presented a singular radiosensitivity through viscosity changes. The results obtained showed that in general the antioxidants employed had a radioprotective action that can be of importance in the future commercial applications of food irradiation. (author)

  10. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of carrageenan, agarans and alginates to be used as food additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrageenan, agarans and alginates are phycocolloids, which change the consistence of the foodstuff and prevent undesirable changes such as moisture migration or textural profile changes. These phycocolloids are additives used in large scale for all kind of food products. They are not absorbed for the human organism and do not introduce extra calories in the diet. The process of irradiation, is an alternative method of great potential, because do not increase the temperature and it is highly in the decontamination of food ingredients. In this work, agar alginates and carrageenan were irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of the irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. The viscosity of these hydrocolloids shows a decrease when submitted to an irradiation with doses until 10 kGy. (author)

  11. The Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria-fermented Soybean Milk Products on Carrageenan-induced Tail Thrombosis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAMIYA, Seitaro; OGASAWARA, Masayoshi; ARAKAWA, Masayuki; HAGIMORI, Masayori

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis is characterized by congenital and acquired procatarxis. Lactic acid bacteria-fermented soybean milk products (FS-LAB) inhibit hepatic lipid accumulation and prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation. However, the therapeutic efficacy of FS-LAB against thrombosis has yet to be investigated. In this study, FS-LAB were administered subcutaneously into the tails of rats, with the subsequent intravenous administration of κ-carrageenan 12 hr after the initial injection. In general, administration of κ-carrageenan induces thrombosis. The length of the infarcted tail regions was significantly shorter in the rats administered a single-fold or double-fold concentration of the FS-LAB solution compared with the region in control rats. Therefore, FS-LAB exhibited significant antithrombotic effects. Our study is the first to characterize the properties of FS-LAB and, by testing their efficacy on an in vivo rat model of thrombosis, demonstrate the potency of their antithrombotic effect. PMID:24936368

  12. The analgesic efficacy of intra-articular acetaminophen in an experimental model of carrageenan-induced arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Oguzhan; Canbay, Ozgur; Celebi, Nalan; Sahin, Altan; Konan, Ali; Atilla, Pergin; Aypar, Ulku

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen is one of the most common drugs used for the treatment of pain and fever. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of intra-articular (IA) acetaminophen on carrageenan-induced arthritic pain-related behaviour and spinal c-Fos expression in rats. METHODS: The present study was performed using 20 Sprague Dawley rats. Forty microlitres of IA 0.9% NaCl was injected in the control group, and 40 μL of IA carrageenan was injected in the carrageenan group. One hour after carrageenan injection, 400 μg of IA acetaminophen was injected in the IA acetaminophen group, and 400 μg of intraperitoneal (IP) acet-aminophen was injected in the IP acetaminophen group. One day before injection, and 4 h and 8 h after injection, diameters of both knee joints, motility of the rat, paw loading and joint mobility were assessed. After the rats were euthanized, L3 and L4 spinal segments were excised for c-Fos assessment. RESULTS: IA acetaminophen decreased both the severity and distribution of c-Fos expression. IP acetaminophen decreased only the distribution of c-Fos expression. IA acetaminophen decreased knee diameter at 8 h. IA and IP acetaminophen increased rat motility and paw loading scores. Joint mobility scores of IP acetaminophen were similar to saline at 8 h. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study indicate an analgesic and/or possible anti-inflammatory effect of IA acetaminophen and provide further evidence on the efficacy of systemic acetaminophen injection in reducing arthritic pain. PMID:24093120

  13. Oligo-Carrageenans Enhance Growth and Contents of Cellulose, Essential Oils and Polyphenolic Compounds in Eucalyptus globulus Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Moenne; Contreras, Rodrigo A.; Alberto González

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) originated in Australia and has been introduced in countries with temperate weather in order to obtain wood for cellulose extraction and building purposes. In this work, we analyzed the potential stimulation of growth in height and trunk diameter as well as the content of holo-cellulose, α-cellulose (long cellulose chains), essential oils and polyphenolic compounds (PPCs) in E. globulus trees treated with oligo-carrageenans (OCs) kappa, lambda and iota, at 1 mg...

  14. Acoustic Assessment of a Konjac–Carrageenan Tissue-Mimicking Material at 5–60 MHz

    OpenAIRE

    Kenwright, David A.; Sadhoo, Neelaksh; Rajagopal, Srinath; Anderson, Tom; Moran, Carmel M.; Hadoke, Patrick W.; Gray, Gillian A.; Zeqiri, Bajram; Peter R. Hoskins

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic properties of a robust tissue-mimicking material based on konjac–carrageenan at ultrasound frequencies in the range 5–60 MHz are described. Acoustic properties were characterized using two methods: a broadband reflection substitution technique using a commercially available preclinical ultrasound scanner (Vevo 770, FUJIFILM VisualSonics, Toronto, ON, Canada), and a dedicated high-frequency ultrasound facility developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, Teddington, UK), wh...

  15. Mechanical stability analysis of carrageenan-based polymer gel for magnetic resonance imaging liver phantom with lesion particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Eunji; Naguib, Hani; Haider, Masoom

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Medical imaging is an effective technique used to detect and prevent disease in cancer research. To optimize medical imaging, a calibration medium or phantom with tissue-mimicking properties is required. Although the feasibility of various polymer gel materials has previously been studied, the stability of the gels’ properties has not been investigated. In this study, we fabricated carrageenan-based polymer gel to examine the stability of its properties such as density, conductivity, permittivity, elastic modulus, and T1 and T2 relaxation times over six weeks. We fabricated eight samples with different carrageenan and agar concentrations and found that the density, elastic modulus, and compressive strength fluctuated with no specific pattern. The elastic modulus in sample 4 with 3 wt. % carrageenan and 1.5 wt. % agar fluctuated from 0.51 to 0.64 MPa in five weeks. The T1 and T2 relaxation times also varied by 23% to 29%. We believe that the fluctuation of these properties is related to the change in water content of the sample due to cycles of water expulsion and absorption in their containers. The fluctuation of the properties should be minimized to achieve accurate calibration over the shelf life of the phantom and to serve as the standard for quality assurance. Furthermore, a full liver phantom with spherical lesion particles was fabricated to demonstrate the potential for phantom production. PMID:26158073

  16. In vitro evaluation of anti-calcification and anti-coagulation on sulfonated chitosan and carrageenan surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campelo, Clayton Souza; Lima, Luana Dias; Rebêlo, Luciana Magalhães; Mantovani, Diego; Beppu, Marisa Masumi; Vieira, Rodrigo Silveira

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, great effort has been devoted to the development of biomaterials that come into contact with blood. The surfaces of these materials need to be of suitable mechanical strength, and present anti-thrombogenic and anti-calcification properties. Chitosan is a natural polymer that has attracted attention due to its potential to act as a biomaterial. However, chitosan contains amino groups in its structure that may promote thrombogenesis and calcification. A strategy to reduce these properties constitutes the introduction of sulfonate groups (R-SO3-) in the chitosan chain. Another interesting biopolymer with similar characteristics to those of heparin is carrageenan, which has sulfate groups in its structure. As such, we evaluated “in vitro” calcification and thrombogenic processes on surfaces of pristine and sulfonated chitosan and on polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) of chitosan and carrageenan. Results indicate that PEC demonstrate significant reductions in calcification and thrombogenic potential, probably due to the presence of sulfonate groups in both the carrageenan and treated chitosan. PMID:26652370

  17. Self-assembled carrageenan/protamine polyelectrolyte nanoplexes-Investigation of critical parameters governing their formation and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dul, Maria; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Kelly, Hazel; Healy, Anne Marie; Sasse, Astrid; Tajber, Lidia

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of cross-linker free polyelectrolyte complex formation at the nanoscale between carrageenan (CAR) and protamine (PROT). The properties of CAR/PROT nanoparticles (NPs) were dependent on the carrageenan type: kappa (KC), iota (IC) and lambda (LC), concentration of components, addition of divalent cations, weight mixing ratio (WMR) of constituents and mode of component addition. In the case of 0.1% w/v solutions, IC-based NPs had the smallest particle sizes (100-150nm) and low polydispersity indices (0.1-0.4). A decrease in the solution concentration from 0.1% to 0.05% w/v enabled the formation of KC/PROT NPs. All carrageenans exhibited the ability to form NPs with surface charge ranging from -190 to 40mV. The inclusion of divalent cations caused an increase in the particle size and zeta potential. Infrared analysis confirmed the presence of a complex between CAR and PROT and showed that IC chains undergo structural changes when forming NPs. Colloidal stability of NPs was related to the initial surface charge of particles and was time- and pH-dependent. IC was found to be the most suitable type of CAR when forming nanoplexes with PROT. PMID:25843867

  18. Drug Release Kinetics and Front Movement in Matrix Tablets Containing Diltiazem or Metoprolol/λ-Carrageenan Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Colombo, Paolo; Zanelotti, Laura; Caramella, Carla

    2014-01-01

    In this work we investigated the moving boundaries and the associated drug release kinetics in matrix tablets prepared with two complexes between λ-carrageenan and two soluble model drugs, namely, diltiazem HCl and metoprolol tartrate aiming at clarifying the role played by drug/polymer interaction on the water uptake, swelling, drug dissolution, and drug release performance of the matrix. The two studied complexes released the drug with different mechanism indicating two different drug/polymer interaction strengths. The comparison between the drug release behaviour of the complexes and the relevant physical mixtures indicates that diltiazem gave rise to a less soluble and more stable complex with carrageenan than metoprolol. The less stable metoprolol complex afforded an erodible matrix, whereas the stronger interaction between diltiazem and carrageenan resulted in a poorly soluble, slowly dissolving matrix. It was concluded that the different stability of the studied complexes affords two distinct drug delivery systems: in the case of MTP, the dissociation of the complex, as a consequence of the interaction with water, affords a classical soluble matrix type delivery system; in the case of DTZ, the dissolving/diffusing species is the complex itself because of the very strong interaction between the drug and the polymer. PMID:25045689

  19. In situ synthesis of new magnetite chitosan/carrageenan nanocomposites by electrostatic interactions for protein delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jie; Yu, Xiaoqin; Xu, Enbo; Wu, Zhengzong; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-10-20

    We present a simple method to develop magnetite chitosan/carrageenan nanocomposites by in situ synthesis under mild conditions, and then their potential for controlled release of macromolecules was also evaluated. The structural, morphological and magnetic properties of the as-prepared materials were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyzer and transmission electron microscopy. With the varying mass ratio (chitosan to Fe3O4-carrageenan nanocomposite), the developed nanocarriers presented sizes within 73-355nm and zeta potentials of -42-32mV. Using bovine serum albumin as model protein, the adsorption and release behaviors were investigated. Nanocarriers evidenced excellent loading capacity of 181mgg(-1) at protein concentration of 0.2mgmL(-1), and demonstrated capacity to provide a sustained release up to 85% of adsorbed protein in 30min in intestinal medium rather than acidic medium. These results suggest that the developed magnetite chitosan/carrageenan nanocomposites are promising in the application of magnetically targeted delivery of therapeutic macromolecules. PMID:26256165

  20. Drug Release Kinetics and Front Movement in Matrix Tablets Containing Diltiazem or Metoprolol/λ-Carrageenan Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggero Bettini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the moving boundaries and the associated drug release kinetics in matrix tablets prepared with two complexes between λ-carrageenan and two soluble model drugs, namely, diltiazem HCl and metoprolol tartrate aiming at clarifying the role played by drug/polymer interaction on the water uptake, swelling, drug dissolution, and drug release performance of the matrix. The two studied complexes released the drug with different mechanism indicating two different drug/polymer interaction strengths. The comparison between the drug release behaviour of the complexes and the relevant physical mixtures indicates that diltiazem gave rise to a less soluble and more stable complex with carrageenan than metoprolol. The less stable metoprolol complex afforded an erodible matrix, whereas the stronger interaction between diltiazem and carrageenan resulted in a poorly soluble, slowly dissolving matrix. It was concluded that the different stability of the studied complexes affords two distinct drug delivery systems: in the case of MTP, the dissociation of the complex, as a consequence of the interaction with water, affords a classical soluble matrix type delivery system; in the case of DTZ, the dissolving/diffusing species is the complex itself because of the very strong interaction between the drug and the polymer.

  1. Deep eutectic solvents as efficient solvent system for the extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2016-01-20

    Three different deep eutectic solvents (DESs) prepared by the complexation of choline chloride with urea, ethylene glycol and glycerol along with their hydrated counterparts were used for the selective extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii. Upon comparison of the quality of the polysaccharide with the one obtained using water as extraction media as well as the one extracted using widely practiced conventional method, it was found that, the physicochemical as well as rheological properties of κ-carrageenan obtained using DESs as solvents was at par to the one obtained using conventional method and was superior in quality when compared to κ-carrageenan obtained using water as solvent. Considering the tedious nature of the extraction method employed in conventional extraction process, the DESs can be considered as suitable alternative solvents for the facile extraction of the polysaccharide directly from the seaweed. However, among the hydrated and non-hydrated DESs, the hydrated ones were found to be more effective in comparison to their non-hydrated counterparts. PMID:26572431

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Κ-Carrageenan-chitosan hollow capsules for the encapsulation and controlled release of 5-flourouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer multilayer capsules are made by generating a template, coating it with alternating layers of different polymers and removing the template to make it hollow. It is considered a good drug delivery system as the capsules are very versatile and can be adjusted according to the kind of drug delivery system as the capsules are very versatile and can be adjusted according to the kind of drug being encapsulated by just changing the polymers and template used. Κ-Carrageenan and chitosan are polyelectrolytic biocompatible polymers which are widely studied and used for a variety of biomedical applications. Polymer multilayer capsule can be made with these polymers using the layer-by-layer deposition (LbL) method. The strong electrostatic attraction between these two oppositely charged polymers which males the capsules stable and their biocompatibility makes them excellent candidates for drug delivery applications. The drug to be encapsulated in this study is fluorouracil, a widely used drug for the treatment of cancerous tumors with a large variety of side effects which requires controlled and targeted delivery in the patient. The objectives of this study are the following: to synthesize κ-carrageenan-chitosan hollow capsules with 1 layer κ-carrageenan, and 5, 10, and 11 alternating layers of κ-carrageenan and chitosan, to obtain the fluorescence images and microscopy images of the hollow capsules, and to determine the encapsulation and release profile of fluorouracil as a function of time. Hollow capsules with 5 layers of alternating chitosan and κ-carrageenan have been synthesized with polystyrene as the core template, and the polystyrene removed after depositing the polymer layers by washing it with THF. The capsules were then subjected to gamma irradiation at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). It was determined from the UV-Vis spectroscopy of the THF washings that five washings are needed to completely remove the polystyrene core template from

  3. Pimaradienoic Acid Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Leukocyte Recruitment and Edema in Mice: Inhibition of Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide and Cytokine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Sandra S; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Zarpelon, Ana C; Possebon, Maria I; de Souza, Anderson R; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S; Arakawa, Nilton S; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-01-01

    Pimaradienoic acid (PA; ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) is a pimarane diterpene found in plants such as Vigueira arenaria Baker (Asteraceae) in the Brazilian savannas. Although there is evidence on the analgesic and in vitro inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways, and paw edema by PA, its anti-inflammatory effect deserves further investigation. Thus, the objective of present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of PA in carrageenan-induced peritoneal and paw inflammation in mice. Firstly, we assessed the effect of PA in carrageenan-induced leukocyte recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity. Next, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of PA. The effect of PA on carrageenan-induced oxidative stress in the paw skin and peritoneal cavity was assessed. We also tested the effect of PA on nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and inflammatory cytokine production in the peritoneal cavity. PA inhibited carrageenan-induced recruitment of total leukocytes and neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner. PA also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity in the paw skin. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of PA depended on maintaining paw skin antioxidant activity as observed by the levels of reduced glutathione, ability to scavenge the ABTS cation and reduce iron as well as by the inhibition of superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, PA inhibited carrageenan-induced peritoneal production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. PA presents prominent anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced inflammation by reducing oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and cytokine production. Therefore, it seems to be a promising anti-inflammatory molecule that merits further investigation. PMID:26895409

  4. Prolongation of Carrageenan-induced Inflammation in Human Colonic Epithelial Cells by Activation of an NFκB – BCL10 Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthakur, Alip; Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Natarajan, Arivarasu A.; Kumar, Anoop; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2013-01-01

    Carrageenan, a sulfated polysaccharide that is widely used as a food additive, induces inflammatory responses in animal models and human cells. The carrageenan-induced inflammatory cascades involve TLR4- and BCL10-dependent activation of NF-κB, leading to increased IL-8 production. Translocations involving BCL10 in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are associated with constitutive activation of NF-κB. This report presents a mechanism by which carrageenan exposure leads to prolonged activation of both BCL10 and NF-κB in human colonic epithelial cells. Study findings demonstrate that nuclear RelA and RelB bind to an NF-κB binding motif in the BCL10 promoter in human colonic epithelial NCM460 and HT-29 cells. In vitro oligonucleotide binding assay, non-radioactive gel shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) indicate binding of RelA and RelB to the BCL10 promoter. Prolonged inflammation follows activation of the BCL10-NFκB inflammatory loop in response to carrageenan, shown by increased BCL10, RelA, and IL-8 for 36 to 48 hours and increased RelB for 24 hours following withdrawal of carrageenan after 12 hours. In contrast, exposure to dextran sulfate sodium, which does not cause inflammation through TLR4 and BCL10 in the colonic epithelial cells, did not provoke prolonged activation of inflammation. The carrageenan-enhanced BCL10 promoter activity was blocked by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and MB-132 which inhibit NF-κB activation. These results indicate that NF-κB binding to the BCL10 promoter can lead to prolonged activation of the carrageenan-induced inflammatory cascade by a transcriptional mechanism involving an NF-κB – BCL10 loop. PMID:22579587

  5. Characterization of nanobiocomposite kappa-carrageenan film with Zataria multiflora essential oil and nanoclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Haghshenas, Mehrdad; Khaksar, Ramin

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to improve the physical, mechanical and water-vapor permeability (WVP) properties of kappa-carrageenan (KC) films by including montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay in the film-forming solution. To further improve these properties, the combined effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (ZEO) and MMT was also investigated. The incorporation of MMT improved the physical and mechanical properties of KC film. Film made from KC alone had a tensile strength (TS) of 26.29MPa, while the KC film with 10% nanoclay had a TS of 34.67. Further analysis was provided by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy that confirmed the dispersion of MMT in the KC matrix. It was also shown that the combined effect of nanoclay and ZEO significantly improved the TS and EB of KC films. ZEO decreased the WVP of the nanocomposite films; for example, 3% ZEO reduced WVP by around 78%. The antimicrobial activity of nanocomposite films was also studied using the overlay and vapor-phase methods; the films effectively inhibited the growth of five pathogens tested. Thus, the incorporation of both nanoclay and ZEO into KC films is a promising way to manufacture films with better mechanical, antimicrobial and WVP properties. PMID:24832987

  6. Factors contributing to the bioburden level of polyvinylpyrrolidone-kappa carrageenan hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recurring problem of high bioburden level of Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Kappa Carrageenan (PVP-KC) hydrogels produced in industrial scale has befuddled both the researchers and the manufacturer involved in the hydrogel's production. In an attempt to find a solution to this problem, different modifications in the current method of production have been devised and the bioburden levels of PVP-KC hydrogels produced using the modified methods were determined. The critical factors in the production parameters contributing to the biobuden of the hydrogels were then identified. Results showed a high bioburden level for the PVP-KC hydrogel prepared by overnight soaking of the PVP-KC components in non-sterile distilled water prior to further processing and eventual storage at room temperature preceding irradiation. This indicates that water sterility and storage temperature are critical factors that contribute to the hydrogel's bioburden level. Addition of bactericidal agent, namely Sodium metabisulfite, can decrease the bioburden counts of PVP-KC hydrogels by more than 350 times. (author)

  7. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sodium Valproate on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mj Khoshnood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABESTRACT: Introduction & objective: Inflammation is a body defensive response to the endogenous and exogenous stimulators such as chemical, radiation, trauma and invasive microorganism, which result pain and tissue necrosis. There are many natural and synthetic drugs for treatment of inflammation and lot of them are under investigation. Sodium valporate is an antiepileptic drug used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizure notably absence, myocolonic seizure, acute manic phase of bipolar disorder and prophylaxis of migraine. The previous observations showed sodium valporate increases level of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the central and peripheral nervous system. In acute inflammation, GABA showed a significant attenuation of paw edema and nociception. The aim of this study was evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of sodium valporate. Materials & Methods: In order to evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiexudative of sodium valporate doses of 200,400 and 600 mg/kg were investigated on rat paw edema that induced by carrageenan. In addition, the plasma leakage in the inflamed tissue was evaluated by application of trypan blue as intravenous injection. Dexamethason was used as positive control. Results: Results showed sodium valporate doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg decreased inflammatory and exudative effect as compared to control group. Conclusion: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of this drug were not evident but we can say sodium valporate in addition to already proved effects has anti-inflammatory effect.

  8. Amorphous nanodrugs prepared by complexation with polysaccharides: carrageenan versus dextran sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Kiew, Tie Yi; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous nanodrugs prepared by electrostatic complexation of drug molecules with oppositely charged polysaccharides represent a promising bioavailability enhancement strategy for poorly-soluble drugs owed to their high supersaturation generation capability and simple preparation. Using ciprofloxacin (CIP) as the model drug, we investigated the effects of using dextran sulfate (DXT) or carrageenan (CGN) on the (1) preparation efficiency, (2) physical characteristics, (3) supersaturation generation, (4) antimicrobial activity, and (5) cytotoxicity of the amorphous drug-polysaccharide nanoparticle complex (nanoplex) produced. Owing to the higher charge density and chain flexibility of DXT, coupled with the greater hydrophobicity of CGN, the CIP-DXT nanoplex exhibited superior preparation efficiency and larger size than the CIP-CGN nanoplex. Whereas the low solubility and high gelation tendency of CGN resulted in superior supersaturation generation capability for the CIP-DXT nanoplex. The non-cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, colloidal, and amorphous state stability were established for both nanoplexes, making them an ideal supersaturated drug delivery system. PMID:25498670

  9. Rheology of κ/ι-hybrid carrageenan from Mastocarpus stellatus: Critical parameters for the gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Chenlo, F; Moreira, R

    2016-05-01

    The sol-gel diagrams of kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenan (KI) extracted from Mastocarpus stellatus powders with two different average particle sizes of the seaweed powders (117.0μm and 77.5μm) prior to the biopolymer extraction, are reported for the first time, together with rheological properties of obtained KI gels. Extraction yields for KI isolated from algae and average molecular weight of KI, determined by gel permeation chromatography, decreased with increasing the particle size of the powder. Rheological results indicated that tested samples exhibited stable and weak gel properties, except those prepared at 1.5% KI in 1.0mol/L NaCl where stronger gels were found. Aqueous KI extracts with larger molecular weight led to stronger gels and also formed gels at lower biopolymer concentration in NaCl above 0.15mol/L. All gels reached stability after 20min of maturation. The data sets showed a strong temperature dependency. Gel setting temperatures significantly depended on the KI and NaCl content, whereas gel melting temperatures (68.0±0.7°C) were independent of both salt concentrations. PMID:26827757

  10. Influence of structural features of carrageenan on the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes with chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volod'ko, A V; Davydova, V N; Glazunov, V P; Likhatskaya, G N; Yermak, I M

    2016-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) of carrageenans (CG)-κ-, κ/β-, λ-and x-CG with chitosan were obtained. The formation of PEC was detected by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and by centrifugation in a Percoll gradient. The influence of the structural peculiarities of CG on its interaction with chitosan was studied. The results of centrifugation showed that x-CG with a high degree of sulphation (SD) was completely bound to chitosan, unlike low SD κ-CG and κ/β-CG. Binding constant values showed there was a high affinity of CG for chitosan. CG with flexible macromolecule conformation and high SD exhibited the greatest binding affinity for chitosan. The full-atomic 3D-structures of the PEC κ-CG: chitosan in solution have been obtained by the experiments in silico for the first time. The amino groups of chitosan make the largest contribution to the energy of the complex formation by means of hydrogen and ionic bonds. The most probable complexes have stoichiometries of 1:1 and 1:1.5. PMID:26712704

  11. Evaluation of kappa carrageenan as potential carrier for floating drug delivery system: Effect of cross linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumaran, Suguna; Muhamad, Ida Idayu

    2015-12-30

    Genipin, a natural and non-toxic cross linker, was used to prepare cross linked floating kappa carrageenan/sodium carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels and the effect of genipin on hydrogels characterization was investigated. Calcium carbonates were employed as gas forming agents. Ranitidine hydrochloride was used as drug. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were carried out to study the changes in the characteristics of hydrogels. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed to study microstructure of hydrogels. The result showed that all formulated hydrogels had excellent floating behavior. It was discovered that the cross linking reaction showed significant effect on gel strength, porosity and swelling ratio compared to non-cross linked hydrogels. It was found that the drug release was slower and lesser after being cross linked. Microstructure study shows that cross linked hydrogels exhibited hard and rough surface. Therefore, genipin can be an interesting cross linking agent for controlled drug delivery in gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26453788

  12. Gelam Honey Attenuates Carrageenan-Induced Rat Paw Inflammation via NF-κB Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Saba Zuhair; Mohd Yusoff, Kamaruddin; Makpol, Suzana; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum

    2013-01-01

    The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Gelam honey in inflammation induced rats via NF-κB signalling pathway. Rats paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the right hind paw. Rats were pre-treated with Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o.) and NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.), in two time points (1 and 7 days). Our results showed that Gelam honey at both concentrations suppressed the gene expressions of NF-κB (p65 & p50) and IκBα in inflamed rats paw tissues. In addition, Gelam honey inhibited the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB and decreased the cytosolic degradation of IκBα dose dependently in inflamed rats paw tissues. The immunohistochemical expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were also decreased in inflamed rats paw tissues when treated with Gelam honey. The results of our findings suggest that Gelam honey exhibits its inhibitory effects by attenuating NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and inhibiting IκBα degradation, with subsequent decrease of inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α. PMID:24015236

  13. Review for carrageenan-based pharmaceutical biomaterials: favourable physical features versus adverse biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhan, Xiudan; Wan, Jianbo; Wang, Yitao; Wang, Chunming

    2015-05-01

    Carrageenan (CRG) is a family of natural polysaccharides derived from seaweeds and has widely been used as food additives. In the past decade, owing to its attractive physicochemical properties, CRG has been developed into versatile biomaterials vehicles for drug delivery. Nevertheless, studies also emerged to reveal its adverse effects on the biological system. In this review, we critically appraise the latest literature (two thirds since 2008) on the development of CRG-based pharmaceutical vehicles and the perspective of using CRG for broader biomedical applications. We focus on how current strategies exploit the unique gelling mechanisms, strong water absorption and abundant functional groups of the three major CRG varieties. Notably, CRG-based matrices are demonstrated to increase drug loading and drug solubility, enabling release of orally administrated drugs in zero-order or in a significantly prolonged period. Other amazing features, such as pH-sensitivity and adhesive property, of CRG-based formulations are also introduced. Finally, we discuss the adverse influence of CRG on the human body and then suggest some future directions for the development of CRG-based biomaterials for broader applications in biomedicine. PMID:25659668

  14. Mapping the Complex Phase Behaviors of Aqueous Mixtures of κ-Carrageenan and Type B Gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiping; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Ke; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O

    2015-07-30

    We report a detailed and complete phase diagram for an aqueous mixture of oppositely charged gelling biopolymers, type B gelatin and κ-carrageenan (KC) at pH 7.0. The phase diagram is studied in the ionic strength-temperature coordinate by means of turbidity, rheological and differential scanning calorimetric measurements, and macroscopic phase compositional analysis. Seven phase regions are identified, including (I) compatible region, (II) electrostatically induced associative phase separation (EIAPS) region, (III) hydrogen bonding induced associative phase separation (HBIAPS) region, (IV) coexistence of EIAPS and HBIAPS, (V) segregative phase separation (SPS) region, (VI) coexistence of HBIAPS and SPS, and (VII) SPS trapped by gelation. The HBIAPS reported for the first time here is attributed to the extensive hydrogen bonding formation between gelatin and KC above their conformational transition temperatures, as probed by addition of urea and methylene blue as well as by 2D (1)H-(1)H NOESY NMR. NaCl is found to have dual effects on HBIAPS. The electrostatic complexation at lower ionic strength facilitates the formation of hydrogen bonds between gelatin and KC and hence the HBIAPS. It is believed that the local structural arrangement of gelatin molecules or the change in local solvent environment prior to triple helix formation during cooling enables the formation of hydrogen bonds with KC. PMID:26147592

  15. Gelam honey attenuates carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation via NF-κB pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Zuhair Hussein

    Full Text Available The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Gelam honey in inflammation induced rats via NF-κB signalling pathway. Rats paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the right hind paw. Rats were pre-treated with Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o. and NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o., in two time points (1 and 7 days. Our results showed that Gelam honey at both concentrations suppressed the gene expressions of NF-κB (p65 & p50 and IκBα in inflamed rats paw tissues. In addition, Gelam honey inhibited the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB and decreased the cytosolic degradation of IκBα dose dependently in inflamed rats paw tissues. The immunohistochemical expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were also decreased in inflamed rats paw tissues when treated with Gelam honey. The results of our findings suggest that Gelam honey exhibits its inhibitory effects by attenuating NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and inhibiting IκBα degradation, with subsequent decrease of inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α.

  16. Radiation Processed Carrageenan Improves Plant Growth, Physiological Activities, and Alkaloids Production in Catharanthus roseus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don (Apocynaceae is a medicinal plant that produces indole alkaloids used in cancer chemotherapy. Commercially important antineoplastic alkaloids, namely, vinblastine and vincristine, are mainly present in the leaves of C. roseus. Gamma-rays irradiated carrageenan (ICR has been proven as plant growth promoting substance for a number of medicinal and agricultural plants. Considering the importance of ICR as a promoter of plant growth and alkaloids production in C. roseus, a pot experiment was carried out to explore the effect of ICR on the plant growth, physiological activities, and production of anticancer alkaloids in C. roseus at 120 and 150 days after planting (DAP. Foliar application of ICR (at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg L−1 significantly improved the performance of C. roseus. 80 mg L−1 of ICR enhanced the leaf yield by 29.2 and 35.4% and the herbage yield by 32.5 and 37.4% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively, over the control. The spray of ICR at 80 mg L−1 increased the yield of vinblastine by 64.3 and 65.0% and of vincristine by 75.5 and 77.0% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control.

  17. The effects of sucrose on the mechanical properties of acid milk proteins-kappa-carrageenan gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sabadini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties have been widely correlated with textural characteristics to determine the interactions during the process formation of dairy gel. These interactions are strongly affected by process conditions and system composition. In the present study, the rheological of acid-induced protein dairy gels with (2(7-3 and without (2(6-2 sucrose and subjected to small and large deformations were studied using an experimental design. The independent variables were the sodium caseinate, whey protein concentrate (WPC, carrageenan and sucrose concentrations as well as stirring speed and heat treatment time and temperature. Mechanical deformation tests were performed at 0.1, 1, 5, and 9 mm/s up to 80% of initial height. A heavy dependence of rupture stress on increasing crosshead speed and the formation of harder gels with the addition of sucrose were observed. Moreover the elastic and viscous moduli, obtained by fitting the Maxwell model to stress relaxation data, increased with increasing addition of sucrose. These results can be explained by preferential hydration of the casein with sucrose, causing an induction of casein-polysaccharide and casein-casein interactions.

  18. Synthesis of magnetic oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite adsorbent and its application in cationic Methylene Blue dye adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Osman; Tunç, Sibel; Polat, Tülin Gürkan; Bozoğlan, Bahar Kancı

    2016-08-20

    In this study, magnetic oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube (OMWCNT)-Fe3O4 and OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized and used as adsorbent for the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Magnetic nanocomposites were characterized by using of specific surface area, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope measurements. The results of characterization analyses exhibited that OMWCNT was successfully modified with κ-carrageenan. Furthermore, OMWCNT-Fe3O4 and OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were of a super-paramagnetic property. Adsorption studies revealed that the data of adsorption kinetics and isotherm were well fitted by the pseudo second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. The adsorption amounts of magnetic adsorbents increased with contact time and initial dye concentration. Compared with magnetic OMWCNT-Fe3O4 nanocomposite, magnetic OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite showed a better adsorption performance for the removal of MB from aqueous solution. Therefore, OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite may be used as a magnetic adsorbent to remove the cationic dyes from wastewaters. PMID:27178911

  19. Preparation and characterization of semi-refined kappa carrageenan-based edible film for nano coating application on minimally processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, Godras Jati; Praseptiangga, Danar; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji; Maimuni, Bawani Hindami

    2016-02-01

    Shorter and easier processing of semi-refined kappa carrageenan extracted from Euchema cottonii red seaweed result in cheaper price of the polysaccharide. In this study, edible film was prepared from the semi-refined carrageenan without any salt addition. The effect of the carrageenan concentration (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% w/v) on physical and mechanical properties of the edible film was studied. Edible film thickness and tensile strength increased but elongation at break and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) decreased as the concentration increased. Based on the characteristic of the edible film, formulation using 2% carrageenan was recommended. The edible film demonstrated the characteristic as follow: 0.054 mm thickness, 21.14 MPa tensile strength, 12.36% elongation at break, and 9.56 g/m2.hour WVTR. It was also noted the carrageenan-based edible film indicated potential physical and mechanical characteristics for nano coating applications on minimally processed food.

  20. Molecular Modeling of Lectin-Like Protein from Acacia farnesiana Reveals a Possible Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Vanessa Erika Ferreira; Matias da Rocha, Bruno Anderson; Batista da Nóbrega, Raphael; Silva-Filho, José Caetano; Teixeira, Claudener Souza; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Ferreira, Sergio Henrique; Figueiredo, Jozi Godoy; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Delatorre, Plinio

    2013-01-01

    Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL) is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA). Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN). This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through structural comparison with anti-inflammatory legume lectins. The AFAL model was obtained by molecular modeling and molecular docking with glycan and carrageenan were performed to explain the AFAL structural behavior and biological activity. Pisum sativum lectin was the best template for molecular modeling. The AFAL structure model is folded as a β sandwich. The model differs from template in loop regions, number of β strands and carbohydrate-binding site. Carrageenan and glycan bind to different sites on AFAL. The ability of AFAL binding to carrageenan can be explained by absence of the sixth β-strand (posterior β sheets) and two β strands in frontal region. AFAL can inhibit pathway inflammatory process by carrageenan injection by connecting to it and preventing its entry into the cell and triggers the reaction. PMID:24490151

  1. Diet containing partially hydrogenated vegetable fat enhances the carrageenan induced paw inflammation but not oxidative stress markers in liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Lokesh, B R

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of feeding Partially hydrogenated vegetable fat (PHVF) on carrageenan induced paw inflammation and oxidative stress markers in liver of rats. In addition, the effect of feeding rats with Linseed Oil (LSO, α-linolenic acid, n-3 PUFA) or PHVF blended with incremental amounts of LSO on these markers were also monitored. Rats weighing 200 g were given 1 mL of different oils (PHVF, Groundnut Oil; GNO, Olive Oil; OO and LSO) per day for 15 days. Rats given PHVF showed higher levels of paw inflammation in response to carrageenan injection. Rats given LSO showed least amounts of paw inflammation when injected with carrageenan. A second set of experiment was conducted by feeding weaning rats with AIN-93 purified diet supplemented with PHVF or PHVF with incremental amounts of LSO for 60 days. The rats fed PHVF showed higher degree of carrageenan induced inflammation as compared to rats given GNO and LSO. However, the rats fed PHVF showed lower levels of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls, 8-hydroxy guanine and antioxidant enzyme activities in liver homogenate as compared to those given LSO. In conclusion dietary PHVF rendered the rats prone to higher levels of carrageenan induced inflammation which can be reduced by giving PHVF blended with LSO. However, oxidative stress markers found to be higher levels in rats given LSO or PHVF blended with LSO as compared to rats given PHVF as sole source of fat. PMID:26396384

  2. Molecular modeling of lectin-like protein from Acacia farnesiana reveals a possible anti-inflammatory mechanism in Carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Vanessa Erika Ferreira; Matias da Rocha, Bruno Anderson; Batista da Nóbrega, Raphael; Silva-Filho, José Caetano; Teixeira, Claudener Souza; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Ferreira, Sergio Henrique; Figueiredo, Jozi Godoy; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Delatorre, Plinio

    2013-01-01

    Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL) is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA). Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN). This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through structural comparison with anti-inflammatory legume lectins. The AFAL model was obtained by molecular modeling and molecular docking with glycan and carrageenan were performed to explain the AFAL structural behavior and biological activity. Pisum sativum lectin was the best template for molecular modeling. The AFAL structure model is folded as a β sandwich. The model differs from template in loop regions, number of β strands and carbohydrate-binding site. Carrageenan and glycan bind to different sites on AFAL. The ability of AFAL binding to carrageenan can be explained by absence of the sixth β -strand (posterior β sheets) and two β strands in frontal region. AFAL can inhibit pathway inflammatory process by carrageenan injection by connecting to it and preventing its entry into the cell and triggers the reaction. PMID:24490151

  3. Molecular Modeling of Lectin-Like Protein from Acacia farnesiana Reveals a Possible Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Erika Ferreira Abrantes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA. Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN. This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through structural comparison with anti-inflammatory legume lectins. The AFAL model was obtained by molecular modeling and molecular docking with glycan and carrageenan were performed to explain the AFAL structural behavior and biological activity. Pisum sativum lectin was the best template for molecular modeling. The AFAL structure model is folded as a β sandwich. The model differs from template in loop regions, number of β strands and carbohydrate-binding site. Carrageenan and glycan bind to different sites on AFAL. The ability of AFAL binding to carrageenan can be explained by absence of the sixth β-strand (posterior β sheets and two β strands in frontal region. AFAL can inhibit pathway inflammatory process by carrageenan injection by connecting to it and preventing its entry into the cell and triggers the reaction.

  4. Effect of tumbling time, injection rate and k-carrageenan addition on processing, textural and color characteristics of pork Biceps femoris muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia PATRAŞCU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of tumbling time (0-9 hours, injection rate (20-50% and k carrageenan addition (0.25 - 0.5% on quality characteristics of cooked pork Biceps femoris muscle have been studied. Properties of injected and tumbled meat samples were determined by measuring processing characteristics (tumbling yield, cooking yield and expressible moisture, color (L*, a*, b*, Hue angle and Chroma and texture (firmness, toughness, adhesiveness, work of adhesion and fracturability. Increasing tumbling time up to 9 h led to better hydration properties and increased the cooking yield for all samples, both with 0.25% and 0.5% of k-carrageenan addition. It also decreased the firmness and toughness of the evaluated samples. Biceps femoris samples containing a higher level of k-carrageenan were tenderer than those containing less polysaccharide. Neither injection rate nor tumbling time affected the color components of the analyzed samples.

  5. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Edible Surface Coating Based on Carrageenan Conjugated with Silver Nanoparticles on Sekaki Papaya (Carica Papaya cv. Sekaki): A New Antimicrobial Edible Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibacterial properties of edible surface coating based on carrageenan incorporated with silver nanoparticles (SNPs), was investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to obtain optimum concentration of SNPs. Results obtained indicate that SNPs with concentration of 40 ml L-1 effectively inhibited the growth of both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Sekaki papaya fruits were then coated with prepared edible coating formulation comprising of carrageenan (0.8 % w/v) and glycerol (1.0 % w/v) with and without SNPs (40 ppm) and stored at ambient conditions (26±2 degree Celsius and 60±10 % RH). Microbial analysis of coated and uncoated papaya samples during storage indicated that the edible coating comprising of carrageenan, glycerol and SNPs, strongly inhibited the growth of fungus that caused post harvest diseases of papaya as compared to uncoated and coated papaya fruits with edible coating without SNPs. (author)

  6. Biopolymer electrolytes based on blend of kappa-carrageenan and cellulose derivatives for potential application in dye sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan was used as the principle host for developing new biopolymer electrolytes based on the blend of carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose. The blending of carboxymethyl cellulose into carboxymethyl kappa-carragenan was found to be a promising strategy to improve the material properties such as conductive properties. The electrolyte samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, ionic transference number measurement and linear sweep voltammetry in order to investigate their structural, thermal and electrochemical properties. Impedance study showed that the ionic conductivity increased with the increment of ammonium iodide concentration. The highest room temperature ionic conductivity achieved was 2.41 × 10−3 S cm−1 at 30 wt% of the salt. The increment of conductivity was due to the increase of formation of transient cross-linking between the carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose chains and the doping salt as indicated the Tg trend. The conductivity was also attributed by the increase in the number of charge carriers in the biopolymer electrolytes system. The interactions between polymers and salt were confirmed by FTIR study. The transference number measurements showed that the conductivity was predominantly ionic. Temperature dependent conductivity study showed that conductivity increased with the reciprocal of temperature. The conductivity-temperature plots suggested that the conductivity obeyed the Vogel–Tammann–Fulcher relation and the activation energy for the best conducting sample was 0.010 eV. This system was used for the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells, FTO/TiO2-dye/CMKC/CMCE-NH4I + I2/Pt. The fabricated cell showed response under light intensity of 100 mW cm−2 with efficiency of 0.13% indicating that the blend biopolymer system has

  7. Oxysophocarpine Ameliorates Carrageenan-induced Inflammatory Pain via Inhibiting Expressions of Prostaglandin E2 and Cytokines in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Hong-Ling; Jin, Shao-Ju; Zhou, Ru; Qiao, Hai-Qi; Du, Juan; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Cheng-Jun; Niu, Yang; Sun, Tao; Yu, Jian-Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Oxysophocarpine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora alopecuroides. We investigated the analgesic effect of oxysophocarpine on carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain in mice, in order to explore its possible mechanisms. Mouse ear swelling tests and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests were used to investigate the effects of oxysophocarpine on inflammatory pain in mice. Morphological changes on inflamed paw sections were measured by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The mRNA and protein expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 were investigated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, western-blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In our results, oxysophocarpine shows a significant anti-inflammatory effect in the mouse ear swelling test. Oxysophocarpine also significantly reduced the paw edema volume and improved mechanical allodynia threshold value on carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain, as well as relieved paw tissues inflammatory damage and reduced the numbers of neutrophils in mice. Oxysophocarpine significantly suppressed over-expression of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2, and inhibited the over-phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Based on these findings we propose that oxysophocarpine attenuates inflammatory pain by suppressing the levels of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6. PMID:26132856

  8. User Preferences in a Carrageenan-Based Vaginal Drug Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bangde; Zaveri, Toral; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Topical microbicides are a promising solution to address the global threat of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To be successful, a microbicide not only needs to be biologically functional but also highly acceptable to users. User acceptability of microbicides can be incorporated early in the product formulation and design process. Previous qualitative research revealed women had strong preferences regarding product shape, while preferences related to size and firmness were less clear. Here, we explored the effect of size and firmness on the acceptability of semisolid ovoid microbicide prototypes intended for vaginal use. Sexually active women (n = 74) were randomized to one of two conditions: with and without applicator. Nine different prototypes were evaluated; they were formulated to low, medium and high firmness using mixtures of kappa and iota carrageenan and potassium chloride. Three sizes were produced at each firmness level. Women manipulated all nine prototypes, rating them for perceived effectiveness, imagined ease-of-insertion and willingness-to-try on visual analog scales. The influence of size and firmness on these three outcome measures were assessed using ANOVA and response surface models. Results indicated size and firmness both influenced the outcome measures, but firmess was more influential than size. Also, the specific effects of size and firmness depended strongly on presence or absence of an applicator. Generally, women in the without applicator condition wanted a larger, firmer product. Collectively, these data suggest efforts to rationally design of microbicides for enhanced user acceptability must consider factors like size and firmness. Also, the decision to include or forego an applicator should be addressed early in the design process, as it strongly influences other design decisions. PMID:23358688

  9. Etanercept administration prevents the inflammatory response induced by carrageenan in the murine air pouch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Rodrigo Antônio; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases that affect approximately 1% of world's population. The development of TNF inhibitors in the last decade represents a great advance in the treatment of mild and severe forms of RA. Etanercept is one of these drugs that is useful for RA treatment, but the mechanism of inhibition of the signaling pathway of inflammation was not completely elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of etanercept in comparison to reference drugs (dexamethasone and indomethacin). Inflammation was induced by subcutaneal administration of carrageenan in the Swiss albino mice using the murine air pouch model. Exudation; leukocytes; myeloperoxidase (MPO); adenosine deaminase (ADA); nitric oxide metabolites (NOx); tumor necrosis factor (TNF); interferon gamma (IFN-γ); interleukins (IL) IL-6, IL-17, IL-10, IL-4, and IL-2; nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation and apoptosis were evaluated 24 h after the induction of inflammation. Treatment with etanercept significantly inhibited exudate concentrations; leukocyte count; MPO and ADA activities; NOx, TNF, IFN-γ, and IL-17 levels; and NF-kappa B activation (p < 0.05). Etanercept induced apoptosis, reducing the number of viable neutrophils without increasing necrosis (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of etanercept may be via decrease of NF-κB activation. This effect promoted the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NOx and the induction of neutrophil apoptosis. The effect of etanercept upon neutrophils apoptosis may indicate the use of this drug therapy in the early stage of rheumatoid arthritis disease. PMID:26255064

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Two Carrageenan-based Formulations to Prevent HPV Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Aixa; Kleinbeck, Kyle; Mizenina, Olga; Kizima, Larisa; Levendosky, Keith; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Villegas, Guillermo; Ford, Brian E.; Cooney, Michael L.; Teleshova, Natalia; Robbiani, Melissa; Herold, Betsy C.; Zydowsky, Thomas; Romero, José A. Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Commercial vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) have low uptake due to parental autonomy, dosing regimen, cost, and cold chain storage requirements. Carrageenan (CG)-based formulations prevent HPV infection in vitro and in vivo but data are needed on the durability of anti-HPV activity and the effect of seminal plasma (SP). The Population Council's PC-515 gel and the lubricant Divine 9 were tested for their physicochemical properties and anti-HPV activity against HPV16, 18, and 45 pseudoviruses (PsVs). Anti-PsV activity was estimated using the luciferase assay in HeLa cells and the HPV PsV luciferase mouse model. Formulations were applied intravaginally either 2 h pre/2 h post (-2 h/+2 h) or 24 h pre (-24 h) relative to challenge with HPV16 or 45 PsV in PBS or SP/PBS. Both formulations showed broad-spectrum anti-HPV activity in vitro (IC50: 1-20ng/ml), significantly decreasing HPV PsV infection in the mouse model (-2h/+2h, p<0.0001). PC-515 protected better than Divine 9 in the -24 h dosing regimen (p<0.0001) and comparable to Divine 9 in the -2 h/+2 h regimen (p=0.9841). PC-515 retained full activity in the murine model when PsV solutions contained human SP. The durable, potential broad-spectrum anti-HPV activity of CG formulations in the presence of SP supports their further development to prevent HPV acquisition. PMID:24909570

  11. Carrageenan Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Vitro1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Borthakur, Alip; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies in animal models have shown that the commonly used food additive carrageenan (CGN) induces inflammation and intestinal neoplasia. We performed the first studies to determine the effects of CGN exposure on human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in tissue culture and tested the effect of very low concentrations (1–10 mg/L) of undegraded, high-molecular weight CGN. These concentrations of CGN are less than the anticipated exposure of the human colon to CGN from the average Western diet. In the human colonic epithelial cell line NCM460 and in primary human colonic epithelial cells that were exposed to CGN for 1–8 d, we found increased cell death, reduced cell proliferation, and cell cycle arrest compared with unexposed control cells. After 6–8 d of CGN exposure, the percentage of cells reentering G0–G1 significantly decreased and the percentages of cells in S and G2-M phases significantly increased. Increases in activated p53, p21, and p15 followed CGN exposure, consistent with CGN-induced cell cycle arrest. Additional data, including DNA ladder, poly ADP ribose polymerase Western blot, nuclear DNA staining, and activities of caspases 3 and 7, indicated no evidence of increased apoptosis following CGN exposure and were consistent with CGN-induced necrotic cell death. These data document for the first time, to our knowledge, marked adverse effects of low concentrations of CGN on survival of normal human IEC and suggest that CGN exposure may have a role in development of human intestinal pathology. PMID:18287351

  12. Foaming Properties of Whey Protein Isolate and λ-Carrageenan Mixed Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengshan; Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-08-01

    Heating protein with polysaccharide under neutral or near neutral pH can induce the formation of soluble complex with improved functional properties. The objective of our research was to investigate the effects of λ-carrageenan (λC) concentrations and pH on foaming properties of heated whey protein isolate (WPI) and λC soluble complex (h-cpx) in comparison to heated WPI with added λC (pWPI-λC), and unheated WPI with λC (WPI-λC). In all 3 WPI-λC systems at pH 7, increasing λC concentration led to improved foamability until a certain concentration before it decreased. Despite their higher viscosity, both heated systems (pWPI-λC and h-cpx) showed significantly better foamability and foam stability compared to WPI-λC. Rheological results of foams with 0.25% λC suggested that higher elasticity and viscous films were produced in h-cpx and pWPI-λC systems corresponding to better foam stability. Foam microstructure images indicated that foams produced from h-cpx had thicker film and consisted of smaller initial bubble area and more uniform bubble size. Results from the effect of pH (6.2, 6.5, and 7.0) further confirmed that stronger interactions between WPI and λC during heating contributed to the improved foaming properties. Foam stability was higher in h-cpx system at all 3 pH levels, especially under pH 6.2 where there were strongest interactions between the biopolymers. PMID:26121991

  13. Griffithsin and Carrageenan Combination To Target Herpes Simplex Virus 2 and Human Papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendosky, Keith; Mizenina, Olga; Martinelli, Elena; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Kizima, Larisa; Rodriguez, Aixa; Kleinbeck, Kyle; Bonnaire, Thierry; Robbiani, Melissa; Zydowsky, Thomas M; O'Keefe, Barry R; Fernández-Romero, José A

    2015-12-01

    Extensive preclinical evaluation of griffithsin (GRFT) has identified this lectin to be a promising broad-spectrum microbicide. We set out to explore the antiviral properties of a GRFT and carrageenan (CG) combination product against herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) as well as determine the mechanism of action (MOA) of GRFT against both viruses. We performed the experiments in different cell lines, using time-of-addition and temperature dependence experiments to differentiate inhibition of viral attachment from entry and viral receptor internalization. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to assess GRFT binding to viral glycoproteins, and immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry were used to identify the specific glycoprotein involved. We determined the antiviral activity of GRFT against HSV-2 to be a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 230 nM and provide the first evidence that GRFT has moderate anti-HPV activity (EC50 = 0.429 to 1.39 μM). GRFT blocks the entry of HSV-2 and HPV into target cells but not the adsorption of HSV-2 and HPV onto target cells. The results of the SPR, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemistry analyses of HSV-2 combined suggest that GRFT may block viral entry by binding to HSV-2 glycoprotein D. Cell-based assays suggest anti-HPV activity through α6 integrin internalization. The GRFT-CG combination product but not GRFT or CG alone reduced HSV-2 vaginal infection in mice when given an hour before challenge (P = 0.0352). While GRFT significantly protected mice against vaginal HPV infection when dosed during and after HPV16 pseudovirus challenge (P < 0.026), greater CG-mediated protection was afforded by the GRFT-CG combination for up to 8 h (P < 0.0022). These findings support the development of the GRFT-CG combination as a broad-spectrum microbicide. PMID:26369967

  14. Carrageenan type effect on soybean oil/soy protein isolate emulsion employed as fat replacer in panela-type cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Nery, E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to modify the fatty acid profile of panela-type cheese (a Mexican fresh cheese, emulsified soybean oil with soy protein isolate and different carrageenan (iota, kappa or lambda was employed as fat replacer. The replacement of milk fat in panela-type cheese resulted in higher cheese yield values and moisture content, besides a concomitant lower fat phase and higher protein content, due to a soy protein isolate in emulsified soybean oil. Fat replacement resulted in a harder but less cohesive, spring and resilient texture, where differences in texture could be attributed to the specific carrageenan-casein interactions within the rennet coagulated cheese matrix. The FTIR analysis showed that the milk fat replacement changed the fatty acid profile, also in function of the type of carrageenan employed. Lambda carrageenan containing emulsions improved moisture retention and maintained the textural properties of panela-type cheese.Para modificar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los quesos tipo panela (queso fresco popular en México, se utilizó aceite de soja emulsionado con aislado de proteína de soja y diferentes carrageninas (iota, kappa o lambda como sustituto de la grasa. Reemplazar la grasa de la leche en el queso tipo panela resultó en mayor rendimiento quesero y mayor contenido de humedad, además de una concomitante menor fase grasa y mayor contenido de proteína, debido al aislado de proteína de soja en el aceite de soja emulsionado. La sustitución de la grasa dio como resultado una textura más dura, pero menos cohesiva, elástica y resiliente, donde estas diferencias podrían ser atribuidas a la interacción especifica entre carrageninas-caseinas en la matriz coagulada del queso. El análisis de FTIR muestra que reemplazar la grasa de la leche cambia el perfil de ácidos grasos, también en función del tipo de carragenina empleado. Las emulsiones con lambda carrageninas mejoraron la retención de humedad y mantuvieron las

  15. Chitosan and Kappa-Carrageenan Vaginal Acyclovir Formulations for Prevention of Genital Herpes. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Pilar Sánchez-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations have been developed for the controlled release of acyclovir, which may prevent the sexual transmission of the herpes simplex virus. Drug release studies were carried out in two media: simulated vaginal fluid and simulated vaginal fluid/simulated seminal fluid mixture. The bioadhesive capacity and permanence time of the bioadhesion, the prepared compacts, and compacted granules were determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate. Swelling processes were quantified to confirm the release data. Biocompatibility was evaluated through in vitro cellular toxicity assays, and the results showed that acyclovir and the rest of the materials had no cytotoxicity at the maximum concentration tested. The mixture of hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose with chitosan- or kappa-carrageenan-originated mucoadhesive systems that presented a complete and sustained release of acyclovir for a period of 8–9 days in both media. Swelling data revealed the formation of optimal mixed chitosan/hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose gels which could be appropriated for the prevention of sexual transmission of HSV.

  16. Enhancement in bioavailability of ketorolac tromethamine via intranasal in situ hydrogel based on poloxamer 407 and carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Zheshuo; Li, Qiuhong; Yan, Xueying; Liu, Yu; Lu, Weiyue

    2014-10-20

    The objective of this study was to construct a new in situ gel system based on the combination of poloxamer 407 and carrageenan (carrageenan-poloxamer 407 hydrogel, CPH) for intranasal delivery of ketorolac tromethamine. CPH showed potassium ion concentration - dependent erosion characteristics which ensured slow erosion in aqueous environment containing potassium ion at the physiological level. Loading with ketorolac tromethamine influenced erosion, drug release and thermosensitive properties of CPH. CPH containing 15% ketorolac tromethamine showed suitable gelation temperature (near 35°C) and in vitro sustained release profiles. Pharmacokinetic study of intranasal CPH containing 15% ketorolac tromethamine in rats demonstrated enhanced absolute bioavailability (68.8 ± 23.3%) and prolonged mean residence time (8.8 ± 3.5h) in comparison with the intranasal solution group (24.8 ± 13.8%, 3.9 ± 0.6h). Nasal ciliotoxicity evaluation on an in situ toad palate model preliminarily showed the safety of CPH for intranasal use. All results suggested the potential of CPH as a new sustained - release platform for the intranasal delivery of ketorolac tromethamine. PMID:25138250

  17. Synthesis of superabsorbent hydrogel by radiation crosslinking of acrylic acid, semi-refined kappa-carrageenan and sugarcane bagasse blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superabsorbent hydrogels have three-dimensional networks that enable it to exhibit great water absorption capacity leading to its promising applications. However, existing commercial hydrogels are mainly acrylic acid which causes environmental problems. In this study, the incorporation of agricultural waste as filler and polysaccharide from natural sources as binder for the production of superabsorbent hydrogel was done to reduce the use of acrylic acid as well as its environmental impact while adding value to the incorporated materials. A series of superabsorbent hydrogel with the blend of acrylic acid, semi-refined kappa carrageenan and sugarcane bagasse were synthesized by radiation crosslinking. The gel fraction and swelling capacity of the hydrogels were determined and studied. The characterizations were facilitated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). In the results obtained from analyses, the characteristic peaks of acrylic acid and sugarcane bagasse were observed in the FTIR spectra and the three step peaks if synthesized hydrogel in its TGA implies an improvement in thermal stability of the product. The synthesized superabsorbent hydrogel blends had exhibited comparable gel fraction to that of the polyacrylic acid hydrogel, had great swelling capacity, and achieved equilibrium degree of swelling within 72-96 hours. The optimum synthesized superabsorbent hydrogel is 3% semi-refined kappa-carrageenan, 3% sugarcane bagasse, 15% acrylic acid neutralize up to 50% and irradiated at 15kGy dose which exhibited a swelling of 599.53 and gel fraction of 39.73. (author)

  18. Controlled release of diclofenac sodium from pH-responsive carrageenan-g-poly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent hydrogel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, controlled release of diclofenac sodium (DS) from pH-sensitive carrageenan-gpoly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent hydrogels was investigated. The hydrogels were prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto kappa-carrageenan, using ammonium persulfate (APS) as a free radical initiator in the presence of methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. Infrared spectroscopy was carried out to confirm the chemical structure of the hydrogel. Moreover, morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesized hydrogels were subjected to equilibrium swelling studies in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF). Hydrogels containing drug DS, at different drug-to-polymer ratios, were prepared by direct adsorption method. The loading yield was found to depend on both the impregnation time and the amount of encapsulated drug. In vitro drug-release studies in different buffer solutions showed that the most important parameter affecting the drug-release behaviour of hydrogels is the pH of the solution. The mechanism involved in release was Fickian ( ≤ 0.43, = 0.348) and Super Case II kinetics ( > 1, = 1.231) at pH 1.2 and 7.4, respectively.

  19. Corrosion inhibition of iota-carrageenan natural polymer on aluminum in presence of zwitterion mediator in HCl media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Inhibition of Al by ι-carrageenan in the presence of zwitterion mediator was investigated. ► Considerable improvement in inhibition efficiency observed in the presence of zwitterion mediator. ► Coherent physical adsorption layer was evidenced by kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. ► Small but consistent fractured island layers observed after acid exposure as revealed by SEM images. - Abstract: ι-Carrageenan a natural polymer has been used as corrosion inhibitor of aluminum in presence of pefloxacin mesylate, acting as zwitterionic mediator, in acidic medium. Considerable improvement in inhibition efficiency occurred in the presence of the mediator. Activation energy of corrosion and other thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy, standard enthalpy, and standard entropy of the adsorption process revealed better and well-ordered physical adsorption layers in presence of pefloxacin. Adsorption isotherms in absence or presence of pefloxacin mediator appropriately fit in the Langmuir isotherms. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images demonstrated smooth, glossy, and relatively coherent adsorption layers of the inhibitor on the metal surface in aqueous solution. After the exposure to 2.0 M HCl for 2 h, a smaller but consistent regular shaped fractured layer is obtained.

  20. Iota-carrageenan/chitosan/gelatin scaffold for the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived MSCs in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjie; Yang, Boguang; Qian, Yufeng; Wang, Qiyu; Han, Ruijin; Hao, Tong; Shu, Yao; Zhang, Yabin; Yao, Fanglian; Wang, Changyong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we have developed ι-carrageenan/chitosan/gelatin (CCG) scaffold containing multiple functional groups (-NH2 , -OH, -COOH, and -SO3 H) to resemble the native extracellular matrix (ECM), using the ion-shielding technology and ultrasonic dispersion method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the CCG scaffolds suggests that the formation of CCG network involves electrostatic interactions between ι-carrageenan (ι-CA) and chitosan/gelatin, and the covalent cross-linking among amino groups of chitosan and/or gelatin. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation reveals that the porous structure of scaffolds can be modulated by the ratio of ι-CA to chitosan/gelatin. The swelling ratio of the hydrogels increases as the ι-CA contents increase. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we found that the double helix structure of ι-CA is only stabilized at low contents of ι-CA in the CCG scaffolds (e.g., 5 wt %). The scaffolds containing 5% ι-CA showed the best protein adsorption capacity (4.46 ± 0.63 μg protein/mg scaffold) and elastic modulus (5.37 ± 1.03 MPa). In addition, the CCG scaffolds exhibit excellent support for adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) attachment and proliferation, and they can improve the osteogenic differentiation and neovascularization capacities of ADMSCs. Overall, we conclude that the CCG may represent an ideal scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25449538

  1. Effect of Hautriwaic Acid Isolated from Dodonaea viscosa in a Model of Kaolin/Carrageenan-Induced Monoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Sánchez, David Osvaldo; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Pérez, Salud; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Tortoriello, Jaime; González-Cortazar, Manasés; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, the antiarthritic activity of hautriwaic acid is reported. This ent-clerodane diterpene isolated from Dodonaea viscosa was evaluated in mice using a kaolin/carrageenan-induced monoarthritis model. The inflammation observed in the joint (knee) on days 1-8 ranged from 50-70 %. After 10 days of treatment with different doses of hautriwaic acid (5, 10, 20 mg/kg), a decrease in knee inflammation was detected. This recovery was observed with both reference drugs, methotrexate (1 mg/kg) and diclofenac (0.75 mg/kg). In these groups of mice, the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in the joint was significantly lower than that of the negative control group (animals with damage without any treatment). The negative control group presented a decrease in the concentration of interleukin-10, while the groups that received hautriwaic acid at different dose exhibited an increase in this interleukin. This anti-inflammatory cytokine was not modified in the joint of mice with diclofenac, but in mice that received methotrexate, a significant decrease was observed. Hautriwaic acid isolated from D. viscosa diminished the joint edema induced by this mixture of polysaccharides (carrageenan), possibly by acting as immunomodulator of the inflammatory response. PMID:26166136

  2. Optimal Immobilization of β-Galactosidase onto κ-Carrageenan Gel Beads Using Response Surface Methodology and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnashar, Magdy M.; Awad, Ghada E.; Hassan, Mohamed E.; Mohy Eldin, Mohamed S.; Haroun, Bakry M.; El-Diwany, Ahmed I.

    2014-01-01

    β-Galactosidase (β-gal) was immobilized by covalent binding on novel κ-carrageenan gel beads activated by two-step method; the gel beads were soaked in polyethyleneimine followed by glutaraldehyde. 22 full-factorial central composite experiment designs were employed to optimize the conditions for the maximum enzyme loading efficiency. 11.443 U of enzyme/g gel beads was achieved by soaking 40 units of enzyme with the gel beads for eight hours. Immobilization process increased the pH from 4.5 to 5.5 and operational temperature from 50 to 55°C compared to the free enzyme. The apparent Km after immobilization was 61.6 mM compared to 22.9 mM for free enzyme. Maximum velocity Vmax was 131.2 μmol·min−1 while it was 177.1 μmol·min−1 for free enzyme. The full conversion experiment showed that the immobilized enzyme form is active as that of the free enzyme as both of them reached their maximum 100% relative hydrolysis at 4 h. The reusability test proved the durability of the κ-carrageenan beads loaded with β-galactosidase for 20 cycles with retention of 60% of the immobilized enzyme activity to be more convenient for industrial uses. PMID:24672334

  3. Chitosan and Kappa-Carrageenan Vaginal Acyclovir Formulations for Prevention of Genital Herpes. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, María-Pilar; Martín-Illana, Araceli; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Bermejo, Paulina; Abad, María-José; Carro, Rubén; Bedoya, Luis-Miguel; Tamayo, Aitana; Rubio, Juan; Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; Otero-Espinar, Francisco; Veiga, María-Dolores

    2015-09-01

    Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations have been developed for the controlled release of acyclovir, which may prevent the sexual transmission of the herpes simplex virus. Drug release studies were carried out in two media: simulated vaginal fluid and simulated vaginal fluid/simulated seminal fluid mixture. The bioadhesive capacity and permanence time of the bioadhesion, the prepared compacts, and compacted granules were determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate. Swelling processes were quantified to confirm the release data. Biocompatibility was evaluated through in vitro cellular toxicity assays, and the results showed that acyclovir and the rest of the materials had no cytotoxicity at the maximum concentration tested. The mixture of hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose with chitosan- or kappa-carrageenan-originated mucoadhesive systems that presented a complete and sustained release of acyclovir for a period of 8-9 days in both media. Swelling data revealed the formation of optimal mixed chitosan/hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose gels which could be appropriated for the prevention of sexual transmission of HSV. PMID:26393621

  4. Effects of κ-carrageenan on rheological properties of dually modified sago starch: Towards finding gelatin alternative for hard capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakharian, Mohammad-Hassan; Tamimi, Nasser; Abbaspour, Hossein; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Karim, A A

    2015-11-01

    Composite sago starch-based system was developed and characterized with the aim to find an alternative to gelatin in the processing of pharmaceutical capsules. Dually modified (Hydrolyzed-Hydroxypropylated) sago starches were combined with κ-carrageenan (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1%). The rheological properties of the proposed composite system were measured and compared with gelatin as reference material. Results show that combination of HHSS12 (Hydrolysed-hydroxypropylated sago starch at 12h) with 0.5% κ-carrageenan was comparable to gelatin rheological behavior in pharmaceutical capsule processing. The solution viscosity at 50 °C and sol-gel transition of the proposed composite system were comparable to those of gelatin. The viscoelastic moduli (G' and G") for the proposed system were lower than those of gelatin. These results illustrate that by manipulation of the constituents of sago starch-based composite system, a suitable alternative to gelatin can be produced with comparable properties and this could find potential application in pharmaceutical capsule industry. PMID:26256336

  5. Evaluation of kappa carrageenan as potential carrier for floating drug delivery system: Effect of pore forming agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumaran, Suguna; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Abd Razak, Saiful Izwan

    2016-01-01

    Floating hydrogels were prepared from kappa carrageenan containing CaCO3 and NaHCO3 as pore forming agents. The effects of CaCO3 and NaHCO3 on hydrogel characterizations were investigated and compared. Amoxicillin trihydrate was used as a model drug. Characterizations of the hydrogels were carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). As pore forming agents concentration increases, the porosity (%) and floating properties increased. NaHCO3 incorporated hydrogels showed higher porosity with shorter floating lag time (FLT) than CaCO3. Hydrogel which contained CaCO3 exhibited better gel stability over the control and NaHCO3 containing gel. Incorporation of CaCO3 into kappa carrageenan hydrogel showed smoother surface gels compared to those produced with NaHCO3. CaCO3 also showed higher drug entrapment efficiency and sustained drug release profile than NaHCO3. The results of these studies showed that, CaCO3 is an effective pore forming agents in κC hydrogels preparation as compare to NaHCO3. Thus, CaCO3 can be an excellent pore forming agent for an effective floating drug delivery system. PMID:26453870

  6. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases C, N and S assimilation, auxin and gibberellin contents, and growth in Pinus radiata trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Saucedo; Rodrigo A Contreras; Alejandra Moenne

    2015-01-01

    Oligo-carrageenans (OCs) obtained from pure carrageenans extracted from marine red algae stimulate growth by enhancing photosynthesis and basal metabolism in tobacco plants and Eucalyptus trees. In addition, OCs stimulate secondary metabolism, increasing the level of metabolites involved in defense against pathogens. In this work, we analyzed the effect of OC kappa on the increase in height, in activities of basal metabolism enzymes in-volved in carbon, nitrogen and sulphur assimilation, ribu-lose 1,5 biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and O-acetylserine thiol-lyase (OASTL), and in the level of growth-promoting hormones, the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA) and the gibberellin GA3, in pine (Pinus radiata) trees treated with OC kappa at concentrations of 1 and 5 mg mL-1 and cultivated for 9 months without additional treatment. Pines treated with OC kappa at 1 mg mL-1 showed a similar increase in height but displayed a higher increased in total chlorophyll, activities of rubisco, GDH and OASTL and level of IAA and GA3 than those treated with OC kappa at 5 mg mL-1. Thus, OC kappa stimulates growth and basal metabolism and increases the level of growth-promoting hormones in pine trees, mainly at 1 mg mL-1.

  7. Low-fat sodium-reduced sausages: Effect of the interaction between locust bean gum, potato starch and κ-carrageenan by a mixture design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Elizabeth; Totosaus, Alfonso

    2008-04-01

    A mixture design approach was used to evaluate interactions between potato starch, locust bean gum and κ-carrageenan and their effect on cooking yield, expressible moisture, texture and color in low-fat sodium-reduced sausages formulated with potassium and calcium chloride. Starch had a notable influence on cooking yield and texture, increasing product hardness and resilience as starch proportion increased. The added salt did not allow complete starch granule gelatinization and swelling, which negatively affected water retention, cohesiveness and lightness. Locust bean gum and κ-carrageenan improved cooking yield and reduced expressible moisture in formulations containing higher proportions of potato starch. The presence of other ions could have enhanced κ-carrageenan functionality and its synergistic interaction with locust bean gum, improving texture and water retention, with only minor effects on sausage color. At the lower tested proportions starch can be used as an extender in low-fat cooked meat products if κ-carrageenan and locust bean gum are included in similar proportions. PMID:22062459

  8. Fuzzy Clustering-Based Modeling of Surface Interactions and Emulsions of Selected Whey Protein Concentrate Combined to i-Carrageenan and Gum Arabic Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gums and proteins are valuable ingredients with a wide spectrum of applications. Surface properties (surface tension, interfacial tension, emulsion activity index “EAI” and emulsion stability index “ESI”) of 4% whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a combination with '- carrageenan (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.5...

  9. Radioprotection potential of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan used as food additive; Potencial radioprotetor do acido ascorbico sobre a carragenana utilizada como aditivo alimenticio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajaliste@net.ipen.br; nlmastro@net.ipen.br

    2002-07-01

    Carrageenans are a group of natural carbohydrates that are present in the structure of certain varieties of red algae (Rhodophyceae). They are used in emulsions, for syneresis control and to grow up, to promote adhesiveness and dispersion. In the industry of foods they can be used for instance, as thickness and gelling agents, alone or together with other additives. The processing of foods by radiation is increasing considerably, because the efficiency of the process in the industrial decontamination of products. The objective of this work was to study the action of the ascorbic acid as potential radioprotector of the carrageenan against {sup 60} Co gamma radiation effects, using the viscosity as parameter. Samples of commercial carrageenan dissolved at 1,0% were irradiated in the presence or not of ascorbic acid, with doses of 0.0 kGy; 1.0 kGy; 2.5 kGy; 5.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. After the irradiation the relationships viscosity/dose were established for the temperature of 60 deg C. For the dose of 10.0 kGy a better protecting effect of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan was seen. The implications of the use of this antioxidant is discussed as a form of minimizing the effect of the radiation in irradiated foods. (author)

  10. Antinociceptive Effect of Vardenafil on Carrageenan-Induced Hyperalgesia in Rat: involvement of Nitric Oxide/Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate/Calcium Channels Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gediz, Ezgi İkiz; Nacitarhan, Cahit; Minareci, Edibe; Sadan, Gulay

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the peripheral antinociception effects of specific phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor vardenafil on carrageenan-induced nociception in rats, and the role of calcium besides the L-arginine- nitric oxide (NO)- cyclic guanosine monophophate (cGMP) pathway in these effects. Hyperalgesia was induced by the intraplantar injection of 0.1 mL fresh carrageenan solution to right hind-paw whereas, saline as a vehicle of carrageenan was injected to the left paw. This procedure was used for measuring mechanic nociception pressure via an analgesimeter. Pressure which produced nociception was measured before (0 minute) and after(15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes) carrageenan injection. Local administration of vardenafil produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect. Pretreatment with N(W)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), oxadiazolo (4, 3, a) quinoxalin -1-one (ODQ, inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase) or A23187 (calcium ionophore) decreased the effect of vardenafil. In contrast, L-arginine (nitric oxide donor) seemed to potentiate the vardenafil-induced antinociception. Our results suggest that phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor vardenafil may offer a new therapeutic tool to treat pain. It's effect was probably result from L-arginine/NO-cGMP pathway activation and Ca + 2 channels are also involved. PMID:26664380

  11. Optimization of formulation of cmc-na, xanthan gum and carrageenan affecting the physicochemical properties of papaya-wolfberry beverage using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMC-Na, xanthan gum and carrageenan are widely employed in food industry. They were used for its thickening properties of aqueous solutions or emulsifying abilities. The present work aims to optimize the formula of the three stabilizers in the process of papaya-wolfberry beverage by response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the models were significantly (p<0.05) fitted for describing the viscosity and cloudiness of papaya-wolfberry beverage. The results also indicated that the linear terms of CMC-Na and xanthan gum were the most significant (p<0.05) variables affecting the viscosity, while xanthan gum and carrageenan were the most significant (p<0.05) variable affecting the cloudiness. The interaction of CMC-Na and xanthan gum behaved extremely significant for viscosity. From the optimization procedure, the best formula for viscosity was obtained at the combined level of 0.0652% (w/w) CMC-Na, 0.1070% (w/w) xanthan gum and 0.1485% (w/w) carrageenan, and the other group of 0.0623% (w/w) CMC-Na, 0.1375% (w/w) xanthan gum and 0.1461% (w/w) carrageenan for cloudiness. The results of our study would be used to improve the quality of papaya-wolfberry beverage and increase its economic efficiency. (author)

  12. Carrageenan Inhibits Insulin Signaling through GRB10-mediated Decrease in Tyr(P)-IRS1 and through Inflammation-induced Increase in Ser(P)307-IRS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation induced by exposure to the common food additive carrageenan leads to insulin resistance by increase in Ser(P)307-insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and subsequent decline in the insulin-stimulated increase in Ser(P)473-AKT. Inhibition of carrageenan-induced inflammation reversed the increase in Ser(P)307-IRS1 but did not completely reverse the carrageenan-induced decline in Ser(P)473-AKT. To identify the additional mechanism responsible for the decrease in Ser(P)473-AKT, studies were performed in human HepG2 cells and in C57BL/6J mice. Following carrageenan, expression of GRB10 (growth factor receptor-bound 10 protein), an adaptor protein that binds to the insulin receptor and inhibits insulin signaling, increased significantly. GRB10 silencing blocked the carrageenan-induced reduction of the insulin-stimulated increase in Tyr(P)-IRS1 and partially reversed the decline in Ser(P)473-AKT. The combination of GRB10 silencing with BCL10 silencing and the reactive oxygen species inhibitor Tempol completely reversed the decline in Ser(P)473-AKT. After carrageenan, GRB10 promoter activity was enhanced because of activation by GATA2. A direct correlation between Ser(P)473-AKT and Ser(P)401-GATA2 was evident, and inhibition of AKT phosphorylation by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked Ser401-GATA2 phosphorylation and the increase in GRB10 expression. Studies indicated that carrageenan inhibited insulin signaling by two mechanisms: through the inflammation-mediated increase in Ser(P)307-IRS1, a negative regulator of insulin signaling, and through a transcriptional mechanism leading to increase in GRB10 expression and GRB10-inhibition of Tyr(P)-IRS1, a positive regulator of insulin signaling. These mechanisms converge to inhibit the insulin-induced increase in Ser(P)473-AKT. They provide internal feedback, mediated by Ser(P)473-AKT, Ser(P)401-GATA2, and nuclear GATA2, which links the opposing effects of serine and tyrosine phosphorylations of IRS1 and can

  13. Influence of maltodextrin and environmental stresses on stability of whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan stabilized sesame oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsaard, E; Putthanimon, J; Singthong, J; Thammarutwasik, P

    2014-12-01

    The influence of maltodextrin with different concentrations (0-30%) and dextrose equivalent (dextrose equivalent 10 and dextrose equivalent 15) under different environmental stresses (pH 3-8, NaCl 0-500 mM, and sucrose 0-20%) on the stability of whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan stabilized sesame oil-in-water emulsions was investigated by mean particle diameter, particle size distribution, ζ-potential, microstructure, and viscosity. Sesame oil-in-water emulsions containing anionic droplets stabilized by interfacial membranes comprising whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan/maltodextrin (15% sesame oil, 0.5% whey protein concentrate, 0.2% κ-carrageenan, 0.02% sodium azide and 0-30% maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent of 10 and 15, 5 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7) were produced using a homogenizer. The primary emulsion (1°) containing whey protein concentrate-coated droplets was prepared by homogenizing. The secondary emulsion (2°) containing whey protein concentrate-κ-carrageenan in the absence or presence of maltodextrin was produced by mixing the 1° emulsion with an aqueous κ-carrageenan in the absence or presence of maltodextrin solution. There were no significant changes in mean droplet diameter and ζ-potential of droplets at any maltodextrin concentration (0-30%) or dextrose equivalent (10 and 15) after 24 h storage. The apparent viscosity of emulsions increased when the maltodextrin concentration increased. The 2° emulsion containing 15% maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent of 10 had the stability to aggregation at pH 6-8, NaCl ≤ 300 mM, and sucrose 0-20%. The addition of maltodextrin to emulsion can be used to form emulsions with different physicochemical properties for various applications in food processing (for example, encapsulation). PMID:23922288

  14. Imaging of Carrageenan-Induced Local Inflammation and Adjuvant-Induced Systemic Arthritis with [11C]PBR28 PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xia; Wang, Xueding; English, Sean J; Desmond, Timothy; Sherman, Phillip S; Quesada, Carole A; Piert, Morand R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction [11C]PBR28 binding to translocator protein (TSPO) was evaluated for imaging of acute and chronic inflammation using two established rat models. Methods Acute inflammation was induced by local Carrageenan-injection into the paw of Fisher 344 rats (model A). T-cell mediated adjuvant arthritis was induced by heat-inactivated Mycobacterium butyricum injection in Lewis rats (model B). Micro-PET scan was performed after injection of approximately 35 MBq [11C]PBR28. In model A, volumes of interest (VOIs) were defined in the paw of Fisher 344 rats (n=6) with contralateral sham treatment as control. For model B, VOIs were defined in the tail, sacroiliac joints, hips, knees and thigh muscles of M. butyricum treated animals (n=8) and compared with sham-treated controls (n=4). The peak 11C-PBR28 SUV (SUVpeak) and area under the curve (AUCSUV) of 60-minute time-activity data were calculated. Immunohistochemistry for CD68, a macrophage stain, was performed from paw tissues. In addition, the [11C]PBR28 cell uptake was measured in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated and non-stimulated macrophage cultures. Results LPS-stimulated macrophages displayed dose-dependent increased [11C]PBR28 uptake, which was blocked by non-labeled PBR28. In both models, radiotracer uptake of treated lesions increased rapidly within minutes and displayed overall accumulative kinetics. The SUVpeak and AUCSUV of Carrageenan-treated paws was significantly increased compared to controls. Also, the [11C]PBR28 uptake ratio of Carrageenan-treated vs. sham-treated paw correlated significantly with CD68 staining ratios of the same animals. In adjuvant arthritis, significantly increased [11C]PBR28 SUVpeak and AUCSUV values were identified at the tail, knees, and sacroiliac joints, while no significant differences were identified in the lumbar spine and hips. Conclusions Based on our initial data, [11C]PBR28 PET appears to have potential for imaging of various inflammatory processes involving

  15. The prophylactic effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid and salazosulphapyridine on degraded-carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    placebo group, all guinea pigs developed many small punctiform ulcerations in the cecum (median, 30/cm2). In the 5-ASA group no protective effect was demonstrated, since the number of ulcerations was 37/cm2. The difference is not statistically significant. However, the SASP group presented significantly......Experimental colitis was induced in guinea pigs by administration of 5% degraded carrageenan for 5 days. The prophylactic effect of a slow-release preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA; 13 mg/100 g/day) was compared with approximately equimolar amounts of salazosulphapyridine (SASP; 26 mg/100...... fewer ulcerations (4/cm2). The concentrations of 5-ASA and/or its acetylated metabolite were several times higher in the cecum content and twice as high in plasma in the SASP group, indicating a difference in the absorption patterns of 5-ASA and the two drugs. These results and the etiological...

  16. Juiciness improvement of frozen battered shrimp burger using modified tapioca starch, sodium alginate, and iota-carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongkarn Kijroongrojana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A battered shrimp burger, as a new value-added shrimp product, was developed by increasing the juiciness of a frozen battered shrimp burger using a mixture of hydrocolloids. The formulations of hydrocolloid mixtures containing modified tapioca starch (MTS, sodium alginate (AL, and iota-carrageenan (CA were optimized. Juiciness measurements were defined and analyzed by 13 trained panelists. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA as well as moisture and fat contents of the products were analyzed. The mixture of MTS and AL had an impact on moisture content and juiciness scores, while CA influenced the hardness. The product made using the optimized formulation (0.3% MTS + 0.7% AL had a higher moisture content andjuiciness scores (p0.05. However, higher springiness and gumminess were found in the control burger (p0.05.

  17. Effect of κ-carrageenan on volume phase transition for polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel using the fluorescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Demet Kaya

    2014-03-01

    Steady-state fluorescence (SSF) technique was employed for studying swelling of polyacrylamide (PAAm) gels with various content of κ-carrageenan ( κC). Disc shaped composite hydrogels were prepared by free-radical crosslinking copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) with various amounts κC. N, N'-methylenebis (acrylamide) (BIS) and ammonium persulfate (APS) were used as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. Pyranine was introduced as a fluorescence probe. Fluorescence intensity of pyranine was monitored during in situ swelling processes of composite gels. It was observed that fluorescence intensity values decreased as swelling is proceeded. Li-Tanaka equation was used to determine the swelling time constants, τ and cooperative diffusion coefficients, D from intensity variations during the swelling processes. It was shown that swelling time constants, τ decreased and diffusion coefficients, D increased as the κC content in the composites are increased.

  18. Interactions between kappa-carrageenan and some surfactants in the bulk solution and at the surface of alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grządka, E

    2015-06-01

    The interactions between surfactants (SDS, CTAB, TX-100 or their equimolar mixtures) and kappa-carrageenan (Carr) in the bulk solution and at the surface of alumina were determined using the surface tension and the spectrophotometric adsorption measurements. The obtained results show that Carr has the ability to create the multilayer complexes with CTAB, TX-100 and the equimolar mixtures of surfactants (CTAB/TX-100), but does not interact with SDS. The created complexes are electrostatic (with CTAB) or they are of different mechanisms such as the hydrogen bonding or the acid-base interactions (with TX-100). The electrokinetic measurements (the surface charge density and the zeta potential) allow to analyze the structure of the adsorption layer: polymer/surfactant/metal oxide. It turned out that the macromolecules of Carr are directly bonded to the surface whereas the surfactants are present in the upper parts of the electrical double layer. PMID:25843828

  19. Models of Inflammation: Carrageenan- or Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-Induced Edema and Hypersensitivity in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarson, Kenneth E

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of inflammation are used to assess the production of inflammatory mediators at sites of inflammation, the processing of pain sensation at CNS sites, the anti-inflammatory properties of agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and the efficacy of putative analgesic compounds in reversing cutaneous hypersensitivity. Detailed in this unit are methods to elicit and measure carrageenan- and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced cutaneous inflammation. Due to possible differences between the dorsal root sensory system and the trigeminal sensory system, injections into either the footpad or vibrissal pad are described. In this manner, cutaneous inflammation can be assessed in tissue innervated by the lumbar dorsal root ganglion neurons (footpad) or by the trigeminal ganglion neurons (vibrissal pad). PMID:26331888

  20. Preventive Effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on Thrombosis in κ-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma

    Full Text Available Based on the prodrug principle, aspirin eugenol ester (AEE was synthesized, which can reduce the side effects of aspirin and eugenol. As a good candidate for new antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory medicine, it is essential to evaluate its preventive effect on thrombosis. Preventive effect of AEE was investigated in κ-carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombosis model. AEE suspension liquids were prepared in 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na. AEE was administrated at the dosage of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg. Aspirin (20 mg/kg, eugenol (18 mg/kg and 0.5% CMC-Na (30 mg/kg were used as control drug. In order to compare the effects between AEE and its precursor, integration of aspirin and eugenol group (molar ratio 1:1 was also designed in the experiment. After drugs were administrated intragastrically for seven days, each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg BW κ-carrageen dissolved in physiological saline to induce thrombosis. The length of tail-thrombosis was measured at 24 and 48 hours. The blank group just was given physiological saline for seven days without κ-carrageenan administrated. The results indicated that AEE significantly not only reduced the average length of thrombus, PT values and FIB concentration, but also reduced the red blood cell (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB, hematocrit (HCT and platelet (PLT. The effects of AEE on platelet aggregation and anticoagulant in vitro showed that AEE could inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP-induced platelet aggregation as dose-dependence but no notable effect on blood clotting. From these results, it was concluded that AEE possessed positive effect on thrombosis prevention in vivo through the reduction of FIB, PLT, inhibition of platelet aggregation and the change of TT and PT values.

  1. [Investigations on the acute, carrageenan-induced inflammatory reaction and pharmacology of orally administered sodium salicylate in turkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Kerstin; Schmidt, Volker; Richter, Andreas; Fuhrmann, Herbert; Abraham, Getu; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The complex mechanisms of acute inflammation have been subject to veterinary investigations since a long time. However, knowledge on the role of specific inflammatory mediators, as well as pharmacokinetics (PK) and -dynamics (PD) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in birds is limited. The objective of this work therefore was to establish a modified tissue cage-model to investigate the acute, carrageenan-mediated inflammatory response, as well as plasma and exudate-kinetics and the antiphlogistic effect of orally administered sodium salicylate on the elicited inflammatory reaction in turkeys. Within the class Aves, comparable studies have so far only been published in chicken. Following bilateral subcutaneous implantation of carrageenan-treated synthetic sponges in the lateral thoracic region, sodium salicylate was administered orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight (BW; therapy group) twice daily on three consecutive days, while a control group received drinking water as a placebo (n = 24 per group). Combined PK and PD of sodium salicylate were evaluated on the basis of salicylate- and prostaglandin (PG) E2-plasma- and -exudate-concentrations, exudate volumes, as well as leukocyte exudate counts. Sodium salicylate was readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and accumulated in the inflammatory exudate. At 4, 6, and 10 h after first application, sodium salicylate significantly reduced PG E2-concentrations in the inflammatory exudate when compared to the control group, whereas leukocyte exudate counts increased over time in both study groups, unaffected by sodium salicylate The described modified tissue cage-model can be beneficial for further research on the pathophysiology of avian inflammatory processes and the investigation of the combined pharmacodynamics and -kinetics of drugs in birds of adequate size. PMID:26054231

  2. Preventive Effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on Thrombosis in κ-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Xi-Wang; Yang, Ya-Jun; Li, Jian-Yong; Mohamed, Isam; Liu, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Ji-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the prodrug principle, aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) was synthesized, which can reduce the side effects of aspirin and eugenol. As a good candidate for new antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory medicine, it is essential to evaluate its preventive effect on thrombosis. Preventive effect of AEE was investigated in κ-carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombosis model. AEE suspension liquids were prepared in 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na). AEE was administrated at the dosage of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg. Aspirin (20 mg/kg), eugenol (18 mg/kg) and 0.5% CMC-Na (30 mg/kg) were used as control drug. In order to compare the effects between AEE and its precursor, integration of aspirin and eugenol group (molar ratio 1:1) was also designed in the experiment. After drugs were administrated intragastrically for seven days, each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg BW κ-carrageen dissolved in physiological saline to induce thrombosis. The length of tail-thrombosis was measured at 24 and 48 hours. The blank group just was given physiological saline for seven days without κ-carrageenan administrated. The results indicated that AEE significantly not only reduced the average length of thrombus, PT values and FIB concentration, but also reduced the red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT) and platelet (PLT). The effects of AEE on platelet aggregation and anticoagulant in vitro showed that AEE could inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation as dose-dependence but no notable effect on blood clotting. From these results, it was concluded that AEE possessed positive effect on thrombosis prevention in vivo through the reduction of FIB, PLT, inhibition of platelet aggregation and the change of TT and PT values. PMID:26193677

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Salvadora persica L. against Carrageenan Induced Paw Oedema in Rat Relevant to Inflammatory Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Y. IBRAHIM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous alcoholic crude extract and ethyl acetate extract of miswak sticks (Salvadora persica L. was investigated in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema in respect to immunological parameters. Adult male sapargue dawely rats were classified into four groups, group I received the vehicle (0.25% gum acacia solution, group II received crude aqueous alcoholic extract orally at 100 mg/kg, group III received ethyl acetate extract (100 mg/kg orally and group IV received indomethacin (20 mg/kg orally, and served as standard reference. The oedema was quantified by measuring the hind paw thickness immediately before subplantar injection, and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. Blood samples were withdrawn after the 4th hour of carrageenan induction, centrifuged and sera were used for analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Administration of aqueous alcoholic extract and ethyl acetate extract (100 mg/ml significantly reduced the oedema thickness in a time dependent manner, the inhibition percentage of inflammation was 17% for crude extract and 27% for ethyl acetate extract. Also the two extracts reduced secretion of inflammatory mediators, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor nercrosis factor-α (TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in serum. The ethyl acetate extract shows potent activity to be nearly the same of indomethacin activity on all determined parameters at the last hour of following up. These results may be due to the presence of flavonoids in ethyl acetate extract. Three major flavonoids were isolated from ethyl acetate extract and identified as apigenin rhamnoglucoside, luteolin glucoside and rutin. The experimental study revealed that Salvadora persica extracts display remarkable anti-inflammatory activity.

  4. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of carboxymethylated κ-carrageenan aluminum hydrogel microbeads for prolonged release of mefenamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymers that swell in an aqueous medium have been widely used to formulate controlled-release dosage forms. This study aims to prepare carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan (CMKC) microbeads and evaluate its potential for controlled release of mefenamic acid in comparison to the positive control, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) microbeads. The powdered κ-carrageenan was carboxymethylated and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the carboxy methylation. Aqueous solutions of CMC (3% w/v) and CMKC (3%, 4%, 5% w/v) were prepared as microbeads using ionotropic gelation technique. Microbeads were loaded with mefenamic acid by suspending it in the aqueous solution (0.5% w/v) of the drug for 72 hours. Particle size and surface morphology were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to determine a significant difference between the release activity of the drug-loaded CMKC and CMC microbeads. Differential Scanning Calorimetry was performed on the drug, drug- free, and drug-loaded microbeads of CMC and CMKC. Two-way ANOVARM showed significant interaction in % drug release of the three groups being analyzed in respect to time effect (p≤0.001) and group effect (p≤0.001). Post Hoc Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that 3% CMC and 4% CMKC has equal average % drug release values and is significantly higher compared to the commercial mefenamic acid. Also, one way ANOVA showed that 3% CMC was able to release the drug with no significant difference in time (p = 0.159), while 4% CMKC (p < 0.001) and the commercial mefenamic acid (p≤0.001) were able to release the drug with significant difference in time (author)

  5. Biodegradation of acetonitrile by cells of Candida guilliermondii UFMG-Y65 immobilized in alginate, k-carrageenan and citric pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias João Carlos T.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Different encapsulation matrices were tested for immobilized cells of Candida guilliermondii UFMG-Y65 used for acetonitrile degradation. Acetonitrile degradation by free cells and cells immobilized in Ba-alginate, kappa-carrageenan and citric pectin was studied. The rate of acetonitrile degradation was monitored for 120 h by measuring yeast growth and ammonia concentration. Different alginate concentrations did not affect cell viability, but the period of incubation in BaCl2 solution reduced the number of viable cells. Likewise, the gel nature and the matrix structure of the support resulting from the cell immobilization conditions were of fundamental importance for biocatalyst activity and performance, affecting substantially the patterns of microbial growth and enzymatic activity. Alginate-immobilized cells degraded acetonitrile more efficiently than kappa-carrageenan or citric pectin-immobilized cells.

  6. Hypoglycemic Properties of Oxovanadium (IV) Coordination Compounds with Carboxymethyl-Carrageenan and Carboxymethyl-Chitosan in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyu Zhang; Yuetao Yi; Dawei Feng; Yipeng Wang; Song Qin

    2011-01-01

    In order to avoid low absorption, incorporation, and undesirable side effects of inorganic oxovanadium compounds, the antidiabetic activities of organic oxovanadium (IV) compounds in alloxan-induced diabetic mice were investigated. Vanadyl carboxymethyl carrageenan (VOCCA) and vanadyl carboxymethyl chitosan (VOCCH) were synthesized and administrated through intragastric administration in different doses for 20 days in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Glibenclamide was administrated as the posit...

  7. Control of Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract plus EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Control of Salmonella in poultry is a public health concern as salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide. This study aimed to screen the ability of 5 Salmonella serovars to degrade the mustard glucosinolate, sinigrin (by bacterial myrosinase) in Mueller-Hinton broth at 25 °C for 21 d and to reduce Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by developing an edible 0.2% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coating containing Oriental mustard extract, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), EDTA or their combinations. Individual Salmonella serovars degraded 50.2%-55.9% of the sinigrin present in 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g or 50 μl AITC/g reduced the numbers of Salmonella on chicken breasts 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d at 4 °C. However, when either mustard extract or AITC was combined with 15 mg/g EDTA in κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings, Salmonella numbers were reduced 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 5 d and 3.0 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. Moreover, these treatments reduced numbers of lactic acid bacteria and aerobic bacteria by 2.5-3.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing either 50 μl AITC/g or 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g plus 15 mg EDTA/g have the potential to reduce Salmonella on raw chicken. PMID:25790995

  8. Molecular Modeling of Lectin-Like Protein from Acacia farnesiana Reveals a Possible Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Erika Ferreira Abrantes; Bruno Anderson Matias da Rocha; Raphael Batista da Nóbrega; José Caetano Silva-Filho; Claudener Souza Teixeira; Benildo Sousa Cavada; Carlos Alberto de Almeida Gadelha; Sergio Henrique Ferreira; Jozi Godoy Figueiredo; Tatiane Santi-Gadelha; Plinio Delatorre

    2013-01-01

    Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL) is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA). Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN). This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through stru...

  9. Determination of Immobilization Process Parameters of Corynebacterium glutamicum on Kappa carrageenan, Its Application in L-lysine Fermentation and The Investigation Into Its Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suong Thi Hong Nguyen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The parameters of the immobilized process of Corynebacterium glutamicum on kappa carrageenan were identified by Plackett-Burman matrix, and the experiments were designed by response surface methodology having the central composite designs (RSM-CCD. The maximum yield of cell immobilization on kappa carrageenan carrier reached at 78% ± 2%. Optimal parameters were 3 grams kappa carrageenan per 100 militters sterile water and 58.58 million cfu/mL, forming gels at 100C for 25 minutes and the speed when soaking particles of 150 rpm for 120 minutes in 0.58 M potassium chlorua solvent. The immobile finished products are applied in L-lysine production, their reusing ability is 3 times and the total yield of L-lysine was accumulated 93 g/L in medium during 96 fermented hours. The L-lysine productivity of the batch fermentation was 0.969 g.L-1 .h-1 . And the set-up storage conditions are the mixed solvent of CaCl2 0.5% (w/v and KCl 0.5% (w/v; pH is 7.0 in 40C. After 60 storage days, the survival cell rate was remained 51%.

  10. PEP-1-FK506BP12 inhibits matrix metalloproteinase expression in human articular chondrocytes and in a mouse carrageenan-induced arthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun Sook; Park, In Young; Kim, Dae Won; Choi, Soo Young; Jung, Young Ok; Kim, Hyun Ah

    2015-07-01

    The 12 kDa FK506-binding protein (FK506BP12), an immunosuppressor, modulates T cell activation via calcineurin inhibition. In this study, we investigated the ability of PEP-1-FK506BP12, consisting of FK506BP12 fused to the protein transduction domain PEP-1 peptide, to suppress catabolic responses in primary human chondrocytes and in a mouse carrageenan-induced paw arthritis model. Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis showed that PEP-1-FK506BP12 efficiently penetrated chondrocytes and cartilage explants. In interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-treated chondrocytes, PEP-1-FK506BP12 significantly suppressed the expression of catabolic enzymes, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-1, -3, and -13 in addition to cyclooxygenase-2, at both the mRNA and protein levels, whereas FK506BP12 alone did not. In addition, PEP-1-FK506BP12 decreased IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) complex (p38, JNK, and ERK) and the inhibitor kappa B alpha. In the mouse model of carrageenan-induced paw arthritis, PEP-1-FK506BP12 suppressed both carrageenan-induced MMP-13 production and paw inflammation. PEP-1-FK506BP12 may have therapeutic potential in the alleviation of OA progression. PMID:25887750

  11. Bromoenol Lactone, an Inhibitor of Calcium-Independent Phospholipase A2, Suppresses Carrageenan-Induced Prostaglandin Production and Hyperalgesia in Rat Hind Paw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Keiichiro; Ibuki, Takae; Matsumura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGI2 are essential to hyperalgesia in inflammatory tissues. These prostaglandins are produced from arachidonic acid, which is cleaved from membrane phospholipids by the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Which isozyme of PLA2 is responsible for the cleavage of arachidonic acid and the production of prostaglandins essential to inflammation-induced hyperalgesia is not clear. In this study, we examined the effects of two PLA2 isozyme-specific inhibitors on carrageenan-induced production of PGE2 and PGI2 in rat hind paw and behavioral nociceptive response to radiant heat. Local administration of bromoenol lactone (BEL), an inhibitor of calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2), significantly reduced carrageenan-induced elevation of prostaglandins in the inflamed foot pad 3 h after injection. It also ameliorated the hyperalgesic response between 1 h and 3 h after carrageenan injection. On the other hand, AACOCF3, an inhibitor of cytosolic PLA2, suppressed neither prostaglandin production nor the hyperalgesic response. BEL did not suppress the mRNA levels of iPLA2β, iPLA2γ, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase, prostaglandin I synthase, or proinflammatory cytokines in the inflamed foot pad, indicating that BEL did not suppress inflammation itself. These results suggest that iPLA2 is involved in the production of prostaglandins and hyperalgesia at the inflammatory loci. PMID:26063975

  12. Cross-linked κ-carrageenan polymer/zinc nanoporous composite matrix for expanded bed application: Fabrication and hydrodynamic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenkhani, Sadaf; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Rahimpour, Ahmad

    2015-08-21

    Expanded bed adsorption (EBA) is a reliable separation technique for the purification of bioproducts from complex feedstocks. The specifically designed adsorbent is necessary to form a stable expanded bed. In the present work, a novel custom-designed composite matrix has been prepared through the method of water-in-oil emulsification. In order to develop an adsorbent with desirable qualities and reduce the costs, κ-carrageenan and zinc powder were used as the polymeric skeleton and the densifier, respectively. The prepared composite matrix was named as KC-Zn. Optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were applied to characterize the morphology and structure of prepared composite matrix. These analyses approved good spherical shape and porous structure with nano-scale pores in the range of about 60-180nm. The results from the particle size analyzer (PSA) revealed that all the KC-Zn beads followed logarithmic normal size distribution with the range of 50-350μm and average diameter of 160-230μm, respectively. Main physical properties of KC-Zn matrices were measured as a function of zinc powder ratio to κ-carrageenan slurry, which showed an appropriate wet density in the range of 1.39-2.27g/ml, water content of 72.67-36.41% and porosity of 98.07-80.24%, respectively. The effects of matrix density and liquid phase viscosity on hydrodynamic behavior of prepared matrix have been investigated by residence time distribution (RTD) experiments in an expanded bed. The results indicated that in a constant liquid velocity as the matrix density was increased, the expansion factor of bed decreased and the axial mixing coefficient increased. Moreover, an enhancement in the fluid viscosity led to an increase in the bed expansion and a decrease in the stability of expanded bed. Therefore using a matrix with higher density seems necessary to face viscous feedstocks. All the results demonstrated that proper physical properties and hydrodynamic characteristics

  13. Development of highly biocompatible Gelatin & i-Carrageenan based composite hydrogels: In depth physiochemical analysis for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Jyostna Rani; Nayak, Debasis; Nanda, Arpita; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Ashe, Sarbani; Nayak, Bismita

    2016-11-20

    In present investigation, gelatin and iota-carrageenan (CG) were used for the fabrication of composite hydrogels in different formulations (G1-G6). The hydrogels were characterized through optical, scanning electron and confocal microscopy to visualize their internal morphology. X-ray diffraction and ATR- FTIR spectroscopy were used for analyzing the chemical interaction between gelatin and CG. The hydrogels were found to be hemocompatible with high mucoadhesive and swelling properties. The standard drug ciprofloxacin was incorporated within the hydrogels and its interaction with the polymers was monitored through XRD and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. In physiological pH 7.4, the G4 formulation showed a linear release profile. The antimicrobial activity was tested against nosocomial strains of Bacillus sp, Vibrio sp, Pseudomonas sp and Escherichia coli which showed a zone of inhibition between 8.5-20.7mm against the marketed Ciplox ointment. The cytocompatibility of the prepared hydrogels were investigated using normal HaCaT and HEK293 cell lines which showed their negligible cytotoxicity. PMID:27561499

  14. Fabrication of poly(vinyl alcohol)-Carrageenan scaffolds for cryopreservation: Effect of composition on cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Pankaj; Nayak, Debasis; Nanda, Arpita; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2016-08-20

    The present investigation reports the fabrication of three dimensional (3D), interconnected, highly porous, biodegradable scaffolds using freeze-gelation technique. The hydrogels prepared with different ratios (5:5, 6:4, 7:3, 8:2 and 9:1) of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and Carrageenan (Car) was lyophilized to obtain their respective scaffolds. The PVA-Car scaffolds were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The prepared scaffolds were found to be biodegradable and highly compatible with hemoglobin. Further, normal keratinocyte (HaCaT) and osteosarcoma (Saos-2) cells seeded on PVA-Car scaffolds were cryopreserved for 15days and their viability was checked at regular interval of 3days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days) through MTT assay and fluorescence microscopy. Overall, the collective results indicate the scaffold constructs with 7:3 and 8:2 PVA-Car ratios possess ideal characteristics for tissue engineering applications and for long term cryopreservation of cells. PMID:27178958

  15. Acoustic Assessment of a Konjac–Carrageenan Tissue-Mimicking Material at 5–60 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwright, David A.; Sadhoo, Neelaksh; Rajagopal, Srinath; Anderson, Tom; Moran, Carmel M.; Hadoke, Patrick W.; Gray, Gillian A.; Zeqiri, Bajram; Hoskins, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic properties of a robust tissue-mimicking material based on konjac–carrageenan at ultrasound frequencies in the range 5–60 MHz are described. Acoustic properties were characterized using two methods: a broadband reflection substitution technique using a commercially available preclinical ultrasound scanner (Vevo 770, FUJIFILM VisualSonics, Toronto, ON, Canada), and a dedicated high-frequency ultrasound facility developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, Teddington, UK), which employed a broadband through-transmission substitution technique. The mean speed of sound across the measured frequencies was found to be 1551.7 ± 12.7 and 1547.7 ± 3.3 m s−1, respectively. The attenuation exhibited a non-linear dependence on frequency, f (MHz), in the form of a polynomial function: 0.009787f2 + 0.2671f and 0.01024f2 + 0.3639f, respectively. The characterization of this tissue-mimicking material will provide reference data for designing phantoms for preclinical systems, which may, in certain applications such as flow phantoms, require a physically more robust tissue-mimicking material than is currently available. PMID:25438864

  16. Parameters and pitfalls to consider in the conduct of food additive research, Carrageenan as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Myra L

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides guidance on the conduct of new in vivo and in vitro studies on high molecular weight food additives, with carrageenan, the widely used food additive, as a case study. It is important to understand the physical/chemical properties and to verify the identity/purity, molecular weight and homogeneity/stability of the additive in the vehicle for oral delivery. The strong binding of CGN to protein in rodent chow or infant formula results in no gastrointestinal tract exposure to free CGN. It is recommended that doses of high Mw non-caloric, non-nutritive additives not exceed 5% by weight of total solid diet to avoid potential nutritional effects. Addition of some high Mw additives at high concentrations to liquid nutritional supplements increases viscosity and may affect palatability, caloric intake and body weight gain. In in vitro studies, the use of well-characterized, relevant cell types and the appropriate composition of the culture media are necessary for proper conduct and interpretation. CGN is bound to media protein and not freely accessible to cells in vitro. Interpretation of new studies on food additives should consider the interaction of food additives with the vehicle components and the appropriateness of the animal or cell model and dose-response. PMID:26615870

  17. Modulation of the binding of basic fibroblast growth factor and heparanase activity by purified λ-carrageenan oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Hai-Min; Yan, Xiao-Jun

    2015-07-10

    Inhibitors of angiogenesis and tumor metastasis are increasingly emerging as promising agents for cancer therapy. Here, we report λ-carrageenan oligosaccharides (λ-COs), highly-sulfated oligosaccharides acting as a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) antagonist and heparanase inhibitor. λ-COs with degree of polymerization (DP) from 2 to 8 degraded by λ-carrageenase were separated and purified. The structures were identified by mass spectrometry. The activities of λ-COs are closely related with DP. λ-COs showed no cytotoxicity, but inactivated bFGF-induced cell proliferation; among them, λ-carraheptaose showed highest capability. Only λ-carraheptaose can effectively bind to bFGF. Binding kinetics showed that λ-carraheptaose and suramin had different binding modes, i.e., suramin displayed a fast association and fast dissociation, but λ-carraheptaose exhibited a slow association and slow dissociation. In addition, λ-COs showed the highest heparanase inhibitory ability and abolished the endothelial cell invasion. Thus, λ-COs may provide a tool to develop of new carbohydrate-based therapeutics against cancer and angiogenesis. PMID:25857962

  18. Magnetic/pH-responsive beads based on caboxymethyl chitosan and κ-carrageenan and controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza; Etemadi, Hossein; Soleymani, Fatemeh

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of magnetic and pH-sensitive beads derived from κ-carrageenan and carboxymethyl chitosan for drug delivery. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized inside a mixture of biopolymers by in situ method. The structural properties of hydrogel beads were characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD, and VSM techniques. The swelling ratio of beads indicated pH-dependent properties with maximum water absorbing at pH 7.4. Introducing magnetic nanoparticles caused a decrease in swelling capacity from 16.4 to 10 g/g. Drug loading and release efficiency were investigated using diclofenac sodium as a model system. The in vitro drug release studies exhibited significant behaviors on the subject of physiological simulated pHs and external alternative magnetic fields. The maximum cumulative release was around 82% at pH 7.4. The presence of magnetite nanoparticles certainly influenced the drug release patterns. The response of beads to external stimulus makes them as good candidates for novel drug delivery systems. PMID:26005146

  19. Improving the controlled delivery formulations of caffeine in alginate hydrogel beads combined with pectin, carrageenan, chitosan and psyllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Karlović, Sven; Djaković, Senka; Spoljarić, Igor; Mršić, Gordan; Ježek, Damir

    2015-01-15

    Alginate-based blends consisting of carrageenan, pectin, chitosan or psyllium husk powder were prepared for assessment of the best formulation aimed at encapsulation of caffeine. Alginate-pectin blend exhibited the lowest viscosity and provided the smallest beads. Alginate-psyllium husk blend was characterised with higher viscosity, yielding the largest bead size and the highest caffeine encapsulation efficiency (83.6%). The release kinetics of caffeine indicated that the porosity of alginate hydrogel was not reduced sufficiently to retard the diffusion of caffeine from the beads. Chitosan coated alginate beads provided the most retarded release of caffeine in water. Morphological characteristics of beads encapsulating caffeine were adversely affected by freeze drying. Bitterness intensity of caffeine-containing beads in water was the lowest for alginate-psyllium beads and chitosan coated alginate beads. Higher sodium alginate concentration (3%) for production of hydrogel beads in combination with psyllium or chitosan coating would present the most favourable carrier systems for immobilization of caffeine. PMID:25149001

  20. acoustic assessment of a konjac–carrageenan tissue-mimicking material aT 5–60 MHZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwright, David A; Sadhoo, Neelaksh; Rajagopal, Srinath; Anderson, Tom; Moran, Carmel M; Hadoke, Patrick W; Gray, Gillian A; Zeqiri, Bajram; Hoskins, Peter R

    2014-12-01

    The acoustic properties of a robust tissue-mimicking material based on konjac–carrageenan at ultrasound frequencies in the range 5–60 MHz are described. Acoustic properties were characterized using two methods: a broadband reflection substitution technique using a commercially available preclinical ultrasound scanner (Vevo 770, FUJIFILM VisualSonics, Toronto, ON, Canada), and a dedicated high-frequency ultrasound facility developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, Teddington, UK), which employed a broadband through-transmission substitution technique. The mean speed of sound across the measured frequencies was found to be 1551.7 ± 12.7 and 1547.7 ± 3.3 m s21, respectively. The attenuation exhibited a non-linear dependence on frequency, f (MHz), in the form of a polynomial function: 0.009787f2 1 0.2671f and 0.01024f2 1 0.3639f, respectively. The characterization of this tissue-mimicking material will provide reference data for designing phantoms for preclinical systems, which may, in certain applications such as flow phantoms, require a physically more robust tissuemimicking material than is currently available. PMID:25438864

  1. PENGARUH KONSUMSI KAPPA-KARAGENAN TERHADAP GLUKOSA DARAH TIKUS WISTAR (Ratus norvegicus DIABETES [The Effect of Kappa-Carrageenan Consumption on Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Wistar Rat (Ratus norwegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kappa-carrageenan consumption on blood glucose level were studied on diabetic male wistar rat (Ratus norvegicus.The rats were made diabetic by aloxan injection, and then were given that a ration contains 5, 10, 15, 20% (w/w kappa-carrageenan, standard ration (negative control, and parental glibenklamid (positive control. The results showed that the standard ration could not reduce blood glucose from hyperglycemic to normal level, while the ration contained kappacarrageenan could. The higher kappa-carrageenan seaweed level in the ration has higher capacity to decrease blood glucose level. The ration containing 20% and 15% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose in 18 and 21 days, respectively.The effect of this ration was similar to that of glibenklamid which reduced blood glucose to normal level in 18 days. The ration containing 5 and 10% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose level; Blood glucose leve return to normal on the 21st day.

  2. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Effects of the Organic Extract of the Red Sea Marine Sponge Xestospongia testudinaria against Carrageenan Induced Rat Paw Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shitany, Nagla A.; Abbas, Aymn T.; Abdel-dayem, Umama A.; Azhar, Esam I.; Ali, Soad S.; van Soest, Rob W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are found to be a rich source of bioactive compounds which show a wide range of biological activities including antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulator effects of the methanolic extract of the Red Sea marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria. The chemical composition of the Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract was determined using Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) was measured to assess the antioxidant activity of the sponge extract. Carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema was adopted in this study. Six groups of rats were used: group1: Control, group 2: Carrageenan, group 3: indomethacin (10 mg/kg), group 4–6: Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg). Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity was performed by both calculating the percentage increase in paw weight and hisopathologically. Assessment of the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity was performed. GC-MS analysis revealed that there were 41 different compounds present in the methanolic extract. Sponge extract exhibited antioxidant activity against DPPH free radicals. Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract (100 mg/kg) significantly decreased % increase in paw weight measured at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after carrageenan injection. Histopathologically, the extract caused a marked decrease in the capillary congestion and inflammatory cells infiltrate. The extract decreased paw malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) and increased the reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activity. It also decreased the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 β(IL-1β) and IL-6. The results of this study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of the methanolic extract of the Red Sea

  3. A study of the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of ellagic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Mard, Seyyed Ali; Rezaie, Anahita; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Ellagic acid (EA) has shown antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzymes and also cytokines play a key role in many inflammatory conditions. This study was aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of EA. Materials and Methods: Carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema model was used for induction of inflammation. Results: The results showed that intraplantar injection of carrageenan led to time-dependent development of peripheral inflammation, which resulted in a significant increase in the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) β, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and also iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in inflamed paw. However, systemic administration of EA (1–30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) could reduce edema in a dose-dependent fashion in inflamed rat paws with ED50 value 8.41 (5.26–14.76) mg/kg. It decreased the serum concentration of NO, PGE2, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and suppress the protein expression of iNOS, COX-2 enzymes, and attenuated the formation of PGE2, TNF-α and IL-1 β in inflamed paw tissue. We also demonstrated that EA significantly decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in liver at 5 h after carrageenan injection. Moreover, histopathological studies indicated that EA significantly diminished migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into site of inflammation, as did indomethacin. Conclusions: Collectively, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of EA might be related to the decrease in the level of MDA, iNOS, and COX-2 in the edema paw via the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL1 β), NO and PGE2 overproduction. PMID:26069367

  4. Phototherapy with low intensity laser in carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory process in mice paw - dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of modulation of inflammation on the treatment of inflammatory diseases and the difficulty in determining the laser irradiation parameters has led us to study the effects of different protocols of phototherapy with low intensity laser (power, energy, time and place of irradiation) in the treatment and prevention of edema in acute inflammatory process using the experimental model of paw edema induced by carrageenan (CGN) in three strains of mice (Balb-c, Swiss and C57BL/6). The first stage of the study evaluated different combinations of energy (1J and 3J) with different powers (30, 60 and 100mW) in Balb-C mice paw irradiated 1 and 2h after injection of CGN. The second stage studied different combinations of location (foot, inguinal lymph nodes and both) and exposure time (2 and 1h before, 1h and immediately before the CGN, 1 and 2h and 3.5 and 4.5h after CGN) using fixed irradiation parameters (1J, 100mW, 35J/cm2, spot area of 0.028 cm2). The third stage compared different strains of mice Balb-c and C57BL/6) in the best local and time parameters found in step 2. At all stages, we evaluated the change in paw volume by plethysmography and inflammatory infiltrate by histomorphometry or analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO). The results showed that laser phototherapy treated and prevented edema and modulated the inflammatory process with paw and inguinal lymph nodes irradiations accordingly with the parameters and mice strain used. (author)

  5. Assessment of LED (λ 850 +/- 10 nm) phototherapy in the inflammatory process of rat's TMJ induced by carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Isabele C. V.; Rosa, Cristiane B.; Carvalho, Carolina M.; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.; Cangussu, Maria Cristina T.; dos Santos, Jean N.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2015-03-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are commonly found in the population and usually involve inflammatory processes. Previous studies have shown positive effects of LED (Light emitting diodes) phototherapies on TMD but its action and mechanism in the inflammatory infiltrate of the temporomandibular joint are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess through histological analysis the effectiveness LED (10 J/cm2, λ850 nm, 100 mW, CW) on the inflammation of the temporomandibular joint of rats induced by carrageenan. Thirty animals were divided in two groups with five animals per subgroup according to the experimental times of two, three and seven days: Inflammation and Inflammation + LED phototherapy. The first irradiation was performed 24 h after induction with an interval of 48 h between sessions. After animal death, specimens were processed and stained with HE and Picrosirius. Then the samples were examined histologically. Data were statistically analyzed. The inflammation group showed mild to moderate chronic inflammatory infiltrate among the bone trabecules of the condyle. Over the time-course of the study in the LED group the condyle showed aspects of normality and absent inflammation in some specimens. In all the time-points, no statistically significant differences were found for collagen deposition in the in the condyle and disc when LED was compared to Inflammation group. LED treated groups also demonstrated a smaller number of the layers of the synovial membrane when compared to the non-irradiated groups. It was concluded that, in general, LED phototherapy resulted in a reduction of inflammatory infiltrate in the temporomandibular joint of rat.

  6. Alterations in blood-brain barrier ICAM-1 expression and brain microglial activation after λ-carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, J. D.; Campos, C. R.; Mark, K. S.; Davis, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that peripheral inflammatory pain increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and altered tight junction protein expression and the delivery of opioid analgesics to the brain. What remains unknown is which pathways and mediators during peripheral inflammation affect BBB function and structure. The current study investigated effects of λ-carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain (CIP) on BBB expression of ICAM-1. We also examined the systemic contribution of a number of proinflammatory cytokines and microglial activation in the brain to elucidate pathways involved in BBB disruption during CIP. We investigated ICAM-1 RNA and protein expression levels in isolated rat brain microvessels after CIP using RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, screened inflammatory cytokines during the time course of inflammation, assessed white blood cell counts, and probed for BBB and central nervous system stimulation and leukocyte transmigration using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Results showed an early increase in ICAM-1 RNA and protein expression after CIP with no change in circulating levels of several proinflammatory cytokines. Changes in ICAM-1 protein expression were noted at 48 h. Immunohistochemistry showed that the induction of ICAM-1 was region specific with increased expression noted in the thalamus and frontal and parietal cortices, which directly correlated with increased expression of activated microglia. The findings of the present study were that CIP induces increased ICAM-1 mRNA and protein expression at the BBB and that systemic proinflammatory mediators play no apparent role in the early response (1–6 h); however, brain region-specific increases in micro-glial activation suggest a potential for a central-mediated response. PMID:16199477

  7. EFFECT OF COMMERCIALLY MANUFACTURED KAPPA SEMI-REFINED CARRAGEENAN (SRC WITH DIFFERENT PHOSPHATE SALTS ON YIELD, TEXTURAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF BEEF MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Murugesan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphate salts such as SDP, TSP, SHMP, DSP, TPPP, TKPP and STPP were blended with semi-refined kappa carrageenan (SRC individually and their aqueous solution was injected into the fresh beef meat. The highest weight gain (24% in fresh meat was obtained from injection of blend made with SRC and STPP as compared to other blends and control sample after forzen storage. Similarly, it also showed low cooking loss (24% with good testural and sensory proerties as compared to other blends. It can be concluded from the presnt study that blend of SRC and STPP can be used in beef meat for yield and quality improvement.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effect of bee pollen ethanol extract from Cistus sp. of Spanish on carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki Yoko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bee pollen, a honeybee product, is the feed for honeybees prepared themselves by pollens collecting from plants and has been consumed as a perfect food in Europe, because it is nutritionally well balanced. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of bee pollen from Cistus sp. of Spanish origin by a method of carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, and to investigate the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action and also to elucidate components involved in bee pollen extracted with ethanol. Methods The bee pollen bulk, its water extract and its ethanol extract were administered orally to rats. One hour later, paw edema was produced by injecting of 1% solution of carrageenan, and paw volume was measured before and after carrageenan injection up to 5 h. The ethanol extract and water extract were measured COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities using COX inhibitor screening assay kit, and were compared for the inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The constituents of bee pollen were purified from the ethanol extract subjected to silica gel or LH-20 column chromatography. Each column chromatography fractions were further purified by repeated ODS or silica gel column chromatography. Results The bee pollen bulk mildly suppressed the carrageenan-induced paw edema and the water extract showed almost no inhibitory activity, but the ethanol extract showed relatively strong inhibition of paw edema. The ethanol extract inhibited the NO production and COX-2 but not COX-1 activity, but the water extract did not affect the NO production or COX activities. Flavonoids were isolated and purified from the ethanol extract of bee pollen, and identified at least five flavonoids and their glycosides. Conclusions It is suggested that the ethanol extract of bee pollen show a potent anti-inflammatory activity and its effect acts via the inhibition of NO production, besides the inhibitory activity of COX-2

  9. Influence of –Carrageenan, Pectin, and Gelatin on the Physicochemical Properties and Stability of Milk Protein-Stabilized Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Tippetts, M.; Martini, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the stability of bilayer emulsions as a function of secondary layer composition and pH. Primary emulsions were formulated with 5% soybean oil, 1% protein from nonfat dry milk (NDM) powder as emulsifier and ι-carrageenan (ι-carr), low-methoxyl pectin (LMp), high-methoxyl pectin (HMp), or gelatin as secondary layers. ζ-Potential values increased for each emulsion as the pH decreased, with ι-carr emulsions being consistently more negatively charged than primary emulsions and...

  10. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect of all-trans retinoic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar rats: Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Navneet Gill; Bijjem, Krishna Reddy V.; Sharma, Pyare L

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-β/δ receptors in carrageenan-induced inflammation and in the anti-inflammatory effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Materials and Methods: The λ-carrageenan (0.1 ml of 1% w/v) was injected into intra-plantar (i.pl.) region of the hind paw to produce acute inflammation. Paw volume was measured by using the mercury plethysmography. Further, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia (TH) ...

  11. Pain Modulation by Lignans (Phyllanthin and Hypophyllanthin) and Tannin (Corilagin) Rich Extracts of Phyllanthus amarus in Carrageenan-induced Thermal and Mechanical Chronic Muscle Hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopade, Atul R; Sayyad, F J

    2015-08-01

    The current study was aimed at evaluating the antihyperalgesic effects of lignans (phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin) and tannin (corilagin) rich three standardized extracts of Phyllanthus amarus in a model of chronic musculoskeletal inflammatory pain. Three percent carrageenan injected in the gastrocnemius muscle produced hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimuli ipsilaterally, which spreads to the contralateral side within 7 to 9 days. To investigate the effects on chronic thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity, three extracts of P. amarus in three doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) were administered to animals intraperitoneally from 14th day to 22nd day after intramuscular injection of carrageenan. It was observed that intraperitoneal administrations of Phyllanthus extracts showed antihyperalgesic activity, as they elevated thermal and mechanical threshold, which was supported by histopathological observations along with reduction in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration. In conclusion, we strongly suggest that the observed antihyperalgesic and antiinflammatory effects of P. amarus in current pain model are mediated via spinal or supraspinal neuronal mechanisms, mainly by inhibition of PGE2. Modulation of chronic muscular inflammation may be due to presence of phytoconstituents like phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, and corilagin, which offers a promising means for treatment of chronic muscle pain. PMID:25974715

  12. Effect of Trimeric Myricetin Rhamnoside (TMR) in Carrageenan-induced Inflammation and Caecal Ligation and Puncture-induced Lung Oxidative Stress in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Najeeb; Anand, Shikha; Lingaraju, Madhu Cholenahalli; Balaganur, Venkanna; Pathak, Nitya Nand; Kalra, Jaspreet; Kumar, Dinesh; Bhadoria, Brijesh K; Tandan, Surendra Kumar

    2015-11-01

    The Eugenia jambolana is used in folklore medicine. Leaves of E. jambolana contain flavonoids as their active constituents which possess in vitro antiinflammatory, antioxidant and the antimicrobial activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects of a flavonoid glucoside, trimeric myricetin rhamnoside (TMR) isolated from leaves of E. jambolana. TMR was studied for antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema and antioxidant activity in lung by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. Results of the present study indicated that TMR significantly attenuated the oedema, myeloperoxidase (MPO), cytokines and prostaglandin levels in the paw after 5 h of carrageenan injection as compared to vehicle control. It also reduced the lung MPO, lipid peroxides, and serum nitrite plus nitrate levels and increased lung reduced glutathione levels 20 h of CLP as compared to vehicle control. Thus the results of this study concluded that the TMR appears to have potential benefits in diseases that are mediated by both inflammation and oxidative stress and support the pharmacological basis of use of E. jambolana plant as traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26343251

  13. Investigation of the effect of magnetic particles on the Crystal Violet adsorption onto a novel nanocomposite based on κ-carrageenan-g-poly(methacrylic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mostafa; Vardini, Mohammad Taghi; Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-20

    A novel nanocomposite hydrogel prepared by incorporating Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles into the κ-carrageenan-g-poly (methacrylic acid) with in situ polymerization and was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TEM and VSM. Synthesized nanocomposite was used to adsorb Crystal Violet (CV) (cationic dye) in aqueous solution in a batch system. The research studies showed that the adsorption of CV can be impressed as a function of contact time, initial concentration of CV, pH and molar ratio of κ-carrageenan to poly(methacrylic acid). CV adsorption tests disclosed that it only takes 15 min to reach the equilibrium and adsorption capacity for this dye was 28.24 mg g(-1). Langmuir isotherm for equilibrium adsorption data was fitted well and the pseudo-second-order model can describe the adsorption kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters of ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° showed the endothermic nature of adsorption and a spontaneous process. PMID:26572412

  14. Nanostructured lipid-carrageenan hybrid carriers (NLCCs) for controlled delivery of mitoxantrone hydrochloride to enhance anticancer activity bypassing the BCRP-mediated efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guixia; Zhang, Tianhong; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui

    2016-08-01

    Novel nanostructured lipid-carrageenan hybrid carriers (NLCCs) were exploited for controlled delivery of water soluble chemotherapeutic agent mitoxantrone hydrochloride (MTO) with high loading capacity, sustained release property, and potential for improving oral bioavailability and antitumor efficacy. By introducing the negative polymer of carrageenan, MTO was highly incorporated into NLCCs with encapsulation efficiency of 95.8% by electrostatic interaction. In vivo pharmacokinetics of MTO solution (MTO-Sol) and MTO-NLCCs in rats demonstrated that the apparent bioavailability of MTO-NLCCs was increased to approximate 3.5-fold compared to that of MTO-Sol. The cytotoxicity investigations by MTT method indicated that NLCCs could significantly enhanced the antitumor efficacy against resistant MCF-7/MX cells. The relative cellular association of MTO-NLCCs was 9.2-fold higher than that of MTO-Sol in breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) over-expressing MCF-7/MX cells, implying that BCRP-mediated drug efflux was diminished by the introduction of NLCCs. The endocytosis inhibition study implied that the NLCCs entered the MCF-7/MX cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis process, which can bypass the efflux of MTO mediated by BCRP. The new developed NLCCs provide an effective strategy for oral delivery of water-soluble MTO with improved encapsulation efficiency, oral bioavailability, and cytotoxicity against resistant breast cancer cells. PMID:26754913

  15. In Vivo Anticoagulant and Thrombolytic Activities of a Fibrinolytic Serine Protease (Brevithrombolase) With the k-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sourav; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, in vivo thrombolysis efficiency of Brevithrombolase, a nontoxic fibrinolytic enzyme purified from Brevibacillus brevis strain FF02B, was affirmed by significant inhibition of thrombus formation in the k-carrageenan-induced rat tail, in a dose-dependent manner. Brevithrombolase at a dose of 600 µg/kg showed an efficacy that was comparable to streptokinase and plasmin, in dissolving in vivo thrombus of k-carrageenan-treated rats under identical conditions. The in vivo anticoagulant property of Brevithrombolase was demonstrated by its prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time in Wistar rats. However, the Brevithrombolase-treated rats demonstrated an insignificant decrease in fibrinogen (Fg) level of plasma compared with Fg level of control group of rats corroborating in vivo as well as in vitro anticoagulant activity of Brevithrombolase is due to its hydrolytic action on thrombin. These findings unequivocally suggest that Brevithrombolase may serve a promising alternative to the commercial thrombolytic drugs. PMID:25657326

  16. Role of a histamine 4 receptor as an anti-inflammatory target in carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sheikh Fayaz; Zoheir, Khairy M A; Abdel-Hamied, Hala E; Alrashidi, Ibrahim; Attia, Sabry M; Bakheet, Saleh A; Ashour, Abdelkader E; Abd-Allah, Adel R A

    2014-01-01

    The histamine 4 receptor (H4R) is expressed primarily on cells involved in inflammation and immune responses. Despite much research into inflammatory diseases, no drugs with favourable safety profiles are yet available for their treatment. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential anti-inflammatory effect of 4-methylhistamine (4-MeH) or JNJ77777120 (JNJ) and to explore the role of H4R in a mouse model of carrageenan (Cg) -induced pleurisy. A single dose of 4-MeH or JNJ (30 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 1 hr before Cg administration. The results illustrate that both the numbers of CD4+, CD25+, CD4+ CD25+, GITR+, GITR+ IL-17A+-expressing T cells and the levels of T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th17 cytokines were markedly increased in both the Cg-treated and 4-MeH-treated groups, whereas the cytokines produced by Th2 cells were significantly decreased in the same groups. However, JNJ treatment significantly decreased both the number of T-cell subsets and GITR+, GITR+ IL-17A+-expressing T cells, and the production of Th1/Th17 cytokines. Further, JNJ up-regulated the expression of the Th2 cytokines. RT-PCR analysis revealed an increased expression of interleukin-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the Cg-treated and 4-MeH-treated groups, which was reduced by treatment with JNJ in lung tissues. Moreover, histological examinations revealed anti-inflammatory effects of JNJ, whereas 4-MeH worsened Cg-induced inflammation. In conclusion, the results of the present work clearly indicate that JNJ possesses important anti-inflammatory properties that are increased in 4-MeH-treated mice, suggesting that H4R are involved in pleurisy and that JNJ has an anti-inflammatory effect in associated disease conditions. PMID:24460575

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of an orange peel polymethoxylated flavone, 3’,4’,3,5,6,7,8,-heptamethoxyflavone, in the rat carrageenan/paw edema and mouse LPS-challenge assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anti-inflammatory properties of 3',4',3,5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), a citrus polymethoxylated flavone, were studied in the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenge/tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFa) response in mice, and in the carrageenan/paw edema assay in rats. In each of these trials,...

  18. Spinal 5-HT1A, not the 5-HT1B or 5-HT3 receptors, mediates descending serotonergic inhibition for late-phase mechanical allodynia of carrageenan-induced peripheral inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joung Min; Jeong, Seong Wook; Yang, Jihoon; Lee, Seong Heon; Kim, Woon Mo; Jeong, Seongtae; Bae, Hong Beom; Yoon, Myung Ha; Choi, Jeong Il

    2015-07-23

    Previous electrophysiological studies demonstrated a limited role of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor (5-HT3R), but facilitatory role of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT1BR in spinal nociceptive processing of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. The release of spinal 5-HT was shown to peak in early-phase and return to baseline in late-phase of carrageenan inflammation. We examined the role of the descending serotonergic projections involving 5-HT1AR, 5-HT1BR, and 5-HT3R in mechanical allodynia of early- (first 4h) and late-phase (24h after) carrageenan-induced inflammation. Intrathecal administration of 5-HT produced a significant anti-allodynic effect in late-phase, but not in early-phase. Similarly, intrathecal 5-HT1AR agonist (8-OH-DPAT) attenuated the intensity of late-phase allodynia in a dose dependent fashion which was antagonized by 5-HT1AR antagonist (WAY-100635), but produced no effect on the early-phase allodynia. However, other agonists or antagonists of 5-HT1BR (CP-93129, SB-224289) and 5-HT3R (m-CPBG, ondansetron) did not produce any anti- or pro-allodynic effect in both early- and late- phase allodynia. These results suggest that spinal 5-HT1A, but not 5-HT1B or 5-HT3 receptors mediate descending serotonergic inhibition on nociceptive processing of late-phase mechanical allodynia in carrageenan-induced inflammation. PMID:26037417

  19. Lessons learned from a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study with a iota-carrageenan nasal spray as medical device in children with acute symptoms of common cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazekas Tamas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common cold is caused by a variety of respiratory viruses. The prevalence in children is high, and it potentially contributes to significant morbidity. Iota-carragenan, a polymer derived from red seaweed, has reduced viral load in nasal secretions and alleviated symptoms in adults with common cold. Methods We have assessed the antiviral and therapeutic activity of a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in children with acute symptoms of common cold. A cohort of 153 children between 1–18 years (mean age 5 years, displaying acute symptoms of common cold were randomly assigned to treatment with a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan (0.12% as verum or 0.9% sodium chloride solution as placebo for seven days. Symptoms of common cold were recorded and the viral load of respiratory viruses in nasal secretions was determined at two consecutive visits. Results The results of the present study showed no significant difference between the iota carrageenan and the placebo group on the mean of TSS between study days 2–7. Secondary endpoints, such as reduced time to clearance of disease (7.6 vs 9.4 days; p = 0.038, reduction of viral load (p = 0.026, and lower incidence of secondary infections with other respiratory viruses (p = 0.046 indicated beneficial effects of iota-carrageenan in this population. The treatment was safe and well tolerated, with less side effects observed in the verum group compared to placebo. Conclusion In this study iota-carrageenan did not alleviate symptoms in children with acute symptoms of common cold, but significantly reduced viral load in nasal secretions that may have important implications for future studies. Trial registration ISRCTN52519535, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN52519535/

  20. Inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni on fresh chicken breasts by κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized oriental mustard extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Fang, Yuan; Holley, Richard A

    2014-09-18

    Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) concentrations of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against 4 Campylobacter jejuni strains in Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth at 4, 21, 37 and 42°C and to screen the C. jejuni strains for their ability to degrade sinigrin (which forms AITC) in pH7.0 MH broth at 35°C for 21d. Also evaluated was the antimicrobial activity of an edible 0.2% κ-carrageenan/2% chitosan-based coating containing AITC or deodorized oriental mustard extract against a 4 strain C. jejuni cocktail (6.2log10CFU/g) on vacuum-packaged fresh chicken breasts during 4°C storage. MIC values of AITC were 0.63 to 1.25ppm and 2.5 to 5ppm against tested strains at 37 and 42°C, respectively. However, the MBC was 2.5 and 5ppm at 37 and 42°C, respectively, and increased to a range of 40 to 160ppm at 4°C. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing 50 or 100μl/g AITC reduced viable C. jejuni to undetectable levels on chicken breast after 5d at 4°C, while 25μl/g AITC or 200 to 300mg/g mustard extract in coatings reduced C. jejuni numbers by 1.75 to 2.78log10CFU/g more than control coatings without antimicrobial. Both oriental mustard extract (50 to 300mg/g) and AITC (≥25μl/g) reduced aerobic bacteria by 1.72 to 2.75log10CFU/g and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by 0.94 to 3.36log10CFU/g by 21d compared to the control coating. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing ≥50μl/g AITC or ≥300mg/g oriental mustard showed excellent potential to control C. jejuni viability on raw chicken. PMID:25058687

  1. Hypoglycemic Properties of Oxovanadium (IV Coordination Compounds with Carboxymethyl-Carrageenan and Carboxymethyl-Chitosan in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid low absorption, incorporation, and undesirable side effects of inorganic oxovanadium compounds, the antidiabetic activities of organic oxovanadium (IV compounds in alloxan-induced diabetic mice were investigated. Vanadyl carboxymethyl carrageenan (VOCCA and vanadyl carboxymethyl chitosan (VOCCH were synthesized and administrated through intragastric administration in different doses for 20 days in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Glibenclamide was administrated as the positive control. Our results showed that low-dose group, middle-dose group, and high-dose group of VOCCA and VOCCH could significantly reduce the levels of blood glucose (P<0.05 compared with untreated group, but not in normal mice. Besides, high-dose groups of VOCCA and VOCCH exhibited more significant hypoglycemic activities (P<0.01. After treated with VOCCH, the oral glucose tolerance of high-dose group of VOCCH was improved compared with model control group (P<0.05.

  2. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    Full Text Available Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histopathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model.

  3. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Parasar, Devraj; Sagar, Amin; Choudhary, Vikas; Chopra, Bhupinder Singh; Garg, Renu; Ashish; Khatri, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse) in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse) compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg)] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histo-pathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model. PMID:26426535

  4. Phenotypic alterations of neuropeptide Y and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing neurons innervating the rat temporomandibular joint during carrageenan-induced arthritis

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    J.P. Damico

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify immunoreactive neuropeptide Y (NPY and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP neurons in the autonomic and sensory ganglia, specifically neurons that innervate the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ. A possible variation between the percentages of these neurons in acute and chronic phases of carrageenan-induced arthritis was examined. Retrograde neuronal tracing was combined with indirect immunofluorescence to identify NPY-immunoreactive (NPY-IR and CGRP- immunoreactive (CGRP-IR neurons that send nerve fibers to the normal and arthritic temporomandibular joint. In normal joints, NPY-IR neurons constitute 78±3%, 77±6% and 10±4% of double-labeled nucleated neuronal profile originated from the superior cervical, stellate and otic ganglia, respectively. These percentages in the autonomic ganglia were significantly decreased in acute (58±2% to superior cervical ganglion and 58±8% to stellate ganglion and chronic (60±2% to superior cervical ganglion and 59±15% to stellate ganglion phases of arthritis, while in the otic ganglion these percentages were significantly increased to 19±5% and 13±3%, respectively. In the trigeminal ganglion, CGRP-IR neurons innervating the joint significantly increased from 31±3% in normal animals to 54±2% and 49±3% in the acute and chronic phases of arthritis, respectively. It can be concluded that NPY neurons that send nerve fibers to the rat temporomandibular joint are located mainly in the superior cervical, stellate and otic ganglia. Acute and chronic phases of carrageenan-induced arthritis lead to an increase in the percentage of NPY-IR parasympathetic and CGRP-IR sensory neurons and decrease in the percentage of NPY-IR sympathetic neurons related to TMJ innervation.

  5. Vinpocetine reduces carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in mice by inhibiting oxidative stress, cytokine production and NF-κB activation in the paw and spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji W Ruiz-Miyazawa

    Full Text Available Vinpocetine is a safe nootropic agent used for neurological and cerebrovascular diseases. The anti-inflammatory activity of vinpocetine has been shown in cell based assays and animal models, leading to suggestions as to its utility in analgesia. However, the mechanisms regarding its efficacy in inflammatory pain treatment are still not completely understood. Herein, the analgesic effect of vinpocetine and its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms were addressed in murine inflammatory pain models. Firstly, we investigated the protective effects of vinpocetine in overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone (PBQ and formalin. The intraplantar injection of carrageenan was then used to induce inflammatory hyperalgesia. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated using the electronic von Frey and the hot plate tests, respectively, with neutrophil recruitment to the paw assessed by a myeloperoxidase activity assay. A number of factors were assessed, both peripherally and in the spinal cord, including: antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, superoxide anion, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β levels, as well as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB activation. Vinpocetine inhibited the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, PBQ and formalin (at both phases, as well as the carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and associated neutrophil recruitment. Both peripherally and in the spinal cord, vinpocetine also inhibited: antioxidant capacity and GSH depletion; increased superoxide anion; IL-1β and TNF-α levels; and NF-κB activation. As such, vinpocetine significantly reduces inflammatory pain by targeting oxidative stress, cytokine production and NF-κB activation at both peripheral and spinal cord levels.

  6. CARRAGEENAN-INDUCED NFκB ACTIVATION DEPENDS ON DISTINCT PATHWAYS MEDIATED BY REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES AND HSP27 OR BY BCL10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2013-01-01

    Carrageenans are highly sulfated polysaccharides that are widely used as food additives due to their ability to improve food texture. They are also widely recognized for their ability to induce inflammation in animal models of colitis. Recently, we reported that carrageenan (CGN) activated a pathway of innate immunity in human colonic epithelial cells mediated by Bcl10 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10). However, increases in phospho-IκBα and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were not completely inhibited by silencing Bcl10, suggesting that CGN also influenced another mechanism, or mechanisms, of inflammation. In this report, we demonstrate that CGN increases production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human colonic epithelial cells. The combination of ROS quenching by the free radical scavenger Tempol and of Bcl10 silencing by siRNA completely inhibited the CGN-induced increases in nuclear NFκB (p65), phospho-IκBα, and secretion of IL-8. The CGN-induced increase in ROS was associated with declines in phosphorylation of MAPK 12 (p38γ), MAPK 13 (p38δ), and heat-shock protein (Hsp) 27. The CGN-induced decline in phospho-Hsp27 was reversed by co-administration of Tempol (100nM), but unaffected by silencing Bcl10. Since Hsp27 phosphorylation is inversely associated with phosphorylation of the IκBα kinase (IKK) signalosome, CGN exposure appears to affect the IKK signalosome by both the catalytic component, mediated by ROS-phospho-Hsp27, and the regulatory component, mediated by Bcl10 interaction with IKKγ (Nemo). Hence, the CGN-activated inflammatory cascades related to innate immunity and to generation of ROS may be integrated at the level of the IKK signalosome. PMID:18452717

  7. Vinpocetine Reduces Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia in Mice by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress, Cytokine Production and NF-κB Activation in the Paw and Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Miyazawa, Kenji W.; Zarpelon, Ana C.; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A.; Pavão-de-Souza, Gabriela F.; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A.

    2015-01-01

    Vinpocetine is a safe nootropic agent used for neurological and cerebrovascular diseases. The anti-inflammatory activity of vinpocetine has been shown in cell based assays and animal models, leading to suggestions as to its utility in analgesia. However, the mechanisms regarding its efficacy in inflammatory pain treatment are still not completely understood. Herein, the analgesic effect of vinpocetine and its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms were addressed in murine inflammatory pain models. Firstly, we investigated the protective effects of vinpocetine in overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone (PBQ) and formalin. The intraplantar injection of carrageenan was then used to induce inflammatory hyperalgesia. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated using the electronic von Frey and the hot plate tests, respectively, with neutrophil recruitment to the paw assessed by a myeloperoxidase activity assay. A number of factors were assessed, both peripherally and in the spinal cord, including: antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, superoxide anion, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) levels, as well as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Vinpocetine inhibited the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, PBQ and formalin (at both phases), as well as the carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and associated neutrophil recruitment. Both peripherally and in the spinal cord, vinpocetine also inhibited: antioxidant capacity and GSH depletion; increased superoxide anion; IL-1β and TNF-α levels; and NF-κB activation. As such, vinpocetine significantly reduces inflammatory pain by targeting oxidative stress, cytokine production and NF-κB activation at both peripheral and spinal cord levels. PMID:25822523

  8. The influence of xanthan andlambda-carrageenan on the creaming and flocculation of an oil-in-water emulsion containing soy protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Santiago

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of polysaccharide content on the stability of an oil-in-water emulsion (20% oil, droplet diameter 6.5 mum, pH = 7 containing soy protein (5 mg/ml as the emulsifying agent was studied. Flocculation occurs by addition of two depletion flocculants: xanthan (0.01- 0.4% and lambda-carrageenan (0.001- 2%. We report that in both cases the onset of flocculation occurs below the overlap polymer concentration (c* = 0.15 % for xanthan and c* = 0.58% for lambda-carrageenan. The strength of depletion interaction is dependent on such factors as polymer concentration, molecular weight and also the presence of other macromolecules. Profiles of the creaming behaviour of the sample emulsions were obtained by measuring the height of the boundary between the cream phase and the serum as a function of time for each emulsion. The result indicates that creaming kinetics is dependent on polymer concentration in a complex way. The turbidity of the serum gave an indication of whether the system was fully flocculated or contained flocks together with unflocculated droplets. At very low polymer concentrations the droplets cream individually or in small aggregates at the top of the container. At higher concentrations the droplets appear to cream as a single entity, with a sharp lower boundary separating the cream phase from a clear serum. In these emulsions and in some of the coexistent ones, there is a delay before creaming starts. The presence of the polymers at higher concentrations resulted in a stable emulsion with a very high apparent viscosity for the continuous phase and/or a strong emulsion gel network. The length of the delay phase increased with increasing concentration of both polymers.

  9. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of carrageenan, agarans and alginates to be used as food additives; Efeito da radiacao gama na viscosidade de carragenanas, agaranas e alginatos utilizados na industria alimenticia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    1999-07-01

    Carrageenan, agarans and alginates are phycocolloids, which change the consistence of the foodstuff and prevent undesirable changes such as moisture migration or textural profile changes. These phycocolloids are additives used in large scale for all kind of food products. They are not absorbed for the human organism and do not introduce extra calories in the diet. The process of irradiation, is an alternative method of great potential, because do not increase the temperature and it is highly in the decontamination of food ingredients. In this work, agar alginates and carrageenan were irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of the irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. The viscosity of these hydrocolloids shows a decrease when submitted to an irradiation with doses until 10 kGy. (author)

  10. Use of antioxidants substances to protect the hydrocolloids carrageenan, agaran and alginates used in food industry when exposed to radiation; Uso de substancias antioxidantes na resposta a radiacao dos hidrocoloides carragenanas, agaranas e alginatos utilizados na industria alimenticia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    2006-07-01

    Carrageenan, agaran e alginates are hydrocolloids largely employed in every kind of food products as stabilizing agent and viscosity builder. The human body does not absorb them, so they do not introduce extra calories in the diet. Irradiation is presented as an important alternative method in food preservation because do not induce temperature increase being of good efficiency in cold food ingredients decontamination. In this work aqueous solutions of carrageenan, agar e sodium alginate were gamma irradiated (0-10 kGy) in presence of ascorbic acid, roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract and soy isoflavone. Edible polysaccharide solutions showed to be suitable systems for the evaluation of ionizing radiation effects as they presented a singular radiosensitivity through viscosity changes. The results obtained showed that in general the antioxidants employed had a radioprotective action that can be of importance in the future commercial applications of food irradiation. (author)

  11. Study on optimum preparation procedure for oxidative degradation of k-carrageenan%基于双氧水降解卡拉胶的优化工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝燕; 陈晓银; 丁卓平

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To optimize the preparative procedure for oxidative degradation of k-carrageenan.Methods: The optimum conditions of oxidative degradation for k - carrageenan was selected with the yield and the scavenging activities of DPPH radical and marked by orthogonal experimental design.ResultS: The optimize preparative procedure was as follows:the oxidative degradation for K-carrageenan was at temperature of 90℃, when K-carrageenan was dissolved adding with 20% hydrogen peroxide immediately,and then adjust the solution pH to 8, keeping it for 2h.The yield and the scavenging activities of DPPH radical were 75.94% and 95.78%. Conclusion:The optimum preparative procedure was reliablaThe yield and the scavenging activities of DPPH radical were high,It had high economy benefit.%目的:优选氧化降解卡拉胶的工艺.方法:以降解卡拉胶得率、降解卡拉胶DPPH·清除率为指标,采用正交实验对双氧水降解卡拉胶的工艺进行优选.结果:优化工艺为待温度升至90℃,卡拉胶溶解后,立即加入20%的双氧水,然后调溶液pH至8,保持90℃降解2h,降解卡拉胶得率、降解卡拉胶DPPH·清除率分别为75.94%和95.78%.结论:该工艺合理,降解卡拉胶得率较高且DPPH·清除率高,具有较好的经济效益.

  12. Evaluation of the Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Solar and Freeze-Dried Jameed Produced from Cow and Sheep Milk with the Addition of Carrageenan Mix to the Jameed Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman S. Mazahreh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jameed is a fermented dried dairy product in the form of stone hard balls or other shapes produced by straining the heated buttermilk on cloth mesh bags, salting the formed paste by kneading, shaping and drying in the sun. This product is reconstituted after disintegration to be used in the preparation of Mansaf, the national dish in Jordan, which is basically lamb meat cooked in Jameed sauce (Sharab, Mareece and served on cooked rice. The addition of Carrageenan (0.15%, to the Jameed paste resulted in improvement of solar dried Jameed with significant result for Carrageenan treatment as evaluated by wettability and syneresis test. Whipping of the paste to which carrageenan was used, added an additional improvement to the solubility of Jameed and stability of its dispersion The sensory evaluation of the sauce prepared From sheep milk using hedonic scale test had higher mean scores than control market sample which was karaki jameed considered as the best quality in Jordan.

  13. Disruption of 5-HT2A Receptor-PDZ Protein Interactions Alleviates Mechanical Hypersensitivity in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattiez, Anne-Sophie; Pichon, Xavier; Dupuis, Amandine; Hernández, Alejandro; Privat, Anne-Marie; Aissouni, Youssef; Chalus, Maryse; Pelissier, Teresa; Eschalier, Alain; Marin, Philippe; Courteix, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Despite common pathophysiological mechanisms, inflammatory and neuropathic pain do not respond equally to the analgesic effect of antidepressants, except for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which show a limited efficacy in both conditions. We previously demonstrated that an interfering peptide (TAT-2ASCV) disrupting the interaction between 5-HT2A receptors and its associated PDZ proteins (e.g. PSD-95) reveals a 5-HT2A receptor-mediated anti-hyperalgesic effect and enhances the efficacy of fluoxetine (a SSRI) in diabetic neuropathic pain conditions in rats. Here, we have examined whether the same strategy would be useful to treat inflammatory pain. Sub-chronic inflammatory pain was induced by injecting λ-carrageenan (100 µl, 2%) into the left hind paw of the rat. Mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed after acute treatment with TAT-2ASCV or/and fluoxetine (SSRI) 2.5 h after λ-carrageenan injection. Possible changes in the level of 5-HT2A receptors and its associated PDZ protein PSD-95 upon inflammation induction were quantified by Western blotting in dorsal horn spinal cord. Administration of TAT-2ASCV peptide (100 ng/rat, intrathecally) but not fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) relieves mechanical hyperalgesia (paw pressure test) in inflamed rats. This anti-hyperalgesic effect involves spinal 5-HT2A receptors and GABAergic interneurons as it is abolished by a 5-HT2A antagonist (M100907, 150 ng/rat, intrathecally) and a GABAA antagonist, (bicuculline, 3 µg/rat, intrathecally). We also found a decreased expression of 5-HT2A receptors in the dorsal spinal cord of inflamed animals which could not be rescued by TAT-2ASCV injection, while the amount of PSD-95 was not affected by inflammatory pain. Finally, the coadministration of fluoxetine does not further enhance the anti-hyperalgesic effect of TAT-2ASCV peptide. This study reveals a role of the interactions between 5-HT2A receptors and PDZ proteins in the pathophysiological pathways of

  14. Assessment of immune response in periparturient dairy cows using ex vivo whole blood stimulation assay with lipopolysaccharides and carrageenan skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, N; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2015-06-15

    The transition period is known to be the most critical phase in the life of high yielding dairy cow. Changes in the immune functions have been observed during the transition period which may account for the onset of clinical and subclinical (e.g. inflammatory response) problems at calving or at the beginning of lactation however this relationship has not yet been adequately investigated. Thus, to establish the potential of the periparturient dairy cow's immune system to respond to stimuli, two challenges [an ex vivo whole blood stimulation assay (WBA) with lipopolysaccharides and a carrageenan skin test (CST)] were performed in addition to characterizing the metabolic and inflammatory profile. The WBA was performed using 0, 0.01 and 5 μg LPS/mL on whole blood and CST was administered by subcutaneous injection of 0.7 mL solution containing 4.2mg of carrageenan to the shoulder region of the cows. These tests were performed on 10 Holstein-Friesian cows at -45 ± 2, -20 ± 2, -3, 3, 7, 28 ± 2 days from parturition (DFP). Cows were also monitored for health status, body condition score, milk yield. The results demonstrate a higher production of IL-1β and IL-6 from leukocytes after LPS stimulation around calving (from -3 to 3 DFP) compared to -45 DFP (P transition period, with low LPS dose, suggests its crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory response around calving. The response of cows to CST decreased a few days before calving (-3 DFP) compared with response at -45 and 28 DFP (P<0.05), and remained low in the first week of lactation. This result suggests the reduction of the functionality of some vascular factors, which decreases diapedesis. Overall, the WBA and CST tests confirm changes in immunocompetence around calving. These tests are able to better describe the changes of the innate immune response at a local and systemic level, mainly when combined with conventional metabolic and inflammatory indices. PMID:25912553

  15. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect of all-trans retinoic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar rats: Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Navneet; Bijjem, Krishna Reddy V.; Sharma, Pyare L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-β/δ receptors in carrageenan-induced inflammation and in the anti-inflammatory effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Materials and Methods: The λ-carrageenan (0.1 ml of 1% w/v) was injected into intra-plantar (i.pl.) region of the hind paw to produce acute inflammation. Paw volume was measured by using the mercury plethysmography. Further, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia (TH) were assessed by using the dynamic plantar aesthesiometer and plantar test apparatus, respectively. In addition, markers of oxido-nitrosative stress were assessed spectrophotometrically in the hind paw tissue 5 h post-carrageenan. Results: An i.pl injection of carrageenan has produced a marked mechanical hyperalgesia (MH) and TH in ipsilateral paw, which was associated with significant elevated oxido-nitrosative stress. Treatment with ATRA (5 mg/kg/p.o/4 days) and GW0742, a selective PPAR-β/δ receptor agonist (0.1 mg/kg/i.p/4 days), significantly decreased the paw volume, mechanical and TH as compared to vehicle control. Administration of GSK0660, selective PPAR-β/δ receptor antagonist, at a dose of (0.3 mg/kg/i.p/4 days), did not produce a significant effect on carrageenan-induced paw edema, MH and TH. However, co-administration of GSK0660 (0.3 mg/kg/i.p/4 days) along with both ATRA (5 mg/kg/p.o/4 days) and GW0742 (0.1 mg/kg/i.p/4 days), significantly reverse the decreased paw edema, MH, and TH. These observed ameliorative effects on inflammatory pain symptoms are correlated with the extent of reduction of oxido-nitrosative stress. Conclusion: From above findings, it can be concluded that ATRA exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect, possibly through activation of PPAR-β/δ and subsequent reduction of oxido-nitrosative stress. PMID:23833373

  16. Effect of carrageenan and potassium chloride on the quality of neutral dairy desserts%卡拉胶与氯化钾用量对中性奶冻品质影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄能武; 赵谋明; 张多敏; 龙肇; 赵强忠

    2012-01-01

    The effect of carrageenan and KCl on the quality of dairy desserts were investigated according to the size distribution,texture characteristic,microstructrue and syneresis.The results showed that the gel structure was poor with addition of 0.10% carrageenan.With carrageenan more than 0.15%,the gel structure and the hardness were improved,but flocculation of the gel occured according to the particle size and the microstructure.Moreover,addition of KCl was benifit to the gel but high concentration of KCl might induce flocculation,especially when the concentration of carrageenan was 0.20%.According to the texture quality of the dairy desserts,the addition of carrageenan and KCl was 0.15% and 0.01%,respectively.%研究了卡拉胶与氯化钾用量对奶冻品质的影响,以粒度分布、质构特性、微观结构与析水率等为分析检测指标。研究结果表明:当卡拉胶用量小于0.10%时,硬度低,凝胶结构差;当卡拉胶用量增至0.15%以上时,硬度适当,凝胶结构较好,但从粒度分布与显微结构判断,体系开始出现絮凝。同时,氯化钾促进凝胶,而高含量的氯化钾有诱导体系失稳絮凝的趋势,在卡拉胶用量0.20%时,影响更为显著,且此时析水率也随之增加。综合考虑,以卡拉胶0.15%用量与氯化钾0.01%用量下奶冻具有良好的质构品质。

  17. Synthesis and characterization of thermo- and pH-sensitive kappa-carrageenan-g-poly(methacrylic acid)/poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) semi-IPN hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jun [Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu Mingzhu [Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: mzliu@lzu.edu.cn; Chen Shilan [Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2009-05-15

    In this study, a novel semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogel of kappa-carrageenan-g-poly(methacrylic acid)/poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) (KC-g-PMAA/PDEA) was prepared using ammonium persulfate as an initiator and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamide as an accelerator at 25 deg. C. The structure of the hydrogels was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The effects of the feed components, temperature and pH on the swelling behavior of the hydrogels were studied. The results showed that the introduction of KC-g-PMAA did not change the lower critical solution temperature of the semi-IPN hydrogels, which was the same to the PDEA hydrogel (at 28 deg. C). With the increase of KC-g-PMAA content, the thermo- and pH-sensitivity of the hydrogel improved, which the swelling rate increased with the increasing content of KC-g-PMAA. The semi-IPN hydrogels showed a fast deswelling and swelling rate. The swelling dynamic transport of the hydrogels was analyzed based on the Fickian equation.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of thermo- and pH-sensitive kappa-carrageenan-g-poly(methacrylic acid)/poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) semi-IPN hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a novel semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogel of kappa-carrageenan-g-poly(methacrylic acid)/poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) (KC-g-PMAA/PDEA) was prepared using ammonium persulfate as an initiator and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamide as an accelerator at 25 deg. C. The structure of the hydrogels was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The effects of the feed components, temperature and pH on the swelling behavior of the hydrogels were studied. The results showed that the introduction of KC-g-PMAA did not change the lower critical solution temperature of the semi-IPN hydrogels, which was the same to the PDEA hydrogel (at 28 deg. C). With the increase of KC-g-PMAA content, the thermo- and pH-sensitivity of the hydrogel improved, which the swelling rate increased with the increasing content of KC-g-PMAA. The semi-IPN hydrogels showed a fast deswelling and swelling rate. The swelling dynamic transport of the hydrogels was analyzed based on the Fickian equation

  19. A new co-micronized composite containing palmitoylethanolamide and polydatin shows superior oral efficacy compared to their association in a rat paw model of carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, E; D, Impellizzeri; G, Bruschetta; M, Cordaro; R, Siracusa; E, Gugliandolo; R, Crupi; S, Cuzzocrea

    2016-07-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a special food for medical purposes, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Nevertheless, PEA lacks direct ability to prevent free radical formation. Polydatin (PLD), a natural precursor of resveratrol, has antioxidant activity. The combination of PEA and PLD could have beneficial effects on oxidative stress induced by inflammatory processes. In the present study, we compared the effects of micronized PEA (PEA-m) and PLD association (PEA-m+PLD) with a new co-micronized composite containing PEA and PLD (m(PEA/PLD)) in the rat paw model of carrageenan (CAR)-induced acute inflammation. Intraplantar injection of CAR led to a time-dependent development of peripheral inflammation, in terms of paw edema, cytokine release in paw exudates, nitrotyrosine formation, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. m(PEA/PLD) reduced all measured parameters. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were also markedly reduced. At the spinal cord level, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was found to be nitrated and subsequently deactivated. Further, m(PEA/PLD) treatment increased spinal MnSOD expression, prevented IkB-α degradation and nuclear factor-κB translocation, suggesting a possible role on central sensitization. m(PEA/PLD) showed more robust anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects compared to the simple association of PEA-m and PLD. This composite formulation approach opens a new therapeutic strategy for the development of novel non-narcotic anti-hyperalgesic agents. PMID:27095683

  20. Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice by Oral Administration of Anthocyanin Mixture from Wild Mulberry and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Mariko Aymoto Hassimotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are flavonoids which demonstrated biological activities in in vivo and in vitro models. Here in the anti-inflammatory properties of an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AF extracted from wild mulberry and the cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, were studied in two acute inflammation experimental models, in the peritonitis and in the paw oedema assays, both of which were induced by carrageenan (cg in mice. In each trial, AF and C3G (4 mg/100 g/animal were orally administered in two distinct protocols: 30 min before and 1 h after cg stimulus. The administration of both AF and C3G suppresses the paw oedema in both administration times (P<0.05. In the peritonitis, AF and C3G reduced the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN influx in the peritoneal exudates when administered 1 h after cg injection. AF was more efficient reducing the PMN when administered 30 min before cg. Both AF and C3G were found to suppress mRNA as well as protein levels of COX-2 upregulated by cg in both protocols, but the inhibitory effect on PGE2 production in the peritoneal exudates was observed when administered 30 min before cg (P<0.05. Our findings suggest that AF and C3G minimize acute inflammation and they present positive contributions as dietary supplements.

  1. Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice by Oral Administration of Anthocyanin Mixture from Wild Mulberry and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Moreira, Vanessa; do Nascimento, Neide Galvão; Souto, Pollyana Cristina Maggio de Castro; Teixeira, Catarina; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are flavonoids which demonstrated biological activities in in vivo and in vitro models. Here in the anti-inflammatory properties of an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AF) extracted from wild mulberry and the cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, were studied in two acute inflammation experimental models, in the peritonitis and in the paw oedema assays, both of which were induced by carrageenan (cg) in mice. In each trial, AF and C3G (4 mg/100 g/animal) were orally administered in two distinct protocols: 30 min before and 1 h after cg stimulus. The administration of both AF and C3G suppresses the paw oedema in both administration times (P < 0.05). In the peritonitis, AF and C3G reduced the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) influx in the peritoneal exudates when administered 1 h after cg injection. AF was more efficient reducing the PMN when administered 30 min before cg. Both AF and C3G were found to suppress mRNA as well as protein levels of COX-2 upregulated by cg in both protocols, but the inhibitory effect on PGE2 production in the peritoneal exudates was observed when administered 30 min before cg (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that AF and C3G minimize acute inflammation and they present positive contributions as dietary supplements. PMID:23484081

  2. Gold nanoparticles and/or N-acetylcysteine mediate carrageenan-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in a concentration-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Marcos M S; Petronilho, Fabricia; Vuolo, Francieli; Ferreira, Gabriela K; De Costa, Leandro; Santos, Giulia P; Effting, Pauline S; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Dal-Bó, Alexandre G; Frizon, Tiago E; Silveira, Paulo C L; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2015-10-01

    We report the effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in an acute inflammation model induced by carrageenan (CG) and compared this effect with those induced by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) alone and by the synergistic effect of NAC and AuNP together. Male Wistar rats received saline or saline containing CG administered into the pleural cavity, and some rats also received NAC (20 mg/kg) subcutaneously and/or AuNP administered into the pleural cavity immediately after surgery. Four hours later, the rats were sacrificed and pleural exudates obtained for evaluation of cytokine levels and myeloperoxidase activities. Oxidative stress parameters were also evaluated in the lungs. The results demonstrated that the inflammatory process caused by the administration of CG into the pleural cavity resulted in a substantial increase in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and myeloperoxidase and a reduction in interleukin-10 levels. These levels seem to be reversed after different treatments in animals. Antioxidant enzymes exhibited positive responses after treatment of NAC + AuNP, and all treatments were effective at reducing lipid peroxidation and oxidation of thiol groups induced by CG. These findings suggest that small compounds, such as NAC plus AuNP, may be useful in the treatment of conditions associated with local inflammation. PMID:25917538

  3. A High-Throughput Oxidative Stress Biosensor Based on Escherichia coli roGFP2 Cells Immobilized in a k-Carrageenan Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Lia; Heng, Lee Yook; Mori, Izumi C.

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors fabricated with whole-cell bacteria appear to be suitable for detecting bioavailability and toxicity effects of the chemical(s) of concern, but they are usually reported to have drawbacks like long response times (ranging from hours to days), narrow dynamic range and instability during long term storage. Our aim is to fabricate a sensitive whole-cell oxidative stress biosensor which has improved properties that address the mentioned weaknesses. In this paper, we report a novel high-throughput whole-cell biosensor fabricated by immobilizing roGFP2 expressing Escherichia coli cells in a k-carrageenan matrix, for the detection of oxidative stress challenged by metalloid compounds. The E. coli roGFP2 oxidative stress biosensor shows high sensitivity towards arsenite and selenite, with wide linear range and low detection limit (arsenite: 1.0 × 10−3–1.0 × 101 mg·L−1, LOD: 2.0 × 10−4 mg·L−1; selenite: 1.0 × 10−5–1.0 × 102 mg·L−1, LOD: 5.8 × 10−6 mg·L−1), short response times (0–9 min), high stability and reproducibility. This research is expected to provide a new direction in performing high-throughput environmental toxicity screening with living bacterial cells which is capable of measuring the bioavailability and toxicity of environmental stressors in a friction of a second. PMID:25621608

  4. Acylated Carrageenan Changes the Physicochemical Properties of Mixed Enzyme-Lipid Ultrathin Films and Enhances the Catalytic Properties of Sucrose Phosphorylase Nanostructured as Smart Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Jefferson M; Pavinatto, Adriana; Nobre, Thatyane M; Caseli, Luciano

    2016-06-23

    Control over the catalytic activity of enzymes is important to construct biosensors with a wide range of detectability and higher stability. For this, immobilization of enzymes on solid supports as nanostructured films is a current approach that permits easy control of the molecular architecture as well as tuning of the properties. In this article, we employed acylated carrageenan (AC) mixed with phospholipids at the air-water interface to facilitate the adsorption of the enzyme sucrose phosphorylase (SP). AC stabilized the adsorption of SP at the phospholipid monolayer, as detected by tensiometry, by which thermodynamic parameters could be inferred from the surface pressure-area isotherm. Also, infrared spectroscopy applied in situ over the monolayer showed that the AC-phospholipid system not only permitted the enzyme to be adsorbed but also helped conserve its secondary structure. The mixed monolayers were then transferred onto solid supports as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films and investigated with transfer ratio, quartz crystal microbalance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The enzyme activity of the LB film was then determined, revealing that although there was an expected reduction in activity in relation to the homogeneous environment the activity could be better preserved after 1 month, revealing enhanced stability. PMID:27249064

  5. Design and Synthesis of N-Arylphthalimides as Inhibitors of Glucocorticoid-Induced TNF Receptor-Related Protein, Proinflammatory Mediators, and Cytokines in Carrageenan-Induced Lung Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mashooq A; Al-Omar, Mohamed A; Ansari, Mushtaq A; Zoheir, Khairy M A; Imam, Faisal; Attia, Sabry M; Bakheet, Saleh A; Nadeem, Ahmed; Korashy, Hesham M; Voronkov, Andrey; Berishvili, Vladimir; Ahmad, Sheikh F

    2015-11-25

    N-Arylphthalimides (1-10P) derived from thalidomide by insertion of hydrophobic groups were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity, and (4-(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)-N'-[(4-ethoxyphenyl)methylidene]benzohydrazide 6P was identified as a promising anti-inflammatory agent. Further testing confirmed that compared with the control, 6P treatment resulted in a considerable decrease in CD4(+), NF-κB p65(+), TNF-α(+), IL-6(+), GITR(+), and IL-17(+) cell populations and an increase in the Foxp3(+), CD4(+)Foxp3(+), and IκBα(+) populations in whole blood and pleural fluid of a mouse model of lung inflammation. Moreover, treatment with compound 6P decreased the proteins associated with inflammation including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, GITR, NF-κB, COX-2, STAT-3, and iNOS and increased the anti-inflammatory mediators such as IL-10 and IL-4. Further, histopathological examination confirmed the potent anti-inflammatory effects of compound 6P. Thus, the N-arylphthalimide derivative 6P acts as a potent anti-inflammatory agent in the carrageenan-induced lung inflammation model, suggesting that this compound may be useful for the treatment of inflammation in a clinical setting. PMID:26456029

  6. Degraded carrageenan causing colitis in rats induces TNF secretion and ICAM-1 upregulation in monocytes through NF-kappaB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Benard

    Full Text Available Carrageenan (CGN is a high molecular weight sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweeds. In rodents, its degraded forms (dCGN can induce intestinal inflammation associated with macrophage recruitment and activation. The aim of this study was: 1 to analyze the size-dependent effects of dCGN on colon inflammation in vivo, and 2 to correlate these effects with monocyte/macrophage proliferation, cytokine production and expression of various cell surface antigens including ICAM-1 adhesion molecule. Peripheral blood monocytes (PBM and THP-1 monocytic cells were cultured in the presence of either 10 or 40 kDa, dCGN. The 40 kDa, but not the 10 kDa dCGN, induced colitis in in vivo. Degraded CGN inhibited THP-1 cell proliferation in vitro, arresting the cells in G1 phase. In addition, dCGN increased ICAM-1 expression in both PBM and THP-1 cells with a major effect seen after 40 kDa dCGN exposure. Also, dCGN stimulated monocyte aggregation in vitro that was prevented by incubation with anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Finally, dCGN stimulated TNF-alpha expression and secretion by both PBM and THP-1 cells. All these effects were linked to NF-kappaB activation. These data strongly suggest that the degraded forms of CGN have a pronounced effect on monocytes, characteristic of an inflammatory phenotype.

  7. Optimization of the extraction of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii using response surface methodology Otimização da extração de carragenana de Kappaphycus alvarezii utilizando metodologia de superfície de resposta

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    Vanessa Webber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to optimize an alternative method of extraction of carrageenan without previous alkaline treatment and ethanol precipitation using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. In order to introduce an innovation in the isolation step, atomization drying was used reducing the time for obtaining dry carrageenan powder. The effects of extraction time and temperature on yield, gel strength, and viscosity were evaluated. Furthermore, the extracted material was submitted to structural analysis, by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR, and chemical composition analysis. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation. Carrageenan yield and gel viscosity were influenced only by the extraction temperature. However, gel strength was influenced by both, extraction time and extraction temperature. Optimal extraction conditions were 74 ºC and 4 hours. In these conditions, the carrageenan extract properties determined by the polynomial model were 31.17%, 158.27 g.cm-2, and 29.5 cP for yield, gel strength, and viscosity, respectively, while under the experimental conditions they were 35.8 ± 4.68%, 112.50 ± 4.96 g.cm-2, and 16.01 ± 1.03 cP, respectively. The chemical composition, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy analyses showed that the crude carrageenan extracted is composed mainly of κ-carrageenan.Este estudo tem como objetivo otimizar um método alternativo para extração de carragenana sem tratamento alcalino prévio e sem precipitação com etanol através da Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta (RSM. A fim de inovar a etapa de isolamento, a secagem por atomização foi adaptada, o que reduziu o tempo para a obtenção do pó seco. Os efeitos da temperatura e do tempo de extração sobre o rendimento, força do gel e de viscosidade foram avaliados. Além disso, o material extraído foi submetido a análises estruturais por

  8. Effect of carrageenan konjac gum and potassium on the properties of pork jerky%卡拉胶/魔芋胶和钾盐对猪肉脯及猪肉糜质构特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨园媛; 赵谋明; 孙为正; 丛懿洁

    2012-01-01

    亲水性胶体对肉糜制品的品质有重要影响。通过测定猪肉糜的失水率、质构特征以及猪肉脯的水分活度、质构特征.研究卡拉胶和魔芋胶的复配胶体以75,.K+对猪肉糜和猪肉脯质构特性的影响。结果表明,适宜比例的卡拉胶、魔芋胶复配胶体及0.1%p能够改善猪肉糜及猪肉脯的质构特性。在猪肉糜中添加0.24%卡拉胶/0.16%的魔芋胶的复配胶与0.1%KCl所制得的猪肉脯质构特性较佳。%Hydrocolloids play an important role in improving quality of meat emulsion products. The water loss rate of comminuted pork,the water activity of pork jerky and the quality and structure characteristics of them were detected to study on the effect of compound hydrocolloids,which include carrageenan,konjac gum,and K+ on comminuted pork and pork jerky. Results showed that both carrageenan and konjac gum in a appropriate proportion and 0.1% K+ could ameliorate the texture property of comminuted pork and pork jerky. Addition of 0.24% carrageenan,0.16% konjac gum and 0.1%KCl could obtain the better pork jerky in the texture property.

  9. Gelam Honey Inhibits the Production of Proinflammatory, Mediators NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in Carrageenan-Induced Acute Paw Edema in Rats

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    Saba Zuhair Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural honey is well known for its therapeutic value and has been used in traditional medicine of different cultures throughout the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Malaysian Gelam honey in inflammation-induced rats. Paw edema was induced by a subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the rat right hind paw. Rats were treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o. or Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o.. The increase in footpad thickness was considered to be edema, which was measured using a dial caliper. Plasma and paw tissue were collected to analyze the production of inflammatory mediators, such as NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as iNOS and COX-2. The results showed that Gelam honey could reduce edema in a dose-dependent fashion in inflamed rat paws, decrease the production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in plasma, and suppress the expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in paw tissue. Oral pretreatment of Gelam honey at 2 g/kg of body weight at two time points (1 and 7 days showed a significantly decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines, which was similar to the effect of the anti-inflammatory drug Indomethacin (NSAID, both in plasma and tissue. Thus, our results suggest that Gelam honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the rat paw edema size and inhibiting the production of proinflammatory mediators. Gelam honey is potentially useful for treating inflammatory conditions.

  10. Carrageenan Gum and Adherent Invasive Escherichia coli in a Piglet Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Impact on Intestinal Mucosa-associated Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, Peris M; Sepehri, Shadi; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including Crohn's disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic conditions characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation. Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) pathotype has been increasingly implicated in the etiopathogenesis of IBD. In a 21-day study, we investigated the effects of AIEC strain UM146 inoculation on microbiota profile of the ileal, cecal, ascending and descending colon in a pig model of experimental colitis. Carrageenan gum (CG) was used to induce colitis in weaner piglets whereas AIEC strain UM146 previously isolated from a CD patient was included to investigate a cause or consequence effect in IBD. Treatments were: (1) control; (2) CG; (3) AIEC strain UM146; and (4) CG+UM146. Pigs in groups 2 and 4 received 1% CG in drinking water from day 1 of the study while pigs in groups 3 and 4 were inoculated with UM146 on day 8. Following euthanization on day 21, tissue mucosal scrapings were collected and used for DNA extraction. The V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene was then subjected to Illumina sequencing. Microbial diversity, composition, and the predicted functional metagenome were determined in addition to short chain fatty acids profiles in the digesta and inflammatory cytokines in the intestinal tissue. CG-induced colitis decreased bacterial species richness and shifted community composition. At the phylum level, an increase in Proteobacteria and Deferribacteres and a decrease in Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were observed in CG and CGUM146 compared to control and UM146. The metabolic capacity of the microbiome was also altered in CG and CGUM146 compared to UM146 and control in the colon. We demonstrated that CG resulted in bacterial dysbiosis and shifted community composition similar to what has been previously observed in IBD patients. However, AIEC strain UM146 alone did not cause any clear changes compared to CG or control in our experimental IBD pig model. PMID:27092122

  11. Mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of tricin, a flavonoid isolated from Njavara rice bran in LPS induced hPBMCs and carrageenan induced rats.

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    Shalini, V; Jayalekshmi, Ananthasankaran; Helen, A

    2015-08-01

    Njavara is an indigenous medicinal rice variety traditionally used in Ayurvedic system of medicine practiced in Kerala, India. Tricin is a bioflavonoid present in significantly higher levels in rice bran of Njavara. Present study attempted to identify the molecular target of tricin in TLR mediated signaling pathways by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) and carrageenan induced paw edema in rats as experimental models. Tricin acted upstream in the activation of inflammation cascade by interfering with TLR4 activation, preferably by blocking the LPS induced activation of TLR4, MYD88 and TRIF proteins in hPBMCs. Subsequently, tricin significantly blocked the activation of downstream kinases like p38MAPK, JNK1/2 and IRF3. Thus the inhibitory effect of tricin on NF-κB and IRF3 together confirms the specific inhibition of both MYD88 dependent and TRIF dependent pathways. Tricin treatment also inhibited the pro-inflammatory effect of LPS by blocking the TLR4 signaling mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), which is confirmed by specific inhibition of COX-2. Results demonstrated that in addition to NF-κB, tricin can prevent the activation of STAT proteins by significantly inhibiting the activation of both STAT1 and STAT3 via the down regulation of upstream phosphorylating enzymes like JAK1 and JAK2. The protective anti-inflammatory effect of tricin was also confirmed by in vivo experiments. Thus, this study provides strong evidence that tricin exerts its anti-inflammatory effect via a mechanism involving the TLR4/NF-κB/STAT signaling cascade. PMID:25839778

  12. Electroacupuncture Reduces Carrageenan- and CFA-Induced Inflammatory Pain Accompanied by Changing the Expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8, rather than Nav1.9, in Mice Dorsal Root Ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ping; Chen, Hsiang-Ni; Su, Hong-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Several voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) from nociceptive nerve fibers have been identified as important effectors in pain signaling. The objective of this study is to investigate the electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia mechanism by changing the expression of Navs in mice dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We injected carrageenan and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the mice plantar surface of the hind paw to induce inflammation and examined the antinociception effect of EA at the Zusanli (ST36) acupoint at 2 Hz low frequency. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by using electronic von Frey filaments, and thermal hyperalgesia was assessed using Hargreaves' test. Furthermore, we observed the expression and quality of Navs in DRG neurons. Our results showed that EA reduced mechanical and thermal pain in inflammatory animal model. The expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 was increased after 4 days of carrageenan- and CFA-elicited inflammatory pain and further attenuated by 2 Hz EA stimulation. The attenuation cannot be observed in Nav1.9 sodium channels. We demonstrated that EA at Zusanli (ST36) acupoint at 2 Hz low-frequency stimulation attenuated inflammatory pain accompanied by decreasing the expression of Nav1.7 and 1.8, rather than Nav1.9, sodium channels in peripheral DRG neurons. PMID:23573123

  13. In vitro and in vivo ocular safety and eye surface permanence determination by direct and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of ion-sensitive hydrogels based on gellan gum and kappa-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; González Barcia, Miguel; Gil-Martínez, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Lema, Isabel; Argibay, Barbara; Blanco Méndez, José; Lamas, Maria Jesus; Otero-Espinar, Francisco Javier

    2015-08-01

    Gellan gum, kappa-carrageenan and alginates are natural polysaccharides able to interact with different cations that can be used to elaborate ion-activated in situ gelling systems for different uses. The interaction between fluid solutions of these polysaccharides and cations presents into the tear made these biopolymers very interesting to elaborate ophthalmic drug delivery systems. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of mixtures of these polymers to obtain ion-activated ophthalmic in situ gelling systems with optimal properties for ocular use. To achieve this purpose different proportion of the biopolymers were analyzed using a mixture experimental design evaluating their transparency, mechanical properties and bioadhesion in the absence and presence of simulated tear fluid. Tear induces a rapid sol-to-gel phase transition in the mixtures forming a consistent hydrogel. The solution composed by 80% of gellan gum and 20% kappa-carrageenan showed the best mechanical and mucoadhesive properties. This mixture was evaluated for rheological behavior, microstructure, cytotoxicity, acute corneal irritancy, ex-vivo and in vivo ocular toxicity and in vivo corneal contact time using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) techniques. Result indicates that the system is safe at ophthalmic level and produces an extensive ocular permanence higher than 6h. PMID:26079831

  14. Assessment of different energy delivery settings in laser and LED phototherapies in the inflammatory process of rat's TMJ induced by carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Isabele C V; Rosa, Cristiane B; Carvalho, Carolina M; Aragão, Juliana S; Cangussu, Maria Cristina T; Dos Santos, Jean N; Pinheiro, Antonio L B

    2015-11-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are mostly inflammatory conditions widespread in the population. Previous studies have shown positive effects of either laser or light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapies on treating TMDs, but their action and mechanism in the inflammatory infiltrate of the temporomandibular joint are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess, through histological analysis, the effectiveness of using laser light (λ 780 nm, 70 mW, continous wave (CW), 10 J) and LED (λ 850 ± 10 nm, 100 mW, CW, 10 J) on the inflammation of the temporomandibular joint of rats induced by carrageenan. Forty-five animals were divided into three groups with five animals each according to the experimental times of 2, 3, and 7 days: inflammation, inflammation+laser phototherapy, and inflammation+LED phototherapy. The first irradiation was performed 24 h after induction with an interval of 48 h between sessions. After animal death, specimens were processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and picrosirius. Then, the samples were examined histologically. Data were statistically analyzed. The inflammation group showed mild to moderate chronic inflammatory infiltrate between bone trabecules of the condyle. Over the time course of the study in the laser group, the region of the condyle presented mild chronic inflammation and intense vascularization. In the LED group, the condyle showed aspects of normality and absence of inflammation in some specimens. In all the time points, the laser-irradiated groups showed greater amount of collagen deposition in the condyle (p = 0.04) and in the disc (p = 0.03) when compared to the inflammation and LED groups, respectively. Laser- and LED-treated groups demonstrate a smaller number of layers of the synovial membrane when compared to the non-irradiated groups. It was concluded that, in general, laser and LED phototherapies resulted in a reduction of inflammatory infiltrate in the

  15. New multilayer coating using quaternary ammonium chitosan and κ-carrageenan in capillary electrophoresis: application in fast analysis of betaine and methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Luciano; Della Betta, Fabiana; Costa, Ana Carolina O; Vaz, Fernando Antonio Simas; Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Fávere, Valfredo T; Micke, Gustavo A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new multilayer coating with crosslinked quaternary ammonium chitosan (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan; HACC) and κ-carrageenan for use in capillary electrophoresis. A new semi-permanent multilayer coating was formed using the procedure developed and the method does not require the presence of polymers in the background electrolyte (BGE). The new capillary multilayer coating showed a cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) of around 30×10(-9) m(2) V(-1) s(-1) which is pH-independent in the range of pH 2 to 10. The enhanced EOF at low pH obtained contributed significantly to the development of a fast method of separation. The multilayer coating was then applied in the development of a fast separation method to determine betaine and methionine in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The BGE used to determine the betaine and methionine concentrations was composed of 10 mmol L(-1) tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, 40 mmol L(-1) phosphoric acid and 10% (v/v) ethanol, at pH 2.1. A fused-silica capillary of 32 cm (50 µm ID×375 µm OD) was used in the experiments and samples and standards were analyzed employing the short-end injection procedure (8.5 cm effective length). The instrumental analysis time of the optimized method was 1.53 min (approx. 39 runs per hour). The validation of the proposed method for the determination of betaine and methionine showed good linearity (R(2)>0.999), adequate limit of detection (LOD <8 mg L(-1)) for the concentration in the samples and inter-day precision values lower than 3.5% (peak area and time migration). The results for the quantification of the amino acids in the samples determined by the CZE-UV method developed were statistically equal to those obtained with the comparative LC-MS/MS method according to the paired t-test with a confidence level of 95%. PMID:24725863

  16. Secagem do Polissacarídeo l-Carragena Usando um Leito de Jorro Fluidizado Bidimensional Drying of l-Carrageenan Using a Two Dimensional Spouted Fluidized Bed Dryer

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    Héctor José Ciro Velásquez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. Suspensões de l-carragena foram secas usando um secador de leito de jorro fluidizado bidimensional com partículas inertesplásticas de ABS (acrilonitrilo-butadieno-estireno. O desempenho do secador (produção de pó e retenção de sólidos e qualidade do produto seco obtido (propriedades reológicas e teor de umidade foi avaliado. Os resultados mostraram que a eficiência de produção média de pó foi de 23% com uma retenção média de 71%. A variável mais relevante na secagem das suspensões foi a vazão de alimentação, sendo que um aumento desta variável produziu um baixo rendimento de pó e aumentou a retenção de sólidos dentro do leito. O produto reconstituído de l-carragena obtido nas condições otimizadas de secagem formou suspensões de natureza altamente pseudoplástica, porém com propriedades viscoelásticas características de suspensões altamente diluídas (G''>G', mostrando valores de viscosidade, módulos elástico (G' e de perda (G'' menores que o produto comercial.Abstract. l-carrageenan suspensions were dried using a two dimensional spouted fluidized bed dryer with inert particles of ABS (acrylonitrile butadine styrene. The dryer performance (powder production and solid retention and quality properties of final product (rheological properties and moisture content were evaluated. According to results the mean powder production of l-carrageenan using ABS as inert particle was of 23% with a solid retention of 71%. The most significant variable in the drying of suspension was the feed mass flow rate, as its increase produced a diminishing of the powder production and increasing of the solids retention in the bed. The reconstituted suspensions of l-carrageenan obtained from optimized conditions of drying formed highly pseudoplastic suspensions with viscoelastic properties of highly diluted (G''>G' systems. In addition, the rheological characteristics as viscosity, storage (G' and loss moduli (G'' were lower

  17. Isolamento, fracionamento e atividade anticoagulante de iota-carragenanas da Solieria filiformis Isolation, fractionation and anticoagulant activity of iota-carrageenans from Solieria filiformis

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    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo isolar, fracionar e avaliar o potencial anticoagulante de iota-carragenanas (i-CARs da rodofícea Solieria filiformis, quando obtidas por dois métodos de extração (M I e M II. As i-CARs foram isoladas com papaína bruta em tampão acetato de sódio 0,1M (pH 5,0, contendo cisteína 5mM e EDTA 5mM (M I ou água (80°C (M II e, em seguida, determinada sua composição química de carboidratos totais, sulfato livre (SL e proteínas contaminantes. As i-CARs foram submetidas à cromatografia de troca iônica (DEAE-celulose usando um gradiente de cloreto de sódio, sendo avaliado o tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA e tempo de protrombina das frações obtidas e comparadas à heparina (193UI mg-1. Uma fração anticoagulante também foi submetida ao procedimento de eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. A diferença no rendimento de i-CARs entre os métodos foi 10,14%. A composição química de SL (29,40% e o fracionamento, por DEAE-celulose, indicaram o M I mais eficiente na obtenção de i-CARs, comparado ao M II. O TTPA também foi somente alterado para as i-CARs do M I. Contudo, a atividade anticoagulante in vitro de uma fração rica (8,52UI mg-1 foi inferior à da heparina.This study aimed to isolate, fractionate and evaluate the anticoagulant potential of iota-carrageenans (i-CARs from Solieria filiformis when two extraction methods (M I and M II were used. i-CARs were isolated with papain in 0.1M sodium acetate (pH 5.0 containing 5mM cystein and 5mM EDTA (M I or water (80°C (M II, and then their chemical composition of total carbohydrates, free sulfate (FS and contaminant proteins were determined. i-CARs were submitted to anion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose using a sodium chloride gradient,being evaluated the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT and prothrombin time of obtained fractions and compared to heparin (193IU mg-1. A rich fraction of anticoagulant was also submitted to 0

  18. Effect of chitosan molecular weight on the formation of chitosan-pullulanase soluble complexes and their application in the immobilization of pullulanase onto Fe3O4-κ-carrageenan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jie; Xu, Enbo; Li, Xingfei; Wu, Zhengzong; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan; Zhan, Xiaobei

    2016-07-01

    The interactions between pullulanase and chitosans of different molecular weights (Mw) were comprehensively studied, and their applications in pullulanase immobilization onto Fe3O4-κ-carrageenan nanoparticles upon chitosan-pullulanase complexation were also evaluated. Chitosan (CS) complexation with pullulanase was found to be dependent on pH and chitosan Mw. The critical pH of structure-forming events during complexation shifted significantly (pchitosan (50kDa) compared to other chitosan types. Binding constants for the chitosan-pullulanase interaction increased in the following order: CS-500chitosan Mw. This study presents a technique for the production of immobilized pullulanase upon complexation that exhibits potential for applications in continuous syrup production. PMID:26920265

  19. Influência do amido e carragena nas propriedades texturiais de surimi de tilápia (Oreochomis sp. Influence of starch and carrageenan on textural properties on tilapia (Oreochomis sp. surimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas carcaças residuais da filetagem industrial de tilápias (Oreochomis sp. na obtenção de carne de pescado separada mecanicamente (CPSM para elaboração de surimi. Amidos de diferentes fontes, como milho ceroso, milho ceroso modificado e mandioca, e o polissacarídeo carragena foram usados como ingredientes, e estudados seus efeitos no comportamento do gel de surimi. O surimi elaborado a partir de carcaças residuais da filetagem industrial, apresentou um rendimento final de 25% (peso/peso. A análise instrumental de textura apresentou um efeito fortalecedor, em relação à força de penetração dos amidos no gel de surimi, sendo esse efeito proporcional à viscosidade (r = 0,81, pFillet frames from industrial processing of tilapias (Oreochomis sp. was utilized to obtained minced meat for surimi. Starch from differents sources ( waxy maize starch, modified waxy maize starch and tapioca and the polysaccharide carrageenan was utilized like additives, and then studied their effects on surimi gel behaviour. Tilapia surimi showed a yield of 25% (weight/weight. The instrumental analysis of texture showed a strong effect of starch in relation to penetration force in surimi gel, these effect was proportional to starches viscosity (r = 0,81, p<0,05, studied by Brabender amylograph, by other hand, both starch and carrageenan showed a decresed in viscoelasticity of surimi gel (p<0,005.

  20. Effects of Carrageenan and Xanthan Gum on Texture of Processed Acid-coagulated Cheese%卡拉胶和黄原胶对酸性凝胶型再制干酪质构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖杨; 苗君莅; 郑远荣; 刘振民

    2012-01-01

    The effects of carrageenan and xanthan gum on the texture and sensory quality of processed acid-coagulated cheese were studied.Under the acidic condition of pH 4.25,addition of carrageenan,along with 0.2% locust bean gum,could increase the hardness of cheese and result in the formation of hard and sticky gels.The presence of xanthan gum was effective in enhancing the springiness and chewiness of processed acid-coagulated cheese and soft,smooth and elastic gels were formed.Combined addition of carageenan and xanthan gum to processed acid-coagulated cheese can meet various texture requirements.%通过质构仪分析和感官评定,研究卡拉胶和黄原胶对酸性再制干酪质构的影响。结果表明:在pH4.25的酸性条件下,在添加0.2%刺槐豆胶的基础上,添加卡拉胶能增强再制干酪的硬度,形成的凝胶硬实且黏厚;添加黄原胶能增强再制干酪的弹性和咀嚼性,形成的凝胶柔滑且富有弹性。可按不同质构需求将两者复配起来运用于酸性凝胶型再制干酪的加工。

  1. Conservation of Williams pear using edible coating with alginate and carrageenan Conservação de pera Williams utilizando coberturas comestíveis compostas de alginato e carragena

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    Kessiane Silva de Moraes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical parameters of Williams pear, stored at 25 ºC for 15 days, with and without edible coating. Edible coatings prepared with alginate 2% and carrageenan 0.5% were tested. The analyses carried out on the samples were: weight loss, pH, soluble solids, firmness, and color. The edible coatings were characterized in terms of mechanical properties, permeability, thickness, and opacity. The results show that the application of edible coatings with carrageenan and alginate in pears influenced physical and chemical characteristics such as weight loss, pH, total soluble solids, color, and firmness of the fruit. However, the alginate coating showed the best results on pear conservation since it had lower water vapor permeability and greater tensile strength, and therefore it can be used as a protective film on these fruits.O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os parâmetros físico-químicos da pera Williams, com e sem cobertura comestível, armazenada a 25 ºC por 15 dias. Foram testadas coberturas de alginato 2% e carragena 0,5%. As análises realizadas nas amostras foram: perda de massa fresca, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, firmeza e cor. As coberturas comestíveis foram caracterizadas por meio das propriedades mecânicas, de permeabilidade, espessura e opacidade. Os resultados mostraram que a aplicação de coberturas comestíveis com carragena e alginato em peras influenciou as características físico-químicas, como perda de massa fresca, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, cor e firmeza das frutas. Entretanto, a cobertura de alginato mostrou os melhores resultados na conservação de peras. Filmes de alginato apresentaram menor permeabilidade ao vapor de água e maior tensão de ruptura, servindo como uma barreira protetora à fruta.

  2. Avaliação da influência de amido e carragena nas características físico-químicas e sensoriais de presunto cozido de peru Evaluation of the influence of starch and carrageenan on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of cooked turkey ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alexandre Pedroso

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Segundo a legislação brasileira, a adição de carragena em presunto é facultativa, contudo não é permitida a adição de amido neste tipo de produto. Neste trabalho, utilizou-se um planejamento fatorial 2² com duplicata no ponto central, variando amido (0 a 2% e carragena (0 a 1% em presunto de peru. Tanto o amido quanto a carragena apresentaram efeitos negativos para perda por cozimento e para perda por reaquecimento, indicando que a presença destes hidrocolóides favoreceu a permanência de água nos produtos. Contudo não houve diferenças significativas de pH e na composição centesimal, tensão de cisalhamento e avaliação sensorial. Além disso, uma característica de sinergismo entre os polissacarídeos foi notada. Amostras elaboradas com 1% de carragena apresentaram formação de um exsudado gelatinoso, embora as amostras que continham 1% de carragena e 2% de amido não apresentaram este efeito, indicando que o amido reduz a formação de exsudado gelatinoso em presunto de peru com adição de carragena. A utilização de amido em presunto pode melhorar algumas características físico-químicas, reduzir defeitos e não apresentar diferenças sensoriais quando comparado ao padrão brasileiro sem adição de amido.The use of carrageenan in ham is facultative, but the addition of starch is not allowed by the Brazilian legislation in this kind of product. In this work, a 2² experimental design was used, with duplicates of the central point, considering starch (0 to 2% and carrageenan levels (0 to 1% in the production of turkey ham. In both cases, starch and carrageenan showed negative effects on the purge loss and on the reheating loss, indicating that the presence of the hydrocolloids favored the retention of water in the product. However, there were no significant differences in pH, chemical composition, shear values and in the sensory evaluation. A synergistic effect between the polysaccharides was noted. Samples made with 1

  3. Phototherapy with low intensity laser in carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory process in mice paw - dosimetry studies; Fototerapia com laser em baixa intensidade em processo inflamatorio agudo induzido por carragenina em pata de camundongos - estudos de dosimetria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneguzzo, Daiane Thais

    2010-07-01

    The importance of modulation of inflammation on the treatment of inflammatory diseases and the difficulty in determining the laser irradiation parameters has led us to study the effects of different protocols of phototherapy with low intensity laser (power, energy, time and place of irradiation) in the treatment and prevention of edema in acute inflammatory process using the experimental model of paw edema induced by carrageenan (CGN) in three strains of mice (Balb-c, Swiss and C57BL/6). The first stage of the study evaluated different combinations of energy (1J and 3J) with different powers (30, 60 and 100mW) in Balb-C mice paw irradiated 1 and 2h after injection of CGN. The second stage studied different combinations of location (foot, inguinal lymph nodes and both) and exposure time (2 and 1h before, 1h and immediately before the CGN, 1 and 2h and 3.5 and 4.5h after CGN) using fixed irradiation parameters (1J, 100mW, 35J/cm{sup 2}, spot area of 0.028 cm{sup 2}). The third stage compared different strains of mice Balb-c and C57BL/6) in the best local and time parameters found in step 2. At all stages, we evaluated the change in paw volume by plethysmography and inflammatory infiltrate by histomorphometry or analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO). The results showed that laser phototherapy treated and prevented edema and modulated the inflammatory process with paw and inguinal lymph nodes irradiations accordingly with the parameters and mice strain used. (author)

  4. Effect of acupuncture on TNF-alpha, IL-1b and IL-10 concentrations in the peritoneal exudates of carrageenan-induced peritonitis in rats Efeito da acupuntura sobre a concentração de TNF-alfa, IL-1b e IL-10 no exsudato peritoneal de ratos com peritonite induzida por carragenina

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Valéria Rizzo Scognamillo-Szabó; Gervásio Henrique Bechara; Fernando de Queiroz Cunha

    2005-01-01

    Acupuncture is an ancient and empirical therapeutic procedure known by its efficacy in the treatment of pain. However, the influence of acupuncture on inflammatory process is still poorly understood and additional research is needed. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of action of manual acupuncture on the inhibition of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by the inflammatory stimulus carrageenan in Wistar rats. Previous results from our laboratory showed that this a...

  5. A comparative study on the anti-inflammatory effects of single oral doses of naproxen and its hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing derivative ATB-346 in rats with carrageenan-induced synovitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most commonly prescribed agents for arthritic patients, although gastric effects limit their long-term use. Considering the reported gastric safety of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing NSAIDs, in addition to the anti-inflammatory effects of H2S administration to rats with synovitis, we decided to evaluate the effects of the H2S-releasing naproxen derivative ATB-346 in this animal model. Methods Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with inhalatory halothane and pre-treated with equimolar oral doses of either naproxen (0.3, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg) or ATB-346 (0.48, 1.6, 4.8, or 16 mg/kg) 30 min before the i.art. injection of 7.5 mg of carrageenan (CGN) into the right knee joint cavity. Joint swelling and pain score were assessed after 1, 3 and 5 h, and tactile allodynia after 2 and 4 h. After the last measurement, the joint cavity lavages were performed for counting of the recruited leukocytes. The drugs (at the highest doses) were also tested for their gastric effects by evaluating macroscopical damage score and neutrophil recruitment (measured as myeloperoxidase – MPO activity) in the stomachs 5 h after administration of the drugs. In addition, the serum naproxen pharmacokinetic profiles of both compounds, administered at the highest equimolar doses, were obtained during the first 6 h after dosing. Results At the two highest tested doses, both naproxen and ATB-346 reduced edema and pain score (measured 3 and 5 h after CGN; P < 0.001). Tactile allodynia was similarly inhibited by ~45% 4 h after CGN by both naproxen (at 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) and ATB-346 (at 1.6 and 4.8 mg/kg; P < 0.001), as well as leukocyte infiltration. Naproxen (but not ATB-346) induced significant gastric damage and, despite the increased gastric MPO activity by ~130% in the naproxen-, but not in the ATB-346-treated rats, this effect was of no statistical significance. Conclusion The presence of a H2S-releasing moiety in

  6. Models of Inflammation: Carrageenan Air Pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Djane B; Vasko, Michael R; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2016-01-01

    The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study the components of acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, the oxidative stress response, and potential therapeutic targets for treating inflammation. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this unit has been extensively used to identify potential anti-inflammatory drugs. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26995549

  7. 大豆蛋白/κ-卡拉胶冷致凝胶的制备及控释特性%Preparation and Controlled Release Property of Soy Protein/κ-Carrageenan Cold-Set Gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓泉; 周小玲; 王晓园; 尹寿伟

    2011-01-01

    为构建具有控释特性的可食性输送载体,利用转谷氨酰胺酶交联大豆蛋白与κ-卡拉胶形成蛋白/多糖复合冷致凝胶,分析了复合凝胶的微结构与流变学性质,并将复合凝胶冷冻干燥压制成片剂,对其在模拟胃肠液中对核黄素的控释特性和释放动力学进行了分析.结果表明:复合凝胶呈现致密的网络结构,κ-卡拉胶的加入增强了复合凝胶的强度和硬度,荷载核黄素则弱化了复合凝胶的强度和硬度;在模拟消化道中,复合凝胶及片剂胃液释放1h的累积释放率低于17%,移入肠液后9h累积释放率为75%~100%,缓释效果良好;核黄素在模拟胃液和肠液中的释放机制不同,分别由Fick扩散和非Fick扩散控制.%In order to construct edible conveying carriers with excellent controlled release properties, soy protein/ K-carrageenah mixed cold-set gels were produced via the crosslinking of microbial transglutaminase ( MTGase). Then, the microstructure and rheological properties of the mixed gels were analyzed, and the tablets flaked by the gels via the freeze-drying were used as the controlled release carriers for riboflavin to investigate the release properties and the release dynamics in simulated gastrointestinal fluid. The results show that ( 1) the mixed gels are structurally in dense network; (2) K-carrageenan improves the strength and hardness of the mixed gels, while riboflavin weakens the gel properties; (3) in simulated gastrointestinal condition, the one-hour accumulative release rate of the gels and the tablets for riboflavin in simulated gastric fluid is lower than 17% but ranges from 75% to 100% after a moving to simulated intestinal fluid for 9h, which means that both the gels and the tablets have sustained release effect for riboflavin. In addition, it is found that the release mechanisms of riboflavin in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids are different from each other; Specifically, one is controlled

  8. Inhibition of carrageenan-induced expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA by low level laser therapy in a rat paw edema model Inibição da expressão de RNA mensageiro de pré-calicreínas tecidual e plasmática pela laserterapia em modelo de edema de pata induzido pela carragenina em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés P. Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROND: Low level laser therapy (LLLT has been used clinically in order to treat inflammation, where tissue and plasma prekallikrein have crucial importance. Plasma prekallikrein (PPK is synthesized by the hepatocytes and secreted into the bloodstream, where it participates in the surface-dependent activation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, kinin generation and inflammation. Tissue prekallikrein is associated with important disease states (including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegeneration and has been utilized or proposed as clinically important biomarker or therapeutic target of interest. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if LLLT modulates tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA expression in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. METHODS: Experimental groups were assigned as followed: A1 (Control-saline, A2 (Carrageenan-only, A3 (laser 660nm only and A4 (Carrageenan + laser 660nm. Edema was measured by a plethysmometer. Subplantar tissue was collected for the quantification of prekallikreins mRNA by Real time-Polymerase Chain Reaction. RESULTS: A significantly decrease in the edema was observed after laser irradiation. Expression of prekallikreins increased after carrageenan injection. Tissue and plasma prekallikrein mRNA expression significantly decreased after LLLT's 660nm wavelength. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins is modulated by LLLT, which can be used in clinical practice due to its anti-inflammatory effects.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A laserterapia de baixa potência tem sido usada para o tratamento de processos inflamatórios diversos em que a calicreína tecidual e a plasmática possuem participação ativa. A pré-calicreína plasmática (PPK é sintetizada pelos hepatócitos e secretada na corrente sanguínea, onde participa da ativação da coagulação, fibrinólise, geração de cininas e inflamação. A pré-calicreína tecidual está associada com importantes doenças (incluindo c

  9. Effect of acupuncture on TNF-alpha, IL-1b and IL-10 concentrations in the peritoneal exudates of carrageenan-induced peritonitis in rats Efeito da acupuntura sobre a concentração de TNF-alfa, IL-1b e IL-10 no exsudato peritoneal de ratos com peritonite induzida por carragenina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Valéria Rizzo Scognamillo-Szabó

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an ancient and empirical therapeutic procedure known by its efficacy in the treatment of pain. However, the influence of acupuncture on inflammatory process is still poorly understood and additional research is needed. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of action of manual acupuncture on the inhibition of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by the inflammatory stimulus carrageenan in Wistar rats. Previous results from our laboratory showed that this anti-inflammatory effect is not due to endogenous corticoid release. Furthermore, the concentration of IL-1b, but not of TNF-alpha or IL-10 in the carrageenan-induced exudates was reduced in the acupuncture group. Further research will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of acupuncture as described here.A acupuntura é método terapêutico milenar reconhecido por sua eficácia no tratamento da dor, porém seu efeito sobre processos inflamatórios é ainda pouco conhecido e maiores estudos são necessários. Neste trabalho, é investigado o mecanismo de ação da acupuntura manual sobre a inibição na migração de neutrófilos para a cavidade peritoneal induzida por carragenina em ratos Wistar. Resultados prévios indicam que esse efeito antiinflamatório não depende de hormônios corticóides. Entretanto, as concentrações de IL-1b no exsudato induzido por carragenina foram reduzidas pelo tratamento com acupuntura. Por outro lado os níveis de TNF-alfa e IL-10 não foram afetados pelo tratamento. Mais pesquisas poderão elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na ação antiinflamatória da acupuntura.

  10. Caracterização tecnológica de sobremesas lácteas achocolatadas cremosas elaboradas com concentrado protéico de soro e misturas de gomas carragena e guar Technological characterization of creamy chocolate dairy desserts prepared with whey protein concentrate and a mixture of carrageenan and guar gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Hideko Lemos Nikaedo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de sobremesas lácteas tem apresentado importante crescimento nesta última década, justificado pelo progresso tecnológico em ingredientes e processos. Neste trabalho efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química e sensorial de sobremesas lácteas achocolatadas cremosas, nas quais o concentrado protéico de soro - CPS (3,0; 2,0 e 1,0% foi usado com o leite em pó integral (5,0; 6,0 e 7,0%, carragena (0,05; 0,15 e 0,25%, goma guar (0,25; 0,15 e 0,05%, chocolate em pó (2,8%, açúcar (11,5% e sorbato de potássio (0,08%. Os resultados mostram que é viável utilizar o CPS em substituição ao leite em pó, oferecendo um produto com menores teores de gordura e de sólidos totais, e maior teor de proteínas. O produto apresentou melhor qualidade nutricional, além da redução calórica, favorecendo seu consumo por pessoas preocupadas com a saúde. A sobremesa elaborada com 1,00% de CPS, 7,00% de leite em pó, 0,05% de carragena e 0,25% de goma guar foi considerada a melhor pelos provadores, com aceitabilidade acima do valor 4 (bom.The consumption of dairy desserts has boomed in the last few decades, due to the technological progress in the development of ingredients and processes. In this study the physicochemical and sensory characterization of creamy chocolate dairy desserts were carried out. Whey powder concentrate - WPC (3.0; 2.0 and 1.0% was used with whole milk powder (5.0; 6.0 and 7.0%, carrageenan (0.05; 0.15 and 0.25%, guar gum (0.25; 0.15 and 0.05%, cocoa powder (2.8%, sugar (11.5% and potassium sorbate (0.08%, according to the trial. The results showed that it is possible to use WPC, replacing whole milk powder, and therefore creating a product with low fat and total solids, and high protein content. The final product presented better nutritional quality, besides reduced caloric value, which favors the consumption by people concerned with health. The experimental dairy dessert prepared with 1.00% WPC, 7.00% whole milk

  11. Engineering articular cartilage using newly developed carrageenan basedhydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, Elena Geta

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage holds specific functionality in the human body creating smooth gliding areas and allowing the joints to move easily without pain. However, due to its avascular nature and to the low metabolic activity of the constituent cells-the chondrocytes, cartilage has a low regenerative potential. The current surgical options to treat damaged cartilage are not long lasting and involve frequent revisions. Tissue engineering may provide an alternative approach for cartilage...

  12. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in κ-carrageenan

    CERN Document Server

    Ravindra, Pogaku

    2015-01-01

    This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For...

  13. Gelled vegetable desserts containing pea protein, k-carrageenan and starch

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Isabel; M.C. NUNES; Raymundo, Anabela

    2006-01-01

    Due to recent animal diseases, cholesterol in take worries and strong demand for healthy food, there is a greater pressure for the direct consumption of vegetable proteins in food products. In this work, the objective is to develop alternative of strictly vegetable origin desserts based on gelled systems with required physical structure and perceived texture. For this reason, it is important to control the properties of the biopolymer mixtures and understand the phase separation beha...

  14. Neutrophils and the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 mediate carrageenan-induced antinociception in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana L. Pagano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously shown that the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 secreted by neutrophils mediates the antinociceptive response in an acute inflammatory model induced by the intraperitoneal injection of glycogen in mice.

  15. Investigation of Moisture Sorption, Permeability and Drug Release Behavior of Carrageenan/Poly Vinyl Alcohol Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. K. Bajpai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes moisture sorption behavior and water vapor permeability of gluteraldehyde –crosslinked Carrageenen/polyvinyl alcohol (Carr/PVA films. The moisture uptake has been studied under various relative humidity (RH and the data obtained has been interpreted in the terms of various isotherm models such as GAB, Oswin and Halsey models. The moisture permeability through the films has been characterized in the terms of various parameters like water vapor transmission rate (WVTR, permeance (P and Water vapor permeability (WVP. It was found that these parameters are greatly affected by the degree of crosslinking of the films. Finally, the model drug Gentamycin Sulphate was loaded in to the films and its release was monitored kinetically in the physiological buffer (PF at 370C. The films exhibited diffusion controlled release mechanism.

  16. Antiinflammatory activity of tenoxicam gel on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta G; Gaud R

    2006-01-01

    Tenoxicam is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, used in the treatment of inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the musculoskeletal system. It is from the oxicam group of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. It is widely prescribed for the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, extra-articular disorders, bursitis, tendonitis, and nonarticular rheumatic condition. Tenoxicam has some side effects when taken orally, viz., epigastric pain, heartbu...

  17. Anti-inflammatory potential of Agaricus in carrageenan-induced model of local inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrazzag A. Elmajdoub

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: These data may indicate that Agaricus extract has the potential of anti-inflammatory activity that could be applied in acute inflammatory disorders. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 497-502

  18. Effect of addition of semi refined carrageenan on mechanical characteristics of gum arabic edible film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyorini, D.; Nurcahyani, P. R.

    2016-04-01

    Currently the seaweed is processed flour and Semi Refined Carraagenan (SRC). However, total production is small, but both of these products have a high value and are used in a wide variety of products such as cosmetics, processed foods, medicines, and edible film. The aim of this study were (1) to determine the effect of SRC on mechanical characteristics of edible film, (2) to determine the best edible film which added by SRC with different concentration. The edible film added by SRC flour which divided into three concentrations of SRC. There are 1.5%; 3%; and 4.5% of SRC, then added 3% glycerol and 0.6% arabic gum. The mechanical properties of the film measured by a universal testing machine Orientec Co. Ltd., while the water vapor permeability measured by the gravimetric method dessicant modified. The experimental design used was completely randomized design with a further test of Duncan. The result show SRC concentration differences affect the elongation breaking point and tensile strength. But not significant effect on the thickness, yield strength and the modulus of elasticity. The best edible film is edible film with the addition of SRC 4.5%.

  19. Development of carrageenan-chitosan nanostructured coatings through layer-by-layer assembly for food applications

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Pinheiro; Medeiros, Bartolomeu G.; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G.; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Vicente, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology holds a great potential to generate very innovative solutions and to provide food technologists with instruments to meet the ever-growing consumer demands in very diverse aspects related with the foods they eat: safety, quality, health-promotion and novelty. Layer-by-layer assembly, which is performed by the simple alternating immersion of substrates into aqueous solutions of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, can be applied to produce multilayers of nanometer thickness on...

  20. Photoprotective Effects of Carrageenan against UVB-Irradiation in Human Keratinocytes Hacat Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Keir, Jeffrey G.; Rolfe, Heidi; Guadagni, Donald; MOHAMED, S. M.; Ho, S K; Aboo-Sufee, S.M.I; Vangeta, V.K.; Chu, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Serial dermatoscopic monitoring of pigmented skin lesions may introduce a delay in diagnosis of melanoma. Conversely it is argued that feature-poor melanomas may not otherwise be diagnosed without a large increase in biopsy rates. This study compared average Breslow thickness of melanomas that have been serially monitored with those that have not. Method: A retrospective analysis of a clinical audit of all histopathologically confirmed melanomas detected over a two-year period i...

  1. Adhesion and viability of two enterococcal strains on covalently grafted chitosan and chitosan/kappa-carrageenan multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratskaya, S.; Marinin, D.; Simon, F.; Synytska, A.; Zschoche, S.; Busscher, H. J.; Jager, D.; van der Mei, H. C.

    2007-01-01

    Chitosans are natural aminopolysaccharides, whose low cytotoxicity suggests their potential use for nonadhesive, antibacterial coatings on biomaterials implant surfaces. Here, the antiadhesive behavior and ability to kill bacteria upon adhesion ("contact killing") of chitosan coatings were evaluated

  2. Functional role of starch and kappa-carrageenan on the rheology and flavour of a custard dessert (COST 921 recipe)

    OpenAIRE

    González Tomás, Luis; Tárrega, Amparo; Costell, Elvira

    2005-01-01

    Flavour release and perception are complex processes in which different physico-chemical and physiological phenomena may be involved 1. Whereas flavour release is mainly governed by chemical and/or physical interactions between flavour compounds and the food matrix 2, perception is strongly influenced by physiological factors like mouth volume, saliva flow rate and air flow rate through the mouth and nose 3. In the framework of COST 921 action, the main objective of this work was to study the...

  3. Effect of Brij 97 in the presence and absence of carrageenan on the transdermal delivery of 5-Fluorouracil / Carli Neethling

    OpenAIRE

    Neethling, Catharina Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The skin is the largest and most easily accessible organ of the human body thus making it the ideal route for systemic drug delivery. The transdermal route of drug delivery offers several advantages compared to the traditional routes including elimination of first pass metabolism and higher patient compliance. However, many drugs are topically and systemically ineffective when applied onto the skin, due to their almost complete failure to penetrate the skin. The main limitation li...

  4. A bioactive formulation based on Fragaria vesca L. vegetative parts: chemical characterisation and application in κ-carrageenan gelatin

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Fernandes, Isabel Patrícia; Ruphuy, G.; Oliveira, M. B. P. P.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Barreiro, M.F.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2015-01-01

    A bioactive formulation based on the vegetative parts of the wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca L., was developed by using a microencapsulated extract (lyophilized infusion form). For that purpose, a process based on an atomization/coagulation technique with alginate as the wall material was applied. Among the tested hydromethanolic and aqueous extracts, both obtained from wild and commercial samples, the infusion of a wild species emerged as the most antioxidative one. The higher amounts of fla...

  5. Systemic administration of Rosmarinus officinalis attenuates the inflammatory response induced by carrageenan in the mouse model of pleurisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Julia Salvan; Facchin, Bruno Matheus; Bastos, Juliana; Siqueira, Mariana Araújo; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2013-11-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis, also named rosemary, is a native plant from the Mediterranean region that is useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Studies using experimental models and/or in vitro tests have shown the important biological effects of rosemary. In this context, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of rosemary must be investigated to support the discovery of new substances with anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract oil free obtained from the leaves of rosemary in an animal model of inflammation, thus evaluating its medicinal use for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Also its ethanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions, as well as its isolated compounds carnosol and rosmarinic acid were analyzed. Swiss mice were used for the in vivo experiments. The effect of this herb on the inhibition of the leukocytes, exudation, myeloperoxidase, and adenosine-deaminase activities, nitrite/nitrate, interleukin 17A, and interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression was determined. The crude extract and its derived fractions, in addition to its isolated compounds, inhibited leukocytes and decreased exudation and myeloperoxidase and adenosine-deaminase activities, as well as nitrite/nitrate and interleukin 17A levels and mRNA expression, besides increasing interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression. Rosemary showed important anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocytes and decreasing exudation. These effects were associated with a decrease in the proinflammatory parameters (myeloperoxidase, adenosine-deaminase, nitrite/nitrate, and interleukin 17A) and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin 10). This study confirms the anti-inflammatory properties of rosemary and validates its use in folk medicine to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism and asthma. PMID:24288274

  6. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione syntheses and TRR/TRX activities enhancing photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eGonzález

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the effect of OC kappa in redox status, photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus globulus, trees were treated with water (control, with OC kappa at 1 mg mL-1, or treated with inhibitors of NAD(PH, ascorbate (ASC and glutathione (GSH syntheses and thioredoxin reductase (TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO and auranofin, respectively, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for 4 months. Treatment with OC kappa induced an increase in NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses, TRR and thioredoxin (TRX activities, photosynthesis, growth and activities of basal metabolism enzymes such as rubisco, glutamine synthetase (GlnS, adenosine 5´-phosphosulfate reductase (APR, involved in C, N and S assimilation, respectively, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes. Treatment with inhibitors and OC kappa showed that increases in ASC, GSH and TRR/TRX enhanced NADPH synthesis, increases in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced ASC and GSH syntheses, and only the increase in NADPH enhanced TRR/TRX activities. In addition, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH and TRR/TRX enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Moreover, the increase in NADPH, ASC and TRR/TRX enhanced activities of rubisco, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes, the increase in GSH, NADPH, and TRR/TRX enhanced APR activity, and the increase in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced GlnS activity. Thus, OC kappa increases NADPH, ASC and GSH syntheses leading to a more reducing redox status, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH syntheses and TRR/TRX activities are cross-talking events leading to activation of photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  7. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione syntheses and TRR/TRX activities enhancing photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alberto; Moenne, Fabiola; Gómez, Melissa; Sáez, Claudio A.; Contreras, Rodrigo A.; Moenne, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the effect of OC kappa in redox status, photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus globulus, trees were treated with water (control), with OC kappa at 1 mg mL−1, or treated with inhibitors of NAD(P)H, ascorbate (ASC), and glutathione (GSH) syntheses and thioredoxin reductase (TRR) activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), and auranofin, respectively, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for 4 months. Treatment with OC kappa induced an increase in NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses, TRR and thioredoxin (TRX) activities, photosynthesis, growth and activities of basal metabolism enzymes such as rubisco, glutamine synthetase (GlnS), adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), involved in C, N, and S assimilation, respectively, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes. Treatment with inhibitors and OC kappa showed that increases in ASC, GSH, and TRR/TRX enhanced NADPH synthesis, increases in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced ASC and GSH syntheses, and only the increase in NADPH enhanced TRR/TRX activities. In addition, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH, and TRR/TRX enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Moreover, the increase in NADPH, ASC and TRR/TRX enhanced activities of rubisco, Krebs cycle, and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes, the increase in GSH, NADPH, and TRR/TRX enhanced APR activity, and the increase in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced GlnS activity. Thus, OC kappa increases NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses leading to a more reducing redox status, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH syntheses, and TRR/TRX activities are cross-talking events leading to activation of photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees. PMID:25352851

  8. Immobilization of β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger on κ-carrageenan hybrid matrix and its application on the production of reducing sugar from macroalgae cellulosic residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Inn Shi; Lee, Keat Teong

    2015-05-01

    A novel concept for the synthesis of a stable polymer hybrid matrix bead was developed in this study. The beads were further applied for enzyme immobilization to produce stable and active biocatalysts with low enzyme leakage, and high immobilization efficiency, enzyme activity, and recyclability. The immobilization conditions, including PEI concentration, activation time and pH of the PEI solution were investigated and optimized. All formulated beads were characterized for its functionalized groups, composition, surface morphology and thermal stability. Compared with the free β-glucosidase, the immobilized β-glucosidase on the hybrid matrix bead was able to tolerate broader range of pH values and higher reaction temperature up to 60 °C. The immobilized β-glucosidase was then used to hydrolyse pretreated macroalgae cellulosic residue (MCR) for the production of reducing sugar and a hydrolysis yield of 73.4% was obtained. After repeated twelve runs, immobilized β-glucosidase retained about 75% of its initial activity. PMID:25465785

  9. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Leucas indica by carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammation is basically a defense phenomenon but can lead to serious pathological conditions. It is treated by various agents with good to moderate success because of both considerable toxicity and side effects. There are various mediators to cause an inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the associated symptoms and tissue injury. Even though non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world, their use as anti-inflammatory agents continues to be principally limited by their undesired side effects. Hence, the traditional medical practitioners and scientists are turning towards Indian System of Medicine (ISM. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of Leucas indica were subjected to solvent extraction by using 90 % ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug 75, 150 & 300mg/kg were selected and subjected to preclinical anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Results : Oral administration of Ethanolic Extract Of Leaves of Leucas Indica (EELLI at doses of 150 mg/kg and 300mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity 52.58% (p<0.01 and 36.87% (p<0.05 respectively compared to control. Conclusion: Even though oral administration of EELLI has shown significant anti-inflammatory activity, further studies are required to evaluate its comprehensive analysis including quantitative / semi quantitative analysis, characterize its chemical structure and assess its pharmacotherapeutic activities with exact mechanism of action as an anti-inflammatory agent. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 302-305

  10. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect of all-trans retinoic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar rats: Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Gill

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: From above findings, it can be concluded that ATRA exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect, possibly through activation of PPAR-β/δ and subsequent reduction of oxido-nitrosative stress.

  11. Influência do amido e carragena nas propriedades texturiais de surimi de tilápia (Oreochomis sp.) Influence of starch and carrageenan on textural properties on tilapia (Oreochomis sp.) surimi

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO; Luiz Henrique BEIRÃO

    1999-01-01

    Foram utilizadas carcaças residuais da filetagem industrial de tilápias (Oreochomis sp.) na obtenção de carne de pescado separada mecanicamente (CPSM) para elaboração de surimi. Amidos de diferentes fontes, como milho ceroso, milho ceroso modificado e mandioca, e o polissacarídeo carragena foram usados como ingredientes, e estudados seus efeitos no comportamento do gel de surimi. O surimi elaborado a partir de carcaças residuais da filetagem industrial, apresentou um rendimento final de 25% (...

  12. Enhanced therapeutic anti-inflammatory effect of betamethasone on topical administration with low-frequency, low-intensity (20 kHz, 100 mW/cm(2)) ultrasound exposure on carrageenan-induced arthritis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Gadi; Natsheh, Hiba; Sunny, Youhan; Bawiec, Christopher R; Touitou, Elka; Lerman, Melissa A; Lazarovici, Philip; Lewin, Peter A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether low-frequency, low-intensity (20 kHz, <100 mW/cm(2), spatial-peak, temporal-peak intensity) ultrasound, delivered with a lightweight (<100 g), tether-free, fully wearable, battery-powered applicator, is capable of reducing inflammation in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis. The therapeutic, acute, anti-inflammatory effect was estimated from the relative swelling induced in mice hindlimb paws. In an independent, indirect approach, the inflammation was bio-imaged by measuring glycolytic activity with near-infrared labeled 2-deoxyglucose. The outcome of the experiments indicated that the combination of ultrasound exposure and topical application of 0.1% (w/w) betamethasone gel resulted in statistically significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in comparison with drug or ultrasound treatment alone. The present study underscores the potential benefits of low-frequency, low-intensity ultrasound-assisted drug delivery. However, the proof of concept presented indicates the need for additional experiments to systematically evaluate and optimize the potential of, and the conditions for, tolerable low-frequency, low-intensity ultrasound-promoted non-invasive drug delivery. PMID:26003010

  13. Secagem do polissacarídeo λ-carragena usando um leito de jorro fluidizado bidimensional / drying of λ-carrageenan using a two dimensional spouted fluidized bed dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Ciro Velásquez, Héctor José; Menegalli, Florencia Cecilia; Lopes Da Cunha, Rosiane

    2012-01-01

    Resumo. Suspensões de λ-carragena foram secas usando um secador de leito de jorro fluidizado bidimensional com partículas inertesplásticas de ABS (acrilonitrilo-butadieno-estireno). O desempenho do secador (produção de pó e retenção de sólidos) e qualidade do produto seco obtido (propriedades reológicas e teor de umidade) foi avaliado. Os resultados mostraram que a eficiência de produção média de pó foi de 23% com uma retenção média de 71%. A variável mais relevante na secagem das suspensões ...

  14. Secagem do Polissacarídeo l-Carragena Usando um Leito de Jorro Fluidizado Bidimensional Drying of l-Carrageenan Using a Two Dimensional Spouted Fluidized Bed Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor José Ciro Velásquez; Florencia Cecilia Menegalli; Rosiane Lopes Da Cunha

    2012-01-01

    Resumo. Suspensões de l-carragena foram secas usando um secador de leito de jorro fluidizado bidimensional com partículas inertesplásticas de ABS (acrilonitrilo-butadieno-estireno). O desempenho do secador (produção de pó e retenção de sólidos) e qualidade do produto seco obtido (propriedades reológicas e teor de umidade) foi avaliado. Os resultados mostraram que a eficiência de produção média de pó foi de 23% com uma retenção média de 71%. A variável mais relevante na secagem das suspensões ...

  15. Influence of Tableting on Enzymatic Activity of Papain along with Determination of Its Percolation Threshold with Microcrystalline Cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Manu; Sharma, Vinay; Majumdar, Dipak K.

    2014-01-01

    The binary mixture tablets of papain and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP), carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar were prepared by direct compression. Carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar provided maximum protection to enzyme activity compared to MCC and DCP. However, stability studies indicated highest loss of enzyme activity with carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar. Therefore, compression behaviour of different binary mixtures of papain with MCC at different compa...

  16. Effect of exposure to radiation on the inflammatory process and its influence by diclofenac.

    OpenAIRE

    el-Ghazaly, M.; Kenawy, S.; Khayyal, M T; Roushdy, H.; Saleh, S.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of radiation exposure on the inflammatory process was studied in rats using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema and adjuvant-induced arthritis tests. Irradiation (0.5,1 and 2 Grays) resulted in a significant augmentation of the tissue response to carrageenan and the early phase of adjuvant-induced arthritis, but suppressed the late phase. Diclofenac (1-5 mg kg-1) effectively reduced the exaggerated inflammatory response in irradiated animals in both the carrageenan paw oedema and ad...

  17. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya..., carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya... including, but not limited to, agar, alginic acid, calcium polycarbophil, carboxymethylcellulose......

  18. Differing contribution of non-immune phagocytes to protection of mice against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial growth and lethality in Listeria monocytogenes infection of mice were augmented by either gamma-irradiation or treatment with carrageenan, whereas bacterial growth and lethality in Escherichia coli infection of mice were only augmented by gamma-irradiation but not by treatment with carrageenan. Protection against L. monocytogenes, at least in the early phases, appears to depend mainly on macrophages, since carrageenan depletes macrophages but not polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), while protection against E. coli appears to depend mainly on PMN. The course of local infection was similar to that of systemic infection except for the lack of initial decrease of bacterial growth. (author)

  19. Radiation degradation of marine polysaccharides by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation degradations of marine polysaccharides by both gamma Co-60 and electron beam irradiations are investigated. Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides can be produced by degradation of corresponding polysaccharides including marine polysaccharides such as alginates, chitin chitosan and carrageenan. The viscosity of alginate, chitosan and carrageenan solution decreases markedly with increase of the low energy electron beam irradiation time and the beam current. Furthermore, the viscosity is reduced sharply in short time for polysaccharide solution with low concentration, for instance carrageenan solution of 1%. (author)

  20. Caracterização tecnológica de sobremesas lácteas achocolatadas cremosas elaboradas com concentrado protéico de soro e misturas de gomas carragena e guar Technological characterization of creamy chocolate dairy desserts prepared with whey protein concentrate and a mixture of carrageenan and guar gum

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Hideko Lemos Nikaedo; Florence Franco Amaral; Ana Lúcia Barretto Penna

    2004-01-01

    O consumo de sobremesas lácteas tem apresentado importante crescimento nesta última década, justificado pelo progresso tecnológico em ingredientes e processos. Neste trabalho efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química e sensorial de sobremesas lácteas achocolatadas cremosas, nas quais o concentrado protéico de soro - CPS (3,0; 2,0 e 1,0%) foi usado com o leite em pó integral (5,0; 6,0 e 7,0%), carragena (0,05; 0,15 e 0,25%), goma guar (0,25; 0,15 e 0,05%), chocolate em pó (2,8%), açúcar (11,5...

  1. Avaliação da influência de amido e carragena nas características físico-químicas e sensoriais de presunto cozido de peru Evaluation of the influence of starch and carrageenan on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of cooked turkey ham

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Alexandre Pedroso; Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2008-01-01

    Segundo a legislação brasileira, a adição de carragena em presunto é facultativa, contudo não é permitida a adição de amido neste tipo de produto. Neste trabalho, utilizou-se um planejamento fatorial 2² com duplicata no ponto central, variando amido (0 a 2%) e carragena (0 a 1%) em presunto de peru. Tanto o amido quanto a carragena apresentaram efeitos negativos para perda por cozimento e para perda por reaquecimento, indicando que a presença destes hidrocolóides favoreceu a permanência ...

  2. Inhibition of carrageenan-induced expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA by low level laser therapy in a rat paw edema model Inibição da expressão de RNA mensageiro de pré-calicreínas tecidual e plasmática pela laserterapia em modelo de edema de pata induzido pela carragenina em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Moisés P. Silva; Flávia Bortone; Marcelo P. Silva; Thiago R. Araújo; Maricília S. Costa; José A. Silva Júnior

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROND: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used clinically in order to treat inflammation, where tissue and plasma prekallikrein have crucial importance. Plasma prekallikrein (PPK) is synthesized by the hepatocytes and secreted into the bloodstream, where it participates in the surface-dependent activation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, kinin generation and inflammation. Tissue prekallikrein is associated with important disease states (including cancer, inflammation, and neurodeg...

  3. EFECTO DE LA ADICIÓN DE CARRAGENINA KAPPA I.II Y GOMA TARA SOBRE CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CALIDAD DEL JAMÓN DE CERDO PICADO Y COCIDO EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF KAPPA I.II CARRAGEENAN AND TARA GUM ON QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COOKED AND CHOPPED PORK HAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Alonso Restrepo Molina; Fabio Alexander Molina Cote; Kenneth Roy Cabrera Torres

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluaron sinéresis, color y dureza instrumental y, sensorialmente las características de olor, sabor, color y dureza en jamones inyectados, cocidos y picados de cerdo, los cuales se habían elaborado aplicando en la salmuera de inyección una mezcla de hidrocoloides compuesta por carragenina kappa I.II y goma tara en una proporción de 79:21, en niveles del 1% y 1,2%, usando tres repeticiones para el estudio. Los jamones así elaborados se compararon contra un jamón testigo, elaborado sin el ...

  4. Oxidative stress tolerance in intertidal red seaweed Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) in relation to environmental components

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maharana, D.; Das, P.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Pise, N.M.; Gauns, M.

    is a red algae prevailing throughout Indian coast and most parts of the world (Khan and Satam 2003). This species is an important carrageenan resource and often used as raw material in phycocolloid gelling industry. The presence of kappa carrageenan... metabolic functions in algae creating oxidative stress through increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are highly reactive species of molecular oxygen such as singlet oxygen (1O2), the superoxide anion radical (O2●–), the hydroxyl...

  5. Antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of hydroethanolic extract from Macrosiphonia velame (A. St.-Hil.) M. Arg. in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Vicente Ribeiro; Regilane Matos da Silva; Joaquim Corsino da Silva Lima; Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martins

    2010-01-01

    Macrosiphonia velame (Apocynaceae), popularly known as "velame-branco", is mainly used for treating inflammatory conditions. The antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of the hydroethanolic extract of the xylopodium from M. velame (HEMv) were evaluated using several animal models. HEMv showed low acute oral toxicity with LD50 of 4.176 ± 218.5 mg/kg in mice. In tests of carrageenan and dextran-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats, and croton oil-induced...

  6. Antiinflammatory activity of Piper longum fruit oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, antiinflammatory activity of the Piper longum dried fruit′s oil was studied in rats using the carrageenan-induced right hind paw edema method. The activity was compared with that of standard drug ibuprofen. The dried fruit′s oil inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The results indicated that the dried fruit′s oil produced significant (p< 0.001 antiinflammatory activity when compared with the standard and untreated control.

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble) N. Chao

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yong-Hua; Feng, Rui-Zhang; Li, Qun; Wei, Qin; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Tao, Cui; Jia, Ren-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil from C. longepaniculatum was evaluated by three experimental models including the dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema in mice, the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat and the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. The influence of the essential oil on histological changes and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) production associated with carrageenan-induced rat paw edema was also investigated. The es...

  8. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIPYRETIC PROPERTIES OF THE RHIZOME OF COSTUS SPECIOSUS (KOEN.) SM

    OpenAIRE

    Binny, K; Kumar, Sunil G; Dennis, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Rhizome of Costus speciosus has been traditionally used for treating inflammatory and painful conditions. The objective of the present study was to provide a scientific basis for the traditional use. The ethanolic extract of the rhizome of Costus speciosus possesses anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties. Antiinflammatory property was studied in carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma formation. Significant anti-inflammatory effect was found against carrageenan...

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of betalain-rich dye of Beta vulgaris: effect on edema, leukocyte recruitment, superoxide anion and cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Renata M; Longhi-Balbinot, Daniela T; Zarpelon, Ana C; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Sassonia, Rogério C; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

    2015-04-01

    We have recently developed betalain-rich beetroot (Beta vulgaris) dye (betalain) to be used in food products. Betalain (30-300 mg/kg) intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment diminished carrageenan (100 µg/paw)-induced paw edema and neutrophil migration to the paw skin tissue. Betalain (100 mg/kg) treatment by subcutaneous or per oral routes also inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw edema. Importantly, the post-treatment with betalain (100 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited carrageenan- and complete Freund's adjuvant (10 µl/paw)-induced paw edema. Betalain (100 mg/kg) also reduced carrageenan (500 µg/cavity)-induced recruitment of total leukocytes, including mononuclear cells and neutrophils, as well as increasing vascular permeability in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, betalain significantly reduced carrageenan-induced superoxide anion, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β levels in the peritoneal fluid, as well as augmenting IL-10 levels. Therefore, this compound presents prominent anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenan-induced paw edema and peritonitis by reducing the production of superoxide anion and the cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, in addition to increasing IL-10 levels. These results suggest that betalain shows therapeutic potential that could be utilized in the treatment of inflammation-associated diseases. PMID:25173360

  10. TNF-α and IL-10 modulation induced by polyphenols extracted by olive pomace in a mouse model of paw inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Carito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polyphenols from olive are known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. AIM: The aim of this study was to study whether or not 10 consecutive days i.p. administration of a blend of olive (Olea europaea L. polyphenols (10 mg/kg containing mostly hydroxytyrosol could have an effect on cytokines playing important roles in inflammatory processes as TNF-α and IL-10. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inflammation was induced in the mouse paw by 2 carrageenan injections (50 5l vol, 5 mg/kg each. TNF-α and IL-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Carrageenan decreased IL-10 in the paws, however, this reduction appeared to be less evident in mice treated with carrageenan but administered with polyphenols. As for TNF-α, our findings did not reveal differences between groups but an increase in the polyphenol and carrageenan group if compared to the carrageenan only group. As for antioxidant polyphenols' properties, no differences between groups in the serum glutathione were found. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, this investigation shows that olive polyphenols in the mouse may modulate the levels of cytokines having a role in the process of inflammation as TNF-α and IL-10.

  11. Rheological studies of polysaccharides for skin scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Nalinda; Mueller, Anja; Hirschi, Stanley; Rakesh, Leela

    2014-05-01

    Polysaccharide hydrogels are good candidates for skin scaffolds because of their inherent biocompatibility and water transport properties. In the current study, hydrogels were made from a mixture of four polysaccharides: xanthan gum, konjac gum, iota-carrageenan, and kappa-carrageenan. Gel formation, strength, and structure of these polysaccharides were studied using rheological and thermal techniques. All gel samples studied were strong gels at all times because of the gradual water loss. However, after 12 h of storage, elastic (G') and loss (G'') moduli of hydrogel mixture containing all the ingredients is of one to two orders of magnitude greater than that of mixtures not containing either xanthan gum or iota-carrageenan, which confirmed the varied levels of gel strength. This is mainly due to the rate of water loss in each of these mixtures, resulting in gels of varying structures and dynamic moduli over a period of time. Iota-carrageenan and xanthan gum differ in their effect on gel strength and stability in combination with konjac gum and kappa-carrageenan. PMID:23703897

  12. Surface characterization of selected polymer thin films by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of available x-ray characterizations tools for grazing incidence techniques was done to be able to probe nano-size thin films. Alignment of a Philips x-ray powder diffractometer was improved to let it perform as an x-ray reflectometer. X-ray reflectometry was coupled with total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Evaluation of the performance of this grazing incidence techniques was done by preparing polymer thin films of carboxymethylcellulose, carrageenan and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The thickness of the films were varied by varying the process parameters such as concentration, spin speed and spin time. Angle-dispersive total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy profiles of three films showed film formation only in carrageenan and PVP. For both carrageenan and PVP, an increase in concentration yielded a corresponding increase in intensity of the fluorescent or scattered peaks. XRR profiles of carrageenan thin films yielded a mean value for the critical angle close to quartz substrate. Thickness measurements of the prepared carrageenan thin films showed that concentration was the main determinant for final film thickness over the other process parameters. Sulfur fluorescent intensity derived from the TXRF measurement showed a linear relationship with the measured thickness by XRR. For PVP, measured critical angle is lower than quartz. Poor adhesion of the polymer onto the substrate yielded a limited number of thickness measurements made from the XRR profiles. (Author)

  13. Sintesis membran Poliuretan dari Karagenan dan 2, 4 Toylulene diisosianat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Marlina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the synthesis of Polyurethane (PU Membrane from Carrageenan and 2,4 toylulene diisocyanante (TDI. The PU membrane made from the Gracilaria sp of red seaweed has rendement of 60.5% from the total weight of the dried sea grass. The produced Carrageenan has pure properties with containing many OH groups which can be used to synthesize membrane. The dope solution to produce good membrane was made at the temperature of 60 oC for the reaction of 5 minutes by varying concentration of carrageenan 5-35 % (b/v. PU membrane was constructed using petri dish with the thickness of about 0.1 mm. To control the thickness of the membrane, the volume of dope solution was used about 12 mL, and the membrane was produced with 10 cm in diameter. The membrane had been synthesized at the temperature of 60 oC with varied concentration of Carrageenan 15% (b/v to the toylulene diisocyanate (TDI. The produced membrane has the optimal properties with the tensile strength of 340 kgf/mm2, the elongation percentage of 9%, the glass temperature transition of 243.6 oC and the melting point of 423.02 oC. The optimum PU membrane obtained was good in mechanical and physical properties, strong, elastic and transparent. Keywords: carrageenan, flux, membrane, polyurethane, rejection factor, TDI

  14. Preparation and characterization of cellulose composite hydrogels from tea residue and carbohydrate additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijun; Huang, Huihua

    2016-08-20

    Composite hydrogels were prepared from tea cellulose in ionic liquid of 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and effect of κ-carrageenan, chitosan, guar gum and soluble starch on characteristics of the prepared hydrogels were investigated. The prepared hydrogels were characterized via Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetry analysis, differential scanning calorimetry. Sodium salicylate was used as the model drug to compare the swelling, drug loading and releasing kinetics of the prepared hydrogels. Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay and relative growth rates were adopted to evaluate cell cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of the prepared hydrogels. Chitosan and guar gum could improve thermostability and mechanical characteristics of the composite hydrogels, while κ-carrageenan or soluble starch could improve equilibrium swelling ratio, sodium salicylate loading and releasing. Guar gum and chitosan could increase permeation resistance and were beneficial for release control of the hydrogels. Addition of chitosan, κ-carrageenan, guar gum and soluble starch were proven cell compatibility and non-cytotoxicity. PMID:27178928

  15. Marine Compounds with Therapeutic Potential in Gram-Negative Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yermak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the potential use of compounds, including lipid A, chitosan, and carrageenan, from marine sources as agents for treating endotoxemic complications from Gram-negative infections, such as sepsis and endotoxic shock. Lipid A, which can be isolated from various species of marine bacteria, is a potential antagonist of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide (LPSs. Chitosan is a widespread marine polysaccharide that is derived from chitin, the major component of crustacean shells. The potential of chitosan as an LPS-binding and endotoxin-neutralizing agent is also examined in this paper, including a discussion on the generation of hydrophobic chitosan derivatives to increase the binding affinity of chitosan to LPS. In addition, the ability of carrageenan, which is the polysaccharide of red alga, to decrease the toxicity of LPS is discussed. We also review data obtained using animal models that demonstrate the potency of carrageenan and chitosan as antiendotoxin agents.

  16. [Sensory characterization of lupin pudding using surface response methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Miranda, H; Wittig, E; Catalán, M

    1996-09-01

    Full fat sweet lupin flour (Lupinus albus c.v. Multolupa) with 39.6% protein and 13.0% lipid content, and carrageenan were used to incorporate them to commercial pudding formula with the specific purpose to prepare an optimized pudding for diabetic people. Using response surface methodology, several experimental pudding trails were prepared and sensorially assessed to optimize the variables that may influence the overall sensory quality of pudding meals. Different concentrations of lupin flour and carrageenan were tested simultaneously at three levels each parameter, requiring nine combinations to be analyzed for a panel of eleven trained judges. Appearance, aroma, taste, color, texture were tested to determine total sensory quality using a composite scoring test. It was concluded that appropriate concentration of lupin flour range from 7% to 11%, and carrageenan from 0.4% to 0.5% to be added to the pudding formulation. This result was confirmed by hedonic test of acceptability. PMID:9429627

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NEWER MACROLIDES WITH ETORICOXIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra Naidu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of macrolides and to compare with standard non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID etoricoxib. This study was conducted in male wistar albino rats by inducing edema with 1% carrageenan. Animals were divided into 5 groups with 6 in each and paw edema volume was measured by digital plethysmograph before and 3hrs after 1% carrageenan administration. Percentage of inhibition of paw edema was calculated. Results showed macrolides having significant anti-inflammatory activity & the anti-inflammatory activity of roxithromycin was almost equally comparable with etoricoxib

  18. Imobilisasi Crude Enzim Papain Yang Diisolasi Dari Getah Buah Pepaya (Carica papaya L) Dengan Menggunakan Kappa Karagenan Dan Kitosan Serta Pengujian Aktivitas Dan Stabilitasnya

    OpenAIRE

    Wibisono, Eko

    2011-01-01

    Crude papain enzyme has been isolated from papaya fruit latex (Carica papaya L) with Balls and Lineweaver method, where the crude papain enzyme was immobilized by entrapping the lattice type by using the kappa carrageenan and chitosan, and then tested its activity with the Murachi method. The activity of free crude papain enzyme 82.493 μg/ml at a temperature of 55oC and pH 7, the immobilized crude enzyme papain with kappa carrageenan 78.706 μg/ml at a temperature of 60oC and pH 6.5, and the i...

  19. Optimization of a gelled emulsion intended to supply ω-3 fatty acids into meat products by means of response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Poyato, C. (Candelaria); D. Ansorena; Berasategi, I. (Izaskun); Navarro-Blasco, I. (Íñigo); Astiasaran, I. (Iciar)

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of a gelled oil-in-water emulsion was performed for use as fat replacer in the formulation of ω-3 PUFA-enriched cooked meat products. The linseed oil content, carrageenan concentration and surfactant–oil ratio were properly combined in a surface response design for maximizing the hardness and minimizing the syneresis of the PUFA delivery system. The optimal formulation resulted in a gelled emulsion containing 40% of oil and 1.5% of carrageenan, keeping a surfactant–oil ratio ...

  20. Examination of some protective conditions on technological properties of irradiated food grade polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn and cassava starches, agar-agar and kappa carrageenan, polysaccharides used as food additives, were gamma irradiated with doses suitable for microbial decontamination. Starches were analysed in paste and pudding viscosity and paper chromatography; agar and carrageenan, in viscosity and compression tests on gels and custards. Afterwards, substances were added to verify whether they could prevent irradiation technological impairment. Results revealed significant differences between control and irradiated samples in most determinations. No added substance was able to protect the functional properties of these additives. (author)

  1. Contribution of non-immune phagocytes to protection of mice against Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial kinetics of Vibrio cholerae 569B in the local infection of mice was examined after the γ-ray-irradiation or the treatment with carrageenan. In the control mice, bacterial number decreased exponentially. In the mice treated with carrageenan gave similar tendency. In the irradiated mice, however, decrease in bacterial number was not as significant and the clearance was never observed. From these results, it is concluded that the protection against V. cholerae local infection depends mainly on polymorphonuclear cells in the early phase. (author)

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Property of the Ethanol Extract of the Root and Rhizome of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth

    OpenAIRE

    Chu-Wen Li; Xiao-Li Wu; Xiao-Ning Zhao; Zu-Qing Su; Hai-Ming Chen; Xiu-Fen Wang; Xiao-Jun Zhang; Hui-Fang Zeng; Jian-Nan Chen; Yu-Cui Li; Zi-Ren Su

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the ethanol extract of the root and rhizome of Pogostemon cablin (ERP). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated using four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse pleurisy, and carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema. Results indicated that oral administration of ERP (120, 240, and 480 mg/kg) significantly attenuated xylene-i...

  3. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Karagenan terhadap Mutu Selai Sirsak Lembaran Selama Penyimpanan

    OpenAIRE

    Chairi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Soursop production in Indonesia is very abundant, but its processing is still very minimal, therefore the diversification of soursop processing is needed to increase. This study was conducted to determine the effect of carrageenan concentration on the quality of soursop jam sheet during storage. This study used a completely randomized design with two factors namely carrageenan concentration (K): 2,5%, 3,5%, 4,5% and 5,5%, and storage time (L): 0 days, 5 days, 10 days and 15 days. The paramete...

  4. Seaweed Hydrocolloid Production: An Update on Enzyme Assisted Extraction and Modification Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Agar, alginate, and carrageenans are high-value seaweed hydrocolloids, which are used as gelation and thickening agents in different food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. The annual global production of these hydrocolloids has recently reached 100,000 tons with a gross market......-made modifications of the hydrocolloids to obtain specific functionalities. This review provides an update of the detailed structural features of κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans, agars, and alginate, and a thorough discussion of enzyme assisted extraction and processing techniques for these hydrocolloids....

  5. Drug: D03411 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nt]; Pharmaceutic aid [viscosity-inclreasing agent] Same as: C08818 CAS: 9000-07-1 PubChem: 17397551 NIKKAJI: J203.713K ... ...D03411 Drug Carrageenan (NF); Marine colloids (TN) Pharmaceutic aid [suspending age

  6. Effects of Liver × receptor agonist treatment on signal transduction pathways in acute lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramanti Placido

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver × receptor α (LXRα and β (LXRβ are members of the nuclear receptor super family of ligand-activated transcription factors, a super family which includes the perhaps better known glucocorticoid receptor, estrogen receptor, thyroid receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. There is limited evidence that LXL activation may reduces acute lung inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of T0901317, a potent LXR receptor ligand, in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy. Methods Injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity of mice elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by: accumulation of fluid containing a large number of neutrophils (PMNs in the pleural cavity, infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and subsequent lipid peroxidation, and increased production of nitrite/nitrate (NOx, tumor necrosis factor-α, (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β. Furthermore, carrageenan induced the expression of iNOS, nitrotyrosine and PARP, as well as induced apoptosis (TUNEL staining and Bax and Bcl-2 expression in the lung tissues. Results Administration of T0901317, 30 min after the challenge with carrageenan, caused a significant reduction in a dose dependent manner of all the parameters of inflammation measured. Conclusions Thus, based on these findings we propose that LXR ligand such as T0901317, may be useful in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.

  7. Comparative Study on the Anti oxidative Properties of Some Natural Polymers Degraded by gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced degradation of chitosan, Na-alginate and carrageenan was carried out to prepare oligosaccharides with different molecular wt. Structural and average molecular wt changes of such oligosaccharides were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) and ultraviolet (UV-Vis.) spectroscopy. FT-IR and UV-Vis. studies revealed that during radiation degradation process, the main polysaccharide chain structure was almost remained. Comparative study on the anti oxidative properties of chitosan, Na-alginate and carrageenan oligosaccharides of different molecular wt was investigated. Radical mediated lipid peroxidation inhibition, scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power and the ferrous ion chelating activity assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The irradiation process enhances the antioxidant activity of such polysaccharides. The lower the molecular wt of oligosaccharides is the higher the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of irradiated chitosan was higher than Na-alginate and carrageenan. At 30 kGy, the inhibition concentration (IC50) on DPPH radicals was 0.154, 0.359, 0.438 and 0.140 mg/ml for chitosan, Na-alginate carrageenan, and ascorbic acid, respectively

  8. Luminescence response of an osmium(II) complex to macromolecular polyanions for the detection of heparin and chondroitin sulfate in biomedical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Wu, Jain; Saez, Christopher; Campana, Maria; Megehee, Elise G; Wang, Enju

    2013-12-01

    Heparin, dextran sulfate (DS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and carrageenan are found to enhance the luminescence intensity of an osmium(II) carbonyl complex with phenanthroline (phen) and 4-phenylpyridine (4-phpy) ligands in aqueous and ethanol solutions. The enhancing effect of the polyanions on the luminescence of the complex is heavily dependent on the sulfate content and other factors such as structure, solubility, and counter ions of the polyanion. The highly sulfated dextran and ι-carrageenan have the most profound effect, while the low charged κ-carrageenan and CS have the least response in aqueous solution. All polyanions exhibited enhanced luminescence intensity of the complex in ethanol solutions, and even the low charged CS and κ-carrageenan enhanced the luminescence more than 4 times. DS contamination of the sodium heparin at 5% can show a significant increase in luminescence response. The osmium complex is found to be highly successful in the fast and sensitive detection of heparin in commercial injectable samples with various backgrounds as well as the detection of CS in over the counter food supplement tablets. PMID:24267085

  9. Celastrol Attenuates Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain Mediated by Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhe Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Celastrol, a major active ingredient of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (thunder god vine, has exhibited a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and immunosuppression. In the present study, we used animal models of inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain, generated by carrageenan injection and spared nerve injury (SNI, respectively, to evaluate the effect of celastrol and to address the mechanisms underlying pain processing. Intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of celastrol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced edema and allodynia. Real-time PCR analysis showed that celastrol (0.3 mg/kg, i.p. significantly reduced mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, in carrageenan-injected mice. In SNI mice, pain behavior studies showed that celastrol (1 mg/kg, i.p. effectively prevented the hypersensitivity of mechanical nociceptive response on the third day post-surgery and the seventh day post-surgery. Furthermore, the anti-hyperalgesic effects of celastrol in carrageenan-injected mice and SNI mice were reversed by SR144528 (1 mg/kg, i.p., a specific cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2 receptor antagonist, but not by SR141716 (1 mg/kg, i.p., a specific cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1 receptor antagonist. Taken together, our results demonstrate the analgesia effects of celastrol through CB2 signaling and propose the potential of exploiting celastrol as a novel candidate for pain relief.

  10. Anti Inflammatory Studies of Barringtonia acutangula (Linn Fruits on Wistar Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avula Muralidhar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the anti inflammatory activity of Barringtonia acutangula (Linn fruit extracts in wistar rats. In this study fruits of Barringtonia acutangula were extracted with ethanol and purified water, these extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis to identify their phytoconstituents. The ethanol and aqueous extracts were evaluated in vivo by using acute inflammatory models like; carrageenan induced paw oedema and chronic models like; cotton-pellet induced granuloma and carrageenan induced air-pouch model in rats. The biochemical parameters like reduced glutathione (GSH, lipid peroxidation and catalase were also estimated as supportive studies. Acute toxicity studies were performed initially in order to ascertain the safety of ethanol and aqueous extracts. The ethanol extract reduced the inflammation more significantly than the aqueous extract in the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, cotton-pellet induced granuloma and carrageenan induced air-pouch model in rats. The phytochemical investigation of the ethanol fruit extract showed the presence of phytosterols, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and carbohydrates. From the present study the ethanolic fruit extract of Barringtonia acutangula exhibited the anti-inflammatory effect by augmenting antioxidant defense system in the inflammation bearing rat, which is largely attributable to the additive or synergistic effect of its constituents.  

  11. Preparation and sensory perception of fat-free foams : Effect of matrix properties and level of aeration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minor, M.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Zoet, F.D.; Wijk, de R.A.; Aken, van G.A.

    2009-01-01

    The sensory perception of fat-free model foams with a consistency between pourable (liquid; xanthan thickened) and spoonable (semi-solid; gelled; carrageenan thickened) and varying level of aeration was studied. At low air contents (5, 10% v/v) perception is largely determined by the matrix properti

  12. Hederagenin, a major component of Clematis mandshurica Ruprecht root, attenuates inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cells and in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Won; Park, Sang Mi; Zhao, Rongjie; Lee, Chu; Chun, Wonjoo; Son, Yonghae; Kim, Sung Hun; Jung, Ji Yun; Jegal, Kyung Hwan; Cho, Il Je; Ku, Sae Kwang; Kim, Young Woo; Ju, Seong A; Kim, Sang Chan; An, Won G

    2015-12-01

    Clematis mandshurica Ruprecht root has been used in Asia as a traditional anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antitumor agent. Its main active component is hederagenin, a naturally occurring triterpene, and in this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of hederagenin in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and RT-PCR. In addition, its effects on acute inflammation in vivo were observed using a carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema assay. Furthermore, the changes on the histopathology and histomorphometry of hind paw skins were examined using carrageenan-treated mice. Treatment with hederagenin (10, 30 and 100μM) resulted in inhibited levels of protein expression of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB as well as production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 induced by lipopolysaccharide. Consistent with these results, hederagenin also dose-dependently reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA levels of iNOS and COX-2, and of the above-mentioned cytokines. Interestingly, results of the carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema assay showed an anti-edema effect of hederagenin. Furthermore, hederagenin (30mg/kg) inhibited the carrageenan-induced increases in skin thicknesses, infiltrated inflammatory cells, and mast cell degranulation. These results suggest that hederagenin may possess anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26481049

  13. Application of composite protective coatings on the surface of sausages with different water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tyburcy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emulsion coatings on the surface of sausages counteract weight loss during storage. Therefore they could be applied instead of synthetic foils, which are used for vacuum packaging. The aim of this study was the assessment of the properties of two emulsion coatings (with different carrageenan content applied on the surface of two Polish sausages with various water content (kabanosy and frankfurterki. Material and methods. Sausages were coated with emulsions containing gelatine, kappa-carrageenan, beeswax, lard, glycerol and water. Coated and uncoated sausages were stored for 7, 14 or 21 days at the temperature of 4-6°C. After each storage period weight losses and hardness of peeled sausages, as well as colour values (L*, a*, b* and water activity of removed coatings were determined. Results. Coated sausages incurred smaller weight loss and after similar storage periods they were characterized by lower hardness in comparison with uncoated sausages. Reducing the carrageenan content decreased the consumption of emulsion for coating. However, it did not have any impact on the barrier properties of coating. Water activity of coatings decreased during storage. Their colour values also changed. Conclusions. Irrespective of water content in the sausages, emulsion coatings effectively inhibited their weight loss during storage. The coating with lower content of carrageenan could be recommended. Instability of coatings colour during storage implies the need of adding a colorant to the composition of emulsion.  

  14. Continuous glutamate production using an immobilized whole-cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.S.; Ryu, D.D.Y.

    1982-10-01

    For the purpose of saving the energy and raw materials required in a glutamate fermentation, an immobilized whole-cell system was prepared and its performance in a continuous reactor system was evaluated. Corynebacterium glutamicum (a mutant strain of ATCC 13058) whole cell was immobilized in k-carrageenan matrix and the gel structure was strengthened by treatment with a hardening agent. The effective diffusivities of carrageenan gel for glucose and oxygen were formed to decrease significantly with an increase in carrageenan concentration, while the gel strength showed an increasing trend. Based on the physical and chemical properties of carrageenan gel, the immobilized method was improved and the operation of the continuous reactor system was partially optimized. In an air-stirred fermentor, the continuous production of glutamate was carried out. The effect of the dilution rate of glutamate production and operation stability was investigated. The performance of the continuous wbole-cell reactor system was evaluated by measuring glutamate productivity for a period of 30 days; it was found to be far superior to the performance of convention batch reactor systems using free cells.

  15. 40 CFR 180.910 - Inert ingredients used pre- and post-harvest; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 172.854 Surfactants, related adjuvants of surfactants Polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil..., conforming to 21 CFR 172.210 Coating agent Calcium silicate Solid diluent, carrier Calcium stearate Do. Carrageenan, conforming to 21 CFR 172.620 Minimum molecular weight (in amu): 100,000 Thickener Cetyl...

  16. Structural analysis and cytokine-induced activity of gelling sulfated polysaccharide from the cystocarpic plants of Ahnfeltiopsis flabelliformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Anna O; Anastyuk, Stanislav D; Sokolova, Ekaterina V; Isakov, Vladimir V; Glazunov, Valery P; Helbert, William; Yermak, Irina M

    2016-10-20

    Gelling sulfated polysaccharide from the cystocarpic plants of Ahnfeltiopsis flabelliformis was studied. According to FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy data, the polysaccharide was found to be iota/kappa-carrageenan with iota- and kappa-type units in a 2:1 ratio containing beta-carrageenan units and minor amounts of nu- and mu-carrageenans. The HPLC and ESI MS/MS data of enzymatic hydrolysis products revealed that the main components of the polymer chain are iota-carrabiose, iota-carratetraose and hybrid tetra- and hexasaccharides consisting of kappa- and iota-units. Xylose was a substituent of a hydroxyl group at C-6 of 1,3-linked β-d-galactose in the total polysaccharides. It was shown that the ability of carrageenans to increase the synthesis of cytokines depended on their molecular weight. The polysaccharide induced the synthesis of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, whereas oligosaccharides increased the synthesis of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at high concentrations. PMID:27474596

  17. Sulfated polysaccharides are potent and selective inhibitors of various enveloped viruses, including herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, M.; Snoeck, R; Pauwels, R; De Clercq, E

    1988-01-01

    Several sulfated polysaccharides (dextran sulfate, pentosan polysulfate, fucoidan, and carrageenans) proved to be potent inhibitors for herpes simplex virus, human cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sindbis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. They were moderately inhibitory to vaccinia virus but not inhibitory to adenovirus, coxsackievirus, poliovirus, parainfluenza virus, and reovirus. These results indicate that, with the exception of parainfluenza virus, enveloped viruses ar...

  18. AN EFFECTIVE METHOD TO IMPROVE THE WET STRENGTH OF POLY(DIALLYLDIMETHYL-AMMONIUM CHLORIDE) HYDROGELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ren; Hong-fei Ha

    2002-01-01

    New IPN hydrogels composed of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and natural macromolecule,kappa-carrageenan (KC) were prepared by gamma irradiation and their properties were studied. The results show that both the gel strength and the swelling capacity of the IPN hydrogels were enhanced significantly as compared with those of the pure hydrogels of PDADMAC.

  19. Physiological and Morphological Modifications in Immobilized Gibberella fujikuroi Mycelia

    OpenAIRE

    Saucedo, José Edmundo Nava; Barbotin, Jean-Noël; Thomas, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Constraints created by immobilization conditions modified the physiological behavior and morphological characteristics of Gibberella fujikuroi mycelia in comparison with their development in free-cell conditions. G. fujikuroi mycelia were immobilized in different support matrices (polyurethane, carrageenan, and alginate) and showed a variety of reactions in response to the different microenvironmental factors encountered during and after immobilization. The best support with respect to gibber...

  20. Comparison of different polysaccharides as carbon source for super capacitor electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippine is one of the world's largest producers of carrageenan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from indigenous seaweed varieties. Aside from its traditional food and dairy uses, carrageenan may be a source of carbon for high performance super capacitor. A super capacitor is an energy storage device similar to batteries. It is also known as electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC). The charge is stored in the electrochemical double layer at the electrode-electrolyte interface. High capacitance is achieved because of the high surface area of the carbon material that is typically used. In this study, carbonized materials from kappa-and iota-carrageenan were compared with other polysaccharide such as sodium alginate and chitosan. Carbonization was done by pyrolysis of the polysaccharide under flowing nitrogen at 600 degree centigrade for 3 hours. The carbonized materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area analysis and cyclic voltammetry. The carbonization yields for the different polysaccharide range from 36 to 72% with no particular trend with respect to type of polysaccharide. The FTR spectra show the expected polar functionalities typical of activated carbon which show vibration frequencies of C=O at 1650 cm-1 and C-O stretching around 1000-1200 cm-1. The CV measurements using the carbonized material as working electrode ar different cycling rates between -200 mV to 500 mV relative to Ag/AgC1 reference electrode show capacitive behavior for the carbon derived from the carrageenans. (author)

  1. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of ketoprofen in palm oil esters nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakeena, M H F; Yam, M F; Elrashid, S M; Munavvar, A S; Azmin, M N

    2010-01-01

    Ketoprofen is a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug has been used in the treatment of various kinds of pains, inflammation and arthritis. However, oral administration of ketoprofen produces serious gastrointestinal adverse effects. One of the promising methods to overcome these adverse effects is to administer the drug through the skin. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects from topically applied ketoprofen entrapped palm oil esters (POEs) based nanoemulsion and to compare with market ketoprofen product, Fastum(®) gel. The novelty of this study is, use of POEs for the oil phase of nanoemulsion. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic studies were performed on rats by carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema test and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold test to compare the ketoprofen entrapped POEs based nanoemulsion formulation and market formulation. Results indicated that there are no significant different between ketoprofen entrapped POEs nanoemulsion and market formulation in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema study and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold study. However, it shows a significant different between POEs nanoemulsion formulation and control group in these studies at p<0.05. From these results it was concluded that the developed nanoemulsion have great potential for topical application of ketoprofen. PMID:21099145

  2. Screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gel formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ochoa Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of vaginal drug delivery formulations requires special attention to vehicle properties that optimize vaginal coating and retention. The aim of the present work was to perform a screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gels formulated with carbomer or carrageenan in binary combination with a second polymer (carbomer, guar or xanthan gum. The gels were characterised using in vitroadhesion, spreadability and leakage potential studies, as well as rheological measurements (stress and frequency sweep tests and the effect of dilution with simulated vaginal fluid (SVF on spreadability. Results were analysed using analysis of variance and multiple factor analysis. The combination of polymers enhanced adhesion of both primary gelling agents, carbomer and carrageenan. From the rheological point of view all formulations presented a similar behaviour, prevalently elastic and characterised by loss tangent values well below 1. No correlation between rheological and adhesion behaviour was found. Carbomer and carrageenan gels containing the highest percentage of xanthan gum displayed good in vitro mucoadhesion and spreadability, minimal leakage potential and high resistance to dilution. The positive results obtained with carrageenan-xanthan gum-based gels can encourage the use of natural biocompatible adjuvants in the composition of vaginal products, a formulation field that is currently under the synthetic domain.

  3. Comparative study on the effects of negatively-charged biopolymers on chitosan-based gels for the development of instantaneous gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeric electrolytic complexes are solutions of charged/ionized chains. These solutions of positive and negative charge can be combined to make instantaneous networks bonded by electrostatic interactions, a gel network. These electrostatic interaction allows for easy application in injectable gels as the network can be temporarily distributed with the application of force and reformed on the relief of it. Possible applications for these injectable gels include drug delivery and wound-healing. κ-Carrageenan, dextran sulfate, alginate, and chitosan are polyelectrolytic biocompatible polymers which are widely studied and used for a variety of biomedical applications. Gel networks are made by combining a negatively-charged (κ-Carrageenan, dextran sulfate, or alginate) and positively charged (chitosan) solutions. The strong electrostatic interaction between the opposite charges from the gel network and the inherent biocompatibility of the polymers allow future biomedical applications. Quat 188-modified chitosan has additional sites for electrostatic bonding, can be dissolved in neutral, basic, and acidic pH, and has shown inherent antibacterial activity. The objectives of this study are the following: to formulate chitosan-based gels mixing solutions of chitosan with solutions of either κ-Carrageenan, dextran sulfate, or alginate, study the gelation of the gels as function of time and pH (4, 7, and 9) using UV-Vis, characterize the chitosan-based gels through DSC and DMA, characterize the physiological degradation of the chitosan-based gels, and compare results with those from Quat 188-modified chitosan-based gels. Polyelectrolytic solutions of chitosan and negatively-charged biopolymer of similar viscosities were mixed. It was determined from the UV-Vis spectroscopy of the chitosan-carrageenan gels under pH7 buffer that the increase of concentration by a factor of 5 for 0.006M-0.0095M and 1.25 for 0.0095M-0.0150M Chitosan-Carrageenan gels improved gelation by the

  4. Steroids block the anti-inflammatory effects of low level laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.; Albertini, Regiane; Lopes-Martins, Patricia Sardinha L.; Iversen, Vegard V.; Bjordal, Jan M.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Concomitant use of multiple therapies is common in musculoskeletal and airway disorders. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is considered a promising therapy in arthritis, tendinopathies and rhinitis. We designed two animal studies to assess if the expected anti-inflammatory effect LLLT could be affected by resection of the adrenal gland or concomitant use of the cortisol antagonist mifepristone. Methods: Two studies were performed, with 40 male Wistar rats and with 40 Balb C male mice respectively.. In both studies, four groups received carrageenan and one control group received saline. At 1, 2, and 3 hours after injections, LLLT irradiation was performed with a dose of 7.5 J/cm2. In the rat study, two of the carrageenan groups had the adrenal gland dissected. In the mice study, two of the carrageenan-injected groups were in addition pre-treated with orally administered mifepristone. Results: In the rat paw study, LLLT reduced edema significantly compared to the carrageenan only group (1.5 vs 0.9 ml, p< 0.05), but LLLT failed to inhibit edema formation in the group which had the adrenal gland resected. In carrageenan-induced pleurisy, LLLT significantly reduced the number of leukocyte cells ( p<0.0001, Mean 34.5 [95%CI: 32.8 - 36.2] versus 87.7 [95%CI: 81.0 - 94.4]), and that the effect of LLLT could be totally blocked by adding the cortisol antagonist mifepristone ( p<0.0001, Mean 34.5 [95%CI: 32.1 - 36.9] versus 82.9 [95%CI: 70.5 - 95.3]). Conclusion: Steroid therapy should not be used concomitantly with LLLT, as the anti-inflammatory effect of LLLT is lost if cortisol receptors are downregulated.

  5. Role of acid-sensing ion channel 3 in sub-acute-phase inflammation

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    Chen Chien-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation-mediated hyperalgesia involves tissue acidosis and sensitization of nociceptors. Many studies have reported increased expression of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 in inflammation and enhanced ASIC3 channel activity with pro-inflammatory mediators. However, the role of ASIC3 in inflammation remains inconclusive because of conflicting results generated from studies of ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3-/- or dominant-negative mutant mice, which have shown normal, decreased or increased hyperalgesia during inflammation. Results Here, we tested whether ASIC3 plays an important role in inflammation of subcutaneous tissue of paw and muscle in ASIC3-/- mice induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA or carrageenan by investigating behavioral and pathological responses, as well as the expression profile of ion channels. Compared with the ASIC3+/+ controls, ASIC3-/- mice showed normal thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia with acute (4-h intraplantar CFA- or carrageenan-induced inflammation, but the hyperalgesic effects in the sub-acute phase (1–2 days were milder in all paradigms except for thermal hyperalgesia with CFA-induced inflammation. Interestingly, carrageenan-induced primary hyperalgesia was accompanied by an ASIC3-dependent Nav1.9 up-regulation and increase of tetrodotoxin (TTX-resistant sodium currents. CFA-inflamed muscle did not evoke hyperalgesia in ASIC3-/- or ASIC3+/+ mice, whereas carrageenan-induced inflammation in muscle abolished mechanical hyperalgesia in ASIC3-/- mice, as previously described. However, ASIC3-/- mice showed attenuated pathological features such as less CFA-induced granulomas and milder carrageenan-evoked vasculitis as compared with ASIC3+/+ mice. Conclusion We provide a novel finding that ASIC3 participates in the maintenance of sub-acute-phase primary hyperalgesia in subcutaneous inflammation and mediates the process of granuloma formation and vasculitis in intramuscular inflammation.

  6. Participation of the NO/cGMP/K+ATP pathway in the antinociception induced by Walker tumor bearing in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implantation of Walker 256 tumor decreases acute systemic inflammation in rats. Inflammatory hyperalgesia is one of the most important events of acute inflammation. The L-arginine/NO/cGMP/K+ATP pathway has been proposed as the mechanism of peripheral antinociception mediated by several drugs and physical exercise. The objective of this study was to investigate a possible involvement of the NO/cGMP/K+ATP pathway in antinociception induced in Walker 256 tumor-bearing male Wistar rats (180-220 g). The groups consisted of 5-6 animals. Mechanical inflammatory hypernociception was evaluated using an electronic version of the von Frey test. Walker tumor (4th and 7th day post-implantation) reduced prostaglandin E2- (PGE2, 400 ng/paw; 50 µL; intraplantar injection) and carrageenan-induced hypernociception (500 µg/paw; 100 µL; intraplantar injection). Walker tumor-induced analgesia was reversed (99.3% for carrageenan and 77.2% for PGE2) by a selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME; 90 mg/kg, ip) and L-arginine (200 mg/kg, ip), which prevented (80% for carrageenan and 65% for PGE2) the effect of L-NAME. Treatment with the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (100% for carrageenan and 95% for PGE2; 8 µg/paw) and the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) blocker glibenclamide (87.5% for carrageenan and 100% for PGE2; 160 µg/paw) reversed the antinociceptive effect of tumor bearing in a statistically significant manner (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed an intrinsic peripheral antinociceptive effect of Walker tumor bearing in rats. This antinociceptive effect seemed to be mediated by activation of the NO/cGMP pathway followed by the opening of KATP channels

  7. Mechanisms of immunological eradication of a syngeneic guinea pig tumor: participation of a component(s) of recipient origin in the expression of systemic adoptive immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of carrageenan and trypan blue on the expression of adoptive immunity to the syngeneic guinea pig line 10 hepatoma were investigated. Adoptive immunity was assessed by observing dermal tumor growth in recipients of immune cells and by bioassays in which tumor challenge sites were transplanted into secondary hosts. Carrageenan abrogated transferred immunity in treated animals as evidenced by dermal tumor growth and by development of fatal ascites tumors in peritoneal cavities of the secondary hosts. Trypan blue, on the other hand, did not abrogate transferred immunity in treated animals. However, the i.p. bioassay revealed the presence of line 10 cells in the tumor challenge sites 10 days after adoptive transfer. In vitro and in vivo exposure of immune spleen cells to carrageenan or trypan blue had no significant effect on the subsequent adoptive transfer, indicating that the inhibitory activity of these agents cannot be attributed to direct toxicity to immune lymphoid cells. Tumor challenge sites taken from carrageenan or trypan blue-treated animals 5 days after adoptive transfer failed to grow progressively when transplanted s.c. into secondary hosts. This observation suggests the presence of immune cells at tumor challenge sites. Thus, the inhibitory effects were unlikely due to interference with recirculation of the i.v.-transferred immune cells. Adoptive immunity was not influenced in guinea pigs that received a lethal dose of irradiation (500 rads). These results demonstrate that a recipient component(s) sensitive to carrageenan and trypan blue but resistant to radiation is essential to the expression of adoptive immunity

  8. In situ synthesis of magnetic CaraPVA IPN nanocomposite hydrogels and controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza, E-mail: grmnia@maragheh.ac.ir; Etemadi, Hossein

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels that focused on targeted drug delivery were synthesized by incorporation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), kappa-carrageenan (Cara), and magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles were obtained in situ in the presence of a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol/kappa-carrageenan (CaraPVA). The produced magnetite-polymers were cross-linked with freezing–thawing technique and subsequent with K{sup +} solution. The synthesized hydrogels were thoroughly characterized by transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. The dynamic swelling kinetic models of hydrogels were analyzed according to the first- and second-order kinetic models and were found that the experimental kinetics data followed the second-order model well. Drug loading and release efficiency were evaluated by diclofenac sodium (DS) as the model drug. The in vitro drug release studies from hydrogels exhibited significant behaviors on the subject of physiological simulated pHs and external magnetic fields. Investigation on the antibacterial activity revealed the ability of drug-loaded hydrogels to inactivate the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. The mucoadhesive properties of the hydrogels were studied and the hydrogels containing kappa-carrageenan showed good mucoadhesiveness in both simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. - Highlights: • In situ synthesis of magnetic kappa-carrageenan/PVA nanocomposite hydrogel. • Low salt sensitivity of magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels was observed. • The release of diclofenac sodium from hydrogels was pH-dependent. • The release of diclofenac sodium from magnetic hydrogels was affected by external magnetic field. • The hydrogels containing carrageenan component showed high

  9. Structure and Anti-influenza A (H1N1) Virus Activity of Three Polysaccharides from Eucheuma denticulatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guangli; LI Miaomiao; WANG Wei; LIU Xin; ZHAO Xiaoliang; LV Youjing; LI Guangsheng; JIAO Guangling; ZHAO Xia

    2012-01-01

    Three polysaccharides (EW,EH and EA) were prepared from a red alga Eucheuma denticulatum by sequential extraction with cold water,hot water and sodium hydroxide water solution.Their monosaccharide compositions,relative molecular mass and structural characterization were determined by gas chromatography,high performance liquid chromatography,fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods.EW was hybrid ι/κ/v-carrageenan (70ι/17κ/13v-carrabiose),EH was mainly ι-carrageenan,and EA was mainly α-1,4-Glucan (88%) but mixed with small amount of ι-carrageenan (12%).The relative molecular mass of EW,EH and EA was 480,580 and 510kDa,respectively.The anti-influenza A (H1N1) virus activity of these three polysaccharides was evaluated using the Madin-Darby canine kidney cells model.EW showed good anti-H1N1 virus activity,its IC50 was 276.5 μg mL-1,and the inhibition rate to H1N1 virus was 52% when its concentration was 250 μg mL-1.The IC50 of ι-carrageenan EH was 366.4 μgmL-1,whereas EA showed lower anti-H1N1 virus activity (IC50>430 μgmL-1).Available data obtained give positive evidence that the hybrid carrageenan EW from Eucheuma denticulatum can be used as potential anti-H1N1 virus inhibitor in future.

  10. Participation of the NO/cGMP/K{sup +}ATP pathway in the antinociception induced by Walker tumor bearing in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, A.L.R.; Pinheiro, C.A.; Oliveira, G.J.; Torres, J.N.L.; Moraes, M.O.; Ribeiro, R.A.; Vale, M.L.; Souza, M.H.L.P. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-03-30

    Implantation of Walker 256 tumor decreases acute systemic inflammation in rats. Inflammatory hyperalgesia is one of the most important events of acute inflammation. The L-arginine/NO/cGMP/K{sup +}ATP pathway has been proposed as the mechanism of peripheral antinociception mediated by several drugs and physical exercise. The objective of this study was to investigate a possible involvement of the NO/cGMP/K{sup +}ATP pathway in antinociception induced in Walker 256 tumor-bearing male Wistar rats (180-220 g). The groups consisted of 5-6 animals. Mechanical inflammatory hypernociception was evaluated using an electronic version of the von Frey test. Walker tumor (4th and 7th day post-implantation) reduced prostaglandin E{sub 2}- (PGE{sub 2}, 400 ng/paw; 50 µL; intraplantar injection) and carrageenan-induced hypernociception (500 µg/paw; 100 µL; intraplantar injection). Walker tumor-induced analgesia was reversed (99.3% for carrageenan and 77.2% for PGE{sub 2}) by a selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME; 90 mg/kg, ip) and L-arginine (200 mg/kg, ip), which prevented (80% for carrageenan and 65% for PGE{sub 2}) the effect of L-NAME. Treatment with the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (100% for carrageenan and 95% for PGE{sub 2}; 8 µg/paw) and the ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channel (KATP) blocker glibenclamide (87.5% for carrageenan and 100% for PGE{sub 2}; 160 µg/paw) reversed the antinociceptive effect of tumor bearing in a statistically significant manner (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed an intrinsic peripheral antinociceptive effect of Walker tumor bearing in rats. This antinociceptive effect seemed to be mediated by activation of the NO/cGMP pathway followed by the opening of KATP channels.

  11. In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of lovastatin in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Gonçalves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Statins are among the most prescribed drugs in recent clinical practice. They are also known for their pleiotropic actions, which are independent of their lipid-lowering properties. The effect of lovastatin was investigated against carrageenan-induced paw edema in male Wistar rats (200-250 g and on leukocyte migration, as measured by carrageenan-induced peritonitis in male Swiss mice (20-25 g, which are models of acute inflammation. Lovastatin (administered 1 h prior to carrageenan, at oral doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg, markedly attenuated paw edema formation in rats at the 4th hour after carrageenan injection (25, 43, and 37% inhibition, respectively. Inhibitions of 20, 45 and 80% were observed in the leukocyte migration, as evaluated by carrageenan-induced peritonitis in mice with lovastatin doses of 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg, as compared to controls. Furthermore, lovastatin (administered 1 h before initiation reduced the nociceptive effect of the formalin test in mice, at both phases, at doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg: first phase (51, 65, and 70%, respectively and second phase (73, 57, and 66% inhibition of licking time, respectively. The anti-nociceptive activity of lovastatin was inhibited by naloxone (3 mg/kg, sc. Lovastatin (0.01, 0.1, and 1 µg/mL inhibited by 23, 79, and 86%, respectively, the release of myeloperoxidase from human neutrophils. Leukocyte (predominantly neutrophils infiltration was almost completely reduced by lovastatin treatment, as observed in the model of acute paw edema with hematoxylin and eosin staining. In addition, lovastatin decreased the number of cells expressing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity. Therefore, the alterations in leukocyte activity and cytokine release could contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of lovastatin.

  12. INFLUENCIA DEL ALGINATO DE SODIO SOBRE LA SINERESIS EN JAMÓN COCIDO INFLUENCE OF SODIUM ALGINATE ON SYNERESIS IN COOKED HAM

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    Luz Amparo Montoya Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad del jamón de cerdo cocido usando alginato de sodio y carragenina durante la elaboración y almacenado a 8 0C durante 35 días. Fueron realizados dos tratamientos con alginato de sodio usando 0,3% y 0,5% y un tratamiento con carragenina 0,5%, después de la elaboración el jamón de cerdo cocido fue empacado al vacío a 8 0C durante 35 días. Los resultados indican que la mayor pérdida de agua fue observada a partir del día 21 del periodo de almacenamiento, sin presentar diferencias significativas entre tratamientos (P>0,05. La menor pérdida de agua correspondió al tratamiento con alginato de sodio al 0,5% y la mayor pérdida fue para el tratamiento con carragenina al 0,5% (PThe aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of cooked pork ham using sodium alginate and carrageenan during processing and storage at 8°C for 35 days. Two treatments were conducted using sodium alginate 0.3% and 0.5% and carrageenan treatment 0.5%, after preparation the pork cooked ham was vacuum packed at 8 °C for 35 days. The results indicate that the major water losses were presented from the 21 day of the storage period, without significant differences between treatments (P> 0.05. The lowest water loss corresponded to treatment with sodium alginate at 0.5% and the loss was greater for treatment with 0.5% carrageenan (P <0.05. The initial mesophilic count was of 1.03 log CFU / g, by the end of the storage period were obtained values of 5.74 log CFU / g showing no significant differences among treatments. The initial pH values of 6.64 were declining throughout the storage period, reaching values of 6.35. For flavor attribute highest and lowest scores corresponded to ham prepared with carrageenan 0.5% and alginate 0.3% respectively. The appearance attribute shows the highest scores for carrageenan 0.5%, while smaller values correspond to ham formulated with 0.3% alginate. For cutting force, the minor values

  13. HPTLC analysis and Anti-inflammatory activity of Jatropha gossypifolia L. root in mice and Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani B Bhagat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Jatropha gossypifolia has been used in Indian traditional system but there is paucity of scientific data on anti-inflammatory activity of root. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced ear inflammation, carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma. Topical application of 0.5 and 1 mg extract significantly reduced the TPA induced ear inflammation. The extract (125 mg/kg p.o significantly reduced the carrageenan induced edema. Seven days administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg of extract significantly reduced the cotton pellet granuloma. The activity might be due to effects on several mediators involving cyclooxygenase pathway resulting in prostaglandin formation and leukocyte migration.

  14. Cultivation of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii in Brazil and its pharmacological potential

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    Leila Hayashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales is a red algae widely cultivated as the main source of raw material for the carrageenan industry. This hydrocolloid is normally used in the food industry as a gelling and stabilizing agent. The facility of its commercial farming based on vegetative propagation promoted the success of the aquaculture of this macroalgae that consequently stimulated studies focusing on new potential uses of this resource. This work presents a brief review of the studies related to K. alvarezii cultivation in southern and southeastern Brazil, the latest discoveries in the world concerning pharmacological studies with this species and the advantages of the use of carrageenan as a source of dietary fiber, cholesterol reducer, and antioxidant, anti-viral and anti-cancer compounds, as well as the effects in hemagglutination activity.

  15. EVALUATION OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA INDICA FRUIT RIND EXTRACTS IN WISTAR RATS

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    Khatib N.A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia indica choisy (Kokum is known for its food, medicinal and commercial values. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind (GIFR for its anti inflammatory activity in rats. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan induced paw odema. The serum enzymes like Acid phoshatase(ACP and Alkaline Phosphatase(ALP were estimated. Both extracts at dose (200 & 400 mg/kg p.o single dose shows significant (P<0.001 anti inflammatory activity in (Carrageenan induced paw odema acute inflammation. The extracts treatment also showed significant (p<0.001 reduction in the levels of serum enzymes ACP & ALP. Similar results were obtained from aspirin (200mg/kg treated group. The result obtained from the present study indicates both aqueous and ethanolic extracts possessing anti inflammatory activity and further study required to establish its mechanism of action.

  16. IN VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM ROXB. STEM BARK ON ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are believed to be an important source of new chemical substance with potential therapeutic applicability. Several plant species traditionally used as anti-inflammatory.This research work is carryout for the anti-inflammatory activity of Pterocarpus marsupium roxb. Stem bark extracts using Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Ibuprofen 60mg/kg p.o. was kept as standard. The research was carried out in Wister strain weighing 150-200gm. The Methanol (100mg/Kg and Aqueous extract (100mg/Kg has exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Flavonoids present in stem bark may be responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. However, it needs isolation, structural elucidation and screening of above active principles to pin point activity of drug.

  17. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  18. Suplementasi Serat Pangan Karagenan dalam Diet untuk Memperbaiki Parameter Lipid Darah Mencit Hiperkolesterolemia

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    Dewi Apri Astuti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Karagenan merupakan bahan pangan alamiah yang mengandung serat cukup tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari pengaruh serat pangan karagenan pada parameter lipid darah mencit jantan hiperkolesterolemia. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Fisiologi Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia dan Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Institut Pertanian Bogor pada bulan Agustus 2011 sampai Maret 2012. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan lima kelompok perlakuan, yaitu kontrol negatif; mencit normokolesterolemia yang diberikan pakan standar, kontrol positif; mencit hiperkolesterolemia tanpa suplementasi karagenan, kelompok perlakuan; kelompok mencit hiperkolesterolemia yang diberikan suplementasi karagenan 15%, 30%, dan 46%. Kadar serat makanan tidak larut pada masing-masing pakan mencit percobaan ialah 6,92; 8,75; 10,48; 12,27; dan 14,05%. Parameter yang diukur ialah bobot badan, konsentrasi kolesterol total serum, hati, dan feses, serta kadar trigliserida, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL,dan glukosa dalam serum. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan suplementasi karagenan sebesar 46% menurunkan bobot badan sebesar 7,99%, kadar total kolesterol sebesar 18,78%, trigliserida sebesar 17,53%, dan LDL sebesar 71,33%, serta meningkatkan HDL sebesar 15,59−20,47%. Suplementasi serat pangan karagenan dapat menurunkan kandungan kolesterol hati sebesar 38,46% dan meningkatkan pembuangan kolesterol melalui feses sebesar 57,07%. Suplementasi serat pangan karagenan sebesar 46% dalam diet hiperkolesterolemik dapat memperbaiki parameter lipid darah mencit hiperkolesterolemia. Abstract The Carrageenan Dietary Fiber Suplementation in Feed to Improving BloodLipid Parameters of Hypercholesterolemic Mice.Carrageenan is example of food with high content of fiber. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of carrageenan supplementations on blood lipid parameters of hypercholesterolemic male mice. The experiment were

  19. Hydrocolloid-based nutraceutical delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Youngren, Susanne R. (Purdue)

    2012-07-11

    Nutraceuticals are important due to their inherent health benefits. However, utilization and consumption are limited by their poor water solubility and instability at normal processing and storage conditions. Herein, we propose an elegant and novel approach for the delivery of nutraceuticals in their active form using hydrocolloid matrices that are inexpensive and non-toxic with generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Iota-carrageenan and curcumin have been chosen as models of hydrocolloid and nutraceutical compounds, respectively. The iota-carrageenan network maintains a stable organization after encapsulating curcumin molecules, protects them from melting and then releases them in a sustained manner. These findings lay a strong foundation for developing value-added functional and medicinal foods.

  20. BIOSORPTION OF LEAD (II ON MODIFIED BARKS EXPLAINED BY THE HARD AND SOFT ACIDS AND BASES (HSAB THEORY

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    Cedric Astier,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of Douglas fir bark and its subsequent utilization in adsorption of Pb(II from aqueous solutions was investigated. The polysaccharidic moiety of barks was functionalized by periodate oxidation and derivatized after reductive amination in the presence of aminated oligo-carrageenans. Pb(II adsorption isotherms of derivatized barks were then determined and compared to the capabilities of crude barks using the Langmuir adsorption model in terms of affinity (b and maximum binding capacity (qmax. Compared to crude barks, the derivatization of barks by oligo-carrageenans resulted in significant enhancements of qmax and b by up to x8 and x4, respectively. The results obtained from crude barks on chemically grafted carboxylic and sulfated barks are discussed and interpreted through the Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB theory.

  1. INVESTIGATION ON MODEL OF INFLAMMATORY PLEURAL EFFUSION IN GUINEA PIGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯源; 殷凯生; 王祥

    2002-01-01

    Objective To establish an animal model of inflammatory pleural effusion.Methods Forty guinea pigs were divided into two groups: experimental group with 7 subgroups and control group. In the experimental group the right chest cavity of each guinea pig was injected with 0.8~1.0 ml of 1% carrageenan, and guinea pigs of each subgroup were killed and observed respectively on day 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and day 14 after injection.Results Occurring on day 1(within 24 hours), pleural effusion reached the maximum on day 2~3 after injection, so did the neutrophil count in pleural effusion and inflammation of both pleura and lungs and then gradually decreased. The fibrosis and adhesion of pleura appeared on day 7 and were obvious on day 10. The encysted pleurisy was formed on day 14.Conclusion The carrageenan is an ideal pleural inflammatory inducer. This animal model is useful for studying pleural effusion.

  2. Antiinflammatory activity of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Se Ra; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated a new herbal preparation, HemoHIM, for its antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced edema, the formation of granulation tissues by cotton pellet and experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The HemoHIM was prepared by adding its ethanol-insoluble polysaccharide fraction to the total water extract of Angelica Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. The preparation (4 mg of solids/mL of drinking water, p.o., 50-100 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. In addition, HemoHIM also reduced the degree of TNBS-induced colitis and improved the gross and histological changes such as thickening, dilatation, ulceration, and infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions. These results demonstrate that the HemoHIM has a potent antiinflammatory effect. PMID:17486680

  3. Evaluation of Anti Inflammatory Properties and Possible Mechanism of Action of Egyptian Quince (CYDONIA OBLONGA) Leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to investigate the antiinflammatory effect of Cydonia oblonga (COL) evaluated by the following models: arachidonic acid-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The levels of glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nitric oxide (NO) in the hind paws of the carrageenan-treated rats were estimated. Moreover, the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione- S-transferase (GST) were investigated. The results showed that COL significantly reduced ear edema and paw edema in the rats. Furthermore, treatment with COL decreased the levels of LPO, NO, IL-6. and TNF-α, whereas increased the level of GSH. The increased activities of CAT and GST enzymes were ameliorated by COL administration. In conclusion, Cydonia oblonga possesses potent antiinflammatory activity through inhibition of NO, LPO, IL-6 and TNF-α levels leading to alleviate edema

  4. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaf and Stem Bark of Calophyllum inophyllum on Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Danish Baig

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to conduct phytochemical screening, perform acute oral toxicity effect and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extracts of leaf and stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum on albino Wistar rats. Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma techniques were applied to determine anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts. Extracts were administered orally. Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted using the OECD guidelines 423 Annexure – 2d. The results indicate the mortality was not observed during the toxicity studies and maximum safe does was determined. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extracts showed significant dose dependent effect (200 mg/kg b.w and 400 mg/kg b.w on both acute and chronic models of inflammation i.e., carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma respectively. Additionally, Calophyllum inophyllum leaves extract showed more activity compared to Calophyllum inophyllum stem bark extract.

  5. DMBT1 functions as pattern-recognition molecule for poly-sulfated and poly-phosphorylated ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    End, Caroline; Bikker, Floris; Renner, Marcus;

    2009-01-01

    unraveling the molecular basis of its function in mucosal protection and of its broad pathogen-binding specificity. We report that DMBT1 directly interacts with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and carrageenan, a structurally similar sulfated polysaccharide, which is used as a texturizer and thickener in human...... dietary products. However, binding of DMBT1 does not reduce the cytotoxic effects of these agents to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. DSS and carrageenan compete for DMBT1-mediated bacterial aggregation via interaction with its bacterial-recognition motif. Competition and ELISA studies identify poly-sulfated...... propose that DMBT1 functions as pattern-recognition molecule for poly-sulfated and poly-phosphorylated ligands providing a molecular basis for its broad bacterial-binding specificity and its inhibitory effects on LPS-induced TLR4-mediated NF-kappaB activation....

  6. R and D on utilization of indigenous materials for hydrogel wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization of indigenous materials for the preparation of hydrogel wound dressing is highlighted in this report. Hydrogels were prepared by two different formulations using PVP and PVA separately. Considering the price of the main two raw materials PVA was chosen for the next course of development. To reduce the cost of raw materials further flour was added to the PVA formulation. Ingredients concentrations for preparing good quality hydrogel were optimized. PVA containing both carrageenan and flour produces hydrogel with good properties. PVA containing 0.75% of both carrageenan and flour produces hydrogel of desirable properties. Seminar and demonstration about the usefulness of hydrogel for wound dressing were arranged at a city hospital. (author)

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoyele, Victor B; Adediji, Joseph O; Soladoye, Ayodele O

    2005-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Chromolaena odorata was investigated in rats using the carrageenan-induced oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and formalin-induced oedema methods. The extract was administered orally at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. In the carrageenan method the paw oedema was significantly reduced by all the doses of the extract administered, with the 200 mg/kg dose producing the highest oedema inhibition (80.5%). In the cotton pellet method, granuloma weight was significantly reduced from 14 +/- 0.1 to 9.0 +/- 0.1 mg, while in the formaldehyde induced arthritis the extract inhibited the oedema during the 10-day period. In conclusion, this study has established the anti-inflammatory activity of C. odorata and, thus, justifies the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of wounds and inflammation. PMID:16280100

  8. Developing food-grade coatings for dry-cured hams to protect against ham mite infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Abbar, S; Phillips, T W; Williams, J B; Smith, B S; Schilling, M W

    2016-03-01

    Dry-cured hams may become infested with ham mites, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, during the aging process. Methyl bromide is the only known available fumigant pesticide that is effective at controlling ham mite infestations in dry cured ham plants. However, methyl bromide will be phased out of all industries as early as 2015 due to its status as an ozone-depleting substance. Research was conducted to develop and evaluate the potential of using food-grade film coatings to control mite infestations, without affecting the aging process and sensory properties of the dry-cured hams. Cubes coated with xanthan gum+20% propylene glycol and carrageenan/propylene glycol alginate+10% propylene glycol were effective at controlling mite infestations under laboratory conditions. Water vapor permeability was measured to estimate the impact of coatings during the aging process. It was evident that carrageenan/propylene glycol alginate coatings were permeable to moisture, which potentially makes them usable during aging. PMID:26624793

  9. Activity of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. root and Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. bark pastes in acute and chronic paw inflammation in Wistar rat

    OpenAIRE

    Dushyant Kumar; Kuntal Ganguly; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; S.D. Kholkute

    2014-01-01

    Background:The pastes prepared from roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and barks of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. are widely used by traditional healers for the treatment of arthritis in rural northern Karnataka. Objective: The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the safety and efficacy of traditionally used formulations in experimental animals.Materials and Methods: The study, approved by IAEC was carried out in male Wistar rats and dermal toxicity in rabbits. Carrageenan ...

  10. Enhanced thermal stability of lysosomal beta-D-galactosidase in parenchymal cells of tumour bearing mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Lenti, L; Lipari, M.; Lombardi, D; Zicari, A.; Dotta, A.; Pontieri, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal stability of the enzyme beta-D-galactosidase varies among different organs in normal C57Bl/6 mice, and increases in the same organs in mice with Lewis Lung carcinoma. Thermal stability of this enzyme is also increased by treatment of the mice with cell-free extracts of tumour cells or with inflammatory compounds such as carrageenan or orosomucoid. After desialylation, orosomucoid more effectively increases the heat stability of the enzyme. By contrast talc, which has no galactosyl...

  11. Relationship between texture of gels and flavour release

    OpenAIRE

    Koliandris, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    To provide further insight into the relationship between the structure of hydrocolloid solutions and gels and perception of taste and flavour, solutions of gelatin and locust bean gum, and gels prepared from mixtures of (a) high acyl and low acyl gellan (b) carrageenan and locust bean gum were studied. Both solutions contained sodium chloride and the gels were flavoured with ethyl butyrate. The gels were classified from rheological measurements into 3 categories: strong/brittle, intermedi...

  12. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. PMID:27052706

  13. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory activity of Abutilon indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Satish Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the synthetic drugs used at present as analgesic and antiinflammatory agents cause many side effects and toxic effects. Many medicines of plant origin with analgesic and antiinflammatory activity have been used since long time without adverse effects. The plant Abutilon indicum (AI is reported to be used as a febrifuge, anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory agent. It is also used to treat ulcers, toothache and hepatic disorders. Thus the present study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and antiinflammatory potential of the plant Abutilon indicum. The formalin induced paw licking and tail flick method were used to study the analgesic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant. Carrageenan induced hind paw edema model was used to study anti-inflammatory activity. 200 mg/kg dose was selected to study both activities. Wistar strain albino rats were used for all studies. Diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. In tail flick test the increase in the reaction time was highly significant (P < 0.001 with ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant Abutilon indicum as compared to the control group. Acute edema in the left hind paw of the animals was induced by sub plantar injection of 0.1 ml (1% carrageenan suspension in normal saline. The ethanolic extract of the plant significantly (P <0.01 reduced the paw edema in carrageenan treated rats. The effect was maximum at 3hr after the carrageenan injection. The significant suppression of inflammation during the whole experimental period indicates the long duration of action of the ethanolic extract of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds in the ethanolic extract of the plant under study. The phytochemical constituents present in these extracts may be responsible for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the plant Abutilon indicum and the actions may be

  14. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Gulecha; Sivakumar, T.; Aman Upaganlawar; Manoj Mahajan; Chandrashekhar Upasani

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FR...

  15. Sulfated polyanions block Chlamydia trachomatis infection of cervix-derived human epithelia.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaretzky, F R; Pearce-Pratt, R; Phillips, D M

    1995-01-01

    Using a cell line derived from the human cervix and a rapid fluorescence cytotoxicity assay, we have shown that Chlamydia trachomatis infection can be blocked by certain sulfated polysaccharides (carrageenan, pentosan polysulfate, fucoidan, and dextran sulfate) and glycosaminoglycans (heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate) but not by other glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate A or C, keratan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid). The most negatively charged molecules are the most effectiv...

  16. Cultivation of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii in Brazil and its pharmacological potential

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Hayashi; Renata P. Reis

    2012-01-01

    Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) is a red algae widely cultivated as the main source of raw material for the carrageenan industry. This hydrocolloid is normally used in the food industry as a gelling and stabilizing agent. The facility of its commercial farming based on vegetative propagation promoted the success of the aquaculture of this macroalgae that consequently stimulated studies focusing on new potential uses of this resource. This work presents a brief review of the s...

  17. Synthesis of antipyrine/pyridazinone hybrids and investigation of their in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    OpenAIRE

    BAYTAŞ, Sultan; İNCELER, Nazan; MAVANEH, Khatereh Fattahpour

    2012-01-01

    Eleven antipyrine/pyridazinone hybrids were synthesized and evaluated for their in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities by p-benzoquinone-induced writhing test and carrageenan-induced paw edema model, respectively. The test results indicated that compounds 6a, 6c, and 6d were equally or more potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents than aspirin and indomethacin, respectively. Side effects of the compounds were examined on gastric mucosa. Most of the compounds were fou...

  18. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT OF POLYGALA ROSMARINIFOLIA WIGHT & ARN (POLYGALACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Mohan et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Polygala rosmarinifolia whole plant was extracted with ethanol and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in rats using a carrageenan induced paw edema method. Ethanol extract exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity at 200mg/kg at 3rd hr after administration is compared with reference standard drug, Indomethacin. Observed pharmacological activity in the present study provides scientific validation of ethnomedicinal use of this plant in treating acute inflammation.

  19. Age-dependent sensitization of cutaneous nociceptors during developmental inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowski, Michael P.; Ross, Jessica L.; Weber, Jonathon D; Lee, Frank B; Shank, Aaron T.; Hudgins, Renita C

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well-documented that neonates can experience pain after injury. However, the contribution of individual populations of sensory neurons to neonatal pain is not clearly understood. Here we characterized the functional response properties and neurochemical phenotypes of single primary afferents after injection of carrageenan into the hairy hindpaw skin using a neonatal ex vivo recording preparation. Results During normal development, we found that individual afferent response pr...

  20. Tempol modulates changes in xenobiotic permeability and occludin oligomeric assemblies at the blood-brain barrier during inflammatory pain

    OpenAIRE

    Lochhead, Jeffrey J; McCaffrey, Gwen; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Finch, Jessica D.; DeMarco, Kristin M; Quigley, Colleen E.; Davis, Thomas P.; Ronaldson, Patrick T

    2011-01-01

    Our laboratory has shown that λ-carrageenan-induced peripheral inflammatory pain (CIP) can alter tight junction (TJ) protein expression and/or assembly leading to changes in blood-brain barrier xenobiotic permeability. However, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative stress during CIP is unknown. ROS (i.e., superoxide) are known to cause cellular damage in response to pain/inflammation. Therefore, we examined oxidative stress-associated effects at the blood-brain ba...

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Chun Liao; Jeng-Shyan Deng; Chuan-Sung Chiu; Wen-Chi Hou; Shyh-Shyun Huang; Pei-Hsin Shie; Guang-Jhong Huang

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) and carrageenan (Carr)-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α ), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels p...

  2. Nano-Microencapsulation and Controlled Release of Linoleic Acid in Biopolymer Matrices: Effects of the Physical State, Water Activity, and Quercetin on Oxidative Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Netkal M. Gowda; Mark S. Boley; Tarab Ahmad; Christopher L. Milby; Vinod K. Teriveedhi; Kouassi, Gilles K; Ronald J. Terry

    2012-01-01

    In this study, linoleic acid (LA) was encapsulated in the presence or absence of quercetin into a dual polymer system of whey protein and kappa-carrageenan using power ultrasound. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and FlowCam imaging technology were used for imaging and size determination of nano-and micro-capsules. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to determine the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the freeze-dried nanocapsules. In orde...

  3. BIOSORPTION OF LEAD (II) ON MODIFIED BARKS EXPLAINED BY THE HARD AND SOFT ACIDS AND BASES (HSAB) THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Cedric Astier,; Vincent Chaleix,; Celine Faugeron,; David Ropartz,; Pierre Krausz; Vincent Gloaguen

    2012-01-01

    Chemical modification of Douglas fir bark and its subsequent utilization in adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The polysaccharidic moiety of barks was functionalized by periodate oxidation and derivatized after reductive amination in the presence of aminated oligo-carrageenans. Pb(II) adsorption isotherms of derivatized barks were then determined and compared to the capabilities of crude barks using the Langmuir adsorption model in terms of affinity (b) and maximum ...

  4. Evaluation of Topical Preparations Containing Curcuma, Acacia and Lupinus Extracts as an Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    M M Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    Summary: This work was suggested on the basis of presence of curcuminoids in curcuma and the presence of flavonoidal constituent in acacia and lupinus. The aim of this study was to study their possible anti-inflammatory effect by separately formulation of the three extracts in a suitable gel formula for topical administration and comparison of the prepared gels with a standard gel in the market (diclosal Emulgel) by using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in albino rats. The extracts we...

  5. DNA-Based Identification and Chemical Characteristics of Hypnea musciformis from Coastal Sites in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Tutor Ale; Kristian Barrett; Gloria Naa Dzama Addico; Nanna Rhein-Knudsen; Amoako Atta deGraft-Johnson; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    This work reveals new, important insights about the influence of broad spatial variations on the phylogenetic relationship and chemical characteristics of Ghanaian Hypnea musciformis—a carrageenan-containing red seaweed. DNA barcoding techniques alleviate the difficulty for accurate morphological identification. COI barcode sequences of the Ghanaian H. musciformis showed <0.7% intraspecies divergence, indicating no distinct phylogenetic variation, suggesting that they actually belong to th...

  6. Microglial interleukin-1β in the ipsilateral dorsal horn inhibits the development of mirror-image contralateral mechanical allodynia through astrocyte activation in a rat model of inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoon-Seong; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Moon, Ji-Young; Choi, Sheu-Ran; Kwon, Soon-Gu; Kang, Suk-Yun; Han, Ho-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Beitz, Alvin J; Oh, Seog-Bae; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2015-06-01

    Damage on one side of the body can also result in pain on the contralateral unaffected side, called mirror-image pain (MIP). Currently, the mechanisms responsible for the development of MIP are unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of spinal microglia and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the development of MIP using a peripheral inflammatory pain model. After unilateral carrageenan injection, mechanical allodynia (MA) in both hind paws and the expression levels of spinal Iba-1, IL-1β, and GFAP were evaluated. Ipsilateral MA was induced beginning at 3 hours after carrageenan injection, whereas contralateral MA showed a delayed onset occurring 5 days after injection. A single intrathecal (i.t.) injection of minocycline, a tetracycline derivative that displays selective inhibition of microglial activation, or an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) on the day of carrageenan injection caused an early temporary induction of contralateral MA, whereas repeated i.t. treatment with these drugs from days 0 to 3 resulted in a long-lasting contralateral MA, which was evident in its advanced development. We further showed that IL-1β was localized to microglia and that minocycline inhibited the carrageenan-induced increases in spinal Iba-1 and IL-1β expression. Conversely, minocycline or IL-1ra pretreatment increased GFAP expression as compared with that of control rats. However, i.t. pretreatment with fluorocitrate, an astrocyte inhibitor, restored minocycline- or IL-1ra-induced contralateral MA. These results suggest that spinal IL-1β derived from activated microglia temporarily suppresses astrocyte activation, which can ultimately prevent the development of contralateral MA under inflammatory conditions. These findings imply that microglial IL-1β plays an important role in regulating the induction of inflammatory MIP. PMID:25749305

  7. Enhanced xylitol production using immobilized Candida tropicalis with non-detoxified corn cob hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Yewale, Tatyaso; Panchwagh, Shruti; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Dhamole, Pradip B.; Jain, Rishi

    2016-01-01

    This study reports an industrially applicable non-sterile xylitol fermentation process to produce xylitol from a low-cost feedstock like corn cob hydrolysate as pentose source without any detoxification. Different immobilization matrices/mediums (alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, agarose gel, polyacrylamide, gelatin, and κ-carrageenan) were studied to immobilize Candida tropicalis NCIM 3123 cells for xylitol production. Amongst this calcium alginate, immobilized cells produced maximum amount of xy...

  8. Influence of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives on rat paw edema, biosynthesis of glucocorticoid hormone and its binding activity to glucocorticoid receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Vaitkuvienė, Aida; Liutkevičius, Evaldas; Biziulevičienė, Genė; Ulinskaitė, Audronė; Darinskas, Adas; Meškys, Rolandas

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives OSI-7725 and OSI- 7727 on acute inflammation, glucocorticoid hormone (GH) synthesis and specific GH binding to glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity was investigated. Since several 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) possess anti-inflammatory properties, we first studied the effect of racemate OSI-7725 and its (+) enantiomer OSI-7727 in a model of rat paw edema induced by carrageenan. These compounds had a preventative effect in this model of infla...

  9. Phenolic Enriched Extract of Baccharis trimera Presents Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Simone C. B. Gnoatto; Jarbas R. de Oliveira; Grace Gosmann; Vanusa Manfredini; Carmen Regla Vargas; Lucimara N. Comunello; Amaral, Robson H.; Gabriela Lucas da Silva; Cristiane B. de Oliveira; Adroaldo Lunardelli; Pires, Melissa G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Baccharis trimera is a plant popularly used as a tea and to treat gastrointestinal diseases and inflammatory processes as well. The total phenolic content was determined and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of six extracts (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, aqueous, saponin and phenolic) from B. trimera were evaluated. Using carrageenan-induced pleurisy as a model of acute inflammation, the phenolic extract at 15 mg/kg decreased significantly the analyzed parameters whe...

  10. Vegetable proteins and milk puddings

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Isabel; M.C. NUNES; Batista, P; Raymundo, Anabela; Alves, M. M.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, interest in animal free foods has increased tremendously due to factors like BSE crisis, rise of nutritionally dependent illnesses, like diabetes type II, cardiovascular and digestive diseases, along with ethic orientations of denying animal intakes of any kind. The use of proteins from leguminous seeds as an alternative to the animal proteins in dairy desserts was studied. Lupin, pea and soya protein isolates were used in combination with k- carrageenan, gellan a...

  11. Perbandingan Efek Antiinflamasi Fraksi Etilasetat Daun Dandang Gendis (Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau) Bentuk Suspensi Dan Yang Diperangkapkan Dalam Matriks Nata De Coco

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Anna Leli

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of ethanol extract and comparison test antiinflammatory effects of ethylacetate fraction of dandang gendis (Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau) leaves, suspension and from a matrix was trapped into nata decoco made orally on the sole of the foot inflammation induced rat carrageenan 1%. Dandang gendis leaves powder was extracted by used 80% ethanolic, it was fractionation with n-hexane and ethylacetate. Ethylacetate fraction is obtained evaporated by rotary evaporator...

  12. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC STEM EXTRACTS OF RUBIA CORDIFOLIA LINN. IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Tailor Chandra Shekhar; Bahuguna Y M; Singh Vijender

    2010-01-01

    In the present Study of Ethanolic extract of Stem of Rubia cordifolia Linn.(Rubiaceae) was screened for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema rats. The effect was assessed by Difference in paw oedema volume, before & after the low & high dose administration of the extract in Rats. Ethanolic extract of Rubia cordifolia stem (20 & 40 mg./kg./ml.) were administered orally. Anti-inflammatory effects were compared with Standard drug- Indomethacin (10mg./kg/ml.). These observ...

  13. EVALUATION OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA INDICA FRUIT RIND EXTRACTS IN WISTAR RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib N.A; Pawase Kiran; Patil PA.

    2010-01-01

    Garcinia indica choisy (Kokum) is known for its food, medicinal and commercial values. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind (GIFR) for its anti inflammatory activity in rats. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan induced paw odema. The serum enzymes like Acid phoshatase(ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase(ALP) were estimated. Both extracts at dose (200 & 400 mg/kg p.o single dose) shows significant (P

  14. Quality of casein based Mozzarella cheese analogue as affected by stabilizer blends

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, A. H.; Patel, H. G.; Suneeta, Pinto; Prajapati, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Suitability of xanthan gum (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG), carrageenan (CAR)-LBG, and XG-CAR in 1:1 proportion at 0.42% in the formulation was assessed in the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese analogue. The stabilizer blends did not significantly influence the composition, texture profile, organoleptic, baking qualities and pizza-related characteristics of cheese analogues. Considering the influence of stabilizer blend on the sensory quality of analogue and sensory rating of pizza pie, XG-LBG blen...

  15. Rheological and thermophysical properties of model compounds for ice-cream with reduced fat and sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Drago Šubarić; Jurislav Babić; Đurđica Ačkar; Borislav Miličević; Mirela Kopjar; Vedran Slačanac

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of hydrocolloid carrageenan, native tapioca starch and powdered whey on viscosity and thermophysical properties of model ice-cream mixtures with reduced content of sugar and fat. Measurements were performed immediately after mixture preparation and after two months of storage at -18 °C. Results showed that rheological properties of model ice-cream mixtures with reduced content of sugar and fat can be improved by addition of starch and whe...

  16. Development and validation of an animal model of prostate inflammation-induced chronic pelvic pain: evaluating from inflammation of the prostate to pain behavioral modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS is the most common type of prostatitis. Due to the lack of a suitable animal model partly, the pathogenesis for this condition is obscure. In the current study we developed and validated an animal model for nonbacterial prostatitis and prostate inflammation-induced chronic pelvic pain in rats with the use of intraprostatic injection of λ-carrageenan. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-350 g were used for the experiments. After intraprostatic injection of 3% λ-carrageenan, at different time points(after 24 h, 7 d, 14 d and 30 d of injection, radiant heat and von Frey filaments were applied to the scrotum of rats to measure the heat and mechanical thresholds respectively. Then the prostate was removed for histology, and cyclooxygenase (COX 2 protein expression was determined by Western-blot. Evans blue(50 mg/kg was also injected intravenously to assess for plasma protein extravasation at different time points after injection of λ-carrageenan. RESULTS: Compared to control group, inflamed animals showed a significant reduction in mechanical threshold (mechanical allodynia at 24 h and 7d(p = 0.022,0.046, respectively, and a significant reduction in heat threshold (thermal hyperalgesia at 24 h, 7d and 14 d(p = 0.014, 0.018, 0.002, respectively in the scrotal skin. Significant increase of inflammatory cell accumulation, COX2 expression and Evans blue extravasation were observed at 24 h, 7d and 14 d after injection. CONCLUSIONS: Intraprostatic λ-carrageenan injection induced neurogenic prostatitis and prostate inflammation pain, which lasted at least 2 weeks. The current model is expected to be a valuable preclinical tool to study the neurobiological mechanisms of male chronic pelvic pain.

  17. Phytochemical, Anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer activities of Caesalpinia bonduc stem bark

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhia. K. G; Bindu. A. R

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia bonduc possess anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, digestive, stomachic properties. The present study investigated anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer studies of stem bark of C.bonduc. The in vitro antiinflammatory study of different extracts were done by Protein denaturation method. The total ethanolic extract of stem bark of C.bonduc was investigated for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity (carrageenan induced rat paw oedema) at the doses 200 and 400mg/kg body weight in male W...

  18. Pengaruh Perbandingan Bubur Buah Pepaya Dan Belimbing Dengan Konsentrasi Karagenan Terhadap Mutu Selai Lembaran

    OpenAIRE

    Sitanggang, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Papaya and starfruit production in Indonesia is very abundant, but their processing is still very minimal, therefore the diversification of their processing is needed to increase. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ratio of papaya and starfruit pulp with carrageenan concentration on the quality of jam sheet. This study used a completely randomized design with two factors namely ratio of papaya and starfruit pulp (B): 80%:20%, 60%:40%, 40%:60%, and 20%:80%, and ...

  19. Carboxymethyl-κcarrageenan hydrogels crosslinked by gamma radiation for various potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboxymethylated polysaccharides such as carboxymethylcellulose, carboxymethylstarch and carboxymethylchitosan were found to predominantly undergo crosslinking reactions when irradiated as highly concentrated aqueous solution. κ-Carrageenan (κC) is a sulfated anionic polysaccharide capable of forming thermoreversible gels. However, it typically undergoes depolymerization when exposed to high-energy radiation. The main objective of this study is to use carboxymethyl-κ-Carrageenan to prepare on of crosslinked hydrogels using gamma radiation for various potential applications. Carboxymethyl-κ-Carrageenan samples with varying degree of substitution (DS) were synthesized employing multi-step carboxymethylation. Carboxymethylation was carried out in 80% aqueous isopropyl alcohol medium, activated with appropriate amount of 40% sodium hydroxide and reacted with monochloroacetic acid (MCA) as ethrifying agent. Chemical and structural properties of the derivatives were determined. For preparation of hydrogels and crosslinking experiments, concentrated aqueous solutions of CMκC were prepared using a hybrid mixer to obgtain 10-40% (w/w) in paste-form. Gamma radiation was conducted in 60Co QuBs facility (Japan) at doses 0-100 kGy. Hydrogels were characterized in terms of gel content and swelling behavior in different aqueous media. The radiation crosslinking of carboxymethyl-κ-carrageenan was successfully achieved. Crosslinked hydrogels showed dependence on DS, concentration and radiation dose. Highest gel content was above 73% exhibited by 40% CMκC3s-based hydrogels (DS 1.66) irradiated between 50-100 kGy. The hydrogels exhibited different degrees of swelling in different aqueous media. The initial evaluation of the hydrogels as wound dressing and metal adsorbent proved to be promising. Crosslinked CMκC hydrogels were also found to be biodegradable thus making it an environment friendly material. (author)

  20. Easy Measurement of Different Forces of Water Retention by Hydrocolloids through Water Loss at Same Viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    M. Schleißinger; Schmitt, J J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the water binding strength of different polysaccharides (agar-agar, alginate, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, cold swelling starch, guar gum, locust bean gum, pectin, pentosan and xanthan gum). Solutions with similar apparent viscosity were infrared dried with a moisture analyzer at 100°C. Drying times were investigated in order to examine the degree of water binding of hydrocolloids. Agar-agar and cellulose requ...

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Janaína K. L.; Araújo, Chrisjacele S. F.; Araújo, Tiago F. S.; Santos, Andréa F. S.; Teixeira, J.A.; Vera L M Lima; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.

    2016-01-01

    A galactose-specific lectin from Bauhinia monandra leaves (BmoLL) have been purified through ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by guar gel affinity chromatography column. This study aimed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of pure BmoLL in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by 1% carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice treated with BmoLL. Acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and hot plate methods evaluated antinociceptive activity. B...

  2. Investigation of biopolymer-based hydrogels as green and heterogeneous catalysts in C-C bond formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kühbeck, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The present dissertation evaluates the efficacy of different polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan, alginate and kappa-carrageenan) and proteins (e.g. gelatin, collagen, silk fibroin) as possible catalysts for a variety of C-C bond formation reactions. These biopolymers can be obtained in different forms (e.g. hydrogels, mesoporous materials). Among different forms hydrogels are one of the most interesting since they could act as biphasic and heterogeneous systems in chemical transformations and fa...

  3. The Effect of Three Gums on the Retrogradation of Indica Rice Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Li; Bin Zhou; Rukun Song; Min Huang

    2012-01-01

    Retrograded starch (RS3) was produced from indica rice starch with three kinds of gums (konjac glucomannan, KGM; carrageenan, CA, USA; and gellan, GA, USA) by autoclaving, respectively, and the effect of the gums on the retrogradation behavior of starch was estimated. The influences of polysaccharide concentration, sodium chloride concentration, autoclaving time, refrigerated time, and pH value on RS3 formation were discussed. Except for sodium ch...

  4. Desenvolvimento de produtos reestruturados de corvina (Argyrosomus regius) de aquacultura

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Bernardo de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Reestructurated fish products combining minced meagre and dietary fiber were developed in this work. In the first part of the work, the combination of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) and dietary fibers (pea fiber, carrageenan fiber and konjac fiber) entailing the production of low-salt gel products from farmed meagre, was studied. MTGase addition improved gelation and had a favourable impact on texture, enabling the development of low-salt products. Inner pea dietary fiber also improved g...

  5. A study on the anti-inflammatory effects of new derivatives of 3-hydroxy pyridine-4-one

    OpenAIRE

    Valiollah Hajhashemi; Hoda Mojiri-Froshani; Lotfollah Saghaei; Afshin Fassihi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Derivatives of pyridine-4-one act as iron chelators and possess various pharmacological effects such as antifungal, antimalarial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the three new derivatives of pyridine-4-one. Materials and Methods: Carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and croton oil-induced ear edema in mice were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatry effects of three 3-hydroxy-pyridine-4-...

  6. Nitric oxide production by murine spleen cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosroseno, Wihaskoro; Herminajeng, Endang; Susilowati, Heni; Budiarti, Sri

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans) could induce murine spleen cells to produce nitric oxide (NO). Spleen cells derived from Balb/c mice were stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or LPS from Escherichia coli for 4 days. The effects of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA), polymyxin B, and cytokines (IFN-gamma and IL-4) on the production of NO were also assessed. The NO production from the carrageenan-treated spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or both LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans and IFN-gamma was determined. The carrageenan-treated mice were transferred with splenic macrophages and the NO production was assessed from the spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans and IFN-gamma. The results showed that NO production was detectable in the cultures of spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans in a dose-dependent fashion, but was lower than in the cells stimulated with LPS from E. coli. The NO production was blocked by NMMA and polymyxin B. IFN-gamma up-regulated but IL-4 suppressed the production of NO by the spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans. The carrageenan-treated spleen cells failed to produce NO after stimulation with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or both LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans and IFN-gamma. Adoptive transfer of splenic macrophages to the carrageenan-treated mice could restore the ability of the spleen cells to produce NO. The results of the present study suggest that LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans under the regulatory control of cytokines induces murine spleen cells to produce NO and that splenic macrophages are the cellular source of the NO production. Therefore, these results may support the view that NO production by LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans-stimulated macrophages may play a role in the course of periodontal diseases. PMID:16887678

  7. The effects of levan on the acute inflammatory response.

    OpenAIRE

    Sedgwick, A D; Rutman, A.; Sin, Y. M.; Mackay, A. R.; Willoughby, D A

    1984-01-01

    The fructose polymer levan has been shown to affect the accumulation of leucocytes in inflammatory lesions. The present study has investigated the effect of levan on experimental pleurisy induced by carrageenan and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals. Total pleural polymorphonuclear leucocyte counts and exudate volumes were significantly reduced by levan treatment. We were, however, unable to detect any effect on mononuclear cell numbers. Furthermore, levan treatment significantly...

  8. Naringenin reduces inflammatory pain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Zarpelon, Ana C; Fattori, Victor; Manchope, Marília F; Mizokami, Sandra S; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-06-01

    Naringenin is a flavonoid widely consumed by humans that present anti-inflammatory activity and low toxicity. Recently, the analgesic effect of naringenin has been demonstrated in neuropathic pain models. Herein, we tested the analgesic effects of naringenin in several models of inflammatory pain. Mice received treatment with naringenin (16.7-150 mg/kg, per oral), or with the controls anti-inflammatory drugs indomethacin (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or dipyrone (80 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) prior the inflammatory stimuli injection. For acute pain, we used acetic acid- and PBQ-induced visceral pain (abdominal writhings), and formalin-, capsaicin-, and CFA-induced paw flinching and licking. By using an electronic version of von Frey filaments, we also investigated the effects of naringenin in pain intensity to a mechanical stimulus (mechanical hyperalgesia) after carrageenan, capsaicin, CFA, or PGE2 intraplantar injection. Naringenin (50 mg/kg) reduced acute pain behaviors induced by all tested stimuli, including both phases of formalin test, suggesting a direct nociceptor modulatory effect of this compound besides its anti-inflammatory activity. Accordingly, naringenin also inhibited the increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulus induced by carrageenan, capsaicin, and PGE2. Daily treatment with naringenin during 7 days also reduced CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia without gastric or hepatic toxicity. The mechanisms of naringenin involve the inhibition of carrageenan-induced oxidative stress, hyperalgesic cytokines (IL-33, TNF-α, and IL-1β) production and NF-κB activation in the paw skin. Naringenin also activated the analgesic NO-cyclic GMP-PKG-ATP sensitive K(+) channel signaling pathway to inhibit carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and neutrophil recruitment. These results suggest that naringenin inhibits both inflammatory pain and neurogenic inflammation. PMID:26907804

  9. Central nervous system mast cells in peripheral inflammatory nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmeier Wilfried

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional aspects of mast cell-neuronal interactions remain poorly understood. Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of powerful pro-inflammatory mediators such as histamine and cytokines. Cerebral dural mast cells have been proposed to modulate meningeal nociceptor activity and be involved in migraine pathophysiology. Little is known about the functional role of spinal cord dural mast cells. In this study, we examine their potential involvement in nociception and synaptic plasticity in superficial spinal dorsal horn. Changes of lower spinal cord dura mast cells and their contribution to hyperalgesia are examined in animal models of peripheral neurogenic and non-neurogenic inflammation. Results Spinal application of supernatant from activated cultured mast cells induces significant mechanical hyperalgesia and long-term potentiation (LTP at spinal synapses of C-fibers. Lumbar, thoracic and thalamic preparations are then examined for mast cell number and degranulation status after intraplantar capsaicin and carrageenan. Intradermal capsaicin induces a significant percent increase of lumbar dural mast cells at 3 hours post-administration. Peripheral carrageenan in female rats significantly increases mast cell density in the lumbar dura, but not in thoracic dura or thalamus. Intrathecal administration of the mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglycate or the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk inhibitor BAY-613606 reduce the increased percent degranulation and degranulated cell density of lumbar dural mast cells after capsaicin and carrageenan respectively, without affecting hyperalgesia. Conclusion The results suggest that lumbar dural mast cells may be sufficient but are not necessary for capsaicin or carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia.

  10. 猕猴桃凝胶软糖的研制%Research of the kiwi gelatinous confection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔美兰; 刘谋泉

    2004-01-01

    The production technology and formula of the kiwi gelatinous confection were studied. The main material in the experiment was extract from the fresh kiwi .Results showed that the best product was obtained with 20% Kiwi,23% sugar,34% glucose syrup,0.8% carrageenan,0.4% agar,0.2% konjac flour,1.4% modified starches,0.1% KC1 through orthogonal study.

  11. Screening for anti-inflammatory components from Corydalis bungeana Turcz. based on macrophage binding combined with HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zi-Bo; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Zhao, Bing-Jie; Li, Chao; Tian, Gang; Niu, Ben; Qi, Hong; Feng, Liang; Shao, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background Corydalis bungeana Turcz. (CB; family: Corydalis DC.) is an anti-inflammatory medicinal herb used widely in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for upper respiratory tract infection, etc., but its anti-inflammatory active molecules are unknown. This study was designed to screen for the anti-inflammatory components from CB based on macrophage binding combined with HPLC. Methods Xylene-induced ear edema in mouse and carrageenan-induced hind-paw edema in rats were used to evaluate the ...

  12. Buccal Drug Delivery of Pravastatin Sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Shidhaye, Supriya S.; Thakkar, Pritesh V.; Neha M Dand; Vilasrao J. Kadam

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize formulations of mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of pravastatin sodium using carrageenan gum as the base matrix. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K 30, Pluronic® F 127, and magnesium oxide were used to improve tablet properties. Magnesium stearate, talc, and lactose were used to aid the compression of tablets. The tablets were found to have good appearance, uniform thickness, diameter...

  13. Biorefinery valorization of autohydrolysis wheat straw hemicellulose to be applied in a polymer-blend film

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Cerqueira, M. A.; Ruíz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa María; Vicente, A.A.; J. A. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were the extraction of hemicellulose from wheat straw (WS) and its utilization in the reinforcement of a κ-carrageenan/locust bean gum (κ-car/LBG) polymeric blend films (PBFs). WS hemicellulose extraction was performed under autohydrolysis process and hemicellulose extracted (HE) under optimum condition was used in PBFs. PBFs were prepared varying different proportions of HE into the κ-car/LBG film-forming solutions. Barrier properties (water vapor permeability, WVP), m...

  14. A comparative experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn and Premna latifolia Roxb leaves in Charles foster rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, Harshitha; Shrikanth, P.; Chaithra; Pushpan, Reshmi; Nishteswar, K.

    2011-01-01

    Agnimantha, a classical Ayurvedic drug is one among the dashamoolas, i.e., group of ten plants whose roots form the useful part. It is a main ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations. Various source plants from the genus Clerodendrum and Premna are used in different regions of the country. In this study, two species of Premna were selected and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema. The selected animals were divided into four groups and test d...

  15. Evaluation of Analgesic & Anti-inflammatory activity of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf root on Experimental Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kumar; Rajeev Kumar; Sanjay Yadav; Satyawan Singh; Surendra Nath Pandeya

    2010-01-01

    Desmostachia bipinnata (L.) Stapf (Gramineae) occurs widely in Egypt. This plant used traditionally as analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, asthma, thirst, jaundice, vaginal discharges, vesicle calculi, diseases of bladder, skin eruptions, vomiting, and sedative to pregnant uterus. So, in the present study, Desmostachia bipinnata roots were explored for their anti-inflammatory (carrageenan induced paw oedema) and analgesic potential (Hot plate method) on experimental model and compared ...

  16. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE BARK OF FICUS BENGALENSIS IN PLANTS OF DIFFERENT AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Vikas V.; Vijay R. Patil

    2010-01-01

    The medicinal plants have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. The aim of this study deals with the comparative evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of the bark of Ficus bengalensis in plants of different age. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by rat paw edema model induced by carrageenan for acute inflammation and cotton pellet granuloma model for chronic inflammation. Indomethacin was used as a st...

  17. Atividade antiinflamatória de carboidrato produzido por fermentação aquosa de grãos de quefir Anti-inflammatory activity of carbohydrate produced from aqueous fermentation of kefir

    OpenAIRE

    Maria E. C. Moreira; Marcelo H. Santos; Ivan O. Pereira; Vany Ferraz; Luiz C. A. Barbosa; Schneedorf, José M.

    2008-01-01

    Kefir, a symbiont microorganism suspension, presents benefic effects to health. Some kefir grains were cultivated in brown sugar, allowing to isolate a substance named CSQ. This was evaluated on a biologic essay of mouse foot edema, presenting an inhibitory activity of 30+4 % against carrageenan after the stimulus. It was observed that a cultivation mean containing sucrose, and not the milky mean, lead to the production of different sugar polymeric chains of kefir. The results in vivo suggest...

  18. Evaluation of antiinflammatory activity ofTephrosia purpurea in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenoy Smita; Shwetha K; Prabhu K; Maradi R; Bairy KL; Shanbhag T

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of orally administered ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea in acute and subacute inflammation in rats.Methods: An ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea was prepared. Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma were the models for acute and subacute inflammation respectively. Four groups of rats in each model were treated orally with 2% gum acacia, 100 mg /kg of aspirin, 500 mg/kg and 1 000 mg/kg of ethanolic extract ofTephrosia purpurea respectively. In carrageenan induced paw edema model, subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan was made into the hind paw of the rats sixty minutes after the administration of the respective drugs. The paw volume was measured immediately after injection of carrageenan, at 3 hours and at 6 hours. Then percentage inhibition of edema was calculated. In the cotton pellet granuloma model, animals were administered drugs for six days after placing cotton pellets in the axilla on each side. On the 7th day, dry weight of granuloma was calculated.Results:The rats treated withTephrosia purpurea did not exhibit any significant decrease in paw volume and serum ceruloplasmin levels as compared to the control and aspirin treated groups in the acute inflammation model; while, there was a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the weight of granuloma inTephrosia purpurea and aspirin treated groups as compared to control in subacute inflammation.Conclusions:The ethanolic extract of orally administered Tephrosia purpurea shows significant antiinflammatory effect in subacute inflammation but not in acute inflammation in rats.

  19. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF CHAMOMILE ESSENTIAL OIL IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, D; Juhás, Š. (Štefan); Bukovska, A.; Bujňáková, D.; Grešáková, L.; van de Koppel, J.

    2011-01-01

    Essential oils are plant secondary metabolites with positive pharmacological properties, e.g. anti-oxidative, antimicrobial or immunomodulative, but they can have toxic and allergic effects as well. The aim of this study was to analyze anti-inflammatory effects of chamomile essential oil dietary administration in carrageenan paw oedema and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis. Mice received chamomile essential oil in three concentrations (5000, 2500 and 1250 ppm) in the standard roden...

  20. Formulasi Gel Pengharum Ruangan dengan Pewangi Minyak Mawar dan Fiksatif Minyak Akar Wangi

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Mailani Silviana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Utilization synthetic air freshener has a negative effect for human health as it can cause respiratory problem, so that it is a need to develop natural air freshener. Purpose: To formulate air freshener gel using natural base gel, fragrance and fixative in various concentration. Methods:This research consisted of three stages. The first stage was determining the best gel base using combination of carrageenan and agar in 3% concentration by some ratios, they were 70:30, 60:40...

  1. Formulasi Gel Pengharum Ruangan Menggunakan Karagenan dan Natrium Alginat dengan Minyak Nilam sebagai Fiksatif

    OpenAIRE

    Panjaitan, Marini

    2016-01-01

    Background:Conventional air freshener gel mostly contains synthetic materials, especially the fragrance and the fixative agent. It can potentially harms human health and environment, therefore it is necessary to develop a product that is more friendly to environment and safe for human by using natural essential oil. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find the best ratio of carrageenan and sodium alginate as a carrier, to find the best concentration of lemon oil as fragrance, and to ...

  2. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Yousef A.; Samud, Awatef M.; El-Taher, Fathy E.; ben-Hussin, Ghazala; Elmezogi, Jamal S.; Badryia F. Al-Mehdawi; Salem, Hanan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache.Aim: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice.Methods: Analgesic activity was examined using acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer’s-yeast-induced pyrexia were used to ...

  3. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad M. Hassan; Shahneaz A. Khan; Amir H. Shaikat; Md. Emran Hossain; Md. Ahasanul Hoque; Md Hasmat Ullah; Saiful Islam

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight...

  4. Antihyperalgesic and antiedematous activities of bisabolol-oxides-rich matricaria oil in a rat model of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Maja; Popović, Višnja; Petrović, Silvana; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica; Micov, Ana; Pavlović-Drobac, Milica; Couladis, Maria

    2014-05-01

    From the dried flower heads of Matricaria recutita L., essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation, and in the obtained blue oil, α-bisabolol oxide A (21.5%), α-bisabolol oxide B (25.5%) and (Z)-spiroether (cis-en-yn-spiroether) (10.3%) were identified as the main compounds, by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry analyses. The antihyperalgesic effects of this oil were examined in a rat model of inflammation induced by carrageenan, through a modified 'paw-pressure' test. Antiedematous effects were examined in a rat model of inflammation induced by carrageenan, dextran and histamine, through plethysmometry. Matricaria oil (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited a significant dose-dependent reduction of hyperalgesia and edema induced by carrageenan in both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment schemes. It was more efficacious in the prophylactic treatment scheme, and the corresponding median effective dose (ED50 ) ± standard error of the mean (SEM) values were 49.8 ± 6.0 and 42.4 ± 0.2 mg/kg for antihyperalgesic and antiedematous effects, respectively. Prophylactic treatments with matricaria oil (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) caused a significant dose-dependent antiedematous effect in dextran-induced edema with lower efficacy than in the carrageenan model. In a dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o., matricaria oil caused a slight reduction of histamine-induced edema. These results suggest that bisabolol-oxide-rich matricaria oil may be effective against pain and edema present in various inflammatory conditions, which supports matricaria traditional uses. PMID:23983133

  5. IN VIVO ANTI INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Mittal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to appraise the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus roots belonging to family Liliaceae. Carrageenan is used to induce inflammation and Freund’s Complete Adjuvant is used to induce arthritis. The result of this study revealed that Asparagus racemosus show potent effect on both the condition at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively.

  6. Firmness Perception Influences Women’s Preferences for Vaginal Suppositories

    OpenAIRE

    Toral Zaveri; Primrose, Rachel J.; Lahari Surapaneni; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Microbicides are being actively researched and developed as woman-initiated means to prevent HIV transmission during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have developed carrageenan-based semisoft vaginal suppositories and have previously evaluated how physical properties such as firmness, size and shape influence women’s willingness to try them. Firmness has previously been quantified ...

  7. Algae Along Qatar Coasts Utilization And Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel

    1999-01-01

    Most of marine algae have no equivalent on earth and therefore could be considered as irreplaceable sources of primary and secondary metabolites. This is especially the case for hydrocolloids from red and brown algae that are cultured and used at an industrial scale for food-processing (carrageenans and agars from red algae and alginates from brown algae are widely used as gelling agents and thickeners) but also for pharmaceutical uses (agar gels for culture of microorganisms). Others main ap...

  8. Hydrodynamic investigation of polysaccharides and their interaction with casein

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Gordon Alistair

    2001-01-01

    Polysaccharide systems (pectin, carrageenan, guar, locust bean gum, xanthan and xylan) have been characterised using a variety of hydrodynamic techniques including sedimentation velocity, sedimentation equilibrium, size exclusion chromatography - multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS), and viscometry. Results suggest that the polysaccharides selected are, in general, rigid or semi-rigid molecules with a large hydrated volume, this is important in relation to polysaccharide structure -...

  9. Cyclo-Gly-Pro, a cyclic dipeptide, attenuates nociceptive behaviour and inflammatory response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Jamylle Nunes de Souza; de Aquino, Fernanda Lima Torres; de Brito, Renan Guedes; dos Santos, Priscila Laíse; Quintans, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira; de Souza, Lucas Costa; de Araújo, Almair Ferreira; Diaz, Bruno Lourenço; Lucca-Júnior, Waldecy; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Barreto, Emiliano

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the cyclic dipeptide cyclo-Gly-Pro (CGP) in mice. Antinociceptive activity was assessed by employing different pain models, such as formalin test, acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate test, and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia, in mice. The number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) was evaluated in CGP-treated mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using paw oedema induced by carrageenan, compound 48/80, serotonin, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and analyzed by plethysmometry. Quantitation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the paw was carried out to analyze the presence of neutrophils in the tissue. Intraperitoneal injection of CGP produced a significant inhibition in both neurogenic and inflammatory phases of formalin-induced pain. The antinociceptive effect of CGP, evaluated in the acetic acid-induced writhing test, was detected for up to 6 h after treatment. Further, in the hot plate test, antinociceptive behaviour was evoked by CGP, and this response was inhibited by naloxone. Animals treated with CGP did not present changes in motor performance. In CGP-treated mice there was an increase in the number of c-Fos-positive neurons in the periaqueductal gray. In another set of experiments, CGP attenuated the hyperalgesic response induced by carrageenan. Furthermore, CGP also reduced the carrageenan-increased MPO activity in paws. In addition, CGP also reduced the paw oedema evoked by compound 48/80, serotonin, and PGE2 . Taken together, these results may support a possible therapeutic application of the cyclic dipeptide cyclo-Gly-Pro toward alleviating nociception and damage caused by inflammation conditions. PMID:26277051

  10. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    OpenAIRE

    Choksi Krishna; Shenoy Ashoka M; A. R. Shabharaya; Lala Minaxi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg) and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg) were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg) to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate cou...

  11. Studies of the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wibool Ridtitid; Peerati Ruangsang; Wantana Reanmongkol; Malinee Wongnawa

    2007-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The results revealed that the extract at test doses produced a significant anti-inflammatory activity at 3 h with an inhibition of paw edema of 8.6% (P

  12. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic leaf extract of the endangered tree species, Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb.) Schott and Endl

    OpenAIRE

    Saradha Maran; Paulsamy Subramanium

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was aimed at to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic leaf extracts of the endangered medicinal tree species, Hildegardia populifolia on laboratory animal. Methods: The anti-inflammatory potential of the extract has been determined by using carrageenan, formalin and histamine induced paw edema assays in Wistar rats. Indomethacin was used as a reference drug. The analgesic activity was tested by using acetic acid induced writhing res...

  13. The effects of NO3(-) supply on Mazzaella laminarioides (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) from southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Nelso P; Figueroa, Félix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Mansilla, Andrés; Matsuhiro, Betty; Barahona, Tamara; Plastino, Estela M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of nitrate supply on growth, pigments, mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), C:N ratios and carrageenan yield were investigated in Mazzaella laminarioides cultivated under solar radiation. This species is economically important in southern Chile where an increase of nitrogen in coastal waters is expected as a consequence of salmon aquaculture activity. Apical segments were cultivated in enriched seawater with five different NO3(-) concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.18, 0.38 and 0.75 mm) during 18 days. Although phycoerythrin and phycocyanin content, as well as C:N ratios, were reduced in the control treatment (without NO3(-) supply), when compared to NO3(-) treatments, total MAA concentration, carrageenan yield and growth rates were similar in all tested conditions. Nevertheless, during the experiment, an important synthesis of mycosporine-glycine took place in a nitrate concentration-dependent manner, with accumulation being saturated around 0.18 mm of nitrate. These results indicate that exposure to high NO3(-) concentration of more than 100 times the values observed in the nature did not impair the photoprotection system, as determined by MAAs, nor did it have a deleterious effect on growth or carrageenan yield of M. laminarioides, a late successional species from Chile. PMID:25214037

  14. Microwave-assisted facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and spectroscopic investigation of the catalytic activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siby Joseph; Beena Mathew

    2015-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized in aqueous medium by a green, rapid and costefficient synthetic approach based on microwave irradiation. In this study, iota-carrageenan (I-carrageenan) is used both as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticles is determined using UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and high-resolution-transmission electron microscopic (HR-TEM) analysis. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images show that the nanoparticles are of spherical shape with an average diameter of 18.2 nm. I-carrageenan-stabilized silver nanoparticles show outstanding catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH4 in aqueous medium. The reaction follows pseudo-first-order kinetics and the reaction rate increases with the increase in amount of the catalyst. The study of the temperature dependence of reaction rate gives activation energy of 42.81 kJ mol−1. The synthesized silver nanoparticles are anticipated to be a promising material for pollution abatement.

  15. Stretching Impacts Inflammation Resolution in Connective Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrueta, Lisbeth; Muskaj, Igla; Olenich, Sara; Butler, Taylor; Badger, Gary J; Colas, Romain A; Spite, Matthew; Serhan, Charles N; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-07-01

    Acute inflammation is accompanied from its outset by the release of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), including resolvins, that orchestrate the resolution of local inflammation. We showed earlier that, in rats with subcutaneous inflammation of the back induced by carrageenan, stretching for 10 min twice daily reduced inflammation and improved pain, 2 weeks after carrageenan injection. In this study, we hypothesized that stretching of connective tissue activates local pro-resolving mechanisms within the tissue in the acute phase of inflammation. In rats injected with carrageenan and randomized to stretch versus no stretch for 48 h, stretching reduced inflammatory lesion thickness and neutrophil count, and increased resolvin (RvD1) concentrations within lesions. Furthermore, subcutaneous resolvin injection mimicked the effect of stretching. In ex vivo experiments, stretching of connective tissue reduced the migration of neutrophils and increased tissue RvD1 concentration. These results demonstrate a direct mechanical impact of stretching on inflammation-regulation mechanisms within connective tissue. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1621-1627, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26588184

  16. Carrageen Tomatoes Composite Health Care Beverage%角叉菜西红柿复合益生菌保健饮料研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯璐; 孙玲; 应润兵; 杨翔华

    2013-01-01

    In order to carrageenan as raw material , tomatoes for the materials , and the seed liquid mixing and fermentation, adding various component deployment of a probiotic health beverage. Analysis of mineral elements content in carrageenan, using cheap meal production microecological regulator. Through the orthogonal experiment to determine the fermentation condition and optimize the product selected out the best formula:carrageenan extract 20%, tomato juice 70%, sugar 6%, sour agent from 0.07%to 0.09%, natural pigments, spices, honey right amount.%  以角叉菜、西红柿为原料,与益生菌的种子液混合后进行发酵,添加多种配料调配成益生菌型保健饮料。分析角叉菜内矿物质元素含量,利用廉价豆粕生产微生态调节剂。通过正交实验确定发酵条件,并且优化选定出产品最佳配方为:角叉菜提取液20%,西红柿汁70%,蔗糖6%,酸味剂0.07%~0.09%,天然色素,香料,蜂蜜等适量。

  17. Citral reduces nociceptive and inflammatory response in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Citral (CIT, which contains the chiral enantiomers, neral (cis and geranial (trans, is the majority monoterpene from Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus. The present study aimed to evaluate CIT for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in rodents. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied by measuring nociception through acetic acid and formalin tests, while inflammation was verified by inducing peritonitis and paw edema with carrageenan. All tested doses of CIT had significant protection (p<0.001 against acetic acid (0.8% induced nociceptive behavior and the effects were also similar to morphine while formalin induced nociception was significantly protected (p<0.05 only at higher dose (200 mg/kg of CIT in the first phase of the test. CIT significantly reduce (p<0.001 nociceptive behavior emanating from inflammation in second phase at all the doses.The pretreatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, systemic treatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced (p<0.001 the leukocyte migration in the carrageenan-induced migration to the peritoneal cavity. Our investigation shows that CIT possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive effects. It was also verified an anti-inflammatory activity. All together these results suggest that CIT might represent important tool for treatment of painful conditions.

  18. Development of hydroethanolic extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae using factorial design followed by antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. R. Br., Convolvulaceae, is a medicinal plant that grows abundantly as a pan-tropical stand plant. The 3² (two factors and three levels factorial design, was applied to determine the best time and drug/solvent proportion to maximize the flavonoid content in the hydroethanolic extract by maceration process. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied at 5-20 mg/kg, i.p., using the writhing test and carrageenan-induced pleurisy models in mice. The optimized extract was able to inhibit more than 50% of abdominal writhing at 20 mg/kg, with 55.88%±2.4 of maximum inhibition. Indomethacin, used as positive control, inhibited 64.86% at 10 mg/kg. In the pleurisy model, the extract produced dose-dependent inhibition of the first phase of inflammation (4 h in the pleural cavity induced by injection of carrageenan (1% in mice. It inhibited 50%±0.82 (p<0.01 of exudation induced by carrageenan, and 60.88%±0.14 (p<0.01 of leukocyte migration to the pleural cavity. In conclusion, the results validate the technological conditions of the maceration process to produce an optimized bioactive herb extract for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory phytopharmaceuticals using 70 ºGL ethanol, a plant to solvent ratio of 12.5% (w/v, and ten days of maceration.

  19. Purification and Characterization of a New κ-Carrageenase from the Marine Bacterium Vibrio sp. NJ-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Benwei; Ning, Limin

    2016-02-28

    The carrageenan-degrading marine bacterium Vibrio sp. strain NJ-2 was isolated from rotten red algae, and κ-carrageenase with high activity was purified from the culture supernatant. The purified enzyme with molecular mass of 33 kDa showed the maximal activity of 937 U/mg at 40°C and pH 8.0. It maintained 80% of total activity below 40°C and between pH 6.0 and 10.0. The kinetics experiment showed the Km and Vmax values were 2.54 mg/ml and 138.89 mmol/min/mg, respectively. The thin layer chromatography and ESI-MS analysis of hydrolysates indicated that the enzyme can endolytically depolymerize the kappa-carrageenan into oligosaccharides with degrees of depolymerization of 2-8. Owing to its high activity, it could be a valuable tool to produce κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides with various biological activities. PMID:26528532

  20. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ION EXCHANGE RESIN MATRIX TABLETS OF PROPRANOLOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosale Rahul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt was made to prepare and evaluate Indion 254 ion exchange resin based matrix tablets by using sodium alginate, carrageenan and tamarind seed polyose for controlled release of propranolol HCl. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The weight and drug contents of all the tablets were found to be uniform with the low SD values. The hardness and friability were within specified range. The pure drug propranolol HCl has shown complete dissolution within 60 min, whereas, drug-resin complex has shown drug release for 2.5 hrs. With the increase in concentration of carrageenan, the drug release was decreased whereas with the increase in concentration of tamarind seed polyose drug release was increased. The DSC and XRD analysis indicated that the drug was uniformly dispersed in an amorphous state in the polymer matrix. The FTIR analysis ruled out the interaction between drug and polymers used in the preparation. Swelling of the tablets decreased with an increased amount of carrageenan and it further decreased when the tablets were treated with glutaraldehyde. Swelling of the tablets increased with an increased amount of tamarind seed polyose. The in vitro drug release study indicated that the tablets containing tamarind seed polyose were capable of releasing the drug for 24 hrs. Drug release mechanism followed anomalous transport. The stability studies indicated that the formulations were stable, with respect to drug content and physical changes.

  1. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  2. Preliminary comparative study of anti-inflmmatory effect of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey: In vivo approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of unheated and heat-treated of Sahara honey. Methods: A total of 24 Swiss albino mice weighing 25–35 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Anti-inflammatory effect was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.5 mL of a 1% solution in normal saline. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: The total phenolic content capacity of the Sahara honey before and after heat treatment was between 72 and 97.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of honey respectively. Administration of unheated honey (oral administration reduced significantly (P < 0.05. The carrageenan induced mice paw edema model at 1, 3 and 6 h for 21.85%, 5.43% and 80.43%, respectively. Administration of heat-treated honey showed insignificant inhibition of carrageenan and induced paw edema at 1 h (31.16%, 3 h (0.25% and 6 h (34.19%. The 50 mg/kg diclofenac exhibited percent reduction in paw volume 16.12%, 8.90% and 15.32% after 1 h, 3 h and 6 h, respectively, when compared with control animals. No toxicity was identified. Conclusions: Our results suggest that unheated Sahara honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the mice paw edema size while heat-treated Sahara honey decreases the antiinflammatory activity.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of epiisopiloturine, an imidazole alkaloid isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valdelânia G; Silva, Renan O; Damasceno, Samara R B; Carvalho, Nathalia S; Prudêncio, Rafael S; Aragão, Karoline S; Guimarães, Maria A; Campos, Stefano A; Véras, Leiz M C; Godejohann, Markus; Leite, José Roberto S A; Barbosa, André L R; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R

    2013-06-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of epiisopiloturine (1), an imidazole alkaloid found in the leaves of Pilocarpus microphyllus. The anti-inflammatory activity of 1 was evaluated using several agents that induce paw edema and peritonitis in Swiss mice. Paw tissue and peritoneal fluid samples were obtained to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing, the hot plate test, and pain induction using formalin. Compared to vehicle treatment, pretreatment with 1 (0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg, ip) of mice significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.05). Furthermore, compound 1 at a dose of 1 mg/kg effectively inhibited edema induced by dextran sulfate, serotonin, and bradykinin, but had no effect on histamine-induced edema. The administration of 1 (1 mg/kg) following carrageenan-induced peritonitis reduced total and differential peritoneal leukocyte counts and also carrageenan-induced paw MPO activity and TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the peritoneal cavity. Pretreatment with 1 also reduced acetic acid-induced writhing and inhibited the first and second phases of the formalin test, but did not alter response latency in the hot plate test. Pretreatment with naloxone reversed the antinociceptive effect of 1. PMID:23734744

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of one synthetic product, N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide (abbrev. FECA, by using animal model of λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of FECA was determined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and malondialdehyde (MDA in the edema paw tissue, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GRd in the liver. The results showed that FECA reduced the paw edema at three, four and five hours after λ-carrageenan administration. The levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α, and MDA in the λ-carrageenan-induced edema paws were reduced and the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in liver tissues were raised by FECA. These results suggested that FECA possessed anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be related to the decrease of the levels of COX-2, NO, and TNF-α in inflamed tissues and the increase in the MDA level by increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities A of eugenol essential oil in experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apparecido N. Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia caryophyllata, popular name "clove", is grown naturally in Indonesia and cultivated in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Clove is used in cooking, food processing, pharmacy; perfumery, cosmetics and the clove oil (eugenol have been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions include use in dental care, as an antiseptic and analgesic. The objective of this study was evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of eugenol used for dentistry purposes following oral administration in animal models in vivo. The anti-inflammatory activity of eugenol was evaluated by inflammatory exudates volume and leukocytes migration in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests in rats. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests in mice. Eugenol (200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the volume of pleural exudates without changing the total blood leukocyte counts. At dose of 200 mg/kg, eugenol significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced edema, 2-4 h after injection of the flogistic agent. In the hot-plate test, eugenol administration (100 mg/kg showed unremarkable activity against the time-to-discomfort reaction, recorded as response latency, which is blocked by meperidine. Eugenol at doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg had a significant antinociceptive effect in the test of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing, compared to the control animals. The data suggest that eugenol possesses anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive activities.

  6. Effect of use of citrus bagasse as functional product-extender on physicochemical and textural properties of cooked ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Aguilar-Rico

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The substitution effect of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse on physico-chemical characteristics of cooked ham was evaluated. A 33 factorial design was used, with substitution levels of 0, 50 and 100%. The results indicate that the substitution of potato starch for orange bagasse results in increase in the ham yield, but to replace the carrageenan and/or soy protein by orange bagasse, cause decrease in yield below that non-substituted ham. Moreover, if even yields increase with substitution of potato starch by orange bagasse, however, the textural characteristics of the product obtained showed deficiency in comparison with thenon-substituted ham. Apparently orange bagasse substitution does not alter the matrix stability formation in ham, so there was no significant difference in expressible moisture. Substitution of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse in ham has highest influence on pH and color parameters, this due probably to compounds presents in the fruit (citric acid and carotenoids. Orange bagasse has high potential as a novel source of dietary fiber in food industry.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects and possible mechanism of action of lupeol acetate isolated from Himatanthus drasticus (Mart. Plumel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Victor CC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The species Himatanthus drasticus is popularly known in Northeast Brazil as "janaguba" and belongs to the family Apocynaceae. The latex collected from its stem bark is used for several purposes including anti-inflammatory properties and presents among its bioactive constituents the pentacyclic triterpene lupeol. The objective of the present work was to study in vivo and in vitro the lupeol acetate (LA isolated from the plant latex, in several models of inflammation. Methods Male Swiss mice (25-30 g, 6-24 animals per group were administered with LA, 30 min before the test initiation. In the evaluation of analgesic activity the formalin test was used. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the following tests: paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, and the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration into peritoneal cavities. Furthermore, the effect of LA on the myeloperoxidase release (MPO, an inflammation biomarker from human neutrophils was also determined, as well as its antioxidant potential by the DPPH assay. Results In the formalin test, LA (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p. inhibited both the 1st (neurogenic, 0-5 min and mainly the 2nd (inflammatory, 20-25 min phase. Naloxone completely reversed the LA effect, indicating the participation of the opioid system. LA also significantly inhibited carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw edemas, as well as the neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity evaluated by the carrageenan-induced pleurisia. In this model, the effect of a very low dose of LA (0.1 mg/kg was potentiated by the same dose of pentoxifylline (PTX, a known TNF-alpha inhibitor. LA (25 and 50 μg/ml was also very effective in inhibiting MPO released from stimulated human neutrophils, and significantly decreased the number of cells expressing iNOS activity in the paw of mice submitted to carrageenan-induced edema, suggesting a drug involvement with the NO system. Conclusions The anti-inflammatory effect of

  8. Design, synthesis, characterization, quantum-chemical calculations and anti-inflammatory activity of novel series of thiophene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, M. H.; Salem, M. A.; Gouda, M. A.; Ahmed, N. S.; El-Sherif, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    Interaction of 1-(4-morpholinophenyl)ethanone 1 with either malononitrile or ethyl cyanoacetate 2 afforded Knoevenagel-Cope product 3. In subsequent treatment of 3 with sulfur, the 2-aminothiophene derivatives (4a, 4b) are formed under basic conditions. The solvent-free reaction of thiophene derivative 4a with ethyl cyanoacetate afforded thieno[2,3-d][1,3]oxazine derivative 6. The base catalyzed condensation of 2-aminothiophene derivative (4a) with ethyl cyanoacetate afforded N-(thieno-2-yl) cyanoacetamide derivative 7. The latter was used to synthesize different heterocyclic derivatives comprising, pyridine and coumarin rings. Also, several substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines have been prepared from reaction of 2-aminothiophene-3-carbonitrile 4b with some electrophilic reagents. The structure of the newly compounds were confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis and spectral data. The molecular modeling of the synthesized compounds has been drawn and their molecular parameters were calculated. Also, valuable information is obtained from calculation of the molecular parameters including electronegativity, net dipole moment of the compounds, total energy, electronic energy, binding energy, HOMO and LUMO energy. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of the tested compounds was performed in albino rats by producing carrageenan induced paw oedema and measuring the zone of inflammation at different time intervals i.e. 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after carrageenan injection. Results indicated that most of the tested compounds showed moderate to good activity comparable to indomethacin. Also, compound 16 with additional morpholine ring beside the thiophene ring inhibits carrageenan induced paw oedema more than the standard indomethacin drug at all the time scales studied. Thus, compound 16 is considered as a promising compound for further modification to obtain clinically useful anti-inflammatory agent.

  9. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  10. Ursolic acid prevents augmented peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia in high-fat diet-induced obese rats by restoring downregulated spinal PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Song, Chengwei; Li, Haiou; Hou, Jingdong; Li, Dongliang

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several pain syndromes and is associated with increased pain sensitivity. Evidence suggests that obesity causes the downregulation of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR)α in the spinal cord, contributing to augmented peripheral edema and inflammatory hyperalgesia. Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, has been shown to upregulate PPARα in the peripheral tissues of obese animals. The present study hypothesized that UA prevents augmented peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia in obesity by restoring downregulated spinal PPARα. The present study demonstrated that Sprague‑Dawley rats fed a high‑fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks developed obesity and metabolic disorder. Following carrageenan injection, the HFD rats exhibited increased thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema, compared with the rats fed a low‑fat diet. Molecular investigations revealed that the HFD rats exhibited decreased PPARα activity, and exaggerated expression of inflammatory mediators and nuclear factor‑kB activity in the spinal cord in response to carrageenan. Oral administration of UA ameliorated obesity and metabolic disorder, and prevented increased thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema in the HFD rats. Additionally, UA normalized PPARα activity and inhibited the exaggerated spinal cord inflammatory response to carrageenan. Although the knockdown of spinal PPARα with small interfering RNA following the administration of UA did not alter obesity or metabolic parameters, it eradicated the beneficial effects of UA on thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema, and reversed the spinal cord inflammatory response. These results suggested that the systemic administration of UA inhibited the exaggerated spinal cord inflammatory response to peripheral inflammatory stimulation in HFD‑induced obesity by restoring downregulated spinal PPARα, preventing peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia. UA may be a

  11. Cloning and characterization of a new κ-carrageenase gene from marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. QY203

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Li, Shangyong; Yang, Xuemei; Yu, Wengong; Han, Feng

    2015-12-01

    κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides exhibit various biological activities. Enzymatic degradation by κ-carrageenase is safe and controllable. Therefore, κ-carrageenases have captured more and more attentions. In this study, a κ-carrageenase encoding gene, cgkX, was cloned from Pseudoalteromonas sp. QY203 with degenerate and inverse PCR. It comprised an ORF of 1194 bp in length, encoding a protein with 397 amino acid residues. CgkX is a new member of glycoside hydrolase family 16. The deduced amino acid sequence shared a high similarity with CgkX of Pseudoalteromonas κ-carrageenase; however, the recombinant CgkX showed different biochemical characteristics. The recombinant enzyme was most active at pH 7.0 and 55°C in the presence of 300 mmol L-1 NaCl. It was stable in a broad range of acidity ranging from pH 3.0 to pH 10.0 when temperature was below 40°C. More than 80% of its activity was maintained after being incubated at pH 3.6-10.0 and 4°C for 24 h. CgkX retained more than 90% of activity after being incubated at 40°C for 1 h. EDTA and SDS (1 mmol L-1) did not inhibit its activity. CgkX hydrolyzed κ-carrageenan into disaccharide and tetrasaccharide as an endo-cleaver. All these characteristics demonstrated that CgkX is applicable to both κ-carrageenan oligosaccharide production and κ-carrageenase structure-function research.

  12. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jeane; Abebe, Worku; Sousa, S M; Duarte, V G; Machado, M I L; Matos, F J A

    2003-12-01

    Many species of the genus Eucalyptus from the Myrtaceae family are used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various medical conditions such as cold, flue, fever, and bronchial infections. In the current investigation, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil extracts from three species of Eucalyptus employing various standard experimental test models. Using acetic acid-induced writhes in mice and hot plate thermal stimulation in rats, it was shown that the essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora (EC), Eucalyptus tereticornis (ET), and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) induced analgesic effects in both models, suggesting peripheral and central actions. In addition, essential oil extracts from the three Eucalyptus species produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by inhibition of rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, neutrophil migration into rat peritoneal cavities induced by carrageenan, and vascular permeability induced by carrageenan and histamine. However, no consistent results were observed for some of the parameters evaluated, both in terms of activities and dose-response relationships, reflecting the complex nature of the oil extracts and/or the assay systems used. Taken together, the data suggest that essential oil extracts of EC, ET, and EG possess central and peripheral analgesic effects as well as neutrophil-dependent and independent anti-inflammatory activities. These initial observations provide support for the reported use of the eucalyptus plant in Brazilian folk medicine. Further investigation is warranted for possible development of new classes of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs from components of the essential oils of the Eucalyptus species. PMID:14611892

  13. Laticifer proteins from Plumeria pudica inhibit the inflammatory and nociceptive responses by decreasing the action of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines

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    Heliana B. Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSome publications have described the pharmacological properties of latices proteins. Thus, in the present study proteins from Plumeria pudica Jacq., Apocynaceae, latex were evaluated for anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Obtained data showed that an intraperitoneal administration of different doses of latex was able to reduce the paw edema induced by carrageenan in a dose-dependent manner (better dose 40 mg/kg; 72.7% inhibition at 3rd and 78.7% at 4th hour and the edema induced by dextran (40 mg/kg; 51.5% inhibition at 30 min and 93.0% at 1st hour. Inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan was accompanied by a reduction of myeloperoxidase activity. Pre-treating animals with latex (40 mg/kg also inhibited the paw edema induced by histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, prostaglandin E2, compound 48/80. Additionally, the latex (40 mg/kg reduced the leukocyte peritoneal migration induced by carrageenan and this event was followed by reduction of IL-1β and TNF-α in peritoneal fluid. The latex-treatment (40 mg/kg reduced the animal abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid and the first phase on paw licking model induced by formalin. When latex was treated with heat (at 100 °C for 30 min, anti-edematogenic and myeloperoxidase activities were significantly reduced, indicating the involvement of heat-sensitive proteins on anti-inflammatory effect. Our results evidence that latex fluids are a source of proteins with pharmacological properties.

  14. Effect of calcium chloride addition on ice cream structure and quality.

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    Costa, F F; Resende, J V; Abreu, L R; Goff, H D

    2008-06-01

    The influence of calcium fortification by the addition of calcium chloride on quality parameters of ice cream based on physical properties was investigated, as was the effect of kappa-carrageenan at modifying the effects of this calcium fortification. Four ice cream mixes of conventional composition, with added kappa-carrageenan (0 or 0.025%) and added calcium chloride (0 or 4.4 g L(-1) = 40 mM of added Ca(2+)), were prepared. Modulated temperature-differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the effect of calcium chloride on the nucleation temperature, enthalpy of melting, and freezing point depression. The protein composition of 15.4% (wt/wt) reconstituted skim milk powder solutions with or without 4.4 g L(-1) added CaCl(2) and in the supernatant after ultracentrifugation was determined. Fat particle size distributions in ice cream were characterized by light scattering. Ice crystal sizes before and after temperature cycling were determined by cold-stage light microscopy. The results demonstrated that the addition of calcium chloride led to a substantial increase in ice crystal sizes and in fat partial coalescence, which were exacerbated by the addition of kappa-carrageenan. These results can be explained by the interaction between Ca(2+) ions and casein micelles, rather than any effects on freezing point depression. The calcium ions led to a more compact micelle, less serum beta-casein, and high fat destabilization, all of which would be expected to reduce macromolecular structure and volume occupancy in the unfrozen phase, which led to increased rates of ice recrystallization. PMID:18487638

  15. Curcumin delivered through bovine serum albumin/polysaccharides multilayered microcapsules.

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    Paşcalău, V; Soritau, O; Popa, F; Pavel, C; Coman, V; Perhaita, I; Borodi, G; Dirzu, N; Tabaran, F; Popa, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to obtain and characterize k-carrageenan-chitosan dual hydrogel multilayers shell BSA gel microcapsules, as a carrier for curcumin, and as a possible antitumoral agent in biological studies. We used the CaCO3 template to synthesize non-toxic CaCO3/BSA particles as microtemplates by coprecipitating a CaCl2 solution that contains dissolved BSA, with an equimolar Na2CO3 solution. The microcapsules shell is assembled through a layer-by-layer deposition technique of calcium cross-linked k-carrageenan hydrogel alternating with polyelectrolite complex hydrogel formed via electrostatic interactions between k-carrageenan and chitosan. After the removal of CaCO3 through Ca(2+) complexation with EDTA, and by a slightly treatment with HCl diluted solution, the BSA core is turned into a BSA gel through a thermal treatment. The BSA gel microcapsules were then loaded with curcumin, through a diffusion process from curcumin ethanolic solution. All the synthesized particles and microcapsules were stucturally characterized by: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-Vis Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence optical microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The behavior of curcumin loaded microcapsules in media of different pH (SGF, SIF and PBS) was studied in order to reveal the kinetics and the release profile of curcumin. The in vitro evaluation of the antitumoral activity of encapsulated curcumin microcapsules on HeLa cell line and the primary culture of mesenchymal stem cells is the main reason of the microcapsules synthesis as BSA-based vehicle meant to enhance the biodisponibility of curcumin, whose anti-tumor, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are well known. PMID:26350520

  16. Comparison between 3-Nitrooxyphenyl acetylsalicylate (NO-ASA) and O2-(acetylsalicyloxymethyl)-1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (NONO-ASA) as Safe Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Antioxidant Prodrugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Velazquez, Carlos A.; Pruski, April; Nia, Kamran V.; Abdellatif, Khaled R.; Keefer, Larry K.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is an underlying etiological factor in carcinogenesis; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and their chemically modified NO-releasing prodrugs (NO-NSAIDs) are promising chemopreventive agents. The aim of this study was to conduct a head-to-head comparison between two NO-ASAs possessing different NO donor groups, an organic nitrate [3-nitrooxyphenyl acetylsalicylate (NO-ASA; NCX-4016)] and an N-diazeniumdiolate [NONO-ASA, O2- (acetylsalicyloxymethyl)-1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (NONO-ASA; CVM-01)], as antiulcerogenic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic agents. All drugs were administered orally at equimolar doses. For antiulcerogenic study, 6 h after administration, the number and size of hemorrhagic lesions in stomachs from euthanized animals were counted. Tissue samples were frozen for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde determination. For anti-inflammatory study, 1 h after drug administration, the volume of carrageenan-induced rat paw edemas was measured for 6 h. For antipyretic study, 1 h after dosing, fever was induced by intraperitoneal LPS, and body core temperatures measured for 5 h. For analgesic study, time-dependent analgesic effect of prodrugs was evaluated by carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Drugs were administered 30 min after carrageenan. NO-ASA and NONO-ASA were equipotent as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents but were better than aspirin. Despite a drastic reduction of PGE2 in stomach tissue, both prodrugs were devoid of gastric side effects. Lipid peroxidation induced by aspirin was higher than that observed by prodrugs. SOD activity induced by both prodrugs was similar, but approximately 2-fold higher than that induced by aspirin. CVM-01 is as effective as NCX-4016 in anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic assays in vivo, and it showed an equivalent safety profile in the stomach. These results underscore the use of N-diazeniumdiolate moieties

  17. Novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles as anti-inflammatory drugs

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    Ega Durgashivaprasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring is a versatile moiety with a wide range of pharmacological properties. The present work deals with the synthesis and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of two novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (OSD and OPD. Materials and Methods: Carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema was employed as an acute model of inflammation. For evaluating sub-acute anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat air pouch was employed. Complete Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats was used as a model of chronic inflammation. To evaluate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used. Results: OSD (100 mg/kg reduced carrageen-induced paw edema by 60%, and OPD (100 mg/kg produced a modest 32.5% reduction. OSD also reduced leukocyte influx and myeloperoxidase in carrageenan-induced rat air pouch model. In complete Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis model, both OSD and OPD (200 mg/kg for 14 days reduced paw edema and NO levels. In LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, OSD and OPD inhibited formation of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, with OPD showing a better activity in comparison to OSD. Conclusions: OSD was the better of the two compounds in in vivo models of inflammation. The o-phenol substitution at position 2 of oxadiazole ring in OSD may be responsible for its better in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. The ability of the compounds to inhibit LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediator release suggests an anti-inflammatory mechanism targeting LPS-TLR4-NF-κB signalling pathway, which needs to be explored in detail. The disparate efficacy in vitro and in vivo also requires in-depth evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of these novel oxadiazoles.

  18. Purification, cloning, characterization and essential amino acid residues analysis of a new ι-carrageenase from Cellulophaga sp. QY3.

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    Su Ma

    Full Text Available ι-Carrageenases belong to family 82 of glycoside hydrolases that degrade sulfated galactans in the red algae known as ι-carrageenans. The catalytic mechanism and some substrate-binding residues of family GH82 have been studied but the substrate recognition and binding mechanism of this family have not been fully elucidated. We report here the purification, cloning and characterization of a new ι-carrageenase CgiA_Ce from the marine bacterium Cellulophaga sp. QY3. CgiA_Ce was the most thermostable carrageenase described so far. It was most active at 50°C and pH 7.0 and retained more than 70% of the original activity after incubation at 50°C for 1 h at pH 7.0 or at pH 5.0-10.6 for 24 h. CgiA_Ce was an endo-type ι-carrageenase; it cleaved ι-carrageenan yielding neo-ι-carrabiose and neo-ι-carratetraose as the main end products, and neo-ι-carrahexaose was the minimum substrate. Sequence analysis and structure modeling showed that CgiA_Ce is indeed a new member of family GH82. Moreover, sequence analysis of ι-carrageenases revealed that the amino acid residues at subsites -1 and +1 were more conserved than those at other subsites. Site-directed mutagenesis followed by kinetic analysis identified three strictly conserved residues at subsites -1 and +1 of ι-carrageenases, G228, Y229 and R254 in CgiA_Ce, which played important roles for substrate binding. Furthermore, our results suggested that Y229 and R254 in CgiA_Ce interacted specifically with the sulfate groups of the sugar moieties located at subsites -1 and +1, shedding light on the mechanism of ι-carrageenan recognition in the family GH82.

  19. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of derivative (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jamerson Ferreira; Nonato, Fabiana Regina; Zafred, Rafael Rosolen Teixeira; Leite, Nayara Maria Siqueira; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; da Silva, Anekécia Lauro; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Alves de Lima, Maria do Carmo

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to further investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone (BTTSC) as well as its antinociceptive effects. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using the model of ear edema induced by croton oil-induced and also evaluated in models of paw edema carrageenan-induced and by compound 48/80. Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect was performed through formalin test. In the nociception test induced by formalin the BTTSC showed activity in both phases of the pain, highlighting inflammatory pain, where it was able to reduce the time to paw lick 62.3, 84.30 and 100% at doses of 30, 100 and 300mgkg(-1). The anti-inflammatory activity was performed ear edema induced by croton oil, where none of the doses tested was capable of significantly regress edema. The paw edema carrageenan-induced showed activity compound, where the edema was reduced by 81.9 and 83.2% in the first two times of the experiment at the highest dose used. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80, showed that BTTSC after 15min of the inoculum phlogistic agent showed significant reduction of edema with values of 56.53% at a dose of 30mgkg(-1). Our results suggesting this compound exerts its antinociception effects connected with peripheral mechanisms. Furthermore, the compound was able to act in two phases of inflammation carrageenan-induced, highlighting the initial phase. This suggests an action on the early mediators of inflammation. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80 confirmed our hypothesis indicating action of the compound via histamine. PMID:27133079

  20. Therapeutic effect of the endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitoylethanolamide, in rat acute inflammation: inhibition of nitric oxide and cyclo-oxygenase systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Barbara; Conti, Silvia; Giagnoni, Gabriella; Colleoni, Mariapia

    2002-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the endogenous fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide and its relationship to cyclo-oxygenase (COX) activity, nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen free radical production were investigated in the rat model of carrageenan-induced acute paw inflammation and compared with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) indomethacin. Palmitoylethanolamide (1, 3, 5, 10 mg kg−1; p.o.) and indomethacin (5 mg kg−1; p.o.) were administered daily after the onset of inflammation for three days and the paw oedema was measured daily; 24 h after the last dose (fourth day) the rats were killed and the COX activity and the content of nitrite/nitrate (NO2−/NO3−), malondialdehyde (MDA), endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and iNOS) were evaluated in the paw tissues. Palmitoylethanolamide had a curative effect on inflammation, inhibiting the carrageenan-induced oedema in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was not reversed by the selective CB2 receptor antagonist (N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrazole-3 carboxamide) (SR144528), 3 mg kg−1 p.o. On the fourth day after carrageenan injection, COX activity and the level of NO2−/NO3−, eNOS and MDA were increased in the inflamed paw, but iNOS was not present. Palmitoylethanolamide (10 mg kg−1) and indomethacin markedly reduced these increases. Our findings show, for the first time, that palmitoylethanolamide has a curative effect in a model of acute inflammation. The inhibition of COX activity and of NO and free radical production at the site of inflammation might account for this activity. PMID:12359622