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Sample records for carrageenan

  1. THE PROPERTIES OF CARRAGEENAN GELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubnik I.M., Gladukh Ye.V., Chernyaev S.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the functional properties of carrageenan, depending on the concentration of sodium chloride and xanthan in gels. It is established that the main factors in the syneresis of carrageenan gels are its concentration, the presence of ions and gums in solution. If using sodium chloride there is a change in the structure of mesh of the resulting gel, which leads to an increase in syneresis.

  2. Emerging applications of radiation-modified carrageenans

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    Abad, Lucille V., E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Aranilla, Charito T.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2014-10-01

    The Philippines supplies almost half of the world’s processed carrageenan as ingredient for different applications. In order to maintain the country’s competitive advantage, R and D on radiation processed carrageenan with various potential applications had been undertaken. PVP-carrageenan hydrogels for wound dressing had been developed. A carrageenan-based radiation dose indicator can detect radiation dose of as low as 5 kGy. Irradiated carrageenan has also been tested as plant growth promoter. Irradiated carrageenans have been found have been found to contain some antioxidant properties which increase with increasing dose and concentration. Carboxymethyl carrageenans had also been developed that shows promising effect as super water absorbent for soil conditioner in plants.

  3. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

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    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  4. Radiolysis studies of aqueous kappa-carrageenan

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    Abad, L.V., E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.p [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Kudo, H. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Saiki, S. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nagasawa, N.; Tamada, M. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Fu, H.; Muroya, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Lin, M.; Katsumura, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Relleve, L.S.; Aranilla, C.T.; DeLaRosa, A.M. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2010-05-15

    The effects on N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} gas on the radiation degradation yield of aqueous kappa (kappa-) carrageenan were investigated. The G{sub d} of solution saturated with N{sub 2}O solution was expectedly much higher than in air (1.7 and 1.2 x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1}). On the other hand, a lower G{sub d} of 1.1 x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1} was obtained from kappa-carrageenan solution saturated with N{sub 2}. The rate constant of reaction of OH radicals with sonicated and irradiated kappa-carrageenan were determined using e-beam pulse radiolysis. The rate constant of OH{sup c}entre dot interaction with sonicated kappa-carrageenan decreased with decreasing molecular weight. On the other hand, the OH{sup c}entre dot interaction with irradiated kappa-carrageenan decreased but did not vary significantly with decreasing molecular weight. Metal ion (Na{sup +}) induced conformational transition into helical form decreased the rate constant of OH{sup c}entre dot reaction with kappa-carrageenan. Likewise, the G{sub d} in aqueous form was affected by the conformational state of kappa-carrageenan. The helical conformation gave a lower G{sub d} (7 x 10{sup -8} mol J{sup -1}) than the coiled conformation (G{sub d} = 1.2 x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1}).

  5. Pharmacological importance of sulphated polysaccharide carrageenan from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii in comparison with commercial carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Arumugampillai Manimehalai; Sanjivkumar, Muthusamy; Chandran, Manohar Navin; Palavesam, Arunachalam; Immanuel, Grasian

    2016-12-01

    Pharmacological properties of native carrageenan (κ) extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii and commercial carrageenan (Sigma-Aldrich) were evaluated using in vitro antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic studies. Phytochemical analysis of native and commercial carrageenans showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, gums & mucilages and carbohydrate. Both native and commercial carrageenans exhibited better antioxidant activities such as total antioxidant capacity (87±0.47 and 82.6±0.47μg A.A/g), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (61.4±0.27 and 58.66±0.31μg/ml), nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (80.42±0.22 and 73.66±0.22μg/ml), DPPH radical scavenging activity (56.26±0.20 and 53.67±0.082μg/ml) and reducing power assay (46.57±0.32 and 42.54±0.27μg/ml) at the maximum concentration of 100μg/ml carrageenans. These results indicated that native carrageenan from K. alvarezii possessed better antioxidant potential in comparison with commercial carrageenan. Anticancer activities of both carrageenans showed excellent inhibition on the growth of breast, colon, liver and osteosarcoma cell lines at the maximum concentration of 150μg/ml. Native carrageenan exhibited an excellent anticancer activity on colon carcinoma cell lines (67.66±0.168%) with the IC50 value of 73.87μg/ml and commercial carrageenan possessed a potent inhibition on the growth of breast cancer cell lines (67.33±0.077%) with the IC50 value of 123.8μg/ml. These results clearly indicated the beneficial effect of native and commercial carrageenans as anticancer agents being a free radical scavenger. Anti-diabetic property of both carrageenans showed inhibition effect on α- glucosidase enzyme. The inhibitory effect depends on concentration of carrageenans and it was recorded that maximum (74.49±1.05 and 67.42±0.63) inhibitory effect of α- glucosidase enzyme at 500μg/ml concentration.

  6. Trivalent iron induced gelation in lambda-carrageenan

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    Running, Cordelia A.; Falshaw, Ruth; Janaswamy, Srinivas (Purdue)

    2012-05-24

    This communication reports gelation of lambda-carrageenan, for the first time, in the presence of trivalent iron ions. Kappa-, iota- and lambda-carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides used extensively in food, pharmaceutical and medical applications. Kappa- and iota-carrageenans show gelation in the presence of mono- and di-valent ions, but lambda-carrageenan yields only viscous solutions. Our results show that gelation in lambda-carrageenan indeed is possible, but with trivalent ions. X-ray fiber diffraction patterns of iron (III)-lambda-carrageenan are characteristic of highly oriented and polycrystalline fibers containing well resolved Bragg reflections. The elastic modulus (G*) of the product is far greater than the loss modulus (G*) indicating the thermal stability of lambda-carrageenan in the presence of iron (III) ions. This novel finding has potential to expand lambda-carrageenan's current utility beyond a viscosifying agent.

  7. Bioactive compounds in industrial red seaweed used in carrageenan production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naseri, Alireza; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The main seaweed species used in industrial scale for carrageenan production are Kappaphycus alvarezii, Eucheuma denticulatum, Chondrus crispus, Gigartina sp. and also Furcellaria lumbricalis as a source of furcellaran (Danish Agar) is also classified together with carrageenan. The chemical...

  8. An MRI phantom using carrageenan gel

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    Kato, Hirokazu; Kuroda, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Koichi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Yamamoto, Naotake; Tanaka, Akio; Hiraki, Yoshio [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Uchida, Nobue; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2000-12-01

    We have developed a new solid type carrageenan gel phantom. The ingredients of the new gel are carrageenan, manganese chloride, sodium chloride, sodium azide, and water. The gel phantom has sufficient strength to form a torso without the use of a reinforcing agent. A phantom of a desired shape can be created by pouring a hot solution of carrageenan into a mold. The phantom can then be cut easily with a knife and trimmed into the desired shape. The recommended concentrations of the ingredients are; 5 wt% carrageenan, 0.2 mM MnCl{sub 2}, 0.19 wt% NaCl, 0.1 wt% NaN{sub 3}, with the remainder being water. T{sub 2} and T{sub 1} of this phantom at 1.5 T are 84.9 ms and 429 ms respectively. The conductivity and relative dielectric constant at 63.8 MHz are 0.769 S/m and 81.4 respectively. (author)

  9. Non-clinical safety evaluation of intranasal iota-carrageenan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hebar

    Full Text Available Carrageenan has been widely used as food additive for decades and therefore, an extended oral data set is available in the public domain. Less data are available for other routes of administration, especially intranasal administration. The current publication describes the non-clinical safety and toxicity of native (non-degraded iota-carrageenan when applied intranasally or via inhalation. Intranasally applied iota-carrageenan is a topically applied, locally acting compound with no need of systemic bioavailability for the drug's action. Animal experiments included repeated dose local tolerance and toxicity studies with intranasally applied 0.12% iota-carrageenan for 7 or 28 days in New Zealand White rabbits and nebulized 0.12% iota-carrageenan administered to F344 rats for 7 days. Permeation studies revealed no penetration of iota-carrageenan across nasal mucosa, demonstrating that iota-carrageenan does not reach the blood stream. Consistent with this, no relevant toxic or secondary pharmacological effects due to systemic exposure were observed in the rabbit or rat repeated dose toxicity studies. Data do not provide any evidence for local intolerance or toxicity, when carrageenan is applied intranasally or by inhalation. No signs for immunogenicity or immunotoxicity have been observed in the in vivo studies. This is substantiated by in vitro assays showing no stimulation of a panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines by iota-carrageenan. In conclusion, 0.12% iota-carrageenan is safe for clinical use via intranasal application.

  10. Coil-helix transition of ι-carrageenan as a function of chain regularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, F. van de; Rollema, H.S.; Grinberg, N.V.; Burova, T.V.; Grinberg, V.Ya.; Hans Tromp, R.

    2002-01-01

    A series of ι-carrageenans containing different amounts of v-carrageenan (0-23 monomer %) have been prepared from neutrally extracted carrageenan of Eucheuma denticulatum. v-Carrageenan is the biochemical precursor of ι-carrageenan. The conformational order-disorder transition and rheological proper

  11. Rheological properties of agar and carrageenan from Ghanaian red seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    . The ι-carrageenan and agar samples had gelling temperatures of 70–74 °C and 38–52 °C, respectively. Gel strengths, G’ at 25 °C, of carrageenan samples extracted via alkali-treatment were 4000–6500 Pa. The agar gel strength was 287 Pa. The rheological properties of the H. musciformis κ-carrageenans were...

  12. Anaerobic Degradation of Carrageenan from the Red Macroalga Eucheuma cottonii†

    OpenAIRE

    King, Gary M.; Guist, G. G.; Lauterbach, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of the sulfated polysaccharide carrageenan was investigated by batch digestion of the red macroalga Eucheuma cottonii. During a 10-week incubation, ca. 60% of the starting E. cottonii biomass was fermented to CO2, methane, and volatile fatty acids (predominantly acetate). Carrageenan degradation paralleled the loss of total biomass, suggesting no preferential degradation or preservation. After 10 weeks of incubation, the carrageenan content of the remaining biomass was 5...

  13. Complexation between carrageenan and methylene blue for sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2013-11-01

    Theoretical studies on the methylene blue (MB)-carrageenans complexation at solution and solid states have been carried out via ultraviolet spectrophotoscopy and reflectometry methods. The equilibrium constant (Ka) of the MBcarrageenans complexation follows the order of Iota > Lambda > Kappa carrageenans, which indicated Iota-carrageenan forms a stable complex. MB-carrageenan complexation reaction showed decrease in Ka value from 210.71 ppm-1 to 114.57 ppm-1 when the reaction temperature increased from 298 K to 323 K. Le Chatelier's principle and mass action law explained that the MB-carrageenan complexation was an exothermic reaction (ΔH=-18.54 kJmol-1) that release heat. Thus MB-carrageenan complex was less stable at high temperature and tend to dissociate into free MB and carrageenan molecules. It was also supported by the van't Hoff equation. The reaction is a spontaneous process (ΔG=-13.23 kJmol-1) where the randomness of the molecules reduced (ΔS=-17.83 Jmol-1K-1) due to complexation. Besides, linear regression of the concentration and absorption of the MB-carrageenan reaction obeys the Beer Lambert law, which elucidated that the complexation process was not affected by any concentration dependent factors such as aggregation and self-quenching. Moreover, linear Benesi Hilderbrend plot revealed that the interaction between MB and carrageenan was a reversible and stoichiometric reaction with 1:1 ratio. However, the molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) and molar adsorption coefficient (μa) of the MB-carrageenan complex were lower compared to free MB, described that the complex was less adsorptive. The sensor constructed based on these theoretical investigations showed response behavior that was similar with solution test as both have attraction for carrageenans in the sequence of Iota-, Lambda-, Kappa- carrageenans. Likewise, carrageenan sensor was more selective towards Iota-carrageenan than to Lambda- and Kappa-carrageenans, and no response observed when

  14. Light scattering studies of irradiated {kappa}- and {iota}-carrageenan

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    Abad, L.V. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan) and Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)]. E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Nasimova, I.R. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Physics Department, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Aranilla, C.T. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Shibayama, M. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan)]. E-mail: sibayama@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2005-05-01

    The relationships between the molecular weight (Mw) and the characteristic decay time distribution function G({gamma}) of irradiated kappa ({kappa}-) and iota ({iota}-) carrageenan were studied by static and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Mw and the characteristic decay time ({gamma}{sup -1}) are both steep decreasing exponential function with radiation dose. The dynamic behavior of irradiated {iota}-carrageenan was compared to irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan by DLS. The intensity correlation function of both carrageenans shifted towards shorter relaxation times with increasing radiation dose. Irradiated {iota}-carrageenan like {kappa}-carrageenan exhibits power law behavior at 0-50 kGy (at 0.05-0.1M KCl) indicating similar gelation behaviors. The temperature at which transition from coil to helix takes place (conformational transition temperature) decreases with increasing irradiation dose. A new faster relaxation mode appears at around 0.1-1 ms for both carrageenans between 100 and 150 kGy. Maximum peak height for this mode is at 100 kGy which corresponds to the optimum biological activity of {kappa}- and {iota}-carrageenan.

  15. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and progre

  16. Carrageenan from Eucheuma striatum (Schmitz) in Bacteriological Media

    OpenAIRE

    Epifanio, E. C.; Veroy, R. L.; Uyenco, F.; Cajipe, G. J. B.; Laserna, E. C.

    1981-01-01

    The use of carrageenan from the red alga Eucheuma striatum as a possible substitute for bacteriological agar was investigated. The carrageenan medium was compared with several commercially available media in terms of both their physical properties and the colony characteristics of 16 microorganisms grown on the media.

  17. Carrageenan from Eucheuma striatum (Schmitz) in Bacteriological Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifanio, E C; Veroy, R L; Uyenco, F; Cajipe, G J; Laserna, E C

    1981-01-01

    The use of carrageenan from the red alga Eucheuma striatum as a possible substitute for bacteriological agar was investigated. The carrageenan medium was compared with several commercially available media in terms of both their physical properties and the colony characteristics of 16 microorganisms grown on the media.

  18. Small-angle neutron scattering study on irradiated kappa carrageenan

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    Abad, Lucille [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan) and Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines) and Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Okabe, Satoshi [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Koizumi, Satoshi [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shibayama, Mitsuhiro [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan)]. E-mail: sibayama@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2006-05-31

    The structure of gamma-ray-irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan in aqueous solutions was investigated in terms of small-angle neutron scattering. The scattered intensity, I(q), of non-irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan solutions (5 wt%) was well described with an Ornstein-Zernike (OZ)-type function with the correlation length of 85 A, indicating that the {kappa}-carrageenan solution behaves just as a polymer solution in the semi-dilute regime. By increasing the irradiation dose (100 kGy), I(q) changed to a power-law function with the scattering exponent of -1.84. Further increase in dose results in a recovery of OZ-type function. This indicates that a progressive cleavage of {kappa}-carrageenan chains takes place randomly, leading to a self-similar structure at 100 kGy. This is followed by further segmentation of {kappa}-carrageenan chains.

  19. Pillaring effects in macroporous carrageenan-silica composite microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissière, M; Tourrette, A; Devoisselle, J M; Di Renzo, F; Quignard, F

    2006-02-01

    The impregnation of a carrageenan gel by a silica sol is an efficient method to form a composite material which can be conveniently activated by CO2 supercritical drying. The textural properties of the solids have been characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K and their composition by thermogravimetric analysis and EDX microprobe. Morphology was examined by SEM. The silica-carrageenan composites present an open macroporous structure. Silica particles retained inside the gel behaved as pillars between the polysaccharide fibrils and form a stick-and-ball network. The stiffening of the carrageenan gel by silica prevented its shrinkage upon drying. The nature of the alkali cations affected the retention of silica particles inside the gel. In the absence of silica, carrageenan fibrils rearrange under supercritical drying and form an aerogel with cavities in the mesopore range.

  20. Iota-Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of rhinovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Christiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs are the predominant cause of common cold. In addition, HRVs are implicated in the worsening of COPD and asthma, as well as the loss of lung transplants. Despite significant efforts, no anti-viral agent is approved for the prevention or treatment of HRV-infection. Results In this study we demonstrate that Iota-Carrageenan, a sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweed, is a potent anti-rhinoviral substance in-vitro. Iota-Carrageenan reduces HRV growth and inhibits the virus induced cythopathic effect of infected HeLa cells. In addition, Iota-Carrageenan effectively prevents the replication of HRV1A, HRV2, HRV8, HRV14, HRV16, HRV83 and HRV84 in primary human nasal epithelial cells in culture. The data suggest that Iota-Carrageenan acts primarily by preventing the binding or the entry of virions into the cells. Conclusion Since HRV infections predominately occur in the nasal cavity and the upper respiratory tract, a targeted treatment with a product containing Iota-Carrageenan is conceivable. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether Iota-Carrageenan-based products are effective in the treatment or prophylaxis of HRV infections.

  1. Anaerobic Degradation of Carrageenan from the Red Macroalga Eucheuma cottonii†

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary M.; Guist, G. G.; Lauterbach, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of the sulfated polysaccharide carrageenan was investigated by batch digestion of the red macroalga Eucheuma cottonii. During a 10-week incubation, ca. 60% of the starting E. cottonii biomass was fermented to CO2, methane, and volatile fatty acids (predominantly acetate). Carrageenan degradation paralleled the loss of total biomass, suggesting no preferential degradation or preservation. After 10 weeks of incubation, the carrageenan content of the remaining biomass was 51%, as opposed to 61% of the original E. cottonii biomass. Carrageenan recovered after 10 weeks of digestion had a lower average molecular weight (319,000 versus 510,000) and formed solutions with considerably lower viscosities than did intact carrageenan. The percent C and percent N content of the particulate material in the digestors increased over time, probably as a result of microbial growth. In contrast, the percent S content decreased continuously; the loss of sulfur was most likely a result of the hydrolysis of carrageenan. Results from this study indicate that it is not economically viable to process E. cottonii simultaneously for hydrocolloids and methane. PMID:16346752

  2. Anaerobic Degradation of Carrageenan from the Red Macroalga Eucheuma cottonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G M; Guist, G G; Lauterbach, G E

    1985-03-01

    Anaerobic degradation of the sulfated polysaccharide carrageenan was investigated by batch digestion of the red macroalga Eucheuma cottonii. During a 10-week incubation, ca. 60% of the starting E. cottonii biomass was fermented to CO(2), methane, and volatile fatty acids (predominantly acetate). Carrageenan degradation paralleled the loss of total biomass, suggesting no preferential degradation or preservation. After 10 weeks of incubation, the carrageenan content of the remaining biomass was 51%, as opposed to 61% of the original E. cottonii biomass. Carrageenan recovered after 10 weeks of digestion had a lower average molecular weight (319,000 versus 510,000) and formed solutions with considerably lower viscosities than did intact carrageenan. The percent C and percent N content of the particulate material in the digestors increased over time, probably as a result of microbial growth. In contrast, the percent S content decreased continuously; the loss of sulfur was most likely a result of the hydrolysis of carrageenan. Results from this study indicate that it is not economically viable to process E. cottonii simultaneously for hydrocolloids and methane.

  3. Europium ion as a probe for binding sites to carrageenans

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    Ramos, Ana P.; Goncalves, Rogeria R.; Serra, Osvaldo A. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil); Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil)], E-mail: medzaniquelli@ffclrp.usp.br; Wong, Kenneth [Laboratorio de Fisico-Quimica, Centro de Pesquisas de Paulinia, Rhodia Brasil, Paulinia, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    Carrageenans, sulfated polysaccharides extracted from red algae, present a coil-helix transition and helix aggregation dependence on the type and concentration of counterions. In this study, we focus attention on a mixed valence counterion system: Eu{sup 3+}/Na{sup +} or K{sup +} with different gel-forming carrageenans: kappa, iota, and kappa-2. Results of stationary and time-dependent luminescence showed to be a suitable tool to probe ion binding to both the negatively charged sulfate group and the hydroxyl groups present in the biopolymer. For lower europium ion concentrations, a single longer decay emission lifetime was detected, which was attributed to the binding of europium ion to the carrageenan sulfate groups. An additional decay ascribed to europium binding to hydroxyl groups was observed above a threshold concentration, and this decay was dependent on the carrageenan charge density. Symmetry of the europium ion microenvironment was estimated by the ratio between the intensities of its emission bands, which has been shown to depend on the concentration of europium ions and on the specificity of the monovalent counterion bound to the carrageenan.

  4. Carrageenan as a dry strength additive for papermaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenhua; Li, Xinping; Xie, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Carrageenans are commercially important sulfated gums found in various species of red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), wherein they serve a structural function similar to that of pectins in land plants. In this study, carrageenan was used independently or in combination with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and/or Al2(SO4)3 to explore its application as a dry strength additive in papermaking. Strength index determination, ash content detection, FTIR characterization and SEM observation were performed on prepared handsheets. The results showed that with 0.6% Al2(SO4)3 and 0.2% carrageenan as additives, the tensile index increased by 13.53% and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) retention increased by 57.06%. With 0.6% Al2(SO4)3, 0.2% carrageenan and 0.03% CPAM as additives, PCC retention increased by 121% while the tensile index did not fall compared to handsheets without additives, indicating that carrageenan could enhance the strength of handsheets and be used as an anionic dry strength agent. PMID:28170422

  5. Characterization of ι-carrageenan and its derivative based green polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumaah, Fatihah Najirah; Mobaraka, Nadhratun Naiim; Ahmad, Azizan; Ramli, Nazaruddin [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The new types of green polymer electrolytes based on ι-carrageenan derivative have been prepared. ι-carrageenan act as precursor was reacted with monochloroacetic acid to produce carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan. The powders were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to confirm the substitution of targeted functional group in ι-carrageenan. The green polymer electrolyte based on ι-carrageenan and carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan was prepared by solution-casting technique. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity ι-carrageenan film were higher than carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan which 4.87 ×10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} and 2.19 ×10{sup −8} S cm{sup −1}, respectively.

  6. The chemistry and immunochemistry of carrageenans from Eucheuma and related algal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNinno, V; McCandless, E L

    1978-10-01

    Carrageenans from several species of Eucheuma have been fractionated into KC1-soluble and KC1-insoluble fractions and analyzed by the usual chemical procedures. An anti-kappa-carrageenan, the reactivity of which is directed to kappa-structures (i.e., 3-linked galactose 4-sulphate, and 4-linked 3,6-anhydrogalactose) was used to analyze these carrageenans immunochemically. The antibody preparation shows only a small amount of cross-reactivity with iota-type carrageenans and thus could be used to distinguish kappa- and iota-type carrageenans, the latter having an index of homology of less than 0.2. A comparison of chemical and immunochemical data yielded further information as to the nature of the carrageenan-anti-carrageenan interaction, as well as elucidating the finer structure of carrageenans.

  7. Molecular and rheological characterization of carrageenan solutions extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Vanessa; de Carvalho, Sabrina Matos; Barreto, Pedro Luiz Manique

    2012-11-06

    This study evaluates and relates the molecular and rheological characteristics of native carrageenan obtained from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed. Native carrageenan was extracted by a differentiated methodology by atomization drying process, which reduces the time for obtaining carrageenan dry powder and minimizes costs and environmental damages. Rheological properties of native carrageenan were compared with a commercial carrageenan grade. Molecular properties were performed by SAXS and GPC analysis and the rheological properties by DMTA and stress relaxation tests. Molecular analysis proved a folded and compact molecular structure and indicated the presence of chains with different molecular weights for native carrageenan. The results obtained showed that the helix-coil transition occurs at temperature about 50 °C. The native and commercial grade carrageenan presented the characteristic of viscoelastic materials and their gel properties show a higher contribution from solid elastic component, and the initial force (F(0)) was higher in commercial carrageenan than native one.

  8. Interactions of estradiol and NSAIDS on carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deirtra A; Barr, Gordon A; Shivers, Kai-Yvonne; Amador, Nicole; Jenab, Shirzad; Inturrisi, Charles; Quinones-Jenab, Vanya

    2011-03-25

    How exogenous estrogen affects inflammatory responses is poorly understood despite the large numbers of women receiving estrogen-alone hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to determine if estradiol alters injury- or inflammation-induced nociceptive responses after carrageenan administration in females and whether its effects are mediated through cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and prostaglandins (PG). To this end, paw withdrawal latencies and serum levels of PGE2 and PGD2 were measured in rats treated with estradiol (0, 10, 20, and 30%) and/or SC560 (COX-1 inhibitor) or NS398 (COX-2 inhibitor) after intraplantar carrageenan administration. Estradiol significantly increased withdrawal latencies before (baseline condition) and after carrageenan administration to one hindpaw. NS398 was anti-nociceptive only in carrageenan treated animals. SC560 increased withdrawal latencies in both paws at 1 and 5hours after carrageenan administration. Co-administration of estradiol and NS398, but not SC560, was additive except for a prolonged anti-nociceptive effects of estradiol combined with NS398. The anti-nociceptive effect extended beyond that observed with either drug or estradiol alone at the 5-hour time point. Estradiol had no significant effect on PGE2 serum levels, but both COX antagonists decreased them. Although neither estradiol nor the COX inhibitors alone had an effect on PGD2 serum levels, co-administration of NS398 and estradiol significantly elevated PGD2 levels. Taken together, our results suggest that estradiol is anti-nociceptive in the thermal test and reduces carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. These effects are minimally altered through PG-mediated mechanisms.

  9. Tensile and tear strength of carrageenan film from Philippine eucheuma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Annabelle V; Ambal, Wilhelmina O; Estrella, Romulo R; Pangilinan, Rolando; De Vera, Carlos J; Pacis, Raymund L; Rodriguez, Ner; Villanueva, Merle A

    2004-01-01

    The tensile and tear strength of carrageenan film from Philippines Eucheuma species were investigated using NEC tensilon universal-testing machine according to American Society for Testing Materials methods. These properties are important for assessing carrageenan film as packaging material. The kappa and iota types were used in the study. The effect of glycerine on the tensile and tear strength including elongation was also evaluated. Addition of glycerine tended to lower the tensile strength of the film and increase its elongation properties including the tear strength. Carrageenan film without glycerine was much stronger. Glycerine made the film more flexible and easy to deform. The composite film of carrageenan and konjac gum did not exhibit elongation. It also showed higher tensile strength than did the composite film of carrageenan and xanthan gum. Compared with iota-type carrageenan film, kappa-type carrageenan film without glycerine was more comparable to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film in terms of tensile strength as was the composite film of carrageenan-konjac gum. The kappa-type carrageenan film with glycerine was more comparable to LDPE film in terms of tear strength. The elongation reading for carrageenan film was lower than that for LDPE film. Morphologic studies showed that the carrageenan film had sets of pores distributed randomly at different places as compared to LDPE film. It also showed that the carrageenan film was more fibrous than LDPE film.

  10. Late inflammatory swelling by carrageenan in rat's subcutaneous neck tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T S; Mathur, M; Bhide, N K

    1988-01-01

    When injected subcutaneously in the dorsum of neck in albino rats, carrageenan produced inflammatory swelling which reached peak after about 16 hr. The occurrence of the peak inflammatory swelling was delayed but not significantly reduced in severity by aspirin or indomethacin which were administered repeatedly. Phenylbutazone significantly reduced and dexamethasone almost completely inhibited it. In rat hind paw model, subplantar carrageenan injection produced peak inflammatory swelling after about 4 hr which was significantly reduced by all anti-inflammatory drugs mentioned above. It is interesting that an inflammagen when injected at different sites in the same species elicits responses which differ in the time course and drug responses.

  11. On the employment of lambda carrageenan in a matrix system. III. Optimization of a lambda carrageenan-HPMC hydrophilic matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonferoni, MC; Rossi, S; Ferrari, F; Bertoni, M; Bolhuis, GK; Caramella, C

    1998-01-01

    The lambda carrageenan/HPMC ratio in matrix tablets has been optimized in order to obtain pH-independent release profiles of chlorpheniramine maleate, a freely soluble drug. Release profiles in acidic (pH 1.2) and neutral (pH 6.8) media were fitted according to the Weibull and the power law models.

  12. Biofunctionalized magnetic hydrogel nanospheres of magnetite and {kappa}-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L; Fateixa, Sara; Trindade, Tito; Goodfellow, Brian J; Gil, Ana M [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guiomar, Antonio J [Department of Biochemistry and CNC, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Costa, Benilde F O [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, Nuno J O, E-mail: ana.luisa@ua.p [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Aragon, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-09-02

    Magnetic hydrogel {kappa}-carrageenan nanospheres were successfully prepared via water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions combined with thermally induced gelation of the polysaccharide. The size of the nanospheres (an average diameter () of about 50 and 75 nm) was modulated by varying the concentration of surfactant. The nanospheres contained superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (8 nm), previously prepared by co-precipitation within the biopolymer. Carboxyl groups, at a concentration of about 4 mmol g{sup -1}, were successfully grafted at the surface of these magnetic nanospheres via carboxymethylation of the {kappa}-carrageenan. The carboxylated nanospheres were shown to be thermo-sensitive in the 37-45 {sup 0}C temperature range, indicating their potential as thermally controlled delivery systems for drugs and/or magnetic particles at physiological temperatures. Finally, preliminary results have been obtained for IgG antibody conjugation of the carboxylated nanospheres and the potential of these systems for bio-applications is discussed.

  13. SHORT-TERM PERORAL TOXICITY OF UNDEGRADED CARRAGEENAN IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, E.

    1973-01-01

    or organ weights. The treatment resulted, however, in changes in the intestinal flora: the total counts of aerobic bacteria were decreased in the colon and rectum and the number of Lactobacilli was reduced in the rectum. No ulcerative colitis or erosions of the mucous membrane of caecum and colon were...... observed. A few focal areas with an irregular surface were observed in the colonic mucosa of some of the pigs given 200 or 500 mg carrageenan/kg. A shift was seen in the cellular infiltration pattern of the mucosa of the large intestine of pigs from all the groups given carrageenan. The slight changes...... in the intestinal mucosa are not considered to be a significant toxic effect....

  14. Preparation and characterization of carboxymethylated carrageenan modified with collagen peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lihong; Tong, Jun; Tang, Chang; Wu, Huan; Peng, Min; Yi, Jiayan

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan collagen peptide (CMKC-COP) was via an imide-bond forming reaction between carboxyl groups in carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan (CMKC) and amino groups in collagen peptide in the presence of 1-ethyl-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxy sulfosuccinimide (NHS). CMKC-COP products were verified with infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results of degree of substitution (DS) of CMKC-COP was presented, which are depended on reaction time, molar ratio of collagen peptide to carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan and reaction temperature. The optimal reaction conditions were studied by means of single factor experiment. Also MTT assay was applied to evaluate the effects of CMKC-COP on proliferation of chick embryo fibroblasts. The animal experiment results indicated that the wound covered with CMKC-COP were completely filled with new epithelium within 2 weeks without any significant adverse side reactions. Therefore, the CMKC-COP showed the potentiality to repair skin in cosmetic, biomedical and pharmaceutical fields.

  15. Rate constants of reactions of {kappa}-carrageenan with hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V. [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)], E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Saiki, S.; Kudo, H.; Muroya, Y.; Katsumura, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Rosa, A.M. de la [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2007-12-15

    The rate constants for the reactions of {kappa}-carrageenan with hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical was investigated by pulse radiolysis and laser photolysis. The kinetics of the reaction of hydrated electron indicates no seeming reaction with {kappa}-carrageenan. On the other hand, hydroxyl radical reacts very rapidly with {kappa}-carrageenan at a rate constant of approximately 1.2 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. This rate constant varies with pH.

  16. Study of Eucheuma denticulatum and Eucheuma striatum Carrageenans Growing in T oliara, Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Rasoamazava, A.

    1996-01-01

    The phycocolloids of two species of red algae, Eucheuma denticulatum and Eucheuma striatum, were studied. Eucheuma denticu/atum was found to contain mainly iota carrageenan, while kappa carrageenan was the main component in Eucheuma striatum. The carrageenan content in E. denticu/atum varied from 50 to 55'Yo; in E. striatum it varied from 42 to 51 %. Considering these yields and the abundance of these species in the Toliara area, the two Eucheuma spp. Are attractive for industrial exploitatio...

  17. Effects of intrathecal administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Michael G; Coderre, Terence J

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effects of various nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia.First, we determined the time point at which a subcutaneous plantar injection of carrageenan into the rat hindpaw produced maximum thermal hyperalgesia. Subsequently, we demonstrated that intrathecal administration of the non-selective NOS inhibitor L-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) produces a dose-dependent reduction of carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia.Four re...

  18. Potential of sago starch/carrageenan mixture as gelatin alternative for hard capsule material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana Dewi; Pranoto, Yudi; Anggraheni, Frida Dwi; Marseno, Djagal Wiseso

    2017-03-01

    In order to replace gelatin in capsule shell production, blends of sago starch and carrageenan were developed. Films and capsules were prepared with 10% (w/v) of sago starch, 25% (w/w starch) of glycerol and various carrageenan concentration (1, 2, 3% w/w starch) in two different kappa/iota-carrageenan ratio (1:3 and 3:1). The resulted films and capsules were characterized by mechanical property, water vapor and oxygen permeability. In addition, moisture absorption and solubility of capsule in acid solution were investigated. The results reveal that addition of carrageenan makes the films stronger and less permeable. Higher kappa-carrageenan content improved tensile strength and barrier properties of the films, whereas higher iota-carrageenan content produced films with higher elongation, moisture absorption and capsule solubility in acid solution. Capsule with 2% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa-/iota-ratio 3:1 had the lowest moisture absorption, whereas capsule with 3% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa/iota ratio 1:3 had the highest solubility. It is illustrated that sago starch/carrageenan blends can be used as hard capsule material.

  19. Viscosity profile of Eucheuma spinosum carrageenan from Nusa Penida (Bali, Sumenep (Madura, and Takalar (Sulawesi Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andarini Diharmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to determine the viscosity profile of carrageenan solution obtained from three different coastal region of Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar as a result of a decrease in temperature with presence cations K+ and Ca2+. Carrageenan was extracted from Eucheuma spinosum using hot alkaline calcium hydroxide Ca(OH2 at 95°C, pH was decreased with HCl, carrageenan was precipitated with ethanol, dried and grinded. The viscosity profile of carrageenan was determined by addition of K+ (0.005-0.03% KCl and Ca2+ (0.005-0.02% CaCl2using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA. The viscosity profile of carrageenan solution changed upon cooling started from a dilute at the initial temperature of 80°C, and then increased as temperature decreased to 20°C. The viscosity of carrageenan E. spinosum from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar without the addition of K+ and Ca2+ at a temperature of 80°C respectively were 90, 120, and 130 mPa.s. The viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar in the presence of K+ and Ca2+ increased with increasing time and decreasing temperature. The viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida in the presence of K+ (0.005-0.03% KCl at 55oC becomes 125, 250, 300 mPa.s, Sumenep 280, 290, and 360 mPa.s, and Takalar 420, 420, and 420 mPa.s. While, in the presence of Ca2+ (0.01-0.02% % CaCl2 at 55oC, the viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar have been formed gelling. Increasing of viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar in the presence of kation Ca2+ was required a faster time and higher temperatures than K+. Carrageenan solution

  20. Effect of Carrageenan on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Low-Fat Colby Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Tong, Qigen; Luo, Jie; Xu, Yiqing; Ren, Fazheng

    2016-08-01

    The effect of carrageenan (κ-carrageenan, ι-carrageenan, and λ-carrageenan) on the physiochemical and functional properties of low-fat Colby cheese during ripening was investigated. Protein, fat, and moisture contents; the soluble fractions of the total nitrogen at pH 4.6; protein and fat recovery; and the actual yield and dry matter yield (DM yield) were monitored. Hardness, springiness, and the storage modulus were also evaluated to assess the functional properties of the cheese. Moreover, the behavior of water in the samples was investigated to ascertain the underlying mechanisms. The results indicated that 0.15 g/kg κ-carrageenan had no significant effect on the actual yield and DM yield, and physiochemical and functional properties of low-fat Colby cheese. The protein content increased in the low-fat cheese and low-fat cheese containing κ-carrageenan, and the moisture in the nonfat substance (MNFS) decreased in both samples, which contributed to the harder texture. The addition of 0.3 g/kg ι-carrageenan and 0.3 g/kg λ-carrageenan improved the textural and rheological properties of low-fat cheese by 2 ways: one is increasing the content of bound and expressible moisture due to their high water absorption capacity and the other is interfering with casein crosslinking, thereby further increasing MNFS and the actual yield.

  1. The inhibitory effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on carrageenan-induced nociception in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuka; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Matsuoka, Yoshikazu; Yabuki-Kawase, Akiko; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Maeda, Shigeru; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2015-10-05

    Recent studies showed that the administration of dexmedetomidine relieved hyperalgesia in the presence of neuropathic pain. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the local administration of dexmedetomidine is useful for relieving acute inflammatory nociception, such as postoperative pain. Thus, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on acute inflammatory nociception. Acute inflammatory nociception was induced by an intraplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the hindpaws of rats, and dexmedetomidine was also injected combined with carrageenan. The paw withdrawal threshold based on von Frey filament stimulation was measured until 12 h after injection. We compared the area under the time-curve (AUC) between carrageenan and carrageenan with dexmedetomidine. To clarify that the action of dexmedetomidine was via α2-adrenoceptors, we evaluated the effect of yohimbine, a selective antagonist of α2-adrenoceptors, on the anti-nociception of dexmedetomidine. As the results, the intraplantar injection of carrageenan with over 10 μM dexmedetomidine significantly increased AUC, compared to that with only carrageenan injection. This effect of dexmedetomidine was reversed by the addition of yohimbine to carrageenan and dexmedetomidine. These results demonstrated that the locally injected dexmedetomidine was effective against carrageenan-induced inflammatory nociception via α2-adrenoceptors. The findings suggest that the local injection of dexmedetomidine is useful for relieving local acute inflammatory nociception.

  2. Rheological and DSC Studies on the Interaction between κ-Carrageenan and Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui GUO; En Yong DING

    2006-01-01

    Rheometer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to probe the mechanism of gelation in gels formed by mixture of κ-carrageenan and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). The results indicated that an association occurred between CNC chains and aggregated κ-carrageenan helices.

  3. The effect of ileotransversostomy on carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1983-01-01

    By oral administration of degraded carrageenan a colitis-like disease can be induced in guinea pigs which almost exclusively affects the caecum. To study the effect of degraded carrageenan on the distal colon and rectum, an ileotransversostomy was performed. In the non-operated group of animals...

  4. The Effects of plasticizers and palmitic acid toward the properties of the carrageenan Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heru Wibowo, Atmanto; Listiyawati, Oktaviana; Purnawan, Candra

    2016-02-01

    Varied plasticizers and palmitic acid additive have been added in the carrageenan film. The film was made by mixing of the carrageenan and plasticizers (glycerol, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol) with composition of 92:3, 90:6, 87:9, 84:12, 81:15(%w/w) and in the presence of palmitic acid as additive with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% of total weight. Casting method was used for the film molding and drying at 60oC with the oven for 12 hours. To investigate the effects of plasticizers and additive, some mechanical tests on film were performed. The test result concludes that plasticizers in the film decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation break of the carrageenan film. The additive of palmitic acid decreased the tensile strength of the carrageenan film and also decreased the-the water absorbance of the film. The highest tensile strength of films made was with the formulation of carrageenan: PEG with composition of 92:3 (% w/w). The highest elongation break of the film was for carrageenan:PVA with the composition of 81: 15 (%w/w) and carrageenan:palmitic acid:PEG with the composition of 92: 3: 1 (%w/w). The lowest water absorption of the film was achieved for carrageenan:PVA:palmitic acid with the composition of 87: 3: 5 (%w/w).

  5. SANS study of surfactant ordering in kappa-carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evmenenko, G.; Theunissen, E.; Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering using contrast variation by H2O/D2O has been applied for the structural investigation of kappa -carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) complexes. interaction of kappa -carrageenan with an ionic surfactant involves self-assembly of the surfactant molecules...

  6. Preparation of hybrid nano biocomposite κ-carrageenan/cellulose nanocrystal/nanoclay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakuwan, Siti Zarina; Ahmad, Ishak; Ramli, Nazaruddin

    2013-11-01

    Biodegradable composites film based on κ-carrageenan and nano particles as filler was prepared to study the mechanical strength of carrageenan composites. Solution casting technique was used to prepare_this biocomposite. Preparation of composite film and nano filler involve two stages, preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from kenaf with alkali treatment, bleaching, and hydrolysis followed by the preparation of two types of nano composite. Tensile test was carried on the composite film based on κ-carrageenan with the variation percentage of CNC and nano clay to obtain the optimum CNC and nano clay loading. After that hybrid nano-biocomposite film based on κ-carrageenan with the variation percentage of CNC/nano clay (OMMT) according to optimum value of composite carrageenan/CNC and composite carrageenan/nano clay film was prepared. The effect of nano filler on the mechanical properties of carrageenan films was examined. κ-carrageenan biocomposite increased with the optimum at 4% CNC and nano clay composition. Additional improvement of tensile strength with hybridization of CNC and nanoclay indicated better mechanical properties.

  7. Rheological properties of gelatin, carrageenan and locust bean gum mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Guy Matthew John

    2004-01-01

    This thesis reports data on blends of carrageenan (0.3%w/w) and locust bean gum (0.3%w/w) in the presence of biopolymers, particularly gelatin of varying concentration. Particular attention is given to their behaviour on autoclaving since this is relevant to one of the most important applications of these materials as gelling agents in canned meat products. It was shown there is such 3% gelatin could be found in the gelling system as a result of from collagen in the meat. Gelatin at this ...

  8. Hepatic changes during a carrageenan induced granuloma in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Muntané

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic changes during inflammation were studied in rats bearing a carrageenan induced granuloma. In spite of a decrease in the metabolic capacity of microsomes to induce lipid peroxidation during inflammation, the endogenous lipid peroxidation remained unchanged and unrelated with the hepatic activities measured. The continuous increase in hepatic cAMP observed during acute and chronic phases could be related to adenylate cyclase stimulation by mediators, and could be an initial step in the hepatocyte adaptation leading to the increased level of hepatic caeruloplasmin, to the reduction of cytochrome P-450 level and to the modifications of Ca2+ sequestration by microsomes.

  9. Thermal gelation of mixed egg yolk/kappa-carrageenan dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J M; Cordobés, F; Raymundo, A; Guerrero, A

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of gum content and pH on the thermal gelation of mixed egg yolk/κ-carrageenan (EY/κC) dispersions, monitored by linear viscoelastic measurements. Heat processing induces dramatic changes in the microstructure and viscoelastic properties of EY/κC systems, which may be attributed to a multistage mechanism that yields an interparticle gel network. An increase in κC content generally induces an enhancement in viscoelasticity. A reduction in pH hinders this enhancement and causes an anticipation of the multistage process, which confirms the importance of the electrostatic interactions of EY/κC dispersions. The viscoelastic properties of EY/κC gels generally fit a master mechanical spectrum, which suggests that the protein matrix generally dominates the microstructure of EY/κC gels. However, SEM images reveal formation of a κC network at low pH, at which some κC autohydrolysis may also play a role. Electrostatic attractions seem to favour interactions among EY aggregates and κC into the carrageenan network.

  10. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, K.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Biology; Bird, K.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States). Center for Marine Science Research

    1994-09-01

    The accumulation of six heavy metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb was measured in living and lzophilized algal thalli. The agar producing algae were Gracilaria tikvahiae and Gelidium pusillum. The carrageenan producing macroalgae were Agardhiella subulata and the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte phases of Chondrus crispus. These produce primarily iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, respectively. At heavy metal concentrations of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, living thalli of Gracilaria tikvahiae generally showed the greatest amount of accumulation of the 6 heavy metals tested. The accumulation of Pb was greater in the living thalli of all four species than in the lyophilized thalli. Except for Agardhiella subulata, lyophilized thalli showed greater accumulation of Ni, Cu and Zn. There was no difference in heavy metal accumulation between living and lyophilized thalli in the accumulation of Cd. Manganese showed no accumulation at the tested concentration. There did not appear to be a relationship between algal hydrocolloid characteristics and the amounts of heavy metals accumulated. (orig.)

  11. [Study on the selective removal of plasma low-density lipoprotein and fibrinogen by degraded carrageenan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Haixia; Yin, Liang; Fang, Bo; Du, Longbing; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Jingling; You, Chao

    2010-08-01

    The selective removal of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and fibrinogen (Fib) by degraded carrageenan was studied by the present authors. Degraded carrageenan was prepared by acid with carrageenan as the main material. The effects of acid conditions on the molecular weight were investigated, and the proper reaction conditions were ascertained. The results of infrared spectrometry indicated that the degraded carrageenan is a heparin-like polysaccharide. Then the selective removal of LDL/Fibrinogen by degraded carrageenan was studied. When molecular weight was about 10,000, pH was 5.10 and the concentration of degraded carrageenan was 800 mg/L, the average reduction percentages were 60.0% for total cholesterol(TC), 79.4% for LDL and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and 93.8% for fibrinogen. There were no significant changes with relation to the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total protein (TP). So, degraded carrageenan was shown to be of good selectivity on plasma LDL/Fibrinogen apheresis.

  12. Chemical and rheological characterization of the carrageenans from Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamoroux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosenza, Vanina A; Navarro, Diego A; Fissore, Eliana N; Rojas, Ana M; Stortz, Carlos A

    2014-02-15

    This work reports a chemical and rheological study of the carrageenans from Hypnea musciformis, a red seaweed commercially known for its production of κ-carrageenan. The polysaccharides were extracted with water both at room temperature and at 90 °C: the yield of the latter was about six times larger than the former. Fractionation with KCl yielded a large proportion (50-67%) of a precipitate with 0.125 M of this salt for both extracts, with characteristics of a nearly pure κ-carrageenan, as determined by methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. Smaller amounts of fractions precipitating at higher concentrations showed a basic κ-carrageenan structure, but included some ι-carrageenan diads. The KCl-soluble polysaccharides showed a larger complexity, containing d- and l-galactans or d/l-hybrids. Some differences in the rheological properties of these carrageenans have been found. Although all KCl-precipitating polysaccharides form true gels at 10 °C in presence of KCl, those extracted with hot water form stronger gels than those extracted at room temperature. Both purified κ-carrageenans show lower gelling and melting temperature than the whole polysaccharides from which they were originated.

  13. λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder S. Sangha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ-, lambda(λ-, and kappa(κ-carrageenan at 1 g·L−1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS and lipoxygenase (LOX, were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid (JA dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection.

  14. Carrageenans as a New Source of Drugs with Metal Binding Properties

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    Yuri S. Khotimchenko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenans are abundant and safe non-starch polysaccharides exerting their biological effects in living organisms. Apart from their known pro-inflammation properties and some pharmacological activity, carrageenans can also strongly bind and hold metal ions. This property can be used for creation of the new drugs for elimination of metals from the body or targeted delivery of these metal ions for healing purposes. Metal binding activity of different carrageenans in aqueous solutions containing Y3+ or Pb2+ ions was studied in a batch sorption system. The metal uptake by carrageenans is not affected by the change of the pH within the range from 2.0 to 6.0. The rates and binding capacities of carrageenans regarding metal ions were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and BET sorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and constants, and the sorption isothermal data could be explained well by the Langmuir equation. The results obtained through the study suggest that κ-, ι-, and λ-carrageenans are favorable sorbents. The largest amount of Y3+ and Pb2+ ions are bound by i-carrageenan. Therefore, it can be concluded that this type of polysaccharide is the more appropriate substance for elaboration of the drugs with high selective metal binding properties.

  15. Carrageenan-grafted magnetite nanoparticles as recyclable sorbents for dye removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L., E-mail: ana.luisa@ua.pt; Salgueiro, Ana M., E-mail: a38242@ua.pt; Creaney, Bianca, E-mail: bianca.creaney@gmail.com; Oliveira-Silva, Rui, E-mail: ruipedro.silva@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Department of Chemistry, CICECO, Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal); Silva, Nuno J. O., E-mail: nunojoao@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Department of Physics, CICECO, Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal); Trindade, Tito, E-mail: tito@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Department of Chemistry, CICECO, Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal)

    2015-07-15

    The efforts dedicated to improving water decontamination procedures have prompted the interest in the development of efficient, inexpensive, and reusable sorbents for the uptake of dye pollutants. In this work, novel sorbents consisting of carrageenan polysaccharides grafted to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared. κ- and ι-carrageenan were first chemically modified by carboxymethylation and then covalently attached via amide bond to the surface of aminated silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles, both steps monitored using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The kinetics and the equilibrium behavior of the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) adsorption onto the carrageenan sorbents were investigated. ι-carrageenan sorbents displayed higher MB adsorption capacity that was ascribed to high content of sulfonate groups. Overall, the pseudo-second order equation provided a good description of the adsorption kinetics. The κ-carrageenan sorbents followed an unusual Z-type equilibrium adsorption isotherm whereas the isotherm of ι-carrageenan sorbents, although displaying a conventional shape, could not be successfully predicted by isotherm models commonly used. Noteworthy, both sorbents were long-term stable and could easily be recycled by simply rinsing with KCl aqueous solution. The removal efficiency of κ-carrageenan sorbents was 92 % in the first adsorption cycle and kept high (>80 %) even after six consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles.

  16. Carrageenans from red seaweeds as promoters of growth and elicitors of defense response in plants

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    Pushp Sheel Shukla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants incessantly encounter abiotic and biotic stresses that limit their growth and productivity. However, conversely, plant growth can also be induced by treatments with various abiotic and biotic elicitors. Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides that represent major cellular constituents of seaweeds belonging to red algae (Rhodophyta. Recent research has unraveled the biological activity of carrageenans and of their oligomeric forms, the oligo carrageenans (OCs, as promoters of plant growth and as elicitors of defense responses against pests and diseases. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which carrageenans and OCs mediate plant growth and plant defense responses. Carrageenans and OCs improve plant growth by regulating various metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and ancillary pathways, cell division, purine and pyrimidine synthetic pathways as well as metabolic pathways involved in nitrogen and sulfur assimilation. Carrageenans and OCs also induce plant defense responses against viroids, viruses, bacteria, fungi and insects by modulating the activity of different defense pathways, including salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene signaling pathways. Further studies will likely substantiate the beneficial effects of carrageenans and of OCs on plant growth and plant defense responses and open new avenues for their use in agriculture and horticultural industry.

  17. NMR analysis of fractionated irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan oligomers as plant growth promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V., E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Saiki, S.; Nagasawa, N. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kudo, H.; Katsumura, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); De La Rosa, A.M. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2011-09-15

    The optimum plant growth promoting effect in irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan is known to be of Mw<10,000. This is obtained by irradiating {kappa}-carrageenan at a dose of 100 kGy in solid and at 2 kGy in 1% aqueous solution. Kappa carrageenan irradiated at these doses was fractionated at different Mw ranges. The isolated fraction with a Mw of 3-10 kDa was analyzed by NMR. The chemical shifts of {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H spectra indicated that the basic functional structure of {kappa}-carrageenan (alternating D-galactose-4-sulfate and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose dimer) remains intact at a Mw of 3-10 kDa. No radiolytic products were detected at this range. - Highlights: > Irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan fractions with Mw<3 kDa contained higher carbonyl bonds. > {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C spectra of irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan were similar to references. > {kappa}-Carrageenan oligomers with Mw of 3-10 kDa may be suitable as plant growth promoter.

  18. Viscosity profile of Eucheuma spinosum carrageenan from Nusa Penida (Bali, Sumenep (Madura, and Takalar (Sulawesi Selatan

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    Andarini Diharm Diharmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to determine the viscosity profile of carrageenan solution obtained from three different coastal region of Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar as a result of a decrease in temperature with presence cations K+ and Ca2+. Carrageenan was extracted from Eucheuma spinosum using hot alkaline calcium hydroxide Ca(OH2 at 95°C, pH was decreased with HCl, carrageenan was precipitated with ethanol, dried and grinded. The viscosity profile of carrageenan was determined by addition of K+ (0.005-0.03% KCl and Ca2+ (0.005-0.02% CaCl2using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA. The viscosity profile of carrageenan solution changed upon cooling started from a dilute at the initial temperature of 80°C, and then increased as temperature decreased to 20°C. The viscosity of carrageenan E. spinosum from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar without the addition of K+ and Ca2+ at a temperature of 80°C respectively were 90, 120, and 130 mPa.s. The viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar in the presence of K+ and Ca2+ increased with increasing time and decreasing temperature. The viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida in the presence of K+ (0.005-0.03% KCl at 55oC becomes 125, 250, 300 mPa.s, Sumenep 280, 290, and 360 mPa.s, and Takalar 420, 420, and 420 mPa.s. While, in the presence of Ca2+ (0.01-0.02% % CaCl2 at 55oC, the viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar have been formed gelling. Increasing of viscosity of carrageenan from Nusa Penida, Sumenep, and Takalar in the presence of kation Ca2+ was required a faster time and higher temperatures than K+. Carrageenan solution from E. spinosum originated from different coastal regions showed different viscosity profiles.Keywords: Eucheuma spinosum, carrageenan, cation, temperature, viscosity profile

  19. Radiation synthesis of superabsorbent poly(acrylic acid)-carrageenan hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Sanju; Kumar, Manmohan; Varshney, Lalit E-mail: lalitv@magnum.barc.ernet.in

    2004-04-01

    A series of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared from carrageenan and partially neutralized acrylic acid by gamma irradiation at room temperature. The gel fraction, swelling kinetics and the equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the hydrogels were studied. It was found that the incorporation of even 1% carrageenan (sodium salt) increases the EDS of the hydrogels from {approx}320 to {approx}800 g/g. Thermal analysis were carried out to determine the amount of free water and bound water in the hydrogels. Under optimum conditions, poly(acrylic acid)-carrageenan hydrogels with high gel fraction ({approx}80%) and very high EDS ({approx}800 g/g) were prepared gamma radiolytically from aqueous solution containing 15% partially neutralized acrylic acid and 1-5% carrageenan. The hydrogels were also found to be sensitive to the pH and the ionic strength of the medium.

  20. Size prediction of κ-carrageenan droplets formed in co-flowing immiscible liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Yee Leong; Tek-Kaun Lim; Ravindra Pogaku; Eng-Seng Chan

    2011-01-01

    The formation of κ-carrageenan droplets in channel emulsification was experimentally investigated.The dispersed phase was vertically injected into co-flowing immiscible palm oil in the direction of gravity.This study focused on predicting κ-carrageenan drop size using force balance analysis.The force balance model considers the interfacial tension to be the solitary attaching force,while a combination of the drag force from the co-flowing palm oil and the body force of the extruding κ-carrageenan liquid act as the detaching forces.The conventional model gave poor predictions for droplet size,with an average relative deviation of 23%.This large deviation could be attributed to necking phenomena and an underestimation of the drag force generated on the shear-thinning κ-carrageenan solution.By incorporating correction factors,the average relative deviation of the force balance model dropped to 4%.

  1. Effects of acidic functional groups on dielectric properties of sodium alginates and carrageenans in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Hiraoka, Masanori; Hadano, Shingo; Okamura, Kei; Ueda, Tadaharu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Kashimura, Keiichiro; Mitani, Tomohiko

    2015-01-22

    This study investigated the dielectric properties of sodium alginates and carrageenans in water at frequencies between 100 MHz and 20 GHz in regard to water-hydrocolloid interactions via acidic functional groups. Both sodium alginates and carrageenans showed conduction loss at lower frequencies and dielectric loss at higher frequencies. Reduction and desulfation of sodium alginates and carrageenans, which decreased the numbers of acidic functional groups, decreased their conduction loss. In addition, H(+)-form carrageenans showed the highest ionic conduction. Correlational analysis of dielectric properties and related physical parameters showed that the loss tangent (tanδ) of the hydrocolloid solution was determined by the conductivity of the aqueous solution. Especially at pH below 2, strong H(+) conduction was associated with high tanδ probably due to the Grotthuss mechanism. The molecular dynamics of free water and H(+), viscosity conditions were also suggested to be associated with dielectric property of water-hydrocolloid system.

  2. Carrageenan Based Bionanocomposites as Drug Delivery Tool with Special Emphasis on the Influence of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Ain Us; Nawazish, Shamyla; Akhtar, Fahad; Rashid, Rehana; Mir, Sadullah; Nasir, Bushra; Afzal, Samina; Pervaiz, Fahad

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, considerable attention has been focused on carrageenan based bionanocomposites due to their multifaceted properties like biodegradability, biocompatibility, and nontoxicity. Moreover, these composites can be tailored according to the desired purpose by using different nanofillers. The role of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in drug delivery is also discussed here in detail. Moreover, this article also presents a short review of recent research on the different types of the carrageenan based bionanocomposites and applications. PMID:28303171

  3. Optimization of the extraction of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Webber; Sabrina Matos de Carvalho; Paulo José Ogliari; Leila Hayashi; Pedro Luiz Manique Barreto

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to optimize an alternative method of extraction of carrageenan without previous alkaline treatment and ethanol precipitation using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). In order to introduce an innovation in the isolation step, atomization drying was used reducing the time for obtaining dry carrageenan powder. The effects of extraction time and temperature on yield, gel strength, and viscosity were evaluated. Furthermore, the extracted material was submitted to structural analys...

  4. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems with L-dopa based on carrageenans and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorożyński, P; Kulinowski, P; Mendyk, A; Jachowicz, R

    2011-02-14

    A comprehensive study was conducted to investigate the effects of carrageenans, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on the properties of hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBS) containing L-dopa as a model drug. The novel integrated approach included measurements of: solvent uptake, erosion, apparent density and changes in the internal structure of dosage forms during dissolution test by means of a USP4 compatible MRI. Differences in water ingress into the matrices with pure carrageenans (ι, κ, λ) or low viscous HPMC, were detected by non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging. Matrices based on carrageenans subjected to rapid hydration and erosion, were not able to maintain satisfactory floating properties for a sufficiently long period of time. The application of carrageenans in mixtures with HMC promoted water uptake by HBS formulations. The effect produced by varying the polymer blend's composition on release of the L-dopa was also studied. Dissolution data was fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. For matrices containing mixtures of carrageenan and HPMC, the linear increase in the releasing rate constant, K, with the carrageenan content in the matrix was observed.

  5. Population Studies and Carrageenan Properties in Eight Gigartinales (Rhodophyta from Western Coast of Portugal

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    Leonel Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight carrageenophytes, representing seven genera and three families of Gigartinales (Florideophyceae, were studied for 15 months. The reproductive status, dry weight, and carrageenan content have been followed by a monthly random sampling. The highest carrageenan yields were found in Chondracanthus acicularis (61.1%, Gigartina pistillata (59.7%, and Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (58.0%. Species of Cystocloniaceae family produces predominantly iota-carrageenans; Gigartinaceae family produces hybrid kappa-iota carrageenans (gametophytic plants and lambda-family carrageenans (sporophytic plants; Phyllophoraceae family produces kappa-iota-hybrid carrageenans. Quadrate destructive sampling method was used to determine the biomass and line transect. Quadrate nondestructive sampling method, applied along a perpendicular transect to the shoreline, was used to calculate the carrageenophytes cover in two periods: autumn/winter and spring/summer. The highest cover and biomass were found in Chondrus crispus (3.75%–570 g/m2, Chondracanthus acicularis (3.45%–99 g/m2, Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (2.45%–207.5 g/m2, and Mastocarpus stellatus (2.02%–520 g/m2.

  6. Optimization of the extraction of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Webber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to optimize an alternative method of extraction of carrageenan without previous alkaline treatment and ethanol precipitation using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. In order to introduce an innovation in the isolation step, atomization drying was used reducing the time for obtaining dry carrageenan powder. The effects of extraction time and temperature on yield, gel strength, and viscosity were evaluated. Furthermore, the extracted material was submitted to structural analysis, by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR, and chemical composition analysis. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation. Carrageenan yield and gel viscosity were influenced only by the extraction temperature. However, gel strength was influenced by both, extraction time and extraction temperature. Optimal extraction conditions were 74 ºC and 4 hours. In these conditions, the carrageenan extract properties determined by the polynomial model were 31.17%, 158.27 g.cm-2, and 29.5 cP for yield, gel strength, and viscosity, respectively, while under the experimental conditions they were 35.8 ± 4.68%, 112.50 ± 4.96 g.cm-2, and 16.01 ± 1.03 cP, respectively. The chemical composition, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy analyses showed that the crude carrageenan extracted is composed mainly of κ-carrageenan.

  7. Characterization of commercial carrageenans by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using single-reflection attenuated total reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volery, Pascal; Besson, Richard; Schaffer-Lequart, Christelle

    2004-12-15

    The purity and composition of commercial carrageenans vary widely and, therefore, have to be checked prior to their use in the food industry. Infrared spectroscopy is an alternative method to the expensive and time-consuming wet chemical and NMR methods to characterize carrageenan samples. The use of an attenuated total reflection accessory coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer allows a direct analysis of the sample without any preparation step, which is an additional benefit for the rapid identification check of raw material at reception in an industrial environment. Using a set of calibration samples, three multivariate calibrations were developed to predict the total carrageenan content as well as the molar ratio of kappa- and iota-carrageenans. A validation with an independent set of samples confirmed the robustness of the calibrations and the accuracy of the predictions. The accuracies of the calibrations given by their respective standard errors of prediction are 5.6 g/100 g, and 6.1 mol %, and 6.6 mol %, respectively, for the total carrageenan content and the molar ratios of kappa- and iota-carrageenans. The total preparation and analysis time is <5 min per sample.

  8. Different phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms mediate carrageenan nociception and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rory A; Falk, Lovissa; Larsson, Mathilda; Leinders, Mathias; Sorkin, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) participate in signal transduction cascades that can directly activate and sensitize nociceptors and enhance pain transmission. They also play essential roles in chemotaxis and immune cell infiltration leading to inflammation. We wished to determine which PI3K isoforms were involved in each of these processes. Lightly anesthetized rats (isoflurane) were injected subcutaneously with carrageenan in their hind paws. This was preceded by a local injection of 1% DMSO vehicle or an isoform-specific antagonist to PI3K-α (compound 15-e), -β (TGX221), -δ (Cal-101), or -γ (AS252424). We measured changes in the mechanical pain threshold and spinal c-Fos expression (4 hours after injection) as indices of nociception. Paw volume, plasma extravasation (Evans blue, 0.3 hours after injection), and neutrophil (myeloperoxidase; 1 hour after injection) and macrophage (CD11b+; 4 hour after injection) infiltration into paw tissue were the measured inflammation endpoints. Only PI3K-γ antagonist before treatment reduced the carrageenan-induced pain behavior and spinal expression of c-Fos (P ≤ 0.01). In contrast, pretreatment with PI3K-α, -δ, and-γ antagonists reduced early indices of inflammation. Plasma extravasation PI3K-α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.05), and -γ (P ≤ 0.01), early (0-2 hour) edema -α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.001), and -γ (P ≤ 0.05), and neutrophil infiltration (all P ≤ 0.001) were all reduced compared to vehicle pretreatment. Later (2-4 hour), edema and macrophage infiltration (P ≤ 0.05) were reduced by only the PI3K-δ and -γ isoform antagonists, with the PI3K-δ antagonist having a greater effect on edema. PI3K-β antagonism was ineffective in all paradigms. These data indicate that pain and clinical inflammation are pharmacologically separable and may help to explain clinical conditions in which inflammation naturally wanes or goes into remission, but pain continues unabated.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of K-Carrageenan/Nanosilica Biocomposite Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh R. Rane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to improve the performance properties of K-carrageenan (K-CRG by utilizing nanosilica (NSI as the reinforcing agent. The composite films were prepared by solution casting method. NSI was added up to 1.5% in the K-CRG matrix. The prepared films were characterized for mechanical (tensile strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break, thermal (differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, barrier (water vapour transmission rate, morphological (scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, and crystallinity properties. Tensile strength, tensile modulus, and crystallinity were found to have increased by 13.8, 15, and 48% whereas water vapour transmission rate was found to have decreased by 48% for 0.5% NSI loaded K-CRG composite films. NSI was found to have formed aggregates for concentrations above 0.5% as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Melting temperature, enthalpy of melting, and degradation temperature of K-CRG increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG. Contact angle also increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG, indicating the decrease in hydrophilicity of the films improving its water resistance properties. This knowledge of the composite film could make beneficial contributions to the food and pharmaceutical packaging applications.

  10. Release of Tenofovir from Carrageenan-Based Vaginal Suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toral Zaveri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbicides are an active area of research for HIV prevention, being developed as a woman-initiated method of prevention during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have produced microbicide prototypes in the form of semisoft vaginal suppositories prepared from carrageenan and conducted both qualitative and quantitative studies using these prototypes to determine the physical properties that drive acceptability and possibly adherence. In order to ensure that the suppositories function as effective drug delivery vehicles, we have conducted in vitro dissolution studies in water, vaginal simulant fluid (VSF and semen simulant fluid (SSF with suppositories loaded with the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir (TFV. TFV was released via diffusion and matrix erosion in water or by diffusion out of the matrix in VSF and SSF. Diffusion studies were conducted in two different volumes of VSF and SSF. The volume of VSF/SSF into which TFV diffused and the size of the suppositories determined the rate of diffusion from the suppositories. About 45%–50% of the encapsulated TFV diffused out of the suppositories within the first two hours, irrespective of suppository size, diffusion medium (VSF/SSF and the volume of medium. Prior work indicates that a short waiting period between insertion and coitus is highly desired by women; present data suggest our microbicide prototypes have rapid initial release followed by a slow release curve over the first 24 h.

  11. Development of edible films and coatings from alginates and carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli-Kafrani, Elham; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Masoudpour-Behabadi, Mahdieh

    2016-02-10

    The use of renewable resources, which can reduce waste disposal problems, is being explored to produce biopolymer films and coatings. Renewability, degradability, and edibility make such films particularly suitable for food and nonfood packaging applications. Edible films and coatings play an important role in the quality, safety, transportation, storage, and display of a wide range of fresh and processed foods. They can diminish main alteration by avoiding moisture losses and decreasing adverse chemical reaction rates. Also, they can prevent spoilage and microbial contamination of foods. Additionally, nanomaterials and food additives, such as flavors, antimicrobials, antioxidants, and colors, can be incorporated into edible films and coatings in order to extend their applications. Water-soluble hydrocolloids like polysaccharides usually impart better mechanical properties to edible films and coatings than do hydrophobic substances. They also are excellent barriers to oxygen and carbon dioxide. Recently, there has been much attention on carrageenan and alginate as sources of film-forming materials. Thus, this review highlights production and characteristics of these films.

  12. Exosomes from Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Suppress Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivoraitė, Ugnė; Jarmalavičiūtė, Akvilė; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Ramanauskaitė, Giedrė; Vaitkuvienė, Aida; Kašėta, Vytautas; Biziulevičienė, Genė; Venalis, Algirdas; Pivoriūnas, Augustas

    2015-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the effects of human dental pulp stem cell-derived exosomes on the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice. Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation from the supernatants of stem cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) cultivated in serum-free medium. At 1 h post-carrageenan injection, exosomes derived from supernatants of 2 × 10(6) SHEDs were administered by intraplantar injection to BALB/c mice; 30 mg/kg of prednisolone and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Edema was measured at 6, 24, and 48 h after carrageenan injection. For the in vivo imaging experiments, AngioSPARK750, Cat B 750 FAST, and MMPSense 750 FAST were administered into the mouse tail vein 2 h post-carrageenan injection. Fluorescence images were acquired at 6, 24, and 48 h after edema induction by IVIS Spectrum in vivo imaging system. Exosomes significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced edema at all the time points studied (by 39.5, 41.6, and 25.6% at 6, 24, and 48 h after injection, respectively), to similar levels seen with the positive control (prednisolone). In vivo imaging experiments revealed that, both exosomes and prednisolone suppress activities of cathepsin B and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) at the site of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation, showing more prominent effects of prednisolone at the early stages, while exosomes exerted their suppressive effects gradually and at later time points. Our study demonstrates for the first time that exosomes derived from human dental pulp stem cells suppress carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice.

  13. Quantification of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornshøj, Bettina Høj; Kobbelgaard, Sara; Blakemore, William R; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Bixler, Harris J; Klinger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the European Commission placed a limit on the amount of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed (PES) of 5 mg kg(-1). Formaldehyde is not used in carrageenan and PES processing and accordingly one would not expect free formaldehyde to be present in carrageenan and PES. However, surprisingly high levels up to 10 mg kg(-1) have been found using the generally accepted AOAC and Hach tests. These findings are, per proposed reaction pathways, likely due to the formation of formaldehyde when sulphated galactose, the backbone of carrageenan, is hydrolysed with the strong acid used in these conventional tests. In order to minimise the risk of false-positives, which may lead to regulatory non-compliance, a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed. Initially, carrageenan or PES is extracted with 2-propanol and subsequently reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form the chromophore formaldehyde-DNPH, which is finally quantified by reversed-phase HPLC with ultraviolet light detection at 355 nm. This method has been found to have a limit of detection of 0.05 mg kg(-1) and a limit of quantification of 0.2 mg kg(-1). Recoveries from samples spiked with known quantities of formaldehyde were 95-107%. Using this more specific technique, 20 samples of carrageenan and PES were tested for formaldehyde. Only one sample had a detectable content of formaldehyde (0.40 mg kg(-1)), thus demonstrating that the formaldehyde content of commercial carrageenan and PES products are well below the European Commission maximum limit of 5 mg kg(-1).

  14. Discovery of a novel iota carrageenan sulfatase isolated from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genicot, Sabine; Groisillier, Agnès; Rogniaux, Hélène; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Barbeyron, Tristan; Helbert, William

    2014-08-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of some marine red algae. These polysaccharides are widely used as gelling, stabilizing, and viscosifying agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Since the rheological properties of these polysaccharides depend on their sulfate content, we screened several isolated marine bacteria for carrageenan specific sulfatase activity, in the aim of developing enzymatic bioconversion of carrageenans. As a result of the screening, an iota-carrageenan sulfatase was detected in the cell-free lysate of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora strain PscT. It was purified through Phenyl Sepharose and Diethylaminoethyl Sepharose chromatography. The pure enzyme, Psc ?-CgsA, was characterized. It had a molecular weight of 115.9 kDaltons and exhibited an optimal activity/stability at pH ~8.3 and at 40°C ± 5°C. It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Psc ?-CgsA specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-S sulfate of iota-carrageenan. The purified enzyme could transform iota-carrageenan into hybrid iota-/alpha- or pure alpha-carrageenan under controlled conditions. The gene encoding Psc ?-CgsA, a protein of 1038 amino acids, was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the sequence analysis revealed that Psc ?-CgsA has more than 90% sequence identity with a putative uncharacterized protein Q3IKL4 from the marine strain Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, but besides this did not share any homology to characterized sulfatases. Phylogenetic studies show that P. carrageenovora sulfatase thus represents the first characterized member of a new sulfatase family, with a C-terminal domain having strong similarity with the superfamily of amidohydrolases, highlighting the still unexplored diversity of marine polysaccharide modifying enzymes.

  15. Development and characterization of carrageenan/grapefruit seed extract composite films for active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-07-01

    Carrageenan-based antimicrobial films were developed by incorporation of grape fruit seed extract (GSE) at different concentration into the polymer using a solvent casing method and their physical, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties were examined. The carrageenan/GSE composite films appeared yellowish tint due to the polyphenolic compounds in the GSE. SEM analysis showed rough surface with sponge like structures on the cross section of the films. FT-IR results indicated at GSE had good compatibility with carrageenan. The amorphous structure of polymer films was not changed by the incorporation of GSE. But, the addition of GSE increased moisture content, water vapor permeability, and surface hydrophilicity of the films. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased with increasing content of GSE, however, the elongation at break increased significantly up to 6.6μg/mL of GSE then decreased thereafter. Thermal stability of the films was not influenced by GSE incorporation. The carrageenan/GSE composite films exhibited great antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens. These results suggest that the carrageenan-based composite films have a high potential for being used as an antimicrobial or active food packaging applications.

  16. Immobilization and Bioelectrochemistry of Hemoglobin Based on Carrageenan and Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Composite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛春; 张洋; 王璐; 贾能勤

    2012-01-01

    A novel biopolymer/room-temperature ionic liquid composite film based on carrageenan, room temperature ionic liquid (IL) [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4)] was explored for immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) and construction of biosensor. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalytic behaviors of Hb entrapped in the IL-carrageenan composite film on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were investigated. UV-vis spectroscopy demonstrated that Hb in the IL-carrageenan composite film could retain its native secondary structure. A pair of well-defined redox peaks of Hb was obtained at the Hb-IL-carrageenan composite film modified electrode through direct electron transfer between the protein and the underlying electrode. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) was 2.02 s 1, indicating great facilitation of the electron transfer between Hb and IL-carrageenan composite film modified electrode. The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward reduction of hydrogen peroxide with a linear range of 5.0 × 10-6 to 1.5 ×10-4 mol/L and the detection limit was 2.12 ×10 7 mol/L (S/N= 3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant KM^app for hydrogen peroxide was estimated to be 0.02 mmol/L, indicating that the biosensor possessed high affinity to hydrogen peroxide. In addition, the proposed biosensor showed good reproducibility and stability.

  17. Study on the Dynamics of Blending of Glucomannan with Carrageenan and Guaran Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Jie; YE Bing-Hong; HUANG Yong-Mei; LIN Qiong; ZENG Cui; SUN Yuan-Ming

    2007-01-01

    In order to prove up the interaction between konjac glucomannan (KGM) and other amyloses, by using KGM, guaran gum and carrageenan as materials, their blending in different external conditions was modeled by means of molecular dynamics (MD) method.The result showed that 323 K was a significant turning point for the formation of hydrogen bond, and KGM and guaran gum were just juxtaposed together via intermolecular hydrogen bond; but with the addition of carrageenan, KGM, guaran gum and carrageenan were spirally twisted together, and when their blending proportion is 3:2:9 the combination was the most compact. Moreover, the research result has provided the sequent studies afterwards on amyloses with some references.

  18. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkiflee Kuedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior.

  19. Protective effect of Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. on carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S K; Viji, V; Kripa, K; Helen, A

    2011-07-01

    The present study focuses on the anti-inflammatory activity of Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. on an acute model of inflammation: the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay. Methanolic extract of J. gendarussa (JRM) roots at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly inhibited edema formation 5 h after carrageenan induction. JRM inhibited carrageenan-elicited total cycloxygenase activity, 5-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase activities in blood mononuclear cells of rats, decreased neutrophil infiltration in paw tissue as shown by low myeloperoxidase activity, and also caused a 53% inhibition in cyclooxygenase-2 activity in paw tissue. Purification of JRM by liquid-liquid partitioning yielded an ethyl acetate fraction of JRM that showed interleukin-6 downregulation potential and the ability to inhibit prostaglandin E2 production in vivo. The present investigation provides pharmacological evidence to support the folklore claim that J. gendarussa is an anti-inflammatory agent.

  20. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuedo, Zulkiflee; Sangsuriyawong, Anantita; Klaypradit, Wanwimol; Tipmanee, Varomyalin; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa

    2016-03-19

    Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior.

  1. Effect of epichlorohydrin on the wet spinning of carrageenan fibers under optimal parameter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Xue, Zhixin; Yan, Miao; Liu, Jingjing; Xia, Yanzhi

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by the extensive application of carrageenans, this work prepared carrageenan fibers via wet spinning. The optimum spinning parameters were explored by means of an orthogonal test. According to the results of tensile test, dope concentration, draw ratio, coagulation bath temperature, and coagulation bath concentration set to 9%, 1.2, 15°C and 5%, respectively, were the optimum spinning conditions. These parameters were then applied to fabricate fibers treated with epichlorohydrin in a stretch bath. The result of tensile testing demonstrated a positive improvement in the intensity, and SEM showed obvious necking phenomenon of the crosslinked carrageenan fibers. The structures and special groups were characterized with X-ray diffraction and FTIR, and the results indicated the regularity of the net structure and the increase in ether bond and methylene. In some, crosslinking reactions in optimum parameter conditions yield excellent fibers and thus present promising applications.

  2. Influence of lambda-carrageenan on the release of systematic series of volatile flavor compounds from viscous food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylaite, Egle; Ilgunaite, Z.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge;

    2004-01-01

    -liquid partition coefficients K (37degreesC) of a total of 43 aroma compounds were determined in pure water and in the lambda-carrageenan solutions by static headspace gas chromatography. Mass transfer of the aroma compounds in water and in the thickened lambda-carrageenan solutions which had a wide viscosity...

  3. Radiation effects on agar, alginates and carrageenan to be used as food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliste, A. J. A. J.; Vieira, F. F. F. F.; Del Mastro, N. L. N. L.

    2000-03-01

    Agar, alginates and carrageenan are hydrocolloids that induce stabilization of physical properties of the food product during shelf life and prevention of undesirable changes such as moisture migration, gas cell coalescence or textural profile changes. In this work, agar, alginates and carrageenan was irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10 kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of these irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods.

  4. Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naho Maruyama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5 μL of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice.

  5. Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5μL of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice

  6. A critical review of the toxicological effects of carrageenan and processed eucheuma seaweed on the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Samuel M; Ito, Nobuyuki

    2002-09-01

    Carrageenan is a high-molecular-weight, strongly anionic polymer derived from several species of red seaweed that is used for the textural stabilization of foods. Processed Eucheuma Seaweed (PES) is a form of carrageenan with a higher cellulose content. Food-grade carrageenan has a weight average molecular weight greater than 100,000 Da, with a low percentage of smaller fragments. Carrageenan is not degraded to any extent in the gastrointestinal tract and is not absorbed from it in species examined, such as rodents, dogs, and non-human primates. Systemically administered carrageenan has been reported to have a variety of effects, particularly on the immune system, but these are not pertinent to orally administered carrageenan. The substance poligeenan (formerly referred to as degraded carrageenan) is not a food additive. It exhibits toxicological properties at high doses that do not occur with the food additive carrageenan. In-long term bioassays, carrageenan has not been found to be carcinogenic, and there is no credible evidence supporting a carcinogenic effect or a tumor-promoting effect on the colon in rodents. Also, like many dietary fibers, there is significant cecal enlargement in rodents when it is administered at high doses, but this does not appear to be associated with any toxicological consequences to the rodent. Many toxicological studies on carrageenan have involved administration at doses in excess of today's standards for dietary feeding levels in bioassays, and they are orders of magnitude in excess of those to which humans are exposed. Previous reviews of carrageenan and PES by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) have recommended a group allowable daily intake (ADI) of "not specified". The lack of carcinogenic, genotoxic, or tumor-promoting activity with carrageenan strongly supports continuing such an ADI, and JECFA, during its most recent review in 2001, continued this

  7. Prevention of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice by anti-CD30 ligand monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Di Marco, Roberto; Mazzon, Emanuela;

    2004-01-01

    CD30 ligand (CD30L) and its receptor CD30 are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor superfamilies that play a major role in inflammation and immune regulation. To gain insight into the in vivo role of CD30L/CD30 in inflammatory diseases, we have used carrageenan (CAR)-induce...

  8. Stereomicroscopic and histologic changes in the colon of guinea pigs fed degraded carrageenan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1980-01-01

    A colitis-like state induced in Guinea Pigs fed degraded carrageenan orally. By means of a combined semimacroscopic and histologic technique the course of the disease was followed during 28 days. The changes were primarily seen and became most prominent in the caecum. The first lesions were...

  9. SANS contrast in iota-carrageenan gels and solutions in D2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Denef, B.; Mortensen, K.;

    1997-01-01

    SANS of Na+-iota-carrageenan in D2O/saline solutions was measured as a function of concentration, temperature and type of counterions (K+ or Na+). High and low scattering-contrasted gels and solutions were detected. High contrast is caused by aggregation of low-hydrated chains at high concentration...

  10. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Rachmawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW. Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Construction of biosensor systems for determining the pathophysiological potential of carrageenan variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Angela; End, Caroline; Christiansen, Helle

    2009-01-01

    In vitro systems for monitoring safety of nutritional additives are desirable for high-throughput screenings and as a substitute for animal models. Carrageenan (CGN) is a sulfated polysaccharide widely used as a thickener and texturizer in human nutrition and is intensely discussed regarding its ...

  12. Iota-carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of influenza A virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Leibbrandt

    Full Text Available The 2009 flu pandemic and the appearance of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 influenza strains highlight the need for treatment alternatives. One such option is the creation of a protective physical barrier in the nasal cavity. In vitro tests demonstrated that iota-carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of influenza A virus infection, most importantly also of pandemic H1N1/2009 in vitro. Consequently, we tested a commercially available nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in an influenza A mouse infection model. Treatment of mice infected with a lethal dose of influenza A PR8/34 H1N1 virus with iota-carrageenan starting up to 48 hours post infection resulted in a strong protection of mice similar to mice treated with oseltamivir. Since alternative treatment options for influenza are rare, we conclude that the nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan is an alternative to neuraminidase inhibitors and should be tested for prevention and treatment of influenza A in clinical trials in humans.

  13. Diethylcarbamazine Attenuates the Development of Carrageenan-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlene Lima Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diethylcarbamazine (DEC is an antifilarial drug with potent anti-inflammatory properties as a result of its interference with the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of DEC in a mouse model of acute inflammation (carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity induced the accumulation of fluid containing a large number of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs as well as infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased expression of interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Carrageenan also induced the expression of nuclear factor-κB. The oral administration of DEC (50 mg/Kg three days prior to the carrageenan challenge led to a significant reduction in all inflammation markers. The present findings demonstrate that DEC is a potential drug for the treatment of acute lung inflammation.

  14. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Heni; Safitri, Dewi; Pradana, Aditya Trias; Adnyana, I Ketut

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan) was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27537907

  15. Green tea polyphenol extract attenuates lung injury in experimental model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki Hisanory; Zaffini Raffaela; Menegazzi Marta; Genovese Tiziana; Muià Carmelo; Mazzon Emanuela; Di Paola Rosanna; Cuzzocrea Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Here we investigate the effects of the green tea extract in an animal model of acute inflammation, carrageenan-induced pleurisy. We report here that green tea extract (given at 25 mg/kg i.p. bolus 1 h prior to carrageenan), exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in an animal model of acute inflammation in vivo. Injection of carrageenan (2%) into the pleural cavity of mice elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by fluid accumulation in the pleural cavity that contained...

  16. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Ultrasound-Assisted Depolymerization of κ-Carrageenan

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    Ratnawati Ratnawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted depolymerization of κ-carrageenan has been studied at various temperatures and times. The κ-carrageenan with initial molecular weight of 545 kDa was dispersed in water to form a 5 g/L solution, which was then depolymerized in an ultrasound device at various temperatures and times. The viscosity of the solution was measured using Brookfield viscometer, which was then used to find the number-average molecular weight by Mark-Houwink equation. To obtain the kinetics of κ-carrageenan depolymerization, the number-average molecular weight data was treated using midpoint-chain scission kinetics model. The pre-exponential factor and activation energies for the reaction are 2.683×10-7 mol g-1 min-1 and 6.43 kJ mol-1, respectively. The limiting molecular weight varies from 160 kDa to 240 kDa, and it is linearly correlated to temperature. The results are compared to the result of thermal depolymerization by calculating the half life. It is revealed that ultrasound assisted depolymerization of κ-carrageenan is faster than thermal depolymerization at temperatures below 72.2°C. Compared to thermal depolymerization, the ultrasound-assisted process has lower values of Ea, ΔG‡, ΔH‡, and ΔS‡, which can be attributed to the ultrasonically induced breakage of non-covalent bonds in κ-carrageenan molecules. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 18th January 2016; Accepted: 19th January 2016 How to Cite: Ratnawati, R., Prasetyaningrum, A., Wardhani, D.H. (2016. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Ultrasound-Assisted Depolymerization of κ-Carrageenan. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11(1: 48-58. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.415.48-58 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.415.48-58

  17. Encapsulation of lactase (β-galactosidase) into κ-carrageenan-based hydrogel beads: Impact of environmental conditions on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zipei; Zhang, Ruojie; Chen, Long; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-01

    Encapsulation of enzymes in hydrogel beads may improve their utilization and activity in foods. In this study, the potential of carrageenan hydrogel beads for encapsulating β-galactosidase was investigated. Hydrogel beads were fabricated by injecting an aqueous solution, containing β-galactosidase (26 U) and carrageenan (1 wt%), into a hardening solution (5% potassium chloride). Around 63% of the β-galactosidase was initially encapsulated in the hydrogel beads. Encapsulated β-galactosidase had a higher activity than that of the free enzyme over a range of pH and thermal conditions, which was attributed to the stabilization of the enzyme structure by K(+) ions within the carrageenan beads. Release of the enzyme from the beads was observed during storage in aqueous solutions, which was attributed to the relatively large pore size of the hydrogel matrix. Our results suggest that carrageenan hydrogel beads may be useful encapsulation systems, but further work is needed to inhibit enzyme leakage.

  18. Hemostatic efficacy evaluation of radiation crosslinked carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan and chitosan with varying degrees of substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito; Barba, Bin Jeremiah D.; Vista, Jeanina Richelle M.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl derivatives of kappa-carrageenan and chitosan, with varying degrees of substitution, were synthesized by multi-step reaction technique and evaluated for hemostatic efficacy through in vitro assays. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of carboxymethyl group while 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated degrees of substitution ranging from 1.15-1.58 and 0.45-0.51 for carboxymethyl-κ-carrageenan and carboxymethylchitosan, respectively. Derivatives formed into paste consistency (30% w/v) were successfully crosslinked by gamma irradiation at 30 kGy. The data obtained from whole blood clotting and platelet adhesion assays showed a significant increase in hemostatic capability of κ-carrageenan and chitosan as a consequence of carboxymethylation and crosslinking modifications. In addition, the level of efficacy was comparable to that of a chitosan-based commercial product. These results suggest the potential of κ-carrageenan and chitosan derivatives for development into hemostatic agents.

  19. Properties of radiation synthesized PVP-kappa carrageenan hydrogel blends[PVP; Carrageenan; Hydrogels; Radiation crosslinking; Radiation grafting; Semi-interpenetrating network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V. E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Relleve, L.S.; Aranilla, C.T.; Rosa, A.M. dela

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogels have been synthesized from varying concentrations of polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP) and kappa carrageenan (KC) using gamma radiation. Physical properties such as gel fraction and swelling behavior were determined. Data revealed the presence of a network structure whereby KC is physically entangled into the crosslinked PVP (SIPN). TGA, X-RF and FT-IR analyses of the gel fractions also indicated grafting and crosslinking of the PVP. The degree of grafting and crosslinking depended on the concentrations of KC and PVP. Maximum grafting was obtained at higher KC concentration and lower PVP.

  20. Carrageenan-Induced Colonic Inflammation Is Reduced in Bcl10 Null Mice and Increased in IL-10-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Bhattacharyya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The common food additive carrageenan is a known activator of inflammation in mammalian tissues and stimulates both the canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-κB activation. Exposure to low concentrations of carrageenan (10 μg/mL in the water supply has produced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin signaling in C57BL/6 mice. B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 10 (Bcl10 is a mediator of inflammatory signals from Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 in myeloid and epithelial cells. Since the TLR4 signaling pathway is activated in diabetes and by carrageenan, we addressed systemic and intestinal inflammatory responses following carrageenan exposure in Bcl10 wild type, heterozygous, and null mice. Fecal calprotectin and circulating keratinocyte chemokine (KC, nuclear RelA and RelB, phospho(Thr559-NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK, and phospho(Ser36-IκBα in the colonic epithelial cells were significantly less (P<0.001 in the carrageenan-treated Bcl10 null mice than in controls. IL-10-deficient mice exposed to carrageenan in a germ-free environment showed an increase in activation of the canonical pathway of NF-κB (RelA activation, but without increase in RelB or phospho-Bcl10, and exogenous IL-10 inhibited only the canonical pathway of NF-κB activation in cultured colonic cells. These findings demonstrate a Bcl10 requirement for maximum development of carrageenan-induced inflammation and lack of complete suppression by IL-10 of carrageenan-induced inflammation.

  1. Capillary Zone Electrophoresis Investigation of Interactions between Granulocyte-colony Stimulating Factor and Dextran Sulfate / Carrageenan Oligosaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai Ye LIANG; Yu Guang DU; Ke Yi WANG; Bing Cheng LIN

    2005-01-01

    The interactions between granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dextran sulfate / κ-carrageenan oligosa1ccharide were studied by capillary zone electrophoresis. Dextran sulfate could strongly interact with G-CSF and the complex was detected. The binding constant and stoichiometry were determined to be 1.2x106 (mol/L)-1 and 3:1, respectively. However, the interaction between κ-carrageenan oligosaccharide and G-CSF was not found.

  2. Optimizing delivery systems for cationic biopolymers: competitive interactions of cationic polylysine with anionic κ-carrageenan and pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Pena, Cynthia Lyliam; McClements, David Julian

    2014-06-15

    Polylysine is a cationic biopolymer with a strong antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, however, its functional performance is influenced by its interactions with anionic biopolymers. We examined the stability of polylysine-pectin complexes in the presence of carrageenan, and vice versa. Polylysine-pectin or polylysine-carrageenan complexes were formed at mass ratios of 1:0 to 1:32 (pH 3.5), and then micro-electrophoresis, turbidity, microscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) were used to characterise them. Solutions containing polylysine-pectin complexes were slightly turbid and relatively stable to aggregation at high mass ratios, whereas those containing polylysine-carrageenan complexes were turbid and unstable to aggregation and precipitation. Pectin did not strongly interact with polylysine-carrageenan complexes, whereas carrageenan displaced pectin from polylysine-pectin complexes, which was attributed to differences in electrostatic attraction between polylysine, carrageenan, and pectin. These results have important implications for the design of effective antimicrobial delivery systems for foods and beverages.

  3. A novel zebrafish model to provide mechanistic insights into the inflammatory events in carrageenan-induced abdominal edema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ying Huang

    Full Text Available A suitable small animal model may help in the screening and evaluation of new drugs, especially those from natural products, which can be administered at lower dosages, fulfilling an urgent worldwide need. In this study, we explore whether zebrafish could be a model organism for carrageenan-induced abdominal edema. The research results showed that intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of 1.5% λ-carrageenan in a volume of 20 µL significantly increased abdominal edema in adult zebrafish. Levels of the proinflammatory proteins tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were increased in carrageenan-injected adult zebrafish during the development of abdominal edema. An associated enhancement was also observed in the leukocyte marker, myeloperoxidase (MPO. To support these results, we further observed that i.p. methylprednisolone (MP; 1 µg, a positive control, significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation 24 h after carrageenan administration. Furthermore, i.p. pretreatment with either an anti-TNF-α antibody (1∶5 dilution in a volume of 20 µL or the iNOS-selective inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG; 1 µg inhibited carrageenan-induced abdominal edema in adult zebrafish. This new animal model is uncomplicated, easy to develop, and involves a straightforward inducement of inflammatory edema for the evaluation of small volumes of drugs or test compounds.

  4. Evaluation of stress-strain for characterization of the rheological behavior of alginate and carrageenan gels

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    E.J. Mammarella

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The stress-strain of samples deformed until failure and the relaxation response after 50% deformation of the initial height under constant stress were obtained. Uniaxial compression and stress-relaxation tests enabled satisfactory differentiation of the mechanical resistance of gels with different alginate and carrageenan concentrations. Higher values for initial force at the beginning of the relaxation test were associated with higher calcium uptake by the gels. An increment of failure stress during the uniaxial compression tests for higher concentration of calcium in the gel structure was also observed. The maximum amount of cation uptake was higher than the theoretical value for saturation of all the carboxylic groups available in alginate molecules due to structural rearrangements. Stress-relaxation tests indicated that the residual stress of the gel increased with kappa-carrageenan concentration.

  5. Evaluation of the swelling behaviour of iota-carrageenan in monolithic matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, András; Buchholcz, Gyula; Sovány, Tamás; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2015-08-10

    The swelling properties of monolithic matrix tablets containing iota-carrageenan were studied at different pH values, with measurements of the swelling force and characterization of the profile of the swelling curve. The swelling force meter was linked to a PC by an RS232 cable and the measured data were evaluated with self-developed software. The monitor displayed the swelling force vs. time curve with the important parameters, which could be fitted with an Analysis menu. In the case of iota-carrageenan matrix tablets, it was concluded that the pH and the pressure did not influence the swelling process, and the first section of the swelling curve could be fitted by the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation.

  6. Depolymerized carrageenan ameliorates growth, physiological attributes, essential oil yield and active constituents of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Nadeem; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin; Idrees, Mohd; Khan, Zeba H; Ali, Akbar; Varshney, Lalit

    2012-09-01

    Irradiated carrageenan (IC) elicits an array of plant defense responses and biological activities in plants. An experiment was carried out in the naturally illuminated conditions of net house in order to assess the effects of foliar spray of IC on agricultural performance of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), which is a high-value essential oil bearing medicinal crop used in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. There were applied four IC concentrations (40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L(-1)) as foliar sprays. Application of IC significantly improved the growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters, essential oil yield and the contents of main components of essential oil of fennel. IC applied at 80 mg L(-1) enhanced these parameters maximally. Unirradiated carrageenan and deionized water had no effect on the attributes studied. Moreover, GLC analysis revealed a significant increase in the components of essential oil, viz. fenchone (4.48-7.82%) and anethole (78.38-86.08%) compared to the control.

  7. Controlled release of acetylsalicylic acid from polythiophene/carrageenan hydrogel via electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairatwachapun, Sanita; Paradee, Nophawan; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2016-02-10

    Blends between polythiophene (PTh) and a carrageenan hydrogel were fabricated as the matrix for the electric field assisted drug release. The pristine carrageenan and the blend films were prepared by the solution casting using acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as the anionic model drug and Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and Ba(2+) as the crosslinking agents. The ASA was released by the Fickian diffusion mechanism. The diffusion coefficient decreased with increasing crosslinking ratio or decreasing crosslinking ionic radii. The diffusion coefficients were greater with the applied electrical potentials by an order of magnitude relative to those without electric field. Moreover, the diffusion coefficients with PTh as the drug carrier were higher than those without PTh. Thus, the presence of the conductive polymer in the hydrogel blend coupled with applied electric field is shown here to drastically enhance the drug delivery rate.

  8. Encapsulation of brewers yeast in chitosan coated carrageenan microspheres by emulsification/thermal gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Marie-Christine; Neufeld, Ronald J; Poncelet, Denis

    2004-05-01

    Brewers yeast was encapsulated in kappa-carrageenan microspheres using an emulsification-thermal gelation approach. Due to heat sensitivity of the yeast at temperatures in excess of 36 degrees C, mixtures of low and high gelation temperature carrageenans were tested to obtain a blend yielding a gelation temperature under 40 degrees C. A 20:80 dispersion of 2% carrageenan sol containing cells, in warm canola oil, produced microspheres upon cooling, with a mean diameter of 450 microm and narrow size dispersion (span of 1.2). Application of a chitosan membrane coat to minimize cell release, increased the mean microsphere diameter to 700 microm, due to the coat thickness and swelling of the microspheres. This diameter was designed so as to minimize mass transfer limitations. Batch fermentations were carried out in a 3 L reactor on a commercial wort medium. Cell loading was 10(7) cells mL(-1) microspheres, and cell "burst" release was observed upon inoculation into fresh medium, whether microspheres were coated or not. The kinetics of intra- and extracapsular cell growth were determined. Increased concentrations of extracapsular free cells could be accounted for by growth in the wort medium, and by ongoing release from the gel microspheres, whether coated or not. Cell release from chitosan-coated carrageenan microspheres was less than that from uncoated microspheres, likely due to retention by the membrane coat. Growth kinetics and alpha-amino nitrogen consumption of encapsulated yeast were higher than that of free cells, and differences in alcohol and ester profiles were also observed, likely due to modified metabolism of the encapsulated yeast.

  9. Caries-­preventive Effect of 1300ppm Fluoride and Carrageenan Containing Toothpaste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Rahardjo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Various studies stated that the increase concentration of fluoride in toothpastes leads to the reduction of calcium loss in enamel. Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the difference between the effect of 1300ppm fluoride with carrageenan toothpaste and 1000ppm fluoride only toothpaste on roughness and hardness of enamel surface. Methods: Enamel specimens were obtained from 30 extracted human premolars. The enamel specimens were randomly assigned to one of the three groups, 1300ppm fluoride with carrageenan toothpaste, 1000ppm fluoride only toothpaste and toothpaste with no fluoride as a negative control. The samples were immersed in 1% citric acid with pH 4 for 150 seconds for demineralization, afterwards exposed to each toothpaste for 6 minutes. Results: The results demonstrated that toothpaste with 1300ppm fluoride with carregeenan has two times greater efficacy in triggering remineralization than toothpaste with 1000ppm fluoride only, with regards to surface roughness and hardness recovery in an in vitro caries model. Conclusion: The results suggested that treatment of enamel with toothpaste containing 1300ppm fluoride with carrageenan has high potential in inducing remineralization on enamel.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i1.125

  10. Subarachnoid meloxicam does not inhibit the mechanical hypernociception on carrageenan test in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanucha Fidelis da Luz Moura

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the antinociceptive effects of subarachnoid meloxicam on the mechanical hypernociception induced by carrageenan in rats. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial. Eighteen adult male Wistar rats underwent a cannula implantation into the subarachnoid space and were randomly divided into two groups: Group I received saline solution 5 µL, while Group II received meloxicam 30 mg. The mechanical hypernociception was induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan and evaluated using a digital analgesy meter every 30 min during a 4-h period. The results were recorded as the Δ withdrawal threshold (in g, calculated by subtracting the measurement value after treatment from baseline. RESULTS: The Δ withdrawal threshold mean values were lower in the group of patients treated with meloxicam over all time points between 45 and 165 min, however, there was no statistical significance (p = 0.835 for this difference. CONCLUSION: Subarachnoid meloxicam at a dose of 30 µg animal-1 did not suppress the mechanical hypernociception in a model of inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar administration of carrageenan in rats. The data suggest that other dosages should be investigated the drug effect is discarded.

  11. Water soluble graft copolymer ({kappa}-carrageenan-g-N-vinyl formamide): preparation, characterization and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M.M.; Yadav, M.; Sand, A.; Tripathy, J.; Behari, K. [University of Allahabad, Allahabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-03-25

    {kappa}-Carrageenan-g-N-vinyl formamide was synthesized by free radical initiation using the potassium monopersulphate (PMS)/malonic acid redox pair in an inert atmosphere. The effects of variation of different reactant oil grafting parameters have been studied by varying the concentration. Grafting ratio, add on and conversion showed an increasing trend on increasing the concentration of N-vinyl formamide, malonic acid, kappa-carrageenart and the concentration of PMS from 6 x 10{sup -3} to 22 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}. The optimum temperature and time for grafting of N-vinyl formamide onto {kappa}-carrageenan was found to be 40{sup o}C and 120 min, respectively. The metal ion sorption, swelling behaviour, flocculation and resistance to biodegradation properties have been studied. Flocculation capability of {kappa}-carrageenart and {kappa}-carrageenan-g-N-vinyl formamide for both coking and non-coking coals has been studied for the treatment of coal mine waste water. The graft copolymer was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

  12. Selective sulfation of carrageenans and the influence of sulfate regiochemistry on anticoagulant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Cristiano A; Noseda, Miguel D; Cipriani, Thales R; Gonçalves, Alan G; Duarte, Maria Eugênia R; Ducatti, Diogo R B

    2013-01-16

    Sulfated polysaccharides are recognized for their broad range of biological activities, including anticoagulant properties. The positions occupied by the sulfate groups are often related to the level of the inherent biological activity. Herein the naturally sulfated galactans, kappa-, iota- and theta-carrageenan, were additionally sulfated by regioselective means. The anticoagulant activity of the resulting samples was then studied using the aPTT in vitro assay. The influence of sulfate regiochemistry on the anticoagulant activity was evaluated. From kappa-carrageenan three rare polysaccharides were synthesized, one of them involved a synthetic route with an amphiphilic polysaccharide intermediate containing pivaloyl groups. Iota- and theta-carrageenan were utilized in a selective C6 sulfation at β-D-Galp units to produce different structures comprising trisulfated diads. All the samples were characterized by NMR (1D and 2D). The resulting aPPT measurements suggested that sulfation at C2 of 3,6-anhydro-α-D-Galp and C6 of β-D-Galp increased the anticoagulant activity.

  13. Effect of some plants' extracts used in Sudanese folkloric medicines on carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mona Salih; Khalid, Hassan Subki; Muddathir, Abd Elkhaliq; El-Tahir, Kamal; Khan, Azmat Ali; Algadir, Haidar Abd; Osman, Wadah Jamal Ahmed; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali

    2015-01-01

    Investigations for anti-inflammatory potential and categorization of Sudanese medicinal plants according to their potency. Anti-inflammatory effect of plants' extracts of 17 genera were studied using the carrageenan induced inflammation in rats' paws. The plant extracts were obtained using methanol and dichloromethane as solvent and administered intra peritoneally at the concentration of 2g/kg body weight. The results obtained in this experiment strongly support and validate the traditional uses of these Sudanese medicinal plants to treat various inflammatory diseases. 63.9% of plants extracts showed marked inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan (78.3% out of this percentage represented by methanolic extract), 27.8% showed no activity and 8.3% enhanced the carrageenan induced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of many of these plants has not been reported previously, yet they have been extensively used in Sudanese folkloric medicine. The result of this study justify the traditional medicinal use of the evaluated plants species in treating inflammatory disorders and helped in categorizing the investigated plants into most useful, moderately useful and least useful category for inflammatory diseases. Out of the 17 investigated plant species 05 belongs to most useful and 06 belongs to moderately useful category. However, toxicity studies are required to prove the safety of these plant materials.

  14. Phase diagrams of hybrid carrageenans extracted from Ahnfeltiopsis devoniensis and Chondrus crispus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Azevedo, G; Hilliou, L

    2016-01-20

    NaCl and KCl phase diagrams of two kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenans (KI) are established, and the rheological properties of obtained solutions and gels are reported. KI were extracted from Ahnfeltiopsis devoniensis and Chondrus crispus seaweeds and showed different chemical composition, 48 mol% of kappa carrageenan (K) and 52 mol% of iota carrageenan (I), and 78 mol% of K and 22 mol% of I, respectively. Phase diagrams are systematically compared those of blends of commercial K and I (K+I) showing equivalent chemical compositions. Results confirm that KI clearly differ from mixtures of K and I. K+I form gels at lower polysaccharide concentration and ionic strength, and exhibit gel separation from a liquid phase when large amount (>0.1 mol/L) of KCl is used. In contrast, no syneresis was found in KI gels formed under similar conditions. Both KI and K+I gels are strain hardening, and show a concentration scaling of the elasticity with exponents ranging from 1.1 to 3.2 depending on the type of salt and ionic strength. The strain at break of KI gels does not show salt specificity and is similar to the strain at break of K+I gels in KCl under similar salt and polysaccharide concentrations. K+I gels in NaCl are more fragile than in KCl, thus showing salt specificity.

  15. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

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    Qiang Shao

    Full Text Available The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 and cytopathic effect (CPE inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731 and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04 replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8, A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN, A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26, A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08, and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07 viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  16. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qiang; Guo, Qiang; Xu, Wen ping; Li, Zandong; Zhao, Tong tong

    2015-01-01

    The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) and cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731) and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04) replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8), A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN), A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26), A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08), and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07) viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  17. De novo sequencing and comparative analysis of three red algal species of Family Solieriaceae to discover putative genes associated with carrageenan biosysthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Lipu; WANG Xumin; YU Jun; WU Shuangxiu; SUN Jing; WANG Liang; LIU Tao; CHI Shan; LIU Cui; LI Xingang; YIN Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    Betaphycus gelatinus, Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum of Family Solieriaceae, Order Gi-gartinales, Class Rhodophyceae are three important carrageenan-producing red algal species, which pro-duce different types of carrageenans, beta (β)-carrageenan, kappa (κ)-carrageenan and iota (ι)-carrageenan. So far the carrageenan biosynthesis pathway is not fully understood and few information is about the So-lieriaceae genome and transcriptome sequence. Here, we performed the de novo transcriptome sequencing, assembly, functional annotation and comparative analysis of these three commercial-valuable species using an Illumina short-sequencing platform Hiseq 2000 and bioinformatic software. Furthermore, we compared the different expression of some unigenes involved in some pathways relevant to carrageenan biosynthe-sis. We finally found 861 different expressed KEGG orthologs which contained a glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway (21 orthologs), carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms (16 orthologs), galactose metabolism (5 orthologs), and fructose and mannose metabolism (9 orthologs) which are parts of the carbohydrate me-tabolism. We also found 8 different expressed KEGG orthologs for sulfur metabolism which might be impor-tantly related to biosynthesis of different types of carrageenans. The results presented in this study provided valuable resources for functional genomics annotation and investigation of mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of carrageenan in Family Solieriaceae.

  18. Effect of kappa-carrageenan on the properties of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)/kappa-carrageenan blend hydrogel synthesized by {gamma}-radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai Maolin E-mail: zkkf@pku.edu.cn; Ha Hongfei; Yoshii, F.; Makuuchi, K

    2000-03-01

    A series of hydrogels in the form of rods were prepared from kappa-carrageenan (KC) and poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) by gamma radiation with {sup 60}Co {gamma} source at room temperature. The properties of the prepared hydrogels, such as the gel strength, gel fraction and swelling behavior were investigated. Incorporation of KC into the PVP/water system increased obviously the gel strength and equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of PVP hydrogel. The experimental analyses showed that the crosslinking reaction of PVP was quicker than the degradation of KC at a low dose (less than 30 kGy), and the degradation of KC was inhibited in the PVP/KC mixture system. So an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogel composed of PVP (a chemical crosslinking network) and KC (a physical crosslinking network) was proposed here. The existence of different classes of water in this IPN system was shown by water melting curves using DCS. (author)

  19. Advance on safety evaluation of carrageenan%卡拉胶的安全性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱华

    2009-01-01

    卡拉胶即角叉菜胶(carrageenan)是从红藻中萃取的天然多糖植物胶体,被广泛应用于食品工业、化学工业及生化、医学研究等领域中.近年的研究表明,动物长期经口给予卡拉胶可引起肠黏膜损害或溃疡性结肠炎,导致或促进肿瘤发生等.因此,有必要组织开展流行病学研究和系统的基础研究,以进一步评估卡拉胶的食用安全性,消除其食用安全性隐患.%Carrageenan is a collective term for polysaccharides prepared by alkaline extraction from red seaweed(Rhodophycae).Different carrageenans are widely used as food and medicinal ingredients and applied in chemical and biochemical researches.The studies in recent years showed that long-term administration of carrageenan in various animals can cause intestine mucous membrane damage or ulcerous colanitis, and produce or promote tumor growth. It is necessary to perform more epidemiological and essential studies to evaluate the safety of Carrageenan

  20. Interaction of Gelatin with Carrageenan-The Mechnical Properties of Gelatin-Carrageenan Co-gels%明胶与卡拉胶共凝胶体的力学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙哲浩; 赵谋明; 张源; 彭志英

    2001-01-01

    本文对明胶与卡拉胶共凝胶体的力学特性进行了研究,小变形实验发现随体系卡拉胶百分数的增加,贮能模量在增加。大变形实验发现共凝胶体的破裂强度及质构随体系两种大分子的配比、体系的pH值、离子强度的变化而变化。%This paper is about the mechanical properties ofgelatin-carrageenan co-gels. Small and large deformation experiments are carried out. Storage modulus(G') increase with carrageenan increase in co-gels. Many factors influence the texture characterization such as pH value, inon strength,the ratio of gelatin/carrageenan.

  1. Physico-mechanical analysis data in support of compatibility of chitosan/κ-carrageenan polyelectrolyte films achieved by ascorbic acid, and the thermal degradation theory of κ-carrageenan influencing the properties of its blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiyar Shahbazi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the complementary data regarding compatibilization of chitosan/κ-carrageenan polyelectrolyte complex for synthesizing of a soft film using ascorbic acid. It includes the thermal-theory for estimating the degradation of κ-carrageenan, as reflected in alteration of the structural properties of the blend. The data has been provided to demonstrate that the blend solution based on chitosan, a polycation, and κ-carrageenan, a polyanion polymer, produces an incompatible polyelectrolyte composite, susceptible to coaservative phase separation. We present further data on water resistance, water barrier property, mechanical parameters, scanning electron micrograph, as well as contact angle image dataset of the chitosan/κ-carrageenan film. The physical data were collected by water solubility and water permeability assays, with a view to elucidate the role of ascorbic acid in the compatibility of polyelectrolyte blends. The mechanical data is obtained from a stress–strain curve for evaluation of tensile strength and elongation at break point of the chitosan/κ-carrageenan film. The microstructure observations were performed using scanning electron micrograph. These dataset confirm fabrication of a soft film in the presence of ascorbic acid, with reduced heterogeneities in the polyelectrolyte film structure. The κ-carrageenan was also treated by a thermal process, prior to inclusion into the chitosan solution, to investigate the impact of this on the mechanical and structural features of the resulting blend. We present the required data and the theoretical analysis supporting the thermal chain degradation of a polymer and its effects on behavior of the film. Additional information, characterizing the hydrophobicity of the surface of the blend layers is obtained by measuring water contact angles using a contact anglemeter.

  2. Physico-mechanical analysis data in support of compatibility of chitosan/κ-carrageenan polyelectrolyte films achieved by ascorbic acid, and the thermal degradation theory of κ-carrageenan influencing the properties of its blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mahdiyar; Ettelaie, Rammile; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir

    2016-12-01

    This article presents the complementary data regarding compatibilization of chitosan/κ-carrageenan polyelectrolyte complex for synthesizing of a soft film using ascorbic acid. It includes the thermal-theory for estimating the degradation of κ-carrageenan, as reflected in alteration of the structural properties of the blend. The data has been provided to demonstrate that the blend solution based on chitosan, a polycation, and κ-carrageenan, a polyanion polymer, produces an incompatible polyelectrolyte composite, susceptible to coaservative phase separation. We present further data on water resistance, water barrier property, mechanical parameters, scanning electron micrograph, as well as contact angle image dataset of the chitosan/κ-carrageenan film. The physical data were collected by water solubility and water permeability assays, with a view to elucidate the role of ascorbic acid in the compatibility of polyelectrolyte blends. The mechanical data is obtained from a stress-strain curve for evaluation of tensile strength and elongation at break point of the chitosan/κ-carrageenan film. The microstructure observations were performed using scanning electron micrograph. These dataset confirm fabrication of a soft film in the presence of ascorbic acid, with reduced heterogeneities in the polyelectrolyte film structure. The κ-carrageenan was also treated by a thermal process, prior to inclusion into the chitosan solution, to investigate the impact of this on the mechanical and structural features of the resulting blend. We present the required data and the theoretical analysis supporting the thermal chain degradation of a polymer and its effects on behavior of the film. Additional information, characterizing the hydrophobicity of the surface of the blend layers is obtained by measuring water contact angles using a contact anglemeter.

  3. Characterization of κ-carrageenan films incorporated plant essential oils with improved antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Khaksar, Ramin

    2014-01-30

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial kappa-carrageenan-based films containing different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Mentha pulegium (MEO) essential oils were developed, and their water vapor permeability (WVP), optical, microstructure, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were characterized. ZEO and MEO decreased the WVP of the emulsified films; for example, 3% ZEO reduced WVP by around 80%. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 1% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 37.43% to 44.74% and from 36.09% to 41.25% respectively. Carrageenan-composite films were less resistant to breakage, more flexible and more opaque with lower gloss. These properties were related to the film's microstructure as analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. ZEO affected the antioxidant properties of the films more markedly than MEO, e.g., ZEO containing films showed DPPH radical scavenging of 80.6% which were two-fold higher than those having MEO. The films' antimicrobial activities were increased by incorporating essential oils, particularly ZEO, which were more effective against the bacteria in the direct-contact method than a vapor phase. S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to either ZEO or MEO, followed by B. cereus and E. coli. A highest inhibition zone of 544.05 mm(2) was observed for S. aureus around the films incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO. The total inhibitory zone of 3% (v/v) MEO formulated films was 20.43 for S. typhimurium and 10.15 mm(2) for P. aeruginosa. These results revealed that ZEO and MEO have good potential to be incorporated into κ-carrageenan to make antimicrobial and antioxidant edible films for food applications.

  4. Oxidative Degradation of κ-Carrageenan%к-卡拉胶的氧化降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂村; 张志焜; 耿美玉

    2002-01-01

    к-卡拉胶有着良好的药理和生理活性,但是由于分子量大,溶解性差使它的应用受到很大的限制.研究了在中性和酸性条件下利用H2O2对卡拉胶进行降解来制备低分子量的卡拉胶时H2O2浓度、卡拉胶浓度、反应温度和时间对反应的影响.发现提高H2O2浓度、降低卡拉胶浓度、提高反应温度有利于卡拉胶分子量的降低.通过粘度法测量了卡拉胶的平均分子量在1000~10000,并发现它的溶解性大大提高了.利用IR和13C-NMR研究了降解前后卡拉胶的结构变化.%κ-carrageenan has helpful physiological and pharmacological activities, but its applications on medicine are limited due to its high molecular weight and bad solubility. The κ-carrageenan low molecular weight (LMW) by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was produced firstly in the neutral and acid conditions. The effects of concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the ratio of reactants, reaction temperature and time were discussed. The average molecular weight (AMW) of κ-carrageenan was measured by viscosity method. The AMW varied from 1000 to 10000 and solubility was increased greatly. The chemical structure and the mechanism of degradation were studied by 13C-NMR and IR spectra.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of modified carrageenan microparticles for the removal of pharmaceuticals from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanaki, Stavroula G; Kyzas, George Z; Tzereme, Areti; Papageorgiou, M; Kostoglou, Margaritis; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, carrageenan microparticles were synthesized using spray-drying method and used as biosorbents for the removal of pharmaceutical compounds. The cross-linking reaction of iota-carrageenan (iCAR) and kappa-carrageenan (kCAR) with glutaraldehyde (GLA) at different concentrations (2.5% or 5% (w/w), mass of GLA per mass of CAR) was studied (iCAR/GLA2.5, iCAR/GLA5, kCAR/GLA2.5, kCAR/GLA5). The physicochemical properties of the novel cross-linked polymers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Swelling studies were in accordance with the polymer properties, showing the lowest swelling degree (19%) by using the iCAR/GLA5 microparticles. The optimal kCAR/GLA5 microparticles were successfully employed for the removal of Metoprolol (MTPL) from aqueous samples. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbents was investigated using a batch adsorption procedure and the kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption process were further investigated. It was found that the adsorption isotherms agree well with the Langmuir-Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) was achieved in pH 6, whereas an increase of Qm was observed increasing the temperature (from 109 at 20°C to 178 mg/g at 40°C). Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption process on iCAR/GLA5 microparticles followed pseudo-second-order rate mechanism. Finally, a new phenomenological model of the adsorption process was proposed in order to extract information on the relevant sub-processes.

  6. Inflammation and peripheral 5-HT7 receptors: the role of 5-HT7 receptors in carrageenan induced inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Abdulmecit; Halici, Zekai; Cadirci, Elif; Polat, Beyzagul; Karakus, Emre; Bayir, Yasin; Unal, Deniz; Atasoy, Mustafa; Dogrul, Ahmet

    2013-09-05

    The aim of this study was: (1) to investigate possible role for 5-HT7 receptors in carrageenan induced inflammatory paw oedema in rats; (2) to determine the presence of 5-HT7 receptors in rat paw tissue; (3) to observe the effects of 5-HT7 receptor agonist and antagonist administration on inflammation; and (4) to determine a unique mechanism for inflammatory processes via 5-HT7 receptors. Effects of 5-HT7 receptor agonist, antagonist and indomethacin were investigated in carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. Blood and tissue samples were collected and evaluated biochemically for serum cytokine levels, tissue oxidant-antioxidant balance and histopathologically for inflammatory cell accumulation. We performed Real Time PCR analyses for tissue 5-HT7 receptor and COX mRNA expressions. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS-19 exerted significant anti-inflammatory effect both alone and in combination with indomethacin. Antagonist, SB269970, did not affect inflammation alone but decreased the effects of agonist when co-administered. 5-HT7 mRNA levels were higher in the carrageenan group than healthy control. Carrageenan+indometacin group decreased the mRNA expression of 5-HT7 when compared to carrageenan group. While agonist administration decreased 5-HT7 mRNA expression when compared to carrageenan group. Agonist decreased paw COX expression. Agonist also decreased serum cytokine levels and tissue oxidative stress. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that 5-HT7 receptors are expressed in rat paw tissue and that this expression responds to inflammatory stimuli. The 5-HT7 receptor may be a promising new therapeutic target for prevention of inflammation and inflammatory disorders and may also provide a new glimpse into inflammation pathophysiology.

  7. Expression of the spinal 5-HT7 receptor and p-ERK pathway in the carrageenan inflammatory pain of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Soo Young; Ki, Hyoung Gon; Kim, Joung Min; Oh, Jin Myung; Yang, Ji Hoon; Kim, Woong Mo; Lee, Hyung Gon; Yoon, Myung Ha; Choi, Jeong Il

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the inhibitory role of the 5-hydroxytrypatmine receptor 7(5-HT7R) on nociceptive processing is generally recognized, an excitatory effect associated with a reduced 5-HT7R expression has also been observed in the nerve injury model. In the carrageenan model, no significant effect is produced by the 5-HT7R activation, but the change in 5-HT7R expression has not been examined. Lesioning of the spinal serotonergic pathway enhances allodynia in the carrageenan model, but it als...

  8. PVP/PEG/Carrageenan/Silver acetate hydrogels by {gamma}-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Youn Mook; Youn, Young; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    In recent day, there is much interest in the biocidal activity of silver since silver is known to be safe and effective as disinifectant and biocidal material against coliforms and viruses. In this study, hydrogels containing silver acetate as antibacterial agent have been prepared using gamma rays irradiation. The hydrogels are composed of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), carrageenan and silver acetate. The concentration of solution was 9 wt%. The ratio of PVP: PEG: carrageenan was 6:1:2. The concentration of the silver acetate were 0,0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07% and Gamma irradiation dose was 25 kGy. The Gamma irradiation dose in hydrogels with 0.01% silver acetate were 20 kGy, 35 kGy, 50 kGy, 65 kGy, and 80 kGy. The results showed that 0.01% silver acetate concentration of hydrogels by 25 kGy irradiation dose showed the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, antibacterial activity of various Gamma irradiation dose in hydrogels treated 0.01% silver acetate showed highest 35 kGy irradiation dose against Staphylococcus aureus.

  9. The effect of environmental humidity on radiation-induced degradation of carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Murat; Toprak, Deniz; Güven, Olgun

    2014-12-19

    Better understanding of the chemistry of radiation-induced degradation is becoming of increasing importance on account of the utilization of polymeric materials in a variety of radiation environments as well as beneficial uses of degraded polymers. In this report the importance of environmental humidity on the degrading effect of radiation has been considered from the point of view of controlling the molecular weights of kappa- and iota-carrageenans. These two polysaccharides were irradiated in solid form under strictly controlled environmental humidity conditions by incubating and later irradiating the samples over saturated aqueous salt solutions of NaCl, NaNO3 and MgCl2. The degradation was followed in detail by a careful gel permeation chromatographic analysis of their respective molecular weights before and after irradiation. The chain scission yield values G(S) were found to decrease with the water adsorbed from environment at every absorbed dose in the range of 5-100 kGy. On the other hand at very high water uptakes the yield of chain scission again increases especially at low doses. The decrease in degradation yield was attributed to the plastifying effect of water trapped in between the polymer chains facilitating the macroradical recombinations thus reducing the extent of chain scission. This study showed that although carrageenans were irradiated in solid form, the difference in their water uptake from changing environmental humidity has a profound effect in controlling their molecular weights by irradiation with ionizing radiation.

  10. Antiinflammatory activity of tenoxicam gel on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenoxicam is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, used in the treatment of inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the musculoskeletal system. It is from the oxicam group of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. It is widely prescribed for the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, extra-articular disorders, bursitis, tendonitis, and nonarticular rheumatic condition. Tenoxicam has some side effects when taken orally, viz., epigastric pain, heartburn, nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, peptic ulcer, and hepatic impairment. The aim of this study was to formulate topical gel containing 1% of tenoxicam in 1% carbopol-940 and PEG-4000 and to evaluate it for antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The studies were conducted on Wistar rats of either sex (160-180 g. The change in oedema volume of the rat hind paw was measured using mercury plethysmometer. The readings were measured in terms of volume displaced in millimetre using a micropipette that has mark to 10 divisions in 1 ml. The carbopol gel formulation of tenoxicam containing 15% of ethanol and 5% of sodium lauryl sulphate was significantly more effective against oedema formation than the other formulation of tenoxicam gel and compared to the marketed product of piroxicam gel. Results suggest that the 1% tenoxicam gel in carbopol-940 inhibited 52% of carrageenan-induced oedema formation as compared with the 44% inhibition obtained with marketed product of piroxicam gel.

  11. An analytical ultracentrifugation based study on the conformation of lambda carrageenan in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Fahad M; Adams, Gary G; Kök, Mehmet S; Lawson, Christopher J; Gahler, Roland; Wood, Simon; Foster, Timothy J; Rowe, Arthur J; Harding, Stephen E

    2013-08-14

    The conformation and heterogeneity of lambda-carrageenan, a sulphonated galactan from red seaweed, solubilised in aqueous solvent with the assistance of microwave irradiation, has been assessed by a combination of analytical ultracentrifugation, size-exclusion chromatography, light scattering and capillary viscometry. Preparations appeared generally unimodal on the basis of sedimentation coefficient distributions from sedimentation velocity although at the highest concentrations a shoulder appears with a sedimentation coefficient approximately 1.1 times greater than that of the main component. Even under conditions commensurate with charge suppression simple linear regression was insufficient to represent non-ideal concentration dependence and the extraction of the Grálen concentration dependence parameter ks. A more general fitting algorithm was therefore employed. Mark-Houwink-Kuhn-Sakurada analysis of the change in intrinsic viscosity [η] with molecular weight, together with the Wales-van Holde ratio (combination of ks with [η]) point to an extended flexible conformation for lambda-carrageenan in the (weight average) molecular weight range Mw=340,000-870,000g/mol. The origin of the larger sedimentation coefficient component appearing at the higher concentrations is considered.

  12. Three-Dimensional Supermacroporous Carrageenan-Gelatin Cryogel Matrix for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A tissue-engineered polymeric scaffold should provide suitable macroporous structure similar to that of extracellular matrix which can induce cellular activities and guide tissue regeneration. Cryogelation is a technique in which appropriate monomers or polymeric precursors frozen at sub-zero temperature leads to the formation of supermacroporous cryogel matrices. In this study carrageenan-gelatin (natural polymers cryogels were synthesized by using glutaraldehyde and 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC-NHS as crosslinking agent at optimum concentrations. Matrices showed large and interconnected pores which were in the range of 60–100 μm diameter. Unconfined compression analysis showed elasticity and physical integrity of all cryogels, as these matrices regained their original length after 90% compressing from the original size. Moreover Young’s modulus was found to be in the range of 4–11 kPa for the dry cryogel sections. These cryogels also exhibited good in vitro degradation capacity at 37 °C within 4 weeks of incubation. Supermacroporous carrageenan-gelatin cryogels showed efficient cell adherence and proliferation of Cos-7 cells which was examined by SEM. PI nuclear stain was used to observe cell-matrix interaction. Cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was checked by MTT assay which showed that cryogels are biocompatible and act as a potential material for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  13. Iota-Carrageenan-based biodegradable Ag0 nanocomposite hydrogels for the inactivation of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramudu, Tippabattini; Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd; Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu; Sadiku, Rotimi; Ramam, Koduri; Raju, Konduru Mohana

    2013-06-05

    In this paper, we report the synthesis and characterization of Iota-Carrageenan based on a novel biodegradable silver nanocomposite hydrogels. The aim of study was to investigate whether these hydrogels have the potential to be used in bacterial inactivation applications. Biodegradable silver nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by a green process using acrylamide (AM) with I-Carrageenan (IC). The silver nanoparticles were prepared as silver colloid by reducing AgNO3 with leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem leaf) that (Ag(0)) formed the hydrogel network. The formation of biodegradable silver nanoparticles in the hydrogels was characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, thermo gravimetrical analysis, X-ray diffractometry studies, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies. In addition, swelling behavior and degradation properties were systematically investigated. Furthermore, the biodegradable silver nanoparticle composite hydrogels developed were tested for antibacterial activities. The antibacterial activity of the biodegradable silver nanocomposite hydrogels was studied by inhibition zone method against Bacillus and Escherichia coli, which suggested that the silver nanocomposite hydrogels developed were effective as potential candidates for antimicrobial applications. Therefore, the inorganic biodegradable hydrogels developed can be used effectively for biomedical application.

  14. Development and characterization of a new hydrogel based on galactomannan and κ-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paulo A G; de Seixas, José R P C; Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Santos, Gustavo R C; Mourão, Paulo A S; Barros, Wilson; Correia, Maria T S; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2015-12-10

    A new hydrogel based on two natural polysaccharides was prepared in aqueous medium with 1.7% (w/v) galactomannan (from Cassia grandis seeds) and different concentrations of κ-carrageenan (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%w/v), CaCl2 (0.0, 0.1 and 0.2M) and pH (5.0, 5.5 and 6.0), using a full factorial design based on rheological parameters. The best formulation was obtained with 1.7% (w/v) galactomannan and 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan, containing 0.2M CaCl2 at pH 5.0. Nuclear magnetic resonance and scanning electron microscopy where used in order to characterize the hydrogel formulation. A shelf life study was carried out with this formulation along 90 days-period of storage at 4 °C, evaluating pH, color, microbial contamination and rheology. This hydrogel showed no significant changes in pH, no microbial contamination and became more translucent along the aging. Analyses by nuclear magnetic resonance and rheology showed a larger organization of the polysaccharides in the hydrogel matrix. The results demonstrated that this hydrogel was stable with possible applications in medical and cosmetic fields.

  15. Radiation synthesis and characteristic of IPN hydrogels composed of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and Kappa-Carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Jing E-mail: janeren2000@sohu.com; Zhang Yanqun; Li Jiuqiang; Ha Hongfei

    2001-09-01

    A new system of IPN hydrogels composed of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and natural macromolecule, Kappa-Carrageenan (KC) were prepared by {gamma}-irradiation. Their gel fraction and swelling behavior were studied. Elemental analysis and gel strength measurement results showed that there was an amount of KC that remained in the gels and the gel strength was enhanced obviously.

  16. Regulation of prostaglandin generation in carrageenan-induced pleurisy by inducible nitric oxide synthase in knockout mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, A.; Cuzzocrea, S.; Mazzon, E.; Serraino, I.; Sarro, A. de; Dugo, L.; Felice, M.R.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Rosa, M. Di; Musci, G.; Caputi, A.P.; Sautebin, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, by comparing the responses in wild-type mice (iNOSWT) and mice lacking (iNOSKO) the inducible (or type 2) nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), we investigated the correlation between endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) generation in carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The in

  17. Kappa carrageenan : a study on its physico-chemical properties, sol-gel transition and interaction with milk proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeren, T.H.M.

    1976-01-01

    In this thesis a characterization of the milkreactive polysaccharide κ-carrageenan by means of light scattering, viscosimetry and sedimentation experiments is presented. The disorder/order transitions occurring at the gelpoint of these substances are discussed in terms of a coil/double helix transit

  18. EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION FOR ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY IN CARRAGEENAN INDUCED PAW OEDEMA MODEL IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Surendra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dazzle Capsule, a Poly herbal formulation is marketed in management of Arthritis and joint-musculo skeletal pain. In this study, safety and efficacy of this polyherbal formulation was investigated in which it was being proved safe for use via acute toxicity study and efficacy was being evaluated by carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test in rats in order to explore its anti-inflammatory activity at the dose level of 90 and 180 mg/kg, p.o, compared with Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.. It showed an highly significant reduction in oedema (p<0.001. Indomethacin inhibited oedema by 30.054% and 36.216% at 2 and 3 hr after carrageenan injection, respectively. The inhibitory effect of Dazzle Capsule began at 2 hr or later after carrageenan injection depending upon the administered dose. Low doses of Dazzle Capsule (90 mg/kg gave highly significant inhibitory effects of 37.894- 39.378%, and higher doses (180 mg/kg caused highly significant inhibition of 19.125- 30%. The reduction of oedema by Indomethacin and Dazzle Capsule at 2 hr or more after carrageenan injection suggested that both compounds produce anti-inflammatory effects in the second phase of oedema, indicating inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Hence, it was concluded that, Dazzle Capsule is having potent anti-inflammatory activity yet safe polyherbal formulation for use in arthritis management.

  19. The Intranasal Application of Zanamivir and Carrageenan Is Synergistically Active against Influenza A Virus in the Murine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Morokutti-Kurz

    Full Text Available Carrageenan is a clinically proven and marketed compound for the treatment of viral upper respiratory tract infections. As infections caused by influenza virus are often accompanied by infections with other respiratory viruses the combination of a specific anti-influenza compound with the broadly active antiviral polymer has huge potential for the treatment of respiratory infections. Thus, the combination of the specific anti-influenza drug Zanamivir together with carrageenan in a formulation suitable for intranasal application was evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo.We show in-vitro that carrageenan and Zanamivir act synergistically against several influenza A virus strains (H1N1(09pdm, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7. Moreover, we demonstrate in a lethal influenza model with a low pathogenic H7N7 virus (HA closely related to the avian influenza A(H7N9 virus and a H1N1(09pdm influenza virus in C57BL/6 mice that the combined use of both compounds significantly increases survival of infected animals in comparison with both mono-therapies or placebo. Remarkably, this benefit is maintained even when the treatment starts up to 72 hours post infection.A nasal spray containing carrageenan and Zanamivir should therefore be tested for prevention and treatment of uncomplicated influenza in clinical trials.

  20. Comparison of some biochemical properties of artichoke polyphenol oxidase entrapped in alginate-carrageenan and alginate gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagar, Hulya; Kocaturk, Selin

    2014-08-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC.1.14.18.1) isolated from artichoke (Cynara scolymus) was entrapped within alginate and alginate+ carrageenan beads, and the catecholase and cresolase activities of both entrapped enzymes were determined. Some properties of these immobilized enzymes such as optimum pH and temperature, kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax), thermal, and storage stability were determined and compared to each other. The highest catecholase activity was observed in alginate gel (370 U/g bead) while the highest cresolase activity was in alginate+ carrageenan gel (90 U/g bead). For catecholase and cresolase activities, optimum pHs of alginate and alginate+ carrageenan beads were determined to be 7.0 and 4.0, respectively. Optimum temperatures for catecholase activity were determined to be 40°C for both entrapped enzymes. These values for cresolase activity were 30°C and 20°C, respectively. Immobilized artichoke PPOs greatly preserved their thermal stability which exists anyway. The catalytic efficiency value (Vmax/Km) of the alginate beads is approximately high as two-and-a-half folds of that of alginate+κ-carrageenan beads for cresolase activity. These values were very close for catecholase activity. Immobilized beads saved their both activities after 30 days of storage at 4°C.

  1. Anti-Proliferative Activity of λ-Carrageenan Through the Induction of Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazzara, Marie; Ghannam, Ahmed; Soukkarieh, Chadi; Murad, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    Background Sulfated Polysaccharides (SPs) possess spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic properties that could attributed to their origins variation, chemical structures and biological activities. Various studies have shown the impact of SPs on proliferation in different cancer cell lines. Objectives In this study, we have evaluated the biological effects of λ-carrageenan, a highly SP, extracted from the red seaweed Laurencia papillosa, on MDA-MB-231 cancer cell line. Materials and Methods MDA-MB-231 cells have treated with λ-carrageenan, the viability and apoptosis have assessed by the appropriate florescent probes on flow cytometer. The expression levels of mRNA of apoptotic genes have detected by real-time PCR analysis. Results Our results have indicated that the signaling pathway of λ-carrageenan inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells by up-regulating the pro-apoptotic genes caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3 which have been resulting the increased levels of active caspase-3 protein. Furthermore, This SP had that capacity to disrupt the mitochondrial function by altering the bax/bcl-2 ratio of expression which has considered an important element in apoptosis induction. Conclusions The presented results have signposted that λ-carrageenan was a promising bioactive polymer which could be a potential candidate in preventing or treating breast cancer. PMID:27761203

  2. Green tea polyphenol extract attenuates lung injury in experimental model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Mazzon, Emanuela; Muià, Carmelo; Genovese, Tiziana; Menegazzi, Marta; Zaffini, Raffaela; Suzuki, Hisanory; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2005-06-29

    Here we investigate the effects of the green tea extract in an animal model of acute inflammation, carrageenan-induced pleurisy. We report here that green tea extract (given at 25 mg/kg i.p. bolus 1 h prior to carrageenan), exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in an animal model of acute inflammation in vivo. Injection of carrageenan (2%) into the pleural cavity of mice elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by fluid accumulation in the pleural cavity that contained many neutrophils (PMNs), an infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite/nitrate, tumour necrosis factor alpha. All parameters of inflammation were attenuated by green tea extract treatment. Furthermore, carrageenan induced an up-regulation of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, as well as nitrotyrosine and poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) formation, as determined by immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissues. Staining for the ICAM-1, nitrotyrosine, and PARS was reduced by green tea extract. Our results clearly demonstrate that treatment with green tea extract exerts a protective effect and offers a novel therapeutic approach for the management of lung injury.

  3. Green tea polyphenol extract attenuates lung injury in experimental model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Hisanory

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we investigate the effects of the green tea extract in an animal model of acute inflammation, carrageenan-induced pleurisy. We report here that green tea extract (given at 25 mg/kg i.p. bolus 1 h prior to carrageenan, exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in an animal model of acute inflammation in vivo. Injection of carrageenan (2% into the pleural cavity of mice elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by fluid accumulation in the pleural cavity that contained many neutrophils (PMNs, an infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite/nitrate, tumour necrosis factor alpha. All parameters of inflammation were attenuated by green tea extract treatment. Furthermore, carrageenan induced an up-regulation of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, as well as nitrotyrosine and poly (ADP-ribose synthetase (PARS formation, as determined by immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissues. Staining for the ICAM-1, nitrotyrosine, and PARS was reduced by green tea extract. Our results clearly demonstrate that treatment with green tea extract exerts a protective effect and offers a novel therapeutic approach for the management of lung injury.

  4. CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOME TEXTURE PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF CARRAGEENAN GELS AS A RESULT OF ITS DEFINED DIVERSIFIED FREEZING AND THAWING TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozłowicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Model samples of carrageenan gels based on water, milk and juice were air-blast frozen and frozen by immersion in glycol and in liquid nitrogen. The gel freezing rate was determined on the basis of the kinetics of freezing. Carrageenan gel samples were characterized by evaluation of its thawing drip loss and hardness determined with compression and penetration tests. Freezing in liquid nitrogen ensured the highest freezing rates. Thawing drip loss of gels significantly depended on the carrageenan content, pH of the solution, freezing method and freezing rate. The resulting relationships are linear functions with high determination coefficients. The results of compression and penetration tests prove the significant effect of the carrageenan content and pH on gel hardness. The higher carrageenan content in a sample, the higher compression force and penetration of the gel. Gel freezing resulted in lower hardness. Freezing conditions had a significant effect on the properties tested. The correlation between compression forces and penetration depending on the carrageenan content and the freezing method was described using regression equations with high determination coefficients. Gels based on milk and juice with 2.2% carrageenan content are recommended for immersion freezing at rates above 5.0 cm·h-1.

  5. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone/carrageenan blend hydrogels with nanosilver prepared by gamma radiation for use as an antimicrobial wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Antaryami; Singh, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogels were prepared using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blended with carrageenan by gamma irradiation at different doses of 25 and 40 kGy. Gel fraction of hydrogels prepared using 10 and 15% PVP in combination with 0.25 and 0.5% carrageenan was evaluated. Based on gel fraction, 15% PVP in combination with 0.25% carrageenan and radiation dose of 25 kGy was selected for the preparation of hydrogels with nanosilver. Radiolytic synthesis of silver nanoparticles within the PVP hydrogel was carried out. The hydrogels with silver nanoparticles were assessed for antimicrobial effectiveness and physical properties of relevance to clinical performance. Fluid handling capacity (FHC) for PVP/carrageenan was 2.35 ± 0.39-6.63 ± 0.63 g/10 cm(2) in 2-24 h. No counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans were observed in the presence of hydrogels containing 100 ppm nanosilver after 3-6 h. The release of silver from hydrogels containing 100 ppm nanosilver was 20.42 ± 1.98 ppm/100 cm(2) in 24 h. Hydrogels containing 100 ppm nanosilver with efficient FHC demonstrated potential microbicidal activity (≥3 log10 decrease in CFU/ml) against wound pathogens, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans. PVP/carrageenan hydrogels containing silver nanoparticles can be used as wound dressings to control infection and facilitate the healing process for burns and other skin injuries.

  6. Basic butylated methacrylate copolymer/kappa-carrageenan interpolyelectrolyte complex: preparation, characterization and drug release behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, H J; Matulewicz, M C; Bonelli, P; Cukierman, A L

    2008-09-01

    The formation of a novel interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) between basic butylated methacrylate copolymer and kappa-carrageenan was investigated and the product formed was characterized. Turbidity measurements and elemental analyses pointed to a 1:1 interaction of the repeating units. These results and FT-IR confirmed IPEC formation. Electronic microscopy images, particle size determination by image analysis and N(2) (77K) adsorption measurements were consistent with a porous material. This IPEC formed presented very good flowability and compactibility. Two maxima were observed in the swelling behaviour as a function of pH. The performance of the IPEC as a matrix for controlled release of drugs was evaluated, using ibuprofen as a model drug. Release profiles were properly represented by a mathematical model, which indicates that the system releases ibuprofen in a zero-order manner. These profiles could be controlled by conveniently modifying the proportion of the IPEC in the tablets.

  7. Grafting of acrylamide onto kappa-carrageenan via {gamma}-irradiation: Optimization and swelling behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezanejade Bardajee, Ghasem [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourjavadi, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: purjavad@sharif.edu; Sheikh, Nasrin [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Radiation Applications Research School, Kargar Avenue, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadegh Amini-Fazl, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    The Taguchi method, a robust experimental design for optimization, was used for the synthesis of a superabsorbent hydrogel network using {gamma}-rays as an initiator, energy source and crosslinker at the same time. Nine different samples of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared in various conditions from kappa-carrageenan ({kappa}C) and acrylamide by {gamma}-irradiation at room temperature. Considering the results of nine trials and according to analysis of variance (ANOVA), a new experimental condition with the concentrations of {kappa}C and acrylamide 1.5 g and 0.028 mol (2 g in total volume of 50 mL H{sub 2}O), respectively, as well as {gamma}-ray at the optimum total dose (7 kGy) was proposed. After preparing the desired hydrogels according to optimum condition, the swelling behavior of hydrogels in different media was investigated.

  8. Antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities of Desmodium gangeticum fractions in carrageenan-induced inflamed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, R; Vijayakumar, M; Rao, Ch V; Shirwaikar, A; Kumar, Santhosh; Rawat, A K S; Pushpangadan, P

    2007-10-01

    Flavonoid and alkaloid fractions of Desmodium gangeticum were evaluated for antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities in carrageenan-induced inflamed rats with the aim of studying the promising fraction for inhibitory action on ferrous sulphate induced lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and total reduced glutathione in liver and spleen homogenates of inflamed rats. The results showed that the flavonoid fraction of D. gangeticum possesses potent antioxidant activity compared with the alkaloid fraction and also with respect to the standard drug indomethacin, in terms of augmentation of the liver and spleen SOD, CAT and GPX activities, concomitant with a reduction in lipid peroxidation (TBARS). In addition, the quantification of caffeic and chlorogenic acid in the flavonoid fraction has also been carried out using HPLC, which can be utilized as a marker compound in the standardization.

  9. Influence of elasticity on the syneresis properties of κ-carrageenan gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Komla

    2015-01-22

    Kappa-carrageenan hydrogels spontaneously release fluid (syneresis) under certain elasticity conditions, which depend on the temperature, the salt concentration in the gel (KCl) and the polysaccharide concentration. Strong and weak gels exhibit notably weak syneresis properties. The maximum syneresis was found at intermediate elasticity where the gel was neither strong nor weak. The variation in the gel composition indicated that the fluid is released according to the thermal retraction coefficient, which depends on the elasticity. Experiments revealed a dynamic equilibrium of the syneresis process where syneresis fluid was not withdrawn. However, once the fluid was removed from the gel surface, the release of solvent starts again if the elasticity is below the compressive pressure in the gel. Therefore, swelling of the gel is suggested as an explanation for the dynamic equilibrium of the syneresis process.

  10. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p < 0.05). Also CHE, Hex, EA and vitexin but not quinic acid inhibited TNF-α and IL-17 levels (p < 0.05). C. antisyphiliticus caused anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activated leukocytes, exudate concentrations, NOx, TNF-α, and IL-17 levels. The compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action.

  11. Effect of sodium aurothiomalate on carrageenan induced inflammation of the air pouch in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Y M; Wong, M K

    1992-01-01

    Acute inflammation was induced by injecting carrageenan into a 6 day old air pouch in mice. Sodium aurothiomalate was then given twice to each of three groups of mice via different routes. It was found that the mice injected intravenously with sodium aurothiomalate showed the most striking reduction in the number of exudate leucocytes in the inflammatory cavity, although the amount of gold found in their inflamed pouch lining tissue was the least. The amount of gold in plasma was highest in the mice injected intravenously with sodium aurothiomalate and the least amount of gold was found in the mice injected directly into the air pouch with sodium aurothiomalate. The amount of gold in the inflamed pouch lining tissue reached its peak at 24 hours after injection and a significant decrease of exudate leucocytes was only seen 24 and 72 hours after injection. The amount of gold in the exudate fluid was negligible at all the times studied. No significant difference was noted in the degree of inflammatory suppression when increasing doses of sodium aurothiomalate were injected into the air pouch. These findings show that there is no direct correlation between the gold concentration in the inflamed tissue and suppression of the inflammatory reactions in the cavity. Chemotactic and phagocytic analysis of leucocytes in the exudate showed that there was a significant suppression of the neutrophil activities in all the mice treated with sodium aurothiomalate. It is therefore concluded that the significant reduction in the number of exudate leucocytes at the carrageenan induced inflammatory site after treatment with sodium aurothiomalate is most likely due to the direct action of gold on the functional activities of circulating neutrophils.

  12. Biosilica-coated kappa-carrageenan microspheres for yeast alcohol dehydrogenase encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Jiang, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Zhong-Yi

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a novel polysaccharide/inorganic hybrid biocomposite was prepared through biomineralization-inspired process for efficient immobilization of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). YADH-encapsulated kappa-carrageenan microspheres (KCM) were first coated with chitosan, which was used to guide and catalyze the biomimetic formation of silica, and then coated with silica derived from tetraethoxysiliane (TEOS). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with a energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) was employed to investigate the composition and thickness of silica film. Compared with KCM, the silica-coated kappa-carrageenan microspheres (SKCM) containing YADH exhibited improved anti-swelling and catalytic properties. Enzyme leakage of YADH in KCM was detected to be 63.9% after 1 h, while the enzyme leakage in SKCM was as low as 18.2%. The KCM adsorbed water promptly and after 1 h maximum water uptake can be as high as 1576 wt%, while the water uptake of SKCM was only 143 wt% even after 48 h. The optimum pH and temperature for encapsulated YADH were pH 6.5 and 25 degrees C, which were just the same as those for free YADH, but the encapsulated YADH exhibited broader pH and temperature ranges for high activity. Furthermore, the relative activity of YADH in KCM declined almost to zero after 8 recycles, while the relative activity of YADH in SKCM still maintained more than 50%. The significantly increased recycling stability of YADH in SKCM may be attributed to the effective inhibition of enzyme leakage by the compact biosilica layer.

  13. A thermoreversible double gel: characterization of a methylcellulose and kappa-carrageenan mixed system in water by SAXS, DSC and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Matija; Prossnigg, Florian; Glatter, Otto

    2008-06-01

    Sol-gel and gel-sol thermal transition of methylcellulose/water, kappa-carrageenan/water and methylcellulose/kappa-carrageenan/water mixtures was investigated utilizing small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and oscillatory rheological experiments in temperature regime from 20 to 80 degrees C. Methylcellulose (E461) and kappa-carrageenan (E407) are well-known additives used for gelation in various nutrition and other products. The formulation and characterization of a mixed thermoreversible methylcellulose/kappa-carrageenan/water gel with very interesting double thermal transition gel-sol-gel upon heating was possible. This specific thermal behavior provides a liquid state of the system between the low-temperature and high-temperature gel-state and at the same time allows for the easy temperature tuning of the system's state. As such this system is suggested to be further tested as potential carrier for various functional colloidal systems.

  14. Effect of carrageenan level and packaging during ripening on processing and quality characteristics of low-fat fermented sausages produced with olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsopoulos, D A; Koutsimanis, G E; Bloukas, J G

    2008-05-01

    Eight low-fat fermented sausages were produced with partial replacement of pork backfat with olive oil. The total fat content of the sausages was 10% of which 8% was animal fat and 2% was olive oil. The sausages were produced with two types of carrageenan (ι- and κ-) in four levels (0%, 1%, 2% and 3%). ι-Carrageenan had a better effect (psausages, as well as, on sensory attributes. Low-fat fermented sausages with κ-carrageenan had the same (p>0.05) firmness as high-fat commercial sausages (control). The carrageenan level of 3% negatively affected the firmness of the sausages. In a 2nd experiment, a high-fat control (30% total fat) and three low-fat fermented sausages (10% total fat) with olive oil were produced with three levels of ι-carrageenan (0%, 1% and 2%). Low-fat sausages were vacuum packed for the last two weeks of ripening. ι-Carrageenan added at levels up to 2% had a positive effect (pfermented sausages. The application of vacuum packaging over last two weeks of ripening improved the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the sausages and resulted in sensory attributes equal to or better than the high-fat controls.

  15. 卡拉胶流变学特性及应用研究%Rheological Properties and Application of Carrageenan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟娟; 吴广州

    2012-01-01

      以半精制卡拉胶粉末为原料,主要研究了卡拉胶的含量,pH值和钾离子浓度对卡拉胶凝胶强度和黏度的影响,以及时间对卡拉胶的凝胶强度和出水的影响.结果表明凝胶强度随着卡拉胶含量的增加呈现线性增加渐趋平稳,受钾离子的影响先增大后降低,在pH8.0和10.0处出现2个拐点;卡拉胶溶液黏度随着含量的增加迅速增大,随钾离子的浓度增加而减少,中性时黏度最大;卡拉胶的出水量随着时间的延长而增大.%  Study on the effect of gel strength and viscosity from the content of carrageenan,pH value,concentration of potassium,and influence of time.The results indicated that the content of Carrageenan is an important affecting factor for gel strength and viscosity.Gel strength increases with the increase of the content of carrageenan which gradually reached a plateau,and increases with the increase of concentration of potassium.During the period,the two turning-point appear at pH 8.0 and 10.Gel viscosity increases with the increase of colloid content promptly,but decreases with concentration of potassium.Gel strength and water exit of carrageenan become stronger when the time is being extended.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene on carrageenan-induced paw oedema and hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Bignotto, L; Rocha, J.; Sepodes, B; Eduardo-Figueira, M; Pinto, R.; Chaud, M; Carvalho, J.; Moreno, H.; Mota-Filipe, H

    2009-01-01

    The regular intake of tomatoes or its products has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases and these effects have been mainly attributed to lycopene. Here, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of lycopene and its protective effects on organ injury in two experimental models of inflammation. In order to study the effects of lycopene in local inflammation, a carrageenan-induced paw oedema model in rats was performed. Lycopene was administered as an acute (1, 10, 25 or 5...

  17. Heterogeneity in iota-carrageenan molecular structure: insights for polymorph II→III transition in the presence of calcium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Chandrasekaran, Rengaswami (Purdue)

    2008-06-24

    Iota-carrageenan is used in pharmaceutical and food applications due to its ability to complex with other hydrocolloids and proteins. Six distinct cation dependent allomorphs, consistent with its versatile functionality, have so far been observed in the solid state. In this contribution, X-ray structural details of calcium iota-carrageenan (form III) are reported. The polysaccharide retains the half-staggered, parallel, 3-fold, right-handed double helix stabilized by interchain hydrogen bonds from O-2H and O-6H in the Galp units. Results show that there are four helices, rather than one in I or three in II, organized in a larger pseudo-trigonal unit cell of dimensions a=27.44, c=13.01 A, and gamma=120 degrees . The four helices have similar core structures, but their sulfate group orientations are quite different. Fifteen calcium ions and 64 water molecules hold the helices together and promote helix-helix interactions. The results portray how the helices would shuffle around in an orchestrated manner to yield calcium iota-carrageenan III from II.

  18. Deep eutectic solvents as efficient solvent system for the extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2016-01-20

    Three different deep eutectic solvents (DESs) prepared by the complexation of choline chloride with urea, ethylene glycol and glycerol along with their hydrated counterparts were used for the selective extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii. Upon comparison of the quality of the polysaccharide with the one obtained using water as extraction media as well as the one extracted using widely practiced conventional method, it was found that, the physicochemical as well as rheological properties of κ-carrageenan obtained using DESs as solvents was at par to the one obtained using conventional method and was superior in quality when compared to κ-carrageenan obtained using water as solvent. Considering the tedious nature of the extraction method employed in conventional extraction process, the DESs can be considered as suitable alternative solvents for the facile extraction of the polysaccharide directly from the seaweed. However, among the hydrated and non-hydrated DESs, the hydrated ones were found to be more effective in comparison to their non-hydrated counterparts.

  19. Stabilization of k-carrageenan gel with polymeric amines: use of immobilized cells as biocatalysts at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, K.C.; Haugen, M.M.; Royer, G.P.

    1986-09-01

    Spherical beads of kappa-carrageenan containing entrapped cells were prepared in a two-step process. First, the beads were formed by dispersing a warm carrageenan cell suspension into stirring oil. After cooling (gelation) the beads were cured by treatment with amines. Ten amines of various sizes and structures were tested. The mechanical strength and the applicability of amine-treated gels as immobilization matrices was evaluated. The results of critical compression tests indicate that linear and branched polyethylenimines (PEI) are both good curing agents. PEI-treated carrageenan beds also exhibited superior resistance to heat and abrasion. Furthermore, PEI polymers were demonstrated to be effective in stabilizing the lactase activity of the free and immobilized Bacillus stearothermophilus cells. The immobilized cell preparations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, B. stearothermophilus, and Flavobacterium sp. were treated with branched PEI and evaluated for the activity of invertase (EC 3.2.1.26), lactase (EC 3.2.1.23), and glucose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.18), respectively, in a packed bed reactor at 60 degrees C. The apparent half-lives were 108, 39, and 64 days, respectively.

  20. Characterisation of Prosopis juliflora seed gum and the effect of its addition to {kappa}-carrageenan systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azero, Edwin G. [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Andrade, Cristina T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano]. E-mail: ctandrade@ima.ufrj.br

    2006-09-15

    The galactomannan from Prosopis juliflora (PJ galactomannan) was extracted from milled seeds in water at 50 deg C. Its structural and solution properties were characterised in comparison with a commercial sample of guar gum (GG galactomannan). After partial degradation, the resulting samples were submitted to {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy. The mannose to galactose (M/G) ratios of PJ (M/G = 1.64) and GG (M/G = 1.85) galactomannans were estimated from the relative peak areas of the corresponding C-1 lines. Expansion of the C-4 lines revealed differences in the fine structure of the two galactomannans. The intrinsic viscosity determined for the GG sample, [{eta}] = 10.3 dL g{sup -1}, was slightly higher than that determined for PJ galactomannan, [{eta}] = 9.4 dL g{sup -1}. Dynamic experiments carried out at the same concentrations showed similar viscoelastic behaviours for the two gums. No enhancement in the storage modulus (G') was observed for {kappa}-carrageenan/PJ mixed solution in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} KCl at 1.0 g L{sup -1} total polymer concentration, in relation to {kappa}-carrageenan alone. Self-supporting gels obtained by mixing {kappa}-carrageenan and PJ or GG galactomannans in 0.25 mol L{sup -1} KCl at 10 g L{sup -1} total polymer concentration displayed similar mechanical properties. (author)

  1. Controlled release of thiamin in a glassy κ-carrageenan/glucose syrup matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyoyai, Naksit; Bannikova, Anna; Small, Darryl M; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-01-22

    The work dealt with the diffusional mobility of thiamin embedded in a high-solid matrix of κ-carrageenan with glucose syrup. It utilized thermomechanical analysis in the form of modulated differential scanning calorimetry and small-deformation dynamic oscillation in shear, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The structural properties of the matrix were assessed in a temperature induced rubber-to-glass transformation. A thiamin-dye binding assay was employed to monitor the diffusion process of the vitamin from the high-solid preparation to ethylene glycol. The relationship between mechanical properties of the carbohydrate matrix and vitamin mobility was assessed via the application of the combined framework of the free volume theory and the predictions of the reaction rate theory. Results argue that the transport of the micronutrient is governed by the structural relaxation of the high-solid matrix. These were further treated with the concept of Fickian diffusion coefficient to provide the rate of the bioactive compound mobility within the present experimental settings.

  2. 2,3-butanediol production by immobilized Enterobacter aerogenes IAM1133 with k-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, J.W.; Erarslan, A.; Kinoshita, S.; Taguchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    Enterbacter aerogenes IAM1133 was selected for 2,3-butanediol fermentation among 13 strains known to be 2,3-butanediol producers. This strain produced 11 mg/ml of 2,3-butanediol on 24-hr fermentation with 5% glucose. The cells were entrapped with k-carrageenan, which was activated in the medium to permit the growth in the matrix. It took one day to obtain the maximum activity of production and this activity was kept stable. The incubation conditions, such as pH, temperature, liquid volume (dissolved oxygen), and glucose concentration, for immobilized cells were not as sensitive as those for native cells. The production of 2,3-butanediol by the immobilized cells was carried out at pH 7 and at 30/sup 0/C with 5% glucose and 40 ml of medium in a 100 ml-flask. The long term production by immobilized cell was carried out by sequential replacement culture and continuous culture and they were stable without any loss of activity for at least 10 days. The production of acetoin was decreased by immobilization and the production of 2,3-butanediol by the cells released from the gel was negligible.

  3. Gelam honey attenuates carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation via NF-κB pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Zuhair Hussein

    Full Text Available The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Gelam honey in inflammation induced rats via NF-κB signalling pathway. Rats paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the right hind paw. Rats were pre-treated with Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o. and NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o., in two time points (1 and 7 days. Our results showed that Gelam honey at both concentrations suppressed the gene expressions of NF-κB (p65 & p50 and IκBα in inflamed rats paw tissues. In addition, Gelam honey inhibited the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB and decreased the cytosolic degradation of IκBα dose dependently in inflamed rats paw tissues. The immunohistochemical expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were also decreased in inflamed rats paw tissues when treated with Gelam honey. The results of our findings suggest that Gelam honey exhibits its inhibitory effects by attenuating NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and inhibiting IκBα degradation, with subsequent decrease of inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α.

  4. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sodium Valproate on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mj Khoshnood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABESTRACT: Introduction & objective: Inflammation is a body defensive response to the endogenous and exogenous stimulators such as chemical, radiation, trauma and invasive microorganism, which result pain and tissue necrosis. There are many natural and synthetic drugs for treatment of inflammation and lot of them are under investigation. Sodium valporate is an antiepileptic drug used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizure notably absence, myocolonic seizure, acute manic phase of bipolar disorder and prophylaxis of migraine. The previous observations showed sodium valporate increases level of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the central and peripheral nervous system. In acute inflammation, GABA showed a significant attenuation of paw edema and nociception. The aim of this study was evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of sodium valporate. Materials & Methods: In order to evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiexudative of sodium valporate doses of 200,400 and 600 mg/kg were investigated on rat paw edema that induced by carrageenan. In addition, the plasma leakage in the inflamed tissue was evaluated by application of trypan blue as intravenous injection. Dexamethason was used as positive control. Results: Results showed sodium valporate doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg decreased inflammatory and exudative effect as compared to control group. Conclusion: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of this drug were not evident but we can say sodium valporate in addition to already proved effects has anti-inflammatory effect.

  5. Synergistic effects of mixed salt on the gelation of κ-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bach T; Nicolai, Taco; Benyahia, Lazhar; Chassenieux, Christophe

    2014-11-04

    The effect of the addition of calcium or sodium ions on the potassium induced gelation of κ-carrageenan (κ-car) is investigated using oscillatory shear rheology and turbidimetry. Both the gelation kinetics and the steady state shear moduli are investigated. Gelation in mixed salt solutions is compared with that in pure potassium and calcium solutions. It is shown that the elastic shear modulus increases with increasing pure KCl concentration, but decreases with increasing pure CaCl2 concentration. In mixed salts, gelation of κ-car is induced by potassium and addition of CaCl2 leads to an increase of the elastic modulus with increasing CaCl2 concentration. κ-Car gelled at low mixed salt concentrations for which it remained liquid in pure salt. At equivalent ionic strengths, the effect of adding NaCl on potassium induced gelation is much weaker. In pure KCl solutions, κ-car gels are transparent, but in pure CaCl2 they become increasingly turbid with increasing CaCl2 concentration. The turbidity of gels formed in mixed salts is intermediate.

  6. Impact of cultivation of Mastocarpus stellatus in IMTA on the seaweeds chemistry and hybrid carrageenan properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Gabriela; Domingues, Bernardo; Abreu, Helena; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Feio, Gabriel; Hilliou, Loic

    2015-02-13

    The biomass yield potential of Mastocarpus stellatus, a commercially attractive carrageenophyte for foods and pharmaceutics, was investigated by cultivating the seaweeds in the nutrient-rich outflow of a commercial fish farm. Results from two consecutive 4 weeks experiments indicate that the cultivation of this seaweed produces a mean biomass of 21 to 40.6 gDW m(-2) day(-1) depending on the time of the experiment. DRIFT and CP-MAS NMR analyses of seaweeds indicate that cultivation during May affected quantitatively the seaweeds chemistry, and thus the chemical and gelling properties of native extracts of kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenan (KI). Overall, algal growth leads to the production of more sulphated KI, the percentage increase varying between 27% and 44% for the two experiments. However, alkali treatment of seaweeds before extraction reduces the variations in gelling properties of KI induced by the algal growth. This study demonstrates the capacity of growing M. stellatus in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system for the sustainable production of high value polysaccharides.

  7. The effects of sucrose on the mechanical properties of acid milk proteins-kappa-carrageenan gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sabadini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties have been widely correlated with textural characteristics to determine the interactions during the process formation of dairy gel. These interactions are strongly affected by process conditions and system composition. In the present study, the rheological of acid-induced protein dairy gels with (2(7-3 and without (2(6-2 sucrose and subjected to small and large deformations were studied using an experimental design. The independent variables were the sodium caseinate, whey protein concentrate (WPC, carrageenan and sucrose concentrations as well as stirring speed and heat treatment time and temperature. Mechanical deformation tests were performed at 0.1, 1, 5, and 9 mm/s up to 80% of initial height. A heavy dependence of rupture stress on increasing crosshead speed and the formation of harder gels with the addition of sucrose were observed. Moreover the elastic and viscous moduli, obtained by fitting the Maxwell model to stress relaxation data, increased with increasing addition of sucrose. These results can be explained by preferential hydration of the casein with sucrose, causing an induction of casein-polysaccharide and casein-casein interactions.

  8. Rheology of κ/ι-hybrid carrageenan from Mastocarpus stellatus: Critical parameters for the gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Chenlo, F; Moreira, R

    2016-05-01

    The sol-gel diagrams of kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenan (KI) extracted from Mastocarpus stellatus powders with two different average particle sizes of the seaweed powders (117.0 μm and 77.5 μm) prior to the biopolymer extraction, are reported for the first time, together with rheological properties of obtained KI gels. Extraction yields for KI isolated from algae and average molecular weight of KI, determined by gel permeation chromatography, decreased with increasing the particle size of the powder. Rheological results indicated that tested samples exhibited stable and weak gel properties, except those prepared at 1.5% KI in 1.0 mol/L NaCl where stronger gels were found. Aqueous KI extracts with larger molecular weight led to stronger gels and also formed gels at lower biopolymer concentration in NaCl above 0.15 mol/L. All gels reached stability after 20 min of maturation. The data sets showed a strong temperature dependency. Gel setting temperatures significantly depended on the KI and NaCl content, whereas gel melting temperatures (68.0 ± 0.7 °C) were independent of both salt concentrations.

  9. Improvement of Emulsifying Properties of Wheat Gluten Hydrolysate λ-Carrageenan Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Shui Wang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluten hydrolysate was prepared through limited enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten resulting from the byproducts of wheat starch. The enzyme applied in the present study was Protamex. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of pH, gluten hydrolysate (GHPλ-carrageenan (C ratio and reaction time on emulsifying properties of the GHP-C conjugate. The regression model for emulsion activity index (EAI was significant at p=0.001, while reaction time had a significant effect on EAI of the conjugate with regression coefficient of 4.25. The interactions of pH and GHP/ C ratio, and GHP/C ratio and reaction time significantly affected the EAI of the conjugate. Both the emulsifying property and nitrogen solubility index (NSI of GHP-C conjugate prepared under the optimal conditions increased more remarkably, compared to the control. The denaturation temperature of GHP-C conjugate obviously increased compared to wheat gluten. The addition of GHP-C conjugate had different effects on dough characteristics. Moreover, this conjugate can delay the increase in the bread crumb firmness during storage. It demonstrated that this conjugate couldimprove the dough characteristics and had anti-staling properties of bread.

  10. Pimaradienoic Acid Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Leukocyte Recruitment and Edema in Mice: Inhibition of Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide and Cytokine Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra S Mizokami

    Full Text Available Pimaradienoic acid (PA; ent-pimara-8(14,15-dien-19-oic acid is a pimarane diterpene found in plants such as Vigueira arenaria Baker (Asteraceae in the Brazilian savannas. Although there is evidence on the analgesic and in vitro inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways, and paw edema by PA, its anti-inflammatory effect deserves further investigation. Thus, the objective of present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of PA in carrageenan-induced peritoneal and paw inflammation in mice. Firstly, we assessed the effect of PA in carrageenan-induced leukocyte recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity. Next, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of PA. The effect of PA on carrageenan-induced oxidative stress in the paw skin and peritoneal cavity was assessed. We also tested the effect of PA on nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and inflammatory cytokine production in the peritoneal cavity. PA inhibited carrageenan-induced recruitment of total leukocytes and neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner. PA also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity in the paw skin. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of PA depended on maintaining paw skin antioxidant activity as observed by the levels of reduced glutathione, ability to scavenge the ABTS cation and reduce iron as well as by the inhibition of superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, PA inhibited carrageenan-induced peritoneal production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. PA presents prominent anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced inflammation by reducing oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and cytokine production. Therefore, it seems to be a promising anti-inflammatory molecule that merits further investigation.

  11. Preparation and characterization of semi-refined kappa carrageenan-based edible film for nano coating application on minimally processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, Godras Jati; Praseptiangga, Danar; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji; Maimuni, Bawani Hindami

    2016-02-01

    Shorter and easier processing of semi-refined kappa carrageenan extracted from Euchema cottonii red seaweed result in cheaper price of the polysaccharide. In this study, edible film was prepared from the semi-refined carrageenan without any salt addition. The effect of the carrageenan concentration (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% w/v) on physical and mechanical properties of the edible film was studied. Edible film thickness and tensile strength increased but elongation at break and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) decreased as the concentration increased. Based on the characteristic of the edible film, formulation using 2% carrageenan was recommended. The edible film demonstrated the characteristic as follow: 0.054 mm thickness, 21.14 MPa tensile strength, 12.36% elongation at break, and 9.56 g/m2.hour WVTR. It was also noted the carrageenan-based edible film indicated potential physical and mechanical characteristics for nano coating applications on minimally processed food.

  12. Effect of process conditions on the gel viscosity and gel strength of semi-refined carrageenan (SRC produced from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awang Bono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kappaphycus alvarezii or commonly known Euchema cottonii is a good source of kappa-carrageenan and can be found cultivated in the coastal areas of Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia. Carrageenans have many applications and are utilized in human food and pet-food industry. Carrageenans are also utilized in non-food industry such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, printing and textile formulations. Currently, the Southeast Asian region is producing semi refined carrageenan (SRC. There are various works in producing SRC; however, there are limited efforts to develop the optimization of cooking process parameters. Hence, the present study features on the cooking process (alkaline treatment where the parameters (concentration of potassium hydroxide solution, cooking time and cooking temperature and the ranges are identified experimentally. The effects of these parameters on carrageenan quality such as gel viscosity and gel strength were studied. The optimization of cooking process parameters and the experimental design was conducted based on the Central Composite Design (CCD of Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The experimental result showed that gel viscosity increases with the decrease of cooking time, cooking temperature and potassium hydroxide (KOH concentration (% w/w. In contrast, gel strength increases as cooking time, cooking temperature and KOH concentration (% w/w increases. From the optimization, the best conditions for alkaline treatment found were cooking temperature 80 °C, cooking time 30 min and KOH concentration 10 (% w/w which are similar to current practice in industry.

  13. Foaming Properties of Whey Protein Isolate and λ-Carrageenan Mixed Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengshan; Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-08-01

    Heating protein with polysaccharide under neutral or near neutral pH can induce the formation of soluble complex with improved functional properties. The objective of our research was to investigate the effects of λ-carrageenan (λC) concentrations and pH on foaming properties of heated whey protein isolate (WPI) and λC soluble complex (h-cpx) in comparison to heated WPI with added λC (pWPI-λC), and unheated WPI with λC (WPI-λC). In all 3 WPI-λC systems at pH 7, increasing λC concentration led to improved foamability until a certain concentration before it decreased. Despite their higher viscosity, both heated systems (pWPI-λC and h-cpx) showed significantly better foamability and foam stability compared to WPI-λC. Rheological results of foams with 0.25% λC suggested that higher elasticity and viscous films were produced in h-cpx and pWPI-λC systems corresponding to better foam stability. Foam microstructure images indicated that foams produced from h-cpx had thicker film and consisted of smaller initial bubble area and more uniform bubble size. Results from the effect of pH (6.2, 6.5, and 7.0) further confirmed that stronger interactions between WPI and λC during heating contributed to the improved foaming properties. Foam stability was higher in h-cpx system at all 3 pH levels, especially under pH 6.2 where there were strongest interactions between the biopolymers.

  14. Calea uniflora Less. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Julia Salvan; de Mello, Silvana Virginia Gagliotti Vigil; Vicente, Geison; Moon, Yeo Jim K; Daltoé, Felipe Perozzo; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; de Jesus Souza, Rafaela; Biavatti, Maique Weber; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Calea uniflora Less. (family Asteraceae), also named "arnica" and "erva-de-lagarto", is a native plant to the South and Southeast of Brazil. This species was used to treat rheumatism, respiratory diseases, and digestive problems in Brazilian folk medicine. In vitro studies have shown the important biological effects of C. uniflora. However no studies have focused on the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory activity of C. uniflora. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the crude extract, its fractions, and isolated compounds obtained from of C. uniflora, using mouse model of carrageenan-induced inflammation. The following inflammatory parameters: leukocyte influx, degree of exudation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), proinflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB (p-p65 NF-κB), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) levels were determined. The crude extract of C. uniflora, its fractions and its isolated compounds reduced the leukocyte influx, degree of exudation, MPO and ADA activities, NOx, TNF-α, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and IL-6 levels (p<0.05). The isolated compounds reduced p-p65 NF-κB and p-p38 MAPK levels (p<0.01). This study demonstrated that C. uniflora exhibits a significant anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of the leukocyte influx and degree of exudation. These effects were associated with a decrease in the levels of several proinflammatory mediators. The mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of C. uniflora may be, at least in part, via the inhibition of p65 NF-κB and p38 MAPK activation by the isolated compounds.

  15. Evaluation of the protective effect of pentoxifylline on carrageenan-induced chronic non-bacterial prostatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajighorbani, Mahboobeh; Ahmadi-Hamedani, Mahmood; Shahab, Elaheh; Hayati, Farzad; Kafshdoozan, Khatereh; Keramati, Keivan; Amini, Amin Hossein

    2017-03-09

    Chronic non-bacterial prostatitis (CNP) is the most common type of prostatitis and oxidative stress (OS) was shown to be highly elevated in prostatitis patients. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on CNP induced by carrageenan in rats. Male adult Wistar rats (n = 30) were divided into control, CNP and three treatment groups (n = 6) including CNP + cernilton and CNP + PTX groups. CNP was induced by single intraprostatic injection of 1% carrageenan (100 µl). Rats in treatment groups received orally cernilton 100 mg/kg and PTX at 50 and 100 mg/kg 1 week after CNP induction for 21 days. Prostatic index (PI), prostatic specific antigen (PSA), tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), serum lipid peroxidation (MDA), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and histopathological changes were compared between groups. There were significant increase of PI, serum levels of PSA, TNF-α and MDA in CNP group at 29 day. In treatment groups, significant reduction in PI, serum levels of PSA, TNF-α, MDA and creatinine was observed especially in rats treated with dose of 50 mg/kg of PTX. In CNP group, histopathological changes of the prostate such as leucocyte infiltration, large involutions and projection into the lumen and reducing the volume of the lumen were observed as well. Whereas PTX, especially at dose of 50 mg/kg, could improve the above-mentioned changes remarkably in CNP treated rats. For the first time, our findings indicated that PTX improved CNP induced by carrageenan in rats.

  16. Applications of Carrageenan in food industry%卡拉胶在食品工业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋战鹰

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces mainly applications of carrageenan in food industry as additive. It is used for solidifier, thicker, emulsifier. Suspender, binder. shaper and stabilizer in food making.%介绍了卡拉胶在食品工业中的一些主要作用.卡拉胶作为一种添加剂在食品制作过程中,可用作凝固剂、增稠剂、乳化剂、悬浮剂、粘合剂、成型剂和稳定剂.

  17. The prophylactic effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid and salazosulphapyridine on degraded-carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Experimental colitis was induced in guinea pigs by administration of 5% degraded carrageenan for 5 days. The prophylactic effect of a slow-release preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA; 13 mg/100 g/day) was compared with approximately equimolar amounts of salazosulphapyridine (SASP; 26 mg/100....... In the placebo group, all guinea pigs developed many small punctiform ulcerations in the cecum (median, 30/cm2). In the 5-ASA group no protective effect was demonstrated, since the number of ulcerations was 37/cm2. The difference is not statistically significant. However, the SASP group presented significantly...

  18. Improvement of mechanical properties of hydrogel by irradiation of polymers in aqueous solution with {kappa}-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, K.; Yoshii, F. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Aranilla, C.T. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon (Philippines); Zhai, M. [Department of Technical Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2000-03-01

    Predominate radiation reaction of {kappa}-carrageenan (KC) hydrogel is the main chain scission of KC. The gel strength of KC hydrogel decreased with increasing irradiation dose. However, KC was found to enhances the radiation crosslinking of synthetic water-soluble polymer (SWSP) such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(N-vinylpyrolidone) (PVP) in aqueous solution. The gel strength of SWSP hydrogel increased with increasing dose when KC was blended. Probably the radiation degraded KC radicals are recombined with radicals of PVP and PEO. The hydrogel thus prepared absorbs huge amounts of water due to the presence of strong hydrophilic -OSO{sub 3}{sup -} groups in KC. (author)

  19. Carrageenan type effect on soybean oil/soy protein isolate emulsion employed as fat replacer in panela-type cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Nery, E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to modify the fatty acid profile of panela-type cheese (a Mexican fresh cheese, emulsified soybean oil with soy protein isolate and different carrageenan (iota, kappa or lambda was employed as fat replacer. The replacement of milk fat in panela-type cheese resulted in higher cheese yield values and moisture content, besides a concomitant lower fat phase and higher protein content, due to a soy protein isolate in emulsified soybean oil. Fat replacement resulted in a harder but less cohesive, spring and resilient texture, where differences in texture could be attributed to the specific carrageenan-casein interactions within the rennet coagulated cheese matrix. The FTIR analysis showed that the milk fat replacement changed the fatty acid profile, also in function of the type of carrageenan employed. Lambda carrageenan containing emulsions improved moisture retention and maintained the textural properties of panela-type cheese.Para modificar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los quesos tipo panela (queso fresco popular en México, se utilizó aceite de soja emulsionado con aislado de proteína de soja y diferentes carrageninas (iota, kappa o lambda como sustituto de la grasa. Reemplazar la grasa de la leche en el queso tipo panela resultó en mayor rendimiento quesero y mayor contenido de humedad, además de una concomitante menor fase grasa y mayor contenido de proteína, debido al aislado de proteína de soja en el aceite de soja emulsionado. La sustitución de la grasa dio como resultado una textura más dura, pero menos cohesiva, elástica y resiliente, donde estas diferencias podrían ser atribuidas a la interacción especifica entre carrageninas-caseinas en la matriz coagulada del queso. El análisis de FTIR muestra que reemplazar la grasa de la leche cambia el perfil de ácidos grasos, también en función del tipo de carragenina empleado. Las emulsiones con lambda carrageninas mejoraron la retención de humedad y mantuvieron las

  20. MEKANISME PROSES TAHAP EKSTRAKSI KARAGENAN DARI Eucheuma cottonii MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT ALKALI (The Mechanism of Carrageenan Extraction from Eucheuma cottonii Using Alkaline Solvent)

    OpenAIRE

    Sperisa Distantina; Rochmadi Rochmadi; Wiratni Wiratni; Moh. Fahrurrozi

    2013-01-01

    Carrageenan recovery process was developed for Eucheuma cottonii by investigating the effects of distilled water, KOH (0.1-0.5 N) and NaOH (0.1-1.0 N) as the solvent on carrageenan yield and gel properties. Extraction process was carried out with a constant ratio of seaweed weight to solvent volume (1: 50; g/mL) at 80oC.  A certain amount of the liquid sample was withdrawn at regular interval time for analysis. Filtrate was separated from residue by pouring ethanol. The precipitated carrageen...

  1. Kakkalide and its metabolite irisolidone ameliorate carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice by inhibiting NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sung-Won; Park, Young-Jun; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory activities of kakkalide, a major constituent of the flower of Pueraria thunbergiana, and irisolidone, a metabolite of kakkalide produced by intestinal microflora, against carrageenan-induced inflammation in air pouches on the backs of mice and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages were investigated. Kakkalide and irisolidone down-regulated the gene expression of cytokines [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)] and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, and inflammatory mediators, NO and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. These agents also inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Orally administered kakkalide and irisolidone significantly reduced carrageenan-induced inflammatory markers, leukocyte number, and protein amount in the exudates of the air pouch. These constituents also inhibited PGE(2) production and COX-2 inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression. These agents also inhibited NF-κB activation. The anti-inflammatory effects of irisolidone were more potent than those of kakkalide. Based on these findings, kakkalide and irisolidone may inhibit inflammatory reactions via NF-κB pathway, and irisolidone, a metabolite of kakkalide, may more potently inhibit these inflammatory reactions.

  2. Carrageenan-based semi-IPN nanocomposite hydrogels: Swelling kinetic and slow release of sequestrene Fe 138 fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Bahrami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite hydrogels based on kappa-carrageenan were synthesized by incorporating natural sodium montmorillonite (Cloisite nanoclay. Acrylamide (AAm and methylenebisacrylamide (MBA were used as a monomer and a crosslinker, respectively. Effects of reaction variables on the swelling kinetics were studied. The results revealed that the rate of swelling for nanocomposites with high content of MBA was higher than those of nanocomposites consisting of low content of MBA. Similar to the effect of MBA, the rate of swelling enhanced as the carrageenan content was decreased. The influence of clay content on swelling rate was not remarkable. The experimental swelling data were evaluated by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The swelling data described well by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Sequestrene Fe 138 (Sq as an agrochemical was loaded into nanocomposites and releasing of this active agent from nanocomposites was studied. The clay-free hydrogel released the whole loaded Sq; whereas the presence of clay restricted the release of Sq.

  3. Controlled release of diclofenac sodium from pH-responsive carrageenan-g-poly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent hydrogel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, controlled release of diclofenac sodium (DS) from pH-sensitive carrageenan-gpoly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent hydrogels was investigated. The hydrogels were prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto kappa-carrageenan, using ammonium persulfate (APS) as a free radical initiator in the presence of methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. Infrared spectroscopy was carried out to confirm the chemical structure of the hydrogel. Moreover, morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesized hydrogels were subjected to equilibrium swelling studies in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF). Hydrogels containing drug DS, at different drug-to-polymer ratios, were prepared by direct adsorption method. The loading yield was found to depend on both the impregnation time and the amount of encapsulated drug. In vitro drug-release studies in different buffer solutions showed that the most important parameter affecting the drug-release behaviour of hydrogels is the pH of the solution. The mechanism involved in release was Fickian ( ≤ 0.43, = 0.348) and Super Case II kinetics ( > 1, = 1.231) at pH 1.2 and 7.4, respectively.

  4. Chitosan and Kappa-Carrageenan Vaginal Acyclovir Formulations for Prevention of Genital Herpes. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, María-Pilar; Martín-Illana, Araceli; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Bermejo, Paulina; Abad, María-José; Carro, Rubén; Bedoya, Luis-Miguel; Tamayo, Aitana; Rubio, Juan; Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; Otero-Espinar, Francisco; Veiga, María-Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations have been developed for the controlled release of acyclovir, which may prevent the sexual transmission of the herpes simplex virus. Drug release studies were carried out in two media: simulated vaginal fluid and simulated vaginal fluid/simulated seminal fluid mixture. The bioadhesive capacity and permanence time of the bioadhesion, the prepared compacts, and compacted granules were determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate. Swelling processes were quantified to confirm the release data. Biocompatibility was evaluated through in vitro cellular toxicity assays, and the results showed that acyclovir and the rest of the materials had no cytotoxicity at the maximum concentration tested. The mixture of hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose with chitosan- or kappa-carrageenan-originated mucoadhesive systems that presented a complete and sustained release of acyclovir for a period of 8–9 days in both media. Swelling data revealed the formation of optimal mixed chitosan/hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose gels which could be appropriated for the prevention of sexual transmission of HSV. PMID:26393621

  5. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases C, N and S assimilation, auxin and gibberellin contents, and growth in Pinus radiata trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Saucedo; Rodrigo A Contreras; Alejandra Moenne

    2015-01-01

    Oligo-carrageenans (OCs) obtained from pure carrageenans extracted from marine red algae stimulate growth by enhancing photosynthesis and basal metabolism in tobacco plants and Eucalyptus trees. In addition, OCs stimulate secondary metabolism, increasing the level of metabolites involved in defense against pathogens. In this work, we analyzed the effect of OC kappa on the increase in height, in activities of basal metabolism enzymes in-volved in carbon, nitrogen and sulphur assimilation, ribu-lose 1,5 biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and O-acetylserine thiol-lyase (OASTL), and in the level of growth-promoting hormones, the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA) and the gibberellin GA3, in pine (Pinus radiata) trees treated with OC kappa at concentrations of 1 and 5 mg mL-1 and cultivated for 9 months without additional treatment. Pines treated with OC kappa at 1 mg mL-1 showed a similar increase in height but displayed a higher increased in total chlorophyll, activities of rubisco, GDH and OASTL and level of IAA and GA3 than those treated with OC kappa at 5 mg mL-1. Thus, OC kappa stimulates growth and basal metabolism and increases the level of growth-promoting hormones in pine trees, mainly at 1 mg mL-1.

  6. The in vivo toxicity of carbon tetrachloride and carrageenan on heart microsomes: analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, A M; Perromat, A; Deleris, G

    2001-09-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of rat heart microsomes to free radical attack using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. This physico-chemical method seemed a valuable technique: quite sensitive to changes in the vibrational spectra. The spectral variations observed between normal and treated rats were in great part due to reactive oxygen species that led to changes in protein conformation involving beta-sheets, aggregation of proteins, and modification of protein synthesis. Carrageenan-induced inflammation slightly enhanced the total lipid content; rearrangement of acyl chains and accumulation of cholesterol esters and phospholipids also occurred in the treated rats. Carbon tetrachloride induced a decrease in both lipid and protein contents. The level of glucidic substrates was diminished with carbon tetrachloride and enhanced with carrageenan; these changes were due to metabolic interactions between cell components and drugs. FT-IR spectroscopy provided an accurate means to monitor, in rat heart, the in vivo effects of inflammatory and peroxidative damages, to discriminate and classify the affected cells, and to correlate the findings with known physiological and biochemical data in close relationship with metabolic disruptions induced by the two xenobiotics.

  7. Chitosan and Kappa-Carrageenan Vaginal Acyclovir Formulations for Prevention of Genital Herpes. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Pilar Sánchez-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations have been developed for the controlled release of acyclovir, which may prevent the sexual transmission of the herpes simplex virus. Drug release studies were carried out in two media: simulated vaginal fluid and simulated vaginal fluid/simulated seminal fluid mixture. The bioadhesive capacity and permanence time of the bioadhesion, the prepared compacts, and compacted granules were determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate. Swelling processes were quantified to confirm the release data. Biocompatibility was evaluated through in vitro cellular toxicity assays, and the results showed that acyclovir and the rest of the materials had no cytotoxicity at the maximum concentration tested. The mixture of hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose with chitosan- or kappa-carrageenan-originated mucoadhesive systems that presented a complete and sustained release of acyclovir for a period of 8–9 days in both media. Swelling data revealed the formation of optimal mixed chitosan/hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose gels which could be appropriated for the prevention of sexual transmission of HSV.

  8. Effect of Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis extracts on histamine and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the chicken skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomash, V; Parihar, S K; Jain, N K; Katiyar, A K

    2010-02-09

    We studied anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Solanum nigrum leaves and Ricinus communis root bark using chicken skin as model. Leaves of these plants were dried under shade and powdered. 5% Ethanol extracts were prepared using Soxhlet and injected intraperitoneally (400 mg/kg) 1 hour prior to the induction of inflammation. Inflammatory lesion were induced by intradermal injection of 0.02 ml 0.05%w/v histamine (0-2 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr and 6 hr) and 1% w/v carrageenan (0-2 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr and 48 hr) in different group of birds. Increase in vascular permeability was studied using Evans blue as a permeability marker both qualitatively and quantitatively. Cellular events were studied in skin lesions at various time intervals and cells were counted at high power objective under microscope. Both, extracts exhibited significant decrease in permeability response at an early stage (0-2 min) of histamine as well as in carrageenan induced inflammatory lesions. There was a significant (pRicinus communis pretreated chicken skin lesions as compared to the control. The present study suggested antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties of ethanolic extract of Solanum nigrum and Ricinus communis.

  9. Synthesis of graft copolymer (k-carrageenan-g-N,N-dimethylacrylamide) and studies of metal ion uptake, swelling capacity and flocculation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, D.K.; Tripathy, J.; Behari, K. [University of Allahabad, Allahabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2008-03-15

    Graft copolymer of k-carrageenan and N,N-dimethylacrylamide has been synthesized by free radical polymerization using peroxymonosulphate/glycolic acid redox pair in an inert atmosphere. The grafting parameters i.e. grafting ratio, add on and efficiency decrease with increase in concentration of k-carrageenan from 0.6 to 1.4 g dm{sup -3} and hydrogen ion from 3 x 10{sup -3} to 7 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}, but these grafting parameters increase with increase in concentration of N,N-dimethylacrylamide from 16 x 10{sup -2} to 32 x 10{sup -2} mol dm{sup -3}, and peroxymonosulphate from 0.8 x 10{sup -2} to 2A x 10{sup -2} Mol dm{sup -3}. The metal ion sorption, swelling behaviour and flocculation properties have been studied. The intrinsic viscosity of pure and grafted samples has been measured by using Ubbelohde capillary viscometer. Flocculation capability of k-carrageenan and k-carrageenan-g-N,N-dimethylacrylamide for both coking and non-coking coals has been studied for the treatment of coal mine waste water. The graft copolymer has been characterized by Infrared (IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

  10. Radioprotection potential of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan used as food additive; Potencial radioprotetor do acido ascorbico sobre a carragenana utilizada como aditivo alimenticio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajaliste@net.ipen.br; nlmastro@net.ipen.br

    2002-07-01

    Carrageenans are a group of natural carbohydrates that are present in the structure of certain varieties of red algae (Rhodophyceae). They are used in emulsions, for syneresis control and to grow up, to promote adhesiveness and dispersion. In the industry of foods they can be used for instance, as thickness and gelling agents, alone or together with other additives. The processing of foods by radiation is increasing considerably, because the efficiency of the process in the industrial decontamination of products. The objective of this work was to study the action of the ascorbic acid as potential radioprotector of the carrageenan against {sup 60} Co gamma radiation effects, using the viscosity as parameter. Samples of commercial carrageenan dissolved at 1,0% were irradiated in the presence or not of ascorbic acid, with doses of 0.0 kGy; 1.0 kGy; 2.5 kGy; 5.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. After the irradiation the relationships viscosity/dose were established for the temperature of 60 deg C. For the dose of 10.0 kGy a better protecting effect of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan was seen. The implications of the use of this antioxidant is discussed as a form of minimizing the effect of the radiation in irradiated foods. (author)

  11. Fuzzy Clustering-Based Modeling of Surface Interactions and Emulsions of Selected Whey Protein Concentrate Combined to i-Carrageenan and Gum Arabic Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gums and proteins are valuable ingredients with a wide spectrum of applications. Surface properties (surface tension, interfacial tension, emulsion activity index “EAI” and emulsion stability index “ESI”) of 4% whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a combination with '- carrageenan (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.5...

  12. An infant formula toxicity and toxicokinetic feeding study on carrageenan in preweaning piglets with special attention to the immune system and gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, M L; Ferguson, H E; Thorsrud, B A; Nelson, K G; Blakemore, W R; Zeigler, B; Cameron, M J; Brant, A; Cochrane, L; Pellerin, M; Mahadevan, B

    2015-03-01

    A toxicity/toxicokinetic swine-adapted infant formula feeding study was conducted in Domestic Yorkshire Crossbred Swine from lactation day 3 for 28 consecutive days during the preweaning period at carrageenan concentrations of 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 ppm under GLP guidelines. This study extends the observations in newborn baboons (McGill et al., 1977) to piglets and evaluates additional parameters: organ weights, clinical chemistry, special gastrointestinal tract stains (toluidine blue, Periodic Acid-Schiff), plasma levels of carrageenan; and evaluation of potential immune system effects. Using validated methods, immunophenotyping of blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, B cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, mature T cells), sandwich immunoassays for blood cytokine evaluations (IL-6, IL-8, IL1β, TNF-α), and immunohistochemical staining of the gut for IL-8 and TNF-α were conducted. No treatment-related adverse effects at any carrageenan concentration were found on any parameter. Glucosuria in a few animals was not considered treatment-related. The high dose in this study, equivalent to ~430 mg/kg/day, provides an adequate margin of exposure for human infants, as affirmed by JECFA and supports the safe use of carrageenan for infants ages 0-12 weeks and older and infants with special medical needs.

  13. MEKANISME PROSES TAHAP EKSTRAKSI KARAGENAN DARI Eucheuma cottonii MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT ALKALI (The Mechanism of Carrageenan Extraction from Eucheuma cottonii Using Alkaline Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperisa Distantina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan recovery process was developed for Eucheuma cottonii by investigating the effects of distilled water, KOH (0.1-0.5 N and NaOH (0.1-1.0 N as the solvent on carrageenan yield and gel properties. Extraction process was carried out with a constant ratio of seaweed weight to solvent volume (1: 50; g/mL at 80oC.  A certain amount of the liquid sample was withdrawn at regular interval time for analysis. Filtrate was separated from residue by pouring ethanol. The precipitated carrageenans were collected and oven dried at 50-60oC to a constant weight. The extraction product was found to have virtually identical infrared spectra to the reference samples of kappa-carrageenan. Distilled water was the most efficient solvent with regard to yield but certainly not gel strength. Increasing KOH concentration led to carrageenan containing less sulfate content. In extraction process using alkali, the ion exchange occurred between cation from alkali solution and anion from sulphate in the seaweed. Compared with cation of sodium, the cation of potassium was able to form helixes aggregation indicated by the higher gel strength value. Alkali concentrations affected the gel strength of the extracted carrageenan significantly. Keywords: Eucheuma cottonii, KOH, NaOH, carrageenan, sulfate   ABSTRAK   Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan proses ekstraksi karagenan dari rumput laut Eucheuma cottonii dengan mempelajari pengaruh jenis pelarut pada tahap ekstraksi, yaitu air suling, KOH, dan NaOH terhadap rendemen dan sifat gel karagenan.  Ekstraksi dilakukan dengan perbandingan bobot rumput laut – volume pelarut dijaga tetap yaitu 1:50 g/mL pada 80oC. Cuplikan diambil setiap interval waktu tertentu untuk dianalisis. Karagenan dalam filtrat diendapkan dengan etanol dan serat yang dihasilkan dikeringkan sampai bobot konstan. Spektrum infra merah menunjukkan bahwa karagenan yang dihasilkan identik dengan jenis kappa. Air suling merupakan pelarut yang efisien

  14. Preparation of κ-carrageenan-chitosan polyelectrolyte gel beads%κ-卡拉胶-壳聚糖聚电解质凝胶微丸的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 张昀

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To prepare κ-carrageenan-chitosan polyelectrolyte gel pellets and detect the effects of formulation and preparation factors on in vitro drug release from the pellets. Method: The K-carrageenan-chitosan polyelectrolyte gel pellets with baica-lin as model drug were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique. The ratio of K-carrageenan/chitosan in pellets was determined with the composite of K-carrageenan and chitosan. The effects of the concentration of K-carrageenan, the ratio of drug/K-carrageenan, the concentration of gelling solution, gelling time and drying method on the release of pellets were determined by in vitro drug release. Result: The mass ratio of K-carrageenan/chitosan in pellets was 6:4. Release of the pellets in 0. 1 mol · L-1 HC1 was about 10% for 2 hours and fast in PBS, indicating a typical sustained release property. The pellets released less with the increase in the concentration of K-carrageenan, the ratio of drug/κ-carrageenan and the concentration of KC1. They also released less with the increase in gelling time, but showed little effect until 1 hour. The release of the pellets prepared by the freeze-drying method was much faster than those by vacuum drying and atmospheric drying methods which had little influence on drug release. Conclusion: The K-carrageenan-chitosan polyelectrolyte gel pellets had sustained release property. Their drug release rate could be regulated with different formulation and preparation factors.%目的:制备κ-卡拉胶-壳聚糖聚电解质凝胶微丸,考察处方工艺因素对其体外释药的影响.方法:以黄芩苷为模型药物,采用离子胶凝法制备κ-卡拉胶-壳聚糖微丸;通过κ-卡拉胶与壳聚糖形成复合物条件研究,确定微丸中κ-卡拉胶与壳聚糖质量比;通过体外释放度测定,考察κ-卡拉胶浓度、药物与κ-卡拉胶比例、胶凝液氯化钾浓度、胶凝时间和干燥方式等处方工艺因素对微丸药物释放的影响.结果:κ-

  15. Semi-refined κ-carrageenan: Part 1. Chemical modification of semi-refined κ-carrageenan via graft copolymerization method, optimization process and characterization of its super absorbent hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Mohd. Daud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out for the preparation of super absorbent polymer hydrogel from semi-refined κ-carrageenan originated from Kappaphycusalvarezii (Doty Doty ex P. Silva through graft copolymerization method with acrylic acid. The reaction was carried out in an aqueous solution in the presence of N,N-methylene bis-acrylamide as a crosslinker and ammonium persulphate as an initiator. The effect of the amount of cross linker, monomer, initiator and alkali on the swelling capacity of the hydrogel was investigated for optimum conditions.After preparing the desired hydrogel according to optimum conditions, the hydrogel was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, SEM microscopy and swelling capacity measurement.

  16. Influence of maltodextrin and environmental stresses on stability of whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan stabilized sesame oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsaard, E; Putthanimon, J; Singthong, J; Thammarutwasik, P

    2014-12-01

    The influence of maltodextrin with different concentrations (0-30%) and dextrose equivalent (dextrose equivalent 10 and dextrose equivalent 15) under different environmental stresses (pH 3-8, NaCl 0-500 mM, and sucrose 0-20%) on the stability of whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan stabilized sesame oil-in-water emulsions was investigated by mean particle diameter, particle size distribution, ζ-potential, microstructure, and viscosity. Sesame oil-in-water emulsions containing anionic droplets stabilized by interfacial membranes comprising whey protein concentrate/κ-carrageenan/maltodextrin (15% sesame oil, 0.5% whey protein concentrate, 0.2% κ-carrageenan, 0.02% sodium azide and 0-30% maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent of 10 and 15, 5 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7) were produced using a homogenizer. The primary emulsion (1°) containing whey protein concentrate-coated droplets was prepared by homogenizing. The secondary emulsion (2°) containing whey protein concentrate-κ-carrageenan in the absence or presence of maltodextrin was produced by mixing the 1° emulsion with an aqueous κ-carrageenan in the absence or presence of maltodextrin solution. There were no significant changes in mean droplet diameter and ζ-potential of droplets at any maltodextrin concentration (0-30%) or dextrose equivalent (10 and 15) after 24 h storage. The apparent viscosity of emulsions increased when the maltodextrin concentration increased. The 2° emulsion containing 15% maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent of 10 had the stability to aggregation at pH 6-8, NaCl ≤ 300 mM, and sucrose 0-20%. The addition of maltodextrin to emulsion can be used to form emulsions with different physicochemical properties for various applications in food processing (for example, encapsulation).

  17. Global gene expression analysis in the mouse brainstem after hyperalgesia induced by facial carrageenan injection--evidence for a form of neurovascular coupling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Kay-Wee; Lutfun, Nahar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Ong, Wei-Yi; Yeo, Jin-Fei

    2009-03-01

    The present study was carried out to examine global gene expression in the brainstem, in a mouse facial carrageenan injection model of orofacial pain. Mice that received facial carrageenan injection showed increased mechanical allodynia, demonstrated by increased responses to von Frey hair stimulation of the face. The brainstem was harvested at 3 days post-injection, corresponding to the time of peak responses, and analyzed by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 microarrays. We sought to identify common genes that are changed in the respective sides of the brainstem after either right- or left-sided facial carrageenan injection. The result is a relatively small list of genes (22 genes), which were then classified using DAVID software. Many of them fell into the categories of "response to stress", "defence response", "response to biotic stimulus", "cell adhesion" and "leukocyte adhesion". Of these, increased expression of P-selectin, ICAM-1 and CCL12 after carrageenan injection could be verified by real-time RT-PCR on both the right and left sides, and increased in P-selectin and ICAM-1 further verified by Western blot analysis. P-selectin and ICAM-1 were immunolocalized to endothelial cells, and were double labelled with von Willebrand factor. Intraperitoneal injection of the P-selectin inhibitor KF38789 significantly reduced mechanical allodynia in the facial carrageenan-injected mice. P-selectin mediates the capturing of leukocytes from the bloodstream and rolling of leukocytes along the endothelial surface. We hypothesize that increased nociceptive input to the brainstem could attract circulating macrophages into the brain, resulting in neuroinflammation and pain.

  18. Effects of xanthan, guar, carrageenan and locust bean gum addition on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Zeynep Ozben; Yılmaz, Ismail; Demirci, Ahmet Şukru

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of xanthan gum, guar gum, carrageenan and locust bean gum on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs. Meatball samples were produced with three different formulations including of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% each gum addition and gum added samples were compared with the control meatballs. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on raw and cooked samples separately. Moisture contents of raw samples decreased by addition of gums. There were significant decreases (p gum when compared with control. Ash contents and texture values increased with gum addition to meatballs. Meatball redness decreased with more gum addition in raw and cooked meatball samples, which means that addition of gums resulted in a lighter-coloured product. According to sensory analysis results, locust bean gum added (1%) samples were much preferred by the panelists.

  19. Improving the controlled delivery formulations of caffeine in alginate hydrogel beads combined with pectin, carrageenan, chitosan and psyllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Karlović, Sven; Djaković, Senka; Spoljarić, Igor; Mršić, Gordan; Ježek, Damir

    2015-01-15

    Alginate-based blends consisting of carrageenan, pectin, chitosan or psyllium husk powder were prepared for assessment of the best formulation aimed at encapsulation of caffeine. Alginate-pectin blend exhibited the lowest viscosity and provided the smallest beads. Alginate-psyllium husk blend was characterised with higher viscosity, yielding the largest bead size and the highest caffeine encapsulation efficiency (83.6%). The release kinetics of caffeine indicated that the porosity of alginate hydrogel was not reduced sufficiently to retard the diffusion of caffeine from the beads. Chitosan coated alginate beads provided the most retarded release of caffeine in water. Morphological characteristics of beads encapsulating caffeine were adversely affected by freeze drying. Bitterness intensity of caffeine-containing beads in water was the lowest for alginate-psyllium beads and chitosan coated alginate beads. Higher sodium alginate concentration (3%) for production of hydrogel beads in combination with psyllium or chitosan coating would present the most favourable carrier systems for immobilization of caffeine.

  20. Juiciness improvement of frozen battered shrimp burger using modified tapioca starch, sodium alginate, and iota-carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongkarn Kijroongrojana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A battered shrimp burger, as a new value-added shrimp product, was developed by increasing the juiciness of a frozen battered shrimp burger using a mixture of hydrocolloids. The formulations of hydrocolloid mixtures containing modified tapioca starch (MTS, sodium alginate (AL, and iota-carrageenan (CA were optimized. Juiciness measurements were defined and analyzed by 13 trained panelists. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA as well as moisture and fat contents of the products were analyzed. The mixture of MTS and AL had an impact on moisture content and juiciness scores, while CA influenced the hardness. The product made using the optimized formulation (0.3% MTS + 0.7% AL had a higher moisture content andjuiciness scores (p0.05. However, higher springiness and gumminess were found in the control burger (p0.05.

  1. Quaternized chitosan/κ-carrageenan/caffeic acid-coated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) fibrous materials: Preparation, antibacterial and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Milena; Manolova, Nevena; Rashkov, Iliya; Markova, Nadya

    2016-11-20

    Novel fibrous materials with antioxidant and antibacterial properties from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), quaternized chitosan (QCh), κ-carrageenan (Car) and caffeic acid (CA) were obtained. These materials were prepared by applying electrospinning or electrospinning in conjunction with dip-coating and polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) formation. It was found that the CA release depended on the fiber composition. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that CA incorporated in the fibers was in the amorphous state, whereas CA included in the coating was in the crystalline state. In contrast to the neat PHB mats, the CA-containing mats and the PEC QCh/Car-coated mats were found to kill the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli and were effective in suppressing the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria S. aureus. Enhancement of the antioxidant activity of the fibrous materials containing both CA and QCh/Car coating was observed.

  2. The anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiollah Hajhashemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Recently anti-inflammatory effects of antidepressants have been demonstrated. Venlafaxine belongs to newer antidepressants with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibition property. The pain alleviating properties of venlafaxine in different pain models such as neurogenic pain, diabetic neuropathy, and fibromyalgia have been demonstrated. Anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and also its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and determine possible underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods: We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of intraperitoneal (IP and intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. Results: Our results showed that both IP (50 and 100 mg/kg and ICV (50 and 100 μg/rat injection of venlafaxine inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Also IP and ICV administration of venlafaxine significantly decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α production. Finally, we tried to reverse the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine by yohimbine (5 mg/kg, IP, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. Our results showed that applied antagonist failed to change the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that venlafaxine has potent anti-inflammatory effect which is related to the peripheral and central effects of this drug. Also we have shown that anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine is mediated mostly through the inhibition of IL-1β and TNF-α production and decreases MPO activity in the site of inflammation.

  3. Preventive Effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on Thrombosis in κ-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Xi-Wang; Yang, Ya-Jun; Li, Jian-Yong; Mohamed, Isam; Liu, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Ji-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the prodrug principle, aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) was synthesized, which can reduce the side effects of aspirin and eugenol. As a good candidate for new antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory medicine, it is essential to evaluate its preventive effect on thrombosis. Preventive effect of AEE was investigated in κ-carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombosis model. AEE suspension liquids were prepared in 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na). AEE was administrated at the dosage of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg. Aspirin (20 mg/kg), eugenol (18 mg/kg) and 0.5% CMC-Na (30 mg/kg) were used as control drug. In order to compare the effects between AEE and its precursor, integration of aspirin and eugenol group (molar ratio 1:1) was also designed in the experiment. After drugs were administrated intragastrically for seven days, each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg BW κ-carrageen dissolved in physiological saline to induce thrombosis. The length of tail-thrombosis was measured at 24 and 48 hours. The blank group just was given physiological saline for seven days without κ-carrageenan administrated. The results indicated that AEE significantly not only reduced the average length of thrombus, PT values and FIB concentration, but also reduced the red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT) and platelet (PLT). The effects of AEE on platelet aggregation and anticoagulant in vitro showed that AEE could inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation as dose-dependence but no notable effect on blood clotting. From these results, it was concluded that AEE possessed positive effect on thrombosis prevention in vivo through the reduction of FIB, PLT, inhibition of platelet aggregation and the change of TT and PT values.

  4. 高强度卡拉胶纤维的制备及性能测试%Preparation and characterization of high strength carrageenan fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付永强; 薛志欣; 夏延致; 王士财

    2011-01-01

    通过卡拉胶与环氧氯丙烷交联反应制得改性卡拉胶;并将改性卡拉胶溶于热水制得纺丝液,采用湿法纺丝制备高强度卡拉胶纤维.红外光谱测试及粘度提高证明交联反应的发生;用单因素实验法找到影响因素的最佳范围,通过正交实验法得到最佳合成条件为温度90℃、交联剂加入量为6.25%、反应时间2.0h、pH值为10.0;利用万能材料试验机测得纯卡拉胶纤维的断裂强度为2.17cN/tex,改性卡拉胶纤维的最大断裂强度为3.99cN/tex,交联后断裂强度提高85%.%Modified carrageenan was prepared by carrageenan cross-linked with epoxy chloropropane. Then the modified carrageenan went through wet-spinning frame to get the high strength carrageenan fibers. The compo-sition of carrageenan and modified fibers were characterized by FT-IR. The viscosity was investigated by vis-cometer. The range of influencing factors was investigated by experiments of single factor. The optimum syn-thesis condition of the crosslinking was obtained by orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the reac-tion temperature was 90℃, the amount of crosslinking agent added was 6. 25% , the reaction time was 2.0h and the pH value was 10. 0. The mechanical property of the modified/unmodified carrageenan fibers were investiga-ted with strength tester. The breaking strength of the former is 3. 99cN/tex, compared with the latter 2. 17cN/ tex.

  5. Effect of carrageenan on texture properties of Choerospondias axillaris pastilles%卡拉胶对南酸枣糕质构性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴双双; 梁瑞红; 刘伟; 刘继延; 陈军; 王召君

    2012-01-01

    The effect of addition of carrageenan on the texture of Choerospondias axilluris pastilles was evaluated by texture profile a-nalysis, and its internal structure was analyzed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). On the basis of addition of carrageenan, the differences and the correlation of texture parameters ( hardness, springiness, chewiness and adhesiveness) of samples containing different amount of carrageenan was compared. The results showed that the hardness and springiness of Choerospondias uzillaris pastilles basically remain unchanged when carrageenan concentration was 0. 0%~0. 6%, but when the addition was 0. 6%~1. 0% , the hardness and springiness increased remarkably. A well linear correlation was found between the hardness and springiness. The springiness was found to increase with increasing addition of carrageenan, and the adhesiveness was firstly increased and then decreased. The maximum value of the adhesiveness was found when addition of car- rageenan was 0. 8%. From SEM pictures, we can obviously find out that Choerospondias axillaris pastilles has formed thick gel with more closely texture, and more evenly appearance characteristics increasing amounts of carrageenan.%通过质构仪分析,研究卡拉胶添加量对南酸枣糕质构性质的影响,并利用扫描电镜分析其内部结构,比较不同卡拉胶添加量,各参数(硬度、弹性、咀嚼性、黏性)的差异性和相关性.结果表明:卡拉胶添加量为0.0%~0.6%时,南酸枣糕的硬度、咀嚼性基本不变,而添加量为0.6%~1.0%时,硬度、咀嚼性增加比较显著,且硬度和咀嚼性之间具有良好的线性相关性.弹性随着卡拉胶添加量的增加而增加,而黏性随着卡拉胶的增加先增加后降低,且在卡拉胶添加量为0.8%时达到最大值.从电镜扫描图中可看出,随着卡拉胶的增加,南酸枣糕能形成较厚实的凝胶,质地更紧密,外观特征更均匀.

  6. Study on effects of carrageenan on pork quality%不同浓度卡拉胶对猪肉品质影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玲

    2012-01-01

    试验研究了不同浓度卡拉胶对猪肉的感官品质、色泽、保水性、蒸煮损失率及嫩度等品质指标的影响。结果表明,添加不同浓度的卡拉胶后,对猪肉的感官品质有一定的影响,对猪肉的色泽有负面的影响,不同浓度影响效果不同,一般高浓度的对猪肉感官品质的负面影响较大。卡拉胶浓度与猪肉的感官评分、剪切力之间的回归方程均具有统计学上的显著意义,与猪肉的色差、保水性及蒸煮损失率之间的回归方程不具有统计学上的显著意义。%The effects of different concentration of carrageenan on the sensory quality, color, water retention, cooking loss rate and tenderness of pork were investigated in this paper. The results showed that different concentration of carrageenan affected the sensory quality of pork and with negative effect on color. The regression equation between sensory evaluation, shear force and concentration of carrageenan had statistical significance, but regression equations between concentration of earrageenan and the indexes of color, water retention and cooking loss rate were not significant with the concentration of carrageenan had no statistical significance.

  7. in vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Degraded larnbda-Carrageenan%λ-卡拉胶降解组分的体外免疫活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏元臣; 周革非; 李树福; 王长海

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究微波法降解得到的不同分子量角叉菜λ-卡拉胶的免疫活性.方法:以离子交换纤维素色谱DE52柱对微波降解所得λ-卡拉胶PC2(product of carrageenan 2)进行分级;从实验动物体内获取免疫细胞,采取体外与多糖共同培养的方式,通过淋巴细胞、巨噬细胞增殖实验,中性红吞噬实验以及NO释放实验评价其免疫活性.结果:纯化得到三个硫酸基含量和分子量依次增大的均一多糖分级组分CF1(carrageenan fraction 1)、CF2(carrageenan fraction 2)、CF3(carrageenan fraction 3).实验结果表明,CF1、CF2、CF3组分均能显著的促进巨噬细胞和ConA诱导的脾细胞增殖,并能增强巨噬细胞吞噬能力和NO的释放.结论:在体外培养研究条件下,λ-卡拉胶降解组分对正常小鼠的免疫能力有促进作用.

  8. Specific effects of BCL10 Serine mutations on phosphorylations in canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-κB activation following carrageenan

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Borthakur, Alip; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N; Katyal, Shivani; Pradeep K Dudeja; Joanne K. Tobacman

    2011-01-01

    To determine the impact of B cell leukemia/lymphoma (BCL) 10 on the phosphorylation of crucial mediators in NF-κB-mediated inflammatory pathways, human colonic epithelial cells were exposed to carrageenan (CGN), a sulfated polysaccharide commonly used as a food additive and known to induce NF-κB nuclear translocation by both canonical and noncanonical pathways. Phosphorylations of intermediates in inflammatory cascades, including NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) at Thr559, transforming growth fact...

  9. Control of Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract plus EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Control of Salmonella in poultry is a public health concern as salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide. This study aimed to screen the ability of 5 Salmonella serovars to degrade the mustard glucosinolate, sinigrin (by bacterial myrosinase) in Mueller-Hinton broth at 25 °C for 21 d and to reduce Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by developing an edible 0.2% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coating containing Oriental mustard extract, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), EDTA or their combinations. Individual Salmonella serovars degraded 50.2%-55.9% of the sinigrin present in 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g or 50 μl AITC/g reduced the numbers of Salmonella on chicken breasts 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d at 4 °C. However, when either mustard extract or AITC was combined with 15 mg/g EDTA in κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings, Salmonella numbers were reduced 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 5 d and 3.0 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. Moreover, these treatments reduced numbers of lactic acid bacteria and aerobic bacteria by 2.5-3.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing either 50 μl AITC/g or 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g plus 15 mg EDTA/g have the potential to reduce Salmonella on raw chicken.

  10. Oral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Barbara; Colleoni, Mariapia; Conti, Silvia; Parolaro, Daniela; Franke, Chiara; Trovato, Anna Elisa; Giagnoni, Gabriella

    2004-03-01

    Cannabidiol, the major non-psychoactive component of marijuana, has various pharmacological actions of clinical interest. It is reportedly effective as an anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. The present study examined the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects of cannabidiol, administered orally (5-40 mg/kg) once a day for 3 days after the onset of acute inflammation induced by intraplantar injection of 0.1 ml carrageenan (1% w/v in saline) in the rat. At the end of the treatment prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was assayed in the plasma, and cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, production of nitric oxide (NO; nitrite/nitrate content), and of other oxygen-derived free radicals (malondialdehyde) in inflamed paw tissues. All these markers were significantly increased following carrageenan. Thermal hyperalgesia, induced by carrageenan and assessed by the plantar test, lasted 7 h. Cannabidiol had a time- and dose-dependent anti-hyperalgesic effect after a single injection. Edema following carrageenan peaked at 3 h and lasted 72 h; a single dose of cannabidiol reduced edema in a dose-dependent fashion and subsequent daily doses caused further time- and dose-related reductions. There were decreases in PGE2 plasma levels, tissue COX activity, production of oxygen-derived free radicals, and NO after three doses of cannabidiol. The effect on NO seemed to depend on a lower expression of the endothelial isoform of NO synthase. In conclusion, oral cannabidiol has a beneficial action on two symptoms of established inflammation: edema and hyperalgesia.

  11. Anti-inflammation effects of Sardinella longicep oil against paw oedema on Rattus novergicus induced by 1% carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Parwati Sari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: People usually used non steroid anti-inflammation drugs (NSAID such as aspirin in chronic inflammation treatment. However, using NSAID at long term therapy will cause many effects such as nausea and vomiting. Sardinella longiceps oil, on the other side, is reported as an alternative treatment for anti-inflammation since it is natural and also contained eicosapentaenoid acid (EPA and decohexaenoic acid (DHA. Thus, it may reduce paw oedema. Purpose: The aim of this study was to know anti-inflammation effects of Sardinella longiceps oil against paw oedema of Wistar rats induced by 1% carrageenan. Methods: The samples of this research were 32 Wistar rats which were divided into four groups, in group 1, the rats were given aquadest; in group 2, the rats were given aspirin; in group 3, the rats were given 1 ml Sardinella longiceps oil; in group 4, the rats were given 1.5 ml Sardinella longiceps oil. All of the rats, nevertheless, were given intraplantar induction of 1% carrageenan into the paw of rats to induce the inflammation condition. Results: All data were tested with normality test. The normal data were then analyzed with Homogenity of Variances and also ANOVA test which result showed significant differences. The data which showed significant differences were tested again with LSD test. result then showed that group given 1 ml Sardinella longiceps oil and group given 1.5 ml Sardinella longiceps oil had no significant differences from group given aspirin, but there were significant differences between group given 1 ml Sardinella longiceps oil and group given 1.5 ml Sardinella longiceps oil, and also between group given 1.5 ml Sardinella longiceps oil and group given aquadest. Conclusion: Sardinella longiceps oil could reduce paw oedema in Wistar rats induced with 1% carrageenan.Latar belakang: Penggunaan obat anti-inflamasi non steroid (OAINS seperti aspirin sering digunakan dalam pengobatan inflamasi kronis. Namun penggunaan OAINS

  12. 卡拉胶的生物活性及分子修饰研究进展%Research Progress on Biological Activity and Chemical Modification of Carrageenan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秀芳; 李平

    2012-01-01

    Carrageenan,as a family of sulfated polysaccharides with unique structure,had many kinds of biological activity.However,its application in biomedicine field was limited because of large molecular weight.Research on the biological activity of carrageenan in antivirus,antitumor and anticoagulant were synopsis introduced,emphasizing to introduce the research progress on the chemical modification and derivatives of carrageenan.%卡拉胶作为一种结构独特的硫酸多糖,具有多种生物活性,但因分子量过大,使其在生物医药领域的应用受到限制。文章简要介绍了近年来有关卡拉胶抗病毒、抗肿瘤、抗凝血等生物活性的研究,进一步介绍了卡拉胶分子修饰及其衍生物生物活性的研究进展。

  13. Inhibitory effect of amygdalin on lipopolysaccharide-inducible TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNA expression and carrageenan-induced rat arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Hye-Jung; Kim, Chang-Ju; Shim, Insop; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2008-10-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside plant compound found in the seeds of rosaceous stone fruits. We evaluated the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of amygdalin, using an in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell line and a rat model with carrageenan-induced ankle arthritis. One mM amygdalin significantly inhibited the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNAs in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Amygdalin (0.005, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg) was intramuscularly injected immediately after the induction of carrageenan-induced arthritic pain in rats, and the anti-arthritic effect of amygdalin was assessed by measuring the weight distribution ratio of the bearing forces of both feet and the ankle circumference, and by analyzing the expression levels of three molecular markers of pain and inflammation (c-Fos, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta) in the spinal cord. The hyperalgesia of the arthritic ankle was alleviated most significantly by the injection of 0.005 mg/kg amygdalin. At this dosage, the expressions of c-Fos, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in the spinal cord were significantly inhibited. However, at dosage greater than 0.005 mg/kg, the painrelieving effect of amygdalin was not observed. Thus, amygdalin treatment effectively alleviated responses to LPStreatment in RAW 264.7 cells and carrageenan-induced arthritis in rats, and may serve as an analgesic for relieving inflammatory pain.

  14. Studies on anti-inflammatory activity of spice principles and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A C; Lokesh, B R

    1994-01-01

    The antioxidant spice principles curcumin and eugenol when given by gavage lowered the carrageenan-induced edema in the foot pads of rats. This lowering effect was dependent on the concentration, the time gap between the administration of spice principles and the induction of inflammation by carrageenan. Dietary lipids also influenced the extent of inflammation. Animals fed 10% cod liver oil [containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)] for 10 weeks showed a significantly lower inflammation compared to that observed in animals fed diets supplemented with 10% groundnut oil (rich in n-6 PUFA) or 10% coconut oil (rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids). Supplementation of diets with 1 weight% of curcumin did not affect the inflammatory responses of animals to carrageenan injection. However, supplementation of diets with 0.17 weight% eugenol further lowered inflammation by 16, 32 and 30% in animals fed coconut oil, groundnut oil and cod liver oil, respectively. Therefore, combinations of dietary lipids with spice principles like eugenol can help in lowering inflammation.

  15. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Kumar Khare

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Materials and Methods: Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA, tyrosine value (TVextract release volume (ERV, Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV, instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. Results: There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. Conclusion: The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application.

  16. Synthesis and application of polypyrrole/carrageenan nano-bio composite as a cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Chakavak; Ghasemi, Mostafa; Heng, Lee Yook; Hassan, Sedky H A; Abdi, Mahnaz M; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Ilbeygi, Hamid; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi

    2014-12-19

    A novel nano-bio composite polypyrrole (PPy)/kappa-carrageenan(KC) was fabricated and characterized for application as a cathode catalyst in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). High resolution SEM and TEM verified the bud-like shape and uniform distribution of the PPy in the KC matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has approved the amorphous structure of the PPy/KC as well. The PPy/KC nano-bio composites were then studied as an electrode material, due to their oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) ability as the cathode catalyst in the MFC and the results were compared with platinum (Pt) as the most common cathode catalyst. The produced power density of the PPy/KC was 72.1 mW/m(2) while it was 46.8 mW/m(2) and 28.8 mW/m(2) for KC and PPy individually. The efficiency of the PPy/KC electrode system is slightly lower than a Pt electrode (79.9 mW/m(2)) but due to the high cost of Pt electrodes, the PPy/KC electrode system has potential to be an alternative electrode system for MFCs.

  17. The effect of degradation on κ-carrageenan/locust bean gum/konjac glucomannan gels at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Wang, Zheng; Nakajima, Tetsuya; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Brenner, Tom

    2013-10-15

    The feasibility of textural and rheological modification of gels containing κ-carrageenan (KC) and locust bean gum (LBG) by addition of konjac glucomannan (KGM) was investigated. Special attention was paid to the effect of polysaccharide degradation during heating at acidic pH. The general effect of polysaccharide degradation was to decrease the Young's modulus, while the fracture strain in extension was scarcely affected unless the degradation was very severe. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the melting peak corresponding to dissociation of KC-KGM bonds decreased faster than the melting peak of KC-only bonds with increasing degree of polysaccharide degradation. The implication is that as degradation proceeds, fewer KGM molecules can interact with KC to form elastic bonds, and the excess of KGM which reinforces the existing elastic network and increases the fracture strain actually increases. For this reason, the fracture strain remains nearly unchanged with increasing degradation levels. A decrease in fracture strain is thus observed only at very severe degradations, where KC no longer forms a self-supporting gel by itself.

  18. PPAR-gamma agonist rosiglitazone attenuates the inflammation caused by carrageenan in the mouse model of pleurisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Ziliani da Silva; Medeiros, Yara S; Fröde, Tania S

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of rosiglitazone (ROSI) in a pleurisy model of carrageenan-induced inflammation. Efficacy was monitored in the mouse pleural cavity by evaluating leukocyte migration, exudate concentration, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities concomitantly with nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-17A (IL-17A), and vascular endothelial growth factor-alpha (VEGF-α) levels 4 and 48 h after pleurisy induction. In both phases (4 and 48 h) of pleurisy, ROSI inhibited all the inflammation parameters that were tested (p<0.05). These results provide evidence that ROSI was efficacious in inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediators. These anti-inflammatory effects are assumed to mainly result from the inhibition of products released from activated leukocytes, such as MPO, ADA, NOx, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17A, and VEGF-α.

  19. Acoustic Assessment of a Konjac–Carrageenan Tissue-Mimicking Material at 5–60 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwright, David A.; Sadhoo, Neelaksh; Rajagopal, Srinath; Anderson, Tom; Moran, Carmel M.; Hadoke, Patrick W.; Gray, Gillian A.; Zeqiri, Bajram; Hoskins, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic properties of a robust tissue-mimicking material based on konjac–carrageenan at ultrasound frequencies in the range 5–60 MHz are described. Acoustic properties were characterized using two methods: a broadband reflection substitution technique using a commercially available preclinical ultrasound scanner (Vevo 770, FUJIFILM VisualSonics, Toronto, ON, Canada), and a dedicated high-frequency ultrasound facility developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, Teddington, UK), which employed a broadband through-transmission substitution technique. The mean speed of sound across the measured frequencies was found to be 1551.7 ± 12.7 and 1547.7 ± 3.3 m s−1, respectively. The attenuation exhibited a non-linear dependence on frequency, f (MHz), in the form of a polynomial function: 0.009787f2 + 0.2671f and 0.01024f2 + 0.3639f, respectively. The characterization of this tissue-mimicking material will provide reference data for designing phantoms for preclinical systems, which may, in certain applications such as flow phantoms, require a physically more robust tissue-mimicking material than is currently available. PMID:25438864

  20. PENGARUH KONSUMSI KAPPA-KARAGENAN TERHADAP GLUKOSA DARAH TIKUS WISTAR (Ratus norvegicus DIABETES [The Effect of Kappa-Carrageenan Consumption on Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Wistar Rat (Ratus norwegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kappa-carrageenan consumption on blood glucose level were studied on diabetic male wistar rat (Ratus norvegicus.The rats were made diabetic by aloxan injection, and then were given that a ration contains 5, 10, 15, 20% (w/w kappa-carrageenan, standard ration (negative control, and parental glibenklamid (positive control. The results showed that the standard ration could not reduce blood glucose from hyperglycemic to normal level, while the ration contained kappacarrageenan could. The higher kappa-carrageenan seaweed level in the ration has higher capacity to decrease blood glucose level. The ration containing 20% and 15% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose in 18 and 21 days, respectively.The effect of this ration was similar to that of glibenklamid which reduced blood glucose to normal level in 18 days. The ration containing 5 and 10% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose level; Blood glucose leve return to normal on the 21st day.

  1. Novel porous scaffolds of pH responsive chitosan/carrageenan-based polyelectrolyte complexes for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, J V; Davidenko, N; Danner, M; Cameron, R E; Best, S M

    2014-12-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) represent promising materials for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. These substances are obtained in aqueous medium without the need for crosslinking agents. PECs can be produced through the combination of oppositely charged medical grade polymers, which include the stimuli responsive ones. In this work, three-dimensional porous scaffolds were produced through the lyophilization of pH sensitive PECs made of chitosan (CS) and carrageenan (CRG). CS:CRG molar ratios of 1:1 (CSCRG1), 2:1 (CSCRG2), and 3:1 (CSCRG3) were used. The chemical compositions of the PECs, as well as their influence in the final structure of the scaffolds were meticulously studied. In addition, the pH responsiveness of the PECs in a range including the physiological pH values of 7.4 (simulating normal physiological conditions) and 4.5 (simulating inflammatory response) was assessed. Results showed that the PECs produced were stable at pH values of 7.4 and under but dissolved as the pH increased to nonphysiological values of 9 and 11. However, after dissolution, the PEC could be reprecipitated by decreasing the pH to values close to 4.5. The scaffolds obtained presented large and interconnected pores, being equally sensitive to changes in the pH. CSCRG1 scaffolds appeared to have higher hydrophilicity and therefore higher water absorption capacity. The increase in the CS:CRG molar ratios improved the scaffold mechanical properties, with CSCRG3 presenting the higher compressive modulus under wet conditions. Overall, the PEC scaffolds appear promising for tissue engineering related applications that require the use of pH responsive materials stable at physiological conditions.

  2. 低分子量κ-卡拉胶及其邻苯二甲酰基化衍生物的抗氧化活性研究%Antioxidant Activity of Low-molecular-weight κ-carrageenan and Phthalyl Derivatives of κ-carrageenan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 陶慧娜; 卢克祥; 邵则淮; 康永峰

    2009-01-01

    对k-卡拉胶进行氧化降解.经过透析,得到分子量不同的两种卡拉胶寡糖,并分别制成四丁基铵盐,进而与邻苯二甲酸酐进行酰化,制得两种不同分子量的卡拉胶邻苯二甲酰基化衍生物.对产物进行IR表征,红外光谱表明制得的为目标产物,并检测了产物对超氧阴离子自由基O_2~(-·)和DPPH自由基的清除能力.结果表明:κ-卡拉胶在邻苯二甲酰基化以后对上述两种自由基的清除能力均有所增强.%Two kinds of carrageenan-derived oligosaccharides (CDO)with different molecular weight were prepared by oxidative degradation of κ-carrageenan and dialysis. Then, these two kinds of CDO were made to two kinds of tetrabutylammonium salts (TBA)respectively, which acylated with phthalic anhydride to obtain two kinds of phthalyl derivatives of κ- carrageenan with different molecular weight. The products were characterized by FI-IR and infrared spectrum indicated that these products were target products. The scavenging activities of products on super oxide anion radical O_2~(-·) and DPPH radical were tested. The results showed that the scavenging activities of phthalyl K-carrageenan on super oxide anion radical O_2~(-·) and DPPH radical were increased.

  3. Study on the Sulfation Technology of Carrageenan Seaweed Polysaccharides%卡拉胶海藻多糖硫酸酯化技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚方; 刘宗利; 王乃强; 刘海玉; 杨海军

    2012-01-01

    利用微波辐射法制备特定分子量多糖(MW 1 000—20 000Da)并进行硫酸酯化修饰,从而提高其生物活性或降低毒副作用。优化后的卡拉胶酸解条件为:溶液浓度5%、制备量600mL、pH 2.0、微波功率750W。当目标产物分子量为1 000—3 000Da时,最适微波处理时间为30min;当为5 000—8 000Da,最适处理时间为20min;10 000—12 000Da时,最适处理时间为12min。考察酯化反应温度、酯化剂浓度等对硫酸根取代度的影响,确定较优反应条件,得到特定分子量及硫酸根取代度的卡拉胶多糖。本项研究为进一步针对卡拉胶多糖的抗流感病毒活性研究奠定了基础。%Microwave radiation method was used to prepare carrageenan seaweedpolysaccharides of specific molecular weight (MW 1 000--20 000Da), followed by sulfating modification, which could enhance the biological activity or decrease toxicity of carrageenan. The optimized acid-hydrolysis conditions were carrageenan content 5% , preparation volume 600mL, pH 2. 0, and microwave power 750W. When the target components MW were 1 000--3 000Da, the optimal processing time was 30rain. As for 5 000--8 000Da components, 20rain, and as for 10 000--12 000Da, 12min. Erfect of reaction temperature, esterifying agent concentration and other factors on the sulfation degree were investigated. This study laid a foundation for further research of the anti-influenza virus activity of specific carrageenan polysaccha- rides.

  4. κ-卡拉胶与魔芋胶复配凝胶结构探讨%Preliminary Study on Structure of κ-Carrageenan-Konjac Gum Blend Gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玉; 王元兰

    2012-01-01

    采用示差扫描量热仪(DSC)、红外光谱(FT-IR)及扫描电镜(SEM)对κ-卡拉胶与魔芋胶复配前后的结构进行初步探讨。结果表明:κ-卡拉胶与魔芋胶复配凝胶的-OH振动峰向低波数方向偏移;复配体系的DSC曲线吸热峰较单体胶所成峰峰形宽;SEM图像可清晰看到复配凝胶结构较单独κ-卡拉胶的致密。推测复配体系中形成了以κ-卡拉胶网络结构为主,魔芋胶分散其中的结构。%Structural analysis of κ-carrageenan,konjac gum,and their mixture at a mass ratio of 5.5:4.5 was carried out using DSC,FT-IR and SEM.The FT-IR results showed that hydroxyl group peak of κ-carrageenan and konjac gum shifted to lower wave number direction compared with their mixture.The DSC endothermic peak of κ-carrageenan-konjac gum mixture was wider than κ-carrageenan alone.SEM image showed that the morphology of the mixture gel was more compact than κ-carrageenan.Therefore,it was speculated that κ-carrageenan acted as the backbone of the mixed gel network system while konjac gum played a scattering role.

  5. Pain Modulation by Lignans (Phyllanthin and Hypophyllanthin) and Tannin (Corilagin) Rich Extracts of Phyllanthus amarus in Carrageenan-induced Thermal and Mechanical Chronic Muscle Hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopade, Atul R; Sayyad, F J

    2015-08-01

    The current study was aimed at evaluating the antihyperalgesic effects of lignans (phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin) and tannin (corilagin) rich three standardized extracts of Phyllanthus amarus in a model of chronic musculoskeletal inflammatory pain. Three percent carrageenan injected in the gastrocnemius muscle produced hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimuli ipsilaterally, which spreads to the contralateral side within 7 to 9 days. To investigate the effects on chronic thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity, three extracts of P. amarus in three doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) were administered to animals intraperitoneally from 14th day to 22nd day after intramuscular injection of carrageenan. It was observed that intraperitoneal administrations of Phyllanthus extracts showed antihyperalgesic activity, as they elevated thermal and mechanical threshold, which was supported by histopathological observations along with reduction in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration. In conclusion, we strongly suggest that the observed antihyperalgesic and antiinflammatory effects of P. amarus in current pain model are mediated via spinal or supraspinal neuronal mechanisms, mainly by inhibition of PGE2. Modulation of chronic muscular inflammation may be due to presence of phytoconstituents like phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, and corilagin, which offers a promising means for treatment of chronic muscle pain.

  6. Iota-carrageenans from Solieria filiformis (Rhodophyta and their effects in the inflammation and coagulation - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i2.11201

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianna Wivianne Fernandes de Araújo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical analyses are important tools for discovering new bioactive compounds for medical clinic. This study aimed at isolating iota-carrageenans (ι-CARs from Solieria filiformis (Rhodophyta by enzymatic extraction (EE, refined hot-water extraction (RHWE and hot-water extraction (HWE, and test (EE, s.c. their anti-inflammatory effects in the peritonitis model using the Lambda-carrageenan (700 µg cavity-1, i.p. as an inflammatory stimuli in rats. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT was also evaluated in ι-CARs fractions, obtained by ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose, using rabbit plasma and compared to heparin (193 IU mg-1. The results showed that the ι-CARs (EE (3 or 9 mg kg-1 containing 89.92% total sugars, 29.02% sulfate and absence of contaminant proteins inhibited (p < 0.05 the cellular infiltrate in the peritoneal cavity of the animals, but with 27 mg kg-1 had no anti-inflammatory effect (p > 0.05. Similar chromatography profiles were obtained among the methods; however, with fractions revealing different pattern on charge density by electrophoresis. Fractions had no virtually effects on APTT (1.16, 1.73 and 1.59 IU mg-1 for EE, RHWE and HWE, respectively. Further investigations to better understanding the actions of S. filiformis ι-CARs (EE in the inflammatory response are suggested.

  7. 卡拉胶、膨润土改性PVA包埋小球%PVA-immobilized beads modified by carrageenan and bentonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟成华; 刘鹏; 张文东; 刘洁; 曾雪梅

    2013-01-01

    对PVA+卡拉胶包埋小球和PVA+海藻酸钠包埋小球的性能进行比较,并首次使用PVA+卡拉胶+膨润土混合包埋材料制作包埋小球.结果表明,PVA+海藻酸钠包埋小球在制作过程中有一定的拖尾现象,红墨水到达小球中心的时间为80 min,6d可去除50%的COD;PVA+卡拉胶包埋小球更容易成球,而且红墨水到达小球中心的时间为50 min,6d可去除56%的COD.此外,在PVA+卡拉胶包埋材料中添加适量的膨润土可以将红墨水到达小球中心的时间由50 min缩短到30 min.因此,使用PVA+卡拉胶+膨润土的混合材料制作包埋小球是可行的.最后,通过包埋小球处理抗生素废水的正交实验,得出包埋材料中各组分的最佳配比:PVA浓度11%、卡拉胶浓度0.5%、膨润土浓度2.5%.在这种配比下,包埋小球对抗生素废水中COD的去除率可以达到65%左右.%The performance of PVA-carrageenan immobilized beads and PVA-sodium alginate immobilized beads were compared,and PVA-carrageenan-bentonite was used as immobilized material for the first time.The results showed that PVA-sodium alginate beads were tailing during production,the time of the red ink reached to the center of the beads was 80 mins,and after 6 days' treatment,50% of COD was removed ; while PVA-carrageenan beads had better sphericity,the time of the red ink reached to the center of the beads was 50 mins and after 6 days' treatment,56% of COD was removed.Moreover,addition of bentonite into PVA-carrageenan could reduce the time of the red ink reached to the center of the beads from 50 mins to 30 mins.Therefrore,PVA-arrageenan-bentonite was feasible as embedded material.Finally,the orthogonal experiment results indicated that the best concentrations of PVA,carrageenan and bentonite in immobilized beads were 11%,0.5% and 2.5%,respectively,and under this condition,the COD removal efficiency was about 65%.

  8. 卡拉胶凝胶特性及其在巧克力牛奶中的应用%The gel properties of carrageenan and its application in chocolate milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志辉; 李春海

    2009-01-01

    针对卡拉胶水凝胶的两个主要指标凝胶强度和胶体黏度,研究了卡拉胶含量、钾离子浓度和pH值三个主要因素对卡拉胶水凝胶特性的影响,结果表明:凝胶强度随胶体含量的增加线性增大后渐趋平稳、受钾离子的影响出现峰值、在pH值8.0和10处出现两个拐点;胶液黏度随卡拉胶含量增加迅速增大、随钾离子浓度提高而减小、中性时的黏度最大.通过正交实验确定了影响卡拉胶凝胶因素的主次顺序为卡拉胶浓度、钾离子浓度和溶液的pH值,最佳条件组合为卡拉胶浓度1.2%,钾离子浓度1.2%,pH值9.0;通过考察单独使用卡拉胶以及卡拉胶与魔芋胶、刺槐豆胶及结冷胶等几种食品胶在巧克力牛奶中形成凝胶时的结构状态,判定卡拉胶与刺槐豆胶的协同作用效果最佳.%The influence of three main factors(carrageenan content,potassium ion concentration and pH value)on the hydrogel properties of carrageenan have been studied by determining the two main indicators gel strength and viscosity.The results indicated that:the gel strength increased in a linear and gradually become stable after with the colloid content,and there is a peak by the effect of potassium ion,and there are two turning points in the pH value 8.0 and 10;The viscosity increased rapidly with the increase of carrageenan content,and decreased with the increase of potassium ion concentration,and the the largest value of viscosity was emerged in neutral.The orthogonal experiment result showed that the major-minor effect factors were carrageenan concentration,potassium ion concentration and the pH value,the optimum condition was:the carrageenan concentration 1.2%,the potassium ion concentration 1.2%,the pH value 9.0;The best synergetic effect was detemined into carrageenan-locust bean gum by investigated the gel structures in chocolate milk to carrageenan,carrageenan-konjak gum,carrageenan-locust bean gum,carrageenan-gellan gum.

  9. 橙汁中卡拉胶的荧光光谱检测%Detection of Carrageenan in the Orange Juice Using Fluorescence Spectra Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔凡标; 陈国庆; 黄奇峰; 陈超; 李润

    2013-01-01

    应用多功能荧光光谱仪测得三种市售100%橙汁和鲜榨橙汁的三维荧光光谱并提取其特征参数,比较发现其三维荧光光谱及特征参数存在较为明显的差异,特别是在683 nm处.推断可能是三种市售100%橙汁中加入了食品添加剂的原因.在鲜榨橙汁中加入卡拉胶,检测得卡拉胶及加入卡拉胶的鲜榨橙汁的三维荧光光谱,发现卡拉胶为荧光物质.将加入卡拉胶的鲜榨橙汁的三维荧光光谱与三种市售100%橙汁的三维荧光光谱相比较,发现它们基本一致,并且其特征参数也基本一致,由此可推断三种市售100%橙汁均含有卡拉胶.本实验可为卡拉胶在橙汁中的定量检测提供一定帮助.%Using the FLS920P spectrometer of Edinburgh Instruments the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of the fresh orange juice and the three samples of 100% orange juice bought in the supermarket were studied and their characteristic parameters were obtained. The comparison of the spectra and the characteristic parameters shows that they are apparently different, especially at the emission wavelength of 683 nm. This might be caused by the food additives added into the orange juice bought The three-dimensional spectrum of the fresh orange juice with carrageenan was obtained. The comparison of the samples bought and the one with carrageenan shows that they are with little difference. The characteristic parameters of them are almost of no difference. Thus the conclusion can be drawn that the samples bought all have carrageenaa The results of the paper can somewhat help quantitatively study carrageenan in the orange juice.

  10. Application of the mixture of Carrageenan and enzyme digested Konjac gum in jelly sweets%降解魔芋胶与κ-卡拉胶复配胶在凝胶软糖中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺雪姣; 娄在祥; 马朝阳; 王洪新; 黄林青; 林玉惠

    2013-01-01

    The mixture of Carrageenan and enzyme digested Konjac gum was added into the jelly sweets to improve the elasticity and chewiness of Carrageenan jelly sweets.The mixture of KGM-2 and κ- Carrageenan was used in the jelly sweets production under an optimized condition and the mixture was compared with the jelly sweets only added κ- Carrageenan in it using a standard of sensory evaluation and texture analysis.The results indicated that the gel mixture kC-KGM-2 greatly reduced the amount of κ-Carrageenan with a better elasticity and chewiness.%为了改善单独以卡拉胶为凝胶剂的软糖弹性、咀嚼性不足等缺陷,并降低凝胶剂的用量,本文探讨了降解魔芋胶(KGM-2)与κ-卡拉胶复合胶体在凝胶软糖中应用.将KGM-2和κ-卡拉胶的复合胶体运用于凝胶软糖的制作,在优化的配方和干燥条件下,从感官评定和质构测定两方面与单独以κ-卡拉胶为凝胶剂的软糖进行对比.结果表明,kC-KGM-2软糖在很大程度上减少了凝胶剂(尤其是κ-卡拉胶)的用量,也减少了氯化钾的用量,而且弹性、咀嚼性等显著优于kC软糖.

  11. Lessons learned from a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study with a iota-carrageenan nasal spray as medical device in children with acute symptoms of common cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazekas Tamas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common cold is caused by a variety of respiratory viruses. The prevalence in children is high, and it potentially contributes to significant morbidity. Iota-carragenan, a polymer derived from red seaweed, has reduced viral load in nasal secretions and alleviated symptoms in adults with common cold. Methods We have assessed the antiviral and therapeutic activity of a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in children with acute symptoms of common cold. A cohort of 153 children between 1–18 years (mean age 5 years, displaying acute symptoms of common cold were randomly assigned to treatment with a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan (0.12% as verum or 0.9% sodium chloride solution as placebo for seven days. Symptoms of common cold were recorded and the viral load of respiratory viruses in nasal secretions was determined at two consecutive visits. Results The results of the present study showed no significant difference between the iota carrageenan and the placebo group on the mean of TSS between study days 2–7. Secondary endpoints, such as reduced time to clearance of disease (7.6 vs 9.4 days; p = 0.038, reduction of viral load (p = 0.026, and lower incidence of secondary infections with other respiratory viruses (p = 0.046 indicated beneficial effects of iota-carrageenan in this population. The treatment was safe and well tolerated, with less side effects observed in the verum group compared to placebo. Conclusion In this study iota-carrageenan did not alleviate symptoms in children with acute symptoms of common cold, but significantly reduced viral load in nasal secretions that may have important implications for future studies. Trial registration ISRCTN52519535, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN52519535/

  12. 卡拉胶在肉制品中的作用机理及应用%Mechanism and Application of Carrageenan in Meat Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓念想; 姜一鸣

    2009-01-01

    @@ 卡拉胶(Carrageenan),又称角叉菜胶、鹿角菜胶、是从麒麟菜、鹿角叉菜等海洋植物中提取的海藻多糖的统称.卡拉胶是-种天然食品添加剂,早在2001年,联合国粮农组织和世界卫生组织食品添加剂专家委员就取消了卡拉胶日允许摄取量的限制,确认它是-种安全、无毒、无副作用的食品添加剂.

  13. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    Full Text Available Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histopathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model.

  14. First-in-Human Trial of MIV-150 and Zinc Acetate Coformulated in a Carrageenan Gel: Safety, Pharmacokinetics, Acceptability, Adherence, and Pharmacodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoesley, Craig J.; Plagianos, Marlena; Hoskin, Elena; Zhang, Shimin; Teleshova, Natalia; Alami, Mohcine; Novak, Lea; Kleinbeck, Kyle R.; Katzen, Lauren L.; Zydowsky, Thomas M.; Fernández-Romero, José A.; Creasy, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of MIV-150 and zinc acetate in a carrageenan gel (PC-1005). Acceptability, adherence, and pharmacodynamics were also explored. Design: A 3-day open-label safety run-in (n = 5) preceded a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in healthy, HIV-negative, abstinent women randomized (4:1) to vaginally apply 4 mL of PC-1005 or placebo once daily for 14 days. Methods: Assessments included physical examinations, safety labs, colposcopy, biopsies, cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs), and behavioral questionnaires. MIV-150 (plasma, CVL, tissue), zinc (plasma, CVL), and carrageenan (CVL) concentrations were determined with LC-MS/MS, ICP-MS, and ELISA, respectively. CVL antiviral activity was measured using cell-based assays. Safety, acceptability, and adherence were analyzed descriptively. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental techniques and actual sampling times. CVL antiviral EC50 values were calculated using a dose–response inhibition analysis. Results: Participants (n = 20) ranged from 19–44 years old; 52% were black or African American. Among those completing the trial (13/17, PC-1005; 3/3, placebo), 11/17 reported liking the gel overall; 7 recommended reducing the volume. Adverse events, which were primarily mild and/or unrelated, were comparable between groups. Low systemic MIV-150 levels were observed, without accumulation. Plasma zinc levels were unchanged from baseline. Seven of seven CVLs collected 4-hour postdose demonstrated antiviral (HIV, human papillomavirus) activity. High baseline CVL anti–herpes-simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) activity precluded assessment of postdose activity. Conclusions: PC-1005 used vaginally for 14 days was well tolerated. Low systemic levels of MIV-150 were observed. Plasma zinc levels were unchanged. Postdose CVLs had anti-HIV and anti–human papillomavirus activity. These data warrant further development of PC-1005 for HIV and sexually transmitted

  15. Adjuvant effect of caffeine on acetylsalicylic acid anti-nociception: prostaglandin E2 synthesis determination in carrageenan-induced peripheral inflammation in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Sánchez, Sílvia; Planas, Eulàlia; Poveda, Raquel

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we report a synergistic interaction between acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and caffeine (CAF) on the inhibition of nociception in a model of peripheral inflammation in rat; on the contrary no interaction have been found on anti-inflammatory effects and peripheral prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) synthesis inhibition. Acute inflammation was induced by the subplantar injection of carrageenan into the right hind paw, and the effects of the drugs were evaluated from 0 to 5h. Nociception was assessed using the Randall & Selitto test, and the inflammatory response by plethismometry. Oral administration of ASA (10-400mg/kg) induced dose-related anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. On the other hand, oral CAF administration (5-50mg/kg) did not show a dose-related inhibitory effect, neither on the inhibition of nociception nor on the inflammatory response. To analyze a possible interaction between both drugs a dose-response curve to ASA plus a fixed dose of CAF (5mg/kg) was obtained 3h after the injection of carrageenan, when the inflammatory pain peaked. A fixed dose of CAF was able to improve the anti-nociceptive, but not the anti-inflammatory, effects of ASA. We also assessed, by enzyme immunoassay, the effects of the combination on peripheral PGE-2 levels: CAF did not alter the inhibitory effect of ASA on PGE-2 synthesis. Our results corroborate the well-known clinical effects of combining ASA and CAF; on the other hand, we rule out that prostaglandin synthesis inhibition at peripheral sites would be the mechanism responsible of the adjuvant anti-nociceptive effect of CAF.

  16. The influence of xanthan andlambda-carrageenan on the creaming and flocculation of an oil-in-water emulsion containing soy protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Santiago

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of polysaccharide content on the stability of an oil-in-water emulsion (20% oil, droplet diameter 6.5 mum, pH = 7 containing soy protein (5 mg/ml as the emulsifying agent was studied. Flocculation occurs by addition of two depletion flocculants: xanthan (0.01- 0.4% and lambda-carrageenan (0.001- 2%. We report that in both cases the onset of flocculation occurs below the overlap polymer concentration (c* = 0.15 % for xanthan and c* = 0.58% for lambda-carrageenan. The strength of depletion interaction is dependent on such factors as polymer concentration, molecular weight and also the presence of other macromolecules. Profiles of the creaming behaviour of the sample emulsions were obtained by measuring the height of the boundary between the cream phase and the serum as a function of time for each emulsion. The result indicates that creaming kinetics is dependent on polymer concentration in a complex way. The turbidity of the serum gave an indication of whether the system was fully flocculated or contained flocks together with unflocculated droplets. At very low polymer concentrations the droplets cream individually or in small aggregates at the top of the container. At higher concentrations the droplets appear to cream as a single entity, with a sharp lower boundary separating the cream phase from a clear serum. In these emulsions and in some of the coexistent ones, there is a delay before creaming starts. The presence of the polymers at higher concentrations resulted in a stable emulsion with a very high apparent viscosity for the continuous phase and/or a strong emulsion gel network. The length of the delay phase increased with increasing concentration of both polymers.

  17. Vinpocetine reduces carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in mice by inhibiting oxidative stress, cytokine production and NF-κB activation in the paw and spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji W Ruiz-Miyazawa

    Full Text Available Vinpocetine is a safe nootropic agent used for neurological and cerebrovascular diseases. The anti-inflammatory activity of vinpocetine has been shown in cell based assays and animal models, leading to suggestions as to its utility in analgesia. However, the mechanisms regarding its efficacy in inflammatory pain treatment are still not completely understood. Herein, the analgesic effect of vinpocetine and its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms were addressed in murine inflammatory pain models. Firstly, we investigated the protective effects of vinpocetine in overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone (PBQ and formalin. The intraplantar injection of carrageenan was then used to induce inflammatory hyperalgesia. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated using the electronic von Frey and the hot plate tests, respectively, with neutrophil recruitment to the paw assessed by a myeloperoxidase activity assay. A number of factors were assessed, both peripherally and in the spinal cord, including: antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, superoxide anion, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β levels, as well as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB activation. Vinpocetine inhibited the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, PBQ and formalin (at both phases, as well as the carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and associated neutrophil recruitment. Both peripherally and in the spinal cord, vinpocetine also inhibited: antioxidant capacity and GSH depletion; increased superoxide anion; IL-1β and TNF-α levels; and NF-κB activation. As such, vinpocetine significantly reduces inflammatory pain by targeting oxidative stress, cytokine production and NF-κB activation at both peripheral and spinal cord levels.

  18. Phenotypic alterations of neuropeptide Y and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing neurons innervating the rat temporomandibular joint during carrageenan-induced arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Damico

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify immunoreactive neuropeptide Y (NPY and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP neurons in the autonomic and sensory ganglia, specifically neurons that innervate the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ. A possible variation between the percentages of these neurons in acute and chronic phases of carrageenan-induced arthritis was examined. Retrograde neuronal tracing was combined with indirect immunofluorescence to identify NPY-immunoreactive (NPY-IR and CGRP- immunoreactive (CGRP-IR neurons that send nerve fibers to the normal and arthritic temporomandibular joint. In normal joints, NPY-IR neurons constitute 78±3%, 77±6% and 10±4% of double-labeled nucleated neuronal profile originated from the superior cervical, stellate and otic ganglia, respectively. These percentages in the autonomic ganglia were significantly decreased in acute (58±2% to superior cervical ganglion and 58±8% to stellate ganglion and chronic (60±2% to superior cervical ganglion and 59±15% to stellate ganglion phases of arthritis, while in the otic ganglion these percentages were significantly increased to 19±5% and 13±3%, respectively. In the trigeminal ganglion, CGRP-IR neurons innervating the joint significantly increased from 31±3% in normal animals to 54±2% and 49±3% in the acute and chronic phases of arthritis, respectively. It can be concluded that NPY neurons that send nerve fibers to the rat temporomandibular joint are located mainly in the superior cervical, stellate and otic ganglia. Acute and chronic phases of carrageenan-induced arthritis lead to an increase in the percentage of NPY-IR parasympathetic and CGRP-IR sensory neurons and decrease in the percentage of NPY-IR sympathetic neurons related to TMJ innervation.

  19. Improvement of the Quality of Edible Carrageenan by Carrageenan Concentration by Membrane System in Industrial Production%膜法卡拉胶浓缩技术提高食用卡拉胶品质的工业化生产研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卫强; 陈亚民; 肖海萍

    2011-01-01

    In the course of industrial carrageenan production, adopting the equipment for concentration by membrane system will help to improve the quality of edible carrageenan, including the increase in product viscosity, the reduction in ash, and the reduced content of potassium ion to 800PPM below. Especially in the microbiological index, the total number of bacteria ≤5000 cfu/g, completely complies with the provisions of United States FAO/WHO, 2001 standard.%在卡拉胶工业化生产过程中,如果采用膜法浓缩设备新技术,将有助于食用卡拉胶产品质量的提高.例如:产品粘度的增加;灰分的降低以及钾离子含量可以降低至800 mg/kg以下.特别是在微生物指标方面,菌落总数≤5000 cfu/g,完全符合FAO/WHO,2001标准的规定.

  20. Study on the Fluorescence Spectra of Carrageenan and Prediction of Its Concentration%卡拉胶的荧光光谱特性及其质量浓度预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄奇峰; 高淑梅; 陈国庆; 陈超; 孔凡标; 李润

    2012-01-01

    Carrageenan is used for thickener, stabilizer, and texturizer in the industry of food processing, but over-intake will seriously do harm to our health. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of carrageenan solution are obtained by using FLS920 fluorescences spectrometer. The fluorescence emission peaks of carrageenan are located at 485 nm, 620 nm and 660 nm and the excitation peak is at 390 nm. The red shift of the 485 nm peak with the excitation wavelength increases may be caused by the Rayleigh scattering and the Raman scattering of water. The fluorescence intensity of different concentration of carrageenan solution is attained. The principal component analysis and the BP neural network are used to predict the concentration of different carrageenan solution. Results show that the accuracy is greater than 90% and even greater than 98% when the concentrations are higher than 120 μg/Ml. This method can provide a quick method for the measurement of the content of carrageenan.%针对卡拉胶在食品加工中作为增稠剂、乳化剂和稳定剂使用,而大量摄入会对身体造成严重损害,文中对卡拉胶的三维荧光光谱进行了系统研究.结果表明,其在390 nm处存在一个激发峰,分别在485 nm、620 nm、660 nm处存在荧光峰,其中660 nm峰较强、485 nm峰较宽且红移,提出瑞利散射和水的拉曼散射的影向导致485 nm谱峰的红移.进而发现卡拉胶溶液荧光光谱强度随质量浓度的增加而增强,并通过主成分分析-BP神经网络训练,实现了对卡拉胶质量浓度的预测,准确率达到90%以上.当质量浓度高于120 μg/mL时,准确率达到98%以上,表明该技术可快速测定溶液中卡拉胶的含量.

  1. Effects of Ultra-high Pressure and Carrageenan on Gelling Properties of Surimi from Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix%卡拉胶和超高压对鱼糜凝胶性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆剑锋; 邵明栓; 林琳; 叶应旺; 陈从贵; 姜绍通

    2011-01-01

    以白鲢鱼糜为研究对象,将卡拉胶添加其中,经超高压处理后,再经二段加热处理形成鱼糜凝胶,测定其凝胶强度、白度值、pH值,研究压力、保压时间和卡拉胶质量分数对白鲢鱼糜凝胶性质的影响.单因素实验表明,当压力大于300 MPa时凝胶强度显著下降;保压时间大于10 min,卡拉胶质量分数大于0.8%时凝胶强度变化不显著.通过正交实验确定了优化工艺条件为:压力300 MPa、保压时间10 min、卡拉胶质量分数0.8%.各因素对白鲢鱼糜凝胶强度影响程度由大至小依次为压力、保压时间、卡拉胶质量分数.研究结果表明,超高压处理协同添加卡拉胶能够促进白鲢鱼糜形成良好的凝胶.%Surimi gel added with carrageenan from silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) processed by ultra-high pressure (UHP) and a two-stage heat treatment was formed. The gel strength, whiteness and pH values were measured, respectively. The effects of pressure, time and carrageenan addition (mass percentage) on the gelling properties of silver carp surimi were studied. The single-factor experiments showed that gel strength decreased significantly when pressure was more than 300 Mpa, while there was no significant change in gel strength when time and carrageenan addition were more than 10 min and 0. 8% , respectively. The optimum conditions were optimized with orthogonal experiments as follows: pressure of 300 Mpa, time of 10 min and carrageenan addition of 0. 8% . UHP treatment conditions had an effect on gel strength in an order of pressure, time, carrageenan addition. This study indicated that UHP treatment with carrageenan addition could well modify the effect on the formation of silver carp surimi gel.

  2. Use of antioxidants substances to protect the hydrocolloids carrageenan, agaran and alginates used in food industry when exposed to radiation; Uso de substancias antioxidantes na resposta a radiacao dos hidrocoloides carragenanas, agaranas e alginatos utilizados na industria alimenticia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    2006-07-01

    Carrageenan, agaran e alginates are hydrocolloids largely employed in every kind of food products as stabilizing agent and viscosity builder. The human body does not absorb them, so they do not introduce extra calories in the diet. Irradiation is presented as an important alternative method in food preservation because do not induce temperature increase being of good efficiency in cold food ingredients decontamination. In this work aqueous solutions of carrageenan, agar e sodium alginate were gamma irradiated (0-10 kGy) in presence of ascorbic acid, roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract and soy isoflavone. Edible polysaccharide solutions showed to be suitable systems for the evaluation of ionizing radiation effects as they presented a singular radiosensitivity through viscosity changes. The results obtained showed that in general the antioxidants employed had a radioprotective action that can be of importance in the future commercial applications of food irradiation. (author)

  3. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of carrageenan, agarans and alginates to be used as food additives; Efeito da radiacao gama na viscosidade de carragenanas, agaranas e alginatos utilizados na industria alimenticia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    1999-07-01

    Carrageenan, agarans and alginates are phycocolloids, which change the consistence of the foodstuff and prevent undesirable changes such as moisture migration or textural profile changes. These phycocolloids are additives used in large scale for all kind of food products. They are not absorbed for the human organism and do not introduce extra calories in the diet. The process of irradiation, is an alternative method of great potential, because do not increase the temperature and it is highly in the decontamination of food ingredients. In this work, agar alginates and carrageenan were irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of the irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. The viscosity of these hydrocolloids shows a decrease when submitted to an irradiation with doses until 10 kGy. (author)

  4. Study on optimum preparation procedure for oxidative degradation of k-carrageenan%基于双氧水降解卡拉胶的优化工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝燕; 陈晓银; 丁卓平

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To optimize the preparative procedure for oxidative degradation of k-carrageenan.Methods: The optimum conditions of oxidative degradation for k - carrageenan was selected with the yield and the scavenging activities of DPPH radical and marked by orthogonal experimental design.ResultS: The optimize preparative procedure was as follows:the oxidative degradation for K-carrageenan was at temperature of 90℃, when K-carrageenan was dissolved adding with 20% hydrogen peroxide immediately,and then adjust the solution pH to 8, keeping it for 2h.The yield and the scavenging activities of DPPH radical were 75.94% and 95.78%. Conclusion:The optimum preparative procedure was reliablaThe yield and the scavenging activities of DPPH radical were high,It had high economy benefit.%目的:优选氧化降解卡拉胶的工艺.方法:以降解卡拉胶得率、降解卡拉胶DPPH·清除率为指标,采用正交实验对双氧水降解卡拉胶的工艺进行优选.结果:优化工艺为待温度升至90℃,卡拉胶溶解后,立即加入20%的双氧水,然后调溶液pH至8,保持90℃降解2h,降解卡拉胶得率、降解卡拉胶DPPH·清除率分别为75.94%和95.78%.结论:该工艺合理,降解卡拉胶得率较高且DPPH·清除率高,具有较好的经济效益.

  5. On Restricting Factors and Countermeasures of the Development of Carrageenan%我国卡拉胶生产发展制约因素及其对策的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭善慧; 关键

    2014-01-01

    卡拉胶用作天然食品添加剂已有多年的历史,它是一种无毒而又不能被人体消化的植物纤维,用途十分广泛。国外的卡拉胶商业性生产是从20世纪20年代开始的。我国则从1985年开始生产商业用卡拉胶,其中80%用于食品或与食品有关的工业。随着食品、医疗等行业发展,国内外市场对卡拉胶需求不断扩大,但卡拉胶行业在蓬勃发展的同时遇到瓶颈。本文主要通过对卡拉胶生产发展制约因素的研究,以探讨破解瓶颈的方法和策略。%Carrageenan is used as a natural food additive has a long history, it is the plant fiber which is a non-toxic and can not be digested by, use isvery extensive. Carrageenan demand has continued to expand, but in recent years the development of carrageenan bottleneck of highlights. In this paper , through the research on the development of carrageenan production factors, to explore the methods and strategies of breaking the bottleneck.

  6. Electroacupuncture Reduces Carrageenan- and CFA-Induced Inflammatory Pain Accompanied by Changing the Expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8, rather than Nav1.9, in Mice Dorsal Root Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Ping Huang; Hsiang-Ni Chen; Hong-Lin Su; Ching-Liang Hsieh; Wei-Hsin Chen; Zhen-Rung Lai; Yi-Wen Lin

    2013-01-01

    Several voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) from nociceptive nerve fibers have been identified as important effectors in pain signaling. The objective of this study is to investigate the electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia mechanism by changing the expression of Navs in mice dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We injected carrageenan and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the mice plantar surface of the hind paw to induce inflammation and examined the antinociception effect of EA at the Zusanli (ST3...

  7. Evaluation of the Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Solar and Freeze-Dried Jameed Produced from Cow and Sheep Milk with the Addition of Carrageenan Mix to the Jameed Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman S. Mazahreh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jameed is a fermented dried dairy product in the form of stone hard balls or other shapes produced by straining the heated buttermilk on cloth mesh bags, salting the formed paste by kneading, shaping and drying in the sun. This product is reconstituted after disintegration to be used in the preparation of Mansaf, the national dish in Jordan, which is basically lamb meat cooked in Jameed sauce (Sharab, Mareece and served on cooked rice. The addition of Carrageenan (0.15%, to the Jameed paste resulted in improvement of solar dried Jameed with significant result for Carrageenan treatment as evaluated by wettability and syneresis test. Whipping of the paste to which carrageenan was used, added an additional improvement to the solubility of Jameed and stability of its dispersion The sensory evaluation of the sauce prepared From sheep milk using hedonic scale test had higher mean scores than control market sample which was karaki jameed considered as the best quality in Jordan.

  8. Anti-hyperalgesic effect of systemic magnesium sulfate in carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain in rats: influence of the nitric oxide pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srebro, Dragana P; Vučković, Sonja; Vujović, Katarina Savić; Prostran, Milica

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether systemic magnesium sulfate (an antagonist at the glutamate subtype of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) affects inflammatory pain, and whether the nitric oxide pathway is involved. Carrageenan (0.5%, 0.1 mL, intraplantar)-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated using the electronic von Frey test in male Wistar rats. Magnesium sulfate had no effect when injected locally into the inflamed rat paw. However, subcutaneous magnesium sulfate, at doses of 0.5, 5, 15 and 30 mg/kg, reduced the hyperalgesia by 44.4 ± 8.8, 68 ± 8.4, 24.6 ± 6.9 and 45.3 ± 6.7% respectively. N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (3 and 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, significantly reduced the effects of magnesium sulfate. Also, L-arginine (0.4 mg/kg, subcutaneously) significantly reversed the effect of L-NAME in the magnesium sulfate-treated rats. A selective inhibitor of neuronal or inducible nitric oxide synthase, N-ω-Propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride (L-NPA) (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) and S-methylisothiourea (SMT) (0.005, 0.01 and 0.015 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) reduced the effect of magnesium sulfate significantly only at the highest doses tested. When given alone, L-NAME (3 and 5 mg/kg) L-NPA (2 mg/kg) and SMT (0.015 mg/kg) did not have any influence on carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. The present study revealed that magnesium sulfate is effective against inflammatory pain after systemic, but not after local peripheral administration, and activation of the nitric oxide pathway is probably involved in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of magnesium sulfate. Low doses of systemic magnesium sulfate given as a pretreatment or a treatment might have a beneficial effect in patients with inflammatory somatic pain.

  9. Disruption of 5-HT2A receptor-PDZ protein interactions alleviates mechanical hypersensitivity in carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Wattiez

    Full Text Available Despite common pathophysiological mechanisms, inflammatory and neuropathic pain do not respond equally to the analgesic effect of antidepressants, except for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, which show a limited efficacy in both conditions. We previously demonstrated that an interfering peptide (TAT-2ASCV disrupting the interaction between 5-HT2A receptors and its associated PDZ proteins (e.g. PSD-95 reveals a 5-HT2A receptor-mediated anti-hyperalgesic effect and enhances the efficacy of fluoxetine (a SSRI in diabetic neuropathic pain conditions in rats. Here, we have examined whether the same strategy would be useful to treat inflammatory pain. Sub-chronic inflammatory pain was induced by injecting λ-carrageenan (100 µl, 2% into the left hind paw of the rat. Mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed after acute treatment with TAT-2ASCV or/and fluoxetine (SSRI 2.5 h after λ-carrageenan injection. Possible changes in the level of 5-HT2A receptors and its associated PDZ protein PSD-95 upon inflammation induction were quantified by Western blotting in dorsal horn spinal cord. Administration of TAT-2ASCV peptide (100 ng/rat, intrathecally but not fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally relieves mechanical hyperalgesia (paw pressure test in inflamed rats. This anti-hyperalgesic effect involves spinal 5-HT2A receptors and GABAergic interneurons as it is abolished by a 5-HT2A antagonist (M100907, 150 ng/rat, intrathecally and a GABAA antagonist, (bicuculline, 3 µg/rat, intrathecally. We also found a decreased expression of 5-HT2A receptors in the dorsal spinal cord of inflamed animals which could not be rescued by TAT-2ASCV injection, while the amount of PSD-95 was not affected by inflammatory pain. Finally, the coadministration of fluoxetine does not further enhance the anti-hyperalgesic effect of TAT-2ASCV peptide. This study reveals a role of the interactions between 5-HT2A receptors and PDZ proteins in the pathophysiological pathways

  10. Study on the Phase Behavior and Gel Properties of Mixed Soybean Carrageenan/Soybean 11S Protein System%卡拉胶/大豆11S蛋白共混体系相容性及凝胶性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建华; 杨晓泉

    2012-01-01

    The effect of three carrageenan with different charge density on the compatibility, thermal properties, gel rheological properties and microstructure of soybean US protein has been studied. As results showed that k -carrageenan had more compatibility to soybean 11S protein than samples with ι - carrageenan, and blends with λ - carrageenan system was easier to cause phase separation. Incorporation of carrageenan could increase the thermal denatur-ation temperature of soybean IIS protein, but reduced the enthalpy value, ranking as λ - carrageenan > ι - carrageenan > κ - carrageenan. With negative charge increase of the carrageenan/soybean US protein the elastic modulus of the mixed gel decreased, and the gel network structure was changed from carrageenan - soybean 11S protein bicontin-uous into a single protein continuous. Gel kinetics showed that with negative charge increase the apparent activation energy of mixed gels were reduced, while the elastic modulus value in final temperature procedure also was reduced.%研究了大豆11S蛋白分别与3种不同荷电量卡拉胶组成共混体系的相容性、热性质、凝胶流变性质及微结构,并探讨了共混凝胶的成胶动力学及机理.结果表明:l-卡拉胶对大豆11S蛋白的相容性比K卡拉胶弱,添加入-卡拉胶样共混体系更易发生相分离;添加3种卡拉胶均提高了大豆11S蛋白的热变性温度,但降低了热焓值,影响效果依次是λ-卡拉胶>ι-卡拉胶>κ-卡拉胶;共混凝胶随卡拉胶所带负电荷的增加其弹性模量值呈降低趋势,且凝胶网络结构由蛋白-多糖双连续结构转变为蛋白凝胶网络单连续结构;增加卡拉胶所带负电荷可降低共混凝胶形成过程表观活化能,同时降低了温控程序终点的弹性模量值.

  11. Effect of carrageenan and potassium chloride on the quality of neutral dairy desserts%卡拉胶与氯化钾用量对中性奶冻品质影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄能武; 赵谋明; 张多敏; 龙肇; 赵强忠

    2012-01-01

    The effect of carrageenan and KCl on the quality of dairy desserts were investigated according to the size distribution,texture characteristic,microstructrue and syneresis.The results showed that the gel structure was poor with addition of 0.10% carrageenan.With carrageenan more than 0.15%,the gel structure and the hardness were improved,but flocculation of the gel occured according to the particle size and the microstructure.Moreover,addition of KCl was benifit to the gel but high concentration of KCl might induce flocculation,especially when the concentration of carrageenan was 0.20%.According to the texture quality of the dairy desserts,the addition of carrageenan and KCl was 0.15% and 0.01%,respectively.%研究了卡拉胶与氯化钾用量对奶冻品质的影响,以粒度分布、质构特性、微观结构与析水率等为分析检测指标。研究结果表明:当卡拉胶用量小于0.10%时,硬度低,凝胶结构差;当卡拉胶用量增至0.15%以上时,硬度适当,凝胶结构较好,但从粒度分布与显微结构判断,体系开始出现絮凝。同时,氯化钾促进凝胶,而高含量的氯化钾有诱导体系失稳絮凝的趋势,在卡拉胶用量0.20%时,影响更为显著,且此时析水率也随之增加。综合考虑,以卡拉胶0.15%用量与氯化钾0.01%用量下奶冻具有良好的质构品质。

  12. 酶解谷朊粉-卡拉胶复合体系凝胶特性研究%Study on Characters of Enzymatic Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten- Carrageenan Pluralgel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王章存; 陆杰; 李乐静; 田卫环

    2011-01-01

    采用物性仪研究了酶解谷朊粉-卡拉胶复合体系的胶凝条件和凝胶特性.结果表明,酶解谷朊粉为300 mg/mL时仍是松软的糊状形态,添加0.3%卡拉胶时凝胶成形较好;随着卡拉胶浓度或酶解谷朊粉浓度增加,凝胶的黏性和弹性持续提高,而硬度则在0.3%卡拉胶或250 mg/mL谷朊粉时达到最高点后逐渐下降;随着加热温度增加或加热时间延长,凝胶的质构特性均呈现先逐渐增加后又下降的趋势.综合分析可知,在酶解谷朊粉300 mg/mL、卡拉胶0.3%、80℃加热30 min条件下形成的复合凝胶硬度(252.822 g)、黏性(128.112 g·s)和弹性(0.045)均达到了较高值.%The gelation condition and gel characters of enzymatic hydrolyzed wheat gluten ( EHWG) - carrag-eenan composite system were studied. The results showed EHWG solution in 300 mg/mL was also pasty,but it became good gel when 0.3% carrageenan was added in the system. The adhesiveness and elasticity of the gel were improved continuously with the increase of carrageenan or EHWG concentration,and hardness of the gel came to top in 0.3% carrageenan or in 200 mg/mL EHWG. The characters of EHWG - carrageenan composite gel could increase and then decrease when the gelling temperature or heating time increased. According to the analysis, in the conditions of 300 mg/mL gluten hydrolysates,0.3% concentration and 80 ℃ heating for 30 min,the hardness,adhesiveness and e-lasticity of the plural gel would come to best.

  13. Rheological Properties and Microstructure of κ-Carrageenan-Konjac Gum Mixed Gel%κ-卡拉胶与魔芋胶复配胶的流变性能及其微观结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元兰; 黄寿恩; 魏玉

    2012-01-01

    研究κ-卡拉胶与魔芋胶(质量比为5.5∶4.5)复配胶的流变特性,考察剪切速率、振动频率和温度等对复配胶流变特性的影响.研究结果表明:30℃时复配胶的储能模量G’高于κ-卡拉胶和魔芋胶单体胶的储能模量G’,其损耗模量G”低于K-卡拉胶的损耗模量G”,复配胶的凝胶性质更加明显.随着温度的升高,复配胶体系的G’始终大于G”,具有典型黏弹性流体的特性.结构分析表明κ-卡拉胶与魔芋胶之间具有较好的协同作用,通过分子间氢键形成了以κ-卡拉胶网络结构为主,魔芋胶穿插其中的交联网络体系.%In this study, Theological properties of κ-carrageenan gum, konjac gum and their mixed gel (5.5:4.5, m/ m) in aqueous solution all at a concentration of 1 g/100 mL were measured and compared. This was followed by an investigation to explore effects of shear rate , frequency and temperature on rheological properties of these three solutions. Results indicated that the storage modulus (C') of the compound gelwas obviously higher than that of K-carrageenan gu-mand konjac gum; while, the lossmodulus (G") was lower than that of K-carrageenan at 30%. In addition, the compound gel revealed obviously enhanced gelling properties.With the increase of temperature, the storage modulus (C') was always bigger than the loss modulus (G") in the compound gel so that the compound gel had typical viscoelatic fluid properties. The structural analysis showed that the K-carrageenan and konjac gum had good synergy, which formed the main network structure by κ-carrageenan and konjac gum interspersed among the cross-linked network by intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  14. Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice by Oral Administration of Anthocyanin Mixture from Wild Mulberry and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Mariko Aymoto Hassimotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are flavonoids which demonstrated biological activities in in vivo and in vitro models. Here in the anti-inflammatory properties of an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AF extracted from wild mulberry and the cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, were studied in two acute inflammation experimental models, in the peritonitis and in the paw oedema assays, both of which were induced by carrageenan (cg in mice. In each trial, AF and C3G (4 mg/100 g/animal were orally administered in two distinct protocols: 30 min before and 1 h after cg stimulus. The administration of both AF and C3G suppresses the paw oedema in both administration times (P<0.05. In the peritonitis, AF and C3G reduced the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN influx in the peritoneal exudates when administered 1 h after cg injection. AF was more efficient reducing the PMN when administered 30 min before cg. Both AF and C3G were found to suppress mRNA as well as protein levels of COX-2 upregulated by cg in both protocols, but the inhibitory effect on PGE2 production in the peritoneal exudates was observed when administered 30 min before cg (P<0.05. Our findings suggest that AF and C3G minimize acute inflammation and they present positive contributions as dietary supplements.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of thermo- and pH-sensitive kappa-carrageenan-g-poly(methacrylic acid)/poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) semi-IPN hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jun [Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu Mingzhu [Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: mzliu@lzu.edu.cn; Chen Shilan [Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2009-05-15

    In this study, a novel semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogel of kappa-carrageenan-g-poly(methacrylic acid)/poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) (KC-g-PMAA/PDEA) was prepared using ammonium persulfate as an initiator and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamide as an accelerator at 25 deg. C. The structure of the hydrogels was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The effects of the feed components, temperature and pH on the swelling behavior of the hydrogels were studied. The results showed that the introduction of KC-g-PMAA did not change the lower critical solution temperature of the semi-IPN hydrogels, which was the same to the PDEA hydrogel (at 28 deg. C). With the increase of KC-g-PMAA content, the thermo- and pH-sensitivity of the hydrogel improved, which the swelling rate increased with the increasing content of KC-g-PMAA. The semi-IPN hydrogels showed a fast deswelling and swelling rate. The swelling dynamic transport of the hydrogels was analyzed based on the Fickian equation.

  16. Degraded carrageenan causing colitis in rats induces TNF secretion and ICAM-1 upregulation in monocytes through NF-kappaB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Benard

    Full Text Available Carrageenan (CGN is a high molecular weight sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweeds. In rodents, its degraded forms (dCGN can induce intestinal inflammation associated with macrophage recruitment and activation. The aim of this study was: 1 to analyze the size-dependent effects of dCGN on colon inflammation in vivo, and 2 to correlate these effects with monocyte/macrophage proliferation, cytokine production and expression of various cell surface antigens including ICAM-1 adhesion molecule. Peripheral blood monocytes (PBM and THP-1 monocytic cells were cultured in the presence of either 10 or 40 kDa, dCGN. The 40 kDa, but not the 10 kDa dCGN, induced colitis in in vivo. Degraded CGN inhibited THP-1 cell proliferation in vitro, arresting the cells in G1 phase. In addition, dCGN increased ICAM-1 expression in both PBM and THP-1 cells with a major effect seen after 40 kDa dCGN exposure. Also, dCGN stimulated monocyte aggregation in vitro that was prevented by incubation with anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Finally, dCGN stimulated TNF-alpha expression and secretion by both PBM and THP-1 cells. All these effects were linked to NF-kappaB activation. These data strongly suggest that the degraded forms of CGN have a pronounced effect on monocytes, characteristic of an inflammatory phenotype.

  17. The effects of Chamaecyparis obtusa essential oil on pain-related behavior and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in carrageenan-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hye Rim; Chung, Hyun Joo; Park, Eui Ho; Moon, Sun Wook; Park, Su Jin; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Yang In; Han, Hee Chul

    2015-01-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa essential oil (COE) has been widely used to treat allergic diseases and was suggested to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial effects. This study evaluated the effects of COE on pain-related behavior and pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats with carrageenan (CGN)-induced arthritis. Reduced dynamic weight load on inflamed joint in voluntarily walking rats was used as the behavior test for arthritic pain; 10% COE-treated group was significantly attenuated pain (6-8 h post-CGN injection) compared to VEH (mineral oil)-treated group. In addition, the protein levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6 (6-8 h), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (8 h) within the synovial membrane, as well as IL-1β, COX-2 (6-8 h), and IL-6 (5-7 h) within the meniscus, of 10% COE-treated group were significantly reduced. The current results implicate that COE has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects on arthritis in rats.

  18. Demonstration of correlations between the 8 and 10 kHz atmospherics and the inflammatory reaction of rats after carrageenan injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhenstroth-Bauer, Gerhard; Rösing, Olga; Baumer, Hans; Sönning, Walter; Lehmacher, Walter

    1988-09-01

    Between the mean daily density of 28 kHz atmospherics and the onset of epileptic fits there is a highly significant correlation coefficient ( r) of 0.30; there is a negative coefficient of -0.20 between the fits and the mean daily density of 10 kHz atmospherics. The onset of heart infarction is correlated with 28 kHz atmospherics ( r=0.15). Furthermore, we have discovered that sudden deafness is also correlated with certain configurations of atmospherics. In this paper we report the following correlation coefficients between the inflammatory reaction of rats to a carrageenan injection (rci) into a hind paw and the mean daily pulse rate of atmospherics of the same day: r=0.49 for the 8 kHz atmospherics ( P<0.02) and r=0.44 for the 10 kHz atmospherics ( P<0.04). The correlations between rci reaction and other atmospherics (12 and 28 kHz) are smaller and not significant. By the method of multiple linear regression we found a multiple R=0.54 between rci reaction and the 8 and 10 kHz atmospherics (the regression function for the rci reaction is 0.15+0.004×8 kHz+0.002×10 kHz, P<0.05).

  19. The Effect of Lithium Iodide to the Properties of Carboxymethyl κ-Carrageenan/Carboxymethyl Cellulose Polymer Electrolyte and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rudhziah Che Balian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the solid biopolymer electrolytes based on a carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose blend complexed with lithium iodide of various weight ratios. The complexation of the doping salt with the polymer blend was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Ionic conductivity of the film was determined by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 4 MHz and in the temperature range of 303–338 K. The ionic conductivity increased with the increase in lithium iodide concentration as well as temperature. The membrane comprising 30 wt % of lithium iodide was found to give the highest conductivity of 3.89 × 10−3 S·cm−1 at room temperature. The increase in conductivity was associated with the increase in the number as well as the mobility of the charge carries. The conductivity increase with temperature followed the Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher model. The fabricated dye-sensitive solar cell, FTO/TiO2-dye/CMKC/CMCE-LiI (30 wt % +I2/Pt exhibited the highest conversion efficiency of 0.11% at a light intensity of 100 mW·cm−2. This indicated that the biopolymer blend electrolyte system has potential for use in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  20. Interaction of a food-grade cationic surfactant (lauric arginate) with food-grade biopolymers (pectin, carrageenan, xanthan, alginate, dextran, and chitosan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaud, Marieange; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David J

    2010-09-08

    Lauric arginate (LAE) is a food-grade cationic surfactant that is a highly potent antimicrobial active against a wide range of food pathogens and spoilage organisms. In compositionally complex environments, the antimicrobial activity of cationic LAE is likely to be impacted by its interactions with other charged components. The purpose of this study was to characterize the interactions between cationic LAE and various food grade biopolymers with different charge characteristics: anionic (pectin, alginate, carrageenan, xanthan), neutral (dextran), and cationic (chitosan). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and turbidity measurements were used to characterize surfactant-biopolymer interactions and the solubility of any aggregates formed. ITC and turbidity measurements suggested that no complex formation occurred between the cationic LAE and the cationic or neutral biopolymers, although the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the surfactant was changed because of excluded volume effects. On the other hand, ITC measurements indicated a strong binding interaction between cationic LAE and anionic biopolymers. The amount of surfactant bound and the solubility of the aggregates formed depended strongly on biopolymer type. The results of this study have important implications for the application of LAE in compositionally complex systems.

  1. 添加亚麻籽胶对卡拉胶乳化肠品质的影响%Effects of Flaxseeds Gum on the Quality of Carrageenan Emulsified Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 王鹏; 周光宏

    2012-01-01

    通过测定蒸煮损失率、析水率、质构、感官评价来考察不同添加量的亚麻籽胶乳化肠与0.2%卡拉胶乳化肠品质的差异,以及在0.2%卡拉胶乳化肠中逐渐添加亚麻籽胶对乳化肠品质的影响。实验结果显示:随着亚麻籽胶量的增加,亚麻籽胶乳化肠蒸煮损失率降低,且比卡拉胶的乳化肠低;多汁性及风味亚麻籽胶产品优于卡拉胶产品,组织结构及质地卡拉胶产品优于亚麻籽胶产品。添加了亚麻籽胶的卡拉胶乳化肠蒸煮损失率极显著降低(P〈0.01),析水率下降差异不显著,硬度下降,差异显著(P〈0.05);当卡拉胶与亚麻籽胶添加比例为4:3时,感官评定结果认为产品多汁、有韧性,口感质构与0.2%卡拉胶乳化肠没有显著差异(P〉0.01)。结果表明亚麻籽胶与卡拉胶具有很强的协同作用,增强了乳化肠持水持油能力。%Quality difference between emulsified sausage with different amount of flaxseed gum and with 0.2% carrageenan was evaluated by weight lose, water-evaporation rate, texture and sensory. The effect of flaxseed gum added in 0.2% carrageenan emulsified saussage was also studied. Result showed that with increasing of flaxseed gum amount, the weight lose during cooking was decreased and even lower than the one with carrageenan;Juiciness and flavor of the sausage with flaxseed gums were better than that of carrageenan, while the texture was in the opposite. Cooking weight lose in the mixture of carrageenan and flaxseed gum significantly decreased (P 〈 0.01 ) . The water-e- vaporate showed no significantly difference, the hardness was significantly decreased (P 〈 0.05). When carrageenan and flaxseed gum ratio was 4: 3, the sausage was juicy and springiness was better, and little texture difference (P 〉 0.01) with 0.2% carrageenan sausage. Results also showed that the interaction between flaxseed gum and carrag- eenan

  2. Specific effects of BCL10 Serine mutations on phosphorylations in canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-κB activation following carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Borthakur, Alip; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N.; Katyal, Shivani; Dudeja, Pradeep K.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the impact of B cell leukemia/lymphoma (BCL) 10 on the phosphorylation of crucial mediators in NF-κB-mediated inflammatory pathways, human colonic epithelial cells were exposed to carrageenan (CGN), a sulfated polysaccharide commonly used as a food additive and known to induce NF-κB nuclear translocation by both canonical and noncanonical pathways. Phosphorylations of intermediates in inflammatory cascades, including NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) at Thr559, transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase (TAK) 1 at Thr184, Thr187, and Ser192, and inhibitory factor κBα (IκBα) at Ser32, were examined following mutation of BCL10 at Ser138 and at Ser218. Specific phosphoantibodies were used for detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblot, and confocal microscopy of differences in phosphorylation following transfection by mutated BCL10. Both mutations demonstrated dominant-negative effects, with inhibition of phospho(Ser32)-IκBα to less than control levels. Both of the BCL10 mutations reduced the CGN-induced increases in nuclear RelA and p50, but only the Ser138 mutation inhibited the CGN-induced increases in nuclear RelB and p52 and in NIK Thr559 phosphorylation. Hence, the phosphorylation of BCL10 Ser138, but not Ser218, emerged as a critical event in activation of the noncanonical pathway of NF-κB activation. Either BCL10 Ser138 or Ser218 mutation inhibited the phosphorylation of TAK1 at Thr184 and at Thr187, but not at Ser192. These findings indicate that BCL10 phosphorylations act upstream of phosphorylations of NIK, TAK1, and IκBα and differentially affect the canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-κB activation. PMID:21700900

  3. Potentiation of indomethacin-induced anti-inflammatory response by pioglitazone in carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats: Role of PPARγ receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Gholamreza; Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the interaction between anti-inflammatory effects of pioglitazone (peroxysome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist, PGL), and indomethacin (cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, IND) and to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms. Paw edema induced by carrageenan was used to induce inflammation. Different doses of IND (0.3-10mg/kg) and PGL (1-20mg/kg) alone or in combination were administered intraperitoneally to rats. Paw tissue levels of PPARγ, COX-2, and prostaglandin E2 and serum levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were also estimated. Doses of IND and PGL showed a statistically significant anti-inflammatory effect. Combination of a non-effective dose of IND (0.3mg/kg) with increasing doses of PGL (1-10mg/kg) resulted in potentiated anti-inflammation and vise versa. IND, PGL and the combination were able to reduce the COX-2, PGE2 contents and TNF-α level. Moreover, all these treatments caused elevation in PPARγ levels and IL-10 levels. However, when the rats were pre-treated with GW-9662 (a selective PPARγ antagonist), all the anti-inflammation and alterations in the biochemical factors were antagonized. These results showed that PGL markedly enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of IND and this effect mediated partly at least, through PPARγ. Possible mechanisms of the interaction were that PGL stimulates the PPARγ and inhibits COX-2 by those cytokines that trigger the PPARγ and also inhibit COX-2. This study suggests that combination therapy with pioglitazone and indomethacin may provide an alternative for the clinical control of inflammation especially in patients with diabetes.

  4. Gelam Honey Inhibits the Production of Proinflammatory, Mediators NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in Carrageenan-Induced Acute Paw Edema in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Zuhair Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural honey is well known for its therapeutic value and has been used in traditional medicine of different cultures throughout the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Malaysian Gelam honey in inflammation-induced rats. Paw edema was induced by a subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the rat right hind paw. Rats were treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o. or Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o.. The increase in footpad thickness was considered to be edema, which was measured using a dial caliper. Plasma and paw tissue were collected to analyze the production of inflammatory mediators, such as NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as iNOS and COX-2. The results showed that Gelam honey could reduce edema in a dose-dependent fashion in inflamed rat paws, decrease the production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in plasma, and suppress the expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in paw tissue. Oral pretreatment of Gelam honey at 2 g/kg of body weight at two time points (1 and 7 days showed a significantly decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines, which was similar to the effect of the anti-inflammatory drug Indomethacin (NSAID, both in plasma and tissue. Thus, our results suggest that Gelam honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the rat paw edema size and inhibiting the production of proinflammatory mediators. Gelam honey is potentially useful for treating inflammatory conditions.

  5. 猪肉肠中亚麻籽胶、卡拉胶和黄原胶的相互作用%Interaction Effect of Flaxseed Gum, Carrageenan and Xanthan Gum on Pork Sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健; 王鹏; 徐幸莲; 周光宏

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interaction effects of flaxseed gum (FG), carrageenan and xanthan gum (XG) on pork meat sausages. A factorial design was applied to analyze the effects of different amounts of added FG, carrageenan and XG on the water-holding capacity and oil-holding capacity of pork meat sausages. The results indicated that the presence of FG could significantly increase the water-holding capacity of pork meat sausages after roasting at 60 ℃ for 20, 40, 60 min or 80 min (P〈0.01). Carrageenan had no significant effect on the water-holding capacity of pork meat sausages after roasting at 60 ℃ for 20 min or 40 min. A significant interaction effect between FG and XG was observed on the water-holding capacity of pork meat sausages after roasting at 60 ℃ for 20 min or 40 min. Three types of gums could be ranked in decreasing order of their effect on the water-holding capacity of pork meat sausages as FG 〉 XG 〉 carrageenan. The oil-holding capacity of pork sausages immersed in ethanol diethyl ether for 40 min and 60 min was influenced significantly by FG (P 〈 0.05) but not significantly influenced by XG or carrageenan. FG had the highest effect on the oil-holding capacity of pork sausages, followed by XG; the effect of carrageenan was the weakest.%研究猪肉肠中亚麻籽胶、卡拉胶和黄原胶的相互作用。采用析因设计,在猪肉肠加工过程中,添加不同量的亚麻籽胶、卡拉胶和黄原胶,分析上述胶类对猪肉肠保水性、保油性的影响。结果表明:添加亚麻籽胶可显著地增强猪肉肠在60℃条件下烘20、40、60、80min的保水能力(P〈0.01)。卡拉胶对猪肉肠在60℃条件下烘20、40min的保水能力无显著性的影响,亚麻籽胶与黄原胶对猪肉肠在60℃条件下烘20、40min都有显著性交互作用(P〈O.05);保水能力从高到低依次为:亚麻籽胶、黄原胶、卡拉胶。亚麻籽

  6. Optimization of the extraction of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii using response surface methodology Otimização da extração de carragenana de Kappaphycus alvarezii utilizando metodologia de superfície de resposta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Webber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to optimize an alternative method of extraction of carrageenan without previous alkaline treatment and ethanol precipitation using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. In order to introduce an innovation in the isolation step, atomization drying was used reducing the time for obtaining dry carrageenan powder. The effects of extraction time and temperature on yield, gel strength, and viscosity were evaluated. Furthermore, the extracted material was submitted to structural analysis, by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR, and chemical composition analysis. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation. Carrageenan yield and gel viscosity were influenced only by the extraction temperature. However, gel strength was influenced by both, extraction time and extraction temperature. Optimal extraction conditions were 74 ºC and 4 hours. In these conditions, the carrageenan extract properties determined by the polynomial model were 31.17%, 158.27 g.cm-2, and 29.5 cP for yield, gel strength, and viscosity, respectively, while under the experimental conditions they were 35.8 ± 4.68%, 112.50 ± 4.96 g.cm-2, and 16.01 ± 1.03 cP, respectively. The chemical composition, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy analyses showed that the crude carrageenan extracted is composed mainly of κ-carrageenan.Este estudo tem como objetivo otimizar um método alternativo para extração de carragenana sem tratamento alcalino prévio e sem precipitação com etanol através da Metodologia de Superfície de Resposta (RSM. A fim de inovar a etapa de isolamento, a secagem por atomização foi adaptada, o que reduziu o tempo para a obtenção do pó seco. Os efeitos da temperatura e do tempo de extração sobre o rendimento, força do gel e de viscosidade foram avaliados. Além disso, o material extraído foi submetido a análises estruturais por

  7. Effect of carrageenan konjac gum and potassium on the properties of pork jerky%卡拉胶/魔芋胶和钾盐对猪肉脯及猪肉糜质构特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨园媛; 赵谋明; 孙为正; 丛懿洁

    2012-01-01

    亲水性胶体对肉糜制品的品质有重要影响。通过测定猪肉糜的失水率、质构特征以及猪肉脯的水分活度、质构特征.研究卡拉胶和魔芋胶的复配胶体以75,.K+对猪肉糜和猪肉脯质构特性的影响。结果表明,适宜比例的卡拉胶、魔芋胶复配胶体及0.1%p能够改善猪肉糜及猪肉脯的质构特性。在猪肉糜中添加0.24%卡拉胶/0.16%的魔芋胶的复配胶与0.1%KCl所制得的猪肉脯质构特性较佳。%Hydrocolloids play an important role in improving quality of meat emulsion products. The water loss rate of comminuted pork,the water activity of pork jerky and the quality and structure characteristics of them were detected to study on the effect of compound hydrocolloids,which include carrageenan,konjac gum,and K+ on comminuted pork and pork jerky. Results showed that both carrageenan and konjac gum in a appropriate proportion and 0.1% K+ could ameliorate the texture property of comminuted pork and pork jerky. Addition of 0.24% carrageenan,0.16% konjac gum and 0.1%KCl could obtain the better pork jerky in the texture property.

  8. Bio-enzymatic Technology Used in Carrageenan Wastewater Treatment Engineering Practice%生物酶催化技术应用于卡拉胶废水处理工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐爱玖; 林祥进; 孙祥章

    2012-01-01

      卡拉胶废水成分复杂,含有难生化降解的有机污染物种类多,且浓度高,碱性大,含盐量高,按现有的处理工艺,很难达到排放标准。本文以福建省石狮市中科海藻制品发展有限公司卡拉胶废水处理工程为例,阐述了生物酶催化技术在卡拉胶废水处理中的应用。通过在生化系统建立酶体系,利用生物酶催化作用,提高废水中难降解有机物的可生化性与可处理性,从而使出水达到《污水综合排放标准》(GB8978—1996)规定的一级排放标准。%  The complex composition of carrageenan wastewater contains difficult biochemical degradation of many kinds of organic pol utants, and high concentrations, alkaline, high salt content. It is difficult to achieve the emission standards according to the existing treatment process. By taking carrageenan wastewater treatment works of Fujian Shishi City Seaweed Products Development Co., Ltd. as an example, the article describes the application of bio-enzymatic technology in wastewater treatment of carrageenan. Enzyme system is set in bio-chemical system, the article uses bio-enzyme catalysis to improve biochemistry and treatment of in-degradability of organic matter in wastewater, so as to meet the first grade discharge standard stipulated in (GB8978-1996).

  9. Effects of the Geiji-Bokryung-Hwan on carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice and cyclooxygenase-2 in hepatoma cells of HepG2 and Hep3B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Hwan; Joo, Shin-Tak; Park, Kwan-Kyu; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2004-02-01

    We investigated the effects of a Korean traditional prescription, Geiji-Bokryung-Hwan (GBH) consisting of five herbs of Cinnamomi Ramulus (Korean name Geiji), Poria cocos (Bokryung), Moutan Cortex Radicis (Modanpi). Paeoniae Radix (Jakyak) and Persicae Semen (Doin) on tumor growth-inhibitory activity and cancer chemopreventive activity in assays representing three major stages of carcinogenesis. Effects of the GBH extracts on carrageenan-induced edema inflammation using female (C57BL/6XC3H) F1 (B6C3F1) mice and tumorigenesis were examined. Finally, cyclooxygenase metabolites were determined after extracts treatment. These data suggest that GBH extracts merits investigation as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent in humans.

  10. κ-卡拉胶寡糖AEC柱前衍生物的LC-ESI-MS/MS~n分离分析%Analysis of κ-Carrageenan Oligosaccharides by LC-ESI-MS/MS~n with 3-Amino-9-ethylcarbazole Derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉姣; 王承建; 耿腾飞; 王仲孚; 黄琳娟

    2011-01-01

    以κ-卡拉胶为原料,经盐酸水解得到一系列寡糖混合物.以3-氨基-9-乙基咔唑(3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole,AEC)为衍生化试剂,对酸解得到的κ-卡拉胶寡糖进行柱前衍生,采用反相C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),乙腈和乙酸铵水溶液(pH 4.5)为流动相,梯度洗脱,在254 nm波长处检测,建立了κ-卡拉胶寡糖衍生物的高效液相色谱(HPLC)分离以及液相色谱-电喷雾质谱联用(LC-ESI-MS)分离分析的方法,并对AEC衍生后的κ-卡拉胶寡糖进行多级质谱裂解(MSn)%A series of κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides were prepared by using hydrochloric acid hydrolysis.The κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides derivatized with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole(AEC) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and HPLC coupling with electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry(LC-ESI-MS).The HPLC separation was carried out on a reverse phase(RP) C18 column(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm) in a linear gradient mode,using acetonitrile and ammonium acetate aqueous solu-tion(pH 4.5) as mobile phase and a ultraviolet(UV) detection at 254 nm.Furthermore,the structure of the κ-carrageenan oligosaccharide was confirmed by multi-stage mass spectrometry(MSn).These results may be helpful to investigation in structure identification and structure-activity relationship of κ-carrageenan oligo-saccharides.

  11. In vitro and in vivo ocular safety and eye surface permanence determination by direct and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of ion-sensitive hydrogels based on gellan gum and kappa-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; González Barcia, Miguel; Gil-Martínez, María; Vieites-Prado, Alba; Lema, Isabel; Argibay, Barbara; Blanco Méndez, José; Lamas, Maria Jesus; Otero-Espinar, Francisco Javier

    2015-08-01

    Gellan gum, kappa-carrageenan and alginates are natural polysaccharides able to interact with different cations that can be used to elaborate ion-activated in situ gelling systems for different uses. The interaction between fluid solutions of these polysaccharides and cations presents into the tear made these biopolymers very interesting to elaborate ophthalmic drug delivery systems. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of mixtures of these polymers to obtain ion-activated ophthalmic in situ gelling systems with optimal properties for ocular use. To achieve this purpose different proportion of the biopolymers were analyzed using a mixture experimental design evaluating their transparency, mechanical properties and bioadhesion in the absence and presence of simulated tear fluid. Tear induces a rapid sol-to-gel phase transition in the mixtures forming a consistent hydrogel. The solution composed by 80% of gellan gum and 20% kappa-carrageenan showed the best mechanical and mucoadhesive properties. This mixture was evaluated for rheological behavior, microstructure, cytotoxicity, acute corneal irritancy, ex-vivo and in vivo ocular toxicity and in vivo corneal contact time using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) techniques. Result indicates that the system is safe at ophthalmic level and produces an extensive ocular permanence higher than 6h.

  12. Electroacupuncture Reduces Carrageenan- and CFA-Induced Inflammatory Pain Accompanied by Changing the Expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8, rather than Nav1.9, in Mice Dorsal Root Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ping; Chen, Hsiang-Ni; Su, Hong-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Several voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) from nociceptive nerve fibers have been identified as important effectors in pain signaling. The objective of this study is to investigate the electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia mechanism by changing the expression of Navs in mice dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We injected carrageenan and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the mice plantar surface of the hind paw to induce inflammation and examined the antinociception effect of EA at the Zusanli (ST36) acupoint at 2 Hz low frequency. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by using electronic von Frey filaments, and thermal hyperalgesia was assessed using Hargreaves' test. Furthermore, we observed the expression and quality of Navs in DRG neurons. Our results showed that EA reduced mechanical and thermal pain in inflammatory animal model. The expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 was increased after 4 days of carrageenan- and CFA-elicited inflammatory pain and further attenuated by 2 Hz EA stimulation. The attenuation cannot be observed in Nav1.9 sodium channels. We demonstrated that EA at Zusanli (ST36) acupoint at 2 Hz low-frequency stimulation attenuated inflammatory pain accompanied by decreasing the expression of Nav1.7 and 1.8, rather than Nav1.9, sodium channels in peripheral DRG neurons.

  13. Electroacupuncture Reduces Carrageenan- and CFA-Induced Inflammatory Pain Accompanied by Changing the Expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8, rather than Nav1.9, in Mice Dorsal Root Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ping Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs from nociceptive nerve fibers have been identified as important effectors in pain signaling. The objective of this study is to investigate the electroacupuncture (EA analgesia mechanism by changing the expression of Navs in mice dorsal root ganglia (DRG. We injected carrageenan and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA into the mice plantar surface of the hind paw to induce inflammation and examined the antinociception effect of EA at the Zusanli (ST36 acupoint at 2 Hz low frequency. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by using electronic von Frey filaments, and thermal hyperalgesia was assessed using Hargreaves' test. Furthermore, we observed the expression and quality of Navs in DRG neurons. Our results showed that EA reduced mechanical and thermal pain in inflammatory animal model. The expression of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 was increased after 4 days of carrageenan- and CFA-elicited inflammatory pain and further attenuated by 2 Hz EA stimulation. The attenuation cannot be observed in Nav1.9 sodium channels. We demonstrated that EA at Zusanli (ST36 acupoint at 2 Hz low-frequency stimulation attenuated inflammatory pain accompanied by decreasing the expression of Nav1.7 and 1.8, rather than Nav1.9, sodium channels in peripheral DRG neurons.

  14. New multilayer coating using quaternary ammonium chitosan and κ-carrageenan in capillary electrophoresis: application in fast analysis of betaine and methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Luciano; Della Betta, Fabiana; Costa, Ana Carolina O; Vaz, Fernando Antonio Simas; Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Fávere, Valfredo T; Micke, Gustavo A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new multilayer coating with crosslinked quaternary ammonium chitosan (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan; HACC) and κ-carrageenan for use in capillary electrophoresis. A new semi-permanent multilayer coating was formed using the procedure developed and the method does not require the presence of polymers in the background electrolyte (BGE). The new capillary multilayer coating showed a cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) of around 30×10(-9) m(2) V(-1) s(-1) which is pH-independent in the range of pH 2 to 10. The enhanced EOF at low pH obtained contributed significantly to the development of a fast method of separation. The multilayer coating was then applied in the development of a fast separation method to determine betaine and methionine in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The BGE used to determine the betaine and methionine concentrations was composed of 10 mmol L(-1) tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, 40 mmol L(-1) phosphoric acid and 10% (v/v) ethanol, at pH 2.1. A fused-silica capillary of 32 cm (50 µm ID×375 µm OD) was used in the experiments and samples and standards were analyzed employing the short-end injection procedure (8.5 cm effective length). The instrumental analysis time of the optimized method was 1.53 min (approx. 39 runs per hour). The validation of the proposed method for the determination of betaine and methionine showed good linearity (R(2)>0.999), adequate limit of detection (LOD <8 mg L(-1)) for the concentration in the samples and inter-day precision values lower than 3.5% (peak area and time migration). The results for the quantification of the amino acids in the samples determined by the CZE-UV method developed were statistically equal to those obtained with the comparative LC-MS/MS method according to the paired t-test with a confidence level of 95%.

  15. Study on the Gelling Properties of k Carrageenan with Textural Analyzer and Rheometer%质构仪及流变仪研究k-卡拉胶的凝胶特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟都; 朱慧; 王雅琼; 李言郡; 李卫群; 赵益臻

    2016-01-01

    本文研究了1.5%k-卡拉胶溶液(质量浓度)的粘度以及水凝胶与钾凝胶的凝胶特性,分别从凝胶强度、弹性模量及动态粘度等指标进行考察。同时,研究了卡拉胶自身含有的离子对粘度以及凝胶特性的影响。实验结果表明k-卡拉胶中K、Na、Ca、Mg含量存在差异性,这些元素含量,特别是K、Ca含量的高低影响卡拉胶溶液的粘度以及水凝胶的凝胶强度、弹性模量值、动态粘度值。水凝胶在凝胶强度测定中出现脆性,增加钾离子明显提高凝胶体的凝胶强度、弹性模量及动态粘度,形成的钾凝胶易析水收缩而未出现脆性。水凝胶耐剪切能力强于钾凝胶,流动时应变高于钾凝胶,应力亦相应低于钾凝胶。另外,水凝胶与钾凝胶的弹性模量基本不随频率增加而增加,而动态粘度却随频率出现明显的剪切稀化现象。%In this paper the viscosity of 1.5%k Carrageenan solution (m/m)as well as the gelling properties of hydro-gel and potassium-gel were studied separately,investigated from the gelling strength,elastic modulus and dynamic viscosity etc. The influences of ion content contained in carrageenan on viscosity and gelling properties were studied. The experimental results showed that there existed the difference on K,Na,Ca and Mg content in k Carrageenan,which would affect the viscosity of carrageenan solution and gelling strength,elastic modulus and dynamic viscosity of hydro-gel especially the content of K and Ca. In the determination of gelling strength of hydro-gel the brittleness occurred. The increase of potassium in the carrageenan solution would significantly improve the gelling strength,elastic modulus and dynamic viscosity of gel which were easy to show syneresis and not brittleness. The hydro-gel was more resistant to shear and the value of strain was higher than that of the potassium-gel on the occurrence of flow while the value of stress was lower

  16. Secagem do Polissacarídeo l-Carragena Usando um Leito de Jorro Fluidizado Bidimensional Drying of l-Carrageenan Using a Two Dimensional Spouted Fluidized Bed Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor José Ciro Velásquez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. Suspensões de l-carragena foram secas usando um secador de leito de jorro fluidizado bidimensional com partículas inertesplásticas de ABS (acrilonitrilo-butadieno-estireno. O desempenho do secador (produção de pó e retenção de sólidos e qualidade do produto seco obtido (propriedades reológicas e teor de umidade foi avaliado. Os resultados mostraram que a eficiência de produção média de pó foi de 23% com uma retenção média de 71%. A variável mais relevante na secagem das suspensões foi a vazão de alimentação, sendo que um aumento desta variável produziu um baixo rendimento de pó e aumentou a retenção de sólidos dentro do leito. O produto reconstituído de l-carragena obtido nas condições otimizadas de secagem formou suspensões de natureza altamente pseudoplástica, porém com propriedades viscoelásticas características de suspensões altamente diluídas (G''>G', mostrando valores de viscosidade, módulos elástico (G' e de perda (G'' menores que o produto comercial.Abstract. l-carrageenan suspensions were dried using a two dimensional spouted fluidized bed dryer with inert particles of ABS (acrylonitrile butadine styrene. The dryer performance (powder production and solid retention and quality properties of final product (rheological properties and moisture content were evaluated. According to results the mean powder production of l-carrageenan using ABS as inert particle was of 23% with a solid retention of 71%. The most significant variable in the drying of suspension was the feed mass flow rate, as its increase produced a diminishing of the powder production and increasing of the solids retention in the bed. The reconstituted suspensions of l-carrageenan obtained from optimized conditions of drying formed highly pseudoplastic suspensions with viscoelastic properties of highly diluted (G''>G' systems. In addition, the rheological characteristics as viscosity, storage (G' and loss moduli (G'' were lower

  17. Isolamento, fracionamento e atividade anticoagulante de iota-carragenanas da Solieria filiformis Isolation, fractionation and anticoagulant activity of iota-carrageenans from Solieria filiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo isolar, fracionar e avaliar o potencial anticoagulante de iota-carragenanas (i-CARs da rodofícea Solieria filiformis, quando obtidas por dois métodos de extração (M I e M II. As i-CARs foram isoladas com papaína bruta em tampão acetato de sódio 0,1M (pH 5,0, contendo cisteína 5mM e EDTA 5mM (M I ou água (80°C (M II e, em seguida, determinada sua composição química de carboidratos totais, sulfato livre (SL e proteínas contaminantes. As i-CARs foram submetidas à cromatografia de troca iônica (DEAE-celulose usando um gradiente de cloreto de sódio, sendo avaliado o tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA e tempo de protrombina das frações obtidas e comparadas à heparina (193UI mg-1. Uma fração anticoagulante também foi submetida ao procedimento de eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. A diferença no rendimento de i-CARs entre os métodos foi 10,14%. A composição química de SL (29,40% e o fracionamento, por DEAE-celulose, indicaram o M I mais eficiente na obtenção de i-CARs, comparado ao M II. O TTPA também foi somente alterado para as i-CARs do M I. Contudo, a atividade anticoagulante in vitro de uma fração rica (8,52UI mg-1 foi inferior à da heparina.This study aimed to isolate, fractionate and evaluate the anticoagulant potential of iota-carrageenans (i-CARs from Solieria filiformis when two extraction methods (M I and M II were used. i-CARs were isolated with papain in 0.1M sodium acetate (pH 5.0 containing 5mM cystein and 5mM EDTA (M I or water (80°C (M II, and then their chemical composition of total carbohydrates, free sulfate (FS and contaminant proteins were determined. i-CARs were submitted to anion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose using a sodium chloride gradient,being evaluated the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT and prothrombin time of obtained fractions and compared to heparin (193IU mg-1. A rich fraction of anticoagulant was also submitted to 0

  18. Yolk antibody were extracted in eggs by Chloroform methods, hydrolysis methods and carrageenan methods%氯仿法、水解法、卡拉胶法提取鸡蛋中卵黄抗体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 霍乃蕊

    2013-01-01

    卵黄抗体(egg-yolk antibody,IgY)具有一些IgG所没有的优良特性,与哺乳动物的IgG相比,IgY的提取具有方法简单,提取率高且方法多样等优点.本文旨在对当前条件下卵黄抗体的提取方法进行比较.选取水溶法(Water Dilution,WD)、氯仿法(Chloroform,CHL)和卡拉胶法(Carrageenan,CAR)制备IgY,根据电泳结果,比较三种方法得率高低.SDS-PAGE结果表明,氯仿法的得率较其他两种方法高一些.

  19. Effects of Intraplantar Injection of Carrageenan on Central Dopamine Release%脚掌内注射角叉菜胶对中枢多巴胺释放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀; 张玉秋; 张玲妹; 吴根诚

    2001-01-01

    @@ 中枢多巴胺(DA)系统参与痛觉调制已被大量的实验所证实,但在炎症痛中的具体作用还不甚清楚.角叉菜胶(carrageenan)由一种植物粉末提炼而成.脚掌内皮下注射(i.p1.)该物质可引起局部组织肿胀和炎症,是一种简便的炎症痛的动物模型.本实验即是以角叉菜胶诱导的炎症痛为模型,来观察炎症痛时中枢DA及其代谢产物的释放变化.

  20. 蚓激酶抗角叉菜胶诱导大鼠血栓形成作用%Effect of Lumbrokinase on Thrombosis Induced by Carrageenan in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢德芳; 方成; 王春维; 周海

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the thrombolytic effect of Lumbrokinase (LK) from Eisenia foetida on thrombopoiesis of rats induced by carrageenan. Methods:Rats are randomly divided into normal control group, model control group, small dose lumbrokinase group (2000IU/kg) and high dose lumbrokinase group (4000IU/kg). Thrombopoiesis at rats' tail is induced by subcutaneous injection of 1%carrageenan (5mg/kg). Thrombus length are detected 24h and 48h respectively after injecting carrageenan, and humerus artery blood of rats are separated at 49th hour and blood coagulation index were measured. Results:The high dose LK can obivously decrease the black tail occurrence and the black tail length;Compared with model control group, both the low does LK and the high does LK can extend the prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and reduce the content of human fibrinogen (Fib). In addition, PT length (P<0.05) and Fib content reducing (P<0.05) were significant in the high dose lumbrokinase group, and difference have statistical significance. The high dose lumbrokinase group could also relieve the lose of body weight induced by carrageenan. Conclusion:LK could prevent and relieve the thrombosis and improve the fibrinolytic function of body.%目的:通过大鼠角叉菜胶诱导大鼠血栓模型,对从赤子爱胜蚓中提取的蚓激酶的溶栓效果进行研究。方法:大鼠随机分为正常组、模型对照组、蚓激酶小剂量组(2000IU/kg)和蚓激酶大剂量组(4000IU/kg)。经脚趾皮下注射1%角叉菜胶(5mg/kg)制作血栓模型,于造模后24h、48h分别测量黑尾长度,第49h分离肱动脉采血,测定凝血指标。结果:高剂量的蚓激酶能够降低角叉菜胶诱导的大鼠尾部血栓形成率,减小角叉菜胶诱导的大鼠尾部血栓平均长度;与模型对照组相比,高、低剂量组均能使凝血酶原时间(PT)、凝血酶时间(TT)延长,纤维蛋白原含量(Fib)下降,其中高剂量组PT显著延长(P<0.05)

  1. 2种大孔树脂用于麒麟菜生产卡拉胶的脱色%Decolorization of carrageenane from eucheuma by two kinds of macroporous resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫静芳; 焦琳舒; 张生生; 陈阳阳; 王昱沣

    2015-01-01

    卡拉胶作为一种具有商业价值的亲水凝胶,在食品、药品等领域具有广泛的应用,但在提取过程中色素的溶出会影响产品的品质.文中采用大孔树脂D301和D315对麒麟菜卡拉胶进行脱色研究,以脱色率和多糖保留率为指标,在单因素的基础上,采用正交实验对2种大孔树脂的脱色工艺进行优化.结果表明:大孔树脂D301的脱色效果优于D315,最佳脱色条件为温度50℃、pH 9.0、树脂用量为0.12 g/mL、脱色时间80 min,在此条件下的脱色率达48.44%,多糖保留率则为84.30%.所采用方法操作简单,成本低,为工业生产中卡拉胶脱色提供了理论基础.%As a kind of hydrophilic gel which had commercial value,carrageenan was applied widely in the industry of medicine and food.But the existence of color material would affect the quality of it.In this research,macroporous resin D301 and D315 were used to decolor carrageenan extracted from Eucheuma.Taking decoloration rate and retention rate of polysaccharide as evaluation standards,and comparing with the decolor result of active carbon,orthofonal method was applied to optimize the decolor procession of the two decolorants on the basis of single factor experiments for the first time.The results showed that the decoloration rate of active carbon was relatively low with numerous residue of active carbon in the carrageenan solvent.The performance of macroporous resin D315 was not efficient for having a low rentation rate of polysaccharide.The macroporous resin D301 had the most efficient performance in the decoloration procession.The optimal conditions were that the temperature was 50 ℃,the pH was 7.0,the amount of macroporous resin was 0.12 g/mL,and the used time was 80 min.On the optimal conditions,the decoloration rate was 48.44%,and the polysaccharide rentation rate was 84.30%.The method we applied is simple and cheap,as well as provides base for the industrial decolor procession of carrageenan.

  2. Influência do amido e carragena nas propriedades texturiais de surimi de tilápia (Oreochomis sp. Influence of starch and carrageenan on textural properties on tilapia (Oreochomis sp. surimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas carcaças residuais da filetagem industrial de tilápias (Oreochomis sp. na obtenção de carne de pescado separada mecanicamente (CPSM para elaboração de surimi. Amidos de diferentes fontes, como milho ceroso, milho ceroso modificado e mandioca, e o polissacarídeo carragena foram usados como ingredientes, e estudados seus efeitos no comportamento do gel de surimi. O surimi elaborado a partir de carcaças residuais da filetagem industrial, apresentou um rendimento final de 25% (peso/peso. A análise instrumental de textura apresentou um efeito fortalecedor, em relação à força de penetração dos amidos no gel de surimi, sendo esse efeito proporcional à viscosidade (r = 0,81, pFillet frames from industrial processing of tilapias (Oreochomis sp. was utilized to obtained minced meat for surimi. Starch from differents sources ( waxy maize starch, modified waxy maize starch and tapioca and the polysaccharide carrageenan was utilized like additives, and then studied their effects on surimi gel behaviour. Tilapia surimi showed a yield of 25% (weight/weight. The instrumental analysis of texture showed a strong effect of starch in relation to penetration force in surimi gel, these effect was proportional to starches viscosity (r = 0,81, p<0,05, studied by Brabender amylograph, by other hand, both starch and carrageenan showed a decresed in viscoelasticity of surimi gel (p<0,005.

  3. Effects of Carrageenan and Xanthan Gum on Texture of Processed Acid-coagulated Cheese%卡拉胶和黄原胶对酸性凝胶型再制干酪质构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖杨; 苗君莅; 郑远荣; 刘振民

    2012-01-01

    The effects of carrageenan and xanthan gum on the texture and sensory quality of processed acid-coagulated cheese were studied.Under the acidic condition of pH 4.25,addition of carrageenan,along with 0.2% locust bean gum,could increase the hardness of cheese and result in the formation of hard and sticky gels.The presence of xanthan gum was effective in enhancing the springiness and chewiness of processed acid-coagulated cheese and soft,smooth and elastic gels were formed.Combined addition of carageenan and xanthan gum to processed acid-coagulated cheese can meet various texture requirements.%通过质构仪分析和感官评定,研究卡拉胶和黄原胶对酸性再制干酪质构的影响。结果表明:在pH4.25的酸性条件下,在添加0.2%刺槐豆胶的基础上,添加卡拉胶能增强再制干酪的硬度,形成的凝胶硬实且黏厚;添加黄原胶能增强再制干酪的弹性和咀嚼性,形成的凝胶柔滑且富有弹性。可按不同质构需求将两者复配起来运用于酸性凝胶型再制干酪的加工。

  4. Carrageenan oligosaccharides inhibit growth-factor binding and heparanase activity%卡拉胶寡糖与 bFGF 的结合活性及其对乙酰肝素酶活性的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海敏; 高洋; 严小军

    2011-01-01

    为探讨卡拉胶寡糖作为硫酸肝素类似物的抗肿瘤和抗血管新生机制,以宫颈肿瘤细胞 HeLa 和人脐静脉内皮细胞 HUVEC 为研究对象,考察几种不同聚合范围的寡糖结合 bFGF 及抑制乙酰肝素酶活性的作用.发现卡拉胶寡糖对正常细胞和肿瘤细胞均表现出低毒特征.在低浓度下,具有结合 bFGF 并能抑制 bFGF 引起的细胞增殖能力,其中λ-卡拉胶寡糖(聚合度2~8)效果最明显,在质量浓度为 20μg·mL-1 时,可达30%的抑制率.几种寡糖对乙酰肝素酶活性有不同趋势的抑制作用,在 HeLa 细胞中,λ-卡拉胶寡糖的抑制活性最高;在 HUVEC 细胞中,聚合度在9~17的k-卡拉胶寡糖活性最高.结果表明,卡拉胶寡糖的类硫酸肝素生物活性与其分子量大小、硫酸取代量有明显的关系,低分子量、高硫酸基取代是其高活性的关键.%This study is designed to investigate the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis mechanism of carrageenan oligosaccharides. The effects of carrageenan oligosaccharides on basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced cell proliferation, heparanase activity and bFGF binding ability were evaluated in human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Results indicate that, at rational concentrations, carrageenan oligosaccharides showed low cytotoxic effect. At relatively low concentrations (0.2-200 μg·mL-1), these oligosaccharides could competitively bind bFGF and inhibit bFGF induced cell proliferation. In these samples, oligo-λ-carrageenans (dp2-8) were the most potent bFGF antagonists. At concentration of 20 μg·mL-1, their inhibitory ratio reached to 30%. The heparanase enzyme assay revealed that three kinds of carrageenan oligosaccharides showed different inhibitory activities to two cell lines. For HeLa cell, oligo-λ-carrageenans showed highest inhibitory effect, but for HUVEC, oligo-K-carrageenans (dp9-17) were the best inhibitors. Current

  5. Effects of Locus Bean Gum, Kappa Carrageenan and Iota Carrageenan on the Syneresis, Texture and Some Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Ham / Efecto de la Goma de Algarrobo, la Carragenina Kappa y la Carragenina Iota Sobre la Sinéresis, Textura y Algunas C

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    César Augusto Sepúlveda Cossio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluated the effect of the additionof locus bean gum (LBG, Kappa carrageenan (KC and Iotacarrageenan (IC on some characteristics of cooked ham. For this purpose, a 2% mixture of LBG: KC: IC was added to the formula of a cooked ham standard brine, established according to the following ratios of 14 treatments (T: (T1: 100% IC; (T2: 100% KC; (T3: 50: 50 LBG: KC mixture; (T4: 50: 50 LBG: IC mixture; (T5: 33.33: 66.67KC: IC mixture; (T6: 66.67: 33.33 KC: IC mixture; (T7: 25: 75 LBG: KC mixture; (T8: 25: 75 LBG: IC mixture; (T9: 50: 16.17: 33.33 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T10: 50: 33.33: 16.17 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T11: 25: 56.25: 18.75 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T12: 25: 18.75: 56.25 LBG: KC: ICmixture; (T13: 12.5: 43.75: 43.75 LBG: KC: IC mixture and (T14: 37.5: 31.25: 31.25 LBG: KC: IC mixture. For all brines, the cooked ham was prepared and extended to 100%, and characteristics of hardness and elasticity were evaluated 14 and 28 days after manufacturing, through a texture analysis profile (TAP; along with syneresis in the packaging (purges by gravimetric analysis and, hardness, elasticityand general appearance; and sensory attributes through a sensory analysis. The lowest syneresis was shown for T11 and the lowest predicted syneresis by a third grade polynomial was shown in the mixtures 18.12: 64.46: 17.42 and 16.36: 65.56: 18.08 of LBG: KC: IC for days 14 and 28, respectively, with a syneresis value of 0.88%and 2.83%; the highest instrumental hardness (TAP was found inT7, and the highest predicted hardness at 14 days was found in mixture 24.72: 75.28 of LBG: KC, with a value of 22.74 N, while the highest predicted elasticity coinciding with a high hardness region was found in mixture 26.21: 67.82 : 8.98 of LBG: KC: IC, with a value of 0.93. In the sensory analysis, T7 and T11 (sampling points closer to these optimal were those that received the best scores in the evaluated parameters.

  6. Study on Viscosity of κ-Carrageenan and Gelatin Solutions and Their Mixture using for Candy%软糖用κ-卡拉胶与明胶溶液及其复配液的表观粘度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 李丹丹; 李汴生; 阮征

    2012-01-01

    本文研究了剪切速率、胶液浓度、测定温度对k-卡拉胶及明胶溶液表现粘度的影响,并将两者进行复配,研究了复配比例、复配胶溶液浓度及测定温度对复合胶溶液表现粘度的影响.研究结果表明,单一胶体溶液的表观粘度随着浓度的增加而增加;随着测定温度的升高而下降,卡拉胶溶液表现出剪切变稀的假塑性,明胶溶液随着剪切速率的变化,表观粘度趋于稳定.复配胶的表观粘度随k-卡拉胶所占比例的增大而增大,随着复配胶浓度的增加而增加,随着测定温度的升高而降低;在总胶含量4%,卡拉胶比明胶为3:7的配比下,复配胶液流动性好,冷却后可形成富有弹性和咀嚼性的凝胶体.%The impact of shear rate, concentration and testing temperature on the viscosity of K-carrageenan and gelatin solution was studied in this paper. Gelatin and K-carrageenan were compounded and the influences of mixture ratio, concentration and temperature on the viscosity of complex solution were concerned The results showed that the viscosity of single K-carrageena and gelatin solution was increased with the increase of concentration; and decreased with the testing temperature. Carrageenan solution showed shear-thinning pseudoplastic; the apparent viscosity of gelatin solution trended to stabilize with the shear rate changes. The viscosity of mixture solution was improved with the increase of K-carrageenan content in the complex and the concentration of complex solution, and decreased with the testing temperature. With the total content 4% and the ratio of carrageenan and gelatin was 3:7, an easy flowing solution which can form the gel with elasticity and chewiness was gained.

  7. 嵌合型卡拉胶——特别为加工干酪定制的稳定剂和质构改进剂%Hybrid carrageenan,a special product for processed cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Bisgaard

    2009-01-01

    一些关于嵌合型卡拉胶(hybrid carrageenan)分子结构的基础科研工作,为特制的卡拉胶产品用于加工干酪提供了理论基础.嵌合型卡拉胶兼含kappa和iota型复合分子结构,能改善加工干酪的最终性能.新的高度灵活的卡拉胶产品的应用性能广泛,能获得加工干酪的生产过程和最终产品的良好性能.目前已经开发出满足生产商和消费者需求的、基于嵌合型卡拉胶的亲水胶体解决方案.该方案性价比很好,适用于大块加工干酪、模拟干酪、包装的切片干酪、涂抹型干酪等,使之耐受机械处理、黏附性低、并保持再融化特性、拉伸性、热稳定性等.

  8. Iota-carrageenans from Solieria filiformis (Rhodophyta and their effects in the inflammation and coagulation=Iota-carragenanas da rodofícea Solieria filiformis e seus efeitos na inflamação e coagulação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Maria Barros Benevides

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical analyses are important tools for discovering new bioactive compounds for medical clinic. This study aimed at isolating iota-carrageenans (ι-CARs from Solieria filiformis (Rhodophyta by enzymatic extraction (EE, refined hot-water extraction (RHWE and hot-water extraction (HWE, and test (EE, s.c. their anti-inflammatory effects in the peritonitis model using the Lambda-carrageenan (700 µg cavity-1, i.p. as an inflammatory stimuli in rats. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT was also evaluated in ι-CARs fractions, obtained by ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose, using rabbit plasma and compared to heparin (193 IU mg-1. The results showed that the ι-CARs (EE (3 or 9 mg kg-1 containing 89.92% total sugars, 29.02% sulfate and absence of contaminant proteins inhibited (p 0.05. Similar chromatography profiles were obtained among the methods; however, with fractions revealing different pattern on charge density by electrophoresis. Fractions had no virtually effects on APTT (1.16, 1.73 and 1.59 IU mg-1 for EE, RHWE and HWE, respectively. Further investigations to better understanding the actions of S. filiformis ι-CARs (EE in the inflammatory response are suggested.Análises bioquímicas são ferramentas importantes para a descoberta de novos compostos bioativos para clínica médica. Neste estudo, iota-carragenanas (ι-CARs da rodofícea Solieria filiformis foram isoladas (extração enzimática (EE, extração aquosa a quente refinada (EAQR ou extração aquosa a quente (EAQ e testadas (EE; s.c. no modelo de peritonite, usando-se a Lambda-carragenana (700 µg cavidade-1; i.p. como um estímulo flogístico, para averiguar seus efeitos anti-inflamatórios em ratos. O tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA também foi avaliado em frações de ι-CARs, obtidas por cromatografia de troca iônica (DEAE-celulose, usando plasma de coelho e comparadas à heparina (193 UI mg-1. Verificaram-se que ι-CARs (EE (3 ou 9 mg

  9. Effect of a Korean traditional formulation, Hwaotang, on superoxide generation in human neutrophils, platelet aggregation in human blood, and nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 production and paw oedema induced by carrageenan in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Hwan; Park, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2004-02-01

    Hwaotang, a traditional Korean medicinal formulation, is a dried decoctum of a mixture of 7 herbal medicines, consisting of Angelica gigantis Radix, Rehmanniae radix, Paeoniae radix, Ciniamomi cortex, Cnidii rhizoma, Persicae semen and Carthami flos. We have investigated that Hwaotang water extract (HOT) has various effects on stimulus-induced superoxide generation in human neutrophils. The effects of HOT on superoxide generation in human neutrophils were investigated. HOT significantly inhibited N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced superoxide generation in a concentration-dependent manner, but not that induced by arachidonic acid (AA). On the other hand, HOT enhanced superoxide generation induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in a concentration-dependent manner. The superoxide generation induced by PMA with HOT was suppressed by staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, but was not suppressed by genistein, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinase. Tyrosyl phosphorylation of a 58 kDa protein, which was increased by fMLP, was inhibited by HOT. HOT also inhibited the generation of a 47 kDa protein and platelet aggregation in human blood. The results suggest that protein tyrosine kinase participates in fMLP-mediated superoxide generation by HOT-treated human neutrophils. HOT inhibited neutrophil functions, including degranulation, superoxide generation, and leukotriene B4 production, without any effect on 5-lipoxygenase activity. HOT reduced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 production in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, whereas no influence on the activity of iNOS, COX-2 or COX-1 was observed. HOT significantly reduced mouse paw oedema induced by carrageenan. Western blot analysis showed that HOT reduced the expression of iNOS and COX-2. The results indicate that HOT exerts anti-inflammatory effects related to the inhibition of neutrophil functions and of NO and prostaglandin E2 production, which

  10. Phototherapy with low intensity laser in carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory process in mice paw - dosimetry studies; Fototerapia com laser em baixa intensidade em processo inflamatorio agudo induzido por carragenina em pata de camundongos - estudos de dosimetria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneguzzo, Daiane Thais

    2010-07-01

    The importance of modulation of inflammation on the treatment of inflammatory diseases and the difficulty in determining the laser irradiation parameters has led us to study the effects of different protocols of phototherapy with low intensity laser (power, energy, time and place of irradiation) in the treatment and prevention of edema in acute inflammatory process using the experimental model of paw edema induced by carrageenan (CGN) in three strains of mice (Balb-c, Swiss and C57BL/6). The first stage of the study evaluated different combinations of energy (1J and 3J) with different powers (30, 60 and 100mW) in Balb-C mice paw irradiated 1 and 2h after injection of CGN. The second stage studied different combinations of location (foot, inguinal lymph nodes and both) and exposure time (2 and 1h before, 1h and immediately before the CGN, 1 and 2h and 3.5 and 4.5h after CGN) using fixed irradiation parameters (1J, 100mW, 35J/cm{sup 2}, spot area of 0.028 cm{sup 2}). The third stage compared different strains of mice Balb-c and C57BL/6) in the best local and time parameters found in step 2. At all stages, we evaluated the change in paw volume by plethysmography and inflammatory infiltrate by histomorphometry or analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO). The results showed that laser phototherapy treated and prevented edema and modulated the inflammatory process with paw and inguinal lymph nodes irradiations accordingly with the parameters and mice strain used. (author)

  11. Blockade of peripheral P2Y1 receptors prevents the induction of thermal hyperalgesia via modulation of TRPV1 expression in carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain rats: involvement of p38 MAPK phosphorylation in DRGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Gu; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Moon, Ji-Young; Choi, Sheu-Ran; Choi, Hoon-Seong; Kang, Suk-Yun; Han, Ho-Jae; Beitz, Alvin J; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2014-04-01

    Although previous reports have suggested that P2Y1 receptors (P2Y1Rs) are involved in cutaneous nociceptive signaling, it remains unclear how P2Y1Rs contribute to peripheral sensitization. The current study was designed to delineate the role of peripheral P2Y1Rs in pain and to investigate potential linkages to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in DRGs and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) expression in a rodent inflammatory pain model. Following injection of 2% carrageenan into the hind paw, expressions of P2Y1 and TRPV1 and the phosphorylation rates of both p38 MAPK and ERK but not JNK were increased and peaked at day 2 post-injection. Blockade of peripheral P2Y1Rs by the P2Y1R antagonist, MRS2500 injection (i.pl, D0 to D2) significantly reduced the induction of thermal hyperalgesia, but not mechanical allodynia. Simultaneously, MRS2500 injections suppressed upregulated TRPV1 expression and DRG p38 phosphorylation, while pERK signaling was not affected. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 activation in the DRGs by SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor, i.t, D0 to D2) prevented the upregulation of TRPV1 and a single i.t injection of SB203580 reversed the established thermal hyperalgesia, but not mechanical allodynia. Lastly, to identify the mechanism of action of P2Y1Rs, we repeatedly injected the P2Y1 agonist, MRS2365 into the naïve rat's hind paw and observed a dose-dependent increase in TRPV1 expression and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These data demonstrate a sequential role for P2Y1R, p38 MAPK and TRPV1 in inflammation-induced thermal hyperalgesia; thus, peripheral P2Y1Rs activation modulates p38 MAPK signaling and TRPV1 expression, which ultimately leads to the induction of thermal hyperalgesia.

  12. κ-卡拉胶寡糖对小鼠皮肤成纤维细胞增殖和胶原分泌的影响%Effects of κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides on cell proliferation and collagen secretion in cultured mouse skin fibroblast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天琦; 吴海歌; 姚子昂

    2013-01-01

    目的研究κ-卡拉胶寡糖对小鼠皮肤成纤维细胞增殖和胶原分泌的影响.方法原代培养小鼠皮肤成纤维细胞,传代培养后加入不同浓度的κ-卡拉胶寡糖作用,应用细胞计数法,四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)比色法,检测κ--卡拉胶寡糖对皮肤成纤维细胞增殖的影响,ELISA法检测κ--卡拉胶寡糖对皮肤成纤维细胞分泌Ⅰ型、Ⅲ型胶原蛋白的影响.结果12.5μg/mL~100μg,/mL范围内,各组κ-卡拉胶寡糖对小鼠皮肤成纤维细胞均有一定促进增殖作用,其中以100μg/mL时最为显著(P<0.01).用25μg/mL和50μg/mLκ-卡拉胶寡糖处理小鼠皮肤成纤维细胞后,与对照组相比,Ⅰ型胶原蛋白分泌明显增加(P<0.05);12.5μg/mL~100μg/mL范围内,各组κ-卡拉胶寡糖均显著促进Ⅲ型胶原蛋白分泌(P<0.05).结论κ-卡拉胶寡糖能有效促进小鼠皮肤成纤维细胞增殖和胶原分泌.%Objective: To investigate the effect of κ - carrageenan oligosaccharides on cell proliferation and collagen secretion in cultured mouse skin fibroblasts. Methods; The primary mouse skin fibroblasts were isolated and cultured in vitro. The cells were treated with κ- carrageenan oligosaccharides in different concentration in exponential phase of cell growth. The cell proliferation was measured by cell counting and MTT colormetric assay. Type I and type IE collagen secretion was detected by ELJSA. Results: Compared with the control group,the growth of mouse skin fibroblasts was enhanced. When the cells were stimulated by κ- carrageenan oligosaccharides,100μg/mL is most significant (P < 0.01). Type Ⅰ collagen secretion was increased (P<0.05) after the cells were stimulated by 25μg/mL and 50μg/mL κ - carrageenan oligosaccharides; type Ⅲ collagen secretion was increased ( P < 0. 05) after the cells were stimulated by k - carrageenan oligosaccharides. Conclusion: κ - carrageenan oligosaccharides can enhance the growth of mouse skin fibroblasts and

  13. Determination of Trace Hexavalent Chromium in Carrageenan Vacant Capsules by Tributyl Phosphate Extracting and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy%磷酸三丁酯萃取-石墨炉原子吸收分光光度法测定海藻多糖空心胶囊中痕量六价铬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 郭盈杉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a method of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy for quantitative determination of trace hexavalent chromium in Carrageenan Vacant Capsules. Methods The sample was extracted with Tributly Phosphate(TBP)and digested by the microwave dissolution system. The trace hexavalent chromium in Carrageenan Vacant Capsules was determined by the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results The sample concentration of chromium within the range of 0 ~ 40 ng / mL showed the good linear relation with the absorbance( r = 0. 999 7)and the average recovery rate was 88. 08% ,RSD = 0. 78%( n = 9). Conclusion This method is accurate,reliable,easy to operate,highly sensitive and suitable for the quality control of hexavalent chromium in Car-rageenan Vacant Capsules.%目的:建立海藻多糖空心胶囊中痕量六价铬的定量测定方法。方法采用磷酸三丁酯(TBP)萃取、微波消解、石墨炉原子吸收分光光度法,测定海藻多糖空心胶囊中的痕量六价铬。结果铬进样质量浓度在0~40 ng / mL 范围内与吸光度呈良好的线性关系(r =0.9997),平均回收率为88.08%,RSD =0.78%(n =9)。结论该方法定量准确可靠,方法操作简便、灵敏度高,适用于海藻多糖空心胶囊的六价铬质量控制。

  14. Analysis of compositions of Eucheuma spinosum and studies on the technological parameters in ι-carrageenan extraction from this alga%刺麒麟菜基本成分分析和ι-卡拉胶的提取工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏; 张立新; 史大永

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide plenty data for ι-carrageenan production, the chemical compositions of Eucheuma spinosum were analyzed and technological parameters for ι-carrageenan extraction from this alga were studied. By oven drying method, ignition, Kjeldahl method and Soxhlet extraction, the contents of water, ash, crude protein and crude fat in Eucheuma spinosum were determined to be 12.93%, 22.68%, 4.19%, and 0.58%, respectively. The optimal parameters were established by orthogonal design to be treated with 9% potassium hydroxide for 5 hours under room temperature and extracted for 4 hours at 90 ℃. The yield of extraction was 47.6% and the gel strength of ι-carrageenan product was 59 g/cm2.%以印尼海域刺麒麟菜(Eucheuma spinosum)为原料, 分别采用烘箱法、高温灼烧法、凯式定氮法、索氏提取法对其水分、灰分、粗蛋白、粗脂肪含量进行测定, 通过正交试验确定最佳提取工艺参数。结果表明, 该刺麒麟菜中水分、灰分、粗蛋白、粗脂肪含量分别为12.93%, 22.68%, 4.19%和0.58%。最佳提取工艺参数由正交试验确定为: 常温下, 9% KOH 处理5 h, 90 ℃提取4 h。得到凝胶强度为59g/cm2, 产率为47.6%的ι-卡拉胶产品。

  15. Analysis of Oligo-κ-carrageenan by Reversed Phase Ion-pair Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry%κ-卡拉胶寡糖的反相离子对-超高效液相色谱-四极杆-飞行时间质谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洋; 陈海敏; 徐继林; 陈德莹; 严小军

    2009-01-01

    A method was developed to elucidate the structures of sulfated oligosaccharides through establishment of an effective reversed phase ion pair ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry( RPIP-UPLC-ESI-TOF-MS). Heptylamine (20 mmol/L,pH4) has been selected as the ion-pairing agent.κ-Carrageenan oligosaccharides have been separated on BEH C_(18) column using MeOH/H_2O with 25% heptylammonium formate as eluent in linear gradient mode. Mass spectra were obtained by ESI-Q-TOF-MS in both positive and negative modes. κ-Carrageenan oligosaccharides were well separated up to pentatetrasaccharide,and ESIMS analysis for κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides up to hepta-cosasccharide. The results showed that all acid hydrolyzed κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides were odd sugars,which was further confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ( PAGE). The characteristic fragmentation pattern of ion-pair oligosaccharides in mass spectra can be applied for rapid structure identification.%建立反相离子对-超高效液相色谱(RPIP-UPLC)和电喷雾离子源-四极杆-飞行时间质谱(ESI-Q-TOF-MS)联用技术快速分离鉴定硫酸寡糖的方法.以20 mmol/L庚胺(pH 4)为离子对试剂,25%庚胺甲酸盐纯水溶液(A)和25%庚胺甲酸盐甲醇溶液(B)为梯度洗脱溶剂,κ-卡拉胶寡糖通过BEH C_(18)反相柱分离后,分别在正、负离子模式下进行四极杆-飞行时间质谱分析.结果表明,聚合度为3~45的κ-卡拉胶寡糖在BEH C_(18)柱上得到很好的分离,从每一个色谱峰对应的质谱图中可以准确获得直至27糖的各寡糖结构信息,均为奇数糖,与聚丙烯凝胶电泳结果吻合.所得的寡糖断裂规律对卡拉胶寡糖的快速鉴定和结构解析具有重要意义.

  16. Determinaion of Oligo-λ-carrageenans by reversed phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray Ionization-QqQ-Mass Spectrometry%离子对-反相高效液相色谱-三重四级杆质谱法测定λ-卡拉胶寡糖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官巧灵; 陈海敏; 陈娟娟; 严小军

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立离子对-反相高效液相色谱(RPIP-HPLC)和电喷雾离子源-三重四级杆质谱(ESI-QqQ-MS)联用技术快速分离鉴定多阴离子λ-卡拉胶寡糖的方法.方法 采用Hypersil GOLD C18色谱柱(100mm×2.1mm,3μm),流速0.2mL·min-1,柱温30℃,考察3种离子对试剂(庚胺、二丁胺、三丙胺)、不同离子对试剂浓度(3、5和8 mmol/L)及流动相pH值(pH4.5、5.5、6.5)对λ-卡拉胶寡糖分离效果的影响.结果 当流动相组成为5 mmol·L-1庚胺乙酸盐水溶液(pH5.5)和5 mmol·L-1庚胺乙酸盐甲醇溶液(pH 5.5)时,聚合度(DP)在2~15间的λ-卡拉胶寡糖分离效果较好,同时从相应的质谱数据中能准确获得各聚合度λ-卡拉胶寡糖的结构信息.结论 该方法能较好地分离并鉴定多阴离子λ-卡拉胶寡糖,所得寡糖质谱信息对λ-卡拉胶寡糖的结构解析有借鉴作用.%Objective An effective method,reversed phase ion pair high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization QqQ mass spectrometry (RPIP-HPLC-ESI-QqQ-MS),was developed to separate and identify polyanionic λ-carrageenan oligosaccharides with different polymerization degree.Methods The Hypersil GOLD C18 column(100 mm×2.1 mm,3μm)was used to separate oligoλ-carrageenans.The flow rate was 0.2 mL · min-1 and the column temperature was 30℃.The separation conditions were optimized with different solvent systems in which the species and concentration of ion-pairing reagent and the pH of mobile phase were varied.The ion-pairing reagent was heptylammonium,dibutylammonium,tripropylammonium,respectively.Mass spectra were obtained synchronously by ESI-QqQ-MS in positive mode.Results Oligo-λ-carrageenans,of which the polymerization degree was between 2 to 15,were separated preferably by using MeOH/H2O with 5 mmol · L-1 heptylammonium acetate acid (adjusted to pH 5.5 with acetate acid) as eluent in linear gradient mode.The accurate structure information of these oligosaccharides

  17. Models of Inflammation: Carrageenan Air Pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Djane B; Vasko, Michael R; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2016-03-18

    The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study the components of acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, the oxidative stress response, and potential therapeutic targets for treating inflammation. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this unit has been extensively used to identify potential anti-inflammatory drugs.

  18. The Effect of Seawater Relative Density on the Growth and the Carrageenan and Pigment Content of the Agar Eucheuma (Betaphycus gelatinum)%海水相对密度对琼枝麒麟菜的生长及其卡拉胶、色素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方哲; 刘敏; 梁磊; 黄惠琴; 朱军; 鲍时翔

    2012-01-01

    Agar Eucheuma (Betaphycus gelatinum), rich in carrageenan, polysaccharide and various pigments, is an important economic tropical alga. However, production of Eucheuma, both wild and farmed, has become less and less due to the influence of deterioration of seawater environment. Eucheuma growing in different rela- tive densities of seawater were observed and determined in growth rate and content of carrageenan and pigment. Results show that Eucheuma survived at a seawater relative density range of 1. 014 to 1. 030 and grew well at the relative density from 1. 018 to 1. 024. Eucheuma grew at a daily rate of upto 4.6% at the relative density of sea- water of 1. 022, contained 64.2% of carrageenan (the highest among all the treatments) at the seawater relative density of 1. 024, and had maximum contents of chlorophyll a, PC, PE and APC at the respective seawater rela- tive densities of 1. 026, 1. 024,1. 022 and 1. 020. These results give us more insight into the growth characteris- tics of Eucheuma to revitalize farming and development of Eucheuma in the future.%探讨了海水相对密度对琼枝麒麟菜(Betaphycus gelatinum)生长及其色素含量的影响规律。结果表明,海水相对密度为1.016~1.030时,琼枝麒麟菜均可生存,海水相对密度为1.018—1.024时,琼枝麒麟菜生长良好,海水相对密度为1.022时,日生长率高达4.6%,海水相对密度为1.024时,琼枝麒麟菜卡拉胶含量最高,达到64.2%;海水相对密度分别为1.026,1.024,1.022,1.02时,叶绿素a、藻胆蛋白藻蓝素(PC)、藻红素(PE)、别藻蓝素(APC)含量分别达到最大值。

  19. Phase Behavior and Thermal Properties of Mixed Systems of Soybean 7S Protein and Carrageenan%大豆7S蛋白组分-卡拉胶共混体系的相行为及热性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建华; 杨晓泉

    2012-01-01

    The effect of three types of carrageenan(Car),an anion polysaccharide,with different charge density on the thermal properties,phase behavior,and morphology structure of soybean 7S protein was studied using turbidity determination,phase diagram construction,differential scanning calorimeter(DSC),and confocal laser scanning microscopy(CLSM).The thermal stability of 7S protein was increased with increasing charge density of Car at the same concentration.All three types of Car could increase the denaturation temperature of soybean 7S protein and reduce the enthalpy value,and the decreasing order of their effectiveness was λ-Car ι-Car κ-Car.λ-Car/7S phase diagram had lower square of compatibility area but higher square of incompatibility area compared with κ-Car/7S and ι-Car/7S phase diagrams.Both the macro and microstructure of the incompatibility area showed phase separation while Car and soybean 7S protein in the compatibility area showed uniform distribution structure.The diversity of phase behavior and microstructure of 7S protein/Car mixtures was beneficial to design novel functional food materials with controlled release properties for flavor and bioactive agents.%主要采用浊度测量、差示量热法(DSC)、相图构建及激光共聚焦(CLSM)技术研究3种不同荷电量卡拉胶(κ-、ι-、λ-型)与大豆7S蛋白组成的共混体系的热性质、相行为及形貌结构。结果表明:同质量浓度多糖添加时,7S蛋白热稳定性随卡拉胶携带电荷量的增加而增加。添加卡拉胶均提高大豆7S蛋白的热变性温度,同时降低热焓值,影响效果依次是λ-卡拉胶〉ι-卡拉胶〉κ-卡拉胶。λ-卡拉胶/7S蛋白相图的均相区域面积低于κ-卡拉胶-7S蛋白相图及ι-卡拉胶-7S蛋白相图的对应值,非均相区域面积则高于后两者。共混体系非均相区域宏观和微观结构均显示为相分离态,而均相区域蛋白多糖呈均一共混态,

  20. Inhibiting effect of Shuang-huang-lian microemulsion on cytokines of carrageenan induced pleuritis in rats%双黄连微乳剂对胸膜炎模型大鼠炎症因子的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾鹰珏; 易红; 彭博; 李建荣; 杨华

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anti-inflammatory effect and possible mechanism of Shuang-huang-lian (SHL) microemulsion. Method: Rat model of pleuritis was established by thoracic injecting 0. 2 mL of 1 % carrageenan. Rats in the treated groups were orally administered with SHL microemulsion prescription 1,2, and oral liquid, while those in the positive control group were given aspirin. Rats in the normal group and the model group were given equal volume of water. Each groups were given their medicine for successive 6 days. Modeling was performed 30 mins after the 5~(th) day medication. After 12 hrs of modeling, took suction of the pleurorrhea and measured the amount of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) , interleukin-8 (IL-8) , prostaglandin E_2 (PGE_2) and protein (pro) . Result: Compared with the normal group, all the parameters were higher in model group (TNF-α and IL-8 P< 0. 01, PGE_2 and pro P< 0. 05). While compared with the model group, only the amount of TNF-a and PGE_2 were lower in all the treated group (P<0.01). Conclusion; Both SHL microemulsion prescription 1 and 2 have obvious anti-inflammatory effect. The effect might be related to inhibiting the increase of cytokines as TNF-α and PGE_2, and intervening of the metabolic process of arachidonic acid (AA).%目的:观察双黄连微乳剂的抗炎作用及其途径.方法:采用角叉菜胶诱导大鼠胸膜炎模型.双黄连各组分别给予双黄连口服液30 g·kg~(-1);双黄连微乳1高、低剂量组分别给予30,15 g·kg~(-1);双黄连微乳2高、低剂量组分别给予30,15 g·kg~(-1);阿司匹林组给予阿司匹林0.3 g·kg~(-1);正常组和模型组给予等体积蒸馏水.均灌胃给药,连续6 d,每日2次.于第5天给药后30 min造模,造模18 h后取胸腔渗出液,检测其胸腔渗出液中肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、白介素-8(IL-8)、前列腺素E_2(PGE_2)和蛋白质(pro)含量.结果:模型组大鼠胸腔渗出液中TNF-α,IL-8,PGE_2和pro

  1. Inhibition of carrageenan-induced expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA by low level laser therapy in a rat paw edema model Inibição da expressão de RNA mensageiro de pré-calicreínas tecidual e plasmática pela laserterapia em modelo de edema de pata induzido pela carragenina em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés P. Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROND: Low level laser therapy (LLLT has been used clinically in order to treat inflammation, where tissue and plasma prekallikrein have crucial importance. Plasma prekallikrein (PPK is synthesized by the hepatocytes and secreted into the bloodstream, where it participates in the surface-dependent activation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, kinin generation and inflammation. Tissue prekallikrein is associated with important disease states (including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegeneration and has been utilized or proposed as clinically important biomarker or therapeutic target of interest. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if LLLT modulates tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA expression in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. METHODS: Experimental groups were assigned as followed: A1 (Control-saline, A2 (Carrageenan-only, A3 (laser 660nm only and A4 (Carrageenan + laser 660nm. Edema was measured by a plethysmometer. Subplantar tissue was collected for the quantification of prekallikreins mRNA by Real time-Polymerase Chain Reaction. RESULTS: A significantly decrease in the edema was observed after laser irradiation. Expression of prekallikreins increased after carrageenan injection. Tissue and plasma prekallikrein mRNA expression significantly decreased after LLLT's 660nm wavelength. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins is modulated by LLLT, which can be used in clinical practice due to its anti-inflammatory effects.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A laserterapia de baixa potência tem sido usada para o tratamento de processos inflamatórios diversos em que a calicreína tecidual e a plasmática possuem participação ativa. A pré-calicreína plasmática (PPK é sintetizada pelos hepatócitos e secretada na corrente sanguínea, onde participa da ativação da coagulação, fibrinólise, geração de cininas e inflamação. A pré-calicreína tecidual está associada com importantes doenças (incluindo c

  2. STUDY ON DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DYNAM ICALLY STUDY ON SYNERGISTIC INTERACTION AND GELATION OF CARRAGEENAN AND AMOPHOPHALLOGLUEOMANNAN%卡拉胶与魔芋葡甘聚糖协同相互作用及其凝胶化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东保; 彭学东; 詹东风

    2001-01-01

    魔芋葡甘聚糖(Amo)为非凝胶多糖,但它与卡 拉胶进行共混可以得到凝胶,这是多糖分子间相互作用的结果。当多糖浓度为1%,卡拉胶与Am o的共混比例为60/40时可得到协同相互作用的最大值;同时也讨论了制备温度(Tp)和 体系盐(KCl)离子浓度对凝胶化的影响,并且观察到当制备温度为100 ℃,体系盐离子浓度为 0.2 mol/L时,可得到凝胶强度的最大值。从FT-IR谱图上分析了两种多糖分子间相互作用的机理。%The amophophalloglueomannan(Amo) is not ge lation polysaccharide. It can get gelation when carrageenan and Amo are mixed. This is the interaction result of polysaccharide′s molecules. There is a synergi stic interaction maximum while the mixed ratio of carrageenan and Amo is 60/40, the total polysaccharide concentration is 1%. The gelation effect of the pr eparation temperature(Tp) and balk salt ionic concentration have been stu died. It has been observed that, there is a jelly-glue strength maximum when Tp is 100 ℃ and salt ionic concentration is 0.2 mol/L. The melting tem perature (Tm) of the gels and the viscosity of melting gels were increased while put the salt in the mixed balk. Interactions between molecules and molecu les of two polysaccharides were investigated by FT-IR sectro-metry.

  3. Effect of acupuncture on TNF-alpha, IL-1b and IL-10 concentrations in the peritoneal exudates of carrageenan-induced peritonitis in rats Efeito da acupuntura sobre a concentração de TNF-alfa, IL-1b e IL-10 no exsudato peritoneal de ratos com peritonite induzida por carragenina

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    Márcia Valéria Rizzo Scognamillo-Szabó

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an ancient and empirical therapeutic procedure known by its efficacy in the treatment of pain. However, the influence of acupuncture on inflammatory process is still poorly understood and additional research is needed. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of action of manual acupuncture on the inhibition of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by the inflammatory stimulus carrageenan in Wistar rats. Previous results from our laboratory showed that this anti-inflammatory effect is not due to endogenous corticoid release. Furthermore, the concentration of IL-1b, but not of TNF-alpha or IL-10 in the carrageenan-induced exudates was reduced in the acupuncture group. Further research will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of acupuncture as described here.A acupuntura é método terapêutico milenar reconhecido por sua eficácia no tratamento da dor, porém seu efeito sobre processos inflamatórios é ainda pouco conhecido e maiores estudos são necessários. Neste trabalho, é investigado o mecanismo de ação da acupuntura manual sobre a inibição na migração de neutrófilos para a cavidade peritoneal induzida por carragenina em ratos Wistar. Resultados prévios indicam que esse efeito antiinflamatório não depende de hormônios corticóides. Entretanto, as concentrações de IL-1b no exsudato induzido por carragenina foram reduzidas pelo tratamento com acupuntura. Por outro lado os níveis de TNF-alfa e IL-10 não foram afetados pelo tratamento. Mais pesquisas poderão elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na ação antiinflamatória da acupuntura.

  4. 美普他酚及其同分异构体对角叉菜胶引起的炎症大鼠具有抗热痛敏作用%Antinociceptive effects of meptazinol and its isomers on carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佩芬; 张玉秋; 仇缀百; 赵志奇

    2004-01-01

    实验以清醒大鼠的缩腿潜伏期为指标,观察了腹腔注射美普他酚及其同分异构体112824和112825对角叉菜胶引起的热痛敏的影响.外周炎症由单侧足底注射角叉菜胶(2 mg/100 μl)引起.注射角叉菜胶3 h后,注射侧后肢局部红肿及热痛过敏反应达到高峰,持续数小时.腹腔注射0.1 mg/kg美普他酚对炎症和非炎症侧后肢的缩腿潜伏期无明显影响(P>0.05,n=8).腹腔注射1mg/kg和10 mg/kg美普他酚对炎症和非炎症侧后肢产生明显的抗痛敏和抗伤害效应,且对炎症侧缩腿反应的抑制(抗痛敏)作用明显强于非炎症侧(抗伤害)(P<0.05,n=8~11).预先腹腔注射1.5 mg/kg纳洛酮明显阻断美普他酚引起的抗伤害和抗痛敏效应.腹腔注射美普他酚的同分异构体112824(1 mg/kg)和112825(1.5 ms/kg)可产生与美普他酚类似的抗痛敏作用,该效应可被预先腹腔注射1.5 mg/kg纳洛酮完全阻断.提示美普他酚及其同分异构体具有明显抗伤害和抗痛敏作用,且以后者为强.该作用主要通过mu阿片受体介导.本研究为扩展美普他酚及其同分异构体在临床上的应用提供了依据.%Using the latency of paw withdrawal (PWL) from a noxious thermal stimulus as a measure of hyperalgesia, the effects of i.p.injection of meptazinol and its isomers, 112824 and 112825, on carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia were studied in awaked carrageenan-inflamed rats. Peripheral inflammation was induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of carrageenan (2 mg/100 μl) into one hindpaw in rats. Carrageenan produced marked inflammation (edema and erythema) and thermal hyperalgesia in the injected paws, which peaked at 3 h after injection and showed little change in magnitude for another 3 h. Injection of 0.1 mg/kg meptazinol (i.p.) at 3 h after carrageenan had no effect on the PWLs of either inflamed or non-inflamed hindpaw during the next 100 ain (P>0.05, n=8). At the dosage of 1 and 10 mg

  5. Caracterização tecnológica de sobremesas lácteas achocolatadas cremosas elaboradas com concentrado protéico de soro e misturas de gomas carragena e guar Technological characterization of creamy chocolate dairy desserts prepared with whey protein concentrate and a mixture of carrageenan and guar gum

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    Patrícia Hideko Lemos Nikaedo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de sobremesas lácteas tem apresentado importante crescimento nesta última década, justificado pelo progresso tecnológico em ingredientes e processos. Neste trabalho efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química e sensorial de sobremesas lácteas achocolatadas cremosas, nas quais o concentrado protéico de soro - CPS (3,0; 2,0 e 1,0% foi usado com o leite em pó integral (5,0; 6,0 e 7,0%, carragena (0,05; 0,15 e 0,25%, goma guar (0,25; 0,15 e 0,05%, chocolate em pó (2,8%, açúcar (11,5% e sorbato de potássio (0,08%. Os resultados mostram que é viável utilizar o CPS em substituição ao leite em pó, oferecendo um produto com menores teores de gordura e de sólidos totais, e maior teor de proteínas. O produto apresentou melhor qualidade nutricional, além da redução calórica, favorecendo seu consumo por pessoas preocupadas com a saúde. A sobremesa elaborada com 1,00% de CPS, 7,00% de leite em pó, 0,05% de carragena e 0,25% de goma guar foi considerada a melhor pelos provadores, com aceitabilidade acima do valor 4 (bom.The consumption of dairy desserts has boomed in the last few decades, due to the technological progress in the development of ingredients and processes. In this study the physicochemical and sensory characterization of creamy chocolate dairy desserts were carried out. Whey powder concentrate - WPC (3.0; 2.0 and 1.0% was used with whole milk powder (5.0; 6.0 and 7.0%, carrageenan (0.05; 0.15 and 0.25%, guar gum (0.25; 0.15 and 0.05%, cocoa powder (2.8%, sugar (11.5% and potassium sorbate (0.08%, according to the trial. The results showed that it is possible to use WPC, replacing whole milk powder, and therefore creating a product with low fat and total solids, and high protein content. The final product presented better nutritional quality, besides reduced caloric value, which favors the consumption by people concerned with health. The experimental dairy dessert prepared with 1.00% WPC, 7.00% whole milk

  6. Study on the gel property of konjac gum-carrageenan-xanthan compound gum and its application in meatball%魔芋胶、卡拉胶与黄原胶复配胶的特性及在肉丸中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈哲敏; 万剑真

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The gel properties of konjac gum - carrageenan - xanthan compound gum and its application in meatball were studied. The result shows that the optimum situation were; the optimal ratio of konjac gum、 Κ -carrageenan and xanthan gum at 1. 3 : 1 : 0. 3, the total concentration of compound gum 0. 6% , the concentration of KC1 0. 12% . K + contributed quite a lot in the taste of meatball and the concentration of phosphate and gel strength were negatively correlated. NaCl was 0. 9% , and heat treatment condition was 90C for 20min. The gel strength increased as the total concentration of compound gum increased. The best processing condition was optimizedas; compound gum 0. 6% , starch content 10% , grinding time 15min, 50 C for 15min, sterilization at 90 C for 20min.%主要研究了魔芋胶、κ-卡拉胶与黄原胶复配胶的凝胶特性及在肉丸中的应用效果.通过实验证明,影响复配胶凝胶强度的因素和最佳条件是:魔芋胶、κ-卡拉胶与黄原胶的最佳配比为1.3∶1∶0.3;复配胶的总胶浓度为0.6%,且总胶浓度越高,凝胶强度越高;钾离子在较大程度上能影响复配胶的凝胶强度,氯化钾的浓度控制在0.12%,浓度过高会影响口感,浓度过低则会影响凝胶强度;磷酸盐的浓度与凝胶强度成反比;氯化钠的浓度在0.9%最效果最佳;热处理是复配胶形成凝胶的必需条件,复配胶液保持在恒温90℃,恒温加热时间为20min.并最终通过工艺优化得出最适肉丸的加工条件,总胶浓度为0.6%、淀粉添加量为10%,肉糜擂溃时间为15min,水浴加热成型温度为50℃,时间为15min,杀菌煮制温度90℃,时间为20min.

  7. Effects of three stains on the expression of tumor necrosis fator-αlpha in carrageenan-induced synovitis in Rats%三种他汀类药物对角叉菜胶致大鼠气囊滑膜炎组织中肿瘤坏死因子-α表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵征; 王炎焱; 黄烽; 任建平

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of three stains. Methods Airpouch induced acute inflammation rat model was developed by subcutaneous injection of carrageenan.Inflammatory invasion and tumor necrosis fator-alpha (TNF-α) expression levels of the inflammed skins were examined by immunohistochemical methods and digital image analysis. The anti-inflammatory action of the 3 different statins was compared. Results Stains could inhibit inflammatory invasion and the expression of TNF-α. Conclusion The statins have demonstrated strong inhibition of inflammation.%目的 研究他汀类药物的抗炎机制.方法 用苏木素-伊红(HE)染色方法检测他汀类药物对角叉菜胶致大鼠背部气囊滑膜炎模型皮肤组织中炎性细胞的影响,用免疫组织化学SP法检测大鼠背部气囊滑膜炎模型皮肤组织中肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)-α的表达.结果 HE染色结果显示他汀类药物能显著抑制急性炎症反应,并降低大鼠背部气囊滑膜炎模型皮肤组织中TNF-α的表达.结论 他汀类药物具有较强的抗炎作用.

  8. k-型卡拉胶/聚乙烯吡咯烷酮共混水凝胶的辐射制备及性质研究%燬tudies on Radiation Preparation and Characteristics of k-Carrageenan/PVP Blend Hydrogel

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    翟茂林; 哈鸿飞; 吉井文男; 幕内惠三

    2001-01-01

    In this work,a series of hydrogels in the form of rod were prepared from κ-carrageenan(KC) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) by gamma radiation with 60Co γ source at room temperature.The properties of the prepared hydrogels,such as the gel strength,gel fraction and swelling behavior were investigated.High molecular weight PVP (k-90) blending with KC could produces excellent hydrogels,but low molecular weight PVP (k-30) dosen't.With increasing KC content in the prepared hydrogel,both the gel strength and the equilibrium degree of swelling were improved.The experimental analyses showed that the crosslinking reaction of PVP(k-90) was quicker than the degradation of KC at low dose(less than 30 kGy),and the degradation of KC was inhibited in PVP/KC mixture system.An interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogel composed of PVP (a chemically crosslinked network) and KC (a physically crosslinked network) was proposed.In addition,the dose influenced greatly the preparation of the hydrogel.%采用辐射技术制备了κ-型卡拉胶(KC)/聚乙烯基吡咯烷酮(PVP)共混水凝胶,研究了共混凝胶内KC含量、PVP的分子量和辐照剂量等对KC/PVP共混水凝胶性质的影响.实验发现,KC与高分子量的PVP(k-90)共混后在一定剂量范围内辐照可得到高强度、高溶胀行为的KC/PVP共混水凝胶,随着共混凝胶内KC含量的增加,凝胶强度及溶胀性能均显著提高.分析表明,KC与高分子量的PVP共混后,在较低剂量下KC的降解被抑制,从而获得一种由物理交联的KC和化学交联的PVP形成的互穿网络(IPN)凝胶.

  9. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in κ-carrageenan

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    Ravindra, Pogaku

    2015-01-01

    This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For...

  10. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR SOBRE LA INFLUENCIA DE LA CARRAGENINA KAPPA, KAPPA I.II Y GOMA TARA EN LA VISCOSIDAD Y TIXOTROPÍA DE LAS SALMUERAS DE INYECCIÓN PARA JAMONES COCIDOS PICADOS DE CERDO PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF KAPPA, KAPPA I.II CARRAGEENAN AND TARA GUM IN THE VISCOSITY AND THIXOTROPY OF INJECTION BRINES FOR COOKED CHOPPED HAMS OF PORK

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    Fabio Alexander Molina Cote

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio determinó el efecto que sobre la viscosidad y la tixotropía de una salmuera de masajeo para jamones picados cocidos de cerdo, tiene la adición de carragenina kappa, carragenina kappa I.II y goma tara, cuando son usadas a un nivel del 1% en la salmuera. Para tal efecto se incorporaron seis mezclas distintas de hidrocoloides provenientes de la carragenina kappa, kappa I.II y goma tara (individualmente, en mezclas binarias y mezclas terciarias, en una salmuera de inyección y masajeo para jamones; a las cuales se les determinó su comportamiento viscoso y tixotrópico a 4 ºC. Los datos obtenidos de índice de tixotropía (máximos, se analizaron mediante un modelo cuadrático derivado de un arreglo de mezclas. Los resultados mostraron que todas las salmueras se comportaron tixotrópicamente, presentando mayor área de histéresis, las mezclas que contenían goma tara. El modelo usado para el índice de tixotropía arrojó, con un nivel de significancia de 0,05, que la relación óptima, es la que contiene la mezcla de carragenina kappa I.II-goma tara (79% y 21%. Adicionalmente, las salmueras que contenían carragenina kappa, carragenina kappa I.II y carragenina kappa-carragenina kappa I.II presentaron menor viscosidad que las mezclas que contenían goma tara.The aim of this study was to determine the thixotropy´s effect of a massage brine in cooked chopped pork hams with addition of kappa, kappa I.II carrageenan, tara gum and their mixtures, when were used at 1% injection level of brine to meat. Six mixtures were evaluated. A protocol for thixotropy measurement adjusted to the conditions of brines used taking in account salinity, pH, temperature and shear stress. Data obtained from thixotropy index (maximum were analyzed with quadratic model derived from blends array. Results showed thixotropic measurement to brines presented a very small area, showing structural changes, but with very fast recovery. It was observed

  11. 卡拉胶对明胶/卡拉胶混合物性质的影响%Effect of Carrageenan on Properties of Blend Gelatin/Carrageenan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Guedj; 董彦博

    2002-01-01

    高黏度的明胶一直备受关注。当前。照相明胶的黏度大约为4.5-5.0mPa·s,通过一些加工调整可能将黏度提高到9-10mPa·s。在这篇文章中,我们将介绍一种黏度高于30mPa·s的明胶。为什么需要高黏度的明胶呢?

  12. Prevention of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice by anti-CD30 ligand monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Di Marco, Roberto; Mazzon, Emanuela;

    2004-01-01

    )-induced pleurisy in mice, a preclinical model of airway inflammation where type 1 proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and TNF-alpha play a key pathogenic role. The data show that prophylactic treatment with anti-CD30L mAb markedly reduces both laboratory and histological signs of CAR...

  13. Neutrophils and the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 mediate carrageenan-induced antinociception in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana L. Pagano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously shown that the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 secreted by neutrophils mediates the antinociceptive response in an acute inflammatory model induced by the intraperitoneal injection of glycogen in mice.

  14. Investigation of Moisture Sorption, Permeability and Drug Release Behavior of Carrageenan/Poly Vinyl Alcohol Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. K. Bajpai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes moisture sorption behavior and water vapor permeability of gluteraldehyde –crosslinked Carrageenen/polyvinyl alcohol (Carr/PVA films. The moisture uptake has been studied under various relative humidity (RH and the data obtained has been interpreted in the terms of various isotherm models such as GAB, Oswin and Halsey models. The moisture permeability through the films has been characterized in the terms of various parameters like water vapor transmission rate (WVTR, permeance (P and Water vapor permeability (WVP. It was found that these parameters are greatly affected by the degree of crosslinking of the films. Finally, the model drug Gentamycin Sulphate was loaded in to the films and its release was monitored kinetically in the physiological buffer (PF at 370C. The films exhibited diffusion controlled release mechanism.

  15. NATURAL POLYMERS: CELLULOSE, CHITIN, CHITOSAN, GELATIN, STARCH, CARRAGEENAN, XYLAN AND DEXTRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Zohra Benabid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers have been investigated for drug fields. They are widely being studied because of their non-toxic and biocompatible in nature. Biopolymers are used in industries as diverse as paper, plastics, food, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.This review covers different natural polymers, recent techniques applied in their processing and characterization. Advanced applications of natural polymers, including chitin, chitosan, alginate, etc., are discussed.

  16. Systemic administration of Rosmarinus officinalis attenuates the inflammatory response induced by carrageenan in the mouse model of pleurisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Julia Salvan; Facchin, Bruno Matheus; Bastos, Juliana; Siqueira, Mariana Araújo; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2013-11-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis, also named rosemary, is a native plant from the Mediterranean region that is useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Studies using experimental models and/or in vitro tests have shown the important biological effects of rosemary. In this context, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of rosemary must be investigated to support the discovery of new substances with anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract oil free obtained from the leaves of rosemary in an animal model of inflammation, thus evaluating its medicinal use for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Also its ethanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions, as well as its isolated compounds carnosol and rosmarinic acid were analyzed. Swiss mice were used for the in vivo experiments. The effect of this herb on the inhibition of the leukocytes, exudation, myeloperoxidase, and adenosine-deaminase activities, nitrite/nitrate, interleukin 17A, and interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression was determined. The crude extract and its derived fractions, in addition to its isolated compounds, inhibited leukocytes and decreased exudation and myeloperoxidase and adenosine-deaminase activities, as well as nitrite/nitrate and interleukin 17A levels and mRNA expression, besides increasing interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression. Rosemary showed important anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocytes and decreasing exudation. These effects were associated with a decrease in the proinflammatory parameters (myeloperoxidase, adenosine-deaminase, nitrite/nitrate, and interleukin 17A) and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin 10). This study confirms the anti-inflammatory properties of rosemary and validates its use in folk medicine to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism and asthma.

  17. Compartmental relaxation and diffusion tensor imaging measurements in vivo in lambda-carrageenan-induced edema in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Reuben H; Does, Mark D

    2008-07-01

    Integrated diffusion tensor T(2) measurements were made on normal and edematous rat muscle, and the data were fitted with one- and two-compartment models, respectively. Edematous muscle exhibited a short-lived component (T(2) = 28 +/- 6 ms), with diffusion characteristics similar to that of normal muscle, and a long-lived component (T(2) = 96 +/- 27 ms), with greater mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and lower fractional anisotropy (FA). With this two-component description of diffusion and relaxation, values of ADC and FA estimated with a conventional pulsed-gradient spin-echo sequence will depend on the echo time, relative fraction of short-lived and long-lived water signals, and the intrinsic ADC and FA values within the tissue. On the basis of the relative differences in water diffusion properties between long-lived and short-lived water signals, as well as the similarities between the short-lived component and normal tissue, it is postulated that these two signal components largely reflect intracellular and extracellular water.

  18. Compartmental Relaxation and DTI Measurements In Vivo in λ-Carrageenan Induced Edema in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Reuben H.; Does, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Integrated diffusion tensor-T2 measurements were made on normal and edematous rat muscle, and the data were fitted with one- and two-compartment models, respectively. Edematous muscle exhibited a short-lived component (T2 = 28 ± 6 ms) with diffusion characteristics similar to that of normal muscle and a long-lived component (T2 = 96 ± 27 ms) with greater mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and lower fractional anisotropy (FA). With this two-component description of diffusion and relaxat...

  19. Adhesion and viability of two enterococcal strains on covalently grafted chitosan and chitosan/kappa-carrageenan multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratskaya, S.; Marinin, D.; Simon, F.; Synytska, A.; Zschoche, S.; Busscher, H. J.; Jager, D.; van der Mei, H. C.

    2007-01-01

    Chitosans are natural aminopolysaccharides, whose low cytotoxicity suggests their potential use for nonadhesive, antibacterial coatings on biomaterials implant surfaces. Here, the antiadhesive behavior and ability to kill bacteria upon adhesion ("contact killing") of chitosan coatings were evaluated

  20. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Leucas indica by carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammation is basically a defense phenomenon but can lead to serious pathological conditions. It is treated by various agents with good to moderate success because of both considerable toxicity and side effects. There are various mediators to cause an inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the associated symptoms and tissue injury. Even though non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world, their use as anti-inflammatory agents continues to be principally limited by their undesired side effects. Hence, the traditional medical practitioners and scientists are turning towards Indian System of Medicine (ISM. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of Leucas indica were subjected to solvent extraction by using 90 % ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug 75, 150 & 300mg/kg were selected and subjected to preclinical anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Results : Oral administration of Ethanolic Extract Of Leaves of Leucas Indica (EELLI at doses of 150 mg/kg and 300mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity 52.58% (p<0.01 and 36.87% (p<0.05 respectively compared to control. Conclusion: Even though oral administration of EELLI has shown significant anti-inflammatory activity, further studies are required to evaluate its comprehensive analysis including quantitative / semi quantitative analysis, characterize its chemical structure and assess its pharmacotherapeutic activities with exact mechanism of action as an anti-inflammatory agent. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 302-305

  1. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione syntheses and TRR/TRX activities enhancing photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eGonzález

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the effect of OC kappa in redox status, photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus globulus, trees were treated with water (control, with OC kappa at 1 mg mL-1, or treated with inhibitors of NAD(PH, ascorbate (ASC and glutathione (GSH syntheses and thioredoxin reductase (TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO and auranofin, respectively, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for 4 months. Treatment with OC kappa induced an increase in NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses, TRR and thioredoxin (TRX activities, photosynthesis, growth and activities of basal metabolism enzymes such as rubisco, glutamine synthetase (GlnS, adenosine 5´-phosphosulfate reductase (APR, involved in C, N and S assimilation, respectively, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes. Treatment with inhibitors and OC kappa showed that increases in ASC, GSH and TRR/TRX enhanced NADPH synthesis, increases in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced ASC and GSH syntheses, and only the increase in NADPH enhanced TRR/TRX activities. In addition, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH and TRR/TRX enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Moreover, the increase in NADPH, ASC and TRR/TRX enhanced activities of rubisco, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes, the increase in GSH, NADPH, and TRR/TRX enhanced APR activity, and the increase in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced GlnS activity. Thus, OC kappa increases NADPH, ASC and GSH syntheses leading to a more reducing redox status, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH syntheses and TRR/TRX activities are cross-talking events leading to activation of photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  2. 夏季肉制品生产中卡拉胶的选择%Choosing Carrageenan of processing meat product in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2006-01-01

    夏季生产厂家在肉制品生产过程中确实是困难重重,稍有不慎都有可能出现某些严重问题。尤其是夏季肉制品生产过程中的防腐问题,更是令厂家头疼烦心。虽然各肉制品厂家在法规允许的条件下都采取了许多有效措施,也选用了各类较佳的防腐剂——乳酸钠、乳酸链球菌素、那它霉素,但是都没有从根本上彻底解决防腐问题。那么问题的症结到底出在哪里?

  3. Matrix properties affect the sensory perception of emulsion-filled gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Wijk, de R.A.; Velde, van de F.; Aken, van G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The breakdown properties and sensory perception of emulsion-filled gels with different matrices were studied at varying emulsion concentrations. The gel matrices used were cold-set whey protein isolate (WPI), gelatin, ¿-carrageenan and a mixture of ¿-carrageenan and ¿-carrageenan. The oil-in-water e

  4. 卡拉胶对大豆分离蛋白功能特性影响的研究%THE EFFECTS OF CARRAGEENAN ON FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF SOYBEAN PROTEIN ISOLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国琴; 李琳; 桂林

    2004-01-01

    研究了卡拉胶对大豆分离蛋白功能特性的影响.卡拉胶与大豆分离蛋白形成共凝胶,其溶解性、粘度、乳化性和乳化稳定性、持水性、凝胶强度均有提高,从而扩大了大豆分离蛋白在食品领域的应用.

  5. Rheological Properties of κ-Carrageenan-Konjac Gum Mixed Gel and Their Influence Factors%κ-卡拉胶与魔芋胶复配胶体系的流变特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元兰; 魏玉

    2011-01-01

    研究κ-卡拉胶与魔芋胶(质量比为5.5:4.5)复配胶的流变特性,考察温度、电解质等对复配胶流变特性的影响.结果表明:30℃时复配胶的储能模量G'高于κ-卡拉胶和魔芋胶单体胶的储能模量G',其损耗模量G",低于κ-卡拉胶的损耗模量G",复配胶的凝胶性质更加明显.随着温度的升高,复配胶体系的G'始终大于G",具有典型黏弹性流体的特性.加入O.1g/100mL KC1和CaC1z均能使复配胶体系的G'下降,使复配胶溶胶转化温度提高,但KC1的影响更明显.

  6. Enhanced therapeutic anti-inflammatory effect of betamethasone on topical administration with low-frequency, low-intensity (20 kHz, 100 mW/cm(2)) ultrasound exposure on carrageenan-induced arthritis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Gadi; Natsheh, Hiba; Sunny, Youhan; Bawiec, Christopher R; Touitou, Elka; Lerman, Melissa A; Lazarovici, Philip; Lewin, Peter A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether low-frequency, low-intensity (20 kHz, mW/cm(2), spatial-peak, temporal-peak intensity) ultrasound, delivered with a lightweight (imaged by measuring glycolytic activity with near-infrared labeled 2-deoxyglucose. The outcome of the experiments indicated that the combination of ultrasound exposure and topical application of 0.1% (w/w) betamethasone gel resulted in statistically significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in comparison with drug or ultrasound treatment alone. The present study underscores the potential benefits of low-frequency, low-intensity ultrasound-assisted drug delivery. However, the proof of concept presented indicates the need for additional experiments to systematically evaluate and optimize the potential of, and the conditions for, tolerable low-frequency, low-intensity ultrasound-promoted non-invasive drug delivery.

  7. 不同相对分子质量κ-卡拉胶马来酰衍生物的抗氧化活性%Antioxidant Activity of Maleoyl κ-Carrageenans with Different Molecular Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 李铭; 陶慧娜; 谢晶; 毛芳

    2012-01-01

    Two xrcarrageenan oligosaccharides were prepared by acidic degradation. Then the maleyol derivatives (MA, MB) with similar degree of substitution (0. 44) were .synthesized with maleyol anhydride, respectively. The products were characterized by FI-IR. Their antioxidant activities were evaluated by the scavenging of hydroxyl radical, 1, l-diphenyl-2-picrylhra-zyl radicals (DPPH) and reducing power. The results indicated that MA showed higher antioxidant activities than^hat of MB, the reason may be related to the molecular weight.%对κ-卡拉胶进行酸降解,经过透析得到两种卡拉胶低聚糖.分别与马来酸酐合成得到两种马来酰衍生物(MA和MB),其相对分子质量分别为3200和4540,且取代度相近.对产物进行FT-IR表征,并考察了其对羟基自由基·OH、DPPH自由基的清除活性以及还原能力.结果表明:MA清除羟基自由基·OH、DPPH自由基能力以及还原能力均优于MB,即相对分子质量可能是影响卡拉胶衍生物抗氧化活性的因素之一.

  8. к-卡拉胶寡糖为配体的亲和探针制备方法的研究%Preparation of affinity probe with к-carrageenan oligosaccharides as the ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘小平; 詹中伟; 陈海敏; 严小军

    2009-01-01

    目的:建它一种以к-卡拉胶寡糖为配体,Affi-gel 15为载体的亲和探针,用于分离纯化к-卡拉胶寡糖在细胞信号通路中的特异性受体.方法:将标准寡糖和к-卡拉胶寡精进行己二胺衍生化后与Affi-gel 15结合,并利用MS、NMR、PAGE电泳等方法对各步的产物进行分析.结果:MS、NMR结果表明,标准寡糖和к-卡拉胶寡糖均能与己二胺进行完全稳定的衍生化反应,其衍生物与Affi-gel 15的结合率都能达到50%以上,其中к-卡拉胶寡糖-己二胺与Affi-gel 15的结合率达到了68%.结论:制备得到的以к-卡拉胶寡糖为配体的亲和探针能够与к-卡拉胶寡糖的受体结合,如碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(bFGF).这表明这种制备方法是可行的.

  9. Fabrication and Properties of Graphene Oxide-reinforced Carrageenan Film%氧化石墨烯增强卡拉胶复合膜的制备与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左萍萍; 张玉龙; 冯华峰; 夏玮; 张文清; 王铭章

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized using a modified Hummer's method. GO and k-Carra-geenan( k-Car) film (GO/k-Car film) was prepared via tape casting and characterized by IR, SEM, and TGA. We optimized the formula and preparation conditions of GO/k-Car film by single-factor experiment to obtain the proper appearance, solubility, water vapor permeation and mechanical properties. The stable film was fabricated as follows; 15. 0 g 3% k-Car solution, 0. 040 g GO powder and 5. 0 g 8%PVA solution were mixed by intensely stirring for 5 h at 75℃. The mixture was then cast evenly, kept at 30℃ for 6. 5 h and peeled off as a free-standing film. Compared with the k-Car film, the mechanical properties of the GO/k-Car film were significantly improved. With incorporation of 5. 0 % GO, the peak load, tensile strength and tensile modulus of the GO/k-Car film are improved by 1.5-fold, 1. 5-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively. Meanwhile, GO/k-Car film has good water vapor permeability as well as hydroxyl radical scavenging activity.%在Hummers法基础上制得了氧化石墨烯(GO),采用流延法制备了氧化石墨烯/κ-卡拉胶(GO/K-Car)复合膜材料.结合红外光谱、扫描电子显微镜及热重分析对其结构进行表征.探讨了不同条件所得膜的成膜性、溶解性、透气性和力学性能,得到性质稳定GO/κ-Car复合膜的制备条件为15.0 g 3%的κ-Car溶液、0.040 g GO粉末及5.0g8%的PVA溶液于75 ℃搅拌混合5h后,流延铺平,于30℃烘干6.5h.GO质量分数为5%的GO/K-Car复合膜的最大负荷、拉伸强度及杨氏模量分别是对照组κ-Car膜的1.5倍、1.5倍和1.6倍.同时,GO/κ-Car复合膜具有较强的透气性能,且保留了κ-Car清除羟基自由基的生物性能.

  10. 响应曲面法优化麒麟菜卡拉胶碱处理工艺%Optimization technology of alkali processing of Eucheuma carrageenan by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚勃; 李来好; 杨贤庆; 陈胜军; 刘刚; 李占东

    2011-01-01

    采用响应曲面法研究了碱液质量浓度、浸泡时间和浸泡温度对麒麟菜( Eucheuma)卡拉胶的凝胶强度和产率的影响.在单因素试验基础上采用Box-Benhnken中心组合试验,以碱液质量浓度、浸泡时间和浸泡温度为影响因素,以凝胶强度和产率为响应值建立二次回归方程,通过响应面分析得到优化组合.结果显示,碱处理优化工艺参数为碱液质量浓度250 g·L-1、浸泡时间3.5d和浸泡温度25℃,在此条件下提取的麒麟菜卡拉胶凝胶强度为721 g·cm-2(质量浓度10 g·L-1),产率为35.17%.%We studied the influence of 3 factors including alkali concentration, soaking time and temperature on gel strength (CS) and yield of Eucheuma carrgeenan by response surface methodology ( RSM). On the basis of single-factor investigation, Box-Benhnken central composite experiments were carried out to build the quadratic regression models for GS and yield with the above 3 factors, and the alkali processing technology was optimized by response surface analysis. The optimizing process parameters are; alkali concentration 250 g·L-1, soaking time 3. 5 d, soaking temperature 25 ℃. Under the optimal processing condition, the GS and yield of carrgeenan were 721 g·cm-2 (under concentration of 10 g·L-1 ) and 35. 17% , respectively.

  11. Process to extract ι-carrageenan from Eucheuma Spinosum%菲律宾刺生麒麟菜提取ι-卡拉胶的工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩国华; 李海霞; 吴杨桦

    2001-01-01

    报道了从刺生麒麟菜提取l-卡拉胶的方法:常温下用16%KOH进行干海藻碱处理两天,经煮胶、精滤后含0.2%~0.3%KCl0.02%~0.03%CaCl2胶液与1.5 95%酒精混合而沉淀.得率约48%,强度约75g/cm2的ι-卡拉胶.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect of all-trans retinoic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar rats: Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Gill

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: From above findings, it can be concluded that ATRA exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect, possibly through activation of PPAR-β/δ and subsequent reduction of oxido-nitrosative stress.

  13. k-卡拉胶在挤出滚圆法制备缬沙坦速释微丸中的应用%Application of k-carrageenan in valsartan immediate-release pellets by extrusion-spheronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯飞飞; 王明浩; 黄春玉; 谢俊; 周建平

    2015-01-01

    对挤出滚圆法制备缬沙坦速释微丸的成球促进剂进行筛选,并对缬沙坦速释微丸处方进行优化.通过单因素考察评价并比较微晶纤维素(MCC)、低取代羟丙基纤维素(L-HPC)、交联聚维酮(PVPP)、预胶化淀粉(PCS)及k-卡拉胶5种辅料制得的碳酸钙微丸的质量,初步筛选可用的成球促进剂;进一步评价并比较MCC、L-HPC及k-卡拉胶制得的缬沙坦速释微丸的质量,确定k-卡拉胶为制备缬沙坦速释微丸的最佳成球促进剂.采用Box-Behnken响应面法对该缬沙坦速释微丸的处方进行优化,确定最优处方:k-卡拉胶合量16.98 g,HPMC E5含量2.03 g,SLS含量0.26 g,在此条件下制备出的微丸的收率为91.23%,长径比为1.14,预测值与实际值相符.结果表明k-卡拉胶制得的缬沙坦速释微丸圆整度好、收率高、溶出迅速.

  14. Efeito da dexametasona e do meloxicam sobre o extravasamento plasmático induzido por carragenina na ATM de ratos =Effect of dexamethasone and meloxicam on plasma extravasation induced by carrageenan into rat temporomandibular joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BoletaCeranto, Daniela de Cassia Faglioni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A dor orofacial comumente ocorre devido à inflamação aguda ou crônica. Porém, pouco se sabe sobre os mecanismos fisiopatológicos envolvidos na inflamação e na dor inflamatória presentes nas disfunções temporomandibulares. Nosso objetivo foi desenvolver um modelo para o estudo da inflamação aguda na região da articulação temporomandibular (ATM de ratos utilizando carragenina (CA e verificar os possíveis efeitos de drogas antiinflamatórias nesse modelo. A inflamação foi avaliada através do extravasamento plasmático (EP do corante azul de Evans, por espectrofotometria comparada à ATM contralateral que serviu como controle e recebeu injeção de salina. Um experimento com relação ao tempo do efeito da CA sobre o EP do corante Azul de Evans revelou um efeito máximo no tempo de 60 min após a administração. O experimento dose resposta demonstrou que a administração de CA a partir da dose de 300ug/50uL, causava um EP estatisticamente significante em relação ao controle. A administração de drogas antiinflamatórias (dexametasona e meloxicam somente foram capazes de reduzir a inflamação em altas doses. Concluímos que pico de EP induzido pela administração periarticular de CA ocorre em 60 minutos e que o EP induzido pela CA pode ser inibido pelos antiinflamatórios dexametasona e meloxicam.

  15. Impact of the composition of polysaccharide composite gels on small molecules diffusion: A rheological and NMR study

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The gelation mechanism of carrageenan depends on the amount and nature of the polysaccharide, and is cation sensitive. From a rheological approach, this specificity leads to different textural properties. In composite gels with carrageenans, starch and sucrose, the presence of κ/κ2-carrageenan, even at low levels, has an impact on textural and structural properties. In this study, rheological and diffusion NMR measurements were performed on composite gels to probe gel structure at the macro- ...

  16. Characterization and evaluation physical properties biodegradable plastic composite from seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deni, Glar Donia; Dhaningtyas, Shalihat Afifah; Fajar, Ibnu; Sudarno

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and evaluation of biodegradable plastic composed of a mixture PVA - carrageenan - chitosan was conducted in this study. Obtained data were then compared to commercial biodegradable plastic. Characteristic of plastic was mechanical tested such as tensile - strength and elongation. Plastic degradation was studied using composting method for 7 days and 14 days. The results showed that the increase carrageenan will decrease tensile-strength and elongation plastic composite. In addition, increase carrageenan would increase the degraded plastics composite.

  17. Purification and characterization of D-Gal-6-sulfurylase from Eucheuma striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaojuan; Ma, Chaoyang; Lou, Zaixiang; Wang, Aimei; Wang, Hongxin

    2013-07-01

    D-Gal-6-sulfurylase catalyzing the conversion of μ-carrageenan into κ-carrageenan was extracted from Eucheuma striatum and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of about 65 kDa as shown in SDS-PAGE. The maximum activity of the enzyme was observed at pH 7.0 and temperature 40°C. Km value for μ-carrageenan was 4.31 mM, and the corresponding Vmax was 0.17 mM min(-1). The carrageenan treated with 10 U of the purified enzyme exhibited 7.1-fold increase in gel strength with a removal of 30% sulfate groups. (1)H NMR spectral analysis of the control and enzyme treated carrageenan confirmed the conversion of μ- into κ-carrageenan and highlighted the specificity of Gal-6-sulfurylase for μ-carrageenan. This Gal-6-sulfurylase provides an eco-friendly and alternative for alkali treatment method to produce high gel strength κ-carrageenan.

  18. Influence of red algal sulfated polysaccharides on blood coagulation and platelets activation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Ekaterina V; Byankina, Anna O; Kalitnik, Alexandra A; Kim, Yong H; Bogdanovich, Larisa N; Solov'eva, Tamara F; Yermak, Irina M

    2014-05-01

    The influence of sulfated polysaccharides (λ-, κ-, and κ/β-carrageenan and porphyran) - on platelet activation was studied. Carrageenans were much weaker inhibitors of a coagulation process than heparin, while porphyran had not that effect. Results of the aPTT and PT assays suppose that carrageenans affected mostly intrinsic pathway of coagulation, while their effect on the extrinsic pathway is extremely low (λ and κ/β) or absent (κ, LMW derivative of κ-carrageenan). λ-Carrageenan was the most potent anticoagulant agent in TT, aPTT, PT, and anti-factor Xa activity. This sample was also the strongest inhibitor of collagen-induced platelet aggregation in PRP. Generally, the correlation of anticoagulant and antithrombotic action in PRP is preserved for carrageenans but not for heparin. Carrageenans and porphyran affected platelet adhesion to collagen by influencing glycoprotein VI. Low molecular weight κ-carrageenan had a similar effect on platelet adhesion mediated with both major collagen receptors: integrin α2 β1 and glycoprotein VI as native polysaccharide had. Carrageenans resulted in activation of platelets under platelet adhesion mediated by integrin αIIb β3 with less degree than heparin. The least sulfated κ/β-carrageenan that possessed an inhibiting effect on thrombin- and collagen-induced aggregation of washed platelets and on the PT test but it had no significant effect on TT was the weakest promoter of integrin αIIb β3 mediated platelet activation. In summary, our study showed that the polysaccharide action was complex, since it depended on its molecular mass, sulfation degree, and monosaccharide contents (3,6-anhydrogalactose).

  19. 三种他汀类药物对大鼠角叉菜胶背部气囊滑膜炎抗炎机制的初步研究%Anti-inflammatory effects of three kinds of Statins on carrageenan inducing rat gasbag synovitis model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵征; 王炎焱; 黄烽; 任建平

    2006-01-01

    目的研究三种他汀类药物的抗炎机制.方法角叉菜胶致大鼠背部气囊滑膜炎模型,测定渗出液液体量,渗出液中白细胞计数、C反应蛋白(CRP)、丙二醛(MDA)含量及血清中CRP、MDA含量.结果他汀类药物能明显减少渗出液体量,降低灌洗液中WBC、CRP、MDA含量和血清中CRP、MDA含量.结论他汀类药物抗炎机制与抑制炎性因子的渗出、降低CRP含量及消除自由基、抑制脂质过氧化有关.

  20. Effects of different ingredient-combinations of Xiaochaihu Decoction on the rat model of pleuritis induced by carrageenan%小柴胡汤药群配伍对角叉菜胶诱导的大鼠胸膜炎模型的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晶; 孙明瑜; 王守勇; 刘迪谦

    2005-01-01

    目的考察小柴胡汤及其药物配伍对角叉菜胶诱导的大鼠胸膜炎的影响.方法大鼠胸腔注射0.2 mL 1 %角叉菜胶诱导胸膜炎模型,中药各组给予小柴胡汤不同药群配方的中药灌胃1次(分别按如下剂量:柴芩3.5 g/kg,姜夏3 g/kg,参草枣4.5 g/kg,柴芩-姜夏6.5 g/kg,柴芩-参草枣8 g/kg,姜夏-参草枣7.5 g/kg,全方11 g/kg),正常组和模型组给予等体积的蒸馏水灌胃.连续给药5 d,在末次给药后2 h造模,造模12 h后检测胸腔渗出液体积、渗出液中白细胞计数、溶菌酶(LZM)、髓过氧化物酶(MPO)的含量(活性)以及血清NO、IL-8含量.结果与模型组比较,小柴胡汤及其药群配伍各组大鼠胸腔渗出液体积、渗出液中白细胞数量、MPO含量以及血清IL-8、NO含量均显著降低(P<0.01),胸腔渗出液LZM含量显著升高(P<0.01).结论小柴胡汤及其药群配伍具有显著的抗炎作用,对胸膜炎有一定的防治作用;其中柴芩组、姜夏组、参草枣组和全方组作用较优.小柴胡汤及其药群配伍组(柴芩组、姜夏组、参草枣组)可能是通过抑制NO、IL-8的升高,抑制白细胞活化、浸润游走等环节产生抗炎效用的.

  1. Optimized extraction process of soluble dietary fibre from the Eucheuma carrageenan residue by response surface methodology%响应曲面法优化麒麟菜提胶残渣中膳食纤维的提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志; 娄永江

    2014-01-01

    以麒麟菜提胶残渣为原料,以提取温度、时间、液料比为实验因素,可溶性膳食纤维(SDF)得率为响应值.分别通过单因素及Box-Behnken响应曲面实验优化SDF提取工艺,并通过响应曲面实验分析提取因素对SDF得率的影响.结果表明,三个提取因素的不同水平对得率有显著的(p<0.05)影响,提取温度与液料比和提取时间对得率有显著的(p<0.01)交互作用,并且临界值之间呈线性负相关;以SDF得率最大值为响应值,得到最优提取工艺为:提取时间3.2h、提取温度90℃、液料比85mL/g;此条件下所得的SDF得率为5.035% ±0.036%.可以为麒麟菜提胶残渣的再利用提供可行指导.

  2. THE LIMITED HYDROLYSATES OFλ-CARRAGEENAN AS A DISPLACER FOR SEPARATION OF PROTEINS IN DISPLACEMENT CHROMATOGRAPHY%λ-卡拉胶有限水解物在蛋白质置换层析分离中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宗军; 陈冠军; 高培基

    2002-01-01

    λ-卡拉胶经过有限酸水解得到不同平均分子量的组分,选用平均分子量为21 kDa的组分,作为蛋白质置换层析的置换剂,用于纤维素酶的分离纯化.经过置换层析,使黑色葡萄状穗霉S607发酵液中难以通过常规的分子筛和离子交换层析分离的一个内切酶组分(EGⅢ)和一个β-葡萄糖苷酶组分得到较好的分离.

  3. Interleukin-1beta inhibits paw oedema induced by local administration of latex of Calotropis procera extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Soneera; Kumar, Vijay L

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model. In the present study, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of IL-1beta against inflammation induced by local administration of the methanol extract of dried latex of Calotropis procera (MeDL) and compared it with that against carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard anti-inflammatory drugs, phenylbutazone (PBZ) and dexamethasone (DEX), was also evaluated against both inflammagens. Injection of an aqueous solution of dried latex and MeDL into the sub-plantar surface of the rat paw produced intense inflammation with a peak response occurring within 2 h, while the peak inflammatory response with carrageenan was obtained at 3 h. Subcutaneous injection of IL-1beta was found to be more effective against the inflammatory response elicited by carrageenan (70% inhibition) as compared to MeDL (50% inhibition) at 20microg/kg dose. On the other hand, PBZ effectively inhibited the inflammatory response elicited by both MeDL and carrageenan, while DEX was more effective against carrageenan. Thus, our study indicates that the difference in the anti-inflammatory effect of IL-1beta against latex of C. procera extract and carrageenan is due to the release of different mediators released by these inflammagens.

  4. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. De Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a {lambda}-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs.

  5. Gelation of soybean protein and polysaccharides delays digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bing; Chen, Qing; Cai, Qimeng; Fan, Yun; Wilde, Peter J; Rong, Zhen; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2017-04-15

    Xanthan gum and carrageenan, representing the medium and highly negatively charged polysaccharides, were heated respectively together with soybean protein isolate (SPI) at different biopolymer ratios. Upon mixing with simulated stomach juice (SSJ), the xanthan-SPI and carrageenan-SPI at biopolymer ratios higher than 0.01 leads to self-assembled gelation immediately. Stronger gel is formed under higher biopolymer ratios. Highly negatively charged carrageenan forms a stronger gel than that composed with xanthan gum. SDS-PAGE results show the digestibility of SPI is delayed after incorporation with the polysaccharides, which is enhanced with the increase of the biopolymer mass ratios. And the polysaccharide with higher negative charge has stronger potential in delaying the digestion of SPI. Furthermore, the microstructure of the xanthan-SPI and carrageenan-SPI gel before and after simulated stomach digestion was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), which also confirms that the gel delays the digestion of soybean protein.

  6. Physical properties and heavy metal uptake of encapsulated Escherichia coli expressing a metal binding gene (NCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, S S; Pazirandeh, M

    1999-01-01

    A recombinant Escherichia coli expressing the Neurospora crassa metallothionein gene (NCP) has previously been shown to remove low levels of Cd and other metals from solution. For further development as a biosorbent, the encapsulation of the NCP is investigated by various matrices. The NCP was encapsulated in alginate, chitosan-alginate or kappa-carrageenan, and its physical properties characterized. Results indicated that encapsulation in alginate resulted in fragile beads, whereas encapsulation in kappa-carrageenan or chitosan-alginate provided more physical and chemical integrity to the beads. Maximal heavy metal removal by cells encapsulated in carrageenan occurred within 3 h, while a gradual increase in removal was observed up to 24 h for cells encapsulated in chitosan-alginate. Metal removal by cells encapsulated in alginate beads was lower than those encapsulated in carrageenan or chitosan-alginate.

  7. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... synthetic) Pudding and pie fillings, gelatin dessert mixes, cake mixes, salad dressings, candies, soft drinks, ice cream, BBQ ... fat foods Baked goods, dressings, frozen desserts, confections, cake and dessert mixes, dairy products Olestra, cellulose gel, carrageenan, polydextrose, modified ...

  8. The α7 nicotinic ACh receptor agonist compound B and positive allosteric modulator PNU-120596 both alleviate inflammatory hyperalgesia and cytokine release in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munro, G; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Erichsen, Hk

    2012-01-01

    ACh receptor agonist compound B with the positive allosteric modulator (PAM) PNU-120596 and the standard non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), diclofenac, in rats with hind paw inflammation induced by either formalin, carrageenan or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). KEY RESULTS: When administered...... before carrageenan, both diclofenac (30 mg·kg(-1) ) and PNU-120596 (30 mg·kg(-1) ) significantly reduced mechanical hyperalgesia and weight-bearing deficits for up to 4 h. Compound B (30 mg·kg(-1) ) also attenuated both measures of pain-like behaviour, albeit less robustly. Whereas compound B and PNU......-120596 attenuated the carrageenan-induced increase in levels of TNF-α and IL-6 within the hind paw oedema, diclofenac only attenuated IL-6 levels. Established mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan or CFA was also partially reversed by compound B and PNU-120596. However, diclofenac...

  9. Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects in mice of a sulfated polysaccharide fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luciano de Sousa; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; Silva, Renan Oliveira; Barros, Francisco Clark Nogueira; Freitas, Ana Lúcia Ponte; Aragão, Karoline Sabóia; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; Barbosa, André Luiz dos Reis; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim

    2013-02-01

    Many algal species contain relatively high concentrations of polysaccharide substances, a number of which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and/or immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in mice of a sulfated polysaccharide fraction (PLS) extracted from the algae Gracilaria caudata. The antiinflammatory activity of PLS was evaluated using several inflammatory agents (carrageenan, dextran, bradykinin, and histamine) to induce paw edema and peritonitis in Swiss mice. Samples of the paw tissue and peritoneal fluid were removed to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity or TNF-α and IL-1β levels, respectively. Mechanical hypernociception was induced by subcutaneous injection of carrageenan into the plantar surface of the paw. Pretreatment of mice by intraperitoneal administration of PLS (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.05) compared to vehicle-treated mice. Similarly, PLS 10 mg/kg effectively inhibited edema induced by dextran and histamine; however, edema induced by bradykinin was unaffected by PLS. PLS 10 mg/kg inhibited total and differential peritoneal leukocyte counts following carrageenan-induced peritonitis. Furthermore, PLS reduced carrageenan-increased MPO activity in paws and reduced cytokine levels in the peritoneal cavity. Finally PLS pretreatment also reduced hypernociception 3-4 h after carrageenan. We conclude that PLS reduces the inflammatory response and hypernociception in mice by reducing neutrophil migration and cytokines concentration.

  10. PENINGKATAN KECEPATAN PROSES PENGERINGAN KARAGINAN MENGGUNAKAN PENGERING ADSORPSI DENGAN ZEOLIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Djaeni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drying carrageenan product still deals with low product quality and energy efficiency. The drying with airdehumidified by activated natural zeolite has a potential for drying the product. In this concept, air as dryingmedium was contacted with zeolite to reduce its relative humidity. Hence, the driving force of drying increasesand the process can be conducted at moderate temperature (40-60oC to retain the quality. This research looksinto the effectiveness of adsorption dryer with zeolite for drying carrageenan. The natural zeolite is activated byheating 300-400oC for 2-3 hours. The zeolite is then used to dehumidify the ambient air as drying medium. Inthis work, the effect of drying temperature and carrageenan thickness on water content in carrageenan duringthe drying were studied. Results showed with air velocity 3.0 m/sec, thickness of carrageenan 1-2 mm,operational drying time 3 hours and air temperature 40-60oC, water content in carrageenan can be reducedfrom 82.0% to 25%. This result is very promising for industrial application.

  11. Peripheral mechanisms underlying the essential role of P2X7 receptors in the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Juliana Maia; Oliveira, Maria Cláudia G; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera

    2010-10-10

    Activation of P2X7 receptors by endogenous ATP contributes to the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia. Given the clinical importance of mechanical hyperalgesia in inflammatory states, we hypothesized that the activation of the P2X7 receptor by endogenous ATP contributes to carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, and that this contribution is mediated by an indirect sensitization of the primary afferent nociceptors. Co-administration of the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, A-438079, or the P2X7 receptor antagonist, oATP, with carrageenan blocked the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan and significantly reduced the increased concentration of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and CINC-1, but not of IL-1beta induced by carrageenan in the subcutaneous tissue of the rat's hind paw. We concluded that the activation of P2X7 receptors by endogenous ATP is essential to the development of the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan in the subcutaneous tissue. It is suggested that this essential role of P2X7 receptors in the development of carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia is mediated by an indirect sensitization of the primary afferent nociceptors dependent on the previous release of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and CINC-1, but not of IL-1beta.

  12. Rheological studies of polysaccharides for skin scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Nalinda; Mueller, Anja; Hirschi, Stanley; Rakesh, Leela

    2014-05-01

    Polysaccharide hydrogels are good candidates for skin scaffolds because of their inherent biocompatibility and water transport properties. In the current study, hydrogels were made from a mixture of four polysaccharides: xanthan gum, konjac gum, iota-carrageenan, and kappa-carrageenan. Gel formation, strength, and structure of these polysaccharides were studied using rheological and thermal techniques. All gel samples studied were strong gels at all times because of the gradual water loss. However, after 12 h of storage, elastic (G') and loss (G'') moduli of hydrogel mixture containing all the ingredients is of one to two orders of magnitude greater than that of mixtures not containing either xanthan gum or iota-carrageenan, which confirmed the varied levels of gel strength. This is mainly due to the rate of water loss in each of these mixtures, resulting in gels of varying structures and dynamic moduli over a period of time. Iota-carrageenan and xanthan gum differ in their effect on gel strength and stability in combination with konjac gum and kappa-carrageenan.

  13. Sintesis membran Poliuretan dari Karagenan dan 2, 4 Toylulene diisosianat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Marlina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the synthesis of Polyurethane (PU Membrane from Carrageenan and 2,4 toylulene diisocyanante (TDI. The PU membrane made from the Gracilaria sp of red seaweed has rendement of 60.5% from the total weight of the dried sea grass. The produced Carrageenan has pure properties with containing many OH groups which can be used to synthesize membrane. The dope solution to produce good membrane was made at the temperature of 60 oC for the reaction of 5 minutes by varying concentration of carrageenan 5-35 % (b/v. PU membrane was constructed using petri dish with the thickness of about 0.1 mm. To control the thickness of the membrane, the volume of dope solution was used about 12 mL, and the membrane was produced with 10 cm in diameter. The membrane had been synthesized at the temperature of 60 oC with varied concentration of Carrageenan 15% (b/v to the toylulene diisocyanate (TDI. The produced membrane has the optimal properties with the tensile strength of 340 kgf/mm2, the elongation percentage of 9%, the glass temperature transition of 243.6 oC and the melting point of 423.02 oC. The optimum PU membrane obtained was good in mechanical and physical properties, strong, elastic and transparent. Keywords: carrageenan, flux, membrane, polyurethane, rejection factor, TDI

  14. Acid-sensing ion channel 3 mediates peripheral anti-hyperalgesia effects of acupuncture in mice inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wei-Hsin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral tissue inflammation initiates hyperalgesia accompanied by tissue acidosis, nociceptor activation, and inflammation mediators. Recent studies have suggested a significantly increased expression of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 in both carrageenan- and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA-induced inflammation. This study tested the hypothesis that acupuncture is curative for mechanical hyperalgesia induced by peripheral inflammation. Methods Here we used mechanical stimuli to assess behavioral responses in paw and muscle inflammation induced by carrageenan or CFA. We also used immunohistochemistry staining and western blot methodology to evaluate the expression of ASIC3 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. Results In comparison with the control, the inflammation group showed significant mechanical hyperalgesia with both intraplantar carrageenan and CFA-induced inflammation. Interestingly, both carrageenan- and CFA-induced hyperalgesia were accompanied by ASIC3 up-regulation in DRG neurons. Furthermore, electroacupuncture (EA at the ST36 rescued mechanical hyperalgesia through down-regulation of ASIC3 overexpression in both carrageenan- and CFA-induced inflammation. Conclusions In addition, electrical stimulation at the ST36 acupoint can relieve mechanical hyperalgesia by attenuating ASIC3 overexpression.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble) N. Chao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong-Hua; Feng, Rui-Zhang; Li, Qun; Wei, Qin; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Tao, Cui; Jia, Ren-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil from C. longepaniculatum was evaluated by three experimental models including the dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema in mice, the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat and the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. The influence of the essential oil on histological changes and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) production associated with carrageenan-induced rat paw edema was also investigated. The essential oil (0.5, 0.25, 0.13 ml/kg b.w.) showed significantly inhibition of inflammation along with a dose-dependent manner in the three experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil was occurred both in early and late phase and peaked at 4 h after carrageenan injection. The essential oil resulted in a dose dependent reduction of the paw thickness, connective tissue injury and the infiltration of inflammatory cell. The essential oil also significantly reduced the production of PGE2, histamine and 5-HT in the exudates of edema paw induced by carrageenan. Both the essential oil and indomethacin resulted relative lower percentage inhibition of histamine and 5-HT than that of PGE2 at 4 h after carrageenan injection.

  16. Marine Compounds with Therapeutic Potential in Gram-Negative Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yermak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the potential use of compounds, including lipid A, chitosan, and carrageenan, from marine sources as agents for treating endotoxemic complications from Gram-negative infections, such as sepsis and endotoxic shock. Lipid A, which can be isolated from various species of marine bacteria, is a potential antagonist of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide (LPSs. Chitosan is a widespread marine polysaccharide that is derived from chitin, the major component of crustacean shells. The potential of chitosan as an LPS-binding and endotoxin-neutralizing agent is also examined in this paper, including a discussion on the generation of hydrophobic chitosan derivatives to increase the binding affinity of chitosan to LPS. In addition, the ability of carrageenan, which is the polysaccharide of red alga, to decrease the toxicity of LPS is discussed. We also review data obtained using animal models that demonstrate the potency of carrageenan and chitosan as antiendotoxin agents.

  17. Involvement of Interleukin-10 in the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Sanyinjiao (SP6 Acupuncture in a Mouse Model of Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Duarte da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the anti-inflammatory effect of manual acupuncture at the Sanyinjiao or Spleen 6 (SP6 point on carrageenan-induced peritonitis in mice and investigated mechanisms that may underlie this effect. In the first set of experiments, male Swiss mice were allocated into five groups: the control (sterile saline, dexamethasone (DEXA, invasive sham-acupuncture (non-acupoint, SP6 acupuncture and carrageenan-treated groups. Ten minutes after needle retention or 30 min after DEXA treatment, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of carrageenan (750 μg/mouse. After 4 h, total leukocyte and differential cell counts (neutrophils and mononuclear, myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, vascular permeability and cytokine levels were evaluated. In another set of experiments, adrenalectomized (ADX mice were used to study the involvement of the adrenal gland on the therapeutic effects of acupuncture. Mice were allocated into two groups: the ADX and sham-operated animals (Sham ADX that were subdivided into four subgroups each: the control (sterile saline, DEXA, SP6 acupuncture and carrageenan-treated groups. The SP6 and DEXA treatments inhibited the inflammatory cell infiltration, vascular permeability and MPO activity in carrageenan-injected mice. In addition, the SP6 treatment also increased interleukin (IL-10 levels. In contrast, when the animals were adrenalectomized, the SP6 treatment failed to reduce total leukocyte and the plasma extravasation. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the anti-inflammatory effect of SP6 acupuncture in a model of carrageenan-induced peritonitis. Our results demonstrated that SP6 acupuncture depends of the adrenal glands and increased IL-10 levels to produce its anti-inflammatory action.

  18. Examination of some protective conditions on technological properties of irradiated food grade polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeil Pietranera, M.S. E-mail: pietrane@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Narvaiz, P. E-mail: narvaiz@cae.cnea.gov.ar

    2001-02-01

    Corn and cassava starches, agar-agar and kappa carrageenan, polysaccharides used as food additives, were gamma irradiated with doses suitable for microbial decontamination. Starches were analysed in paste and pudding viscosity and paper chromatography; agar and carrageenan, in viscosity and compression tests on gels and custards. Afterwards, substances were added to verify whether they could prevent irradiation technological impairment. Results revealed significant differences between control and irradiated samples in most determinations. No added substance was able to protect the functional properties of these additives. (author)

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NEWER MACROLIDES WITH ETORICOXIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra Naidu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of macrolides and to compare with standard non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID etoricoxib. This study was conducted in male wistar albino rats by inducing edema with 1% carrageenan. Animals were divided into 5 groups with 6 in each and paw edema volume was measured by digital plethysmograph before and 3hrs after 1% carrageenan administration. Percentage of inhibition of paw edema was calculated. Results showed macrolides having significant anti-inflammatory activity & the anti-inflammatory activity of roxithromycin was almost equally comparable with etoricoxib

  20. Activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors attenuates the induction and maintenance of inflammatory pain in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Steven J R; Winyard, Lisa A; Medhurst, Stephen J; Clayton, Nick M; Wilson, Alex W; Kendall, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of cannabinoid agonists on established inflammatory hyperalgesia. We have compared the effects of pre-administration versus post-administration of a potent non-selective cannabinoid agonist HU210 and a selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH-133 on hindpaw weight bearing and paw oedema in the carrageenan model of inflammatory hyperalgesia. For comparative purposes we also determined the effects of the mu-opioid receptor agonist morphine and the COX2 inhibitor rofecoxib in this model. At 3 h following intraplantar injection of carrageenan (2%, 100 microl) there was a significant (P pain responses.

  1. Macrophages in protective immunity to Hymenolepis nana in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, K; Muramatsu, K; Ito, A; Okamoto, K

    1992-12-01

    When mice were treated with carrageenan just before infection with eggs of Hymenolepis nana, they failed to exhibit sterile immunity to the egg challenge, with evidence of a decrease in the number of peripheral macrophages (Mø) and the rate of carbon clearance. Although there were high levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) released into the intestinal tracts of the parasitized mice at challenge infection, there was almost no release of IL-1 in those treated with carrageenan just before challenge. These results strongly suggest that Mø have an important role in protective immunity to H. nana in mice.

  2. Effect of use of citrus bagasse as functional product-extender on physicochemical and textural properties of cooked ham

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The substitution effect of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse on physico-chemical characteristics of cooked ham was evaluated. A 33 factorial design was used, with substitution levels of 0, 50 and 100%. The results indicate that the substitution of potato starch for orange bagasse results in increase in the ham yield, but to replace the carrageenan and/or soy protein by orange bagasse, cause decrease in yield below that non-substituted ham. Moreover, if even yields i...

  3. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Isoorientin Isolated from Tubers of Pueraria tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotha Anilkumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is the major causative factor of different diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. Anti-inflammatory drugs are often the first step of treatment in many of these diseases. The present study is aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory properties of isoorientin, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor isolated from the tubers of Pueraria tuberosa, in vitro on mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 and in vivo on mouse paw edema and air pouch models of inflammation. Isoorientin reduced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cell line in vitro and carrageenan induced inflammatory animal model systems in vivo. Cellular infiltration into pouch tissue was reduced in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. Isoorientin treated RAW 264.7 cells and animals showed reduced expression of inflammatory proteins like COX-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX, and interleukin 1-β (IL-1-β both in vitro and in vivo. The antioxidant enzyme levels of catalase and GST were markedly increased in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. These results suggest that isoorientin, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, not only exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS induced RAW cells and carrageenan induced inflammatory model systems but also exhibits potent antioxidant properties.

  4. Drug: D03411 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nt]; Pharmaceutic aid [viscosity-inclreasing agent] Same as: C08818 CAS: 9000-07-1 PubChem: 17397551 NIKKAJI: J203.713K ... ...D03411 Drug Carrageenan (NF); Marine colloids (TN) Pharmaceutic aid [suspending age

  5. Effects of short- and long-term feeding of L-carnitine and congeners on the production of eicosanoids from rat peritoneal leucocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); G.R. Elliott (G.); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek); I.L. Bonta

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe effect of short- and long-term feeding with L-carnitine, L-acetyl carnitine and L-propionyl carnitine on the production of eicosanoids front in vitro stimulated carrageenan-induced rat peritoneal macrophages was investigated. Both young (4 weeks) and old (18 months) rats were used. A

  6. Anti-inflammatory polysaccharides of Azadirachta indica seed tegument

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    Lívia de Paulo Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, or Indian neem is a plant used to treat inûammatory disorders. Total polysaccharide (TPL and FI (fractioned by ion exchange chromatography from the seed tegument of A. indica were evaluated in models of acute inflammation (paw edema/peritonitis using Wistar rats. Paw edema (measured by hydroplethysmometry was induced s.c. by Λ-carrageenan (300 µg, histamine (100 µg, serotonin (20 µg, compound 48/80 (10 µg, prostaglandin (PGE2 30 µg or L-arginine (15 µg. Peritonitis (analyzed for leukocyte counts/protein dosage was induced i.p. by carrageenan (500 mg or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP 50 ng. Animals were treated i.v. with TPL (1 mg/kg or FI (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg 30 min before stimuli. FI toxicity (at 0.1 mg/kg, i.v. for seven days was analyzed by the variation of body/organ mass and hematological/biochemical parameters. TPL extraction yielded 1.3%; FI, presenting high carbohydrate and low protein content, at 0.1 mg/kg inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (77%, serotonin (54%, PGE2 (69% and nitric oxide (73%, and the peritonitis elicited by carrageenan (48% or fMLP (67%, being well tolerated by animals. FI exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, revealing to be important active component in traditionally prepared remedies to treat inflammatory states.

  7. Biotechnology in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    polymers were tested, The p-benzoquinone Is more effective including agarose, agar, carrageenan, than oxygen because ir gives a higher alginate , fibrin...project deals with the rheology and flow sechanisjs In a wycejial mash. Mathtamaticalmotleling Is used for Interpretation of experimental results

  8. Effects of Liver × receptor agonist treatment on signal transduction pathways in acute lung inflammation

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    Bramanti Placido

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver × receptor α (LXRα and β (LXRβ are members of the nuclear receptor super family of ligand-activated transcription factors, a super family which includes the perhaps better known glucocorticoid receptor, estrogen receptor, thyroid receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. There is limited evidence that LXL activation may reduces acute lung inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of T0901317, a potent LXR receptor ligand, in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy. Methods Injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity of mice elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by: accumulation of fluid containing a large number of neutrophils (PMNs in the pleural cavity, infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and subsequent lipid peroxidation, and increased production of nitrite/nitrate (NOx, tumor necrosis factor-α, (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β. Furthermore, carrageenan induced the expression of iNOS, nitrotyrosine and PARP, as well as induced apoptosis (TUNEL staining and Bax and Bcl-2 expression in the lung tissues. Results Administration of T0901317, 30 min after the challenge with carrageenan, caused a significant reduction in a dose dependent manner of all the parameters of inflammation measured. Conclusions Thus, based on these findings we propose that LXR ligand such as T0901317, may be useful in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.

  9. Impaired endothelial barrier function in apolipoprotein M-deficient mice is dependent on sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pernille M; Liu, Catherine H; Swendeman, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    by decreased plasma levels of S1P and reduced S1P1 stimulation. In a carrageenan-induced model of inflammation, Apom(-/-) mice had increased vascular leakage compared with that in WT mice. Adenoviral overexpression of ApoM in Apom(-/-) mice decreased the vascular leakage compared to adenoviral overexpression...

  10. 77 FR 50462 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, NE, Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Novartis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ...; microcrystalline cellulose; inulin; aloe vera gel; carrageenan (viscarin GP109F); wheat dextrin; insulin; benzyl alcohol NF; camphor USP; synthetic; anhydrous citric acid USP/EP find grain; butylparaben NF... compounds; aniline derivative compounds; amino- alcohol-phenols; amino-acid-phenols; other nitrile...

  11. 78 FR 61154 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... irrigation system cleaner Renew. only. 205.601(a)(6) Peracetic acid--for use in disinfecting equipment... enzymes--(Rennet--animals derived; Catalase-- Renew. bovine liver; Animal lipase; Pancreatin; Pepsin; and... 1: agar- agar, animal enzymes, carrageenan, tartaric acid--made from grape wine, calcium...

  12. 78 FR 25879 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ..., peracetic acid, EPA List 3 Inerts,\\1\\ agar-agar, animal enzymes, calcium sulfate, carrageenan, glucono delta... NOSB finalized its recommendations on the following substances: animal enzymes, calcium chloride.... an irrigation system cleaner only. 205.601(a)(6) Peracetic acid--for Addressed use in...

  13. 76 FR 31495 - National Organic Program, Sunset Review (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... gas--for use as an irrigation system November 3, 2013. cleaner only. 205.601(a)(6) Peracetic acid--for...: agar- agar, animal enzymes, calcium sulfate, carrageenan, glucono delta- lactone, and tartaric acid... enzymes--(Rennet-animals derived; November 3, 2013. Catalase-bovine liver; Animal lipase;...

  14. AN EFFECTIVE METHOD TO IMPROVE THE WET STRENGTH OF POLY(DIALLYLDIMETHYL-AMMONIUM CHLORIDE) HYDROGELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ren; Hong-fei Ha

    2002-01-01

    New IPN hydrogels composed of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and natural macromolecule,kappa-carrageenan (KC) were prepared by gamma irradiation and their properties were studied. The results show that both the gel strength and the swelling capacity of the IPN hydrogels were enhanced significantly as compared with those of the pure hydrogels of PDADMAC.

  15. Celastrol Attenuates Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain Mediated by Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhe Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Celastrol, a major active ingredient of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (thunder god vine, has exhibited a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and immunosuppression. In the present study, we used animal models of inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain, generated by carrageenan injection and spared nerve injury (SNI, respectively, to evaluate the effect of celastrol and to address the mechanisms underlying pain processing. Intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of celastrol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced edema and allodynia. Real-time PCR analysis showed that celastrol (0.3 mg/kg, i.p. significantly reduced mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, in carrageenan-injected mice. In SNI mice, pain behavior studies showed that celastrol (1 mg/kg, i.p. effectively prevented the hypersensitivity of mechanical nociceptive response on the third day post-surgery and the seventh day post-surgery. Furthermore, the anti-hyperalgesic effects of celastrol in carrageenan-injected mice and SNI mice were reversed by SR144528 (1 mg/kg, i.p., a specific cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2 receptor antagonist, but not by SR141716 (1 mg/kg, i.p., a specific cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1 receptor antagonist. Taken together, our results demonstrate the analgesia effects of celastrol through CB2 signaling and propose the potential of exploiting celastrol as a novel candidate for pain relief.

  16. Deformation and fracture of emulsion-filled gels: Effect of gelling agent concentration and oil droplet size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Vliet, van T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Velde, van de F.; Aken, van G.A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the ratio between the modulus of the oil droplets and that of the gel matrix (varied by changing gelling agent concentration and oil droplet size) on the large deformation properties of gelatine, ¿-carrageenan and whey protein isolate (WPI) gels was studied at different compression spe

  17. Deformation and fracture of emulsion-filled gels: Effect of oil content and deformation speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Vliet, van T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Aken, van G.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2009-01-01

    The large deformation properties of gelatine, ¿-carrageenan and whey protein isolate (WPI) gels filled with bound and unbound oil droplets were studied as a function of compression speed. The rheological properties of the gel matrices controlled the compression speed-dependency of the gels containin

  18. Application of composite protective coatings on the surface of sausages with different water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tyburcy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emulsion coatings on the surface of sausages counteract weight loss during storage. Therefore they could be applied instead of synthetic foils, which are used for vacuum packaging. The aim of this study was the assessment of the properties of two emulsion coatings (with different carrageenan content applied on the surface of two Polish sausages with various water content (kabanosy and frankfurterki. Material and methods. Sausages were coated with emulsions containing gelatine, kappa-carrageenan, beeswax, lard, glycerol and water. Coated and uncoated sausages were stored for 7, 14 or 21 days at the temperature of 4-6°C. After each storage period weight losses and hardness of peeled sausages, as well as colour values (L*, a*, b* and water activity of removed coatings were determined. Results. Coated sausages incurred smaller weight loss and after similar storage periods they were characterized by lower hardness in comparison with uncoated sausages. Reducing the carrageenan content decreased the consumption of emulsion for coating. However, it did not have any impact on the barrier properties of coating. Water activity of coatings decreased during storage. Their colour values also changed. Conclusions. Irrespective of water content in the sausages, emulsion coatings effectively inhibited their weight loss during storage. The coating with lower content of carrageenan could be recommended. Instability of coatings colour during storage implies the need of adding a colorant to the composition of emulsion.  

  19. Influence of polysaccharides on the rate of coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions formed with highly hydrolyzed whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Hemar, Yacine; Singh, Harjinder

    2004-08-25

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of added xanthan gum, guar gum, or kappa-carrageenan on the formation and properties of emulsions (4 wt % corn oil) formed with an extensively hydrolyzed commercial whey protein (WPH) product under a range of conditions. The rate of coalescence was calculated on the basis of the changes in the droplet size of emulsions during storage of the emulsions at 20 degrees C. Compared with the emulsion made without the addition of polysaccharides, the rate of creaming and coalescence in emulsions containing xanthan gum, guar gum, or kappa-carrageenan was markedly enhanced with increasing concentration of polysaccharides during storage for up to 7 days. At a given concentration, the rate of coalescence was highest in the emulsions containing guar gum, whereas it was lowest in the emulsions containing kappa-carrageenan. All emulsions containing xanthan gum, guar gum, or kappa-carrageenan showed flocculation of oil droplets by a depletion mechanism. This flocculation was considered to enhance the coalescence of oil droplets. The different rates of coalescence could be explained on the basis of the strength of the depletion potential, which was dependent on the molecular weight and the radius of gyration of the polysaccharides.

  20. Visualisation of biopolymer mixtures using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) and covalent labelling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van de F.; Weinbreck, F.; Edelman, M.W.; Linden, van der E.; Tromp, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) has been used to study the behaviour of mixtures of proteins, gelatine, whey proteins and ß-lactoglobulin, and polysaccharides, dextran, gellan gum, carrageenan, gum Arabic, and starch. CSLM proved to be a suitable technique to visualise the microstructure o

  1. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Isoorientin Isolated from Tubers of Pueraria tuberosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, Kotha; Reddy, Gorla V.; Azad, Rajaram; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Dharmapuri, Gangappa; Srivastava, Anand

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is the major causative factor of different diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. Anti-inflammatory drugs are often the first step of treatment in many of these diseases. The present study is aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory properties of isoorientin, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor isolated from the tubers of Pueraria tuberosa, in vitro on mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and in vivo on mouse paw edema and air pouch models of inflammation. Isoorientin reduced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cell line in vitro and carrageenan induced inflammatory animal model systems in vivo. Cellular infiltration into pouch tissue was reduced in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. Isoorientin treated RAW 264.7 cells and animals showed reduced expression of inflammatory proteins like COX-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and interleukin 1-β (IL-1-β) both in vitro and in vivo. The antioxidant enzyme levels of catalase and GST were markedly increased in isoorientin treated mice compared to carrageenan treated mice. These results suggest that isoorientin, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, not only exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS induced RAW cells and carrageenan induced inflammatory model systems but also exhibits potent antioxidant properties.

  2. Screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gel formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ochoa Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of vaginal drug delivery formulations requires special attention to vehicle properties that optimize vaginal coating and retention. The aim of the present work was to perform a screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gels formulated with carbomer or carrageenan in binary combination with a second polymer (carbomer, guar or xanthan gum. The gels were characterised using in vitroadhesion, spreadability and leakage potential studies, as well as rheological measurements (stress and frequency sweep tests and the effect of dilution with simulated vaginal fluid (SVF on spreadability. Results were analysed using analysis of variance and multiple factor analysis. The combination of polymers enhanced adhesion of both primary gelling agents, carbomer and carrageenan. From the rheological point of view all formulations presented a similar behaviour, prevalently elastic and characterised by loss tangent values well below 1. No correlation between rheological and adhesion behaviour was found. Carbomer and carrageenan gels containing the highest percentage of xanthan gum displayed good in vitro mucoadhesion and spreadability, minimal leakage potential and high resistance to dilution. The positive results obtained with carrageenan-xanthan gum-based gels can encourage the use of natural biocompatible adjuvants in the composition of vaginal products, a formulation field that is currently under the synthetic domain.

  3. Interactions and hybrid complex formation of anionic algal polysaccharides with a cationic glycine betaine-derived surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covis, Rudy; Vives, Thomas; Gaillard, Cédric; Benoit, Maud; Benvegnu, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between anionic algal polysaccharides ((κ)-, (ι)-, (λ)-carrageenans, alginate and ulvan) and a cationic glycine betaine (GB) amide surfactant possessing a C18:1 alkyl chain has been studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), zeta-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and surface tension measurements. It was observed that this cationic surfactant derived from renewable raw materials induced cooperative binding with the anionic polymers at critical aggregation concentration (CAC) and the CAC values are significantly lower than the corresponding critical micelle concentration (CMC) for the surfactant. The CMC of cationic GB surfactant was obtained at higher surfactant concentration in polysaccharide solution than in pure water. More interestingly, the presence of original polysaccharide/surfactant hybrid complexes formed above the CMC value was evidenced from (κ)-carrageenan by microscopy (TEM and AFM). Preliminary investigations of the structure of these complexes revealed the existence of surfactant nanoparticles surrounded with polysaccharide matrix, probably resulting from electrostatic attraction. In addition, ITC measurements clearly showed that the interactions of the κ-carrageenan was stronger than for other polysaccharides ((ι)-, (λ)-carrageenans, alginate and ulvan). These results may have important impact on the use of the GB amide surfactant in formulations based on algal polysaccharides for several applications such as in food, cosmetics, and detergency fields.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W D Ratnasooriya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the anti-inflammatory potential of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L. Family: Theaceae using both acute (carrageenan-induced paw oedema and chronic (formaldehyde-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma test rat inflammatory models. Three dose of black tea brew (BTB [84 mg/ml, equivalent to 1.5 cups; 168 mg/ml, equivalent to 3 cups; and 501 mg/ml, equivalent to 9 cups] were made using high grown unblend Dust grade No: 1 black tea samples and was orally administed to rats (n = 6-9/ dose/ test. The results showed that Sri Lankan BTB possesses marked and significant (P < 0.05 oral anti-inflammatory activity against both acute and chronic inflammation. This anti-inflammatory activity was dose-dependent in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema test and cotton pellet granuloma test. Further, in the carrageenan paw oedema model, the anti-inflammatory activity of BTB was almost identical to green tea brew of both Chinese and Japanese types. Further, the BTB had significant antihistamine activity (in terms of wheal test phagocytic cell migration inhibitory activity (in terms carrageenan-induced leucocyte peritoneal infiltration test, nitric oxide production inhibitory activity, antioxidant activity (DPPH method and prostaglandin synthesis inhibition activity (in terms of rat enteropooling test. It is concluded that Sri Lankan black tea has marked anti-inflammatory potential against both acute and chronic inflammation which is mediated via multiple mechanisms.

  5. Participation of the NO/cGMP/K{sup +}ATP pathway in the antinociception induced by Walker tumor bearing in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, A.L.R.; Pinheiro, C.A.; Oliveira, G.J.; Torres, J.N.L.; Moraes, M.O.; Ribeiro, R.A.; Vale, M.L.; Souza, M.H.L.P. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-03-30

    Implantation of Walker 256 tumor decreases acute systemic inflammation in rats. Inflammatory hyperalgesia is one of the most important events of acute inflammation. The L-arginine/NO/cGMP/K{sup +}ATP pathway has been proposed as the mechanism of peripheral antinociception mediated by several drugs and physical exercise. The objective of this study was to investigate a possible involvement of the NO/cGMP/K{sup +}ATP pathway in antinociception induced in Walker 256 tumor-bearing male Wistar rats (180-220 g). The groups consisted of 5-6 animals. Mechanical inflammatory hypernociception was evaluated using an electronic version of the von Frey test. Walker tumor (4th and 7th day post-implantation) reduced prostaglandin E{sub 2}- (PGE{sub 2}, 400 ng/paw; 50 µL; intraplantar injection) and carrageenan-induced hypernociception (500 µg/paw; 100 µL; intraplantar injection). Walker tumor-induced analgesia was reversed (99.3% for carrageenan and 77.2% for PGE{sub 2}) by a selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME; 90 mg/kg, ip) and L-arginine (200 mg/kg, ip), which prevented (80% for carrageenan and 65% for PGE{sub 2}) the effect of L-NAME. Treatment with the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (100% for carrageenan and 95% for PGE{sub 2}; 8 µg/paw) and the ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channel (KATP) blocker glibenclamide (87.5% for carrageenan and 100% for PGE{sub 2}; 160 µg/paw) reversed the antinociceptive effect of tumor bearing in a statistically significant manner (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed an intrinsic peripheral antinociceptive effect of Walker tumor bearing in rats. This antinociceptive effect seemed to be mediated by activation of the NO/cGMP pathway followed by the opening of KATP channels.

  6. Pramipexole reduces inflammation in the experimental animal models of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Parishani, Mohammad; Akbartabar Touri, Mehdi; Ghavamzadeh, Mehdi; Jafari Barmak, Mehrzad; Zarezade, Vahid; Delaviz, Hamdollah; Sadeghi, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Pramipexole is a dopamine (DA) agonist (D2 subfamily receptors) that widely use in the treatment of Parkinson's diseases. Some epidemiological and genetic studies propose a role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. To our knowledge, there is no study regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of pramipexol. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate anti-inflammatory effect of pramipexol. Anti-inflammatory effects of pramipexole were studied in three well-characterized animal models of inflammation, including carrageenan- or formalin-induced paw inflammation in rats, and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema in mice. The animals received pramipexol (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg, I.P.) 30 min before subplantar injection of carrageenan or formalin. Pramipexol (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) was also injected 30 min before topical application of TPA on the ear mice. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated in the carrageenan test. Finally, pathological examination of the inflamed tissues was carried out. Pramipexole significantly inhibited paw inflammation 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after carrageenan challenge compared with the control group (p Pramipexol also showed considerable anti-inflammatory activity against formalin-evoked paw edema over a period of 24 h (p pramipexol (p pramipexole reduced tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, and subcutaneous edema. Pramipexole did not alter the increased serum levels of MDA due to carrageenan injection. These data clearly indicate that pramipexol possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity. It seems that its antioxidants do not play an important role in these effects.

  7. In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of lovastatin in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Gonçalves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Statins are among the most prescribed drugs in recent clinical practice. They are also known for their pleiotropic actions, which are independent of their lipid-lowering properties. The effect of lovastatin was investigated against carrageenan-induced paw edema in male Wistar rats (200-250 g and on leukocyte migration, as measured by carrageenan-induced peritonitis in male Swiss mice (20-25 g, which are models of acute inflammation. Lovastatin (administered 1 h prior to carrageenan, at oral doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg, markedly attenuated paw edema formation in rats at the 4th hour after carrageenan injection (25, 43, and 37% inhibition, respectively. Inhibitions of 20, 45 and 80% were observed in the leukocyte migration, as evaluated by carrageenan-induced peritonitis in mice with lovastatin doses of 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg, as compared to controls. Furthermore, lovastatin (administered 1 h before initiation reduced the nociceptive effect of the formalin test in mice, at both phases, at doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg: first phase (51, 65, and 70%, respectively and second phase (73, 57, and 66% inhibition of licking time, respectively. The anti-nociceptive activity of lovastatin was inhibited by naloxone (3 mg/kg, sc. Lovastatin (0.01, 0.1, and 1 µg/mL inhibited by 23, 79, and 86%, respectively, the release of myeloperoxidase from human neutrophils. Leukocyte (predominantly neutrophils infiltration was almost completely reduced by lovastatin treatment, as observed in the model of acute paw edema with hematoxylin and eosin staining. In addition, lovastatin decreased the number of cells expressing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity. Therefore, the alterations in leukocyte activity and cytokine release could contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of lovastatin.

  8. Role of acid-sensing ion channel 3 in sub-acute-phase inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chien-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation-mediated hyperalgesia involves tissue acidosis and sensitization of nociceptors. Many studies have reported increased expression of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 in inflammation and enhanced ASIC3 channel activity with pro-inflammatory mediators. However, the role of ASIC3 in inflammation remains inconclusive because of conflicting results generated from studies of ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3-/- or dominant-negative mutant mice, which have shown normal, decreased or increased hyperalgesia during inflammation. Results Here, we tested whether ASIC3 plays an important role in inflammation of subcutaneous tissue of paw and muscle in ASIC3-/- mice induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA or carrageenan by investigating behavioral and pathological responses, as well as the expression profile of ion channels. Compared with the ASIC3+/+ controls, ASIC3-/- mice showed normal thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia with acute (4-h intraplantar CFA- or carrageenan-induced inflammation, but the hyperalgesic effects in the sub-acute phase (1–2 days were milder in all paradigms except for thermal hyperalgesia with CFA-induced inflammation. Interestingly, carrageenan-induced primary hyperalgesia was accompanied by an ASIC3-dependent Nav1.9 up-regulation and increase of tetrodotoxin (TTX-resistant sodium currents. CFA-inflamed muscle did not evoke hyperalgesia in ASIC3-/- or ASIC3+/+ mice, whereas carrageenan-induced inflammation in muscle abolished mechanical hyperalgesia in ASIC3-/- mice, as previously described. However, ASIC3-/- mice showed attenuated pathological features such as less CFA-induced granulomas and milder carrageenan-evoked vasculitis as compared with ASIC3+/+ mice. Conclusion We provide a novel finding that ASIC3 participates in the maintenance of sub-acute-phase primary hyperalgesia in subcutaneous inflammation and mediates the process of granuloma formation and vasculitis in intramuscular inflammation.

  9. In situ synthesis of magnetic CaraPVA IPN nanocomposite hydrogels and controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza, E-mail: grmnia@maragheh.ac.ir; Etemadi, Hossein

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels that focused on targeted drug delivery were synthesized by incorporation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), kappa-carrageenan (Cara), and magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles were obtained in situ in the presence of a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol/kappa-carrageenan (CaraPVA). The produced magnetite-polymers were cross-linked with freezing–thawing technique and subsequent with K{sup +} solution. The synthesized hydrogels were thoroughly characterized by transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. The dynamic swelling kinetic models of hydrogels were analyzed according to the first- and second-order kinetic models and were found that the experimental kinetics data followed the second-order model well. Drug loading and release efficiency were evaluated by diclofenac sodium (DS) as the model drug. The in vitro drug release studies from hydrogels exhibited significant behaviors on the subject of physiological simulated pHs and external magnetic fields. Investigation on the antibacterial activity revealed the ability of drug-loaded hydrogels to inactivate the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. The mucoadhesive properties of the hydrogels were studied and the hydrogels containing kappa-carrageenan showed good mucoadhesiveness in both simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. - Highlights: • In situ synthesis of magnetic kappa-carrageenan/PVA nanocomposite hydrogel. • Low salt sensitivity of magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels was observed. • The release of diclofenac sodium from hydrogels was pH-dependent. • The release of diclofenac sodium from magnetic hydrogels was affected by external magnetic field. • The hydrogels containing carrageenan component showed high

  10. Structure and anti-influenza A (H1N1) virus activity of three polysaccharides from Eucheuma denticulatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guangli; Li, Miaomiao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Lv, Youjing; Li, Guangsheng; Jiao, Guangling; Zhao, Xia

    2012-12-01

    Three polysaccharides (EW, EH and EA) were prepared from a red alga Eucheuma denticulatum by sequential extraction with cold water, hot water and sodium hydroxide water solution. Their monosaccharide compositions, relative molecular mass and structural characterization were determined by gas chromatography, high performance 1iquid chromatography, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods. EW was hybrid ı/κ/ν-carrageenan (70 ı/17κ/13ν-carrabiose), EH was mainly ı-carrageenan, and EA was mainly α-1,4-Glucan (88%) but mixed with small amount of ı-carrageenan (12%). The relative molecular mass of EW, EH and EA was 480, 580 and 510 kDa, respectively. The anti-influenza A (H1N1) virus activity of these three polysaccharides was evaluated using the Madin-Darby canine kidney cells model. EW showed good anti-H1N1 virus activity, its IC50 was 276.5 μg mL-1, and the inhibition rate to H1N1 virus was 52% when its concentration was 250 μg mL-1. The IC50 of ı-carrageenan EH was 366.4 μg mL-1, whereas EA showed lower anti-H1N1 virus activity (IC50>430 μg mL-1). Available data obtained give positive evidence that the hybrid carrageenan EW from Eucheuma denticulatum can be used as potential anti-H1N1 virus inhibitor in future.

  11. Structure and Anti-influenza A (H1N1) Virus Activity of Three Polysaccharides from Eucheuma denticulatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guangli; LI Miaomiao; WANG Wei; LIU Xin; ZHAO Xiaoliang; LV Youjing; LI Guangsheng; JIAO Guangling; ZHAO Xia

    2012-01-01

    Three polysaccharides (EW,EH and EA) were prepared from a red alga Eucheuma denticulatum by sequential extraction with cold water,hot water and sodium hydroxide water solution.Their monosaccharide compositions,relative molecular mass and structural characterization were determined by gas chromatography,high performance liquid chromatography,fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods.EW was hybrid ι/κ/v-carrageenan (70ι/17κ/13v-carrabiose),EH was mainly ι-carrageenan,and EA was mainly α-1,4-Glucan (88%) but mixed with small amount of ι-carrageenan (12%).The relative molecular mass of EW,EH and EA was 480,580 and 510kDa,respectively.The anti-influenza A (H1N1) virus activity of these three polysaccharides was evaluated using the Madin-Darby canine kidney cells model.EW showed good anti-H1N1 virus activity,its IC50 was 276.5 μg mL-1,and the inhibition rate to H1N1 virus was 52% when its concentration was 250 μg mL-1.The IC50 of ι-carrageenan EH was 366.4 μgmL-1,whereas EA showed lower anti-H1N1 virus activity (IC50>430 μgmL-1).Available data obtained give positive evidence that the hybrid carrageenan EW from Eucheuma denticulatum can be used as potential anti-H1N1 virus inhibitor in future.

  12. Adiponectin-Mediated Analgesia and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Rat.

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    Tommaso Iannitti

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue-derived protein, adiponectin, has significant anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of disease conditions. Recent evidence that adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are expressed in central nervous system, suggests that it may also have a central modulatory role in pain and inflammation. This study set out to investigate the effects of exogenously applied recombinant adiponectin (via intrathecal and intraplantar routes; 10-5000 ng on the development of peripheral inflammation (paw oedema and pain hypersensitivity in the rat carrageenan model of inflammation. Expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA and protein was characterised in dorsal spinal cord using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western blotting. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA and protein were found to be constitutively expressed in dorsal spinal cord, but no change in mRNA expression levels was detected in response to carrageenan-induced inflammation. Adiponectin mRNA, but not protein, was detected in dorsal spinal cord, although levels were very low. Intrathecal administration of adiponectin, both pre- and 3 hours post-carrageenan, significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity. Intrathecal administration of adiponectin post-carrageenan also reduced peripheral inflammation. Intraplantar administration of adiponectin pre-carrageenan dose-dependently reduced thermal hyperalgesia but had no effect on mechanical hypersensitivity and peripheral inflammation. These results show that adiponectin functions both peripherally and centrally at the spinal cord level, likely through activation of AdipoRs to modulate pain and peripheral inflammation. These data suggest that adiponectin receptors may be a novel therapeutic target for pain modulation.

  13. INFLUENCIA DEL ALGINATO DE SODIO SOBRE LA SINERESIS EN JAMÓN COCIDO INFLUENCE OF SODIUM ALGINATE ON SYNERESIS IN COOKED HAM

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    Luz Amparo Montoya Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad del jamón de cerdo cocido usando alginato de sodio y carragenina durante la elaboración y almacenado a 8 0C durante 35 días. Fueron realizados dos tratamientos con alginato de sodio usando 0,3% y 0,5% y un tratamiento con carragenina 0,5%, después de la elaboración el jamón de cerdo cocido fue empacado al vacío a 8 0C durante 35 días. Los resultados indican que la mayor pérdida de agua fue observada a partir del día 21 del periodo de almacenamiento, sin presentar diferencias significativas entre tratamientos (P>0,05. La menor pérdida de agua correspondió al tratamiento con alginato de sodio al 0,5% y la mayor pérdida fue para el tratamiento con carragenina al 0,5% (PThe aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of cooked pork ham using sodium alginate and carrageenan during processing and storage at 8°C for 35 days. Two treatments were conducted using sodium alginate 0.3% and 0.5% and carrageenan treatment 0.5%, after preparation the pork cooked ham was vacuum packed at 8 °C for 35 days. The results indicate that the major water losses were presented from the 21 day of the storage period, without significant differences between treatments (P> 0.05. The lowest water loss corresponded to treatment with sodium alginate at 0.5% and the loss was greater for treatment with 0.5% carrageenan (P <0.05. The initial mesophilic count was of 1.03 log CFU / g, by the end of the storage period were obtained values of 5.74 log CFU / g showing no significant differences among treatments. The initial pH values of 6.64 were declining throughout the storage period, reaching values of 6.35. For flavor attribute highest and lowest scores corresponded to ham prepared with carrageenan 0.5% and alginate 0.3% respectively. The appearance attribute shows the highest scores for carrageenan 0.5%, while smaller values correspond to ham formulated with 0.3% alginate. For cutting force, the minor values

  14. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Sawadogo Wamtinga; Marius, Lompo; Noya, Somé; Innocent Pierre, Guissou; Germaine, Nacoulma-Ouedraogo Odile

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the general acute, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae). Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and croton oil-induced ear edema in rats were used for the evaluation of general acute anti-inflammatory effects. Acetic acid-induced writhing response and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in mice were used to evaluate the analgesic and antipyretic activities respectively. The extract at doses of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mgkg(-1) for carrageenan test and doses of 0.5 mg/ear for croton oil test induced a significant reduction (p Lepidagathis anobrya and give the scientific basis for its traditional use. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of action and the components responsible for these pharmacological effects.

  15. Antiinflammatory activity of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Se Ra; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated a new herbal preparation, HemoHIM, for its antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced edema, the formation of granulation tissues by cotton pellet and experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The HemoHIM was prepared by adding its ethanol-insoluble polysaccharide fraction to the total water extract of Angelica Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. The preparation (4 mg of solids/mL of drinking water, p.o., 50-100 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. In addition, HemoHIM also reduced the degree of TNBS-induced colitis and improved the gross and histological changes such as thickening, dilatation, ulceration, and infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions. These results demonstrate that the HemoHIM has a potent antiinflammatory effect.

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity in mice of extracts from Mediterranean marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia, F; Ubeda, A; Ferrándiz, M L; Terencio, M C; Alcaraz, M J; García-Carrascosa, M; Capaccioni, R; Payá, M

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the marine invertebrates Leptogorgia ceratophyta, Holothuria tubulosa, Coscinasterias tenuispina and Phallusia fumigata on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice were investigated. The dichloromethane extract of Coscinasterias tenuispina and the methanol extract of Holothuria tubulosa administered p.o. at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, inhibited oedema in a dose-dependent manner 3 h after administration of carrageenan. Both extracts partially decreased elastase activity and PGE2 levels measured in homogenates from inflamed paws, without affecting the levels of this prostanoid present in stomach homogenates. As observed with the selective inhibitor NS398, both extracts can decrease cyclo-oxygenase activity in inflamed tissues but do not modify the constitutive cyclo-oxygenase enzyme. Therefore, these extracts represent new marine resources for the isolation of novel agents active on inflammatory conditions.

  17. HPTLC analysis and Anti-inflammatory activity of Jatropha gossypifolia L. root in mice and Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani B Bhagat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Jatropha gossypifolia has been used in Indian traditional system but there is paucity of scientific data on anti-inflammatory activity of root. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced ear inflammation, carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma. Topical application of 0.5 and 1 mg extract significantly reduced the TPA induced ear inflammation. The extract (125 mg/kg p.o significantly reduced the carrageenan induced edema. Seven days administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg of extract significantly reduced the cotton pellet granuloma. The activity might be due to effects on several mediators involving cyclooxygenase pathway resulting in prostaglandin formation and leukocyte migration.

  18. A simple technique for removing plant polysaccharide contaminants from DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, N; Adams, R P

    1991-02-01

    A survey of the inhibitory effects of various plant polysaccharides on DNA restrictions (HindIII and EcoRI) revealed that neutral polysaccharides (arabino-galactan, dextran, gum guar, gum locust bean, beta-glucan, inulin, laminaran, mannan and starch) were not very inhibitory. In contrast, acidic polysaccharides (carrageenan, dextran sulfate, gum ghatti, gum karaya, pectin and xylan) were very inhibitory, even at low concentrations. The Elutip-d (RPC-5 type resin) was evaluated for removal of the inhibitory polysaccharides. Used alone or in combination with a phenol/chloroform wash, it proved effective in removing the polysaccharide so that HindIII digestion was possible, except in the cases of carrageenan and dextran sulfate. In addition, the genomic DNA extracts from live oak (Quercus virginiana) and magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) were sufficiently purified so that the DNAs could be restricted with both EcoRI and HindIII.

  19. EVALUATION OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA INDICA FRUIT RIND EXTRACTS IN WISTAR RATS

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    Khatib N.A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia indica choisy (Kokum is known for its food, medicinal and commercial values. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind (GIFR for its anti inflammatory activity in rats. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan induced paw odema. The serum enzymes like Acid phoshatase(ACP and Alkaline Phosphatase(ALP were estimated. Both extracts at dose (200 & 400 mg/kg p.o single dose shows significant (P<0.001 anti inflammatory activity in (Carrageenan induced paw odema acute inflammation. The extracts treatment also showed significant (p<0.001 reduction in the levels of serum enzymes ACP & ALP. Similar results were obtained from aspirin (200mg/kg treated group. The result obtained from the present study indicates both aqueous and ethanolic extracts possessing anti inflammatory activity and further study required to establish its mechanism of action.

  20. Hydrocolloid-based nutraceutical delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Youngren, Susanne R. (Purdue)

    2012-07-11

    Nutraceuticals are important due to their inherent health benefits. However, utilization and consumption are limited by their poor water solubility and instability at normal processing and storage conditions. Herein, we propose an elegant and novel approach for the delivery of nutraceuticals in their active form using hydrocolloid matrices that are inexpensive and non-toxic with generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Iota-carrageenan and curcumin have been chosen as models of hydrocolloid and nutraceutical compounds, respectively. The iota-carrageenan network maintains a stable organization after encapsulating curcumin molecules, protects them from melting and then releases them in a sustained manner. These findings lay a strong foundation for developing value-added functional and medicinal foods.

  1. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models

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    Minmin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and cyclooxygenase- (COX- 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models.

  2. Role of homoeopathic mother tinctures in rheumatoid arthritis: An experimental study

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    Surender Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of present preliminary study was to assess the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-arthritic effect of some homoeopathic mother tinctures viz. Ricinus communis (RCMT, Rauwolfia serpentina (RSMT, Bellis perennis (BPMT, Curcuma longa (CLMT, Terminalia arjuna (TAMT and Tribulus terresteris (TTMT. Materials and Methods: Paw oedema was induced by administration of 0.1ml 1% carrageenan in normal saline into right hind paw. Degree of inflammation was evaluated according to paw swelling. Arthritis was induced by Complete Freund′s Adjuvant (CFA injection in metatarsal footpad of Wistar albino rats. Result: Curcuma longa and Tribulus terresteris mother tinctures reduced hind paw swelling decreased the paw volume in Carrageenan treated rats. Thus, revealed potent activity against inflammation. All homoeopathic mother tinctures showed peripheral analgesic activities in hot plate induced thermal algesia in mice.

  3. Antiinflammatory sesquiterpenes from the root oil of Ferula hermonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geroushi, Afaf; Auzi, Abdurazag A; Elhwuegi, Abdalla Salem; Elzawam, Fawzi; Elsherif, Akram; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2011-05-01

    Ferula hermonis Boiss. (Apiaceae), commonly known as 'Shilsh-el-zallouh', 'Hashishat-al-kattira' or 'The Lebanese viagra', is a small shrub that grows abundantly on the Hermon Mountain between Syria and Lebanon. The seeds and roots of this plant have long been used in the Middle East as an aphrodisiac, and for the treatment of frigidity and impotence for both men and women. The antiinflammatory properties of three major daucane esters, ferutinin (1) teferin (2) and teferidin (3), isolated from the root oil of Ferula hermonis, were assessed by the carrageenan-induced oedema model in rats. The antiinflammatory effect of both 1 and 2 was observed with a dose of 100 mg/kg, while compound 3 did not show any antiinflammatory activity; conversely it produced a significant proinflammatory effect 2 and 3 h after carrageenan injection.

  4. Mariculture of the red seaweed, Hypnea musciformis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guist, G.G. Jr. (FMC Corp., Rockland, ME); Dawes, C.J.; Castle, J.R.

    1982-07-01

    Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) lamouroux was cultured in outdoor tanks at Summerland Key, Florida, for 15 months. Biomass increases of as much as 20% per day were recorded. The highest growth rates were observed when the water temperature was between 18/sup 0/ and 24/sup 0/C and with continuous water flow, supplemental nitrogen and phosphate, and an initial biomass of 1.86 kg weed per square meter of surface area in the culture tanks. The growth rate was inversely proportional to biomass and to the level of solar irradiance. The kappa carrageenan content of cultivated Hypnea was inversely proportional to its growth rate. Following a period of rapid growth, the carrageenan content of the Hypnea could be maximized by ''maturing'' the plants for 2 weeks in tanks which received no additional nutrients.

  5. INVESTIGATION ON MODEL OF INFLAMMATORY PLEURAL EFFUSION IN GUINEA PIGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯源; 殷凯生; 王祥

    2002-01-01

    Objective To establish an animal model of inflammatory pleural effusion.Methods Forty guinea pigs were divided into two groups: experimental group with 7 subgroups and control group. In the experimental group the right chest cavity of each guinea pig was injected with 0.8~1.0 ml of 1% carrageenan, and guinea pigs of each subgroup were killed and observed respectively on day 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and day 14 after injection.Results Occurring on day 1(within 24 hours), pleural effusion reached the maximum on day 2~3 after injection, so did the neutrophil count in pleural effusion and inflammation of both pleura and lungs and then gradually decreased. The fibrosis and adhesion of pleura appeared on day 7 and were obvious on day 10. The encysted pleurisy was formed on day 14.Conclusion The carrageenan is an ideal pleural inflammatory inducer. This animal model is useful for studying pleural effusion.

  6. Taraxerol, a pentacyclic triterpene from Abroma augusta leaf, attenuates acute inflammation via inhibition of NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanra, Ritu; Dewanjee, Saikat; Dua, Tarun K; Bhattacharjee, Niloy

    2017-04-01

    Abroma augusta L. (Malvaceae) leaf is traditionally used to treat inflammatory disorders. In our laboratory, we have scientifically validated the anti-inflammatory effect of A. augusta leaf extract. In this study, it has been aimed to evaluate in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of taraxerol isolated from the methanol extract of A. augusta leaf. It was further intended to find out the probable mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of taraxerol. The anti-inflammatory effect of taraxerol (5 and 10mg/kg, i.p.) was measured employing carrageenan-induced paw edema model of acute inflammation. The carrageenan injection resulted significant edema formation in the right paw when compared with un-injected left paw. However, taraxerol (10mg/kg) treatment could significantly (pinflammation via inhibition of NF-κB signaling.

  7. BIOSORPTION OF LEAD (II ON MODIFIED BARKS EXPLAINED BY THE HARD AND SOFT ACIDS AND BASES (HSAB THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Astier,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of Douglas fir bark and its subsequent utilization in adsorption of Pb(II from aqueous solutions was investigated. The polysaccharidic moiety of barks was functionalized by periodate oxidation and derivatized after reductive amination in the presence of aminated oligo-carrageenans. Pb(II adsorption isotherms of derivatized barks were then determined and compared to the capabilities of crude barks using the Langmuir adsorption model in terms of affinity (b and maximum binding capacity (qmax. Compared to crude barks, the derivatization of barks by oligo-carrageenans resulted in significant enhancements of qmax and b by up to x8 and x4, respectively. The results obtained from crude barks on chemically grafted carboxylic and sulfated barks are discussed and interpreted through the Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB theory.

  8. Inhibitory Effect of Helicteres gardneriana Ethanol Extract on Acute Inflammation

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    Juliana Oliveira de Melo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana (Nees Castiglioni was assayed in experimental models of pleurisy and microcirculation in situ. Treatment of animals with 500 mg/kg body weight reduced the exudate volume (35% reduction induced by intrapleural injection of carrageenan and the migration of polymorphonuclear cells into the inflamed pleural cavity of rats (40%. Additionally, rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the number of leukocytes that migrated toward the perivascular space in response to the carrageenan injection were decreased by the extract (500 mg/kg. These data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana and imply that inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial interactions is important in the extract's mechanism of action.

  9. Cultivation of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii in Brazil and its pharmacological potential

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    Leila Hayashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales is a red algae widely cultivated as the main source of raw material for the carrageenan industry. This hydrocolloid is normally used in the food industry as a gelling and stabilizing agent. The facility of its commercial farming based on vegetative propagation promoted the success of the aquaculture of this macroalgae that consequently stimulated studies focusing on new potential uses of this resource. This work presents a brief review of the studies related to K. alvarezii cultivation in southern and southeastern Brazil, the latest discoveries in the world concerning pharmacological studies with this species and the advantages of the use of carrageenan as a source of dietary fiber, cholesterol reducer, and antioxidant, anti-viral and anti-cancer compounds, as well as the effects in hemagglutination activity.

  10. Development, characterization and potential applications of edible film from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moey, Siah Watt; Abdullah, Aminah; Ahmad, Ishak

    2014-09-01

    A new patent pending process is proposed in this study to produce edible film directly from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii). Seaweed together with other ingredients had been used to produce the film through casting technique. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on the edible film to examine the thickness, colour, transparency, solubility, tensile strength, elongation at break, water permeability rate, oxygen permeability rate and surface morphology. The produced film was transparent, stretchable, sealable and have basic properties for applications in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, toiletries and also agricultural industries. Edible film was successfully developed directly from dry seaweed instead of using alginate and carrageenan. The edible film processing method developed in this research was easier and cheaper compared with the method by using alginate and carrageenan.

  11. Non-Ionic Highly Permeable Polymer Shells for Encapsulation of Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    P .; Lvov, Y. M., Layer-by-Layer- Coated Gelatin Nanoparticles as a Vehicle for Delivery of Natural Polyphenols. ACS Nano 2009. 50. Riedl, K . M...Y. M., Layer-by-Layer- Coated Gelatin Nanoparticles as a Vehicle for Delivery of Natural Polyphenols. ACS Nano 2009. 52. Riedl, K . M.; Hagerman, A...1. Raymond, M. C.; Neufeld, R. J.; Poncelet, D., Encapsulation of brewers yeast in chitosan coated carrageenan microspheres by emulsification

  12. Employment of Marine Polysaccharides to Manufacture Functional Biocomposites for Aquaculture Feeding Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, polysaccharides of marine origin (agar, alginate and κ-carrageenan) were used to embed nutrients to fabricate biocomposites to be employed in animal feeding. The consistency of biocomposites in water has been evaluated up to 14 days, by several methods: swelling, nutrient release and granulometric analysis. Biocomposites were produced with varying percentages of nutrients (5%–25%) and polysaccharides (1%–2%–3%). All possible biopolymer combinations were tested in order to selec...

  13. Myrtucommulone from Myrtus communis exhibits potent anti-inflammatory effectiveness in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Antonietta; Di Paola, Rosanna; Mazzon, Emanuela; Genovese, Tiziana; Caminiti, Rocco; Bramanti, Placido; Pergola, Carlo; Koeberle, Andreas; Werz, Oliver; Sautebin, Lidia; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2009-04-01

    Myrtucommulone (MC), a nonprenylated acylphloroglucinol contained in the leaves of myrtle (Myrtus communis), has been reported to suppress the biosynthesis of eicosanoids by inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-1 in vitro and to inhibit the release of elastase and the formation of reactive oxygen species in activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Here, in view of the ability of MC to suppress typical proinflammatory cellular responses in vitro, we have investigated the effects of MC in in vivo models of inflammation. MC was administered to mice intraperitoneally, and paw edema and pleurisy were induced by the subplantar and intrapleural injection of carrageenan, respectively. MC (0.5, 1.5, and 4.5 mg/kg i.p.) reduced the development of mouse carrageenan-induced paw edema in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, MC (4.5 mg/kg i.p. 30 min before and after carrageenan) exerted anti-inflammatory effects in the pleurisy model. In particular, 4 h after carrageenan injection in the pleurisy model, MC reduced: 1) the exudate volume and leukocyte numbers; 2) lung injury (histological analysis) and neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity); 3) the lung intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin immunohistochemical localization; 4) the cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta) in the pleural exudate and their immunohistochemical localization in the lung; 5) the leukotriene B(4), but not prostaglandin E(2), levels in the pleural exudates; and 6) lung peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactant substance) and nitrotyrosine and poly (ADP-ribose) immunostaining. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that MC exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and offer a novel therapeutic approach for the management of acute inflammation.

  14. Antiinflammatory activity of whole plant of Sonerila tinnnevelliensis Fischer (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Mohan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Sonerila tennevelliensis whole plant was extracted with ethanol and evaluated for antiinflammatory activity in rats using a carrageenan induced paw edema method. Ethanol extract exhibits potent antiinflammatory activity at 500mg/kg at 3hr administration. The study was compared with standard drug indomethacin (10mg/kg. Observed pharmacological activity in the present study provides scientific validation of ethnomedical uses of this plant in treating acute inflammation.

  15. Effect of Co-60 gamma irradiated chitosan and phosphorus fertilizer on growth, yield and trigonelline content of Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Ahmad Dar; Moin Uddin; Khan, M. Masroor A.; Akbar Ali; Suhail Rasool Mir; Lalit Varshney

    2015-01-01

    Natural marine polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate and carrageenan; after depolymerization by different techniques, have shown promising plant growth promoting and other biological activities. Chitosan after irradiation with Co-60 gamma-rays have proven to be a miraculous plant growth promoter in different plants. Trigonelline; an anti-diabetic compound is obtained mainly from the seeds of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Trigonelline counteracts diabetes mellitus (DM) ...

  16. Protective Effect of Jiechangning (结肠宁)Decoction in Treating Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Guinea Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Wu-jun; QIU Qi-yu; QIU De-kai

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To study the therapeutic effects and mechanism of Jiechangning (结肠宁, JCN)decoction on carrageenan induced experimental ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: After sensitizing guinea pigs with carrageenan, we established UC animal models by free drinking water containing 2 % acid degraded carrageenan (ADC). JCN decoction was orally administered once a day for 2 weeks after carrageenan treatment. Salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) and normal saline were given to the other two groups as control. The levels of colon lipid peroxide (LPO), acid phosphatase (ACP)activity and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)were measured; colitis activity score (CAS) was carried out for assessment of the degree of tissue inflammation and injury; the colonic pathological changes were examined simultaneously with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and toluidine blue staining used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of JCN decoction and SASP. Results:Experimental colitis models resembling human UC were successfully induced. The levels of tissue LPO, ACP activity and the content of tissue TNF-α were markedly increased in the model group as compared with the normal control group (P<0.01) and were positively correlated with CAS. JCN decoction could reverse these changes like SASP. HE staining showed that JCN decoction and SASP could reduce CAS and the degree of tissue injury, toluidine blue staining revealed that mucosa and submucosa red metachromasia pellets in JCN group and SASP group were markedly fewer than those in the model group. Conclusion: JCN decoction is effective in treating experimental UC, which provides theoretical basis for its clinical application.

  17. Photoinduced charge separation in an aqueous phase using nanoporous TiO{sub 2} film and a quasi-solid made of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Masao; Nomura, Tomoyo; Sasaki, Chie [Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito (Japan)

    2003-05-07

    Solar cells comprised of nanoparticulate TiO{sub 2} porous film photosensitized with an adsorbing dye have been utilized as photoinduced charge separation systems in aqueous media with the view to forming future artificial photosynthetic systems able to create fuels from solar energy and water. The photoinduced charge separation of the sensitized TiO{sub 2} cell in a quasi-solid, made from agarose or {kappa}-carrageenan, was investigated. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM THE LEAVES OF MAGNOLIA DENUDATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG DU; MING-LEI WANG; RUO-YUN CHEN; DE-QUAN YU

    2001-01-01

    20 compounds were isolated from the leaves of Magnolia denudata including 16 lignans, which (16) andβ-sitosterol (20), the other 15 compounds were obtained from this species for the first time. The absolute configurations of 3 compounds (1, 4,10) were determined by CD spectroscopy for the first time. The anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1, 2 and 16 were assessed and 2 was shown to have significant inhibition effect on mice hind-paw edema induced by carrageenan.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and Anti-ulcerogenic Activities of Chantaleela Recipe

    OpenAIRE

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Khonsung, Parirat; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Nanna, Urarat; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Chantaleela recipe is indicated for relieving fever in Thai traditional folk medicine. In the present study, Chantaleela recipe was investigated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-ulcerogenic activities. In preliminary investigation Chantaleela recipe was found to exert an inhibitory activity on the acute phase of inflammation as seen in ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema as well as in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. The results suggest that the anti-infl...

  20. Seaweed Polysaccharides and Derived Oligosaccharides Stimulate Defense Responses and Protection Against Pathogens in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Moenne; Jorge Castro; Jeannette Vera; Alberto Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Plants interact with the environment by sensing “non-self” molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae) corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense res...

  1. Central nervous system mast cells in peripheral inflammatory nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmeier Wilfried

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional aspects of mast cell-neuronal interactions remain poorly understood. Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of powerful pro-inflammatory mediators such as histamine and cytokines. Cerebral dural mast cells have been proposed to modulate meningeal nociceptor activity and be involved in migraine pathophysiology. Little is known about the functional role of spinal cord dural mast cells. In this study, we examine their potential involvement in nociception and synaptic plasticity in superficial spinal dorsal horn. Changes of lower spinal cord dura mast cells and their contribution to hyperalgesia are examined in animal models of peripheral neurogenic and non-neurogenic inflammation. Results Spinal application of supernatant from activated cultured mast cells induces significant mechanical hyperalgesia and long-term potentiation (LTP at spinal synapses of C-fibers. Lumbar, thoracic and thalamic preparations are then examined for mast cell number and degranulation status after intraplantar capsaicin and carrageenan. Intradermal capsaicin induces a significant percent increase of lumbar dural mast cells at 3 hours post-administration. Peripheral carrageenan in female rats significantly increases mast cell density in the lumbar dura, but not in thoracic dura or thalamus. Intrathecal administration of the mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglycate or the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk inhibitor BAY-613606 reduce the increased percent degranulation and degranulated cell density of lumbar dural mast cells after capsaicin and carrageenan respectively, without affecting hyperalgesia. Conclusion The results suggest that lumbar dural mast cells may be sufficient but are not necessary for capsaicin or carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia.

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract from Desmodium triflorum DC in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shang-Chih; Peng, Wen-Huang; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Ho, Yu-Ling; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the analgesic effect of methanol extract from Desmodium triflorum DC (MDT) by using animal models of acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect of MDT was investigated by lambda-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. In order to study the anti-inflammatory mechanism of MDT, we detected the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver, the levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the edema paw tissue. In the analgesic test, MDT (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the licking time on the late phase in the formalin test. In the anti-inflammatory test, MDT (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased the paw edema at the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th hour after lambda-carrageenan administration. On the other hand, MDT increased the activities of SOD and GRd in liver tissues and decreased the MDA level in the edema paw at the 3rd hour after lambda-carrageenan-induced inflammation. MDT also affected the levels of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, NO and MDA which were induced by lambda-carrageenan. The results suggested that MDT possessed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of MDT might be related to the decreases in the level of MDA in the edema paw via increasing the activities of SOD and GRd in the liver, and the NO level via regulating the IL-1beta production and the level of TNF-alpha in the inflamed tissues.

  3. Anti-inflarnmatory activity of Urera baccifera (Urticaceae) in Sprague-Dawley rats

    OpenAIRE

    Badilla, Beatriz; Mora, Gerardo; Lapa, Antonio José; Silva Ernim, José Arthur

    2015-01-01

    On a preliminary test, anti-inflammatory and analgesic dose-related activities on rats were observed for the aqueous fraction of Urera baccifera; this extract was bioassay-guided fractionated and the final aqueous fraction was used according the ethnobotanical use. Carrageenan-induced edema (n=6), was used as an assay in the fractionating process. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of the final aqueons fraction were studied using in vivo models. For the anti-inflammatory act...

  4. Multi-Scale Experiments to Evaluate Mobility Control Methods for Enhancing the Sweep Efficiency of Injected Subsurface Remediation Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Permanganate reaction with polysaccharides similar to xanthan, including pectin, chitosan, carrageenan, alginate , and methyl cellulose, indicates... rheology of both types of polymers was determined at varying concentrations from 10-8,000 mg/L, and with various salt (KCl, NaCl, CaCl2) concentrations...still display a shear-thinning rheology , while the HPAM viscosity profile is drastically decreased and flat over a range of shear rates. Figure 3-2

  5. Development and validation of an animal model of prostate inflammation-induced chronic pelvic pain: evaluating from inflammation of the prostate to pain behavioral modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS is the most common type of prostatitis. Due to the lack of a suitable animal model partly, the pathogenesis for this condition is obscure. In the current study we developed and validated an animal model for nonbacterial prostatitis and prostate inflammation-induced chronic pelvic pain in rats with the use of intraprostatic injection of λ-carrageenan. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-350 g were used for the experiments. After intraprostatic injection of 3% λ-carrageenan, at different time points(after 24 h, 7 d, 14 d and 30 d of injection, radiant heat and von Frey filaments were applied to the scrotum of rats to measure the heat and mechanical thresholds respectively. Then the prostate was removed for histology, and cyclooxygenase (COX 2 protein expression was determined by Western-blot. Evans blue(50 mg/kg was also injected intravenously to assess for plasma protein extravasation at different time points after injection of λ-carrageenan. RESULTS: Compared to control group, inflamed animals showed a significant reduction in mechanical threshold (mechanical allodynia at 24 h and 7d(p = 0.022,0.046, respectively, and a significant reduction in heat threshold (thermal hyperalgesia at 24 h, 7d and 14 d(p = 0.014, 0.018, 0.002, respectively in the scrotal skin. Significant increase of inflammatory cell accumulation, COX2 expression and Evans blue extravasation were observed at 24 h, 7d and 14 d after injection. CONCLUSIONS: Intraprostatic λ-carrageenan injection induced neurogenic prostatitis and prostate inflammation pain, which lasted at least 2 weeks. The current model is expected to be a valuable preclinical tool to study the neurobiological mechanisms of male chronic pelvic pain.

  6. Low-Cost Foods and Drugs Using Immobilized Enzymes on Biopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Elnashar, Magdy

    2010-01-01

    The modification of carrageenan and alginate biopolymers with chitosan/PEI imparts three extra benefits to these biopolymers. The first is the creation of a new amino groups functionality; the second, is the amelioration of the gel's thermal stability by forming a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC), while the third is the use of the free amino groups to covalently immobilize enzymes, via glutaraldehyde, as a mediator and a crosslinker. Three industrial enzymes were immobilized using the modified g...

  7. In vivo anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of ellagitannin metabolite urolithin A

    OpenAIRE

    Ishimoto, Hidekazu; Shibata, Mari; Myojin, Yuki; Ito, Hideyuki; Sugimoto, Yukio; Tai, Akihiro; Hatano, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    Urolithin A is a major metabolite produced by rats and humans after consumption of pomegranate juice or pure ellagitannin geraniin. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of urolithin A on carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The volume of paw edema was reduced at 1 h after oral administration of urolithin A. In addition, plasma in treated mice exhibited significant oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) scores with high plasma levels of the unconjugated form at 1 h...

  8. 猕猴桃凝胶软糖的研制%Research of the kiwi gelatinous confection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔美兰; 刘谋泉

    2004-01-01

    The production technology and formula of the kiwi gelatinous confection were studied. The main material in the experiment was extract from the fresh kiwi .Results showed that the best product was obtained with 20% Kiwi,23% sugar,34% glucose syrup,0.8% carrageenan,0.4% agar,0.2% konjac flour,1.4% modified starches,0.1% KC1 through orthogonal study.

  9. IN VIVO ANTI INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Mittal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to appraise the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus roots belonging to family Liliaceae. Carrageenan is used to induce inflammation and Freund’s Complete Adjuvant is used to induce arthritis. The result of this study revealed that Asparagus racemosus show potent effect on both the condition at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively.

  10. Ceramic films produced by a gel-dipping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santacruz, I.; Ferrari, B.; Nieto, M.I.; Moreno, R. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Camino de Valdelatas s/n, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2003-09-01

    A novel method for manufacturing self-supporting ceramic films is based on the use of aqueous suspensions containing low concentrations of a biopolymer (carrageenan) and the formation of the film by immersion of a graphite substrate into the ceramic suspension heated at 60 C. A film is obtained by dipping after cooling at RT; burning out graphite during sintering leaves homogeneous, dense, and self-supported films (see Figure for an SEM image). (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. N-acetylcysteine Ameliorates Prostatitis via miR-141 Regulating Keap1/Nrf2 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Liang; Huang, Yu-Hua; Yan, Chun-Yin; Wei, Xue-Dong; Hou, Jian-Quan; Pu, Jin-Xian; Lv, Jin-Xing

    2016-04-01

    Chronic prostatitis was the most common type of prostatitis and oxidative stress was reported to be highly elevated in prostatitis patients. In this study, we determined the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on prostatitis and the molecular mechanism involved in it. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control group (group A, n = 20), carrageenan-induced chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP) model group (group B, n = 20), and carrageenan-induced CNP model group with NAC injection (group C, n = 20). Eye score, locomotion score, inflammatory cell count, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression, and Evans blue were compared in these three groups. The expression of miR-141 was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Moreover, protein expressions of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1) and nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target genes were examined by Western blot. Luciferase reporter assay was performed in RWPE-1 cells transfected miR-141 mimic or inhibitor and the plasmid carrying 3'-UTR of Keap1. The value of eye score, locomotion score, inflammatory cell count, and Evans blue were significantly decreased in group C, as well as the expression of COX2, when comparing to that of group B. These results indicated that NAC relieved the carrageenan-induced CNP. Further, we found that NAC increased the expression of miR-141 and activated the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-141 mimic could suppress the activity of Keap1 and stimulate the downstream target genes of Nrf2. In addition, miR-141 inhibitor could reduce the effect of NAC on prostatitis. NAC ameliorates the carrageenan-induced prostatitis and prostate inflammation pain through miR-141 regulating Keap1/Nrf2 signaling.

  12. Vegetable proteins and milk puddings

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, interest in animal free foods has increased tremendously due to factors like BSE crisis, rise of nutritionally dependent illnesses, like diabetes type II, cardiovascular and digestive diseases, along with ethic orientations of denying animal intakes of any kind. The use of proteins from leguminous seeds as an alternative to the animal proteins in dairy desserts was studied. Lupin, pea and soya protein isolates were used in combination with k- carrageenan, gellan a...

  13. Immobilized Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-31

    beads, the plasmid is twice as stable as in cells In a process where immobilized cells produce material grown in continuous culture over 200...carrageenan) or chemically cross-linked, or- Penicillium chrysogenum than in washed freely suspended ganic polymer (Ca-alginate, polyacrylamide, and mycelium ...these materials are formed into the freely suspended cells stopped after 6 days. If the beads of several millimeters in diameter by allowing the

  14. Enhanced thermal stability of lysosomal beta-D-galactosidase in parenchymal cells of tumour bearing mice.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The thermal stability of the enzyme beta-D-galactosidase varies among different organs in normal C57Bl/6 mice, and increases in the same organs in mice with Lewis Lung carcinoma. Thermal stability of this enzyme is also increased by treatment of the mice with cell-free extracts of tumour cells or with inflammatory compounds such as carrageenan or orosomucoid. After desialylation, orosomucoid more effectively increases the heat stability of the enzyme. By contrast talc, which has no galactosyl...

  15. Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and maprotiline attenuate the inflammatory response by inhibiting neutrophil migration and mast cell degranulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alves Gurgel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite the recognized anti-inflammatory potential of heterocyclic antidepressants, the mechanisms concerning their modulating effects are not completely known. Thus, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of amitriptyline, clomipramine, and maprotiline and the possible modulating properties of these drugs on neutrophil migration and mast cell degranulation. Methods: The hind paw edema and air-pouch models of inflammation were used. Male Wistar rats were treated with saline, amitriptyline, clomipramine or maprotiline (10, 30, or 90 mg/kg, per os [p.o.] 1 h before the injection of carrageenan (300 μg/0.1 mL/paw or dextran (500 μg/0.1 mL/paw. Then, edema formation was measured hourly. Neutrophil migration to carrageenan (500 μg/pouch and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP (10-6 M/mL/pouch was also investigated in 6-day-old air-pouch cavities. Compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation was assessed in the mesenteric tissues of antidepressant-treated rats. Results: All tested antidepressants prevented both carrageenan- and dextran-induced edema. The anti-inflammatory effect of these drugs partially depends on the modulation of neutrophil migration, since they significantly counteracted the chemotactic response of both carrageenan and fMLP (p < 0.01. Furthermore, amitriptyline, clomipramine and maprotiline inhibited compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation (p < 0.001. Conclusions: These results suggest an important anti-inflammatory role of heterocyclic antidepressants, which is dependent on the modulation of neutrophil migration and mast cell stabilization.

  16. Evaluation of antiinflammatory activity ofTephrosia purpurea in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenoy Smita; Shwetha K; Prabhu K; Maradi R; Bairy KL; Shanbhag T

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of orally administered ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea in acute and subacute inflammation in rats.Methods: An ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea was prepared. Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma were the models for acute and subacute inflammation respectively. Four groups of rats in each model were treated orally with 2% gum acacia, 100 mg /kg of aspirin, 500 mg/kg and 1 000 mg/kg of ethanolic extract ofTephrosia purpurea respectively. In carrageenan induced paw edema model, subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan was made into the hind paw of the rats sixty minutes after the administration of the respective drugs. The paw volume was measured immediately after injection of carrageenan, at 3 hours and at 6 hours. Then percentage inhibition of edema was calculated. In the cotton pellet granuloma model, animals were administered drugs for six days after placing cotton pellets in the axilla on each side. On the 7th day, dry weight of granuloma was calculated.Results:The rats treated withTephrosia purpurea did not exhibit any significant decrease in paw volume and serum ceruloplasmin levels as compared to the control and aspirin treated groups in the acute inflammation model; while, there was a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the weight of granuloma inTephrosia purpurea and aspirin treated groups as compared to control in subacute inflammation.Conclusions:The ethanolic extract of orally administered Tephrosia purpurea shows significant antiinflammatory effect in subacute inflammation but not in acute inflammation in rats.

  17. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based In Vitro Metabolic Profiling Reveals Altered Enzyme Expressions in Eicosanoid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Su Hyeon; Kim, Eung Ju; Lee, Dong-Hyoung; Lee, Won-Yong; Chung, Bong Chul; Seo, Hong Seog; Choi, Man Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Eicosanoids are metabolites of arachidonic acid that are rapidly biosynthesized and degraded during inflammation, and their metabolic changes reveal altered enzyme expression following drug treatment. We developed an eicosanoid profiling method and evaluated their changes on drug treatment. Methods Simultaneous quantitative profiling of 32 eicosanoids in liver S9 fractions obtained from rabbits with carrageenan-induced inflammation was performed and validated by liquid chromatograp...

  18. Anti inflammatory activity of moringa oliefera. Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K N; Gopalakrishnan, V; Loganathan, V; Nathan, S S

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanolic (90%) extract of the leaves of M.Oliera Lam (Fam: Moringaceae) were studied for their anti inflammatory action in ale albino rats. Two extracts exhibited maximum action within two hours of challenge. The aqueous extract sowed significant (P<0.01) odema suppression similar to that of Ibuprofen at the first hour of carrageenan injection. The results confirms the folkers claim of the plant.

  19. Production of alkaline protease with immobilized cells of bacillus subtilis PE-11 in various matrices by entrapment technique

    OpenAIRE

    Adinarayana, Kunamneni; Jyothi, Bezawada; Ellaiah, Poluri

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect ofBacillus subtilis PE-11 cells immobilized in various matrices, such as calcium alginate, k-Carrageenan, ployacrylamide, agar-agar, and gelatin, for the production of alkaline protease. Calcium alginate was found to be an effective and suitable matrix for higher alkaline protease productivity compared to the other matrices studied. All the matrices were selected for repeated batch fermentation. The average specific volumetric producti...

  20. The role of spinal interleukin-1β and astrocyte connexin 43 in the development of mirror-image pain in an inflammatory pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoon-Seong; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Gu; Choi, Sheu-Ran; Kang, Suk-Yun; Moon, Ji-Young; Han, Ho-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Beitz, Alvin J; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2016-10-20

    Although we have recently demonstrated that carrageenan-induced inflammation upregulates the expression of spinal interleukin (IL)-1β, which inhibits spinal astrocyte activation and results in the delayed development of Mirror-Image Pain (MIP), little is known regarding the mechanisms that underlie how spinal IL-1β inhibits the astrocyte activation. In this study, we examined the effect of spinal IL-1β on astrocyte gap junctions (GJ) and the development of MIP. Following unilateral carrageenan (CA) injection, mechanical allodynia (MA) was evaluated at various time points. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to determine changes in the expression of GFAP and connexins (Cx) in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Carrageenan rats showed a delayed onset of contralateral MA, which mimicked the temporal expression pattern of spinal Cx43 (an astrocyte gap junctional protein) and GFAP. Intrathecal administration of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) twice-a-day on post-carrageenan injection days 0 to 3 caused a significant increase in contralateral MA and spinal Cx43 and GFAP expression. In addition, co-administration of IL-1β with IL-1ra blocked the IL-1ra-induced increase in contralateral MA and the upregulated expression of spinal Cx43 and GFAP. Finally, co-administration of carbenoxolone (CBX; a GJ decoupler) or Gap26 (a specific Cx43 mimetic blocking peptide) with IL-1ra significantly blocked the IL-1ra-induced early development of contralateral MA and the associated upregulation of spinal Cx43 and GFAP expression. These results demonstrate that spinal IL-1β suppresses Cx43 expression and astrocyte activation during the early phase of CA-induced inflammation resulting in the delayed onset of contralateral MA. These findings imply that spinal IL-1β can inhibit astrocyte activation and regulate the time of induction of contralateral MA through modulation of spinal Cx43 expression.

  1. Eucheuma and Kappaphycus : taxonomy and cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Trono, Jr., C. Gavino

    1992-01-01

    The Genera Eucheuma, Kappaphycus and Hypnea are three important genera of carrageenophytes which are abundant in the Philippines and in the tropical Asia and Western Pacific. The most useful species for the source of kappa carageenan is K. alvarezii called E. "cottonii" of commerce. E. denticulatum called E. "spinosum" of commerce is also the most useful species for the sources of iota carrageenan.The different methods of Eucheuma cultivation were tried in the past from very simple bottom cul...

  2. Cultivation of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii in Brazil and its pharmacological potential

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Hayashi; Reis,Renata P.

    2012-01-01

    Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) is a red algae widely cultivated as the main source of raw material for the carrageenan industry. This hydrocolloid is normally used in the food industry as a gelling and stabilizing agent. The facility of its commercial farming based on vegetative propagation promoted the success of the aquaculture of this macroalgae that consequently stimulated studies focusing on new potential uses of this resource. This work presents a brief review of the s...

  3. Chlorpyrifos Detection by Piezoelectric Biosensor Based on Acetylcholinesterase Immobilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was immobilized on multilayer films assembled by poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) and ι-carrageenan (IC) on silver-coated crystal electrode surfaces to detect the chlorpyrifos belonging to the organophosphates pesticide.Mass sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used to study the effect of AChE concentration and pH of phosphate buffer solution on immobilized acetylcholinesterase.The optimized conditions were as follows: pH was 6.0 which was near isoelectric ...

  4. DIURETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERVA SANGUINOLENTA (L.) BLUME

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Reddy K; Rajeev Reddy E; Ganapaty S

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the diuretic and anti-inflammatory potency of aqueous extract of whole plant of Aerva sanguinolenta in wistar albino rats. Different parameters viz. total urine volume, urine concentration of electrolytes such as sodium; potassium and chloride have been evaluated for assessment of diuretic activity. Anti-inflammatory was performed against carrageenan induced paw oedema method by using indomethacin as standard.The results revealed that the aqueous extract sho...

  5. Antinociceptive activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions, and aggregatin D isolated from Sinningia aggregata tubers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geórgea V Souza

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract (ESa, fractions, and compounds isolated from Sinningia aggregata in male Swiss mice on carrageenan-induced paw edema, neutrophil migration, mechanical hyperalgesia, formalin-induced nociception, and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. The ESa did not alter edema, neutrophil migration, or fever at any of the doses tested. However, the ESa reduced phase II of formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. The petroleum ether (PE and ethyl acetate (EA fractions and aggregatin D (AgD; isolated from the EA fraction reduced formalin-induced nociception. Anthraquinones from the PE fraction were ineffective. AgD also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Neither the ESa nor AgD altered thermal nociception or motor performance. Local administration of AgD also reduced hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, prostaglandin E2, and dopamine but not hyperalgesia induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The positive control dipyrone reduced the response induced by all of the stimuli. Additionally, glibenclamide abolished the analgesic effect of dipyrone but not the one induced by AgD. AgD did not change lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by macrophages or the nociception induced by capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline, or menthol. These results suggest that the ESa has important antinociceptive activity, and this activity results at least partially from the presence of AgD. AgD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia induced by several inflammatory mediators through mechanisms that are different from classic analgesic drugs.

  6. Antinociceptive activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions, and aggregatin D isolated from Sinningia aggregata tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Geórgea V; Simas, Alex S; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda L; Frois, Gisele R A; Ribas, João L C; Verdan, Maria H; Kassuya, Cândida A L; Stefanello, Maria E; Zampronio, Aleksander R

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract (ESa), fractions, and compounds isolated from Sinningia aggregata in male Swiss mice on carrageenan-induced paw edema, neutrophil migration, mechanical hyperalgesia, formalin-induced nociception, and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. The ESa did not alter edema, neutrophil migration, or fever at any of the doses tested. However, the ESa reduced phase II of formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. The petroleum ether (PE) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions and aggregatin D (AgD; isolated from the EA fraction) reduced formalin-induced nociception. Anthraquinones from the PE fraction were ineffective. AgD also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Neither the ESa nor AgD altered thermal nociception or motor performance. Local administration of AgD also reduced hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, prostaglandin E2, and dopamine but not hyperalgesia induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The positive control dipyrone reduced the response induced by all of the stimuli. Additionally, glibenclamide abolished the analgesic effect of dipyrone but not the one induced by AgD. AgD did not change lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by macrophages or the nociception induced by capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline, or menthol. These results suggest that the ESa has important antinociceptive activity, and this activity results at least partially from the presence of AgD. AgD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia induced by several inflammatory mediators through mechanisms that are different from classic analgesic drugs.

  7. Stretching Impacts Inflammation Resolution in Connective Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrueta, Lisbeth; Muskaj, Igla; Olenich, Sara; Butler, Taylor; Badger, Gary J; Colas, Romain A; Spite, Matthew; Serhan, Charles N; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-07-01

    Acute inflammation is accompanied from its outset by the release of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), including resolvins, that orchestrate the resolution of local inflammation. We showed earlier that, in rats with subcutaneous inflammation of the back induced by carrageenan, stretching for 10 min twice daily reduced inflammation and improved pain, 2 weeks after carrageenan injection. In this study, we hypothesized that stretching of connective tissue activates local pro-resolving mechanisms within the tissue in the acute phase of inflammation. In rats injected with carrageenan and randomized to stretch versus no stretch for 48 h, stretching reduced inflammatory lesion thickness and neutrophil count, and increased resolvin (RvD1) concentrations within lesions. Furthermore, subcutaneous resolvin injection mimicked the effect of stretching. In ex vivo experiments, stretching of connective tissue reduced the migration of neutrophils and increased tissue RvD1 concentration. These results demonstrate a direct mechanical impact of stretching on inflammation-regulation mechanisms within connective tissue.

  8. Antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides from brown and red seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha de Souza, Micheline Cristiane; Marques, Cybelle Teixeira; Guerra Dore, Celina Maria; Ferreira da Silva, Fernando Roberto; Oliveira Rocha, Hugo Alexandre; Leite, Edda Lisboa

    2007-04-01

    The in vitro antioxidant activities of the following six sulfated polysaccharides were investigated: iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, which are widely used in the food industry, fucoidan (homofucan) from the edible seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and fucans (heterofucans) F0.5 and F1.1 from the seaweed Padina gymnospora. With respect to the inhibition of superoxide radical formation, fucoidan had an IC(50) (the half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 0.058 mg.mL(-1), while the IC(50) for the kappa, iota and lambda carrageenans were 0.112, 0.332 and 0.046 mg.mL(-1), respectively. All of the samples had an inhibitory effect on the formation of hydroxyl radicals. The results of peroxidation tests showed that fucoidan had an IC(50) of 1.250 mg.mL(-1) and that the kappa, iota and lambda carrageenans had an IC(50) of 2.753 and 2.338 and 0.323 mg.mL(-1), respectively. Fucan fractions showed low antioxidant activity relative to fucoidan. These results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of algal polysaccharides as antioxidants.

  9. Relationship between blood levels and the anti-hyperalgesic effect of ketoprofen in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Carrasco, José Carlos; Rodríguez-Silverio, Juan; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Carrasco-Portugal, Miriam del Carmen; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco Javier

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between blood levels of ketoprofen and its anti-hyperalgesic effects was examined in rat using the carrageenan-evoked thermal hyperalgesia model. Female adult Wistar rats were injected with carrageenan into the plantar surface of the right hind paw. Immediately after, rats were administered with ketoprofen po and hindpaw withdrawal latency measured and micro-whole blood samples were obtained over six hours via a cannula inserted in the caudal artery. Ketoprofen levels were measured by HPLC. Ketoprofen concentration increased in a dose-dependent manner and was reflected in dose-dependent anti-hyperalgesic effect. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters expressed as mean ± s.e.m. following administration of 1, 3.2, and 10 mg/kg ketoprofen were: Cmax 1.27 ± 0.08, 3.44 ± 0.20 and 11.76 ± 0.81 μg/mL; AUClast 4.16 ± 0.17, 11.63 ± 0.65 and 28.15 ± 1.32 μg h/mL; and Emax observed (AUCE ): 65.41 ± 7.79, 92.06 ± 6.46 and 98.42 ± 7.53%. A direct relationship between blood concentrations and the anti-hyperalgesic effect of ketoprofen followed a maximum effect model equation. The results indicate that the anti-hyperalgesic effect of ketoprofen in the carrageenan pain model can be predicted by the pharmacokinetic properties of ketoprofen.

  10. Citral reduces nociceptive and inflammatory response in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Citral (CIT, which contains the chiral enantiomers, neral (cis and geranial (trans, is the majority monoterpene from Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus. The present study aimed to evaluate CIT for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in rodents. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied by measuring nociception through acetic acid and formalin tests, while inflammation was verified by inducing peritonitis and paw edema with carrageenan. All tested doses of CIT had significant protection (p<0.001 against acetic acid (0.8% induced nociceptive behavior and the effects were also similar to morphine while formalin induced nociception was significantly protected (p<0.05 only at higher dose (200 mg/kg of CIT in the first phase of the test. CIT significantly reduce (p<0.001 nociceptive behavior emanating from inflammation in second phase at all the doses.The pretreatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, systemic treatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced (p<0.001 the leukocyte migration in the carrageenan-induced migration to the peritoneal cavity. Our investigation shows that CIT possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive effects. It was also verified an anti-inflammatory activity. All together these results suggest that CIT might represent important tool for treatment of painful conditions.

  11. 低温火腿专用注射胶体的研究%Study on special injected gel of low temperature ham

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙森伟; 王素梅

    2014-01-01

    Locust bean gum could improve the gel strength and elastic of K-carrageenan and reduce its drainage rate. When the ratio of carrageenan, Locust bean gum and glucose was 48. 75∶1. 25∶50, the gel strength, elastic and drainage rate was 436g, 7. 14mm, 2. 39%, respectively. Under this condition, the gel strength and elastic of compound gel were better than commercially carrageenan.%刺槐豆胶可以提高K-卡拉胶凝胶强度、弹性,降低卡拉胶的析水率。当卡拉胶∶刺槐豆胶∶葡萄糖为48.75∶1.25∶50时,复合胶体凝胶强度、弹性、析水率分别为436g、7.14mm、2.39%。复合胶体的凝胶强度、弹性都优于市售卡拉胶。

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia heyneana Spreng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganga Rao Battu; Sambasiva Rao Ethadi; Veda Priya G; Swathi Priya K; Chandrika K; Venkateswara Rao A; Satya Obbala Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the alcoholic extract of Euphorbia heyneana (E. heyneana) in carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. Methods:In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Three doses 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hours. Results:The alcoholic extract of E. heyneana produced dose dependent inhibition of superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radicals. In carrageenan induced inflammation model, all three doses produced significant percentage inhibition of rat paw oedema and 800 mg/kg dose produced maximum percent inhibition of rat paw oedema (47.06%) among the three doses compared to control group. Conclusions:It can be concluded that alcoholic extract of E. heyneana shows good in vitro antioxidant and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activities in rats.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of one synthetic product, N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide (abbrev. FECA, by using animal model of λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of FECA was determined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and malondialdehyde (MDA in the edema paw tissue, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GRd in the liver. The results showed that FECA reduced the paw edema at three, four and five hours after λ-carrageenan administration. The levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α, and MDA in the λ-carrageenan-induced edema paws were reduced and the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in liver tissues were raised by FECA. These results suggested that FECA possessed anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be related to the decrease of the levels of COX-2, NO, and TNF-α in inflamed tissues and the increase in the MDA level by increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd.

  14. Development of hydroethanolic extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae using factorial design followed by antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. R. Br., Convolvulaceae, is a medicinal plant that grows abundantly as a pan-tropical stand plant. The 3² (two factors and three levels factorial design, was applied to determine the best time and drug/solvent proportion to maximize the flavonoid content in the hydroethanolic extract by maceration process. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied at 5-20 mg/kg, i.p., using the writhing test and carrageenan-induced pleurisy models in mice. The optimized extract was able to inhibit more than 50% of abdominal writhing at 20 mg/kg, with 55.88%±2.4 of maximum inhibition. Indomethacin, used as positive control, inhibited 64.86% at 10 mg/kg. In the pleurisy model, the extract produced dose-dependent inhibition of the first phase of inflammation (4 h in the pleural cavity induced by injection of carrageenan (1% in mice. It inhibited 50%±0.82 (p<0.01 of exudation induced by carrageenan, and 60.88%±0.14 (p<0.01 of leukocyte migration to the pleural cavity. In conclusion, the results validate the technological conditions of the maceration process to produce an optimized bioactive herb extract for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory phytopharmaceuticals using 70 ºGL ethanol, a plant to solvent ratio of 12.5% (w/v, and ten days of maceration.

  15. 可食性涂膜对双孢蘑菇生理和品质的影响%Effect of Edible Coatings on Physiology and Quality of Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相友; 闫聪聪; 刘战丽

    2012-01-01

    The effects of carrageenan, carboxymethyl cellulose solution and their complex film on the physiology and quality of mushrooms stored at (2 ± 1 ) ℃ were studied. The minimum loss of weight was obtained in fruits coated with CMC coating, the minimum value of respiration rate, PPO activity, membrane permeability and the maximum hardness and L* value were obtained in mushrooms coated with carrageenan coating. Overall, the preservation effect of carrageenan film is the best, and it can extend the shelf-life of Agaricus bisporus to more than 12 d.%研究了卡拉胶、羧甲基纤维素钠及其复配涂膜对(2±1)℃下贮藏的双孢菇生理和品质的影响.实验结果表明:羧甲基纤维素钠涂膜抑制双孢菇失重率的效果最好;卡拉胶涂膜在抑制呼吸速率、PPO活性、细胞膜通透性的上升和果实硬度、白度的下降方面效果最好,可以将双孢菇的货架期延长至12d以上.

  16. Preparation of a Black Tea Jelly%红茶果冻的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志铭; 汤兴福; 吴云辉; 简文杰

    2011-01-01

    In this research, konjac powder, carrageenan and black tea powder were used as main raw materials to produce a new black tea jelly by the orthogonal experiment method The results indicated that, the best ratio of carrageenan to konjac glue, the total dosages of the mixture of carrageenan and konjac glue, sugar, black tea powder and citric acid were 7:3, 0.8%, 14%, 0.2% and 0.12%, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the hazel jelly can be prepared after water bath for 15 minutes. It tasted mild and crisp, with rich tea aroma.%本文以魔芋粉、卡拉胶、红茶粉为主要原料,采用正交试验方法探讨红茶果冻的最佳制作工艺.实验结果表明:卡拉胶和魔芋胶两者的配比为7∶3,总胶粉的添加量为0.8%,白砂糖添加量为14%,红茶粉添加量为0.2%,柠檬酸的添加量为0.12%,水浴15min得到浅褐色果冻,口感软滑爽脆,酸甜可口,且具有浓郁茶香味.

  17. A glycoprotein with anti-inflammatory properties secreted by an Aspergillus nidulans modified strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. F. Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Total RNA from lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated rat macrophages used to treat protoplasts from an Aspergillus nidulans strain originated the RT2 regenerated strain, whose culture supernatant showed anti-inflammatory activity in Wistar rats. The protein fraction presenting such anti-inflammatory activity was purified and biochemically identified. The screening of the fraction responsible for such anti-inflammatory property was performed by evaluating the inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema in male Swiss mice. Biochemical analyses of the anti-inflammatory protein used chromatography, carbohydrates quantification of the protein sample, amino acids content analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Total sugar quantification revealed 32% glycosylation of the protein fraction. Amino acid analysis of such fraction showed a peculiar pattern presenting 29% valine. SDS-PAGE revealed that the protein sample is pure and its molecular weight is about 40kDa. Intravenous injection of the isolated substance into mice significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. The isolated glycoprotein decreased carrageenan-induced paw edema in a prostaglandin-dependent phase, suggesting an inhibitory effect of the isolated glycoprotein on prostaglandin synthesis.

  18. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ION EXCHANGE RESIN MATRIX TABLETS OF PROPRANOLOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosale Rahul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt was made to prepare and evaluate Indion 254 ion exchange resin based matrix tablets by using sodium alginate, carrageenan and tamarind seed polyose for controlled release of propranolol HCl. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The weight and drug contents of all the tablets were found to be uniform with the low SD values. The hardness and friability were within specified range. The pure drug propranolol HCl has shown complete dissolution within 60 min, whereas, drug-resin complex has shown drug release for 2.5 hrs. With the increase in concentration of carrageenan, the drug release was decreased whereas with the increase in concentration of tamarind seed polyose drug release was increased. The DSC and XRD analysis indicated that the drug was uniformly dispersed in an amorphous state in the polymer matrix. The FTIR analysis ruled out the interaction between drug and polymers used in the preparation. Swelling of the tablets decreased with an increased amount of carrageenan and it further decreased when the tablets were treated with glutaraldehyde. Swelling of the tablets increased with an increased amount of tamarind seed polyose. The in vitro drug release study indicated that the tablets containing tamarind seed polyose were capable of releasing the drug for 24 hrs. Drug release mechanism followed anomalous transport. The stability studies indicated that the formulations were stable, with respect to drug content and physical changes.

  19. 使用粒径分析仪分析黑米乳稳定性%Using Particle Size Analyzer Analysis the Stability of Black Rice Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令洁; 苗君莅; 张锋华; 龚广予

    2012-01-01

    The stability of the different product was analyzed through laser particle size analyzer detected carrageenan. Xanthan gum, guar gum and gellan gum four stabilizers were used alone or complex pairs in black rice milk. The results showed that the stability of the three samples of black rice milk with 0.08% gellan gum+0.02% xanthan gum, 0.09% gellan gum+0.01% carrageenan, and 0.08% guar+0.02% carrageenan were ideal. The system of black rice milk was under better control and the floating oil was well suppressed. The gellan gum couldn't stabilize black rice milk alone.%通过激光粒径分析仪检测分析卡拉胶、黄原胶、瓜尔豆胶以及结冷胶这四类稳定剂单独或复配对黑米乳产品稳定性的影响。结果发现,0.08%结冷胶+0.02%黄原胶、0.09%结冷胶+0.01%卡拉胶、0.08%瓜尔豆胶+0.02%卡拉胶等黑米乳饮料稳定性较好,单独使用结冷胶效果一般。

  20. Histamine mediates the pro-inflammatory effect of latex of Calotropis procera in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivkar, Yatin M; Kumar, Vijay L

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTiON: Calotropis procera is known to produce contact dermatitis and the latex of this plant produces intense inflammation when injected locally. However, the precise mode of its pro-inflammatory effect is not known. In present study we have pharmacologically characterized the inflammation induced by latex of C. procera in a rat paw edema model and determined the role of histamine in latex-induced inflammation. METHODS: Inflammation was induced in the hind paw of rats by injecting different doses of dried latex (DL) of C. procera. The inhibitory effect of phenylbutazone, dexamethasone, celecoxib, cyproheptadine, chlorpheniramine and compound 48/80 on edema volume was evaluated and compared with that against carrageenan. The histamine content of DL was measured fluorometrically. RESULTS: DL produced dose-dependent inflammation of the rat paw. Cyproheptadine and chlorpheniramine effectively inhibited DL-induced inflammation (90%; p phenylbutazone, dexamethasone and celecoxib were more effective against carrageenan-induced inflammation. Depletion of mast cell histamine by compound 48/80 produced a significant decrease in DL-induced inflammation as compared with carrageenan (500% versus 25%). DL was also found to contain about 6 microg/g of histamine. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, our study shows that the biogenic amines play a significant role in C. procera latex-induced inflammation and antihistaminic drugs could be effectively used to inhibit inflammatory response elicited by exposure to latex. PMID:14760937

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities A of eugenol essential oil in experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apparecido N. Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia caryophyllata, popular name "clove", is grown naturally in Indonesia and cultivated in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Clove is used in cooking, food processing, pharmacy; perfumery, cosmetics and the clove oil (eugenol have been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions include use in dental care, as an antiseptic and analgesic. The objective of this study was evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of eugenol used for dentistry purposes following oral administration in animal models in vivo. The anti-inflammatory activity of eugenol was evaluated by inflammatory exudates volume and leukocytes migration in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests in rats. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests in mice. Eugenol (200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the volume of pleural exudates without changing the total blood leukocyte counts. At dose of 200 mg/kg, eugenol significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced edema, 2-4 h after injection of the flogistic agent. In the hot-plate test, eugenol administration (100 mg/kg showed unremarkable activity against the time-to-discomfort reaction, recorded as response latency, which is blocked by meperidine. Eugenol at doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg had a significant antinociceptive effect in the test of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing, compared to the control animals. The data suggest that eugenol possesses anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive activities.

  2. Effect of use of citrus bagasse as functional product-extender on physicochemical and textural properties of cooked ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Aguilar-Rico

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The substitution effect of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse on physico-chemical characteristics of cooked ham was evaluated. A 33 factorial design was used, with substitution levels of 0, 50 and 100%. The results indicate that the substitution of potato starch for orange bagasse results in increase in the ham yield, but to replace the carrageenan and/or soy protein by orange bagasse, cause decrease in yield below that non-substituted ham. Moreover, if even yields increase with substitution of potato starch by orange bagasse, however, the textural characteristics of the product obtained showed deficiency in comparison with thenon-substituted ham. Apparently orange bagasse substitution does not alter the matrix stability formation in ham, so there was no significant difference in expressible moisture. Substitution of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse in ham has highest influence on pH and color parameters, this due probably to compounds presents in the fruit (citric acid and carotenoids. Orange bagasse has high potential as a novel source of dietary fiber in food industry.

  3. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Ganga Rao; P. Umamaheswara Rao; E. Sambasiva Rao; T. Mallikarjuna Rao; V. S. Praneeth. D

    2012-01-01

    To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. Methods: In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. Results: All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. Conclusions:In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  4. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  5. Influence of Tableting on Enzymatic Activity of Papain along with Determination of Its Percolation Threshold with Microcrystalline Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manu; Sharma, Vinay; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2014-01-01

    The binary mixture tablets of papain and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP), carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar were prepared by direct compression. Carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar provided maximum protection to enzyme activity compared to MCC and DCP. However, stability studies indicated highest loss of enzyme activity with carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar. Therefore, compression behaviour of different binary mixtures of papain with MCC at different compaction pressures, that is, 40-280 MPa, was studied according to Heckel equation. The compressibility studies of binary mixtures indicated brittle behavior of papain. The application of percolation theory on the relationship between critical density as a function of enzyme activity and mixture composition revealed the presence of percolation threshold for binary mixture. Papain-MCC mixture composition showed significant percolation threshold at 18.48% (w/w) papain loading. Microcrystalline cellulose provided higher protection during stability study. However, higher concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose, probably as dominant particles, do not protect the enzyme with their plastic deformation. Below the percolation threshold, that is, 18.48% (w/w) papain amount in mixture with plastic excipient, activity loss increases strongly because of higher shearing forces during compaction due to system dominance of plastic particles. This mixture range should therefore be avoided to get robust formulation of papain.

  6. Microwave-assisted facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and spectroscopic investigation of the catalytic activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siby Joseph; Beena Mathew

    2015-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized in aqueous medium by a green, rapid and costefficient synthetic approach based on microwave irradiation. In this study, iota-carrageenan (I-carrageenan) is used both as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticles is determined using UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and high-resolution-transmission electron microscopic (HR-TEM) analysis. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images show that the nanoparticles are of spherical shape with an average diameter of 18.2 nm. I-carrageenan-stabilized silver nanoparticles show outstanding catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH4 in aqueous medium. The reaction follows pseudo-first-order kinetics and the reaction rate increases with the increase in amount of the catalyst. The study of the temperature dependence of reaction rate gives activation energy of 42.81 kJ mol−1. The synthesized silver nanoparticles are anticipated to be a promising material for pollution abatement.

  7. Effect of postproduction heating on the texture properties of a standard sausage that contains a chicken paste meat extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela González Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the textureproperties of a standard sausage that contained a chicken meatextender at a replacement percentage of 35% of the PMD whensubjected to postproduction heating. An experimental designthat looked at the combination of three extenders in ten mixturepoints was used; the extenders were composed of fiber, pig skin,and carrageenan, respectively, and there was one product withoutan extender. Five days after production, the sausages were cookedfor two hours at 80°C. An instrumental texture analysis and afirmness and elasticity evaluation were carried out on the recentlyproduced samples and on samples after the subsequent thermaltreatments. Hardness, masticability and firmness decreased withthe application of the thermal treatments. In addition, a synergisticinteraction was seen between the fiber and the carrageenan at thetwo temperature levels. It was concluded that the fiber, the pig skinand the carrageenan did not exhibit properties that were similarto those of chicken paste because their applications demonstrateda marked decrease in the texture properties, a decrease thatwas more pronounced when the product was subjected topostproduction heating.

  8. Preliminary comparative study of anti-inflmmatory effect of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey: In vivo approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of unheated and heat-treated of Sahara honey. Methods: A total of 24 Swiss albino mice weighing 25–35 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Anti-inflammatory effect was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.5 mL of a 1% solution in normal saline. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: The total phenolic content capacity of the Sahara honey before and after heat treatment was between 72 and 97.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of honey respectively. Administration of unheated honey (oral administration reduced significantly (P < 0.05. The carrageenan induced mice paw edema model at 1, 3 and 6 h for 21.85%, 5.43% and 80.43%, respectively. Administration of heat-treated honey showed insignificant inhibition of carrageenan and induced paw edema at 1 h (31.16%, 3 h (0.25% and 6 h (34.19%. The 50 mg/kg diclofenac exhibited percent reduction in paw volume 16.12%, 8.90% and 15.32% after 1 h, 3 h and 6 h, respectively, when compared with control animals. No toxicity was identified. Conclusions: Our results suggest that unheated Sahara honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the mice paw edema size while heat-treated Sahara honey decreases the antiinflammatory activity.

  9. 海洋硫酸多糖几种脱硫方法的比较研究%Comparison of several desulfation methods of marine sulfated polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫; 王玉峰; 曾洋洋; 王培培; 韩章润; 吴建东; 于广利

    2012-01-01

    κ-carrageenan (sulfate content 25.1 %, molecular mass 83.1kD) was selected as studying material. The yields, sulfate contents and molecular masses of desulfated products of the methods of DMSO-MeOH (DMSO), trimethylchlo-rosilane (CTMS) and pyromellitic acid-Sb2O3 (PMA) were compared. The results showed that the yields of the desulfated κ-carrageenan were 45.3 %, 50.6 % and 62.0 %, the desulfation rates were 42.2 %, 48.6 % and 82.8 %, the molecular masses were 15.7 kD, 22.3 kD and 4.75 kD, respectively. According to the IR spectrum and sulfate content analysis, PMA method was better than the DMSO and CTMS method. PMA method was not only effective for κ-carrageenan, but also suitable for the desulfation of ι-carrageenan, λ-carrageenan and fucoidan polysaccharide.%以κ-卡拉胶(硫酸基含量25.1%,分子质量83.1 kD)为原料,研究了二甲基亚砜-甲醇法(DMSO法)、三甲基氯硅烷法(CTMS法)以及苯并四甲酸-三氧化二锑法(PMA法)对其脱硫后多糖样品的得率、硫酸基含量及分子质量的影响.结果表明,κ-卡拉胶经三种方法脱硫后,样品得率分别为45.3%、50.6%和62.0%,脱硫率分别为42.2%、48.6%和82.8%,分子质量分别为15.7、22.3和4.75 kD.通过红外光谱和硫酸基含量分析表明,PMA法脱硫效果优于DMSO和CTMS法.PMA法不仅对κ-卡拉胶有效,而且适合于l-卡拉胶、λ-卡拉胶和岩藻聚糖硫酸酯的脱硫.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects and possible mechanism of action of lupeol acetate isolated from Himatanthus drasticus (Mart. Plumel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Victor CC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The species Himatanthus drasticus is popularly known in Northeast Brazil as "janaguba" and belongs to the family Apocynaceae. The latex collected from its stem bark is used for several purposes including anti-inflammatory properties and presents among its bioactive constituents the pentacyclic triterpene lupeol. The objective of the present work was to study in vivo and in vitro the lupeol acetate (LA isolated from the plant latex, in several models of inflammation. Methods Male Swiss mice (25-30 g, 6-24 animals per group were administered with LA, 30 min before the test initiation. In the evaluation of analgesic activity the formalin test was used. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the following tests: paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, and the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration into peritoneal cavities. Furthermore, the effect of LA on the myeloperoxidase release (MPO, an inflammation biomarker from human neutrophils was also determined, as well as its antioxidant potential by the DPPH assay. Results In the formalin test, LA (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p. inhibited both the 1st (neurogenic, 0-5 min and mainly the 2nd (inflammatory, 20-25 min phase. Naloxone completely reversed the LA effect, indicating the participation of the opioid system. LA also significantly inhibited carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw edemas, as well as the neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity evaluated by the carrageenan-induced pleurisia. In this model, the effect of a very low dose of LA (0.1 mg/kg was potentiated by the same dose of pentoxifylline (PTX, a known TNF-alpha inhibitor. LA (25 and 50 μg/ml was also very effective in inhibiting MPO released from stimulated human neutrophils, and significantly decreased the number of cells expressing iNOS activity in the paw of mice submitted to carrageenan-induced edema, suggesting a drug involvement with the NO system. Conclusions The anti-inflammatory effect of

  11. PENGARUH UMUR PANEN RUMPUT LAUT Eucheuma cottonii TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK, KIMIA DAN FUNGSIONAL KARAGENAN Effect of Harvest Time of Seaweed Eucheuma cottonii on Physical, Chemical and Fungsional Properties of Carra- geenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djagal W. Marseno

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different harvesting times of Eucheuma cottonii on both physical, chemical and functional properties of carrageenan. Seaweed Eucheuma cottonii was obtained from water territorial of Tablolong Kupang. The study was carried out into two steps. The first step was to investigate the effect of harvesting time of 30, 45, and 60 days after planting on physical and chemical properties of obtained carrageenan. The second step was to study the effect of functional properties of obtained carrageenan on viscocity and the stability of tomato sauce. The results showed that seaweed which was harvested in 45 days after planting has good physical and chemical properties of carrageenan in term of moisture 12.45 %; protein 5.03 %; extract ether 1.40 %; ash 21.29 %; carbohy- drate 72.28 %; sulphate 19.69 %; and crude extract 48.20 %. The obtained carrageenan at concentration of 1,5%, also give highest viscocity of 11.50-45 cps and gel strength of 0.8961-4.0709 kg/cm2. Further identification show that the obtained carrageenan produced was classified as kappa carrageenan and at 0,2 % (w/v was able to stabilize tomato sauce up to 86 % and viscosity of 60 cps after 2 weeks of storage at room temperature. ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian adalah mengkaji sifat fisik dan kimia karagenan yang diperoleh dari rumput laut Eucheuma cot- tonii pada umur panen yang berbeda dari perairan Tablolong Kupang dan mengetahui sifat fungsionalnya sebagai stabilizer dan thickener dalam saos tomat. Penelitian diawali dengan menanam rumput laut pada interval tanam yang berbeda, sehingga pada saat panen yang bersamaan diperoleh rumput laut dengan umur yang berbeda yaitu 30, 45,60 hari. Tahap berikutnya adalah ekstraksi dan karakterisasi karaginan yang dihasilkan, kemudian aplikasi karaginan yang diperoleh untuk menjaga stabilitas viskositas saos tomat pada konsentrasi karagenan (0,1 %, 0,15 %, 0,2 % b/v. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa

  12. A pharmacological analysis on peony root-ramulus cinnamomi combination of the anti-inflammatory effects%白芍配伍桂枝抗炎的药理学作用及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐菲; 於建鹏; 张松

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find out the effects of Peony Root and Ramulus Cinnamomi on anti-inflammatory when used separately and in combina- tion.Methods 100 Kunming mice.male and female,were randomly divided into five groups, Including the control group,carrageenan group, white peony group, Gui Zhi group, compatibility group. 30 minutes after administration, carrageenan pleurisy in mice modeling. 5 hours of modeling, eye blood, detection of malondialdehyde, elastase content and the effect on CAMP-PDE activity.Results Compared with the control group, carrageenan MDA and elastase were significantly higher, P<0.05. And carrageenan group, white peony root group and Guizhi group,inhibited the increase of MDA and elastase levels, P<0.05; White peony root and cassia twig of compatibility group, obviously inhibited the increase of MDA and elastase levels, P<0.01. Compared with carrageenan group, white peony root group、Guizhi group obviously reduced CAMP-PDE activity(P<0.05).Compared with carrageenan group, the compatibility group obviously reduced CAMP-PDE activity(P<0.01).ConcIusion The drugs combination is more effective on anti-inflammatory.%目的 研究白芍配伍桂枝进行抗炎治疗的作用机制.方法 100只昆明系小鼠,雌雄各半,随机分为5组:对照组、角叉菜胶组、白芍组、桂枝组、配伍组.给药30 min后,角叉菜胶小鼠胸膜炎造模.造模5h后,眼球采血,检测丙二醛和弹性蛋白酶含量,以及对中性粒细胞CAMP-PDE活性的影响.结果 与对照组相比,角叉菜胶丙二醛含量和弹性蛋白酶含量明显升高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).与角叉菜胶组相比,白芍组和桂枝组抑制角叉菜胶组丙二醛含量和弹性蛋白酶含量的升高(P<0.05);白芍桂枝配伍组,明显抑制角叉菜胶组丙二醛含量和弹性蛋白酶含量的升高(P<0.01).与角叉菜胶组相比,白芍、桂枝组明显抑制CAMP-PDE活性(P<0.05);与角叉菜胶组相比,白芍桂枝

  13. Effect of calcium chloride addition on ice cream structure and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F F; Resende, J V; Abreu, L R; Goff, H D

    2008-06-01

    The influence of calcium fortification by the addition of calcium chloride on quality parameters of ice cream based on physical properties was investigated, as was the effect of kappa-carrageenan at modifying the effects of this calcium fortification. Four ice cream mixes of conventional composition, with added kappa-carrageenan (0 or 0.025%) and added calcium chloride (0 or 4.4 g L(-1) = 40 mM of added Ca(2+)), were prepared. Modulated temperature-differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the effect of calcium chloride on the nucleation temperature, enthalpy of melting, and freezing point depression. The protein composition of 15.4% (wt/wt) reconstituted skim milk powder solutions with or without 4.4 g L(-1) added CaCl(2) and in the supernatant after ultracentrifugation was determined. Fat particle size distributions in ice cream were characterized by light scattering. Ice crystal sizes before and after temperature cycling were determined by cold-stage light microscopy. The results demonstrated that the addition of calcium chloride led to a substantial increase in ice crystal sizes and in fat partial coalescence, which were exacerbated by the addition of kappa-carrageenan. These results can be explained by the interaction between Ca(2+) ions and casein micelles, rather than any effects on freezing point depression. The calcium ions led to a more compact micelle, less serum beta-casein, and high fat destabilization, all of which would be expected to reduce macromolecular structure and volume occupancy in the unfrozen phase, which led to increased rates of ice recrystallization.

  14. Mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of a polysulfated fraction from Gracilaria cornea in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistiane Oliveira Coura

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the sulfated polysaccharidic fraction obtained from red marine alga Gracilaria cornea (Gc-FI were investigated using a paw edema model induced in rats by different inflammatory agents (carrageenan, dextran, serotonin, bradykinin, compound 48/80 or L-arginine. Gc-FI at the doses of 3, 9 or 27 mg/kg, subcutaneously--s.c., significantly inhibited rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, as confirmed by myeloperoxidase and Evans' blue assessments, respectively. Gc-FI (9 mg/kg, s.c. inhibited rat paw edema induced by histamine, compound 48/80 and L-arginine. Additionally, Gc-FI (9 mg/kg, s.c. inhibited Cg-induced edema in animals with intact mast cells but did not inhibit that with degranulated mast cells by compound 48/80, revealing a protective role on mast cell membranes. Gc-FI down-regulated the IL-1β, TNF-α and COX-2 mRNA and protein levels compared with those of the carrageenan group, based on qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses. After inhibition with ZnPP IX, a specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 inhibitor, the anti-inflammatory effect of Gc-FI was not observed in Cg-induced paw edema, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effect of Gc-FI is, in part, dependent on the integrity of the HO-1 pathway. Gc-FI can target a combination of multiple points involved in inflammatory phenomena.

  15. Mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of a polysulfated fraction from Gracilaria cornea in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, Chistiane Oliveira; Souza, Ricardo Basto; Rodrigues, José Ariévilo Gurgel; Vanderlei, Edfranck de Sousa Oliveira; de Araújo, Ianna Wivianne Fernandes; Ribeiro, Natássia Albuquerque; Frota, Annyta Fernandes; Ribeiro, Kátia Alves; Chaves, Hellíada Vasconcelos; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves; da Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva; Bezerra, Mirna Marques; Benevides, Norma Maria Barros

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the sulfated polysaccharidic fraction obtained from red marine alga Gracilaria cornea (Gc-FI) were investigated using a paw edema model induced in rats by different inflammatory agents (carrageenan, dextran, serotonin, bradykinin, compound 48/80 or L-arginine). Gc-FI at the doses of 3, 9 or 27 mg/kg, subcutaneously--s.c., significantly inhibited rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, as confirmed by myeloperoxidase and Evans' blue assessments, respectively. Gc-FI (9 mg/kg, s.c.) inhibited rat paw edema induced by histamine, compound 48/80 and L-arginine. Additionally, Gc-FI (9 mg/kg, s.c.) inhibited Cg-induced edema in animals with intact mast cells but did not inhibit that with degranulated mast cells by compound 48/80, revealing a protective role on mast cell membranes. Gc-FI down-regulated the IL-1β, TNF-α and COX-2 mRNA and protein levels compared with those of the carrageenan group, based on qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses. After inhibition with ZnPP IX, a specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor, the anti-inflammatory effect of Gc-FI was not observed in Cg-induced paw edema, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effect of Gc-FI is, in part, dependent on the integrity of the HO-1 pathway. Gc-FI can target a combination of multiple points involved in inflammatory phenomena.

  16. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of derivative (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jamerson Ferreira; Nonato, Fabiana Regina; Zafred, Rafael Rosolen Teixeira; Leite, Nayara Maria Siqueira; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; da Silva, Anekécia Lauro; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Alves de Lima, Maria do Carmo

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to further investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone (BTTSC) as well as its antinociceptive effects. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using the model of ear edema induced by croton oil-induced and also evaluated in models of paw edema carrageenan-induced and by compound 48/80. Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect was performed through formalin test. In the nociception test induced by formalin the BTTSC showed activity in both phases of the pain, highlighting inflammatory pain, where it was able to reduce the time to paw lick 62.3, 84.30 and 100% at doses of 30, 100 and 300mgkg(-1). The anti-inflammatory activity was performed ear edema induced by croton oil, where none of the doses tested was capable of significantly regress edema. The paw edema carrageenan-induced showed activity compound, where the edema was reduced by 81.9 and 83.2% in the first two times of the experiment at the highest dose used. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80, showed that BTTSC after 15min of the inoculum phlogistic agent showed significant reduction of edema with values of 56.53% at a dose of 30mgkg(-1). Our results suggesting this compound exerts its antinociception effects connected with peripheral mechanisms. Furthermore, the compound was able to act in two phases of inflammation carrageenan-induced, highlighting the initial phase. This suggests an action on the early mediators of inflammation. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80 confirmed our hypothesis indicating action of the compound via histamine.

  17. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  18. 阴离子多糖对大豆蛋白乳状液乳析稳定性的影响%Effects of anionic polysaccharides on the creaming stability of soy protein emulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王才华; 周雪松; 曾建新; 赵强忠; 赵谋明

    2013-01-01

    研究了卡拉胶、黄原胶和羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)3种阴离子多糖对大豆蛋白乳状液乳析稳定性的影响.结果表明:添加0.03%卡拉胶的乳状液乳析稳定性较好,而添加CMC或0.06%以上黄原胶的乳状液乳析稳定性则较差;随着阴离子多糖浓度的增加,添加CMC的乳状液顶部粒径d3,2增大,添加卡拉胶或黄原胶的大豆蛋白乳状液顶部粒径d3,2先减小后增大;添加阴离子多糖的乳状液的顶部粒径d3,2与乳析率呈较好的正相关性.%Effects of anionic polysaccharides such as carrageenan, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) , xan-than on the creaming stability of soy protein emulsion (SPE) were studied. Results show that adding 0.03% carrageenan could facilitate the creaming stability of SPE, but adding CMC or more than 0.06% xanthan could reduce the creaming stability of SPE. With the increase of anionic polysaccharides concentration, particle diameter d3,2 in the top of SPE increased with CMC and decreased first and then increased with carrageenan or xanthan. Creaming rate showed positive correlation with d3,2 in the top of SPE.

  19. Effects of ketamine on neuronal activity of the spinal dorsal horn in rats with unilateral hindpaw inflammation%氯胺酮对单足致炎大鼠脊髓背角神经元活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华; 李菁锦; 吕国蔚

    2000-01-01

    A total of 32 units were extracellularly recorded from the spinal dorsal horn of rats. Unitary discharges evoked by stimulation of A and C fiber in ipsilateral lateral and medial plantar nerve were increased after carrageenan injection to the plantar area. The evoked responses to both A and C fiber were significantly decreased or even disappeared after administration of ketamine. The windup phenomenon was observed in neurons located deeply in the dorsal horn following carrageenan injection and was significantly suppressed or abolished after ketamine administration. The results above show NMDA receptor appears to be involved in the increase of excitability and the development of windup phenomenon in the spinal cord dorsal horn associated with carrageenan induced inflammation.%在大鼠脊髓背角用细胞外记录技术共记录到32个单位.角叉菜胶一侧足底注射致炎后, 电刺激该侧足底内外侧神经激动其中A、C纤维时, 脊髓背角神经元的诱发放电数均显著增加; 静脉注射NMDA受体拮抗剂氯胺酮后, A、C纤维刺激诱发的放电反应均显著下降甚至消失. 致炎后脊髓背角深层单位出现Windup现象, 静脉注射氯胺酮后该现象减轻或消失.结果提示: 角叉菜胶致炎导致脊髓背角神经元兴奋性升高和Windup; NMDA受体参与炎症痛和Windup形成.

  20. Intra-Articular Blockade of P2X7 Receptor Reduces the Articular Hyperalgesia and Inflammation in the Knee Joint Synovitis Especially in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Juliana Maia; Dias, Elayne Vieira; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera

    2017-02-01

    Synovitis is a key factor in joint disease pathophysiology, which affects a greater proportion of women than men. P2X7 receptor activation contributes to arthritis, but whether it plays a role in articular inflammatory pain in a sex-dependent manner is unknown. We investigated whether the P2X7 receptor blockade in the knee joint of male and female rats reduces the articular hyperalgesia and inflammation induced by a carrageenan knee joint synovitis model. Articular hyperalgesia was quantified using the rat knee joint incapacitation test and the knee joint inflammation, characterized by the concentration of cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, and by neutrophil migration, was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by myeloperoxidase enzyme activity measurement, respectively. P2X7 receptor blockade by the articular coadministration of selective P2X7 receptor antagonist A740003 with carrageenan significantly reduced articular hyperalgesia, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations, and myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan injection into the knee joint of male and estrus female rats. However, a lower dose of P2X7 receptor antagonist was sufficient to significantly induce the antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in estrus female but not in male rats. These results suggest that P2X7 receptor activation by endogenous adenosine 5'-triphosphate is essential to articular hyperalgesia and inflammation development in the knee joint of male and female rats. However, female rats are more responsive than male rats to the antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects induced by P2X7 receptor blockade.

  1. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase and cyclooxygenase-2 increases levels of endocannabinoid related molecules and produces analgesia via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in a model of inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Maulik D; Richardson, Denise; Robinson, Ian; Garle, Michael J; Patel, Annie; Sun, Yan; Sagar, Devi R; Bennett, Andrew J; Alexander, Stephen P H; Kendall, David A; Barrett, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2008-07-01

    The antinociceptive effects of the endocannabinoids (ECs) are enhanced by inhibiting catabolic enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The physiological relevance of the metabolism of ECs by other pathways, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) is less clear. To address this question we compared the effects of local inhibition of FAAH versus COX2 (URB597 and nimesulide, respectively) on inflammatory hyperalgesia and levels of endocannabinoids and related molecules in the hindpaw. Inflammatory hyperalgesia was measured following intraplantar injection of carrageenan. Effects of intraplantar injection of URB597 (25 microg and 100 microg) or nimesulide (50 microg) on hyperalgesia and hindpaw levels of anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) were determined. Although both doses of URB597 increased levels of AEA and 2AG in the carrageenan inflamed hindpaw, only the lower dose of URB597 attenuated hyperalgesia (P<0.05). Nimesulide attenuated both hyperalgesia and hindpaw oedema (P<0.001, P<0.01, respectively) and increased levels of PEA (P<0.05) in the hindpaw. Since both AEA and PEA are ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha), the effects of the PPARalpha antagonist GW6471 on nimesulide- and URB597-mediated effects were studied. GW6471, but not a PPARgamma antagonist, blocked the inhibitory effects of nimesulide and URB597 on hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that both COX2 and FAAH play a role in the metabolism of endocannabinoids and related molecules. The finding that PPARalpha antagonism blocked the inhibitory effects of nimesulide and URB597 suggests that PPARalpha contributes to their antinociceptive effects in the carrageenan model of inflammatory hyperalgesia.

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of Justicia prostrata gamble in acute and sub-acute models of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmugapriya, E; Shanmugasundaram, P; Venkataraman, S

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the aqueous (AQJP) and alcoholic (ALJP) extracts of the whole plant of Justicia prostrata Gamble (Acanthaceae) were screened for their acute and subacute anti-inflammatory activities using carrageenan-induced acute inflammation and cotton-pellet-induced granuloma (subacute inflammation), respectively, in rats. In the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model, both extracts were found to exhibit maximum reduction in paw volume at the first hour in a dose-dependent manner. At the dose of 500 mg/kg p.o., both extracts AQJP and ALJP showed maximum inhibition (51.39% and 62.5%, respectively) in rat paw oedema volume at the first hour of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation. In the cotton pellet granuloma assay, AQJP and ALJP at the dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. suppressed the transudative, exudative and proliferative phases of chronic inflammation. These extracts were able to (i) reduce the lipid peroxide content of exudates and liver and (ii) normalize the increased activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases in serum and liver of cotton pellet granulomatous rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of lignans, triterpenes and phenolic compounds in ALJP, whereas phenolic compounds and glycosides in AQJP. The anti-inflammatory properties of these extracts may possibly be due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The anti-inflammatory effects produced by the extracts at the dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. was comparable with the reference drug diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg p.o.).

  3. Novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles as anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ega Durgashivaprasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring is a versatile moiety with a wide range of pharmacological properties. The present work deals with the synthesis and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of two novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (OSD and OPD. Materials and Methods: Carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema was employed as an acute model of inflammation. For evaluating sub-acute anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat air pouch was employed. Complete Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats was used as a model of chronic inflammation. To evaluate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used. Results: OSD (100 mg/kg reduced carrageen-induced paw edema by 60%, and OPD (100 mg/kg produced a modest 32.5% reduction. OSD also reduced leukocyte influx and myeloperoxidase in carrageenan-induced rat air pouch model. In complete Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis model, both OSD and OPD (200 mg/kg for 14 days reduced paw edema and NO levels. In LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, OSD and OPD inhibited formation of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, with OPD showing a better activity in comparison to OSD. Conclusions: OSD was the better of the two compounds in in vivo models of inflammation. The o-phenol substitution at position 2 of oxadiazole ring in OSD may be responsible for its better in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. The ability of the compounds to inhibit LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediator release suggests an anti-inflammatory mechanism targeting LPS-TLR4-NF-κB signalling pathway, which needs to be explored in detail. The disparate efficacy in vitro and in vivo also requires in-depth evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of these novel oxadiazoles.

  4. Assessment of Phenolic Compounds and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Phase of Anacardium occidentale L. Bark

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    Marina Suênia de Araújo Vilar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The bark of A. occidentale L. is rich in tannins. Studies have described various biological activities of the plant, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory actions. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of the ethyl acetate phase (EtOAc of A. occidentale on acute inflammation and to identify and quantify its phenolic compounds by HPLC. The method was validated and shown to be linear, precise and accurate for catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallic acid. Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus were treated with saline, Carrageenan (2.5%, Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, Bradykinin (6 nmol and Prostaglandine E2 (5 µg at different concentrations of EtOAc - A. occidentale (12.5; 25; 50; and 100 mg/kg/weight p.o. for the paw edema test. Challenge was performed with carrageenan (500 µg/mL i.p. for the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg of EtOAc. Levels of cytokines IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were also measured. All EtOAc - A. occidentale concentrations reduced the edema. At 50 and 100 mg/kg, an anti-inflammatory response of the EtOAc was observed. Carrageenan stimulus produced a neutrophil count of 28.6% while 50 and 100 mg/kg of the phase reduced this to 14.5% and 9.1%, respectively. The EtOAc extract reduced levels of IL-1 and TNF-α. These results suggest that the EtOAc plays a modulatory role in the inflammatory response. The chromatographic method can be used for the analysis of the phenolic compounds of the EtOAc phase.

  5. Ursolic acid prevents augmented peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia in high-fat diet-induced obese rats by restoring downregulated spinal PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Song, Chengwei; Li, Haiou; Hou, Jingdong; Li, Dongliang

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several pain syndromes and is associated with increased pain sensitivity. Evidence suggests that obesity causes the downregulation of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR)α in the spinal cord, contributing to augmented peripheral edema and inflammatory hyperalgesia. Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, has been shown to upregulate PPARα in the peripheral tissues of obese animals. The present study hypothesized that UA prevents augmented peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia in obesity by restoring downregulated spinal PPARα. The present study demonstrated that Sprague‑Dawley rats fed a high‑fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks developed obesity and metabolic disorder. Following carrageenan injection, the HFD rats exhibited increased thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema, compared with the rats fed a low‑fat diet. Molecular investigations revealed that the HFD rats exhibited decreased PPARα activity, and exaggerated expression of inflammatory mediators and nuclear factor‑kB activity in the spinal cord in response to carrageenan. Oral administration of UA ameliorated obesity and metabolic disorder, and prevented increased thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema in the HFD rats. Additionally, UA normalized PPARα activity and inhibited the exaggerated spinal cord inflammatory response to carrageenan. Although the knockdown of spinal PPARα with small interfering RNA following the administration of UA did not alter obesity or metabolic parameters, it eradicated the beneficial effects of UA on thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema, and reversed the spinal cord inflammatory response. These results suggested that the systemic administration of UA inhibited the exaggerated spinal cord inflammatory response to peripheral inflammatory stimulation in HFD‑induced obesity by restoring downregulated spinal PPARα, preventing peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia. UA may be a

  6. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, R.; Tozatti, M.G.; Silva, M.L.A.; Gimenez, V.M.M.; Pauletti, P.M.; Groppo, M.; Turatti, I.C.C.; Cunha, W.R.; Martins, C.H.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1. PMID:26200228

  7. Role of natural polysaccharides in radiation formation of PVA-hydrogel wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshney, Lalit [ISOMED, Radiation Technology Development Section, Radio-Chemistry and Isotope Group, B.A.R.C, Mumbai 400 085 (India)]. E-mail: lalitv@barc.gov.in

    2007-02-15

    Radiation processed PVA-polysaccharides hydrogels have been observed to be suitable for producing transparent, flexible, mechanically strong, biocompatible, effective and economical hydrogel dressings. The dressings were formed in single stage irradiation process achieving gel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose. No synthetic plasticizers and additives were used. Different formulations containing poly-vinylalcohol (PVA) and polysaccharides selected from combinations of agar and carrageenan were used to make the dressings. The selected polysaccharides themselves form thermo-reversible gels and degrade on irradiation. Using concentration of polysaccharides as low as 0.5-2% resulted in increase of tensile strength from 45 g/cm{sup 2} to 411 g/cm{sup 2}, elongation from 30% to 410% and water uptake from 25% to 157% with respect to PVA gel without polysaccharides. Besides improving mechanical strength, agar contributes more to elongation and carrageenan to mechanical strength of the gel dressing. PVA formulations containing the polysaccharides show significantly different pre-gel viscosities behaviour. Increasing the concentration of agar in the formulation to about 2% converts the sheet gel to paste gel useful for filling wound cavities. The results indicate that pre irradiation network structure of the formulation plays an important role in determining mechanical properties of the irradiated gel dressing. Formulations containing 7-9% PVA, 0.5-1.5% carrageenan and 0.5-1% agar gave highly effective usable hydrogel dressings. Scanning electron micrographs show highly porous structure of the gel. Clinical trials of wound dressing on human patients established safety and efficacy of the dressing. The dressing has been observed to be useful in treating burns, non-healing ulcers of diabetes, leprosy and other external wounds. The dressings are now being marketed in India under different brand names.

  8. Cloning and characterization of a new κ-carrageenase gene from marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. QY203

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Li, Shangyong; Yang, Xuemei; Yu, Wengong; Han, Feng

    2015-12-01

    κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides exhibit various biological activities. Enzymatic degradation by κ-carrageenase is safe and controllable. Therefore, κ-carrageenases have captured more and more attentions. In this study, a κ-carrageenase encoding gene, cgkX, was cloned from Pseudoalteromonas sp. QY203 with degenerate and inverse PCR. It comprised an ORF of 1194 bp in length, encoding a protein with 397 amino acid residues. CgkX is a new member of glycoside hydrolase family 16. The deduced amino acid sequence shared a high similarity with CgkX of Pseudoalteromonas κ-carrageenase; however, the recombinant CgkX showed different biochemical characteristics. The recombinant enzyme was most active at pH 7.0 and 55°C in the presence of 300 mmol L-1 NaCl. It was stable in a broad range of acidity ranging from pH 3.0 to pH 10.0 when temperature was below 40°C. More than 80% of its activity was maintained after being incubated at pH 3.6-10.0 and 4°C for 24 h. CgkX retained more than 90% of activity after being incubated at 40°C for 1 h. EDTA and SDS (1 mmol L-1) did not inhibit its activity. CgkX hydrolyzed κ-carrageenan into disaccharide and tetrasaccharide as an endo-cleaver. All these characteristics demonstrated that CgkX is applicable to both κ-carrageenan oligosaccharide production and κ-carrageenase structure-function research.

  9. Synthesis, antiinflammatory and HIV-1 integrase inhibitory activities of 1,2-bis[5-thiazolyl]ethane-1,2-dione derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on principles of pharmacophore delineation and drug designing, compounds containing diketofunctionallity namely 1,2-bis[5-thiazolyl]ethane-1,2-diones were designed and synthesized as antiinflammatory agents. The compounds were evaluated in carrageenan-induced rat-paw edema method. G-3, G-6, G-17, G-20, G-23, G-22, L-708 and 906 showed good antiinflammatory activity. In addition as diketo functionality containing compounds are reported to have HIV-1 integrase inhibitory property, and these compounds contains diketo functionality, so these compounds were screened in assay for HIV-1 integrase inhibition. Few compounds showed weak HIV-1 integrase Inhibitory activity.

  10. Hydrocolloid sour taste control in pasteurized rice

    OpenAIRE

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of kappa (κ)-carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in controlling the sourness intensity perception of added acetic, citric, and tartaric acids in solutions for steeping and cooking of rice intended for pasteurization were determined. The rank order of added acids (0.10 and 0.20 % w/v, pH 4.00) in the initial development of acidified hydrocolloid solutions was: acetic > citric > tartaric. The final rice acidification protocols included steeping and cooking of Japonica rice...

  11. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of the flowers of Tabernaemontana coronaria (l R.BR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thambi Priya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol and aqueous extracts of Tabernaemontana coronaria flowers possessed significant in vitro superoxide, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide scavenging, and lipid peroxidation inhibiting activities. The antiinflammatory activity of the ethanol extract was evaluated by carrageenan-induced acute and formalin-induced chronic antiinflammatory models in mice. The extract showed remarkable antiinflammatory activity in both models, comparable to the standard reference drug diclofenac. The results suggest that the antiinflammatory activity of the ethanol extract of T. coronaria is possibly attributed to its free radical scavenging properties.

  12. Influence of gelling additives in the green properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bodies obtained by aqueous gel casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, A.J. [IUT, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. Materiales; Baudin, C.; Moreno, R.; Nieto, M.I. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Ist. de Ceramica y Vidrio

    2002-07-01

    The use of gelling additives, as polysaccharides, in colloidal processing provides adequate mechanical properties to the green bodies to be handled. In this work, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gel casting is studied by using agar, agarose and carrageenan as gelling additives. The rheological behaviour of the gel casting slurries on cooling is studied. The green characteristics of the gel cast bodies prepared at different conditions are characterised in terms of density, microstructure and mechanical behaviour (bend strength, elastic modulus) at room temperature. A correlation between the obtained results is established and the best compositions and processing conditions are discussed. (orig.)

  13. 胶麒麟菜多糖的碱改性提取法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡祖林

    1984-01-01

    胶麒麟菜(Eucheuma gelatinae)是一种珍贵的热带、亚热带海产红藻,主要分布在我国台湾和海南岛的东部沿海珊瑚礁盘上,资源蕴藏量较为丰富,仅海南的琼海、文昌二县,正常年产可达350吨(干品)。该藻体含有丰富的多糖,是制取卡拉胶(Carrageenan)的优良原料。

  14. On the suppression of superconducting phase formation in YBCO materials by templated synthesis in the presence of a sulfated biopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Elliott; Schnepp, Zoe [Centre for Organized Matter Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock' s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Wimbush, Stuart C. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Hall, Simon R. [Centre for Organized Matter Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock' s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: simon.hall@bristol.ac.uk

    2008-11-15

    The use of biopolymers as templates to control superconductor crystallization is a recent phenomenon and is generating a lot of interest both from the superconductor community and in materials chemistry circles. This work represents a critical finding in the use of such biopolymers, in particular the contraindicatory nature of sulfur when attempting to affect a morphologically controlled synthesis. Synthesis of superconducting nanoparticles was attempted using carrageenan as a morphological template. Reactive sulfate groups on the biopolymer prevent this, producing instead significant quantities of barium sulfate nanotapes. By substituting the biopolymer for structurally analogous, non-sulfated agar, we show that superconducting nanoparticles could be successfully synthesized.

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of β -aroylpropionic acid based 1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, two new series, 1-(4-benzylphenyl-3-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-1-propanone and 1-(4-ethylphenyl-3-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-1-propanone from β-(4-benzylbenzoylpropionic acid and β-(4-ethylbenzoylpropionic acid, respectively, were synthesized and tested for antiinflammatory, analgesic, lipid peroxidation, ulcerogenic and antibacterial actions. A fair number of compounds were found to have good antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test, while a few compounds showed significant antibacterial activity. The newly synthesized compounds showed very low ulcerogenic action.

  16. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF ARECA CATECHU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Rosy Nelson Anthikat* and A. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The present investigation provides proof for the effectiveness of Arecanut extract as an anti-inflammatory agent. Arecanut extract is a natural plant product mimic of peroxidase.Objective: To explore the Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Areca catechu L in carrageenan, dextran and formalin induced inflammation models in Swiss albino mice, by injection into the interdigital area, through the subplantar region of the paw. To explore the antioxidant effects of Arecanut extract on the in-vitro system.Method: Treatment with aqueous extract at 250 mg/kg.bwt and 500 mg/kg.body weight and untreated group was started orally 1 hour prior to the subplantar injection of carrageenan. The paw volume was measured using vernier calipers, before and one hour after carrageenan injection. Similarly in the case of dextran, initial readings were taken on the first day, prior to Formalin administration. Day one readings were taken one hour post formalin administration. This was taken during seven consecutive days challenge period. The drug aqueous arecanut extract at 200mg/kg.bwt, 500 mg/kg.bwt produced reduction in inflammation of the paw produced due to carrageenan, formalin and dextran. In-vitro antioxidant studies showed that aqueous arecanut extract could inhibit superoxide radical production, could inhibit hydroxyl radicals, and could prevent lipid peroxidation. Arecanut extract could scavenge DPPH radicals and also ABTS. In FRAP assay, the reduction of ferric to ferrous is also seen in a concentration dependant manner.Results: The present investigation provides proof for the effectiveness of treatment as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. Compared with the control group, the arecanut treated group showed free radical scavenging ability. Compared with the control group, the treatment of mice with Arecanut extract showed reduction in paw oedema in a dose dependent manner at 200 mg/kg.bwt and 500 mg/kg.bwt.Discussion and

  17. Atividade antiinflamatória de carboidrato produzido por fermentação aquosa de grãos de quefir Anti-inflammatory activity of carbohydrate produced from aqueous fermentation of kefir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. C. Moreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Kefir, a symbiont microorganism suspension, presents benefic effects to health. Some kefir grains were cultivated in brown sugar, allowing to isolate a substance named CSQ. This was evaluated on a biologic essay of mouse foot edema, presenting an inhibitory activity of 30+4 % against carrageenan after the stimulus. It was observed that a cultivation mean containing sucrose, and not the milky mean, lead to the production of different sugar polymeric chains of kefir. The results in vivo suggest that the CSQ exerted an anti-inflammatory activity.

  18. Oligomer and mixed-metal compounds, potential multielectron transfer catalysts. Progress report, January 1, 1990--January 1, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rillema, D.P.

    1993-08-01

    Physical, photophysical, and photochemical properties of Ru(II), Re(I), Pt(II), and Cu(II) monometallic complexes and of Ru(II)-Ru(II), Ru(II)-Co(III), Ru(II)-Re(I) bimetallic complexes were investigated. In an application, Pt and Au working electrodes were modified with the hydrogel kappa-carrageenan (anionic polysaccharide from seaweed), which was cured on the electrode surface with Ru(II) trisbipyridine and methyl viologen. Max photocurrent obtained was 12 {mu}A.cm{sup 2}.

  19. Morphological Comparison and Composition Analysis of Wild and Farmed Eucheuma gelatinae in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Ping; Li Ming; Chen Dongmei; Ma Jun

    2015-01-01

    The morphology and compositions of wild and farmed Eucheuma gelatinae in Hainan Province were compared. The results showed that wild E. gelatinae had greater frond,with more and longer branches. The main compositions of wild and farmed E. gelatinae were carbohydrates composed of dietary fiber and soluble sugars. The wild E. gelatinae had higher soluble sugar content than farmed E. gelatinae,while farmed E. gelatinae had higher dietary fiber and carrageenan yield.Both of wild and farmed E. gelatinae had advantages and disadvantages,and we could choose the best raw materials according to the actual application.

  20. Investigation Of Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Bergamot Oil

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Essential oil of Bergamot (BO) was investigated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test. Methods: For the anti-inflammatory activity measurement six different groups were established and BO was administered in three different doses: 0.025, 0.05 and 0.10 mL/kg. Indomethacin was used as a reference agent. Results: It was found that reduction in the inflammation was 95.70% with indomethacin, 27.56% with 0.025 mL/kg BO, 30.77% with 0.05 mL/kg BO and 63.39...