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Sample records for carrageenan

  1. THE PROPERTIES OF CARRAGEENAN GELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubnik I.M., Gladukh Ye.V., Chernyaev S.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the functional properties of carrageenan, depending on the concentration of sodium chloride and xanthan in gels. It is established that the main factors in the syneresis of carrageenan gels are its concentration, the presence of ions and gums in solution. If using sodium chloride there is a change in the structure of mesh of the resulting gel, which leads to an increase in syneresis.

  2. Emerging applications of radiation-modified carrageenans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, Lucille V., E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Aranilla, Charito T.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2014-10-01

    The Philippines supplies almost half of the world’s processed carrageenan as ingredient for different applications. In order to maintain the country’s competitive advantage, R and D on radiation processed carrageenan with various potential applications had been undertaken. PVP-carrageenan hydrogels for wound dressing had been developed. A carrageenan-based radiation dose indicator can detect radiation dose of as low as 5 kGy. Irradiated carrageenan has also been tested as plant growth promoter. Irradiated carrageenans have been found have been found to contain some antioxidant properties which increase with increasing dose and concentration. Carboxymethyl carrageenans had also been developed that shows promising effect as super water absorbent for soil conditioner in plants.

  3. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  4. Radiolysis studies of aqueous kappa-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V., E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.p [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Kudo, H. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Saiki, S. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nagasawa, N.; Tamada, M. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Fu, H.; Muroya, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Lin, M.; Katsumura, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Relleve, L.S.; Aranilla, C.T.; DeLaRosa, A.M. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2010-05-15

    The effects on N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} gas on the radiation degradation yield of aqueous kappa (kappa-) carrageenan were investigated. The G{sub d} of solution saturated with N{sub 2}O solution was expectedly much higher than in air (1.7 and 1.2 x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1}). On the other hand, a lower G{sub d} of 1.1 x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1} was obtained from kappa-carrageenan solution saturated with N{sub 2}. The rate constant of reaction of OH radicals with sonicated and irradiated kappa-carrageenan were determined using e-beam pulse radiolysis. The rate constant of OH{sup c}entre dot interaction with sonicated kappa-carrageenan decreased with decreasing molecular weight. On the other hand, the OH{sup c}entre dot interaction with irradiated kappa-carrageenan decreased but did not vary significantly with decreasing molecular weight. Metal ion (Na{sup +}) induced conformational transition into helical form decreased the rate constant of OH{sup c}entre dot reaction with kappa-carrageenan. Likewise, the G{sub d} in aqueous form was affected by the conformational state of kappa-carrageenan. The helical conformation gave a lower G{sub d} (7 x 10{sup -8} mol J{sup -1}) than the coiled conformation (G{sub d} = 1.2 x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1}).

  5. Trivalent iron induced gelation in lambda-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Running, Cordelia A.; Falshaw, Ruth; Janaswamy, Srinivas (Purdue)

    2012-05-24

    This communication reports gelation of lambda-carrageenan, for the first time, in the presence of trivalent iron ions. Kappa-, iota- and lambda-carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides used extensively in food, pharmaceutical and medical applications. Kappa- and iota-carrageenans show gelation in the presence of mono- and di-valent ions, but lambda-carrageenan yields only viscous solutions. Our results show that gelation in lambda-carrageenan indeed is possible, but with trivalent ions. X-ray fiber diffraction patterns of iron (III)-lambda-carrageenan are characteristic of highly oriented and polycrystalline fibers containing well resolved Bragg reflections. The elastic modulus (G*) of the product is far greater than the loss modulus (G*) indicating the thermal stability of lambda-carrageenan in the presence of iron (III) ions. This novel finding has potential to expand lambda-carrageenan's current utility beyond a viscosifying agent.

  6. An MRI phantom using carrageenan gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Kuroda, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Koichi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Yamamoto, Naotake; Tanaka, Akio; Hiraki, Yoshio [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Uchida, Nobue; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2000-12-01

    We have developed a new solid type carrageenan gel phantom. The ingredients of the new gel are carrageenan, manganese chloride, sodium chloride, sodium azide, and water. The gel phantom has sufficient strength to form a torso without the use of a reinforcing agent. A phantom of a desired shape can be created by pouring a hot solution of carrageenan into a mold. The phantom can then be cut easily with a knife and trimmed into the desired shape. The recommended concentrations of the ingredients are; 5 wt% carrageenan, 0.2 mM MnCl{sub 2}, 0.19 wt% NaCl, 0.1 wt% NaN{sub 3}, with the remainder being water. T{sub 2} and T{sub 1} of this phantom at 1.5 T are 84.9 ms and 429 ms respectively. The conductivity and relative dielectric constant at 63.8 MHz are 0.769 S/m and 81.4 respectively. (author)

  7. Coil-helix transition of ι-carrageenan as a function of chain regularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, F. van de; Rollema, H.S.; Grinberg, N.V.; Burova, T.V.; Grinberg, V.Ya.; Hans Tromp, R.

    2002-01-01

    A series of ι-carrageenans containing different amounts of v-carrageenan (0-23 monomer %) have been prepared from neutrally extracted carrageenan of Eucheuma denticulatum. v-Carrageenan is the biochemical precursor of ι-carrageenan. The conformational order-disorder transition and rheological proper

  8. Rheological properties of agar and carrageenan from Ghanaian red seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh;

    2017-01-01

    Red seaweeds contain unique galactose-rich hydrocolloids, carrageenans and agar, which find use as gelling agents in high value applications. This study examined the chemical and rheological properties of hydrocolloids from selected wild red seaweed species collected in Ghana: Hypnea musciformis...... and Cryptonemia crenulata, expected to hold carrageenan, contained 21–26% by weight of galactose. A commercial Kappaphycus alvarezii carrageenan sample had 30% galactose residues by weight. Hydropuntia dentata, expected to contain agar, contained 15% by weight of galactose-monomers. Fourier transform infrared...... spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis on the hydrocolloids extracted from H. musciformis (and K. alvarezii) indicated κ-carrageenan, C. crenulata hydrocolloids were mainly ι-carrageenan, and the H. dentata hydrocolloids were agar. Gelling temperatures ranged from 32 to 36 °C for the κ-carrageenan hydrocolloid samples...

  9. Bioactive compounds in industrial red seaweed used in carrageenan production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naseri, Alireza; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The main seaweed species used in industrial scale for carrageenan production are Kappaphycus alvarezii, Eucheuma denticulatum, Chondrus crispus, Gigartina sp. and also Furcellaria lumbricalis as a source of furcellaran (Danish Agar) is also classified together with carrageenan. The chemical...... to extracts most of the bioactive compounds, before the main process for carrageenan extraction, leading to a future multiproduct extraction (biorefinery) approach, instead of the traditional single-extraction procedure....

  10. SHORT-TERM PERORAL TOXICITY OF UNDEGRADED CARRAGEENAN IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, E.

    1973-01-01

    Undegraded carrageenan was administered orally to pigs at levels of 0 (control), 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight/day for 12 wk. No effects attributable to carrageenan treatment were seen with respect to behaviour, body-weight gain, feed utilization, haematology, blood chemistry, urine analysis...

  11. Light scattering studies of irradiated {kappa}- and {iota}-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan) and Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)]. E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Nasimova, I.R. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Physics Department, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Aranilla, C.T. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Shibayama, M. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan)]. E-mail: sibayama@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2005-05-01

    The relationships between the molecular weight (Mw) and the characteristic decay time distribution function G({gamma}) of irradiated kappa ({kappa}-) and iota ({iota}-) carrageenan were studied by static and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Mw and the characteristic decay time ({gamma}{sup -1}) are both steep decreasing exponential function with radiation dose. The dynamic behavior of irradiated {iota}-carrageenan was compared to irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan by DLS. The intensity correlation function of both carrageenans shifted towards shorter relaxation times with increasing radiation dose. Irradiated {iota}-carrageenan like {kappa}-carrageenan exhibits power law behavior at 0-50 kGy (at 0.05-0.1M KCl) indicating similar gelation behaviors. The temperature at which transition from coil to helix takes place (conformational transition temperature) decreases with increasing irradiation dose. A new faster relaxation mode appears at around 0.1-1 ms for both carrageenans between 100 and 150 kGy. Maximum peak height for this mode is at 100 kGy which corresponds to the optimum biological activity of {kappa}- and {iota}-carrageenan.

  12. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and progre

  13. Small-angle neutron scattering study on irradiated kappa carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, Lucille [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan) and Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines) and Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Okabe, Satoshi [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Koizumi, Satoshi [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shibayama, Mitsuhiro [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 106-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan)]. E-mail: sibayama@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2006-05-31

    The structure of gamma-ray-irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan in aqueous solutions was investigated in terms of small-angle neutron scattering. The scattered intensity, I(q), of non-irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan solutions (5 wt%) was well described with an Ornstein-Zernike (OZ)-type function with the correlation length of 85 A, indicating that the {kappa}-carrageenan solution behaves just as a polymer solution in the semi-dilute regime. By increasing the irradiation dose (100 kGy), I(q) changed to a power-law function with the scattering exponent of -1.84. Further increase in dose results in a recovery of OZ-type function. This indicates that a progressive cleavage of {kappa}-carrageenan chains takes place randomly, leading to a self-similar structure at 100 kGy. This is followed by further segmentation of {kappa}-carrageenan chains.

  14. Europium ion as a probe for binding sites to carrageenans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrageenans, sulfated polysaccharides extracted from red algae, present a coil-helix transition and helix aggregation dependence on the type and concentration of counterions. In this study, we focus attention on a mixed valence counterion system: Eu3+/Na+ or K+ with different gel-forming carrageenans: kappa, iota, and kappa-2. Results of stationary and time-dependent luminescence showed to be a suitable tool to probe ion binding to both the negatively charged sulfate group and the hydroxyl groups present in the biopolymer. For lower europium ion concentrations, a single longer decay emission lifetime was detected, which was attributed to the binding of europium ion to the carrageenan sulfate groups. An additional decay ascribed to europium binding to hydroxyl groups was observed above a threshold concentration, and this decay was dependent on the carrageenan charge density. Symmetry of the europium ion microenvironment was estimated by the ratio between the intensities of its emission bands, which has been shown to depend on the concentration of europium ions and on the specificity of the monovalent counterion bound to the carrageenan

  15. Europium ion as a probe for binding sites to carrageenans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Ana P.; Goncalves, Rogeria R.; Serra, Osvaldo A. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil); Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil)], E-mail: medzaniquelli@ffclrp.usp.br; Wong, Kenneth [Laboratorio de Fisico-Quimica, Centro de Pesquisas de Paulinia, Rhodia Brasil, Paulinia, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    Carrageenans, sulfated polysaccharides extracted from red algae, present a coil-helix transition and helix aggregation dependence on the type and concentration of counterions. In this study, we focus attention on a mixed valence counterion system: Eu{sup 3+}/Na{sup +} or K{sup +} with different gel-forming carrageenans: kappa, iota, and kappa-2. Results of stationary and time-dependent luminescence showed to be a suitable tool to probe ion binding to both the negatively charged sulfate group and the hydroxyl groups present in the biopolymer. For lower europium ion concentrations, a single longer decay emission lifetime was detected, which was attributed to the binding of europium ion to the carrageenan sulfate groups. An additional decay ascribed to europium binding to hydroxyl groups was observed above a threshold concentration, and this decay was dependent on the carrageenan charge density. Symmetry of the europium ion microenvironment was estimated by the ratio between the intensities of its emission bands, which has been shown to depend on the concentration of europium ions and on the specificity of the monovalent counterion bound to the carrageenan.

  16. Characterization of ι-carrageenan and its derivative based green polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumaah, Fatihah Najirah; Mobaraka, Nadhratun Naiim; Ahmad, Azizan; Ramli, Nazaruddin [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The new types of green polymer electrolytes based on ι-carrageenan derivative have been prepared. ι-carrageenan act as precursor was reacted with monochloroacetic acid to produce carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan. The powders were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to confirm the substitution of targeted functional group in ι-carrageenan. The green polymer electrolyte based on ι-carrageenan and carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan was prepared by solution-casting technique. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity ι-carrageenan film were higher than carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan which 4.87 ×10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} and 2.19 ×10{sup −8} S cm{sup −1}, respectively.

  17. Radiolysis studies of kappa carrageenan for bio based materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappa (κ-) carrageenan oligomers are known to have several biological activities such as anti-HIV, anti-herpes, anti tumor and antioxidant properties. Recent progress in the development of radiation modified κ-carrageenan has resulted in new applications such as plant growth promoter, radiation dose indicator and hydrogels for wound dressing. This study would investigate on the changes in chemical structure, gelation and conformational transition behavior and molecular size of κ-carrageenan at doses from 0 to 200 kGy and would be correlated to these functions for the development of bio-based materials. Pulse radiolysis studies on κ-carrageenan was carried out to determine what transient species directly affects the degradation rate of κ-carrageenan in aqueous solution. The results reveal that there is no seeming reaction of the hydrated electron with κ-carrageenan. OH reacts with κ-carrageenan at a fast rate of approximately 1.2 x 109M-1a-1. This value was influenced by conformational change from helix to coil by the addition of the metal ion Na+, reduction of molecular weight by the hydrolysis reaction and reduction of reactive sites by seasonally or irradiation. Most applications from the radiation degradation of polysaccharides started with the use of the ''hit and miss'' process where polysaccharides were irradiated at a certain dose range and finding out which dose is suitable for a specific function. Measurement of the radiation degradation yield (Gd) at different conditions can give an approximation of the Mw at an absorbed dose. This will allow the production of oligomers with a specified Mw. With the use of the Gd both in solid and in aqueous solution, one can also make a rough calculation whether it is more economical to irradiateκ-carrageenan in solid r in aqueous solution. Results of this experiment reveal that the radiation yields (Gd) of κ-carrageenan in solid and in aqueous (1%) were as follows: 2.5, 1.7 and 1.2 x 10-7 mol J-1 for solid in

  18. On the employment of lambda carrageenan in a matrix system. III. Optimization of a lambda carrageenan-HPMC hydrophilic matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonferoni, MC; Rossi, S; Ferrari, F; Bertoni, M; Bolhuis, GK; Caramella, C

    1998-01-01

    The lambda carrageenan/HPMC ratio in matrix tablets has been optimized in order to obtain pH-independent release profiles of chlorpheniramine maleate, a freely soluble drug. Release profiles in acidic (pH 1.2) and neutral (pH 6.8) media were fitted according to the Weibull and the power law models.

  19. Biofunctionalized magnetic hydrogel nanospheres of magnetite and κ-carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L.; Fateixa, Sara; Guiomar, António J.; Costa, Benilde F. O.; Silva, Nuno J. O.; Trindade, Tito; Goodfellow, Brian J.; Gil, Ana M.

    2009-09-01

    Magnetic hydrogel κ-carrageenan nanospheres were successfully prepared via water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions combined with thermally induced gelation of the polysaccharide. The size of the nanospheres (an average diameter (∅) of about 50 and 75 nm) was modulated by varying the concentration of surfactant. The nanospheres contained superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (∅8 nm), previously prepared by co-precipitation within the biopolymer. Carboxyl groups, at a concentration of about 4 mmol g-1, were successfully grafted at the surface of these magnetic nanospheres via carboxymethylation of the κ-carrageenan. The carboxylated nanospheres were shown to be thermo-sensitive in the 37-45 °C temperature range, indicating their potential as thermally controlled delivery systems for drugs and/or magnetic particles at physiological temperatures. Finally, preliminary results have been obtained for IgG antibody conjugation of the carboxylated nanospheres and the potential of these systems for bio-applications is discussed.

  20. Biofunctionalized magnetic hydrogel nanospheres of magnetite and {kappa}-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L; Fateixa, Sara; Trindade, Tito; Goodfellow, Brian J; Gil, Ana M [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guiomar, Antonio J [Department of Biochemistry and CNC, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Costa, Benilde F O [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, Nuno J O, E-mail: ana.luisa@ua.p [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Aragon, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-09-02

    Magnetic hydrogel {kappa}-carrageenan nanospheres were successfully prepared via water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions combined with thermally induced gelation of the polysaccharide. The size of the nanospheres (an average diameter () of about 50 and 75 nm) was modulated by varying the concentration of surfactant. The nanospheres contained superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (8 nm), previously prepared by co-precipitation within the biopolymer. Carboxyl groups, at a concentration of about 4 mmol g{sup -1}, were successfully grafted at the surface of these magnetic nanospheres via carboxymethylation of the {kappa}-carrageenan. The carboxylated nanospheres were shown to be thermo-sensitive in the 37-45 {sup 0}C temperature range, indicating their potential as thermally controlled delivery systems for drugs and/or magnetic particles at physiological temperatures. Finally, preliminary results have been obtained for IgG antibody conjugation of the carboxylated nanospheres and the potential of these systems for bio-applications is discussed.

  1. Facile preparation of monolithic κ-carrageenan aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kathirvel; Ratke, Lorenz

    2014-05-14

    To the best of our knowledge, it is the first study reporting the synthesis of monolithic κ-carrageenan aerogels with meso- and macroporous structures, being unique in physical and chemical properties. We demonstrate a novel method to synthesize κ-carrageenan aerogels in which potassium thiocyanate was used as the source of specific ions. Aerogels were characterized by envelope density analysis, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray powder diffractometry and IR spectroscopy. By varying the concentration of κ-carrageenan between 0.5 and 3 wt%, the envelope density can be linearly increased from 40 to 160 kg m⁻³. The sulphate functional groups in the wet gel and the specific ions are the key factors controlling the volume shrinkage of aerogels which average about 66%. The aerogels exhibit a fibrillar structure similar to cellulose aerogels. The fibril thickness was observed to be 10-15 nm and the specific surface area was about 230 m² g⁻¹. The existing meso- and macroporous structures were confirmed by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The aerogels were completely pure, free of specific ions and confirmed to be amorphous by powder X-ray diffraction. Hence, these porous materials can provide a matrix with a chelating function which can be used as a host in many applications. PMID:24718695

  2. Carrageenans from red seaweeds as promoters of growth and elicitors of defense response in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pushp Sheel Shukla; Tudor eBorza; Critchley, Alan T; Balakrishnan ePrithiviraj

    2016-01-01

    Plants incessantly encounter abiotic and biotic stresses that limit their growth and productivity. However, conversely, plant growth can also be induced by treatments with various abiotic and biotic elicitors. Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides that represent major cellular constituents of seaweeds belonging to red algae (Rhodophyta). Recent research has unraveled the biological activity of carrageenans and of their oligomeric forms, the oligo carrageenans (OCs), as promoters of...

  3. Rate constants of reactions of {kappa}-carrageenan with hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V. [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)], E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Saiki, S.; Kudo, H.; Muroya, Y.; Katsumura, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering Laboratory, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Rosa, A.M. de la [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2007-12-15

    The rate constants for the reactions of {kappa}-carrageenan with hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical was investigated by pulse radiolysis and laser photolysis. The kinetics of the reaction of hydrated electron indicates no seeming reaction with {kappa}-carrageenan. On the other hand, hydroxyl radical reacts very rapidly with {kappa}-carrageenan at a rate constant of approximately 1.2 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. This rate constant varies with pH.

  4. Preparation of hybrid nano biocomposite κ-carrageenan/cellulose nanocrystal/nanoclay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakuwan, Siti Zarina; Ahmad, Ishak; Ramli, Nazaruddin

    2013-11-01

    Biodegradable composites film based on κ-carrageenan and nano particles as filler was prepared to study the mechanical strength of carrageenan composites. Solution casting technique was used to prepare_this biocomposite. Preparation of composite film and nano filler involve two stages, preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from kenaf with alkali treatment, bleaching, and hydrolysis followed by the preparation of two types of nano composite. Tensile test was carried on the composite film based on κ-carrageenan with the variation percentage of CNC and nano clay to obtain the optimum CNC and nano clay loading. After that hybrid nano-biocomposite film based on κ-carrageenan with the variation percentage of CNC/nano clay (OMMT) according to optimum value of composite carrageenan/CNC and composite carrageenan/nano clay film was prepared. The effect of nano filler on the mechanical properties of carrageenan films was examined. κ-carrageenan biocomposite increased with the optimum at 4% CNC and nano clay composition. Additional improvement of tensile strength with hybridization of CNC and nanoclay indicated better mechanical properties.

  5. Effect of Carrageenan on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Low-Fat Colby Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Tong, Qigen; Luo, Jie; Xu, Yiqing; Ren, Fazheng

    2016-08-01

    The effect of carrageenan (κ-carrageenan, ι-carrageenan, and λ-carrageenan) on the physiochemical and functional properties of low-fat Colby cheese during ripening was investigated. Protein, fat, and moisture contents; the soluble fractions of the total nitrogen at pH 4.6; protein and fat recovery; and the actual yield and dry matter yield (DM yield) were monitored. Hardness, springiness, and the storage modulus were also evaluated to assess the functional properties of the cheese. Moreover, the behavior of water in the samples was investigated to ascertain the underlying mechanisms. The results indicated that 0.15 g/kg κ-carrageenan had no significant effect on the actual yield and DM yield, and physiochemical and functional properties of low-fat Colby cheese. The protein content increased in the low-fat cheese and low-fat cheese containing κ-carrageenan, and the moisture in the nonfat substance (MNFS) decreased in both samples, which contributed to the harder texture. The addition of 0.3 g/kg ι-carrageenan and 0.3 g/kg λ-carrageenan improved the textural and rheological properties of low-fat cheese by 2 ways: one is increasing the content of bound and expressible moisture due to their high water absorption capacity and the other is interfering with casein crosslinking, thereby further increasing MNFS and the actual yield.

  6. Rheological and DSC Studies on the Interaction between κ-Carrageenan and Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui GUO; En Yong DING

    2006-01-01

    Rheometer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to probe the mechanism of gelation in gels formed by mixture of κ-carrageenan and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). The results indicated that an association occurred between CNC chains and aggregated κ-carrageenan helices.

  7. The effect of ileotransversostomy on carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1983-01-01

    By oral administration of degraded carrageenan a colitis-like disease can be induced in guinea pigs which almost exclusively affects the caecum. To study the effect of degraded carrageenan on the distal colon and rectum, an ileotransversostomy was performed. In the non-operated group of animals...

  8. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, K.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Biology; Bird, K.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States). Center for Marine Science Research

    1994-09-01

    The accumulation of six heavy metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb was measured in living and lzophilized algal thalli. The agar producing algae were Gracilaria tikvahiae and Gelidium pusillum. The carrageenan producing macroalgae were Agardhiella subulata and the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte phases of Chondrus crispus. These produce primarily iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, respectively. At heavy metal concentrations of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, living thalli of Gracilaria tikvahiae generally showed the greatest amount of accumulation of the 6 heavy metals tested. The accumulation of Pb was greater in the living thalli of all four species than in the lyophilized thalli. Except for Agardhiella subulata, lyophilized thalli showed greater accumulation of Ni, Cu and Zn. There was no difference in heavy metal accumulation between living and lyophilized thalli in the accumulation of Cd. Manganese showed no accumulation at the tested concentration. There did not appear to be a relationship between algal hydrocolloid characteristics and the amounts of heavy metals accumulated. (orig.)

  9. Carrageenans as a New Source of Drugs with Metal Binding Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri S. Khotimchenko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenans are abundant and safe non-starch polysaccharides exerting their biological effects in living organisms. Apart from their known pro-inflammation properties and some pharmacological activity, carrageenans can also strongly bind and hold metal ions. This property can be used for creation of the new drugs for elimination of metals from the body or targeted delivery of these metal ions for healing purposes. Metal binding activity of different carrageenans in aqueous solutions containing Y3+ or Pb2+ ions was studied in a batch sorption system. The metal uptake by carrageenans is not affected by the change of the pH within the range from 2.0 to 6.0. The rates and binding capacities of carrageenans regarding metal ions were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and BET sorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and constants, and the sorption isothermal data could be explained well by the Langmuir equation. The results obtained through the study suggest that κ-, ι-, and λ-carrageenans are favorable sorbents. The largest amount of Y3+ and Pb2+ ions are bound by i-carrageenan. Therefore, it can be concluded that this type of polysaccharide is the more appropriate substance for elaboration of the drugs with high selective metal binding properties.

  10. Carrageenan-grafted magnetite nanoparticles as recyclable sorbents for dye removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efforts dedicated to improving water decontamination procedures have prompted the interest in the development of efficient, inexpensive, and reusable sorbents for the uptake of dye pollutants. In this work, novel sorbents consisting of carrageenan polysaccharides grafted to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared. κ- and ι-carrageenan were first chemically modified by carboxymethylation and then covalently attached via amide bond to the surface of aminated silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles, both steps monitored using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The kinetics and the equilibrium behavior of the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) adsorption onto the carrageenan sorbents were investigated. ι-carrageenan sorbents displayed higher MB adsorption capacity that was ascribed to high content of sulfonate groups. Overall, the pseudo-second order equation provided a good description of the adsorption kinetics. The κ-carrageenan sorbents followed an unusual Z-type equilibrium adsorption isotherm whereas the isotherm of ι-carrageenan sorbents, although displaying a conventional shape, could not be successfully predicted by isotherm models commonly used. Noteworthy, both sorbents were long-term stable and could easily be recycled by simply rinsing with KCl aqueous solution. The removal efficiency of κ-carrageenan sorbents was 92 % in the first adsorption cycle and kept high (>80 %) even after six consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles

  11. NMR analysis of fractionated irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan oligomers as plant growth promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V., E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Saiki, S.; Nagasawa, N. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kudo, H.; Katsumura, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); De La Rosa, A.M. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2011-09-15

    The optimum plant growth promoting effect in irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan is known to be of Mw<10,000. This is obtained by irradiating {kappa}-carrageenan at a dose of 100 kGy in solid and at 2 kGy in 1% aqueous solution. Kappa carrageenan irradiated at these doses was fractionated at different Mw ranges. The isolated fraction with a Mw of 3-10 kDa was analyzed by NMR. The chemical shifts of {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H spectra indicated that the basic functional structure of {kappa}-carrageenan (alternating D-galactose-4-sulfate and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose dimer) remains intact at a Mw of 3-10 kDa. No radiolytic products were detected at this range. - Highlights: > Irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan fractions with Mw<3 kDa contained higher carbonyl bonds. > {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C spectra of irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan were similar to references. > {kappa}-Carrageenan oligomers with Mw of 3-10 kDa may be suitable as plant growth promoter.

  12. Carrageenans from red seaweeds as promoters of growth and elicitors of defense response in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushp Sheel Shukla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants incessantly encounter abiotic and biotic stresses that limit their growth and productivity. However, conversely, plant growth can also be induced by treatments with various abiotic and biotic elicitors. Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides that represent major cellular constituents of seaweeds belonging to red algae (Rhodophyta. Recent research has unraveled the biological activity of carrageenans and of their oligomeric forms, the oligo carrageenans (OCs, as promoters of plant growth and as elicitors of defense responses against pests and diseases. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which carrageenans and OCs mediate plant growth and plant defense responses. Carrageenans and OCs improve plant growth by regulating various metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and ancillary pathways, cell division, purine and pyrimidine synthetic pathways as well as metabolic pathways involved in nitrogen and sulfur assimilation. Carrageenans and OCs also induce plant defense responses against viroids, viruses, bacteria, fungi and insects by modulating the activity of different defense pathways, including salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene signaling pathways. Further studies will likely substantiate the beneficial effects of carrageenans and of OCs on plant growth and plant defense responses and open new avenues for their use in agriculture and horticultural industry.

  13. Carrageenan-grafted magnetite nanoparticles as recyclable sorbents for dye removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L., E-mail: ana.luisa@ua.pt; Salgueiro, Ana M., E-mail: a38242@ua.pt; Creaney, Bianca, E-mail: bianca.creaney@gmail.com; Oliveira-Silva, Rui, E-mail: ruipedro.silva@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Department of Chemistry, CICECO, Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal); Silva, Nuno J. O., E-mail: nunojoao@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Department of Physics, CICECO, Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal); Trindade, Tito, E-mail: tito@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Department of Chemistry, CICECO, Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal)

    2015-07-15

    The efforts dedicated to improving water decontamination procedures have prompted the interest in the development of efficient, inexpensive, and reusable sorbents for the uptake of dye pollutants. In this work, novel sorbents consisting of carrageenan polysaccharides grafted to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared. κ- and ι-carrageenan were first chemically modified by carboxymethylation and then covalently attached via amide bond to the surface of aminated silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles, both steps monitored using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The kinetics and the equilibrium behavior of the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) adsorption onto the carrageenan sorbents were investigated. ι-carrageenan sorbents displayed higher MB adsorption capacity that was ascribed to high content of sulfonate groups. Overall, the pseudo-second order equation provided a good description of the adsorption kinetics. The κ-carrageenan sorbents followed an unusual Z-type equilibrium adsorption isotherm whereas the isotherm of ι-carrageenan sorbents, although displaying a conventional shape, could not be successfully predicted by isotherm models commonly used. Noteworthy, both sorbents were long-term stable and could easily be recycled by simply rinsing with KCl aqueous solution. The removal efficiency of κ-carrageenan sorbents was 92 % in the first adsorption cycle and kept high (>80 %) even after six consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles.

  14. Synthesis of Kappa-carrageenan oligomers via synergistic action of gamma radiation and hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the synthesis of k-carrageenan oligometers with the simultaneous action of gamma radiation and hydrogen peroxide was carried out. Effects on molecular weight and structure of k-carrageenan were assessed using GPC, UV-VIS and FT-IR. Radiation degradation yield (G(s)) and reaction rate constants (k) based on Mn values were also determined. The results showed that k-carrageenan oligomers with Mw of less than 10 kDa can be prepared easily at low doses (2.5-5 kGy) in the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (0.25-0.5%). The G(s)) and k values increased significantly with the presence of H2O2. Structural changes in k-carrageenan treated by the degradation agents were accompanied by appearance of UV peak at 260 nm and characteristic FT-IR band at 1728 cm-1. (Author)

  15. Radiation synthesis of superabsorbent poly(acrylic acid)-carrageenan hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Sanju; Kumar, Manmohan; Varshney, Lalit E-mail: lalitv@magnum.barc.ernet.in

    2004-04-01

    A series of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared from carrageenan and partially neutralized acrylic acid by gamma irradiation at room temperature. The gel fraction, swelling kinetics and the equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the hydrogels were studied. It was found that the incorporation of even 1% carrageenan (sodium salt) increases the EDS of the hydrogels from {approx}320 to {approx}800 g/g. Thermal analysis were carried out to determine the amount of free water and bound water in the hydrogels. Under optimum conditions, poly(acrylic acid)-carrageenan hydrogels with high gel fraction ({approx}80%) and very high EDS ({approx}800 g/g) were prepared gamma radiolytically from aqueous solution containing 15% partially neutralized acrylic acid and 1-5% carrageenan. The hydrogels were also found to be sensitive to the pH and the ionic strength of the medium.

  16. SANS study of surfactant ordering in kappa-carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evmenenko, G.; Theunissen, E.; Mortensen, K.;

    2001-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering using contrast variation by H2O/D2O has been applied for the structural investigation of kappa -carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) complexes. interaction of kappa -carrageenan with an ionic surfactant involves self-assembly of the surfactant molecules...... in conjunction with the carrageenan molecules and the formation of an ordered structure. Contrast matching conditions for the polysaccharide (70% H2O/30% D2O) allowed to obtain the small-angle scattering pattern from the surfactant part of the complexes. The SANS curves reveal that the observed scattering...... heterogeneities represent regions with sharp phase boundaries. From the Guinier part of the scattering curves, the size of these regions is determined. The obtained values are in good agreement with the structural characteristics of the kappa -carrageenan/CPC complexes determined independently by SAXS and SANS...

  17. Size prediction of κ-carrageenan droplets formed in co-flowing immiscible liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Yee Leong; Tek-Kaun Lim; Ravindra Pogaku; Eng-Seng Chan

    2011-01-01

    The formation of κ-carrageenan droplets in channel emulsification was experimentally investigated.The dispersed phase was vertically injected into co-flowing immiscible palm oil in the direction of gravity.This study focused on predicting κ-carrageenan drop size using force balance analysis.The force balance model considers the interfacial tension to be the solitary attaching force,while a combination of the drag force from the co-flowing palm oil and the body force of the extruding κ-carrageenan liquid act as the detaching forces.The conventional model gave poor predictions for droplet size,with an average relative deviation of 23%.This large deviation could be attributed to necking phenomena and an underestimation of the drag force generated on the shear-thinning κ-carrageenan solution.By incorporating correction factors,the average relative deviation of the force balance model dropped to 4%.

  18. Characterization and antioxidant properties of alcoholic extracts from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different extracts from unirradiated and gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan (solid and 1% w/v aqueous solution) were obtained with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) at concentrations of 40%, 60% and 80% v/v at room temperature. Physical and chemical properties of the different IPA extracts were analyzed by GPC, UV, and FT-IR. The extracts consisted of low molecular weight fragments with an average molecular weight (Mw) ranging from 2300 Da to 5000 Da. UV analyses of extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed varying maximum absorptions in the range of 265–280 nm. FT-IR spectra of all extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed all the important functional groups of carrageenan in the fingerprint region (4000–600 cm−1) and additional carbonyl C=O and C=C double bond peaks. Antioxidant properties of the different extracts were investigated using reducing power assay. The reducing power of extracts from the irradiated solution follows the order of 80%>60%>40% while no trend was observed for all extracts from irradiated solid κ-carrageenan. - Highlights: • Alcoholic extracts from irradiated κ-carrageenan (solid and 1% w/v) were obtained. • Extracts consisted of low molecular weight oligomers with Mw from 2300 to 5000 Da. • Structural analysis showed C=O and C=C functional groups in the extracts. • Fraction with Mw<2000 Da exhibited higher antioxidant potential

  19. Different phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms mediate carrageenan nociception and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rory A; Falk, Lovissa; Larsson, Mathilda; Leinders, Mathias; Sorkin, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) participate in signal transduction cascades that can directly activate and sensitize nociceptors and enhance pain transmission. They also play essential roles in chemotaxis and immune cell infiltration leading to inflammation. We wished to determine which PI3K isoforms were involved in each of these processes. Lightly anesthetized rats (isoflurane) were injected subcutaneously with carrageenan in their hind paws. This was preceded by a local injection of 1% DMSO vehicle or an isoform-specific antagonist to PI3K-α (compound 15-e), -β (TGX221), -δ (Cal-101), or -γ (AS252424). We measured changes in the mechanical pain threshold and spinal c-Fos expression (4 hours after injection) as indices of nociception. Paw volume, plasma extravasation (Evans blue, 0.3 hours after injection), and neutrophil (myeloperoxidase; 1 hour after injection) and macrophage (CD11b+; 4 hour after injection) infiltration into paw tissue were the measured inflammation endpoints. Only PI3K-γ antagonist before treatment reduced the carrageenan-induced pain behavior and spinal expression of c-Fos (P ≤ 0.01). In contrast, pretreatment with PI3K-α, -δ, and-γ antagonists reduced early indices of inflammation. Plasma extravasation PI3K-α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.05), and -γ (P ≤ 0.01), early (0-2 hour) edema -α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.001), and -γ (P ≤ 0.05), and neutrophil infiltration (all P ≤ 0.001) were all reduced compared to vehicle pretreatment. Later (2-4 hour), edema and macrophage infiltration (P ≤ 0.05) were reduced by only the PI3K-δ and -γ isoform antagonists, with the PI3K-δ antagonist having a greater effect on edema. PI3K-β antagonism was ineffective in all paradigms. These data indicate that pain and clinical inflammation are pharmacologically separable and may help to explain clinical conditions in which inflammation naturally wanes or goes into remission, but pain continues unabated.

  20. Development of edible films and coatings from alginates and carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli-Kafrani, Elham; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Masoudpour-Behabadi, Mahdieh

    2016-02-10

    The use of renewable resources, which can reduce waste disposal problems, is being explored to produce biopolymer films and coatings. Renewability, degradability, and edibility make such films particularly suitable for food and nonfood packaging applications. Edible films and coatings play an important role in the quality, safety, transportation, storage, and display of a wide range of fresh and processed foods. They can diminish main alteration by avoiding moisture losses and decreasing adverse chemical reaction rates. Also, they can prevent spoilage and microbial contamination of foods. Additionally, nanomaterials and food additives, such as flavors, antimicrobials, antioxidants, and colors, can be incorporated into edible films and coatings in order to extend their applications. Water-soluble hydrocolloids like polysaccharides usually impart better mechanical properties to edible films and coatings than do hydrophobic substances. They also are excellent barriers to oxygen and carbon dioxide. Recently, there has been much attention on carrageenan and alginate as sources of film-forming materials. Thus, this review highlights production and characteristics of these films. PMID:26686140

  1. Characterization of in vitro dengue virus resistance to carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Laura B; Damonte, Elsa B

    2016-07-01

    The λ-carrageenan (λ-car) is a potent and selective inhibitor of dengue virus (DENV) infection targeted to virus adsorption and internalization, due to the structural similarities with the mammalian cell receptor heparan sulfate. To further characterize the antiviral activity of λ-car, the selection and the phenotypic and genomic features of λ-car resistant DENV-2 variants are studied here in comparison to control virus. Resistant variants were rapidly selected in Vero cells after three passages in presence of the drug. No difference was detected in the growth profiles in Vero and C6/36 cells between resistant and control viruses. By contrast, the kinetics of adsorption and internalization of resistant variants in Vero cells was significantly diminished whereas entry to C6/36 cells was unaffected. By plaque purification and sequence analysis of the population, two types of resistant clones were found: some clones presented two mutations in E protein, K126E, and F422L; but other equally λ-car resistant clones had no mutations in E. Furthermore, no mutations were found in other viral proteins like prM, C, or NS1. The genomic disparity in E protein was also associated to differences in phenotype stability. The stable genomic resistance here described provides information about determinants in E protein involved in receptor binding and membrane fusion for uncoating. PMID:26694200

  2. Release of Tenofovir from Carrageenan-Based Vaginal Suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toral Zaveri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbicides are an active area of research for HIV prevention, being developed as a woman-initiated method of prevention during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have produced microbicide prototypes in the form of semisoft vaginal suppositories prepared from carrageenan and conducted both qualitative and quantitative studies using these prototypes to determine the physical properties that drive acceptability and possibly adherence. In order to ensure that the suppositories function as effective drug delivery vehicles, we have conducted in vitro dissolution studies in water, vaginal simulant fluid (VSF and semen simulant fluid (SSF with suppositories loaded with the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir (TFV. TFV was released via diffusion and matrix erosion in water or by diffusion out of the matrix in VSF and SSF. Diffusion studies were conducted in two different volumes of VSF and SSF. The volume of VSF/SSF into which TFV diffused and the size of the suppositories determined the rate of diffusion from the suppositories. About 45%–50% of the encapsulated TFV diffused out of the suppositories within the first two hours, irrespective of suppository size, diffusion medium (VSF/SSF and the volume of medium. Prior work indicates that a short waiting period between insertion and coitus is highly desired by women; present data suggest our microbicide prototypes have rapid initial release followed by a slow release curve over the first 24 h.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of K-Carrageenan/Nanosilica Biocomposite Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh R. Rane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to improve the performance properties of K-carrageenan (K-CRG by utilizing nanosilica (NSI as the reinforcing agent. The composite films were prepared by solution casting method. NSI was added up to 1.5% in the K-CRG matrix. The prepared films were characterized for mechanical (tensile strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break, thermal (differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, barrier (water vapour transmission rate, morphological (scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, and crystallinity properties. Tensile strength, tensile modulus, and crystallinity were found to have increased by 13.8, 15, and 48% whereas water vapour transmission rate was found to have decreased by 48% for 0.5% NSI loaded K-CRG composite films. NSI was found to have formed aggregates for concentrations above 0.5% as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Melting temperature, enthalpy of melting, and degradation temperature of K-CRG increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG. Contact angle also increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG, indicating the decrease in hydrophilicity of the films improving its water resistance properties. This knowledge of the composite film could make beneficial contributions to the food and pharmaceutical packaging applications.

  4. Exosomes from Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Suppress Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivoraitė, Ugnė; Jarmalavičiūtė, Akvilė; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Ramanauskaitė, Giedrė; Vaitkuvienė, Aida; Kašėta, Vytautas; Biziulevičienė, Genė; Venalis, Algirdas; Pivoriūnas, Augustas

    2015-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the effects of human dental pulp stem cell-derived exosomes on the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice. Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation from the supernatants of stem cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) cultivated in serum-free medium. At 1 h post-carrageenan injection, exosomes derived from supernatants of 2 × 10(6) SHEDs were administered by intraplantar injection to BALB/c mice; 30 mg/kg of prednisolone and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Edema was measured at 6, 24, and 48 h after carrageenan injection. For the in vivo imaging experiments, AngioSPARK750, Cat B 750 FAST, and MMPSense 750 FAST were administered into the mouse tail vein 2 h post-carrageenan injection. Fluorescence images were acquired at 6, 24, and 48 h after edema induction by IVIS Spectrum in vivo imaging system. Exosomes significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced edema at all the time points studied (by 39.5, 41.6, and 25.6% at 6, 24, and 48 h after injection, respectively), to similar levels seen with the positive control (prednisolone). In vivo imaging experiments revealed that, both exosomes and prednisolone suppress activities of cathepsin B and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) at the site of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation, showing more prominent effects of prednisolone at the early stages, while exosomes exerted their suppressive effects gradually and at later time points. Our study demonstrates for the first time that exosomes derived from human dental pulp stem cells suppress carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice.

  5. Discovery of a novel iota carrageenan sulfatase isolated from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Marie Genicot

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of some marine red algae. These polysaccharides are widely used as gelling, stabilizing, and viscosifying agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Since the rheological properties of these polysaccharides depend on their sulfate content, we screened several isolated marine bacteria for carrageenan specific sulfatase activity, in the aim of developing enzymatic bioconversion of carrageenans. As a result of the screening, an iota-carrageenan sulfatase was detected in the cell-free lysate of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora strain PscT. It was purified through Phenyl Sepharose and Diethylaminoethyl Sepharose chromatography. The pure enzyme, Psc -CgsA, was characterized. It had a molecular weight of 115.9 kDaltons and exhibited an optimal activity/stability at pH ~8.3 and at 40°C ± 5°C. It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Psc -CgsA specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-S sulfate of iota-carrageenan. The purified enzyme could transform iota-carrageenan into hybrid iota-/alpha- or pure alpha-carrageenan under controlled conditions. The gene encoding Psc -CgsA, a protein of 1038 amino acids, was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the sequence analysis revealed that Psc -CgsA has more than 90% sequence identity with a putative uncharacterized protein Q3IKL4 from the marine strain Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, but besides this did not share any homology to characterized sulfatases. Phylogenetic studies show that P. carrageenovora sulfatase thus represents the first characterized member of a new sulfatase family, with a C-terminal domain having strong similarity with the superfamily of amidohydrolases, highlighting the still unexplored diversity of marine polysaccharide modifying enzymes.

  6. Discovery of a novel iota carrageenan sulfatase isolated from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genicot, Sabine; Groisillier, Agnès; Rogniaux, Hélène; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Barbeyron, Tristan; Helbert, William

    2014-08-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of some marine red algae. These polysaccharides are widely used as gelling, stabilizing, and viscosifying agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Since the rheological properties of these polysaccharides depend on their sulfate content, we screened several isolated marine bacteria for carrageenan specific sulfatase activity, in the aim of developing enzymatic bioconversion of carrageenans. As a result of the screening, an iota-carrageenan sulfatase was detected in the cell-free lysate of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora strain PscT. It was purified through Phenyl Sepharose and Diethylaminoethyl Sepharose chromatography. The pure enzyme, Psc ?-CgsA, was characterized. It had a molecular weight of 115.9 kDaltons and exhibited an optimal activity/stability at pH ~8.3 and at 40°C ± 5°C. It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Psc ?-CgsA specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-S sulfate of iota-carrageenan. The purified enzyme could transform iota-carrageenan into hybrid iota-/alpha- or pure alpha-carrageenan under controlled conditions. The gene encoding Psc ?-CgsA, a protein of 1038 amino acids, was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the sequence analysis revealed that Psc ?-CgsA has more than 90% sequence identity with a putative uncharacterized protein Q3IKL4 from the marine strain Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, but besides this did not share any homology to characterized sulfatases. Phylogenetic studies show that P. carrageenovora sulfatase thus represents the first characterized member of a new sulfatase family, with a C-terminal domain having strong similarity with the superfamily of amidohydrolases, highlighting the still unexplored diversity of marine polysaccharide modifying enzymes.

  7. Immobilization and Bioelectrochemistry of Hemoglobin Based on Carrageenan and Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Composite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛春; 张洋; 王璐; 贾能勤

    2012-01-01

    A novel biopolymer/room-temperature ionic liquid composite film based on carrageenan, room temperature ionic liquid (IL) [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4)] was explored for immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) and construction of biosensor. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalytic behaviors of Hb entrapped in the IL-carrageenan composite film on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were investigated. UV-vis spectroscopy demonstrated that Hb in the IL-carrageenan composite film could retain its native secondary structure. A pair of well-defined redox peaks of Hb was obtained at the Hb-IL-carrageenan composite film modified electrode through direct electron transfer between the protein and the underlying electrode. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) was 2.02 s 1, indicating great facilitation of the electron transfer between Hb and IL-carrageenan composite film modified electrode. The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward reduction of hydrogen peroxide with a linear range of 5.0 × 10-6 to 1.5 ×10-4 mol/L and the detection limit was 2.12 ×10 7 mol/L (S/N= 3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant KM^app for hydrogen peroxide was estimated to be 0.02 mmol/L, indicating that the biosensor possessed high affinity to hydrogen peroxide. In addition, the proposed biosensor showed good reproducibility and stability.

  8. Characterization and antioxidant properties of alcoholic extracts from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relleve, Lorna; Abad, Lucille

    2015-07-01

    Different extracts from unirradiated and gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan (solid and 1% w/v aqueous solution) were obtained with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) at concentrations of 40%, 60% and 80% v/v at room temperature. Physical and chemical properties of the different IPA extracts were analyzed by GPC, UV, and FT-IR. The extracts consisted of low molecular weight fragments with an average molecular weight (Mw) ranging from 2300 Da to 5000 Da. UV analyses of extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed varying maximum absorptions in the range of 265-280 nm. FT-IR spectra of all extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed all the important functional groups of carrageenan in the fingerprint region (4000-600 cm-1) and additional carbonyl C=O and C=C double bond peaks. Antioxidant properties of the different extracts were investigated using reducing power assay. The reducing power of extracts from the irradiated solution follows the order of 80%>60%>40% while no trend was observed for all extracts from irradiated solid κ-carrageenan.

  9. Effect of epichlorohydrin on the wet spinning of carrageenan fibers under optimal parameter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Xue, Zhixin; Yan, Miao; Liu, Jingjing; Xia, Yanzhi

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by the extensive application of carrageenans, this work prepared carrageenan fibers via wet spinning. The optimum spinning parameters were explored by means of an orthogonal test. According to the results of tensile test, dope concentration, draw ratio, coagulation bath temperature, and coagulation bath concentration set to 9%, 1.2, 15°C and 5%, respectively, were the optimum spinning conditions. These parameters were then applied to fabricate fibers treated with epichlorohydrin in a stretch bath. The result of tensile testing demonstrated a positive improvement in the intensity, and SEM showed obvious necking phenomenon of the crosslinked carrageenan fibers. The structures and special groups were characterized with X-ray diffraction and FTIR, and the results indicated the regularity of the net structure and the increase in ether bond and methylene. In some, crosslinking reactions in optimum parameter conditions yield excellent fibers and thus present promising applications.

  10. Effect of epichlorohydrin on the wet spinning of carrageenan fibers under optimal parameter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Xue, Zhixin; Yan, Miao; Liu, Jingjing; Xia, Yanzhi

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by the extensive application of carrageenans, this work prepared carrageenan fibers via wet spinning. The optimum spinning parameters were explored by means of an orthogonal test. According to the results of tensile test, dope concentration, draw ratio, coagulation bath temperature, and coagulation bath concentration set to 9%, 1.2, 15°C and 5%, respectively, were the optimum spinning conditions. These parameters were then applied to fabricate fibers treated with epichlorohydrin in a stretch bath. The result of tensile testing demonstrated a positive improvement in the intensity, and SEM showed obvious necking phenomenon of the crosslinked carrageenan fibers. The structures and special groups were characterized with X-ray diffraction and FTIR, and the results indicated the regularity of the net structure and the increase in ether bond and methylene. In some, crosslinking reactions in optimum parameter conditions yield excellent fibers and thus present promising applications. PMID:27312634

  11. Study on the Dynamics of Blending of Glucomannan with Carrageenan and Guaran Gum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Jie; YE Bing-Hong; HUANG Yong-Mei; LIN Qiong; ZENG Cui; SUN Yuan-Ming

    2007-01-01

    In order to prove up the interaction between konjac glucomannan (KGM) and other amyloses, by using KGM, guaran gum and carrageenan as materials, their blending in different external conditions was modeled by means of molecular dynamics (MD) method.The result showed that 323 K was a significant turning point for the formation of hydrogen bond, and KGM and guaran gum were just juxtaposed together via intermolecular hydrogen bond; but with the addition of carrageenan, KGM, guaran gum and carrageenan were spirally twisted together, and when their blending proportion is 3:2:9 the combination was the most compact. Moreover, the research result has provided the sequent studies afterwards on amyloses with some references.

  12. Protective effect of Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. on carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S K; Viji, V; Kripa, K; Helen, A

    2011-07-01

    The present study focuses on the anti-inflammatory activity of Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. on an acute model of inflammation: the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay. Methanolic extract of J. gendarussa (JRM) roots at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly inhibited edema formation 5 h after carrageenan induction. JRM inhibited carrageenan-elicited total cycloxygenase activity, 5-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase activities in blood mononuclear cells of rats, decreased neutrophil infiltration in paw tissue as shown by low myeloperoxidase activity, and also caused a 53% inhibition in cyclooxygenase-2 activity in paw tissue. Purification of JRM by liquid-liquid partitioning yielded an ethyl acetate fraction of JRM that showed interleukin-6 downregulation potential and the ability to inhibit prostaglandin E2 production in vivo. The present investigation provides pharmacological evidence to support the folklore claim that J. gendarussa is an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:21416126

  13. Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naho Maruyama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5 μL of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice.

  14. Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5μL of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice

  15. The Experimental Research (In Vitro) of Carrageenans and Fucoidans to Decrease Activity of Hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavliga, Stanislav N; Kompanets, Galina G; Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu

    2016-06-01

    The effect of carrageenans and fucoidans on the activity of Hantavirus is studied. It has been found that among carrageenans a significant antiviral effect is exerted by the ι-type, which decreases the viral titer by 2.5 log focus forming units per mL; among fucoidans, by a preparation from Laminaria cichorioides, which reduces the number of infected cells from 27.0 to 5.3 after pretreatment of both the macrophage culture and Hantavirus. The antiviral effect of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is shown to grow in direct proportion to the increase of dose of the preparation. PMID:26943130

  16. SANS contrast in iota-carrageenan gels and solutions in D2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Denef, B.; Mortensen, K.;

    1997-01-01

    SANS of Na+-iota-carrageenan in D2O/saline solutions was measured as a function of concentration, temperature and type of counterions (K+ or Na+). High and low scattering-contrasted gels and solutions were detected. High contrast is caused by aggregation of low-hydrated chains at high concentration...... of carrageenan in the presence of gel-promoting counterions. The aggregates do not disappear at 60 degrees C, although at this temperature the molecules should partially lose their ordered conformation. The network formation, observed by SANS, does not happen in high-contrast system immediately after cooling...

  17. Radiation effects on agar, alginates and carrageenan to be used as food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliste, A. J. A. J.; Vieira, F. F. F. F.; Del Mastro, N. L. N. L.

    2000-03-01

    Agar, alginates and carrageenan are hydrocolloids that induce stabilization of physical properties of the food product during shelf life and prevention of undesirable changes such as moisture migration, gas cell coalescence or textural profile changes. In this work, agar, alginates and carrageenan was irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10 kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of these irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods.

  18. Influence of cyclodextrins on texture behavior and freeze-thaw stability of kappa-carrageenan gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Du, Lei; Zhang, Guangjie; Jin, Zhengyu; Liu, Hui

    2016-11-01

    The influences of cyclodextrins (CDs) on texture characteristics and freeze-thaw stability of κ-carrageenan gel were investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA) and synthesis test. The TPA results demonstrated that the texture behavior of gelatinized κ-carrageenan was obvious influenced by CDs. Hardness was strengthened at low CD concentrations (1-2%, w/w) and then weakened along with the increase of CD concentrations. Springiness was significantly weakened after the CDs were added. Gumminess showed the similar change as hardness and chewiness dropped along with the concentration increasing of CDs, while cohesiveness had little change after the addition of CDs. Moreover, CDs improved the freeze-thaw stability of gelatinized κ-carrageenan. In both texture behavior and freeze-thaw stability aspects, the influences of modified CDs were superior to that of natural CDs. According to the experimental results, a proposed model was given to illuminate the distribution of CDs in the gelatinized κ-carrageenan. PMID:27211687

  19. Prevention of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice by anti-CD30 ligand monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Di Marco, Roberto; Mazzon, Emanuela;

    2004-01-01

    CD30 ligand (CD30L) and its receptor CD30 are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor superfamilies that play a major role in inflammation and immune regulation. To gain insight into the in vivo role of CD30L/CD30 in inflammatory diseases, we have used carrageenan (CAR...

  20. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Heni; Safitri, Dewi; Pradana, Aditya Trias; Adnyana, I Ketut

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan) was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27537907

  1. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Rachmawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW. Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Diethylcarbamazine Attenuates the Development of Carrageenan-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlene Lima Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diethylcarbamazine (DEC is an antifilarial drug with potent anti-inflammatory properties as a result of its interference with the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of DEC in a mouse model of acute inflammation (carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity induced the accumulation of fluid containing a large number of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs as well as infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased expression of interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Carrageenan also induced the expression of nuclear factor-κB. The oral administration of DEC (50 mg/Kg three days prior to the carrageenan challenge led to a significant reduction in all inflammation markers. The present findings demonstrate that DEC is a potential drug for the treatment of acute lung inflammation.

  3. Pharmacological effect of a new idebenone formulation in a model of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Filomena; Ilari, Sara; Giancotti, Luigino Antonio; Ventura, Cinzia Anna; Morabito, Chiara; Gliozzi, Micaela; Malafoglia, Valentina; Palma, Ernesto; Paolino, Donatella; Mollace, Vincenzo; Muscoli, Carolina

    2016-09-01

    Considerable evidence demonstrated that the central role of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in the development of thermal hyperalgesia is associated to acute and chronic inflammation. Idebenone (IDE), a synthetic analogue of the endogenous cellular antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), is an active drug in the central nervous system which shows a protection in a variety of neurological disorders. Since it is lipophilic, poorly water soluble and highly bound to plasma proteins, different technological approaches have been explored to increase its solubility and new pharmaceutical properties. Therefore, it has been complexed with HP-β-cyclodextrins (HP) and its efficacy has been assessed in an animal model of carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia. All male rats used for this study received a subplantar injection of carrageenan into the right hindpaw in the presence or absence of IDE alone and IDE/HP complex. We observed that IDE poorly reduced painful carrageenan effects whereas IDE/HP complex was able to prevent carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and edema in a dose-dependent manner, reducing spinal MDA levels and protein nitration. Hence, our results demonstrated that when complexed with HP, idebenone exerts a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy. PMID:27480201

  4. Construction of biosensor systems for determining the pathophysiological potential of carrageenan variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Angela; End, Caroline; Christiansen, Helle;

    2009-01-01

    In vitro systems for monitoring safety of nutritional additives are desirable for high-throughput screenings and as a substitute for animal models. Carrageenan (CGN) is a sulfated polysaccharide widely used as a thickener and texturizer in human nutrition and is intensely discussed regarding its...

  5. Stereomicroscopic and histologic changes in the colon of guinea pigs fed degraded carrageenan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1980-01-01

    A colitis-like state induced in Guinea Pigs fed degraded carrageenan orally. By means of a combined semimacroscopic and histologic technique the course of the disease was followed during 28 days. The changes were primarily seen and became most prominent in the caecum. The first lesions were...

  6. Characterization of radiation modified κ-carrageenan oligomers for bio-based materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    κ-carrageenan oligomers are known to have several biological activities such as anti-HIV, anti-herpes, antitumor and antioxidant properties. Recent progress in the development of radiation modified κ-carrageenan has resulted in new applications such as plant growth promoter, radiation dose indicator and hydrogels for wound dressing. This presentation would touch on the changes in chemical structure, gelation and conformational transition behavior and molecular size of κ-carrageenan at doses from 0 to 200 kGy and would be correlated to these functions for the development of bio-based materials. Chemical and spectral analyses were carried out using UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, reducing sugar analysis, free sulfate and carboxylic acid analysis. The chemical and spectral analyses of the radiolytic products indicated increasing reducing sugars, carbonyl, carboxylic acids, and sulfates with increasing doses which reached a maximum level at a certain dose depending on the irradiation condition. Values were very much lower in solid irradiation (in vacuum and in air) as compared to aqueous irradiation. NMR data also revealed an intact structure of the oligomer irradiated at 100 kGy in the specific fraction that contains an Mw = (3-10) kDa. κ-carrageenan oligomers exhibited antioxidant properties as determined by hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay. The degree of oxidative inhibition increased with increasing dose which can be attributed to higher reducing sugar. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments showed that a dose of up to 50 kGy, sol-gelation transition was still observed. Beyond 50 kGy, no gelation took place, instead appearance of fast relax-carrageenan mode in characteristic decay time function was observed at doses of (75-150) kGy. Optimum peak intensity was found at 100 kGy (mol wt. 5-10 kDa) which coincides with the optimum plant growth promoter effect in κ-carrageenan

  7. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Ultrasound-Assisted Depolymerization of κ-Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnawati Ratnawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted depolymerization of κ-carrageenan has been studied at various temperatures and times. The κ-carrageenan with initial molecular weight of 545 kDa was dispersed in water to form a 5 g/L solution, which was then depolymerized in an ultrasound device at various temperatures and times. The viscosity of the solution was measured using Brookfield viscometer, which was then used to find the number-average molecular weight by Mark-Houwink equation. To obtain the kinetics of κ-carrageenan depolymerization, the number-average molecular weight data was treated using midpoint-chain scission kinetics model. The pre-exponential factor and activation energies for the reaction are 2.683×10-7 mol g-1 min-1 and 6.43 kJ mol-1, respectively. The limiting molecular weight varies from 160 kDa to 240 kDa, and it is linearly correlated to temperature. The results are compared to the result of thermal depolymerization by calculating the half life. It is revealed that ultrasound assisted depolymerization of κ-carrageenan is faster than thermal depolymerization at temperatures below 72.2°C. Compared to thermal depolymerization, the ultrasound-assisted process has lower values of Ea, ΔG‡, ΔH‡, and ΔS‡, which can be attributed to the ultrasonically induced breakage of non-covalent bonds in κ-carrageenan molecules. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 18th January 2016; Accepted: 19th January 2016 How to Cite: Ratnawati, R., Prasetyaningrum, A., Wardhani, D.H. (2016. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Ultrasound-Assisted Depolymerization of κ-Carrageenan. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11(1: 48-58. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.415.48-58 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.415.48-58

  8. Encapsulation of lactase (β-galactosidase) into κ-carrageenan-based hydrogel beads: Impact of environmental conditions on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zipei; Zhang, Ruojie; Chen, Long; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-01

    Encapsulation of enzymes in hydrogel beads may improve their utilization and activity in foods. In this study, the potential of carrageenan hydrogel beads for encapsulating β-galactosidase was investigated. Hydrogel beads were fabricated by injecting an aqueous solution, containing β-galactosidase (26 U) and carrageenan (1 wt%), into a hardening solution (5% potassium chloride). Around 63% of the β-galactosidase was initially encapsulated in the hydrogel beads. Encapsulated β-galactosidase had a higher activity than that of the free enzyme over a range of pH and thermal conditions, which was attributed to the stabilization of the enzyme structure by K(+) ions within the carrageenan beads. Release of the enzyme from the beads was observed during storage in aqueous solutions, which was attributed to the relatively large pore size of the hydrogel matrix. Our results suggest that carrageenan hydrogel beads may be useful encapsulation systems, but further work is needed to inhibit enzyme leakage. PMID:26830562

  9. Hemostatic efficacy evaluation of radiation crosslinked carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan and chitosan with varying degrees of substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito; Barba, Bin Jeremiah D.; Vista, Jeanina Richelle M.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl derivatives of kappa-carrageenan and chitosan, with varying degrees of substitution, were synthesized by multi-step reaction technique and evaluated for hemostatic efficacy through in vitro assays. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of carboxymethyl group while 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated degrees of substitution ranging from 1.15-1.58 and 0.45-0.51 for carboxymethyl-κ-carrageenan and carboxymethylchitosan, respectively. Derivatives formed into paste consistency (30% w/v) were successfully crosslinked by gamma irradiation at 30 kGy. The data obtained from whole blood clotting and platelet adhesion assays showed a significant increase in hemostatic capability of κ-carrageenan and chitosan as a consequence of carboxymethylation and crosslinking modifications. In addition, the level of efficacy was comparable to that of a chitosan-based commercial product. These results suggest the potential of κ-carrageenan and chitosan derivatives for development into hemostatic agents.

  10. Influence of lambda-carrageenan on the release of systematic series of volatile flavor compounds from viscous food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylaite, Egle; Ilgunaite, Z.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge;

    2004-01-01

    The effect of lambda-carrageenan addition level (0.1, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5% w/w) and viscosity on the release of systematic series of aroma compounds (aldehydes, esters, ketones, and alcohols) was studied in thickened viscous solutions containing lambda-carrageenan and 10 wt % of sucrose. Air...... range was assessed by dynamic headspace gas chromatography. K(37degreesC) increased as the carbon chain increased within each homologous series. Esters exhibited the highest volatility, followed by aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols. Under equilibrium, no overall effect of lambda-carrageenan was found......, except with the most hydrophobic compounds. Analysis of flavor release under nonequilibrium conditions revealed a suppressing effect of lambda-carrageenan on the release rates of aroma compounds, and the extent of decrease in release rates was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the aroma...

  11. Encapsulation of lactase (β-galactosidase) into κ-carrageenan-based hydrogel beads: Impact of environmental conditions on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zipei; Zhang, Ruojie; Chen, Long; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-01

    Encapsulation of enzymes in hydrogel beads may improve their utilization and activity in foods. In this study, the potential of carrageenan hydrogel beads for encapsulating β-galactosidase was investigated. Hydrogel beads were fabricated by injecting an aqueous solution, containing β-galactosidase (26 U) and carrageenan (1 wt%), into a hardening solution (5% potassium chloride). Around 63% of the β-galactosidase was initially encapsulated in the hydrogel beads. Encapsulated β-galactosidase had a higher activity than that of the free enzyme over a range of pH and thermal conditions, which was attributed to the stabilization of the enzyme structure by K(+) ions within the carrageenan beads. Release of the enzyme from the beads was observed during storage in aqueous solutions, which was attributed to the relatively large pore size of the hydrogel matrix. Our results suggest that carrageenan hydrogel beads may be useful encapsulation systems, but further work is needed to inhibit enzyme leakage.

  12. Properties of radiation synthesized PVP-kappa carrageenan hydrogel blends[PVP; Carrageenan; Hydrogels; Radiation crosslinking; Radiation grafting; Semi-interpenetrating network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V. E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Relleve, L.S.; Aranilla, C.T.; Rosa, A.M. dela

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogels have been synthesized from varying concentrations of polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP) and kappa carrageenan (KC) using gamma radiation. Physical properties such as gel fraction and swelling behavior were determined. Data revealed the presence of a network structure whereby KC is physically entangled into the crosslinked PVP (SIPN). TGA, X-RF and FT-IR analyses of the gel fractions also indicated grafting and crosslinking of the PVP. The degree of grafting and crosslinking depended on the concentrations of KC and PVP. Maximum grafting was obtained at higher KC concentration and lower PVP.

  13. Capillary Zone Electrophoresis Investigation of Interactions between Granulocyte-colony Stimulating Factor and Dextran Sulfate / Carrageenan Oligosaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai Ye LIANG; Yu Guang DU; Ke Yi WANG; Bing Cheng LIN

    2005-01-01

    The interactions between granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dextran sulfate / κ-carrageenan oligosa1ccharide were studied by capillary zone electrophoresis. Dextran sulfate could strongly interact with G-CSF and the complex was detected. The binding constant and stoichiometry were determined to be 1.2x106 (mol/L)-1 and 3:1, respectively. However, the interaction between κ-carrageenan oligosaccharide and G-CSF was not found.

  14. Optimizing delivery systems for cationic biopolymers: competitive interactions of cationic polylysine with anionic κ-carrageenan and pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Pena, Cynthia Lyliam; McClements, David Julian

    2014-06-15

    Polylysine is a cationic biopolymer with a strong antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, however, its functional performance is influenced by its interactions with anionic biopolymers. We examined the stability of polylysine-pectin complexes in the presence of carrageenan, and vice versa. Polylysine-pectin or polylysine-carrageenan complexes were formed at mass ratios of 1:0 to 1:32 (pH 3.5), and then micro-electrophoresis, turbidity, microscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) were used to characterise them. Solutions containing polylysine-pectin complexes were slightly turbid and relatively stable to aggregation at high mass ratios, whereas those containing polylysine-carrageenan complexes were turbid and unstable to aggregation and precipitation. Pectin did not strongly interact with polylysine-carrageenan complexes, whereas carrageenan displaced pectin from polylysine-pectin complexes, which was attributed to differences in electrostatic attraction between polylysine, carrageenan, and pectin. These results have important implications for the design of effective antimicrobial delivery systems for foods and beverages.

  15. Effect of carrageenan addition on the yield and functional properties of charqui (Jerked Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Rocha Garcia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the application of carrageenan (CAR to improve the functional properties of the jerked beef (JF and to increase its processing yield. JB produced from Vastus lateralis with CAR (1.0% at 25ºC and NaCl (15.0% had approximately 15.0% higher moisture and a 32.0% higher processing yield in comparison to the control samples.JB-CAR presented shear force approximately 5.0 and 20% lower in the samples uncooked salted and desalted cooked, respectively, and sensorial acceptance above 80%. The results demonstrated the possibility of applying carrageenan to jerked beef in order to obtain an increase in the processing yield and a tender product while maintaining the sensorial quality and its intermediate-moisture meat product nature.

  16. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTY OF VANILLIN IN CARRAGEENAN INDUCED PAW EDEMA MODEL IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    SRIKANTH D, Vishma Hydie Menezes, Nischal Saliyan, Rathnakar UP*, Shiv Prakash G, Sahana D Acaharya, Ashok Shenoy K, Udupa AL

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Vanillinis known to have antimutagenic, anti-invasive and metastatic suppression potential. Antinociceptive property in acetic acid induced visceral pain models, antioxidant and hepato-protective properties of in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats have also been demonstrated. Objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of vanillin on acute inflammation induced by carrageenan in rats.Methods: Rats were assigned to five groups [Control, Asprin and three Vanillin groups,] of s...

  17. Radiation Processed Carrageenan Improves Plant Growth, Physiological Activities, and Alkaloids Production in Catharanthus roseus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Naeem, M.; Mohd Idrees; Tariq Aftab; M. Masidur Alam; Khan, M. Masroor A.; Moin Uddin; Lalit Varshney

    2015-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant that produces indole alkaloids used in cancer chemotherapy. Commercially important antineoplastic alkaloids, namely, vinblastine and vincristine, are mainly present in the leaves of C. roseus. Gamma-rays irradiated carrageenan (ICR) has been proven as plant growth promoting substance for a number of medicinal and agricultural plants. Considering the importance of ICR as a promoter of plant growth and alkaloids production in C....

  18. Encapsulation of brewers yeast in chitosan coated carrageenan microspheres by emulsification/thermal gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Marie-Christine; Neufeld, Ronald J; Poncelet, Denis

    2004-05-01

    Brewers yeast was encapsulated in kappa-carrageenan microspheres using an emulsification-thermal gelation approach. Due to heat sensitivity of the yeast at temperatures in excess of 36 degrees C, mixtures of low and high gelation temperature carrageenans were tested to obtain a blend yielding a gelation temperature under 40 degrees C. A 20:80 dispersion of 2% carrageenan sol containing cells, in warm canola oil, produced microspheres upon cooling, with a mean diameter of 450 microm and narrow size dispersion (span of 1.2). Application of a chitosan membrane coat to minimize cell release, increased the mean microsphere diameter to 700 microm, due to the coat thickness and swelling of the microspheres. This diameter was designed so as to minimize mass transfer limitations. Batch fermentations were carried out in a 3 L reactor on a commercial wort medium. Cell loading was 10(7) cells mL(-1) microspheres, and cell "burst" release was observed upon inoculation into fresh medium, whether microspheres were coated or not. The kinetics of intra- and extracapsular cell growth were determined. Increased concentrations of extracapsular free cells could be accounted for by growth in the wort medium, and by ongoing release from the gel microspheres, whether coated or not. Cell release from chitosan-coated carrageenan microspheres was less than that from uncoated microspheres, likely due to retention by the membrane coat. Growth kinetics and alpha-amino nitrogen consumption of encapsulated yeast were higher than that of free cells, and differences in alcohol and ester profiles were also observed, likely due to modified metabolism of the encapsulated yeast.

  19. Water soluble graft copolymer ({kappa}-carrageenan-g-N-vinyl formamide): preparation, characterization and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M.M.; Yadav, M.; Sand, A.; Tripathy, J.; Behari, K. [University of Allahabad, Allahabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-03-25

    {kappa}-Carrageenan-g-N-vinyl formamide was synthesized by free radical initiation using the potassium monopersulphate (PMS)/malonic acid redox pair in an inert atmosphere. The effects of variation of different reactant oil grafting parameters have been studied by varying the concentration. Grafting ratio, add on and conversion showed an increasing trend on increasing the concentration of N-vinyl formamide, malonic acid, kappa-carrageenart and the concentration of PMS from 6 x 10{sup -3} to 22 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}. The optimum temperature and time for grafting of N-vinyl formamide onto {kappa}-carrageenan was found to be 40{sup o}C and 120 min, respectively. The metal ion sorption, swelling behaviour, flocculation and resistance to biodegradation properties have been studied. Flocculation capability of {kappa}-carrageenart and {kappa}-carrageenan-g-N-vinyl formamide for both coking and non-coking coals has been studied for the treatment of coal mine waste water. The graft copolymer was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

  20. Phase diagrams of hybrid carrageenans extracted from Ahnfeltiopsis devoniensis and Chondrus crispus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Azevedo, G; Hilliou, L

    2016-01-20

    NaCl and KCl phase diagrams of two kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenans (KI) are established, and the rheological properties of obtained solutions and gels are reported. KI were extracted from Ahnfeltiopsis devoniensis and Chondrus crispus seaweeds and showed different chemical composition, 48 mol% of kappa carrageenan (K) and 52 mol% of iota carrageenan (I), and 78 mol% of K and 22 mol% of I, respectively. Phase diagrams are systematically compared those of blends of commercial K and I (K+I) showing equivalent chemical compositions. Results confirm that KI clearly differ from mixtures of K and I. K+I form gels at lower polysaccharide concentration and ionic strength, and exhibit gel separation from a liquid phase when large amount (>0.1 mol/L) of KCl is used. In contrast, no syneresis was found in KI gels formed under similar conditions. Both KI and K+I gels are strain hardening, and show a concentration scaling of the elasticity with exponents ranging from 1.1 to 3.2 depending on the type of salt and ionic strength. The strain at break of KI gels does not show salt specificity and is similar to the strain at break of K+I gels in KCl under similar salt and polysaccharide concentrations. K+I gels in NaCl are more fragile than in KCl, thus showing salt specificity.

  1. Phase diagrams of hybrid carrageenans extracted from Ahnfeltiopsis devoniensis and Chondrus crispus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Azevedo, G; Hilliou, L

    2016-01-20

    NaCl and KCl phase diagrams of two kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenans (KI) are established, and the rheological properties of obtained solutions and gels are reported. KI were extracted from Ahnfeltiopsis devoniensis and Chondrus crispus seaweeds and showed different chemical composition, 48 mol% of kappa carrageenan (K) and 52 mol% of iota carrageenan (I), and 78 mol% of K and 22 mol% of I, respectively. Phase diagrams are systematically compared those of blends of commercial K and I (K+I) showing equivalent chemical compositions. Results confirm that KI clearly differ from mixtures of K and I. K+I form gels at lower polysaccharide concentration and ionic strength, and exhibit gel separation from a liquid phase when large amount (>0.1 mol/L) of KCl is used. In contrast, no syneresis was found in KI gels formed under similar conditions. Both KI and K+I gels are strain hardening, and show a concentration scaling of the elasticity with exponents ranging from 1.1 to 3.2 depending on the type of salt and ionic strength. The strain at break of KI gels does not show salt specificity and is similar to the strain at break of K+I gels in KCl under similar salt and polysaccharide concentrations. K+I gels in NaCl are more fragile than in KCl, thus showing salt specificity. PMID:26572375

  2. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Shao

    Full Text Available The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 and cytopathic effect (CPE inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731 and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04 replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8, A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN, A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26, A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08, and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07 viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  3. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qiang; Guo, Qiang; Xu, Wen ping; Li, Zandong; Zhao, Tong tong

    2015-01-01

    The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) and cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731) and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04) replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8), A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN), A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26), A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08), and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07) viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  4. De novo sequencing and comparative analysis of three red algal species of Family Solieriaceae to discover putative genes associated with carrageenan biosysthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Lipu; WANG Xumin; YU Jun; WU Shuangxiu; SUN Jing; WANG Liang; LIU Tao; CHI Shan; LIU Cui; LI Xingang; YIN Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    Betaphycus gelatinus, Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum of Family Solieriaceae, Order Gi-gartinales, Class Rhodophyceae are three important carrageenan-producing red algal species, which pro-duce different types of carrageenans, beta (β)-carrageenan, kappa (κ)-carrageenan and iota (ι)-carrageenan. So far the carrageenan biosynthesis pathway is not fully understood and few information is about the So-lieriaceae genome and transcriptome sequence. Here, we performed the de novo transcriptome sequencing, assembly, functional annotation and comparative analysis of these three commercial-valuable species using an Illumina short-sequencing platform Hiseq 2000 and bioinformatic software. Furthermore, we compared the different expression of some unigenes involved in some pathways relevant to carrageenan biosynthe-sis. We finally found 861 different expressed KEGG orthologs which contained a glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway (21 orthologs), carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms (16 orthologs), galactose metabolism (5 orthologs), and fructose and mannose metabolism (9 orthologs) which are parts of the carbohydrate me-tabolism. We also found 8 different expressed KEGG orthologs for sulfur metabolism which might be impor-tantly related to biosynthesis of different types of carrageenans. The results presented in this study provided valuable resources for functional genomics annotation and investigation of mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of carrageenan in Family Solieriaceae.

  5. Effect of kappa-carrageenan on the properties of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)/kappa-carrageenan blend hydrogel synthesized by {gamma}-radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai Maolin E-mail: zkkf@pku.edu.cn; Ha Hongfei; Yoshii, F.; Makuuchi, K

    2000-03-01

    A series of hydrogels in the form of rods were prepared from kappa-carrageenan (KC) and poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) by gamma radiation with {sup 60}Co {gamma} source at room temperature. The properties of the prepared hydrogels, such as the gel strength, gel fraction and swelling behavior were investigated. Incorporation of KC into the PVP/water system increased obviously the gel strength and equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of PVP hydrogel. The experimental analyses showed that the crosslinking reaction of PVP was quicker than the degradation of KC at a low dose (less than 30 kGy), and the degradation of KC was inhibited in the PVP/KC mixture system. So an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogel composed of PVP (a chemical crosslinking network) and KC (a physical crosslinking network) was proposed here. The existence of different classes of water in this IPN system was shown by water melting curves using DCS. (author)

  6. Characterization of low molecular weight fragments from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan used as plant growth promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Aurigue, Fernando B.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Montefalcon, Djowel Recto V.; Lopez, Girlie Eunice P.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation degraded κ-carrageenan (1% solution at absorbed doses of 20 kGy and 30 kGy) were tested for its plant growth promoter (PGP) effect on pechay plants under hydroponics condition. Results revealed that higher PGP effects were found in κ-carrageenan irradiated at an absorbed dose of 30 kGy. Mw of irradiated κ-carrageenan as measured by GPC were determined to be 7362 Da and 6762 Da for 20 kGy and 30 kGy, respectively. Fractionation of the irradiated κ-carrageenan (30 kGy) was done to separate different Mw fractions using Mw cut-off filters of 1 kDa, 3 kDa, and 5 kDa. The PGP effect of the different retentates showed that biological activity in plants followed the order of 5 kDa>3 kDa>1 kDa using hydroponics condition but the reverse was observed in the order of 1 kDa>3 kDa>5 kDa when absorbed in plants by foliar spraying. GPC chromatogram indicated at least three (3) low molecular weight (LMW) fragments from radiation modified κ-carrageenan solution with an Mw<2000 Da. A fragment has also been identified with an Mw of as low as 160 Da which was produced under acidic (un-neutralized) condition. This may be attributed to the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF).

  7. Carrageenan-induced inflammation promotes ROS generation and neutrophil extracellular trap formation in a mouse model of peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Cristiane R; Funchal, Giselle A; Luft, Carolina; de Oliveira, Jarbas R; Porto, Bárbara N; Donadio, Márcio V F

    2016-04-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a combination of DNA fibers and granular proteins, such as neutrophil elastase (NE). NETs are released in the extracellular space in response to different stimuli. Carrageenan is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from Chondrus crispus, a marine algae, used for decades in research for its potential to induce inflammation in different animal models. In this study, we show for the first time that carrageenan injection can induce NET release in a mouse model of acute peritonitis. Carrageenan induced NET release by viable neutrophils with NE and myeloperoxidase (MPO) expressed on DNA fibers. Furthermore, although this polysaccharide was able to stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by peritoneal neutrophils, NADPH oxidase derived ROS were dispensable for NET formation by carrageenan. In conclusion, our results show that carrageenan-induced inflammation in the peritoneum of mice can induce NET formation in an ROS-independent manner. These results may add important information to the field of inflammation and potentially lead to novel anti-inflammatory agents targeting the production of NETs.

  8. Advance on safety evaluation of carrageenan%卡拉胶的安全性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱华

    2009-01-01

    卡拉胶即角叉菜胶(carrageenan)是从红藻中萃取的天然多糖植物胶体,被广泛应用于食品工业、化学工业及生化、医学研究等领域中.近年的研究表明,动物长期经口给予卡拉胶可引起肠黏膜损害或溃疡性结肠炎,导致或促进肿瘤发生等.因此,有必要组织开展流行病学研究和系统的基础研究,以进一步评估卡拉胶的食用安全性,消除其食用安全性隐患.%Carrageenan is a collective term for polysaccharides prepared by alkaline extraction from red seaweed(Rhodophycae).Different carrageenans are widely used as food and medicinal ingredients and applied in chemical and biochemical researches.The studies in recent years showed that long-term administration of carrageenan in various animals can cause intestine mucous membrane damage or ulcerous colanitis, and produce or promote tumor growth. It is necessary to perform more epidemiological and essential studies to evaluate the safety of Carrageenan

  9. Characterization of low molecular weight fragments from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan used as plant growth promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Aurigue, Fernando B.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Montefalcon, Djowel Recto V.; Lopez, Girlie Eunice P.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation degraded κ-carrageenan (1% solution at absorbed doses of 20 kGy and 30 kGy) were tested for its plant growth promoter (PGP) effect on pechay plants under hydroponics condition. Results revealed that higher PGP effects were found in κ-carrageenan irradiated at an absorbed dose of 30 kGy. Mw of irradiated κ-carrageenan as measured by GPC were determined to be 7362 Da and 6762 Da for 20 kGy and 30 kGy, respectively. Fractionation of the irradiated κ-carrageenan (30 kGy) was done to separate different Mw fractions using Mw cut-off filters of 1 kDa, 3 kDa, and 5 kDa. The PGP effect of the different retentates showed that biological activity in plants followed the order of 5 kDa>3 kDa>1 kDa using hydroponics condition but the reverse was observed in the order of 1 kDa>3 kDa>5 kDa when absorbed in plants by foliar spraying. GPC chromatogram indicated at least three (3) low molecular weight (LMW) fragments from radiation modified κ-carrageenan solution with an Mwhydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF).

  10. Interaction of Gelatin with Carrageenan-The Mechnical Properties of Gelatin-Carrageenan Co-gels%明胶与卡拉胶共凝胶体的力学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙哲浩; 赵谋明; 张源; 彭志英

    2001-01-01

    本文对明胶与卡拉胶共凝胶体的力学特性进行了研究,小变形实验发现随体系卡拉胶百分数的增加,贮能模量在增加。大变形实验发现共凝胶体的破裂强度及质构随体系两种大分子的配比、体系的pH值、离子强度的变化而变化。%This paper is about the mechanical properties ofgelatin-carrageenan co-gels. Small and large deformation experiments are carried out. Storage modulus(G') increase with carrageenan increase in co-gels. Many factors influence the texture characterization such as pH value, inon strength,the ratio of gelatin/carrageenan.

  11. Characterization of κ-carrageenan films incorporated plant essential oils with improved antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Khaksar, Ramin

    2014-01-30

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial kappa-carrageenan-based films containing different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Mentha pulegium (MEO) essential oils were developed, and their water vapor permeability (WVP), optical, microstructure, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were characterized. ZEO and MEO decreased the WVP of the emulsified films; for example, 3% ZEO reduced WVP by around 80%. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 1% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 37.43% to 44.74% and from 36.09% to 41.25% respectively. Carrageenan-composite films were less resistant to breakage, more flexible and more opaque with lower gloss. These properties were related to the film's microstructure as analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. ZEO affected the antioxidant properties of the films more markedly than MEO, e.g., ZEO containing films showed DPPH radical scavenging of 80.6% which were two-fold higher than those having MEO. The films' antimicrobial activities were increased by incorporating essential oils, particularly ZEO, which were more effective against the bacteria in the direct-contact method than a vapor phase. S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to either ZEO or MEO, followed by B. cereus and E. coli. A highest inhibition zone of 544.05 mm(2) was observed for S. aureus around the films incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO. The total inhibitory zone of 3% (v/v) MEO formulated films was 20.43 for S. typhimurium and 10.15 mm(2) for P. aeruginosa. These results revealed that ZEO and MEO have good potential to be incorporated into κ-carrageenan to make antimicrobial and antioxidant edible films for food applications.

  12. Nicorandil inhibits neutrophil recruitment in carrageenan-induced experimental pleurisy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tamires C; Coura, Giovanna M E; Melo, Ivo S F; Batista, Carla R A; Augusto, Paulo Sérgio A; Godin, Adriana M; Araújo, Débora P; César, Isabela C; Ribeiro, Lucas S; Souza, Danielle G; Klein, André; de Fátima, Ângelo; Machado, Renes R; Coelho, Márcio M

    2015-12-15

    Nicorandil is a drug characterized by the coupling of a nitric oxide (NO) donor to nicotinamide. We have previously demonstrated that nicotinamide exhibits activity in different models of pain and inflammation. Now, we investigated the effects induced by per os (p.o.) administration of nicorandil (25, 50 or 100mg/Kg) on neutrophil recruitment in a carrageenan-induced model of pleurisy in mice. Effects induced by nicorandil (100mg/kg) were compared with those induced by equimolar doses of nicotinamide (58mg/kg) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-nicotinamide (NHN; 79mg/kg). We also investigated whether effects on the production of inflammatory mediators play a role in the activity of nicorandil. P.o. nicorandil, 0.5h before and 1h after the i.pl. injection of carrageenan, reduced neutrophil recruitment. However, equimolar doses of nicotinamide or NHN failed to induce such effect. Single treatment (previous or late) with nicorandil (100mg/Kg, p.o.) also reduced neutrophils recruitment, although to a lesser extent when compared to the double treatment. Nicorandil reduced the concentrations of interleukin-1β, CXCL-1 and prostaglandin E2 in the pleural exudate. Concluding, we demonstrated the activity of nicorandil in a model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. This activity was characterized by reduction of the neutrophil accumulation and inhibition of production of inflammatory mediators. The effects induced by nicorandil on the leukocytes recruitment and production of inflammatory mediators contribute to a better understanding of its clinical benefits and indicate that these benefits may be due to its vasodilating and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26607465

  13. Oxidative Degradation of κ-Carrageenan%к-卡拉胶的氧化降解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂村; 张志焜; 耿美玉

    2002-01-01

    к-卡拉胶有着良好的药理和生理活性,但是由于分子量大,溶解性差使它的应用受到很大的限制.研究了在中性和酸性条件下利用H2O2对卡拉胶进行降解来制备低分子量的卡拉胶时H2O2浓度、卡拉胶浓度、反应温度和时间对反应的影响.发现提高H2O2浓度、降低卡拉胶浓度、提高反应温度有利于卡拉胶分子量的降低.通过粘度法测量了卡拉胶的平均分子量在1000~10000,并发现它的溶解性大大提高了.利用IR和13C-NMR研究了降解前后卡拉胶的结构变化.%κ-carrageenan has helpful physiological and pharmacological activities, but its applications on medicine are limited due to its high molecular weight and bad solubility. The κ-carrageenan low molecular weight (LMW) by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was produced firstly in the neutral and acid conditions. The effects of concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the ratio of reactants, reaction temperature and time were discussed. The average molecular weight (AMW) of κ-carrageenan was measured by viscosity method. The AMW varied from 1000 to 10000 and solubility was increased greatly. The chemical structure and the mechanism of degradation were studied by 13C-NMR and IR spectra.

  14. The prophylactic effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid and salazosulphapyridine on degraded-carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Experimental colitis was induced in guinea pigs by administration of 5% degraded carrageenan for 5 days. The prophylactic effect of a slow-release preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA; 13 mg/100 g/day) was compared with approximately equimolar amounts of salazosulphapyridine (SASP; 26 mg/100...... g/day) and placebo. Treatment was started 2 days before initiation of carrageenan administration. The drugs were administered through a chronic gastric fistula. At the end of the study concentrations of 5-ASA and acetylated 5-ASA (Ac-5-ASA) in cecal contents and in plasma were determined...... difference between the human ulcerative colitis and the carrageenan model may account for the lack of prophylactic effect of the slow-release 5-ASA in this experiment....

  15. Modification biological activity of S and R forms of Proteus mirabilis and Burkholderia cepacia lipopolysaccharides by carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabski, Michał; Barabanova, Anna; Gałczyńska, Katarzyna; Węgierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Dzidowska, Kamila; Augustyniak, Daria; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Lankoff, Anna; Yermak, Irina; Molinaro, Antonio; Kaca, Wiesław

    2016-09-20

    The modification of biological features of S and R forms of Proteus mirabilis and Burkholderia cepacia LPS by kappa/iota and kappa/beta carrageenans was shown in Limulus activation test, ELISA, human complement activation and apoptotic assay. The role of positively charged substituent Ara4N in lipid A was evaluated as a suspected major domain for interactions with sulphate groups of carrageenans.The experiments obtained by three serological methods indicated that not only lipid A part of LPS but also polysaccharide elements such as core and O-specific chain are involved in interaction with carrageenes. Carrageenans turned out to be non-cytotoxic for A549 cells and were able to inhibit the apoptotic effect caused by lipid A of P. mirabilis and B. cepacia. PMID:27261765

  16. Formation of κ-carrageenan-gelatin polyelectrolyte complexes studied by (1)H NMR, UV spectroscopy and kinematic viscosity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voron'ko, Nicolay G; Derkach, Svetlana R; Vovk, Mikhail A; Tolstoy, Peter M

    2016-10-20

    The intermolecular interactions between an anionic polysaccharide from the red algae κ-carrageenan and a gelatin polypeptide, forming stoichiometric polysaccharide-polypeptide (bio)polyelectrolyte complexes in the aqueous phase, were examined. The major method of investigation was high-resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Additional data were obtained by UV absorption spectroscopy, light scattering dispersion and capillary viscometry. Experimental data were interpreted in terms of the changing roles of electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds when κ-carrageenan-gelatin complexes are formed. At high temperatures, when biopolymer macromolecules in solution are in the state of random coil, hydrophobic interactions make a major contribution to complex stabilization. At the temperature of gelatin's coil→helix conformational transition and at lower temperatures, electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds play a defining role in complex formation. A proposed model of the κ-carrageenan-gelatin complex is discussed. PMID:27474666

  17. Antiinflammatory activity of tenoxicam gel on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenoxicam is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, used in the treatment of inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the musculoskeletal system. It is from the oxicam group of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. It is widely prescribed for the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, extra-articular disorders, bursitis, tendonitis, and nonarticular rheumatic condition. Tenoxicam has some side effects when taken orally, viz., epigastric pain, heartburn, nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, peptic ulcer, and hepatic impairment. The aim of this study was to formulate topical gel containing 1% of tenoxicam in 1% carbopol-940 and PEG-4000 and to evaluate it for antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The studies were conducted on Wistar rats of either sex (160-180 g. The change in oedema volume of the rat hind paw was measured using mercury plethysmometer. The readings were measured in terms of volume displaced in millimetre using a micropipette that has mark to 10 divisions in 1 ml. The carbopol gel formulation of tenoxicam containing 15% of ethanol and 5% of sodium lauryl sulphate was significantly more effective against oedema formation than the other formulation of tenoxicam gel and compared to the marketed product of piroxicam gel. Results suggest that the 1% tenoxicam gel in carbopol-940 inhibited 52% of carrageenan-induced oedema formation as compared with the 44% inhibition obtained with marketed product of piroxicam gel.

  18. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action. PMID:23990384

  19. Interaction between κ- and ι-carrageenan and anthocyanins from Vaccinium myrtillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navikaite, Vesta; Simanaviciute, Deimante; Klimaviciute, Rima; Jakstas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas

    2016-09-01

    Anthocyanins (ATCs) from the Vaccinium myrtillus water extract have been incorporated into the κ-carrageenan (κ-CARG) or ι-carrageenan (ι-CARG) during complexation in dilute solutions or adsorption onto the microgranules of κ-CARG or ι-CARG cross-linked with epichlorohydrin. At the optimal weight ratio of CARG to ATC at 0.4:1 and the total ATCs and CARG concentration≤0.07g/L, stable dispersions of the κ-CARG/ATCs or ι-CARG/ATCs complex nanosize particles were obtained. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models have been used to describe the equilibrium adsorption of ATCs on cross-linked CARG. The introduction of ATCs into CARG and cross-linked CARG was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The data of the HPLC analysis showed that during adsorption on cross-linked ι-CARG microgranules ATCs are isolated from the crude water extract of wild bilberries, whereas other phenolics remain in the adsorption solution. After desorption from cross-linked CARG/ATC into different media the sufficiently pure and stable solutions of ATCs were obtained. PMID:27185113

  20. PVP/PEG/Carrageenan/Silver acetate hydrogels by {gamma}-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Youn Mook; Youn, Young; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    In recent day, there is much interest in the biocidal activity of silver since silver is known to be safe and effective as disinifectant and biocidal material against coliforms and viruses. In this study, hydrogels containing silver acetate as antibacterial agent have been prepared using gamma rays irradiation. The hydrogels are composed of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), carrageenan and silver acetate. The concentration of solution was 9 wt%. The ratio of PVP: PEG: carrageenan was 6:1:2. The concentration of the silver acetate were 0,0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07% and Gamma irradiation dose was 25 kGy. The Gamma irradiation dose in hydrogels with 0.01% silver acetate were 20 kGy, 35 kGy, 50 kGy, 65 kGy, and 80 kGy. The results showed that 0.01% silver acetate concentration of hydrogels by 25 kGy irradiation dose showed the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, antibacterial activity of various Gamma irradiation dose in hydrogels treated 0.01% silver acetate showed highest 35 kGy irradiation dose against Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. The effect of environmental humidity on radiation-induced degradation of carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Murat; Toprak, Deniz; Güven, Olgun

    2014-12-19

    Better understanding of the chemistry of radiation-induced degradation is becoming of increasing importance on account of the utilization of polymeric materials in a variety of radiation environments as well as beneficial uses of degraded polymers. In this report the importance of environmental humidity on the degrading effect of radiation has been considered from the point of view of controlling the molecular weights of kappa- and iota-carrageenans. These two polysaccharides were irradiated in solid form under strictly controlled environmental humidity conditions by incubating and later irradiating the samples over saturated aqueous salt solutions of NaCl, NaNO3 and MgCl2. The degradation was followed in detail by a careful gel permeation chromatographic analysis of their respective molecular weights before and after irradiation. The chain scission yield values G(S) were found to decrease with the water adsorbed from environment at every absorbed dose in the range of 5-100 kGy. On the other hand at very high water uptakes the yield of chain scission again increases especially at low doses. The decrease in degradation yield was attributed to the plastifying effect of water trapped in between the polymer chains facilitating the macroradical recombinations thus reducing the extent of chain scission. This study showed that although carrageenans were irradiated in solid form, the difference in their water uptake from changing environmental humidity has a profound effect in controlling their molecular weights by irradiation with ionizing radiation.

  2. Iota-Carrageenan-based biodegradable Ag0 nanocomposite hydrogels for the inactivation of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramudu, Tippabattini; Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd; Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu; Sadiku, Rotimi; Ramam, Koduri; Raju, Konduru Mohana

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis and characterization of Iota-Carrageenan based on a novel biodegradable silver nanocomposite hydrogels. The aim of study was to investigate whether these hydrogels have the potential to be used in bacterial inactivation applications. Biodegradable silver nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by a green process using acrylamide (AM) with I-Carrageenan (IC). The silver nanoparticles were prepared as silver colloid by reducing AgNO3 with leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem leaf) that (Ag(0)) formed the hydrogel network. The formation of biodegradable silver nanoparticles in the hydrogels was characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, thermo gravimetrical analysis, X-ray diffractometry studies, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies. In addition, swelling behavior and degradation properties were systematically investigated. Furthermore, the biodegradable silver nanoparticle composite hydrogels developed were tested for antibacterial activities. The antibacterial activity of the biodegradable silver nanocomposite hydrogels was studied by inhibition zone method against Bacillus and Escherichia coli, which suggested that the silver nanocomposite hydrogels developed were effective as potential candidates for antimicrobial applications. Therefore, the inorganic biodegradable hydrogels developed can be used effectively for biomedical application.

  3. Development and characterization of a new hydrogel based on galactomannan and κ-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paulo A G; de Seixas, José R P C; Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Santos, Gustavo R C; Mourão, Paulo A S; Barros, Wilson; Correia, Maria T S; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2015-12-10

    A new hydrogel based on two natural polysaccharides was prepared in aqueous medium with 1.7% (w/v) galactomannan (from Cassia grandis seeds) and different concentrations of κ-carrageenan (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%w/v), CaCl2 (0.0, 0.1 and 0.2M) and pH (5.0, 5.5 and 6.0), using a full factorial design based on rheological parameters. The best formulation was obtained with 1.7% (w/v) galactomannan and 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan, containing 0.2M CaCl2 at pH 5.0. Nuclear magnetic resonance and scanning electron microscopy where used in order to characterize the hydrogel formulation. A shelf life study was carried out with this formulation along 90 days-period of storage at 4 °C, evaluating pH, color, microbial contamination and rheology. This hydrogel showed no significant changes in pH, no microbial contamination and became more translucent along the aging. Analyses by nuclear magnetic resonance and rheology showed a larger organization of the polysaccharides in the hydrogel matrix. The results demonstrated that this hydrogel was stable with possible applications in medical and cosmetic fields.

  4. Three-Dimensional Supermacroporous Carrageenan-Gelatin Cryogel Matrix for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A tissue-engineered polymeric scaffold should provide suitable macroporous structure similar to that of extracellular matrix which can induce cellular activities and guide tissue regeneration. Cryogelation is a technique in which appropriate monomers or polymeric precursors frozen at sub-zero temperature leads to the formation of supermacroporous cryogel matrices. In this study carrageenan-gelatin (natural polymers cryogels were synthesized by using glutaraldehyde and 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC-NHS as crosslinking agent at optimum concentrations. Matrices showed large and interconnected pores which were in the range of 60–100 μm diameter. Unconfined compression analysis showed elasticity and physical integrity of all cryogels, as these matrices regained their original length after 90% compressing from the original size. Moreover Young’s modulus was found to be in the range of 4–11 kPa for the dry cryogel sections. These cryogels also exhibited good in vitro degradation capacity at 37 °C within 4 weeks of incubation. Supermacroporous carrageenan-gelatin cryogels showed efficient cell adherence and proliferation of Cos-7 cells which was examined by SEM. PI nuclear stain was used to observe cell-matrix interaction. Cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was checked by MTT assay which showed that cryogels are biocompatible and act as a potential material for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  5. EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION FOR ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY IN CARRAGEENAN INDUCED PAW OEDEMA MODEL IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Surendra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dazzle Capsule, a Poly herbal formulation is marketed in management of Arthritis and joint-musculo skeletal pain. In this study, safety and efficacy of this polyherbal formulation was investigated in which it was being proved safe for use via acute toxicity study and efficacy was being evaluated by carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test in rats in order to explore its anti-inflammatory activity at the dose level of 90 and 180 mg/kg, p.o, compared with Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.. It showed an highly significant reduction in oedema (p<0.001. Indomethacin inhibited oedema by 30.054% and 36.216% at 2 and 3 hr after carrageenan injection, respectively. The inhibitory effect of Dazzle Capsule began at 2 hr or later after carrageenan injection depending upon the administered dose. Low doses of Dazzle Capsule (90 mg/kg gave highly significant inhibitory effects of 37.894- 39.378%, and higher doses (180 mg/kg caused highly significant inhibition of 19.125- 30%. The reduction of oedema by Indomethacin and Dazzle Capsule at 2 hr or more after carrageenan injection suggested that both compounds produce anti-inflammatory effects in the second phase of oedema, indicating inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Hence, it was concluded that, Dazzle Capsule is having potent anti-inflammatory activity yet safe polyherbal formulation for use in arthritis management.

  6. Kappa carrageenan : a study on its physico-chemical properties, sol-gel transition and interaction with milk proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeren, T.H.M.

    1976-01-01

    In this thesis a characterization of the milkreactive polysaccharide κ-carrageenan by means of light scattering, viscosimetry and sedimentation experiments is presented. The disorder/order transitions occurring at the gelpoint of these substances are discussed in terms of a coil/double helix transit

  7. Radiation synthesis and characteristic of IPN hydrogels composed of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and Kappa-Carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Jing E-mail: janeren2000@sohu.com; Zhang Yanqun; Li Jiuqiang; Ha Hongfei

    2001-09-01

    A new system of IPN hydrogels composed of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and natural macromolecule, Kappa-Carrageenan (KC) were prepared by {gamma}-irradiation. Their gel fraction and swelling behavior were studied. Elemental analysis and gel strength measurement results showed that there was an amount of KC that remained in the gels and the gel strength was enhanced obviously.

  8. Regulation of prostaglandin generation in carrageenan-induced pleurisy by inducible nitric oxide synthase in knockout mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, A.; Cuzzocrea, S.; Mazzon, E.; Serraino, I.; Sarro, A. de; Dugo, L.; Felice, M.R.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Rosa, M. Di; Musci, G.; Caputi, A.P.; Sautebin, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, by comparing the responses in wild-type mice (iNOSWT) and mice lacking (iNOSKO) the inducible (or type 2) nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), we investigated the correlation between endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) generation in carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The in

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOME TEXTURE PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF CARRAGEENAN GELS AS A RESULT OF ITS DEFINED DIVERSIFIED FREEZING AND THAWING TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozłowicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Model samples of carrageenan gels based on water, milk and juice were air-blast frozen and frozen by immersion in glycol and in liquid nitrogen. The gel freezing rate was determined on the basis of the kinetics of freezing. Carrageenan gel samples were characterized by evaluation of its thawing drip loss and hardness determined with compression and penetration tests. Freezing in liquid nitrogen ensured the highest freezing rates. Thawing drip loss of gels significantly depended on the carrageenan content, pH of the solution, freezing method and freezing rate. The resulting relationships are linear functions with high determination coefficients. The results of compression and penetration tests prove the significant effect of the carrageenan content and pH on gel hardness. The higher carrageenan content in a sample, the higher compression force and penetration of the gel. Gel freezing resulted in lower hardness. Freezing conditions had a significant effect on the properties tested. The correlation between compression forces and penetration depending on the carrageenan content and the freezing method was described using regression equations with high determination coefficients. Gels based on milk and juice with 2.2% carrageenan content are recommended for immersion freezing at rates above 5.0 cm·h-1.

  10. Heparin-Functionalized chitosan/ κ-carrageenan complexes as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell-based approaches to tissue regeneration are playing an increasingly important role in bone and cartilage repair. This is made possible through the use of growth factors, which are signaling molecules that induce a number of effects such as cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. But problems arise as these growth factors tend to be expensive, short-lived and slow moving through the extracellular matrix, making them very inefficient in their current form of introduction. One such growth factor is basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The general objective of this study is to construct heparin-functionalized chitosan/κ-carrageenan scaffolds, which when bound to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), may be used in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells for differentiation into cartilage. In this study, gels of semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPN) of chitosan and κ-carrageenan (2:4:1 blend ration) were prepared using calcium chloride as a cross-linker. The gels were then functionalized with heparin, which is known for its growth factor binding ability, using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) as cross-linker. The functionalized gels were then reshaped into scaffold on the wells of 48-well plates through freeze-dry method. The scaffolds were found to be realatively porous with pore sizes larger than 100 μm which satisfies the requirements for cell culture. Subsequent thermogravimetric analysis shows that the scaffolds were relatively stable with a degradation temperature of 277°C. Additionally, there was no observable separation of the individual degradation temperatures of chitosan and κ-carrageenan, confirming that a single miscible phase in the form of a semi-IPN structure was created. Results of scanning electron microscopy also showed that the scaffolds were stable under 2 hours of UV sterilization. The FTIR spectra of the heparinized PEC showed characteristic absorption bands (S=O asymetric stretch) in the area of 1160

  11. A 90-day dietary study on kappa carrageenan with emphasis on the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Myra L; Nuber, David; Blakemore, William R; Harriman, Jay F; Cohen, Samuel M

    2007-01-01

    Groups of Fischer 344 rats (20/sex/group) received control or treated diets at levels of 0, 25,000 or 50,000 ppm kappa carrageenan with a molecular weight range (Mw) of 196,000-257,000 Da for 90 days. The Low Molecular Weight Tail (LMT) ranged between 1.9% and 12.0%<50 kDa (mean 7%) based on the results of a program initiated to develop a validated analytical method to measure the LMT. This is the first GLP dietary study in which carrageenan is characterized by percentage LMT. Clinical examinations were performed daily. Individual food consumption/body weight measurements were made weekly. Ophthalmic exam was conducted prior to and at the end of treatment. Hematology/serum chemistry and urinalysis evaluations were done at necropsy, as were organ weight determinations for adrenals, brain, heart, kidneys, liver, ovaries, spleen, testes and thyroid with parathyroids. Full histopathological evaluation of organs was conducted on the control and 50,000 ppm groups, including hematoxylin-eosin-stained cross sections of paraffin-embedded rolled colon. Clinical signs were limited to soft feces in high dose rats and to a lesser extent in low dose rats. There were no treatment-related effects on body weights, urinalysis, hematology or clinical chemistry parameters, or on organ weights or ophthalmic, macroscopic or microscopic findings. The gastrointestinal tract appeared normal in detailed histopathological evaluation using the Swiss roll technique. The NOAEL is 50,000 ppm in the diet (mean calculated test material consumption of 3394+/-706 mg/kg/day in males, 3867+/-647 mg/kg/day in females). The results of the study provide evidence that it is not necessary to characterize carrageenan by a specification for LMT (less than 5% below 50 kDa) as has been done in Commission Directive 2004/45/EC of 16 April 2004 (Commission Directive, 2004/45/EC of 16 April 2004 amending Directive 96/77/EC laying down specific purity criteria on food additives other than colors and sweeteners

  12. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone/carrageenan blend hydrogels with nanosilver prepared by gamma radiation for use as an antimicrobial wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Antaryami; Singh, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogels were prepared using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blended with carrageenan by gamma irradiation at different doses of 25 and 40 kGy. Gel fraction of hydrogels prepared using 10 and 15% PVP in combination with 0.25 and 0.5% carrageenan was evaluated. Based on gel fraction, 15% PVP in combination with 0.25% carrageenan and radiation dose of 25 kGy was selected for the preparation of hydrogels with nanosilver. Radiolytic synthesis of silver nanoparticles within the PVP hydrogel was carried out. The hydrogels with silver nanoparticles were assessed for antimicrobial effectiveness and physical properties of relevance to clinical performance. Fluid handling capacity (FHC) for PVP/carrageenan was 2.35 ± 0.39-6.63 ± 0.63 g/10 cm(2) in 2-24 h. No counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans were observed in the presence of hydrogels containing 100 ppm nanosilver after 3-6 h. The release of silver from hydrogels containing 100 ppm nanosilver was 20.42 ± 1.98 ppm/100 cm(2) in 24 h. Hydrogels containing 100 ppm nanosilver with efficient FHC demonstrated potential microbicidal activity (≥3 log10 decrease in CFU/ml) against wound pathogens, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans. PVP/carrageenan hydrogels containing silver nanoparticles can be used as wound dressings to control infection and facilitate the healing process for burns and other skin injuries.

  13. Influence of elasticity on the syneresis properties of κ-carrageenan gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Komla

    2015-01-22

    Kappa-carrageenan hydrogels spontaneously release fluid (syneresis) under certain elasticity conditions, which depend on the temperature, the salt concentration in the gel (KCl) and the polysaccharide concentration. Strong and weak gels exhibit notably weak syneresis properties. The maximum syneresis was found at intermediate elasticity where the gel was neither strong nor weak. The variation in the gel composition indicated that the fluid is released according to the thermal retraction coefficient, which depends on the elasticity. Experiments revealed a dynamic equilibrium of the syneresis process where syneresis fluid was not withdrawn. However, once the fluid was removed from the gel surface, the release of solvent starts again if the elasticity is below the compressive pressure in the gel. Therefore, swelling of the gel is suggested as an explanation for the dynamic equilibrium of the syneresis process.

  14. Selenium Nanoparticles Formed by Modulation of Carrageenan Enhance Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin; Lee, Ki-Young; Lee, Chang-Moon

    2016-03-01

    Fabrication of nano-sized selenium (Se) particles may help to expend the applications of Se. In this study, we focused on the preparation and characterization of Se nanoparticles (Se NPs) modulated with carrageenan (CA). Furthermore, their influence on osteoblast cell growth was investigated in vitro. Spherical Se-NPs, of 100-200 nm diameter, were prepared simply by adding κ-, ι-, and λ-CA, which has sulfate groups, hydroxyl groups, and carboxyl groups. CA-modulated Se NPs (CA-Se NPs) were readily suspended in liquid medium with no precipitation over long time periods. In particular, it was found through Alizarin Red S staining that the growth of osteoblast D1 cells treated with λ-CA-Se NPs was improved significantly. These results suggest that Se NPs can be prepared simply, using CA, have good suspension stability in liquid medium, and λ-CA-Se NPs may induce the growth of osteoblast cells.

  15. Grafting of acrylamide onto kappa-carrageenan via {gamma}-irradiation: Optimization and swelling behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezanejade Bardajee, Ghasem [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourjavadi, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: purjavad@sharif.edu; Sheikh, Nasrin [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Radiation Applications Research School, Kargar Avenue, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadegh Amini-Fazl, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Polymer Research Laboratory, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    The Taguchi method, a robust experimental design for optimization, was used for the synthesis of a superabsorbent hydrogel network using {gamma}-rays as an initiator, energy source and crosslinker at the same time. Nine different samples of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared in various conditions from kappa-carrageenan ({kappa}C) and acrylamide by {gamma}-irradiation at room temperature. Considering the results of nine trials and according to analysis of variance (ANOVA), a new experimental condition with the concentrations of {kappa}C and acrylamide 1.5 g and 0.028 mol (2 g in total volume of 50 mL H{sub 2}O), respectively, as well as {gamma}-ray at the optimum total dose (7 kGy) was proposed. After preparing the desired hydrogels according to optimum condition, the swelling behavior of hydrogels in different media was investigated.

  16. Biosilica-coated kappa-carrageenan microspheres for yeast alcohol dehydrogenase encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Jiang, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Zhong-Yi

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a novel polysaccharide/inorganic hybrid biocomposite was prepared through biomineralization-inspired process for efficient immobilization of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). YADH-encapsulated kappa-carrageenan microspheres (KCM) were first coated with chitosan, which was used to guide and catalyze the biomimetic formation of silica, and then coated with silica derived from tetraethoxysiliane (TEOS). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with a energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) was employed to investigate the composition and thickness of silica film. Compared with KCM, the silica-coated kappa-carrageenan microspheres (SKCM) containing YADH exhibited improved anti-swelling and catalytic properties. Enzyme leakage of YADH in KCM was detected to be 63.9% after 1 h, while the enzyme leakage in SKCM was as low as 18.2%. The KCM adsorbed water promptly and after 1 h maximum water uptake can be as high as 1576 wt%, while the water uptake of SKCM was only 143 wt% even after 48 h. The optimum pH and temperature for encapsulated YADH were pH 6.5 and 25 degrees C, which were just the same as those for free YADH, but the encapsulated YADH exhibited broader pH and temperature ranges for high activity. Furthermore, the relative activity of YADH in KCM declined almost to zero after 8 recycles, while the relative activity of YADH in SKCM still maintained more than 50%. The significantly increased recycling stability of YADH in SKCM may be attributed to the effective inhibition of enzyme leakage by the compact biosilica layer.

  17. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p < 0.05). Also CHE, Hex, EA and vitexin but not quinic acid inhibited TNF-α and IL-17 levels (p < 0.05). C. antisyphiliticus caused anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activated leukocytes, exudate concentrations, NOx, TNF-α, and IL-17 levels. The compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action.

  18. Use of antioxidants substances to protect the hydrocolloids carrageenan, agaran and alginates used in food industry when exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrageenan, agaran e alginates are hydrocolloids largely employed in every kind of food products as stabilizing agent and viscosity builder. The human body does not absorb them, so they do not introduce extra calories in the diet. Irradiation is presented as an important alternative method in food preservation because do not induce temperature increase being of good efficiency in cold food ingredients decontamination. In this work aqueous solutions of carrageenan, agar e sodium alginate were gamma irradiated (0-10 kGy) in presence of ascorbic acid, roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract and soy isoflavone. Edible polysaccharide solutions showed to be suitable systems for the evaluation of ionizing radiation effects as they presented a singular radiosensitivity through viscosity changes. The results obtained showed that in general the antioxidants employed had a radioprotective action that can be of importance in the future commercial applications of food irradiation. (author)

  19. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of carrageenan, agarans and alginates to be used as food additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrageenan, agarans and alginates are phycocolloids, which change the consistence of the foodstuff and prevent undesirable changes such as moisture migration or textural profile changes. These phycocolloids are additives used in large scale for all kind of food products. They are not absorbed for the human organism and do not introduce extra calories in the diet. The process of irradiation, is an alternative method of great potential, because do not increase the temperature and it is highly in the decontamination of food ingredients. In this work, agar alginates and carrageenan were irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of the irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. The viscosity of these hydrocolloids shows a decrease when submitted to an irradiation with doses until 10 kGy. (author)

  20. 卡拉胶流变学特性及应用研究%Rheological Properties and Application of Carrageenan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟娟; 吴广州

    2012-01-01

      以半精制卡拉胶粉末为原料,主要研究了卡拉胶的含量,pH值和钾离子浓度对卡拉胶凝胶强度和黏度的影响,以及时间对卡拉胶的凝胶强度和出水的影响.结果表明凝胶强度随着卡拉胶含量的增加呈现线性增加渐趋平稳,受钾离子的影响先增大后降低,在pH8.0和10.0处出现2个拐点;卡拉胶溶液黏度随着含量的增加迅速增大,随钾离子的浓度增加而减少,中性时黏度最大;卡拉胶的出水量随着时间的延长而增大.%  Study on the effect of gel strength and viscosity from the content of carrageenan,pH value,concentration of potassium,and influence of time.The results indicated that the content of Carrageenan is an important affecting factor for gel strength and viscosity.Gel strength increases with the increase of the content of carrageenan which gradually reached a plateau,and increases with the increase of concentration of potassium.During the period,the two turning-point appear at pH 8.0 and 10.Gel viscosity increases with the increase of colloid content promptly,but decreases with concentration of potassium.Gel strength and water exit of carrageenan become stronger when the time is being extended.

  1. Characterisation of Prosopis juliflora seed gum and the effect of its addition to {kappa}-carrageenan systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azero, Edwin G. [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Andrade, Cristina T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano]. E-mail: ctandrade@ima.ufrj.br

    2006-09-15

    The galactomannan from Prosopis juliflora (PJ galactomannan) was extracted from milled seeds in water at 50 deg C. Its structural and solution properties were characterised in comparison with a commercial sample of guar gum (GG galactomannan). After partial degradation, the resulting samples were submitted to {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy. The mannose to galactose (M/G) ratios of PJ (M/G = 1.64) and GG (M/G = 1.85) galactomannans were estimated from the relative peak areas of the corresponding C-1 lines. Expansion of the C-4 lines revealed differences in the fine structure of the two galactomannans. The intrinsic viscosity determined for the GG sample, [{eta}] = 10.3 dL g{sup -1}, was slightly higher than that determined for PJ galactomannan, [{eta}] = 9.4 dL g{sup -1}. Dynamic experiments carried out at the same concentrations showed similar viscoelastic behaviours for the two gums. No enhancement in the storage modulus (G') was observed for {kappa}-carrageenan/PJ mixed solution in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} KCl at 1.0 g L{sup -1} total polymer concentration, in relation to {kappa}-carrageenan alone. Self-supporting gels obtained by mixing {kappa}-carrageenan and PJ or GG galactomannans in 0.25 mol L{sup -1} KCl at 10 g L{sup -1} total polymer concentration displayed similar mechanical properties. (author)

  2. Heterogeneity in iota-carrageenan molecular structure: insights for polymorph II→III transition in the presence of calcium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Chandrasekaran, Rengaswami (Purdue)

    2008-06-24

    Iota-carrageenan is used in pharmaceutical and food applications due to its ability to complex with other hydrocolloids and proteins. Six distinct cation dependent allomorphs, consistent with its versatile functionality, have so far been observed in the solid state. In this contribution, X-ray structural details of calcium iota-carrageenan (form III) are reported. The polysaccharide retains the half-staggered, parallel, 3-fold, right-handed double helix stabilized by interchain hydrogen bonds from O-2H and O-6H in the Galp units. Results show that there are four helices, rather than one in I or three in II, organized in a larger pseudo-trigonal unit cell of dimensions a=27.44, c=13.01 A, and gamma=120 degrees . The four helices have similar core structures, but their sulfate group orientations are quite different. Fifteen calcium ions and 64 water molecules hold the helices together and promote helix-helix interactions. The results portray how the helices would shuffle around in an orchestrated manner to yield calcium iota-carrageenan III from II.

  3. Deep eutectic solvents as efficient solvent system for the extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2016-01-20

    Three different deep eutectic solvents (DESs) prepared by the complexation of choline chloride with urea, ethylene glycol and glycerol along with their hydrated counterparts were used for the selective extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii. Upon comparison of the quality of the polysaccharide with the one obtained using water as extraction media as well as the one extracted using widely practiced conventional method, it was found that, the physicochemical as well as rheological properties of κ-carrageenan obtained using DESs as solvents was at par to the one obtained using conventional method and was superior in quality when compared to κ-carrageenan obtained using water as solvent. Considering the tedious nature of the extraction method employed in conventional extraction process, the DESs can be considered as suitable alternative solvents for the facile extraction of the polysaccharide directly from the seaweed. However, among the hydrated and non-hydrated DESs, the hydrated ones were found to be more effective in comparison to their non-hydrated counterparts. PMID:26572431

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Κ-Carrageenan-chitosan hollow capsules for the encapsulation and controlled release of 5-flourouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer multilayer capsules are made by generating a template, coating it with alternating layers of different polymers and removing the template to make it hollow. It is considered a good drug delivery system as the capsules are very versatile and can be adjusted according to the kind of drug delivery system as the capsules are very versatile and can be adjusted according to the kind of drug being encapsulated by just changing the polymers and template used. Κ-Carrageenan and chitosan are polyelectrolytic biocompatible polymers which are widely studied and used for a variety of biomedical applications. Polymer multilayer capsule can be made with these polymers using the layer-by-layer deposition (LbL) method. The strong electrostatic attraction between these two oppositely charged polymers which males the capsules stable and their biocompatibility makes them excellent candidates for drug delivery applications. The drug to be encapsulated in this study is fluorouracil, a widely used drug for the treatment of cancerous tumors with a large variety of side effects which requires controlled and targeted delivery in the patient. The objectives of this study are the following: to synthesize κ-carrageenan-chitosan hollow capsules with 1 layer κ-carrageenan, and 5, 10, and 11 alternating layers of κ-carrageenan and chitosan, to obtain the fluorescence images and microscopy images of the hollow capsules, and to determine the encapsulation and release profile of fluorouracil as a function of time. Hollow capsules with 5 layers of alternating chitosan and κ-carrageenan have been synthesized with polystyrene as the core template, and the polystyrene removed after depositing the polymer layers by washing it with THF. The capsules were then subjected to gamma irradiation at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). It was determined from the UV-Vis spectroscopy of the THF washings that five washings are needed to completely remove the polystyrene core template from

  5. Controlled release of thiamin in a glassy κ-carrageenan/glucose syrup matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyoyai, Naksit; Bannikova, Anna; Small, Darryl M; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-01-22

    The work dealt with the diffusional mobility of thiamin embedded in a high-solid matrix of κ-carrageenan with glucose syrup. It utilized thermomechanical analysis in the form of modulated differential scanning calorimetry and small-deformation dynamic oscillation in shear, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The structural properties of the matrix were assessed in a temperature induced rubber-to-glass transformation. A thiamin-dye binding assay was employed to monitor the diffusion process of the vitamin from the high-solid preparation to ethylene glycol. The relationship between mechanical properties of the carbohydrate matrix and vitamin mobility was assessed via the application of the combined framework of the free volume theory and the predictions of the reaction rate theory. Results argue that the transport of the micronutrient is governed by the structural relaxation of the high-solid matrix. These were further treated with the concept of Fickian diffusion coefficient to provide the rate of the bioactive compound mobility within the present experimental settings.

  6. Gelam honey attenuates carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation via NF-κB pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Zuhair Hussein

    Full Text Available The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Gelam honey in inflammation induced rats via NF-κB signalling pathway. Rats paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the right hind paw. Rats were pre-treated with Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o. and NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o., in two time points (1 and 7 days. Our results showed that Gelam honey at both concentrations suppressed the gene expressions of NF-κB (p65 & p50 and IκBα in inflamed rats paw tissues. In addition, Gelam honey inhibited the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB and decreased the cytosolic degradation of IκBα dose dependently in inflamed rats paw tissues. The immunohistochemical expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were also decreased in inflamed rats paw tissues when treated with Gelam honey. The results of our findings suggest that Gelam honey exhibits its inhibitory effects by attenuating NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and inhibiting IκBα degradation, with subsequent decrease of inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α.

  7. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sodium Valproate on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mj Khoshnood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABESTRACT: Introduction & objective: Inflammation is a body defensive response to the endogenous and exogenous stimulators such as chemical, radiation, trauma and invasive microorganism, which result pain and tissue necrosis. There are many natural and synthetic drugs for treatment of inflammation and lot of them are under investigation. Sodium valporate is an antiepileptic drug used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizure notably absence, myocolonic seizure, acute manic phase of bipolar disorder and prophylaxis of migraine. The previous observations showed sodium valporate increases level of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the central and peripheral nervous system. In acute inflammation, GABA showed a significant attenuation of paw edema and nociception. The aim of this study was evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of sodium valporate. Materials & Methods: In order to evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiexudative of sodium valporate doses of 200,400 and 600 mg/kg were investigated on rat paw edema that induced by carrageenan. In addition, the plasma leakage in the inflamed tissue was evaluated by application of trypan blue as intravenous injection. Dexamethason was used as positive control. Results: Results showed sodium valporate doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg decreased inflammatory and exudative effect as compared to control group. Conclusion: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of this drug were not evident but we can say sodium valporate in addition to already proved effects has anti-inflammatory effect.

  8. Radiation Processed Carrageenan Improves Plant Growth, Physiological Activities, and Alkaloids Production in Catharanthus roseus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don (Apocynaceae is a medicinal plant that produces indole alkaloids used in cancer chemotherapy. Commercially important antineoplastic alkaloids, namely, vinblastine and vincristine, are mainly present in the leaves of C. roseus. Gamma-rays irradiated carrageenan (ICR has been proven as plant growth promoting substance for a number of medicinal and agricultural plants. Considering the importance of ICR as a promoter of plant growth and alkaloids production in C. roseus, a pot experiment was carried out to explore the effect of ICR on the plant growth, physiological activities, and production of anticancer alkaloids in C. roseus at 120 and 150 days after planting (DAP. Foliar application of ICR (at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg L−1 significantly improved the performance of C. roseus. 80 mg L−1 of ICR enhanced the leaf yield by 29.2 and 35.4% and the herbage yield by 32.5 and 37.4% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively, over the control. The spray of ICR at 80 mg L−1 increased the yield of vinblastine by 64.3 and 65.0% and of vincristine by 75.5 and 77.0% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control.

  9. Amorphous nanodrugs prepared by complexation with polysaccharides: carrageenan versus dextran sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Kiew, Tie Yi; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous nanodrugs prepared by electrostatic complexation of drug molecules with oppositely charged polysaccharides represent a promising bioavailability enhancement strategy for poorly-soluble drugs owed to their high supersaturation generation capability and simple preparation. Using ciprofloxacin (CIP) as the model drug, we investigated the effects of using dextran sulfate (DXT) or carrageenan (CGN) on the (1) preparation efficiency, (2) physical characteristics, (3) supersaturation generation, (4) antimicrobial activity, and (5) cytotoxicity of the amorphous drug-polysaccharide nanoparticle complex (nanoplex) produced. Owing to the higher charge density and chain flexibility of DXT, coupled with the greater hydrophobicity of CGN, the CIP-DXT nanoplex exhibited superior preparation efficiency and larger size than the CIP-CGN nanoplex. Whereas the low solubility and high gelation tendency of CGN resulted in superior supersaturation generation capability for the CIP-DXT nanoplex. The non-cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, colloidal, and amorphous state stability were established for both nanoplexes, making them an ideal supersaturated drug delivery system. PMID:25498670

  10. Pimaradienoic Acid Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Leukocyte Recruitment and Edema in Mice: Inhibition of Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide and Cytokine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Sandra S; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Zarpelon, Ana C; Possebon, Maria I; de Souza, Anderson R; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S; Arakawa, Nilton S; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-01-01

    Pimaradienoic acid (PA; ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) is a pimarane diterpene found in plants such as Vigueira arenaria Baker (Asteraceae) in the Brazilian savannas. Although there is evidence on the analgesic and in vitro inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways, and paw edema by PA, its anti-inflammatory effect deserves further investigation. Thus, the objective of present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of PA in carrageenan-induced peritoneal and paw inflammation in mice. Firstly, we assessed the effect of PA in carrageenan-induced leukocyte recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity. Next, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of PA. The effect of PA on carrageenan-induced oxidative stress in the paw skin and peritoneal cavity was assessed. We also tested the effect of PA on nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and inflammatory cytokine production in the peritoneal cavity. PA inhibited carrageenan-induced recruitment of total leukocytes and neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner. PA also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity in the paw skin. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of PA depended on maintaining paw skin antioxidant activity as observed by the levels of reduced glutathione, ability to scavenge the ABTS cation and reduce iron as well as by the inhibition of superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, PA inhibited carrageenan-induced peritoneal production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. PA presents prominent anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced inflammation by reducing oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and cytokine production. Therefore, it seems to be a promising anti-inflammatory molecule that merits further investigation. PMID:26895409

  11. Synthesis of magnetic oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite adsorbent and its application in cationic Methylene Blue dye adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Osman; Tunç, Sibel; Polat, Tülin Gürkan; Bozoğlan, Bahar Kancı

    2016-08-20

    In this study, magnetic oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube (OMWCNT)-Fe3O4 and OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized and used as adsorbent for the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Magnetic nanocomposites were characterized by using of specific surface area, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope measurements. The results of characterization analyses exhibited that OMWCNT was successfully modified with κ-carrageenan. Furthermore, OMWCNT-Fe3O4 and OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were of a super-paramagnetic property. Adsorption studies revealed that the data of adsorption kinetics and isotherm were well fitted by the pseudo second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. The adsorption amounts of magnetic adsorbents increased with contact time and initial dye concentration. Compared with magnetic OMWCNT-Fe3O4 nanocomposite, magnetic OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite showed a better adsorption performance for the removal of MB from aqueous solution. Therefore, OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite may be used as a magnetic adsorbent to remove the cationic dyes from wastewaters. PMID:27178911

  12. Molecular modeling of lectin-like protein from Acacia farnesiana reveals a possible anti-inflammatory mechanism in Carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Vanessa Erika Ferreira; Matias da Rocha, Bruno Anderson; Batista da Nóbrega, Raphael; Silva-Filho, José Caetano; Teixeira, Claudener Souza; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Ferreira, Sergio Henrique; Figueiredo, Jozi Godoy; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Delatorre, Plinio

    2013-01-01

    Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL) is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA). Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN). This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through structural comparison with anti-inflammatory legume lectins. The AFAL model was obtained by molecular modeling and molecular docking with glycan and carrageenan were performed to explain the AFAL structural behavior and biological activity. Pisum sativum lectin was the best template for molecular modeling. The AFAL structure model is folded as a β sandwich. The model differs from template in loop regions, number of β strands and carbohydrate-binding site. Carrageenan and glycan bind to different sites on AFAL. The ability of AFAL binding to carrageenan can be explained by absence of the sixth β -strand (posterior β sheets) and two β strands in frontal region. AFAL can inhibit pathway inflammatory process by carrageenan injection by connecting to it and preventing its entry into the cell and triggers the reaction. PMID:24490151

  13. Molecular Modeling of Lectin-Like Protein from Acacia farnesiana Reveals a Possible Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Erika Ferreira Abrantes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA. Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN. This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through structural comparison with anti-inflammatory legume lectins. The AFAL model was obtained by molecular modeling and molecular docking with glycan and carrageenan were performed to explain the AFAL structural behavior and biological activity. Pisum sativum lectin was the best template for molecular modeling. The AFAL structure model is folded as a β sandwich. The model differs from template in loop regions, number of β strands and carbohydrate-binding site. Carrageenan and glycan bind to different sites on AFAL. The ability of AFAL binding to carrageenan can be explained by absence of the sixth β-strand (posterior β sheets and two β strands in frontal region. AFAL can inhibit pathway inflammatory process by carrageenan injection by connecting to it and preventing its entry into the cell and triggers the reaction.

  14. Effect of process conditions on the gel viscosity and gel strength of semi-refined carrageenan (SRC produced from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awang Bono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kappaphycus alvarezii or commonly known Euchema cottonii is a good source of kappa-carrageenan and can be found cultivated in the coastal areas of Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia. Carrageenans have many applications and are utilized in human food and pet-food industry. Carrageenans are also utilized in non-food industry such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, printing and textile formulations. Currently, the Southeast Asian region is producing semi refined carrageenan (SRC. There are various works in producing SRC; however, there are limited efforts to develop the optimization of cooking process parameters. Hence, the present study features on the cooking process (alkaline treatment where the parameters (concentration of potassium hydroxide solution, cooking time and cooking temperature and the ranges are identified experimentally. The effects of these parameters on carrageenan quality such as gel viscosity and gel strength were studied. The optimization of cooking process parameters and the experimental design was conducted based on the Central Composite Design (CCD of Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The experimental result showed that gel viscosity increases with the decrease of cooking time, cooking temperature and potassium hydroxide (KOH concentration (% w/w. In contrast, gel strength increases as cooking time, cooking temperature and KOH concentration (% w/w increases. From the optimization, the best conditions for alkaline treatment found were cooking temperature 80 °C, cooking time 30 min and KOH concentration 10 (% w/w which are similar to current practice in industry.

  15. Preparation and characterization of semi-refined kappa carrageenan-based edible film for nano coating application on minimally processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, Godras Jati; Praseptiangga, Danar; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji; Maimuni, Bawani Hindami

    2016-02-01

    Shorter and easier processing of semi-refined kappa carrageenan extracted from Euchema cottonii red seaweed result in cheaper price of the polysaccharide. In this study, edible film was prepared from the semi-refined carrageenan without any salt addition. The effect of the carrageenan concentration (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% w/v) on physical and mechanical properties of the edible film was studied. Edible film thickness and tensile strength increased but elongation at break and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) decreased as the concentration increased. Based on the characteristic of the edible film, formulation using 2% carrageenan was recommended. The edible film demonstrated the characteristic as follow: 0.054 mm thickness, 21.14 MPa tensile strength, 12.36% elongation at break, and 9.56 g/m2.hour WVTR. It was also noted the carrageenan-based edible film indicated potential physical and mechanical characteristics for nano coating applications on minimally processed food.

  16. Fabrication of endothelial cell-laden carrageenan microfibers for microvascularized bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Silvia M; Popa, Elena G; Reis, Rui L; Marques, Alexandra P; Gomes, Manuela E

    2014-08-11

    Recent achievements in the area of tissue engineering (TE) have enabled the development of three-dimensional (3D) cell-laden hydrogels as in vitro platforms that closely mimic the 3D scenario found in native tissues. These platforms are extensively used to evaluate cellular behavior, cell-cell interactions, and tissue-like formation in highly defined settings. In this study, we propose a scalable and flexible 3D system based on microsized hydrogel fibers that might be used as building blocks for the establishment of 3D hydrogel constructs for vascularized bone TE applications. For this purpose, chitosan (CHT) coated κ-carrageenan (κ-CA) microfibers were developed using a two-step procedure involving ionotropic gelation (for the fiber formation) of κ-CA and its polyelectrolyte complexation with CHT (for the enhancement of fiber stability). The performance of the obtained fibers was assessed regarding their swelling and stability profiles, as well as their ability to carry and, subsequently, promote the outward release of microvascular-like endothelial cells (ECs), without compromising their viability and phenotype. Finally, the possibility of assembling and integrating these cell-laden fibers within a 3D hydrogel matrix containing osteoblast-like cells was evaluated. Overall, the obtained results demonstrate the suitability of the microsized κ-CA fibers to carry and deliver phenotypically apt microvascular-like ECs. Furthermore, it is shown that it is possible to assemble these cell-laden microsized fibers into 3D heterotypic hydrogels constructs. This in vitro 3D platform provides a versatile approach to investigate the interactions between multiple cell types in controlled settings, which may open up novel 3D in vitro culture techniques to better mimic the complexity of tissues. PMID:24963559

  17. Foaming Properties of Whey Protein Isolate and λ-Carrageenan Mixed Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengshan; Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-08-01

    Heating protein with polysaccharide under neutral or near neutral pH can induce the formation of soluble complex with improved functional properties. The objective of our research was to investigate the effects of λ-carrageenan (λC) concentrations and pH on foaming properties of heated whey protein isolate (WPI) and λC soluble complex (h-cpx) in comparison to heated WPI with added λC (pWPI-λC), and unheated WPI with λC (WPI-λC). In all 3 WPI-λC systems at pH 7, increasing λC concentration led to improved foamability until a certain concentration before it decreased. Despite their higher viscosity, both heated systems (pWPI-λC and h-cpx) showed significantly better foamability and foam stability compared to WPI-λC. Rheological results of foams with 0.25% λC suggested that higher elasticity and viscous films were produced in h-cpx and pWPI-λC systems corresponding to better foam stability. Foam microstructure images indicated that foams produced from h-cpx had thicker film and consisted of smaller initial bubble area and more uniform bubble size. Results from the effect of pH (6.2, 6.5, and 7.0) further confirmed that stronger interactions between WPI and λC during heating contributed to the improved foaming properties. Foam stability was higher in h-cpx system at all 3 pH levels, especially under pH 6.2 where there were strongest interactions between the biopolymers.

  18. Biopolymer electrolytes based on blend of kappa-carrageenan and cellulose derivatives for potential application in dye sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan was used as the principle host for developing new biopolymer electrolytes based on the blend of carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose. The blending of carboxymethyl cellulose into carboxymethyl kappa-carragenan was found to be a promising strategy to improve the material properties such as conductive properties. The electrolyte samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, ionic transference number measurement and linear sweep voltammetry in order to investigate their structural, thermal and electrochemical properties. Impedance study showed that the ionic conductivity increased with the increment of ammonium iodide concentration. The highest room temperature ionic conductivity achieved was 2.41 × 10−3 S cm−1 at 30 wt% of the salt. The increment of conductivity was due to the increase of formation of transient cross-linking between the carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose chains and the doping salt as indicated the Tg trend. The conductivity was also attributed by the increase in the number of charge carriers in the biopolymer electrolytes system. The interactions between polymers and salt were confirmed by FTIR study. The transference number measurements showed that the conductivity was predominantly ionic. Temperature dependent conductivity study showed that conductivity increased with the reciprocal of temperature. The conductivity-temperature plots suggested that the conductivity obeyed the Vogel–Tammann–Fulcher relation and the activation energy for the best conducting sample was 0.010 eV. This system was used for the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells, FTO/TiO2-dye/CMKC/CMCE-NH4I + I2/Pt. The fabricated cell showed response under light intensity of 100 mW cm−2 with efficiency of 0.13% indicating that the blend biopolymer system has

  19. Carrageenan type effect on soybean oil/soy protein isolate emulsion employed as fat replacer in panela-type cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Nery, E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to modify the fatty acid profile of panela-type cheese (a Mexican fresh cheese, emulsified soybean oil with soy protein isolate and different carrageenan (iota, kappa or lambda was employed as fat replacer. The replacement of milk fat in panela-type cheese resulted in higher cheese yield values and moisture content, besides a concomitant lower fat phase and higher protein content, due to a soy protein isolate in emulsified soybean oil. Fat replacement resulted in a harder but less cohesive, spring and resilient texture, where differences in texture could be attributed to the specific carrageenan-casein interactions within the rennet coagulated cheese matrix. The FTIR analysis showed that the milk fat replacement changed the fatty acid profile, also in function of the type of carrageenan employed. Lambda carrageenan containing emulsions improved moisture retention and maintained the textural properties of panela-type cheese.Para modificar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los quesos tipo panela (queso fresco popular en México, se utilizó aceite de soja emulsionado con aislado de proteína de soja y diferentes carrageninas (iota, kappa o lambda como sustituto de la grasa. Reemplazar la grasa de la leche en el queso tipo panela resultó en mayor rendimiento quesero y mayor contenido de humedad, además de una concomitante menor fase grasa y mayor contenido de proteína, debido al aislado de proteína de soja en el aceite de soja emulsionado. La sustitución de la grasa dio como resultado una textura más dura, pero menos cohesiva, elástica y resiliente, donde estas diferencias podrían ser atribuidas a la interacción especifica entre carrageninas-caseinas en la matriz coagulada del queso. El análisis de FTIR muestra que reemplazar la grasa de la leche cambia el perfil de ácidos grasos, también en función del tipo de carragenina empleado. Las emulsiones con lambda carrageninas mejoraron la retención de humedad y mantuvieron las

  20. Applications of Carrageenan in food industry%卡拉胶在食品工业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋战鹰

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces mainly applications of carrageenan in food industry as additive. It is used for solidifier, thicker, emulsifier. Suspender, binder. shaper and stabilizer in food making.%介绍了卡拉胶在食品工业中的一些主要作用.卡拉胶作为一种添加剂在食品制作过程中,可用作凝固剂、增稠剂、乳化剂、悬浮剂、粘合剂、成型剂和稳定剂.

  1. Improvement of mechanical properties of hydrogel by irradiation of polymers in aqueous solution with {kappa}-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, K.; Yoshii, F. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Aranilla, C.T. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon (Philippines); Zhai, M. [Department of Technical Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2000-03-01

    Predominate radiation reaction of {kappa}-carrageenan (KC) hydrogel is the main chain scission of KC. The gel strength of KC hydrogel decreased with increasing irradiation dose. However, KC was found to enhances the radiation crosslinking of synthetic water-soluble polymer (SWSP) such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(N-vinylpyrolidone) (PVP) in aqueous solution. The gel strength of SWSP hydrogel increased with increasing dose when KC was blended. Probably the radiation degraded KC radicals are recombined with radicals of PVP and PEO. The hydrogel thus prepared absorbs huge amounts of water due to the presence of strong hydrophilic -OSO{sub 3}{sup -} groups in KC. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Edible Surface Coating Based on Carrageenan Conjugated with Silver Nanoparticles on Sekaki Papaya (Carica Papaya cv. Sekaki): A New Antimicrobial Edible Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibacterial properties of edible surface coating based on carrageenan incorporated with silver nanoparticles (SNPs), was investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to obtain optimum concentration of SNPs. Results obtained indicate that SNPs with concentration of 40 ml L-1 effectively inhibited the growth of both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Sekaki papaya fruits were then coated with prepared edible coating formulation comprising of carrageenan (0.8 % w/v) and glycerol (1.0 % w/v) with and without SNPs (40 ppm) and stored at ambient conditions (26±2 degree Celsius and 60±10 % RH). Microbial analysis of coated and uncoated papaya samples during storage indicated that the edible coating comprising of carrageenan, glycerol and SNPs, strongly inhibited the growth of fungus that caused post harvest diseases of papaya as compared to uncoated and coated papaya fruits with edible coating without SNPs. (author)

  3. Synthesis of superabsorbent hydrogel by radiation crosslinking of acrylic acid, semi-refined kappa-carrageenan and sugarcane bagasse blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superabsorbent hydrogels have three-dimensional networks that enable it to exhibit great water absorption capacity leading to its promising applications. However, existing commercial hydrogels are mainly acrylic acid which causes environmental problems. In this study, the incorporation of agricultural waste as filler and polysaccharide from natural sources as binder for the production of superabsorbent hydrogel was done to reduce the use of acrylic acid as well as its environmental impact while adding value to the incorporated materials. A series of superabsorbent hydrogel with the blend of acrylic acid, semi-refined kappa carrageenan and sugarcane bagasse were synthesized by radiation crosslinking. The gel fraction and swelling capacity of the hydrogels were determined and studied. The characterizations were facilitated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). In the results obtained from analyses, the characteristic peaks of acrylic acid and sugarcane bagasse were observed in the FTIR spectra and the three step peaks if synthesized hydrogel in its TGA implies an improvement in thermal stability of the product. The synthesized superabsorbent hydrogel blends had exhibited comparable gel fraction to that of the polyacrylic acid hydrogel, had great swelling capacity, and achieved equilibrium degree of swelling within 72-96 hours. The optimum synthesized superabsorbent hydrogel is 3% semi-refined kappa-carrageenan, 3% sugarcane bagasse, 15% acrylic acid neutralize up to 50% and irradiated at 15kGy dose which exhibited a swelling of 599.53 and gel fraction of 39.73. (author)

  4. Effects of κ-carrageenan on rheological properties of dually modified sago starch: Towards finding gelatin alternative for hard capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakharian, Mohammad-Hassan; Tamimi, Nasser; Abbaspour, Hossein; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Karim, A A

    2015-11-01

    Composite sago starch-based system was developed and characterized with the aim to find an alternative to gelatin in the processing of pharmaceutical capsules. Dually modified (Hydrolyzed-Hydroxypropylated) sago starches were combined with κ-carrageenan (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1%). The rheological properties of the proposed composite system were measured and compared with gelatin as reference material. Results show that combination of HHSS12 (Hydrolysed-hydroxypropylated sago starch at 12h) with 0.5% κ-carrageenan was comparable to gelatin rheological behavior in pharmaceutical capsule processing. The solution viscosity at 50 °C and sol-gel transition of the proposed composite system were comparable to those of gelatin. The viscoelastic moduli (G' and G") for the proposed system were lower than those of gelatin. These results illustrate that by manipulation of the constituents of sago starch-based composite system, a suitable alternative to gelatin can be produced with comparable properties and this could find potential application in pharmaceutical capsule industry.

  5. Chitosan and Kappa-Carrageenan Vaginal Acyclovir Formulations for Prevention of Genital Herpes. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Pilar Sánchez-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations have been developed for the controlled release of acyclovir, which may prevent the sexual transmission of the herpes simplex virus. Drug release studies were carried out in two media: simulated vaginal fluid and simulated vaginal fluid/simulated seminal fluid mixture. The bioadhesive capacity and permanence time of the bioadhesion, the prepared compacts, and compacted granules were determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate. Swelling processes were quantified to confirm the release data. Biocompatibility was evaluated through in vitro cellular toxicity assays, and the results showed that acyclovir and the rest of the materials had no cytotoxicity at the maximum concentration tested. The mixture of hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose with chitosan- or kappa-carrageenan-originated mucoadhesive systems that presented a complete and sustained release of acyclovir for a period of 8–9 days in both media. Swelling data revealed the formation of optimal mixed chitosan/hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose gels which could be appropriated for the prevention of sexual transmission of HSV.

  6. The in vivo toxicity of carbon tetrachloride and carrageenan on heart microsomes: analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, A M; Perromat, A; Deleris, G

    2001-09-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of rat heart microsomes to free radical attack using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. This physico-chemical method seemed a valuable technique: quite sensitive to changes in the vibrational spectra. The spectral variations observed between normal and treated rats were in great part due to reactive oxygen species that led to changes in protein conformation involving beta-sheets, aggregation of proteins, and modification of protein synthesis. Carrageenan-induced inflammation slightly enhanced the total lipid content; rearrangement of acyl chains and accumulation of cholesterol esters and phospholipids also occurred in the treated rats. Carbon tetrachloride induced a decrease in both lipid and protein contents. The level of glucidic substrates was diminished with carbon tetrachloride and enhanced with carrageenan; these changes were due to metabolic interactions between cell components and drugs. FT-IR spectroscopy provided an accurate means to monitor, in rat heart, the in vivo effects of inflammatory and peroxidative damages, to discriminate and classify the affected cells, and to correlate the findings with known physiological and biochemical data in close relationship with metabolic disruptions induced by the two xenobiotics.

  7. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases C, N and S assimilation, auxin and gibberellin contents, and growth in Pinus radiata trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Saucedo; Rodrigo A Contreras; Alejandra Moenne

    2015-01-01

    Oligo-carrageenans (OCs) obtained from pure carrageenans extracted from marine red algae stimulate growth by enhancing photosynthesis and basal metabolism in tobacco plants and Eucalyptus trees. In addition, OCs stimulate secondary metabolism, increasing the level of metabolites involved in defense against pathogens. In this work, we analyzed the effect of OC kappa on the increase in height, in activities of basal metabolism enzymes in-volved in carbon, nitrogen and sulphur assimilation, ribu-lose 1,5 biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and O-acetylserine thiol-lyase (OASTL), and in the level of growth-promoting hormones, the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA) and the gibberellin GA3, in pine (Pinus radiata) trees treated with OC kappa at concentrations of 1 and 5 mg mL-1 and cultivated for 9 months without additional treatment. Pines treated with OC kappa at 1 mg mL-1 showed a similar increase in height but displayed a higher increased in total chlorophyll, activities of rubisco, GDH and OASTL and level of IAA and GA3 than those treated with OC kappa at 5 mg mL-1. Thus, OC kappa stimulates growth and basal metabolism and increases the level of growth-promoting hormones in pine trees, mainly at 1 mg mL-1.

  8. Corrosion inhibition of iota-carrageenan natural polymer on aluminum in presence of zwitterion mediator in HCl media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Inhibition of Al by ι-carrageenan in the presence of zwitterion mediator was investigated. ► Considerable improvement in inhibition efficiency observed in the presence of zwitterion mediator. ► Coherent physical adsorption layer was evidenced by kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. ► Small but consistent fractured island layers observed after acid exposure as revealed by SEM images. - Abstract: ι-Carrageenan a natural polymer has been used as corrosion inhibitor of aluminum in presence of pefloxacin mesylate, acting as zwitterionic mediator, in acidic medium. Considerable improvement in inhibition efficiency occurred in the presence of the mediator. Activation energy of corrosion and other thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy, standard enthalpy, and standard entropy of the adsorption process revealed better and well-ordered physical adsorption layers in presence of pefloxacin. Adsorption isotherms in absence or presence of pefloxacin mediator appropriately fit in the Langmuir isotherms. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images demonstrated smooth, glossy, and relatively coherent adsorption layers of the inhibitor on the metal surface in aqueous solution. After the exposure to 2.0 M HCl for 2 h, a smaller but consistent regular shaped fractured layer is obtained.

  9. Controlled release of diclofenac sodium from pH-responsive carrageenan-g-poly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent hydrogel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, controlled release of diclofenac sodium (DS) from pH-sensitive carrageenan-gpoly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent hydrogels was investigated. The hydrogels were prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto kappa-carrageenan, using ammonium persulfate (APS) as a free radical initiator in the presence of methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. Infrared spectroscopy was carried out to confirm the chemical structure of the hydrogel. Moreover, morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesized hydrogels were subjected to equilibrium swelling studies in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF). Hydrogels containing drug DS, at different drug-to-polymer ratios, were prepared by direct adsorption method. The loading yield was found to depend on both the impregnation time and the amount of encapsulated drug. In vitro drug-release studies in different buffer solutions showed that the most important parameter affecting the drug-release behaviour of hydrogels is the pH of the solution. The mechanism involved in release was Fickian ( ≤ 0.43, = 0.348) and Super Case II kinetics ( > 1, = 1.231) at pH 1.2 and 7.4, respectively.

  10. Radioprotection potential of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan used as food additive; Potencial radioprotetor do acido ascorbico sobre a carragenana utilizada como aditivo alimenticio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajaliste@net.ipen.br; nlmastro@net.ipen.br

    2002-07-01

    Carrageenans are a group of natural carbohydrates that are present in the structure of certain varieties of red algae (Rhodophyceae). They are used in emulsions, for syneresis control and to grow up, to promote adhesiveness and dispersion. In the industry of foods they can be used for instance, as thickness and gelling agents, alone or together with other additives. The processing of foods by radiation is increasing considerably, because the efficiency of the process in the industrial decontamination of products. The objective of this work was to study the action of the ascorbic acid as potential radioprotector of the carrageenan against {sup 60} Co gamma radiation effects, using the viscosity as parameter. Samples of commercial carrageenan dissolved at 1,0% were irradiated in the presence or not of ascorbic acid, with doses of 0.0 kGy; 1.0 kGy; 2.5 kGy; 5.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. After the irradiation the relationships viscosity/dose were established for the temperature of 60 deg C. For the dose of 10.0 kGy a better protecting effect of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan was seen. The implications of the use of this antioxidant is discussed as a form of minimizing the effect of the radiation in irradiated foods. (author)

  11. Fuzzy Clustering-Based Modeling of Surface Interactions and Emulsions of Selected Whey Protein Concentrate Combined to i-Carrageenan and Gum Arabic Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gums and proteins are valuable ingredients with a wide spectrum of applications. Surface properties (surface tension, interfacial tension, emulsion activity index “EAI” and emulsion stability index “ESI”) of 4% whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a combination with '- carrageenan (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.5...

  12. Synthesis of graft copolymer (k-carrageenan-g-N,N-dimethylacrylamide) and studies of metal ion uptake, swelling capacity and flocculation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, D.K.; Tripathy, J.; Behari, K. [University of Allahabad, Allahabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2008-03-15

    Graft copolymer of k-carrageenan and N,N-dimethylacrylamide has been synthesized by free radical polymerization using peroxymonosulphate/glycolic acid redox pair in an inert atmosphere. The grafting parameters i.e. grafting ratio, add on and efficiency decrease with increase in concentration of k-carrageenan from 0.6 to 1.4 g dm{sup -3} and hydrogen ion from 3 x 10{sup -3} to 7 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}, but these grafting parameters increase with increase in concentration of N,N-dimethylacrylamide from 16 x 10{sup -2} to 32 x 10{sup -2} mol dm{sup -3}, and peroxymonosulphate from 0.8 x 10{sup -2} to 2A x 10{sup -2} Mol dm{sup -3}. The metal ion sorption, swelling behaviour and flocculation properties have been studied. The intrinsic viscosity of pure and grafted samples has been measured by using Ubbelohde capillary viscometer. Flocculation capability of k-carrageenan and k-carrageenan-g-N,N-dimethylacrylamide for both coking and non-coking coals has been studied for the treatment of coal mine waste water. The graft copolymer has been characterized by Infrared (IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

  13. Optimization of formulation of cmc-na, xanthan gum and carrageenan affecting the physicochemical properties of papaya-wolfberry beverage using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMC-Na, xanthan gum and carrageenan are widely employed in food industry. They were used for its thickening properties of aqueous solutions or emulsifying abilities. The present work aims to optimize the formula of the three stabilizers in the process of papaya-wolfberry beverage by response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the models were significantly (p<0.05) fitted for describing the viscosity and cloudiness of papaya-wolfberry beverage. The results also indicated that the linear terms of CMC-Na and xanthan gum were the most significant (p<0.05) variables affecting the viscosity, while xanthan gum and carrageenan were the most significant (p<0.05) variable affecting the cloudiness. The interaction of CMC-Na and xanthan gum behaved extremely significant for viscosity. From the optimization procedure, the best formula for viscosity was obtained at the combined level of 0.0652% (w/w) CMC-Na, 0.1070% (w/w) xanthan gum and 0.1485% (w/w) carrageenan, and the other group of 0.0623% (w/w) CMC-Na, 0.1375% (w/w) xanthan gum and 0.1461% (w/w) carrageenan for cloudiness. The results of our study would be used to improve the quality of papaya-wolfberry beverage and increase its economic efficiency. (author)

  14. Preparation of κ-carrageenan-chitosan polyelectrolyte gel beads%κ-卡拉胶-壳聚糖聚电解质凝胶微丸的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 张昀

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To prepare κ-carrageenan-chitosan polyelectrolyte gel pellets and detect the effects of formulation and preparation factors on in vitro drug release from the pellets. Method: The K-carrageenan-chitosan polyelectrolyte gel pellets with baica-lin as model drug were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique. The ratio of K-carrageenan/chitosan in pellets was determined with the composite of K-carrageenan and chitosan. The effects of the concentration of K-carrageenan, the ratio of drug/K-carrageenan, the concentration of gelling solution, gelling time and drying method on the release of pellets were determined by in vitro drug release. Result: The mass ratio of K-carrageenan/chitosan in pellets was 6:4. Release of the pellets in 0. 1 mol · L-1 HC1 was about 10% for 2 hours and fast in PBS, indicating a typical sustained release property. The pellets released less with the increase in the concentration of K-carrageenan, the ratio of drug/κ-carrageenan and the concentration of KC1. They also released less with the increase in gelling time, but showed little effect until 1 hour. The release of the pellets prepared by the freeze-drying method was much faster than those by vacuum drying and atmospheric drying methods which had little influence on drug release. Conclusion: The K-carrageenan-chitosan polyelectrolyte gel pellets had sustained release property. Their drug release rate could be regulated with different formulation and preparation factors.%目的:制备κ-卡拉胶-壳聚糖聚电解质凝胶微丸,考察处方工艺因素对其体外释药的影响.方法:以黄芩苷为模型药物,采用离子胶凝法制备κ-卡拉胶-壳聚糖微丸;通过κ-卡拉胶与壳聚糖形成复合物条件研究,确定微丸中κ-卡拉胶与壳聚糖质量比;通过体外释放度测定,考察κ-卡拉胶浓度、药物与κ-卡拉胶比例、胶凝液氯化钾浓度、胶凝时间和干燥方式等处方工艺因素对微丸药物释放的影响.结果:κ-

  15. Improving the controlled delivery formulations of caffeine in alginate hydrogel beads combined with pectin, carrageenan, chitosan and psyllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Karlović, Sven; Djaković, Senka; Spoljarić, Igor; Mršić, Gordan; Ježek, Damir

    2015-01-15

    Alginate-based blends consisting of carrageenan, pectin, chitosan or psyllium husk powder were prepared for assessment of the best formulation aimed at encapsulation of caffeine. Alginate-pectin blend exhibited the lowest viscosity and provided the smallest beads. Alginate-psyllium husk blend was characterised with higher viscosity, yielding the largest bead size and the highest caffeine encapsulation efficiency (83.6%). The release kinetics of caffeine indicated that the porosity of alginate hydrogel was not reduced sufficiently to retard the diffusion of caffeine from the beads. Chitosan coated alginate beads provided the most retarded release of caffeine in water. Morphological characteristics of beads encapsulating caffeine were adversely affected by freeze drying. Bitterness intensity of caffeine-containing beads in water was the lowest for alginate-psyllium beads and chitosan coated alginate beads. Higher sodium alginate concentration (3%) for production of hydrogel beads in combination with psyllium or chitosan coating would present the most favourable carrier systems for immobilization of caffeine.

  16. Juiciness improvement of frozen battered shrimp burger using modified tapioca starch, sodium alginate, and iota-carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongkarn Kijroongrojana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A battered shrimp burger, as a new value-added shrimp product, was developed by increasing the juiciness of a frozen battered shrimp burger using a mixture of hydrocolloids. The formulations of hydrocolloid mixtures containing modified tapioca starch (MTS, sodium alginate (AL, and iota-carrageenan (CA were optimized. Juiciness measurements were defined and analyzed by 13 trained panelists. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA as well as moisture and fat contents of the products were analyzed. The mixture of MTS and AL had an impact on moisture content and juiciness scores, while CA influenced the hardness. The product made using the optimized formulation (0.3% MTS + 0.7% AL had a higher moisture content andjuiciness scores (p0.05. However, higher springiness and gumminess were found in the control burger (p0.05.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Salvadora persica L. against Carrageenan Induced Paw Oedema in Rat Relevant to Inflammatory Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Y. IBRAHIM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous alcoholic crude extract and ethyl acetate extract of miswak sticks (Salvadora persica L. was investigated in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema in respect to immunological parameters. Adult male sapargue dawely rats were classified into four groups, group I received the vehicle (0.25% gum acacia solution, group II received crude aqueous alcoholic extract orally at 100 mg/kg, group III received ethyl acetate extract (100 mg/kg orally and group IV received indomethacin (20 mg/kg orally, and served as standard reference. The oedema was quantified by measuring the hind paw thickness immediately before subplantar injection, and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. Blood samples were withdrawn after the 4th hour of carrageenan induction, centrifuged and sera were used for analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Administration of aqueous alcoholic extract and ethyl acetate extract (100 mg/ml significantly reduced the oedema thickness in a time dependent manner, the inhibition percentage of inflammation was 17% for crude extract and 27% for ethyl acetate extract. Also the two extracts reduced secretion of inflammatory mediators, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor nercrosis factor-α (TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in serum. The ethyl acetate extract shows potent activity to be nearly the same of indomethacin activity on all determined parameters at the last hour of following up. These results may be due to the presence of flavonoids in ethyl acetate extract. Three major flavonoids were isolated from ethyl acetate extract and identified as apigenin rhamnoglucoside, luteolin glucoside and rutin. The experimental study revealed that Salvadora persica extracts display remarkable anti-inflammatory activity.

  18. Preventive Effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on Thrombosis in κ-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Xi-Wang; Yang, Ya-Jun; Li, Jian-Yong; Mohamed, Isam; Liu, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Ji-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the prodrug principle, aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) was synthesized, which can reduce the side effects of aspirin and eugenol. As a good candidate for new antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory medicine, it is essential to evaluate its preventive effect on thrombosis. Preventive effect of AEE was investigated in κ-carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombosis model. AEE suspension liquids were prepared in 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na). AEE was administrated at the dosage of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg. Aspirin (20 mg/kg), eugenol (18 mg/kg) and 0.5% CMC-Na (30 mg/kg) were used as control drug. In order to compare the effects between AEE and its precursor, integration of aspirin and eugenol group (molar ratio 1:1) was also designed in the experiment. After drugs were administrated intragastrically for seven days, each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg BW κ-carrageen dissolved in physiological saline to induce thrombosis. The length of tail-thrombosis was measured at 24 and 48 hours. The blank group just was given physiological saline for seven days without κ-carrageenan administrated. The results indicated that AEE significantly not only reduced the average length of thrombus, PT values and FIB concentration, but also reduced the red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT) and platelet (PLT). The effects of AEE on platelet aggregation and anticoagulant in vitro showed that AEE could inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation as dose-dependence but no notable effect on blood clotting. From these results, it was concluded that AEE possessed positive effect on thrombosis prevention in vivo through the reduction of FIB, PLT, inhibition of platelet aggregation and the change of TT and PT values.

  19. 高强度卡拉胶纤维的制备及性能测试%Preparation and characterization of high strength carrageenan fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付永强; 薛志欣; 夏延致; 王士财

    2011-01-01

    通过卡拉胶与环氧氯丙烷交联反应制得改性卡拉胶;并将改性卡拉胶溶于热水制得纺丝液,采用湿法纺丝制备高强度卡拉胶纤维.红外光谱测试及粘度提高证明交联反应的发生;用单因素实验法找到影响因素的最佳范围,通过正交实验法得到最佳合成条件为温度90℃、交联剂加入量为6.25%、反应时间2.0h、pH值为10.0;利用万能材料试验机测得纯卡拉胶纤维的断裂强度为2.17cN/tex,改性卡拉胶纤维的最大断裂强度为3.99cN/tex,交联后断裂强度提高85%.%Modified carrageenan was prepared by carrageenan cross-linked with epoxy chloropropane. Then the modified carrageenan went through wet-spinning frame to get the high strength carrageenan fibers. The compo-sition of carrageenan and modified fibers were characterized by FT-IR. The viscosity was investigated by vis-cometer. The range of influencing factors was investigated by experiments of single factor. The optimum syn-thesis condition of the crosslinking was obtained by orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the reac-tion temperature was 90℃, the amount of crosslinking agent added was 6. 25% , the reaction time was 2.0h and the pH value was 10. 0. The mechanical property of the modified/unmodified carrageenan fibers were investiga-ted with strength tester. The breaking strength of the former is 3. 99cN/tex, compared with the latter 2. 17cN/ tex.

  20. Effect of carrageenan on texture properties of Choerospondias axillaris pastilles%卡拉胶对南酸枣糕质构性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴双双; 梁瑞红; 刘伟; 刘继延; 陈军; 王召君

    2012-01-01

    The effect of addition of carrageenan on the texture of Choerospondias axilluris pastilles was evaluated by texture profile a-nalysis, and its internal structure was analyzed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). On the basis of addition of carrageenan, the differences and the correlation of texture parameters ( hardness, springiness, chewiness and adhesiveness) of samples containing different amount of carrageenan was compared. The results showed that the hardness and springiness of Choerospondias uzillaris pastilles basically remain unchanged when carrageenan concentration was 0. 0%~0. 6%, but when the addition was 0. 6%~1. 0% , the hardness and springiness increased remarkably. A well linear correlation was found between the hardness and springiness. The springiness was found to increase with increasing addition of carrageenan, and the adhesiveness was firstly increased and then decreased. The maximum value of the adhesiveness was found when addition of car- rageenan was 0. 8%. From SEM pictures, we can obviously find out that Choerospondias axillaris pastilles has formed thick gel with more closely texture, and more evenly appearance characteristics increasing amounts of carrageenan.%通过质构仪分析,研究卡拉胶添加量对南酸枣糕质构性质的影响,并利用扫描电镜分析其内部结构,比较不同卡拉胶添加量,各参数(硬度、弹性、咀嚼性、黏性)的差异性和相关性.结果表明:卡拉胶添加量为0.0%~0.6%时,南酸枣糕的硬度、咀嚼性基本不变,而添加量为0.6%~1.0%时,硬度、咀嚼性增加比较显著,且硬度和咀嚼性之间具有良好的线性相关性.弹性随着卡拉胶添加量的增加而增加,而黏性随着卡拉胶的增加先增加后降低,且在卡拉胶添加量为0.8%时达到最大值.从电镜扫描图中可看出,随着卡拉胶的增加,南酸枣糕能形成较厚实的凝胶,质地更紧密,外观特征更均匀.

  1. Hypoglycemic Properties of Oxovanadium (IV) Coordination Compounds with Carboxymethyl-Carrageenan and Carboxymethyl-Chitosan in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyu Zhang; Yuetao Yi; Dawei Feng; Yipeng Wang; Song Qin

    2011-01-01

    In order to avoid low absorption, incorporation, and undesirable side effects of inorganic oxovanadium compounds, the antidiabetic activities of organic oxovanadium (IV) compounds in alloxan-induced diabetic mice were investigated. Vanadyl carboxymethyl carrageenan (VOCCA) and vanadyl carboxymethyl chitosan (VOCCH) were synthesized and administrated through intragastric administration in different doses for 20 days in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Glibenclamide was administrated as the posit...

  2. Molecular Modeling of Lectin-Like Protein from Acacia farnesiana Reveals a Possible Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Erika Ferreira Abrantes; Bruno Anderson Matias da Rocha; Raphael Batista da Nóbrega; José Caetano Silva-Filho; Claudener Souza Teixeira; Benildo Sousa Cavada; Carlos Alberto de Almeida Gadelha; Sergio Henrique Ferreira; Jozi Godoy Figueiredo; Tatiane Santi-Gadelha; Plinio Delatorre

    2013-01-01

    Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL) is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA). Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN). This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through stru...

  3. Study on effects of carrageenan on pork quality%不同浓度卡拉胶对猪肉品质影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玲

    2012-01-01

    试验研究了不同浓度卡拉胶对猪肉的感官品质、色泽、保水性、蒸煮损失率及嫩度等品质指标的影响。结果表明,添加不同浓度的卡拉胶后,对猪肉的感官品质有一定的影响,对猪肉的色泽有负面的影响,不同浓度影响效果不同,一般高浓度的对猪肉感官品质的负面影响较大。卡拉胶浓度与猪肉的感官评分、剪切力之间的回归方程均具有统计学上的显著意义,与猪肉的色差、保水性及蒸煮损失率之间的回归方程不具有统计学上的显著意义。%The effects of different concentration of carrageenan on the sensory quality, color, water retention, cooking loss rate and tenderness of pork were investigated in this paper. The results showed that different concentration of carrageenan affected the sensory quality of pork and with negative effect on color. The regression equation between sensory evaluation, shear force and concentration of carrageenan had statistical significance, but regression equations between concentration of earrageenan and the indexes of color, water retention and cooking loss rate were not significant with the concentration of carrageenan had no statistical significance.

  4. in vitro Immunomodulatory Properties of Degraded larnbda-Carrageenan%λ-卡拉胶降解组分的体外免疫活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏元臣; 周革非; 李树福; 王长海

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究微波法降解得到的不同分子量角叉菜λ-卡拉胶的免疫活性.方法:以离子交换纤维素色谱DE52柱对微波降解所得λ-卡拉胶PC2(product of carrageenan 2)进行分级;从实验动物体内获取免疫细胞,采取体外与多糖共同培养的方式,通过淋巴细胞、巨噬细胞增殖实验,中性红吞噬实验以及NO释放实验评价其免疫活性.结果:纯化得到三个硫酸基含量和分子量依次增大的均一多糖分级组分CF1(carrageenan fraction 1)、CF2(carrageenan fraction 2)、CF3(carrageenan fraction 3).实验结果表明,CF1、CF2、CF3组分均能显著的促进巨噬细胞和ConA诱导的脾细胞增殖,并能增强巨噬细胞吞噬能力和NO的释放.结论:在体外培养研究条件下,λ-卡拉胶降解组分对正常小鼠的免疫能力有促进作用.

  5. Control of Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract plus EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Control of Salmonella in poultry is a public health concern as salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide. This study aimed to screen the ability of 5 Salmonella serovars to degrade the mustard glucosinolate, sinigrin (by bacterial myrosinase) in Mueller-Hinton broth at 25 °C for 21 d and to reduce Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by developing an edible 0.2% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coating containing Oriental mustard extract, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), EDTA or their combinations. Individual Salmonella serovars degraded 50.2%-55.9% of the sinigrin present in 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g or 50 μl AITC/g reduced the numbers of Salmonella on chicken breasts 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d at 4 °C. However, when either mustard extract or AITC was combined with 15 mg/g EDTA in κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings, Salmonella numbers were reduced 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 5 d and 3.0 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. Moreover, these treatments reduced numbers of lactic acid bacteria and aerobic bacteria by 2.5-3.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing either 50 μl AITC/g or 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g plus 15 mg EDTA/g have the potential to reduce Salmonella on raw chicken.

  6. Cross-linked κ-carrageenan polymer/zinc nanoporous composite matrix for expanded bed application: Fabrication and hydrodynamic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenkhani, Sadaf; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Rahimpour, Ahmad

    2015-08-21

    Expanded bed adsorption (EBA) is a reliable separation technique for the purification of bioproducts from complex feedstocks. The specifically designed adsorbent is necessary to form a stable expanded bed. In the present work, a novel custom-designed composite matrix has been prepared through the method of water-in-oil emulsification. In order to develop an adsorbent with desirable qualities and reduce the costs, κ-carrageenan and zinc powder were used as the polymeric skeleton and the densifier, respectively. The prepared composite matrix was named as KC-Zn. Optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were applied to characterize the morphology and structure of prepared composite matrix. These analyses approved good spherical shape and porous structure with nano-scale pores in the range of about 60-180nm. The results from the particle size analyzer (PSA) revealed that all the KC-Zn beads followed logarithmic normal size distribution with the range of 50-350μm and average diameter of 160-230μm, respectively. Main physical properties of KC-Zn matrices were measured as a function of zinc powder ratio to κ-carrageenan slurry, which showed an appropriate wet density in the range of 1.39-2.27g/ml, water content of 72.67-36.41% and porosity of 98.07-80.24%, respectively. The effects of matrix density and liquid phase viscosity on hydrodynamic behavior of prepared matrix have been investigated by residence time distribution (RTD) experiments in an expanded bed. The results indicated that in a constant liquid velocity as the matrix density was increased, the expansion factor of bed decreased and the axial mixing coefficient increased. Moreover, an enhancement in the fluid viscosity led to an increase in the bed expansion and a decrease in the stability of expanded bed. Therefore using a matrix with higher density seems necessary to face viscous feedstocks. All the results demonstrated that proper physical properties and hydrodynamic characteristics

  7. Studies on anti-inflammatory activity of spice principles and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A C; Lokesh, B R

    1994-01-01

    The antioxidant spice principles curcumin and eugenol when given by gavage lowered the carrageenan-induced edema in the foot pads of rats. This lowering effect was dependent on the concentration, the time gap between the administration of spice principles and the induction of inflammation by carrageenan. Dietary lipids also influenced the extent of inflammation. Animals fed 10% cod liver oil [containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)] for 10 weeks showed a significantly lower inflammation compared to that observed in animals fed diets supplemented with 10% groundnut oil (rich in n-6 PUFA) or 10% coconut oil (rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids). Supplementation of diets with 1 weight% of curcumin did not affect the inflammatory responses of animals to carrageenan injection. However, supplementation of diets with 0.17 weight% eugenol further lowered inflammation by 16, 32 and 30% in animals fed coconut oil, groundnut oil and cod liver oil, respectively. Therefore, combinations of dietary lipids with spice principles like eugenol can help in lowering inflammation.

  8. 卡拉胶的生物活性及分子修饰研究进展%Research Progress on Biological Activity and Chemical Modification of Carrageenan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秀芳; 李平

    2012-01-01

    Carrageenan,as a family of sulfated polysaccharides with unique structure,had many kinds of biological activity.However,its application in biomedicine field was limited because of large molecular weight.Research on the biological activity of carrageenan in antivirus,antitumor and anticoagulant were synopsis introduced,emphasizing to introduce the research progress on the chemical modification and derivatives of carrageenan.%卡拉胶作为一种结构独特的硫酸多糖,具有多种生物活性,但因分子量过大,使其在生物医药领域的应用受到限制。文章简要介绍了近年来有关卡拉胶抗病毒、抗肿瘤、抗凝血等生物活性的研究,进一步介绍了卡拉胶分子修饰及其衍生物生物活性的研究进展。

  9. Development of highly biocompatible Gelatin & i-Carrageenan based composite hydrogels: In depth physiochemical analysis for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Jyostna Rani; Nayak, Debasis; Nanda, Arpita; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Ashe, Sarbani; Nayak, Bismita

    2016-11-20

    In present investigation, gelatin and iota-carrageenan (CG) were used for the fabrication of composite hydrogels in different formulations (G1-G6). The hydrogels were characterized through optical, scanning electron and confocal microscopy to visualize their internal morphology. X-ray diffraction and ATR- FTIR spectroscopy were used for analyzing the chemical interaction between gelatin and CG. The hydrogels were found to be hemocompatible with high mucoadhesive and swelling properties. The standard drug ciprofloxacin was incorporated within the hydrogels and its interaction with the polymers was monitored through XRD and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. In physiological pH 7.4, the G4 formulation showed a linear release profile. The antimicrobial activity was tested against nosocomial strains of Bacillus sp, Vibrio sp, Pseudomonas sp and Escherichia coli which showed a zone of inhibition between 8.5-20.7mm against the marketed Ciplox ointment. The cytocompatibility of the prepared hydrogels were investigated using normal HaCaT and HEK293 cell lines which showed their negligible cytotoxicity. PMID:27561499

  10. Acoustic Assessment of a Konjac–Carrageenan Tissue-Mimicking Material at 5–60 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwright, David A.; Sadhoo, Neelaksh; Rajagopal, Srinath; Anderson, Tom; Moran, Carmel M.; Hadoke, Patrick W.; Gray, Gillian A.; Zeqiri, Bajram; Hoskins, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic properties of a robust tissue-mimicking material based on konjac–carrageenan at ultrasound frequencies in the range 5–60 MHz are described. Acoustic properties were characterized using two methods: a broadband reflection substitution technique using a commercially available preclinical ultrasound scanner (Vevo 770, FUJIFILM VisualSonics, Toronto, ON, Canada), and a dedicated high-frequency ultrasound facility developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, Teddington, UK), which employed a broadband through-transmission substitution technique. The mean speed of sound across the measured frequencies was found to be 1551.7 ± 12.7 and 1547.7 ± 3.3 m s−1, respectively. The attenuation exhibited a non-linear dependence on frequency, f (MHz), in the form of a polynomial function: 0.009787f2 + 0.2671f and 0.01024f2 + 0.3639f, respectively. The characterization of this tissue-mimicking material will provide reference data for designing phantoms for preclinical systems, which may, in certain applications such as flow phantoms, require a physically more robust tissue-mimicking material than is currently available. PMID:25438864

  11. Improving the controlled delivery formulations of caffeine in alginate hydrogel beads combined with pectin, carrageenan, chitosan and psyllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Karlović, Sven; Djaković, Senka; Spoljarić, Igor; Mršić, Gordan; Ježek, Damir

    2015-01-15

    Alginate-based blends consisting of carrageenan, pectin, chitosan or psyllium husk powder were prepared for assessment of the best formulation aimed at encapsulation of caffeine. Alginate-pectin blend exhibited the lowest viscosity and provided the smallest beads. Alginate-psyllium husk blend was characterised with higher viscosity, yielding the largest bead size and the highest caffeine encapsulation efficiency (83.6%). The release kinetics of caffeine indicated that the porosity of alginate hydrogel was not reduced sufficiently to retard the diffusion of caffeine from the beads. Chitosan coated alginate beads provided the most retarded release of caffeine in water. Morphological characteristics of beads encapsulating caffeine were adversely affected by freeze drying. Bitterness intensity of caffeine-containing beads in water was the lowest for alginate-psyllium beads and chitosan coated alginate beads. Higher sodium alginate concentration (3%) for production of hydrogel beads in combination with psyllium or chitosan coating would present the most favourable carrier systems for immobilization of caffeine. PMID:25149001

  12. Manipulation of VOC emissions with methyl jasmonate and carrageenan in the evergreen conifer Pinus sylvestris and evergreen broadleaf Quercus ilex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiz, G; Blande, J D; Heijari, J; Işik, K; Niinemets, U; Holopainen, J K

    2012-03-01

    Plant defence can be induced by exposing plants to the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) or its volatile ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Carrageenans (Carr) - sulphated D-galactans extracted from red algae - can also induce plant defences. In this study, the effects of exogenous MeJA and Carr application (concentration 300 and 12.7 μmol, respectively) on volatile emissions from two widespread evergreen woody species, Pinus sylvestris (nine Turkish and one Finnish provenance) and Quercus ilex (Italian provenance) were investigated. We collected headspace samples from seedlings and analysed the quality and quantity of volatile compounds emitted by treated and control plants. In total, 19 monoterpenes, 10 sesquiterpenes, 10 green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and two aromatic compounds were emitted by P. sylvestris from all the provenances studied. Foliar MeJA application clearly affected the volatile profiles of trees from all the provenances. Effects of Carr were genotype specific. In Q. ilex, emissions of sesquiterpenes, GLVs and the homoterpene (E)-DMNT were all induced by MeJA application. However, emissions of most constitutively emitted monoterpenes were significantly reduced. Carr application also led to a significant reduction in monoterpene emissions, but without corresponding increases in other emissions. Our results indicate that exogenously applied MeJA and Carr can both significantly modify the volatile profiles of P. sylvestris and Q. ilex, but also that there are important provenance- and species-specific differences in the overall degree of elicitation and compositions of elicited compounds. PMID:21973325

  13. PENGARUH KONSUMSI KAPPA-KARAGENAN TERHADAP GLUKOSA DARAH TIKUS WISTAR (Ratus norvegicus DIABETES [The Effect of Kappa-Carrageenan Consumption on Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Wistar Rat (Ratus norwegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kappa-carrageenan consumption on blood glucose level were studied on diabetic male wistar rat (Ratus norvegicus.The rats were made diabetic by aloxan injection, and then were given that a ration contains 5, 10, 15, 20% (w/w kappa-carrageenan, standard ration (negative control, and parental glibenklamid (positive control. The results showed that the standard ration could not reduce blood glucose from hyperglycemic to normal level, while the ration contained kappacarrageenan could. The higher kappa-carrageenan seaweed level in the ration has higher capacity to decrease blood glucose level. The ration containing 20% and 15% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose in 18 and 21 days, respectively.The effect of this ration was similar to that of glibenklamid which reduced blood glucose to normal level in 18 days. The ration containing 5 and 10% kappa-carrageenan could reduce blood glucose level; Blood glucose leve return to normal on the 21st day.

  14. Assessment of LED (λ 850 +/- 10 nm) phototherapy in the inflammatory process of rat's TMJ induced by carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Isabele C. V.; Rosa, Cristiane B.; Carvalho, Carolina M.; Soares, Luiz Guilherme P.; Cangussu, Maria Cristina T.; dos Santos, Jean N.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2015-03-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are commonly found in the population and usually involve inflammatory processes. Previous studies have shown positive effects of LED (Light emitting diodes) phototherapies on TMD but its action and mechanism in the inflammatory infiltrate of the temporomandibular joint are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess through histological analysis the effectiveness LED (10 J/cm2, λ850 nm, 100 mW, CW) on the inflammation of the temporomandibular joint of rats induced by carrageenan. Thirty animals were divided in two groups with five animals per subgroup according to the experimental times of two, three and seven days: Inflammation and Inflammation + LED phototherapy. The first irradiation was performed 24 h after induction with an interval of 48 h between sessions. After animal death, specimens were processed and stained with HE and Picrosirius. Then the samples were examined histologically. Data were statistically analyzed. The inflammation group showed mild to moderate chronic inflammatory infiltrate among the bone trabecules of the condyle. Over the time-course of the study in the LED group the condyle showed aspects of normality and absent inflammation in some specimens. In all the time-points, no statistically significant differences were found for collagen deposition in the in the condyle and disc when LED was compared to Inflammation group. LED treated groups also demonstrated a smaller number of the layers of the synovial membrane when compared to the non-irradiated groups. It was concluded that, in general, LED phototherapy resulted in a reduction of inflammatory infiltrate in the temporomandibular joint of rat.

  15. Phototherapy with low intensity laser in carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory process in mice paw - dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of modulation of inflammation on the treatment of inflammatory diseases and the difficulty in determining the laser irradiation parameters has led us to study the effects of different protocols of phototherapy with low intensity laser (power, energy, time and place of irradiation) in the treatment and prevention of edema in acute inflammatory process using the experimental model of paw edema induced by carrageenan (CGN) in three strains of mice (Balb-c, Swiss and C57BL/6). The first stage of the study evaluated different combinations of energy (1J and 3J) with different powers (30, 60 and 100mW) in Balb-C mice paw irradiated 1 and 2h after injection of CGN. The second stage studied different combinations of location (foot, inguinal lymph nodes and both) and exposure time (2 and 1h before, 1h and immediately before the CGN, 1 and 2h and 3.5 and 4.5h after CGN) using fixed irradiation parameters (1J, 100mW, 35J/cm2, spot area of 0.028 cm2). The third stage compared different strains of mice Balb-c and C57BL/6) in the best local and time parameters found in step 2. At all stages, we evaluated the change in paw volume by plethysmography and inflammatory infiltrate by histomorphometry or analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO). The results showed that laser phototherapy treated and prevented edema and modulated the inflammatory process with paw and inguinal lymph nodes irradiations accordingly with the parameters and mice strain used. (author)

  16. Novel porous scaffolds of pH responsive chitosan/carrageenan-based polyelectrolyte complexes for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, J V; Davidenko, N; Danner, M; Cameron, R E; Best, S M

    2014-12-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) represent promising materials for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. These substances are obtained in aqueous medium without the need for crosslinking agents. PECs can be produced through the combination of oppositely charged medical grade polymers, which include the stimuli responsive ones. In this work, three-dimensional porous scaffolds were produced through the lyophilization of pH sensitive PECs made of chitosan (CS) and carrageenan (CRG). CS:CRG molar ratios of 1:1 (CSCRG1), 2:1 (CSCRG2), and 3:1 (CSCRG3) were used. The chemical compositions of the PECs, as well as their influence in the final structure of the scaffolds were meticulously studied. In addition, the pH responsiveness of the PECs in a range including the physiological pH values of 7.4 (simulating normal physiological conditions) and 4.5 (simulating inflammatory response) was assessed. Results showed that the PECs produced were stable at pH values of 7.4 and under but dissolved as the pH increased to nonphysiological values of 9 and 11. However, after dissolution, the PEC could be reprecipitated by decreasing the pH to values close to 4.5. The scaffolds obtained presented large and interconnected pores, being equally sensitive to changes in the pH. CSCRG1 scaffolds appeared to have higher hydrophilicity and therefore higher water absorption capacity. The increase in the CS:CRG molar ratios improved the scaffold mechanical properties, with CSCRG3 presenting the higher compressive modulus under wet conditions. Overall, the PEC scaffolds appear promising for tissue engineering related applications that require the use of pH responsive materials stable at physiological conditions.

  17. 低分子量κ-卡拉胶及其邻苯二甲酰基化衍生物的抗氧化活性研究%Antioxidant Activity of Low-molecular-weight κ-carrageenan and Phthalyl Derivatives of κ-carrageenan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 陶慧娜; 卢克祥; 邵则淮; 康永峰

    2009-01-01

    对k-卡拉胶进行氧化降解.经过透析,得到分子量不同的两种卡拉胶寡糖,并分别制成四丁基铵盐,进而与邻苯二甲酸酐进行酰化,制得两种不同分子量的卡拉胶邻苯二甲酰基化衍生物.对产物进行IR表征,红外光谱表明制得的为目标产物,并检测了产物对超氧阴离子自由基O_2~(-·)和DPPH自由基的清除能力.结果表明:κ-卡拉胶在邻苯二甲酰基化以后对上述两种自由基的清除能力均有所增强.%Two kinds of carrageenan-derived oligosaccharides (CDO)with different molecular weight were prepared by oxidative degradation of κ-carrageenan and dialysis. Then, these two kinds of CDO were made to two kinds of tetrabutylammonium salts (TBA)respectively, which acylated with phthalic anhydride to obtain two kinds of phthalyl derivatives of κ- carrageenan with different molecular weight. The products were characterized by FI-IR and infrared spectrum indicated that these products were target products. The scavenging activities of products on super oxide anion radical O_2~(-·) and DPPH radical were tested. The results showed that the scavenging activities of phthalyl K-carrageenan on super oxide anion radical O_2~(-·) and DPPH radical were increased.

  18. EFFECT OF COMMERCIALLY MANUFACTURED KAPPA SEMI-REFINED CARRAGEENAN (SRC WITH DIFFERENT PHOSPHATE SALTS ON YIELD, TEXTURAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF BEEF MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Murugesan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphate salts such as SDP, TSP, SHMP, DSP, TPPP, TKPP and STPP were blended with semi-refined kappa carrageenan (SRC individually and their aqueous solution was injected into the fresh beef meat. The highest weight gain (24% in fresh meat was obtained from injection of blend made with SRC and STPP as compared to other blends and control sample after forzen storage. Similarly, it also showed low cooking loss (24% with good testural and sensory proerties as compared to other blends. It can be concluded from the presnt study that blend of SRC and STPP can be used in beef meat for yield and quality improvement.

  19. Study on the Sulfation Technology of Carrageenan Seaweed Polysaccharides%卡拉胶海藻多糖硫酸酯化技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚方; 刘宗利; 王乃强; 刘海玉; 杨海军

    2012-01-01

    利用微波辐射法制备特定分子量多糖(MW 1 000—20 000Da)并进行硫酸酯化修饰,从而提高其生物活性或降低毒副作用。优化后的卡拉胶酸解条件为:溶液浓度5%、制备量600mL、pH 2.0、微波功率750W。当目标产物分子量为1 000—3 000Da时,最适微波处理时间为30min;当为5 000—8 000Da,最适处理时间为20min;10 000—12 000Da时,最适处理时间为12min。考察酯化反应温度、酯化剂浓度等对硫酸根取代度的影响,确定较优反应条件,得到特定分子量及硫酸根取代度的卡拉胶多糖。本项研究为进一步针对卡拉胶多糖的抗流感病毒活性研究奠定了基础。%Microwave radiation method was used to prepare carrageenan seaweedpolysaccharides of specific molecular weight (MW 1 000--20 000Da), followed by sulfating modification, which could enhance the biological activity or decrease toxicity of carrageenan. The optimized acid-hydrolysis conditions were carrageenan content 5% , preparation volume 600mL, pH 2. 0, and microwave power 750W. When the target components MW were 1 000--3 000Da, the optimal processing time was 30rain. As for 5 000--8 000Da components, 20rain, and as for 10 000--12 000Da, 12min. Erfect of reaction temperature, esterifying agent concentration and other factors on the sulfation degree were investigated. This study laid a foundation for further research of the anti-influenza virus activity of specific carrageenan polysaccha- rides.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of bee pollen ethanol extract from Cistus sp. of Spanish on carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki Yoko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bee pollen, a honeybee product, is the feed for honeybees prepared themselves by pollens collecting from plants and has been consumed as a perfect food in Europe, because it is nutritionally well balanced. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of bee pollen from Cistus sp. of Spanish origin by a method of carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, and to investigate the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action and also to elucidate components involved in bee pollen extracted with ethanol. Methods The bee pollen bulk, its water extract and its ethanol extract were administered orally to rats. One hour later, paw edema was produced by injecting of 1% solution of carrageenan, and paw volume was measured before and after carrageenan injection up to 5 h. The ethanol extract and water extract were measured COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities using COX inhibitor screening assay kit, and were compared for the inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The constituents of bee pollen were purified from the ethanol extract subjected to silica gel or LH-20 column chromatography. Each column chromatography fractions were further purified by repeated ODS or silica gel column chromatography. Results The bee pollen bulk mildly suppressed the carrageenan-induced paw edema and the water extract showed almost no inhibitory activity, but the ethanol extract showed relatively strong inhibition of paw edema. The ethanol extract inhibited the NO production and COX-2 but not COX-1 activity, but the water extract did not affect the NO production or COX activities. Flavonoids were isolated and purified from the ethanol extract of bee pollen, and identified at least five flavonoids and their glycosides. Conclusions It is suggested that the ethanol extract of bee pollen show a potent anti-inflammatory activity and its effect acts via the inhibition of NO production, besides the inhibitory activity of COX-2

  1. κ-卡拉胶与魔芋胶复配凝胶结构探讨%Preliminary Study on Structure of κ-Carrageenan-Konjac Gum Blend Gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玉; 王元兰

    2012-01-01

    采用示差扫描量热仪(DSC)、红外光谱(FT-IR)及扫描电镜(SEM)对κ-卡拉胶与魔芋胶复配前后的结构进行初步探讨。结果表明:κ-卡拉胶与魔芋胶复配凝胶的-OH振动峰向低波数方向偏移;复配体系的DSC曲线吸热峰较单体胶所成峰峰形宽;SEM图像可清晰看到复配凝胶结构较单独κ-卡拉胶的致密。推测复配体系中形成了以κ-卡拉胶网络结构为主,魔芋胶分散其中的结构。%Structural analysis of κ-carrageenan,konjac gum,and their mixture at a mass ratio of 5.5:4.5 was carried out using DSC,FT-IR and SEM.The FT-IR results showed that hydroxyl group peak of κ-carrageenan and konjac gum shifted to lower wave number direction compared with their mixture.The DSC endothermic peak of κ-carrageenan-konjac gum mixture was wider than κ-carrageenan alone.SEM image showed that the morphology of the mixture gel was more compact than κ-carrageenan.Therefore,it was speculated that κ-carrageenan acted as the backbone of the mixed gel network system while konjac gum played a scattering role.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect of all-trans retinoic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar rats: Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Navneet Gill; Bijjem, Krishna Reddy V.; Sharma, Pyare L

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-β/δ receptors in carrageenan-induced inflammation and in the anti-inflammatory effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Materials and Methods: The λ-carrageenan (0.1 ml of 1% w/v) was injected into intra-plantar (i.pl.) region of the hind paw to produce acute inflammation. Paw volume was measured by using the mercury plethysmography. Further, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia (TH) ...

  3. Sex Difference in Oxytocin-Induced Anti-Hyperalgesia at the Spinal Level in Rats with Intraplantar Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lok-Hi; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Wu, Wan-Chuan; Chang, En-Pei; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated intrathecal administration of oxytocin strongly induced anti-hyperalgesia in male rats. By using an oxytocin-receptor antagonist (atosiban), the descending oxytocinergic pathway was found to regulate inflammatory hyperalgesia in our previous study using male rats. The activity of this neural pathway is elevated during hyperalgesia, but whether this effect differs in a sex-dependent manner remains unknown. We conducted plantar tests on adult male and female virgin rats in which paw inflammation was induced using carrageenan. Exogenous (i.t.) application of oxytocin exerted no anti-hyperalgesic effect in female rats, except at an extremely high dose. Female rats exhibited similar extent of hyperalgesia to male rats did when the animals received the same dose of carrageenan. When atosiban was administered alone, the severity of hyperalgesia was not increased in female rats. Moreover, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) was expressed at higher levels in the spinal cords of female rats compared with those of male rats. Oxytocin-induced anti-hyperalgesia exhibits a sex-dependent difference in rats. This difference can partially result from the higher expression of IRAP in the spinal cords of female rats, because IRAP functions as an enzyme that degrades oxytocin. Our study confirms the existence of a sex difference in oxytocin-induced anti-hyperalgesia at the spinal level in rats. PMID:27606886

  4. In Vivo Anticoagulant and Thrombolytic Activities of a Fibrinolytic Serine Protease (Brevithrombolase) With the k-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sourav; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, in vivo thrombolysis efficiency of Brevithrombolase, a nontoxic fibrinolytic enzyme purified from Brevibacillus brevis strain FF02B, was affirmed by significant inhibition of thrombus formation in the k-carrageenan-induced rat tail, in a dose-dependent manner. Brevithrombolase at a dose of 600 µg/kg showed an efficacy that was comparable to streptokinase and plasmin, in dissolving in vivo thrombus of k-carrageenan-treated rats under identical conditions. The in vivo anticoagulant property of Brevithrombolase was demonstrated by its prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time in Wistar rats. However, the Brevithrombolase-treated rats demonstrated an insignificant decrease in fibrinogen (Fg) level of plasma compared with Fg level of control group of rats corroborating in vivo as well as in vitro anticoagulant activity of Brevithrombolase is due to its hydrolytic action on thrombin. These findings unequivocally suggest that Brevithrombolase may serve a promising alternative to the commercial thrombolytic drugs. PMID:25657326

  5. 卡拉胶、膨润土改性PVA包埋小球%PVA-immobilized beads modified by carrageenan and bentonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟成华; 刘鹏; 张文东; 刘洁; 曾雪梅

    2013-01-01

    对PVA+卡拉胶包埋小球和PVA+海藻酸钠包埋小球的性能进行比较,并首次使用PVA+卡拉胶+膨润土混合包埋材料制作包埋小球.结果表明,PVA+海藻酸钠包埋小球在制作过程中有一定的拖尾现象,红墨水到达小球中心的时间为80 min,6d可去除50%的COD;PVA+卡拉胶包埋小球更容易成球,而且红墨水到达小球中心的时间为50 min,6d可去除56%的COD.此外,在PVA+卡拉胶包埋材料中添加适量的膨润土可以将红墨水到达小球中心的时间由50 min缩短到30 min.因此,使用PVA+卡拉胶+膨润土的混合材料制作包埋小球是可行的.最后,通过包埋小球处理抗生素废水的正交实验,得出包埋材料中各组分的最佳配比:PVA浓度11%、卡拉胶浓度0.5%、膨润土浓度2.5%.在这种配比下,包埋小球对抗生素废水中COD的去除率可以达到65%左右.%The performance of PVA-carrageenan immobilized beads and PVA-sodium alginate immobilized beads were compared,and PVA-carrageenan-bentonite was used as immobilized material for the first time.The results showed that PVA-sodium alginate beads were tailing during production,the time of the red ink reached to the center of the beads was 80 mins,and after 6 days' treatment,50% of COD was removed ; while PVA-carrageenan beads had better sphericity,the time of the red ink reached to the center of the beads was 50 mins and after 6 days' treatment,56% of COD was removed.Moreover,addition of bentonite into PVA-carrageenan could reduce the time of the red ink reached to the center of the beads from 50 mins to 30 mins.Therefrore,PVA-arrageenan-bentonite was feasible as embedded material.Finally,the orthogonal experiment results indicated that the best concentrations of PVA,carrageenan and bentonite in immobilized beads were 11%,0.5% and 2.5%,respectively,and under this condition,the COD removal efficiency was about 65%.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of an orange peel polymethoxylated flavone, 3’,4’,3,5,6,7,8,-heptamethoxyflavone, in the rat carrageenan/paw edema and mouse LPS-challenge assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anti-inflammatory properties of 3',4',3,5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), a citrus polymethoxylated flavone, were studied in the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenge/tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFa) response in mice, and in the carrageenan/paw edema assay in rats. In each of these trials,...

  7. 卡拉胶凝胶特性及其在巧克力牛奶中的应用%The gel properties of carrageenan and its application in chocolate milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志辉; 李春海

    2009-01-01

    针对卡拉胶水凝胶的两个主要指标凝胶强度和胶体黏度,研究了卡拉胶含量、钾离子浓度和pH值三个主要因素对卡拉胶水凝胶特性的影响,结果表明:凝胶强度随胶体含量的增加线性增大后渐趋平稳、受钾离子的影响出现峰值、在pH值8.0和10处出现两个拐点;胶液黏度随卡拉胶含量增加迅速增大、随钾离子浓度提高而减小、中性时的黏度最大.通过正交实验确定了影响卡拉胶凝胶因素的主次顺序为卡拉胶浓度、钾离子浓度和溶液的pH值,最佳条件组合为卡拉胶浓度1.2%,钾离子浓度1.2%,pH值9.0;通过考察单独使用卡拉胶以及卡拉胶与魔芋胶、刺槐豆胶及结冷胶等几种食品胶在巧克力牛奶中形成凝胶时的结构状态,判定卡拉胶与刺槐豆胶的协同作用效果最佳.%The influence of three main factors(carrageenan content,potassium ion concentration and pH value)on the hydrogel properties of carrageenan have been studied by determining the two main indicators gel strength and viscosity.The results indicated that:the gel strength increased in a linear and gradually become stable after with the colloid content,and there is a peak by the effect of potassium ion,and there are two turning points in the pH value 8.0 and 10;The viscosity increased rapidly with the increase of carrageenan content,and decreased with the increase of potassium ion concentration,and the the largest value of viscosity was emerged in neutral.The orthogonal experiment result showed that the major-minor effect factors were carrageenan concentration,potassium ion concentration and the pH value,the optimum condition was:the carrageenan concentration 1.2%,the potassium ion concentration 1.2%,the pH value 9.0;The best synergetic effect was detemined into carrageenan-locust bean gum by investigated the gel structures in chocolate milk to carrageenan,carrageenan-konjak gum,carrageenan-locust bean gum,carrageenan-gellan gum.

  8. 橙汁中卡拉胶的荧光光谱检测%Detection of Carrageenan in the Orange Juice Using Fluorescence Spectra Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔凡标; 陈国庆; 黄奇峰; 陈超; 李润

    2013-01-01

    应用多功能荧光光谱仪测得三种市售100%橙汁和鲜榨橙汁的三维荧光光谱并提取其特征参数,比较发现其三维荧光光谱及特征参数存在较为明显的差异,特别是在683 nm处.推断可能是三种市售100%橙汁中加入了食品添加剂的原因.在鲜榨橙汁中加入卡拉胶,检测得卡拉胶及加入卡拉胶的鲜榨橙汁的三维荧光光谱,发现卡拉胶为荧光物质.将加入卡拉胶的鲜榨橙汁的三维荧光光谱与三种市售100%橙汁的三维荧光光谱相比较,发现它们基本一致,并且其特征参数也基本一致,由此可推断三种市售100%橙汁均含有卡拉胶.本实验可为卡拉胶在橙汁中的定量检测提供一定帮助.%Using the FLS920P spectrometer of Edinburgh Instruments the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of the fresh orange juice and the three samples of 100% orange juice bought in the supermarket were studied and their characteristic parameters were obtained. The comparison of the spectra and the characteristic parameters shows that they are apparently different, especially at the emission wavelength of 683 nm. This might be caused by the food additives added into the orange juice bought The three-dimensional spectrum of the fresh orange juice with carrageenan was obtained. The comparison of the samples bought and the one with carrageenan shows that they are with little difference. The characteristic parameters of them are almost of no difference. Thus the conclusion can be drawn that the samples bought all have carrageenaa The results of the paper can somewhat help quantitatively study carrageenan in the orange juice.

  9. Lessons learned from a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study with a iota-carrageenan nasal spray as medical device in children with acute symptoms of common cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazekas Tamas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common cold is caused by a variety of respiratory viruses. The prevalence in children is high, and it potentially contributes to significant morbidity. Iota-carragenan, a polymer derived from red seaweed, has reduced viral load in nasal secretions and alleviated symptoms in adults with common cold. Methods We have assessed the antiviral and therapeutic activity of a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in children with acute symptoms of common cold. A cohort of 153 children between 1–18 years (mean age 5 years, displaying acute symptoms of common cold were randomly assigned to treatment with a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan (0.12% as verum or 0.9% sodium chloride solution as placebo for seven days. Symptoms of common cold were recorded and the viral load of respiratory viruses in nasal secretions was determined at two consecutive visits. Results The results of the present study showed no significant difference between the iota carrageenan and the placebo group on the mean of TSS between study days 2–7. Secondary endpoints, such as reduced time to clearance of disease (7.6 vs 9.4 days; p = 0.038, reduction of viral load (p = 0.026, and lower incidence of secondary infections with other respiratory viruses (p = 0.046 indicated beneficial effects of iota-carrageenan in this population. The treatment was safe and well tolerated, with less side effects observed in the verum group compared to placebo. Conclusion In this study iota-carrageenan did not alleviate symptoms in children with acute symptoms of common cold, but significantly reduced viral load in nasal secretions that may have important implications for future studies. Trial registration ISRCTN52519535, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN52519535/

  10. Application of the mixture of Carrageenan and enzyme digested Konjac gum in jelly sweets%降解魔芋胶与κ-卡拉胶复配胶在凝胶软糖中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺雪姣; 娄在祥; 马朝阳; 王洪新; 黄林青; 林玉惠

    2013-01-01

    The mixture of Carrageenan and enzyme digested Konjac gum was added into the jelly sweets to improve the elasticity and chewiness of Carrageenan jelly sweets.The mixture of KGM-2 and κ- Carrageenan was used in the jelly sweets production under an optimized condition and the mixture was compared with the jelly sweets only added κ- Carrageenan in it using a standard of sensory evaluation and texture analysis.The results indicated that the gel mixture kC-KGM-2 greatly reduced the amount of κ-Carrageenan with a better elasticity and chewiness.%为了改善单独以卡拉胶为凝胶剂的软糖弹性、咀嚼性不足等缺陷,并降低凝胶剂的用量,本文探讨了降解魔芋胶(KGM-2)与κ-卡拉胶复合胶体在凝胶软糖中应用.将KGM-2和κ-卡拉胶的复合胶体运用于凝胶软糖的制作,在优化的配方和干燥条件下,从感官评定和质构测定两方面与单独以κ-卡拉胶为凝胶剂的软糖进行对比.结果表明,kC-KGM-2软糖在很大程度上减少了凝胶剂(尤其是κ-卡拉胶)的用量,也减少了氯化钾的用量,而且弹性、咀嚼性等显著优于kC软糖.

  11. Hypoglycemic Properties of Oxovanadium (IV Coordination Compounds with Carboxymethyl-Carrageenan and Carboxymethyl-Chitosan in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid low absorption, incorporation, and undesirable side effects of inorganic oxovanadium compounds, the antidiabetic activities of organic oxovanadium (IV compounds in alloxan-induced diabetic mice were investigated. Vanadyl carboxymethyl carrageenan (VOCCA and vanadyl carboxymethyl chitosan (VOCCH were synthesized and administrated through intragastric administration in different doses for 20 days in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Glibenclamide was administrated as the positive control. Our results showed that low-dose group, middle-dose group, and high-dose group of VOCCA and VOCCH could significantly reduce the levels of blood glucose (P<0.05 compared with untreated group, but not in normal mice. Besides, high-dose groups of VOCCA and VOCCH exhibited more significant hypoglycemic activities (P<0.01. After treated with VOCCH, the oral glucose tolerance of high-dose group of VOCCH was improved compared with model control group (P<0.05.

  12. 卡拉胶在肉制品中的作用机理及应用%Mechanism and Application of Carrageenan in Meat Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓念想; 姜一鸣

    2009-01-01

    @@ 卡拉胶(Carrageenan),又称角叉菜胶、鹿角菜胶、是从麒麟菜、鹿角叉菜等海洋植物中提取的海藻多糖的统称.卡拉胶是-种天然食品添加剂,早在2001年,联合国粮农组织和世界卫生组织食品添加剂专家委员就取消了卡拉胶日允许摄取量的限制,确认它是-种安全、无毒、无副作用的食品添加剂.

  13. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    Full Text Available Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histopathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model.

  14. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Parasar, Devraj; Sagar, Amin; Choudhary, Vikas; Chopra, Bhupinder Singh; Garg, Renu; Ashish; Khatri, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse) in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse) compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg)] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histo-pathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model. PMID:26426535

  15. The influence of xanthan andlambda-carrageenan on the creaming and flocculation of an oil-in-water emulsion containing soy protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Santiago

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of polysaccharide content on the stability of an oil-in-water emulsion (20% oil, droplet diameter 6.5 mum, pH = 7 containing soy protein (5 mg/ml as the emulsifying agent was studied. Flocculation occurs by addition of two depletion flocculants: xanthan (0.01- 0.4% and lambda-carrageenan (0.001- 2%. We report that in both cases the onset of flocculation occurs below the overlap polymer concentration (c* = 0.15 % for xanthan and c* = 0.58% for lambda-carrageenan. The strength of depletion interaction is dependent on such factors as polymer concentration, molecular weight and also the presence of other macromolecules. Profiles of the creaming behaviour of the sample emulsions were obtained by measuring the height of the boundary between the cream phase and the serum as a function of time for each emulsion. The result indicates that creaming kinetics is dependent on polymer concentration in a complex way. The turbidity of the serum gave an indication of whether the system was fully flocculated or contained flocks together with unflocculated droplets. At very low polymer concentrations the droplets cream individually or in small aggregates at the top of the container. At higher concentrations the droplets appear to cream as a single entity, with a sharp lower boundary separating the cream phase from a clear serum. In these emulsions and in some of the coexistent ones, there is a delay before creaming starts. The presence of the polymers at higher concentrations resulted in a stable emulsion with a very high apparent viscosity for the continuous phase and/or a strong emulsion gel network. The length of the delay phase increased with increasing concentration of both polymers.

  16. Vinpocetine reduces carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in mice by inhibiting oxidative stress, cytokine production and NF-κB activation in the paw and spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji W Ruiz-Miyazawa

    Full Text Available Vinpocetine is a safe nootropic agent used for neurological and cerebrovascular diseases. The anti-inflammatory activity of vinpocetine has been shown in cell based assays and animal models, leading to suggestions as to its utility in analgesia. However, the mechanisms regarding its efficacy in inflammatory pain treatment are still not completely understood. Herein, the analgesic effect of vinpocetine and its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms were addressed in murine inflammatory pain models. Firstly, we investigated the protective effects of vinpocetine in overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone (PBQ and formalin. The intraplantar injection of carrageenan was then used to induce inflammatory hyperalgesia. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated using the electronic von Frey and the hot plate tests, respectively, with neutrophil recruitment to the paw assessed by a myeloperoxidase activity assay. A number of factors were assessed, both peripherally and in the spinal cord, including: antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, superoxide anion, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β levels, as well as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB activation. Vinpocetine inhibited the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, PBQ and formalin (at both phases, as well as the carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and associated neutrophil recruitment. Both peripherally and in the spinal cord, vinpocetine also inhibited: antioxidant capacity and GSH depletion; increased superoxide anion; IL-1β and TNF-α levels; and NF-κB activation. As such, vinpocetine significantly reduces inflammatory pain by targeting oxidative stress, cytokine production and NF-κB activation at both peripheral and spinal cord levels.

  17. Adjuvant effect of caffeine on acetylsalicylic acid anti-nociception: prostaglandin E2 synthesis determination in carrageenan-induced peripheral inflammation in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Sánchez, Sílvia; Planas, Eulàlia; Poveda, Raquel

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we report a synergistic interaction between acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and caffeine (CAF) on the inhibition of nociception in a model of peripheral inflammation in rat; on the contrary no interaction have been found on anti-inflammatory effects and peripheral prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) synthesis inhibition. Acute inflammation was induced by the subplantar injection of carrageenan into the right hind paw, and the effects of the drugs were evaluated from 0 to 5h. Nociception was assessed using the Randall & Selitto test, and the inflammatory response by plethismometry. Oral administration of ASA (10-400mg/kg) induced dose-related anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. On the other hand, oral CAF administration (5-50mg/kg) did not show a dose-related inhibitory effect, neither on the inhibition of nociception nor on the inflammatory response. To analyze a possible interaction between both drugs a dose-response curve to ASA plus a fixed dose of CAF (5mg/kg) was obtained 3h after the injection of carrageenan, when the inflammatory pain peaked. A fixed dose of CAF was able to improve the anti-nociceptive, but not the anti-inflammatory, effects of ASA. We also assessed, by enzyme immunoassay, the effects of the combination on peripheral PGE-2 levels: CAF did not alter the inhibitory effect of ASA on PGE-2 synthesis. Our results corroborate the well-known clinical effects of combining ASA and CAF; on the other hand, we rule out that prostaglandin synthesis inhibition at peripheral sites would be the mechanism responsible of the adjuvant anti-nociceptive effect of CAF.

  18. Phenotypic alterations of neuropeptide Y and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing neurons innervating the rat temporomandibular joint during carrageenan-induced arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Damico

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify immunoreactive neuropeptide Y (NPY and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP neurons in the autonomic and sensory ganglia, specifically neurons that innervate the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ. A possible variation between the percentages of these neurons in acute and chronic phases of carrageenan-induced arthritis was examined. Retrograde neuronal tracing was combined with indirect immunofluorescence to identify NPY-immunoreactive (NPY-IR and CGRP- immunoreactive (CGRP-IR neurons that send nerve fibers to the normal and arthritic temporomandibular joint. In normal joints, NPY-IR neurons constitute 78±3%, 77±6% and 10±4% of double-labeled nucleated neuronal profile originated from the superior cervical, stellate and otic ganglia, respectively. These percentages in the autonomic ganglia were significantly decreased in acute (58±2% to superior cervical ganglion and 58±8% to stellate ganglion and chronic (60±2% to superior cervical ganglion and 59±15% to stellate ganglion phases of arthritis, while in the otic ganglion these percentages were significantly increased to 19±5% and 13±3%, respectively. In the trigeminal ganglion, CGRP-IR neurons innervating the joint significantly increased from 31±3% in normal animals to 54±2% and 49±3% in the acute and chronic phases of arthritis, respectively. It can be concluded that NPY neurons that send nerve fibers to the rat temporomandibular joint are located mainly in the superior cervical, stellate and otic ganglia. Acute and chronic phases of carrageenan-induced arthritis lead to an increase in the percentage of NPY-IR parasympathetic and CGRP-IR sensory neurons and decrease in the percentage of NPY-IR sympathetic neurons related to TMJ innervation.

  19. Improvement of the Quality of Edible Carrageenan by Carrageenan Concentration by Membrane System in Industrial Production%膜法卡拉胶浓缩技术提高食用卡拉胶品质的工业化生产研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卫强; 陈亚民; 肖海萍

    2011-01-01

    In the course of industrial carrageenan production, adopting the equipment for concentration by membrane system will help to improve the quality of edible carrageenan, including the increase in product viscosity, the reduction in ash, and the reduced content of potassium ion to 800PPM below. Especially in the microbiological index, the total number of bacteria ≤5000 cfu/g, completely complies with the provisions of United States FAO/WHO, 2001 standard.%在卡拉胶工业化生产过程中,如果采用膜法浓缩设备新技术,将有助于食用卡拉胶产品质量的提高.例如:产品粘度的增加;灰分的降低以及钾离子含量可以降低至800 mg/kg以下.特别是在微生物指标方面,菌落总数≤5000 cfu/g,完全符合FAO/WHO,2001标准的规定.

  20. Study on the Fluorescence Spectra of Carrageenan and Prediction of Its Concentration%卡拉胶的荧光光谱特性及其质量浓度预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄奇峰; 高淑梅; 陈国庆; 陈超; 孔凡标; 李润

    2012-01-01

    Carrageenan is used for thickener, stabilizer, and texturizer in the industry of food processing, but over-intake will seriously do harm to our health. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of carrageenan solution are obtained by using FLS920 fluorescences spectrometer. The fluorescence emission peaks of carrageenan are located at 485 nm, 620 nm and 660 nm and the excitation peak is at 390 nm. The red shift of the 485 nm peak with the excitation wavelength increases may be caused by the Rayleigh scattering and the Raman scattering of water. The fluorescence intensity of different concentration of carrageenan solution is attained. The principal component analysis and the BP neural network are used to predict the concentration of different carrageenan solution. Results show that the accuracy is greater than 90% and even greater than 98% when the concentrations are higher than 120 μg/Ml. This method can provide a quick method for the measurement of the content of carrageenan.%针对卡拉胶在食品加工中作为增稠剂、乳化剂和稳定剂使用,而大量摄入会对身体造成严重损害,文中对卡拉胶的三维荧光光谱进行了系统研究.结果表明,其在390 nm处存在一个激发峰,分别在485 nm、620 nm、660 nm处存在荧光峰,其中660 nm峰较强、485 nm峰较宽且红移,提出瑞利散射和水的拉曼散射的影向导致485 nm谱峰的红移.进而发现卡拉胶溶液荧光光谱强度随质量浓度的增加而增强,并通过主成分分析-BP神经网络训练,实现了对卡拉胶质量浓度的预测,准确率达到90%以上.当质量浓度高于120 μg/mL时,准确率达到98%以上,表明该技术可快速测定溶液中卡拉胶的含量.

  1. Effects of Ultra-high Pressure and Carrageenan on Gelling Properties of Surimi from Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix%卡拉胶和超高压对鱼糜凝胶性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆剑锋; 邵明栓; 林琳; 叶应旺; 陈从贵; 姜绍通

    2011-01-01

    以白鲢鱼糜为研究对象,将卡拉胶添加其中,经超高压处理后,再经二段加热处理形成鱼糜凝胶,测定其凝胶强度、白度值、pH值,研究压力、保压时间和卡拉胶质量分数对白鲢鱼糜凝胶性质的影响.单因素实验表明,当压力大于300 MPa时凝胶强度显著下降;保压时间大于10 min,卡拉胶质量分数大于0.8%时凝胶强度变化不显著.通过正交实验确定了优化工艺条件为:压力300 MPa、保压时间10 min、卡拉胶质量分数0.8%.各因素对白鲢鱼糜凝胶强度影响程度由大至小依次为压力、保压时间、卡拉胶质量分数.研究结果表明,超高压处理协同添加卡拉胶能够促进白鲢鱼糜形成良好的凝胶.%Surimi gel added with carrageenan from silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) processed by ultra-high pressure (UHP) and a two-stage heat treatment was formed. The gel strength, whiteness and pH values were measured, respectively. The effects of pressure, time and carrageenan addition (mass percentage) on the gelling properties of silver carp surimi were studied. The single-factor experiments showed that gel strength decreased significantly when pressure was more than 300 Mpa, while there was no significant change in gel strength when time and carrageenan addition were more than 10 min and 0. 8% , respectively. The optimum conditions were optimized with orthogonal experiments as follows: pressure of 300 Mpa, time of 10 min and carrageenan addition of 0. 8% . UHP treatment conditions had an effect on gel strength in an order of pressure, time, carrageenan addition. This study indicated that UHP treatment with carrageenan addition could well modify the effect on the formation of silver carp surimi gel.

  2. Use of antioxidants substances to protect the hydrocolloids carrageenan, agaran and alginates used in food industry when exposed to radiation; Uso de substancias antioxidantes na resposta a radiacao dos hidrocoloides carragenanas, agaranas e alginatos utilizados na industria alimenticia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    2006-07-01

    Carrageenan, agaran e alginates are hydrocolloids largely employed in every kind of food products as stabilizing agent and viscosity builder. The human body does not absorb them, so they do not introduce extra calories in the diet. Irradiation is presented as an important alternative method in food preservation because do not induce temperature increase being of good efficiency in cold food ingredients decontamination. In this work aqueous solutions of carrageenan, agar e sodium alginate were gamma irradiated (0-10 kGy) in presence of ascorbic acid, roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract and soy isoflavone. Edible polysaccharide solutions showed to be suitable systems for the evaluation of ionizing radiation effects as they presented a singular radiosensitivity through viscosity changes. The results obtained showed that in general the antioxidants employed had a radioprotective action that can be of importance in the future commercial applications of food irradiation. (author)

  3. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of carrageenan, agarans and alginates to be used as food additives; Efeito da radiacao gama na viscosidade de carragenanas, agaranas e alginatos utilizados na industria alimenticia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    1999-07-01

    Carrageenan, agarans and alginates are phycocolloids, which change the consistence of the foodstuff and prevent undesirable changes such as moisture migration or textural profile changes. These phycocolloids are additives used in large scale for all kind of food products. They are not absorbed for the human organism and do not introduce extra calories in the diet. The process of irradiation, is an alternative method of great potential, because do not increase the temperature and it is highly in the decontamination of food ingredients. In this work, agar alginates and carrageenan were irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of the irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. The viscosity of these hydrocolloids shows a decrease when submitted to an irradiation with doses until 10 kGy. (author)

  4. Study on optimum preparation procedure for oxidative degradation of k-carrageenan%基于双氧水降解卡拉胶的优化工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝燕; 陈晓银; 丁卓平

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To optimize the preparative procedure for oxidative degradation of k-carrageenan.Methods: The optimum conditions of oxidative degradation for k - carrageenan was selected with the yield and the scavenging activities of DPPH radical and marked by orthogonal experimental design.ResultS: The optimize preparative procedure was as follows:the oxidative degradation for K-carrageenan was at temperature of 90℃, when K-carrageenan was dissolved adding with 20% hydrogen peroxide immediately,and then adjust the solution pH to 8, keeping it for 2h.The yield and the scavenging activities of DPPH radical were 75.94% and 95.78%. Conclusion:The optimum preparative procedure was reliablaThe yield and the scavenging activities of DPPH radical were high,It had high economy benefit.%目的:优选氧化降解卡拉胶的工艺.方法:以降解卡拉胶得率、降解卡拉胶DPPH·清除率为指标,采用正交实验对双氧水降解卡拉胶的工艺进行优选.结果:优化工艺为待温度升至90℃,卡拉胶溶解后,立即加入20%的双氧水,然后调溶液pH至8,保持90℃降解2h,降解卡拉胶得率、降解卡拉胶DPPH·清除率分别为75.94%和95.78%.结论:该工艺合理,降解卡拉胶得率较高且DPPH·清除率高,具有较好的经济效益.

  5. On Restricting Factors and Countermeasures of the Development of Carrageenan%我国卡拉胶生产发展制约因素及其对策的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭善慧; 关键

    2014-01-01

    卡拉胶用作天然食品添加剂已有多年的历史,它是一种无毒而又不能被人体消化的植物纤维,用途十分广泛。国外的卡拉胶商业性生产是从20世纪20年代开始的。我国则从1985年开始生产商业用卡拉胶,其中80%用于食品或与食品有关的工业。随着食品、医疗等行业发展,国内外市场对卡拉胶需求不断扩大,但卡拉胶行业在蓬勃发展的同时遇到瓶颈。本文主要通过对卡拉胶生产发展制约因素的研究,以探讨破解瓶颈的方法和策略。%Carrageenan is used as a natural food additive has a long history, it is the plant fiber which is a non-toxic and can not be digested by, use isvery extensive. Carrageenan demand has continued to expand, but in recent years the development of carrageenan bottleneck of highlights. In this paper , through the research on the development of carrageenan production factors, to explore the methods and strategies of breaking the bottleneck.

  6. Assessment of immune response in periparturient dairy cows using ex vivo whole blood stimulation assay with lipopolysaccharides and carrageenan skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, N; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2015-06-15

    The transition period is known to be the most critical phase in the life of high yielding dairy cow. Changes in the immune functions have been observed during the transition period which may account for the onset of clinical and subclinical (e.g. inflammatory response) problems at calving or at the beginning of lactation however this relationship has not yet been adequately investigated. Thus, to establish the potential of the periparturient dairy cow's immune system to respond to stimuli, two challenges [an ex vivo whole blood stimulation assay (WBA) with lipopolysaccharides and a carrageenan skin test (CST)] were performed in addition to characterizing the metabolic and inflammatory profile. The WBA was performed using 0, 0.01 and 5 μg LPS/mL on whole blood and CST was administered by subcutaneous injection of 0.7 mL solution containing 4.2mg of carrageenan to the shoulder region of the cows. These tests were performed on 10 Holstein-Friesian cows at -45 ± 2, -20 ± 2, -3, 3, 7, 28 ± 2 days from parturition (DFP). Cows were also monitored for health status, body condition score, milk yield. The results demonstrate a higher production of IL-1β and IL-6 from leukocytes after LPS stimulation around calving (from -3 to 3 DFP) compared to -45 DFP (P transition period, with low LPS dose, suggests its crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory response around calving. The response of cows to CST decreased a few days before calving (-3 DFP) compared with response at -45 and 28 DFP (P<0.05), and remained low in the first week of lactation. This result suggests the reduction of the functionality of some vascular factors, which decreases diapedesis. Overall, the WBA and CST tests confirm changes in immunocompetence around calving. These tests are able to better describe the changes of the innate immune response at a local and systemic level, mainly when combined with conventional metabolic and inflammatory indices. PMID:25912553

  7. Evaluation of the Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Solar and Freeze-Dried Jameed Produced from Cow and Sheep Milk with the Addition of Carrageenan Mix to the Jameed Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman S. Mazahreh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jameed is a fermented dried dairy product in the form of stone hard balls or other shapes produced by straining the heated buttermilk on cloth mesh bags, salting the formed paste by kneading, shaping and drying in the sun. This product is reconstituted after disintegration to be used in the preparation of Mansaf, the national dish in Jordan, which is basically lamb meat cooked in Jameed sauce (Sharab, Mareece and served on cooked rice. The addition of Carrageenan (0.15%, to the Jameed paste resulted in improvement of solar dried Jameed with significant result for Carrageenan treatment as evaluated by wettability and syneresis test. Whipping of the paste to which carrageenan was used, added an additional improvement to the solubility of Jameed and stability of its dispersion The sensory evaluation of the sauce prepared From sheep milk using hedonic scale test had higher mean scores than control market sample which was karaki jameed considered as the best quality in Jordan.

  8. Study on the Phase Behavior and Gel Properties of Mixed Soybean Carrageenan/Soybean 11S Protein System%卡拉胶/大豆11S蛋白共混体系相容性及凝胶性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建华; 杨晓泉

    2012-01-01

    The effect of three carrageenan with different charge density on the compatibility, thermal properties, gel rheological properties and microstructure of soybean US protein has been studied. As results showed that k -carrageenan had more compatibility to soybean 11S protein than samples with ι - carrageenan, and blends with λ - carrageenan system was easier to cause phase separation. Incorporation of carrageenan could increase the thermal denatur-ation temperature of soybean IIS protein, but reduced the enthalpy value, ranking as λ - carrageenan > ι - carrageenan > κ - carrageenan. With negative charge increase of the carrageenan/soybean US protein the elastic modulus of the mixed gel decreased, and the gel network structure was changed from carrageenan - soybean 11S protein bicontin-uous into a single protein continuous. Gel kinetics showed that with negative charge increase the apparent activation energy of mixed gels were reduced, while the elastic modulus value in final temperature procedure also was reduced.%研究了大豆11S蛋白分别与3种不同荷电量卡拉胶组成共混体系的相容性、热性质、凝胶流变性质及微结构,并探讨了共混凝胶的成胶动力学及机理.结果表明:l-卡拉胶对大豆11S蛋白的相容性比K卡拉胶弱,添加入-卡拉胶样共混体系更易发生相分离;添加3种卡拉胶均提高了大豆11S蛋白的热变性温度,但降低了热焓值,影响效果依次是λ-卡拉胶>ι-卡拉胶>κ-卡拉胶;共混凝胶随卡拉胶所带负电荷的增加其弹性模量值呈降低趋势,且凝胶网络结构由蛋白-多糖双连续结构转变为蛋白凝胶网络单连续结构;增加卡拉胶所带负电荷可降低共混凝胶形成过程表观活化能,同时降低了温控程序终点的弹性模量值.

  9. Rheological Properties and Microstructure of κ-Carrageenan-Konjac Gum Mixed Gel%κ-卡拉胶与魔芋胶复配胶的流变性能及其微观结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元兰; 黄寿恩; 魏玉

    2012-01-01

    研究κ-卡拉胶与魔芋胶(质量比为5.5∶4.5)复配胶的流变特性,考察剪切速率、振动频率和温度等对复配胶流变特性的影响.研究结果表明:30℃时复配胶的储能模量G’高于κ-卡拉胶和魔芋胶单体胶的储能模量G’,其损耗模量G”低于K-卡拉胶的损耗模量G”,复配胶的凝胶性质更加明显.随着温度的升高,复配胶体系的G’始终大于G”,具有典型黏弹性流体的特性.结构分析表明κ-卡拉胶与魔芋胶之间具有较好的协同作用,通过分子间氢键形成了以κ-卡拉胶网络结构为主,魔芋胶穿插其中的交联网络体系.%In this study, Theological properties of κ-carrageenan gum, konjac gum and their mixed gel (5.5:4.5, m/ m) in aqueous solution all at a concentration of 1 g/100 mL were measured and compared. This was followed by an investigation to explore effects of shear rate , frequency and temperature on rheological properties of these three solutions. Results indicated that the storage modulus (C') of the compound gelwas obviously higher than that of K-carrageenan gu-mand konjac gum; while, the lossmodulus (G") was lower than that of K-carrageenan at 30%. In addition, the compound gel revealed obviously enhanced gelling properties.With the increase of temperature, the storage modulus (C') was always bigger than the loss modulus (G") in the compound gel so that the compound gel had typical viscoelatic fluid properties. The structural analysis showed that the K-carrageenan and konjac gum had good synergy, which formed the main network structure by κ-carrageenan and konjac gum interspersed among the cross-linked network by intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  10. Effect of carrageenan and potassium chloride on the quality of neutral dairy desserts%卡拉胶与氯化钾用量对中性奶冻品质影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄能武; 赵谋明; 张多敏; 龙肇; 赵强忠

    2012-01-01

    The effect of carrageenan and KCl on the quality of dairy desserts were investigated according to the size distribution,texture characteristic,microstructrue and syneresis.The results showed that the gel structure was poor with addition of 0.10% carrageenan.With carrageenan more than 0.15%,the gel structure and the hardness were improved,but flocculation of the gel occured according to the particle size and the microstructure.Moreover,addition of KCl was benifit to the gel but high concentration of KCl might induce flocculation,especially when the concentration of carrageenan was 0.20%.According to the texture quality of the dairy desserts,the addition of carrageenan and KCl was 0.15% and 0.01%,respectively.%研究了卡拉胶与氯化钾用量对奶冻品质的影响,以粒度分布、质构特性、微观结构与析水率等为分析检测指标。研究结果表明:当卡拉胶用量小于0.10%时,硬度低,凝胶结构差;当卡拉胶用量增至0.15%以上时,硬度适当,凝胶结构较好,但从粒度分布与显微结构判断,体系开始出现絮凝。同时,氯化钾促进凝胶,而高含量的氯化钾有诱导体系失稳絮凝的趋势,在卡拉胶用量0.20%时,影响更为显著,且此时析水率也随之增加。综合考虑,以卡拉胶0.15%用量与氯化钾0.01%用量下奶冻具有良好的质构品质。

  11. 酶解谷朊粉-卡拉胶复合体系凝胶特性研究%Study on Characters of Enzymatic Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten- Carrageenan Pluralgel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王章存; 陆杰; 李乐静; 田卫环

    2011-01-01

    采用物性仪研究了酶解谷朊粉-卡拉胶复合体系的胶凝条件和凝胶特性.结果表明,酶解谷朊粉为300 mg/mL时仍是松软的糊状形态,添加0.3%卡拉胶时凝胶成形较好;随着卡拉胶浓度或酶解谷朊粉浓度增加,凝胶的黏性和弹性持续提高,而硬度则在0.3%卡拉胶或250 mg/mL谷朊粉时达到最高点后逐渐下降;随着加热温度增加或加热时间延长,凝胶的质构特性均呈现先逐渐增加后又下降的趋势.综合分析可知,在酶解谷朊粉300 mg/mL、卡拉胶0.3%、80℃加热30 min条件下形成的复合凝胶硬度(252.822 g)、黏性(128.112 g·s)和弹性(0.045)均达到了较高值.%The gelation condition and gel characters of enzymatic hydrolyzed wheat gluten ( EHWG) - carrag-eenan composite system were studied. The results showed EHWG solution in 300 mg/mL was also pasty,but it became good gel when 0.3% carrageenan was added in the system. The adhesiveness and elasticity of the gel were improved continuously with the increase of carrageenan or EHWG concentration,and hardness of the gel came to top in 0.3% carrageenan or in 200 mg/mL EHWG. The characters of EHWG - carrageenan composite gel could increase and then decrease when the gelling temperature or heating time increased. According to the analysis, in the conditions of 300 mg/mL gluten hydrolysates,0.3% concentration and 80 ℃ heating for 30 min,the hardness,adhesiveness and e-lasticity of the plural gel would come to best.

  12. A High-Throughput Oxidative Stress Biosensor Based on Escherichia coli roGFP2 Cells Immobilized in a k-Carrageenan Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Ooi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors fabricated with whole-cell bacteria appear to be suitable for detecting bioavailability and toxicity effects of the chemical(s of concern, but they are usually reported to have drawbacks like long response times (ranging from hours to days, narrow dynamic range and instability during long term storage. Our aim is to fabricate a sensitive whole-cell oxidative stress biosensor which has improved properties that address the mentioned weaknesses. In this paper, we report a novel high-throughput whole-cell biosensor fabricated by immobilizing roGFP2 expressing Escherichia coli cells in a k-carrageenan matrix, for the detection of oxidative stress challenged by metalloid compounds. The E. coli roGFP2 oxidative stress biosensor shows high sensitivity towards arsenite and selenite, with wide linear range and low detection limit (arsenite: 1.0 × 10−3–1.0 × 101 mg·L−1, LOD: 2.0 × 10−4 mg·L−1; selenite: 1.0 × 10−5–1.0 × 102 mg·L−1, LOD: 5.8 × 10−6 mg·L−1, short response times (0–9 min, high stability and reproducibility. This research is expected to provide a new direction in performing high-throughput environmental toxicity screening with living bacterial cells which is capable of measuring the bioavailability and toxicity of environmental stressors in a friction of a second.

  13. Inhibition of Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice by Oral Administration of Anthocyanin Mixture from Wild Mulberry and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Mariko Aymoto Hassimotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are flavonoids which demonstrated biological activities in in vivo and in vitro models. Here in the anti-inflammatory properties of an anthocyanin-enriched fraction (AF extracted from wild mulberry and the cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, the most abundant anthocyanin in diet, were studied in two acute inflammation experimental models, in the peritonitis and in the paw oedema assays, both of which were induced by carrageenan (cg in mice. In each trial, AF and C3G (4 mg/100 g/animal were orally administered in two distinct protocols: 30 min before and 1 h after cg stimulus. The administration of both AF and C3G suppresses the paw oedema in both administration times (P<0.05. In the peritonitis, AF and C3G reduced the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN influx in the peritoneal exudates when administered 1 h after cg injection. AF was more efficient reducing the PMN when administered 30 min before cg. Both AF and C3G were found to suppress mRNA as well as protein levels of COX-2 upregulated by cg in both protocols, but the inhibitory effect on PGE2 production in the peritoneal exudates was observed when administered 30 min before cg (P<0.05. Our findings suggest that AF and C3G minimize acute inflammation and they present positive contributions as dietary supplements.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of thermo- and pH-sensitive kappa-carrageenan-g-poly(methacrylic acid)/poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) semi-IPN hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jun [Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu Mingzhu [Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: mzliu@lzu.edu.cn; Chen Shilan [Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2009-05-15

    In this study, a novel semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogel of kappa-carrageenan-g-poly(methacrylic acid)/poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) (KC-g-PMAA/PDEA) was prepared using ammonium persulfate as an initiator and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamide as an accelerator at 25 deg. C. The structure of the hydrogels was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The effects of the feed components, temperature and pH on the swelling behavior of the hydrogels were studied. The results showed that the introduction of KC-g-PMAA did not change the lower critical solution temperature of the semi-IPN hydrogels, which was the same to the PDEA hydrogel (at 28 deg. C). With the increase of KC-g-PMAA content, the thermo- and pH-sensitivity of the hydrogel improved, which the swelling rate increased with the increasing content of KC-g-PMAA. The semi-IPN hydrogels showed a fast deswelling and swelling rate. The swelling dynamic transport of the hydrogels was analyzed based on the Fickian equation.

  15. Degraded carrageenan causing colitis in rats induces TNF secretion and ICAM-1 upregulation in monocytes through NF-kappaB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Benard

    Full Text Available Carrageenan (CGN is a high molecular weight sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweeds. In rodents, its degraded forms (dCGN can induce intestinal inflammation associated with macrophage recruitment and activation. The aim of this study was: 1 to analyze the size-dependent effects of dCGN on colon inflammation in vivo, and 2 to correlate these effects with monocyte/macrophage proliferation, cytokine production and expression of various cell surface antigens including ICAM-1 adhesion molecule. Peripheral blood monocytes (PBM and THP-1 monocytic cells were cultured in the presence of either 10 or 40 kDa, dCGN. The 40 kDa, but not the 10 kDa dCGN, induced colitis in in vivo. Degraded CGN inhibited THP-1 cell proliferation in vitro, arresting the cells in G1 phase. In addition, dCGN increased ICAM-1 expression in both PBM and THP-1 cells with a major effect seen after 40 kDa dCGN exposure. Also, dCGN stimulated monocyte aggregation in vitro that was prevented by incubation with anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Finally, dCGN stimulated TNF-alpha expression and secretion by both PBM and THP-1 cells. All these effects were linked to NF-kappaB activation. These data strongly suggest that the degraded forms of CGN have a pronounced effect on monocytes, characteristic of an inflammatory phenotype.

  16. 添加亚麻籽胶对卡拉胶乳化肠品质的影响%Effects of Flaxseeds Gum on the Quality of Carrageenan Emulsified Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 王鹏; 周光宏

    2012-01-01

    通过测定蒸煮损失率、析水率、质构、感官评价来考察不同添加量的亚麻籽胶乳化肠与0.2%卡拉胶乳化肠品质的差异,以及在0.2%卡拉胶乳化肠中逐渐添加亚麻籽胶对乳化肠品质的影响。实验结果显示:随着亚麻籽胶量的增加,亚麻籽胶乳化肠蒸煮损失率降低,且比卡拉胶的乳化肠低;多汁性及风味亚麻籽胶产品优于卡拉胶产品,组织结构及质地卡拉胶产品优于亚麻籽胶产品。添加了亚麻籽胶的卡拉胶乳化肠蒸煮损失率极显著降低(P〈0.01),析水率下降差异不显著,硬度下降,差异显著(P〈0.05);当卡拉胶与亚麻籽胶添加比例为4:3时,感官评定结果认为产品多汁、有韧性,口感质构与0.2%卡拉胶乳化肠没有显著差异(P〉0.01)。结果表明亚麻籽胶与卡拉胶具有很强的协同作用,增强了乳化肠持水持油能力。%Quality difference between emulsified sausage with different amount of flaxseed gum and with 0.2% carrageenan was evaluated by weight lose, water-evaporation rate, texture and sensory. The effect of flaxseed gum added in 0.2% carrageenan emulsified saussage was also studied. Result showed that with increasing of flaxseed gum amount, the weight lose during cooking was decreased and even lower than the one with carrageenan;Juiciness and flavor of the sausage with flaxseed gums were better than that of carrageenan, while the texture was in the opposite. Cooking weight lose in the mixture of carrageenan and flaxseed gum significantly decreased (P 〈 0.01 ) . The water-e- vaporate showed no significantly difference, the hardness was significantly decreased (P 〈 0.05). When carrageenan and flaxseed gum ratio was 4: 3, the sausage was juicy and springiness was better, and little texture difference (P 〉 0.01) with 0.2% carrageenan sausage. Results also showed that the interaction between flaxseed gum and carrag- eenan

  17. Gelam Honey Inhibits the Production of Proinflammatory, Mediators NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in Carrageenan-Induced Acute Paw Edema in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Zuhair Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural honey is well known for its therapeutic value and has been used in traditional medicine of different cultures throughout the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Malaysian Gelam honey in inflammation-induced rats. Paw edema was induced by a subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the rat right hind paw. Rats were treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o. or Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o.. The increase in footpad thickness was considered to be edema, which was measured using a dial caliper. Plasma and paw tissue were collected to analyze the production of inflammatory mediators, such as NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as iNOS and COX-2. The results showed that Gelam honey could reduce edema in a dose-dependent fashion in inflamed rat paws, decrease the production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in plasma, and suppress the expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in paw tissue. Oral pretreatment of Gelam honey at 2 g/kg of body weight at two time points (1 and 7 days showed a significantly decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines, which was similar to the effect of the anti-inflammatory drug Indomethacin (NSAID, both in plasma and tissue. Thus, our results suggest that Gelam honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the rat paw edema size and inhibiting the production of proinflammatory mediators. Gelam honey is potentially useful for treating inflammatory conditions.

  18. Mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of tricin, a flavonoid isolated from Njavara rice bran in LPS induced hPBMCs and carrageenan induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, V; Jayalekshmi, Ananthasankaran; Helen, A

    2015-08-01

    Njavara is an indigenous medicinal rice variety traditionally used in Ayurvedic system of medicine practiced in Kerala, India. Tricin is a bioflavonoid present in significantly higher levels in rice bran of Njavara. Present study attempted to identify the molecular target of tricin in TLR mediated signaling pathways by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) and carrageenan induced paw edema in rats as experimental models. Tricin acted upstream in the activation of inflammation cascade by interfering with TLR4 activation, preferably by blocking the LPS induced activation of TLR4, MYD88 and TRIF proteins in hPBMCs. Subsequently, tricin significantly blocked the activation of downstream kinases like p38MAPK, JNK1/2 and IRF3. Thus the inhibitory effect of tricin on NF-κB and IRF3 together confirms the specific inhibition of both MYD88 dependent and TRIF dependent pathways. Tricin treatment also inhibited the pro-inflammatory effect of LPS by blocking the TLR4 signaling mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), which is confirmed by specific inhibition of COX-2. Results demonstrated that in addition to NF-κB, tricin can prevent the activation of STAT proteins by significantly inhibiting the activation of both STAT1 and STAT3 via the down regulation of upstream phosphorylating enzymes like JAK1 and JAK2. The protective anti-inflammatory effect of tricin was also confirmed by in vivo experiments. Thus, this study provides strong evidence that tricin exerts its anti-inflammatory effect via a mechanism involving the TLR4/NF-κB/STAT signaling cascade. PMID:25839778

  19. 猪肉肠中亚麻籽胶、卡拉胶和黄原胶的相互作用%Interaction Effect of Flaxseed Gum, Carrageenan and Xanthan Gum on Pork Sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健; 王鹏; 徐幸莲; 周光宏

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interaction effects of flaxseed gum (FG), carrageenan and xanthan gum (XG) on pork meat sausages. A factorial design was applied to analyze the effects of different amounts of added FG, carrageenan and XG on the water-holding capacity and oil-holding capacity of pork meat sausages. The results indicated that the presence of FG could significantly increase the water-holding capacity of pork meat sausages after roasting at 60 ℃ for 20, 40, 60 min or 80 min (P〈0.01). Carrageenan had no significant effect on the water-holding capacity of pork meat sausages after roasting at 60 ℃ for 20 min or 40 min. A significant interaction effect between FG and XG was observed on the water-holding capacity of pork meat sausages after roasting at 60 ℃ for 20 min or 40 min. Three types of gums could be ranked in decreasing order of their effect on the water-holding capacity of pork meat sausages as FG 〉 XG 〉 carrageenan. The oil-holding capacity of pork sausages immersed in ethanol diethyl ether for 40 min and 60 min was influenced significantly by FG (P 〈 0.05) but not significantly influenced by XG or carrageenan. FG had the highest effect on the oil-holding capacity of pork sausages, followed by XG; the effect of carrageenan was the weakest.%研究猪肉肠中亚麻籽胶、卡拉胶和黄原胶的相互作用。采用析因设计,在猪肉肠加工过程中,添加不同量的亚麻籽胶、卡拉胶和黄原胶,分析上述胶类对猪肉肠保水性、保油性的影响。结果表明:添加亚麻籽胶可显著地增强猪肉肠在60℃条件下烘20、40、60、80min的保水能力(P〈0.01)。卡拉胶对猪肉肠在60℃条件下烘20、40min的保水能力无显著性的影响,亚麻籽胶与黄原胶对猪肉肠在60℃条件下烘20、40min都有显著性交互作用(P〈O.05);保水能力从高到低依次为:亚麻籽胶、黄原胶、卡拉胶。亚麻籽

  20. Effect of carrageenan konjac gum and potassium on the properties of pork jerky%卡拉胶/魔芋胶和钾盐对猪肉脯及猪肉糜质构特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨园媛; 赵谋明; 孙为正; 丛懿洁

    2012-01-01

    亲水性胶体对肉糜制品的品质有重要影响。通过测定猪肉糜的失水率、质构特征以及猪肉脯的水分活度、质构特征.研究卡拉胶和魔芋胶的复配胶体以75,.K+对猪肉糜和猪肉脯质构特性的影响。结果表明,适宜比例的卡拉胶、魔芋胶复配胶体及0.1%p能够改善猪肉糜及猪肉脯的质构特性。在猪肉糜中添加0.24%卡拉胶/0.16%的魔芋胶的复配胶与0.1%KCl所制得的猪肉脯质构特性较佳。%Hydrocolloids play an important role in improving quality of meat emulsion products. The water loss rate of comminuted pork,the water activity of pork jerky and the quality and structure characteristics of them were detected to study on the effect of compound hydrocolloids,which include carrageenan,konjac gum,and K+ on comminuted pork and pork jerky. Results showed that both carrageenan and konjac gum in a appropriate proportion and 0.1% K+ could ameliorate the texture property of comminuted pork and pork jerky. Addition of 0.24% carrageenan,0.16% konjac gum and 0.1%KCl could obtain the better pork jerky in the texture property.

  1. Bio-enzymatic Technology Used in Carrageenan Wastewater Treatment Engineering Practice%生物酶催化技术应用于卡拉胶废水处理工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐爱玖; 林祥进; 孙祥章

    2012-01-01

      卡拉胶废水成分复杂,含有难生化降解的有机污染物种类多,且浓度高,碱性大,含盐量高,按现有的处理工艺,很难达到排放标准。本文以福建省石狮市中科海藻制品发展有限公司卡拉胶废水处理工程为例,阐述了生物酶催化技术在卡拉胶废水处理中的应用。通过在生化系统建立酶体系,利用生物酶催化作用,提高废水中难降解有机物的可生化性与可处理性,从而使出水达到《污水综合排放标准》(GB8978—1996)规定的一级排放标准。%  The complex composition of carrageenan wastewater contains difficult biochemical degradation of many kinds of organic pol utants, and high concentrations, alkaline, high salt content. It is difficult to achieve the emission standards according to the existing treatment process. By taking carrageenan wastewater treatment works of Fujian Shishi City Seaweed Products Development Co., Ltd. as an example, the article describes the application of bio-enzymatic technology in wastewater treatment of carrageenan. Enzyme system is set in bio-chemical system, the article uses bio-enzyme catalysis to improve biochemistry and treatment of in-degradability of organic matter in wastewater, so as to meet the first grade discharge standard stipulated in (GB8978-1996).

  2. κ-卡拉胶寡糖AEC柱前衍生物的LC-ESI-MS/MS~n分离分析%Analysis of κ-Carrageenan Oligosaccharides by LC-ESI-MS/MS~n with 3-Amino-9-ethylcarbazole Derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉姣; 王承建; 耿腾飞; 王仲孚; 黄琳娟

    2011-01-01

    以κ-卡拉胶为原料,经盐酸水解得到一系列寡糖混合物.以3-氨基-9-乙基咔唑(3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole,AEC)为衍生化试剂,对酸解得到的κ-卡拉胶寡糖进行柱前衍生,采用反相C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),乙腈和乙酸铵水溶液(pH 4.5)为流动相,梯度洗脱,在254 nm波长处检测,建立了κ-卡拉胶寡糖衍生物的高效液相色谱(HPLC)分离以及液相色谱-电喷雾质谱联用(LC-ESI-MS)分离分析的方法,并对AEC衍生后的κ-卡拉胶寡糖进行多级质谱裂解(MSn)%A series of κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides were prepared by using hydrochloric acid hydrolysis.The κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides derivatized with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole(AEC) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and HPLC coupling with electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry(LC-ESI-MS).The HPLC separation was carried out on a reverse phase(RP) C18 column(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm) in a linear gradient mode,using acetonitrile and ammonium acetate aqueous solu-tion(pH 4.5) as mobile phase and a ultraviolet(UV) detection at 254 nm.Furthermore,the structure of the κ-carrageenan oligosaccharide was confirmed by multi-stage mass spectrometry(MSn).These results may be helpful to investigation in structure identification and structure-activity relationship of κ-carrageenan oligo-saccharides.

  3. Assessment of different energy delivery settings in laser and LED phototherapies in the inflammatory process of rat's TMJ induced by carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Isabele C V; Rosa, Cristiane B; Carvalho, Carolina M; Aragão, Juliana S; Cangussu, Maria Cristina T; Dos Santos, Jean N; Pinheiro, Antonio L B

    2015-11-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are mostly inflammatory conditions widespread in the population. Previous studies have shown positive effects of either laser or light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapies on treating TMDs, but their action and mechanism in the inflammatory infiltrate of the temporomandibular joint are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess, through histological analysis, the effectiveness of using laser light (λ 780 nm, 70 mW, continous wave (CW), 10 J) and LED (λ 850 ± 10 nm, 100 mW, CW, 10 J) on the inflammation of the temporomandibular joint of rats induced by carrageenan. Forty-five animals were divided into three groups with five animals each according to the experimental times of 2, 3, and 7 days: inflammation, inflammation+laser phototherapy, and inflammation+LED phototherapy. The first irradiation was performed 24 h after induction with an interval of 48 h between sessions. After animal death, specimens were processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and picrosirius. Then, the samples were examined histologically. Data were statistically analyzed. The inflammation group showed mild to moderate chronic inflammatory infiltrate between bone trabecules of the condyle. Over the time course of the study in the laser group, the region of the condyle presented mild chronic inflammation and intense vascularization. In the LED group, the condyle showed aspects of normality and absence of inflammation in some specimens. In all the time points, the laser-irradiated groups showed greater amount of collagen deposition in the condyle (p = 0.04) and in the disc (p = 0.03) when compared to the inflammation and LED groups, respectively. Laser- and LED-treated groups demonstrate a smaller number of layers of the synovial membrane when compared to the non-irradiated groups. It was concluded that, in general, laser and LED phototherapies resulted in a reduction of inflammatory infiltrate in the

  4. New multilayer coating using quaternary ammonium chitosan and κ-carrageenan in capillary electrophoresis: application in fast analysis of betaine and methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Luciano; Della Betta, Fabiana; Costa, Ana Carolina O; Vaz, Fernando Antonio Simas; Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Fávere, Valfredo T; Micke, Gustavo A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new multilayer coating with crosslinked quaternary ammonium chitosan (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan; HACC) and κ-carrageenan for use in capillary electrophoresis. A new semi-permanent multilayer coating was formed using the procedure developed and the method does not require the presence of polymers in the background electrolyte (BGE). The new capillary multilayer coating showed a cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) of around 30×10(-9) m(2) V(-1) s(-1) which is pH-independent in the range of pH 2 to 10. The enhanced EOF at low pH obtained contributed significantly to the development of a fast method of separation. The multilayer coating was then applied in the development of a fast separation method to determine betaine and methionine in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The BGE used to determine the betaine and methionine concentrations was composed of 10 mmol L(-1) tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, 40 mmol L(-1) phosphoric acid and 10% (v/v) ethanol, at pH 2.1. A fused-silica capillary of 32 cm (50 µm ID×375 µm OD) was used in the experiments and samples and standards were analyzed employing the short-end injection procedure (8.5 cm effective length). The instrumental analysis time of the optimized method was 1.53 min (approx. 39 runs per hour). The validation of the proposed method for the determination of betaine and methionine showed good linearity (R(2)>0.999), adequate limit of detection (LOD <8 mg L(-1)) for the concentration in the samples and inter-day precision values lower than 3.5% (peak area and time migration). The results for the quantification of the amino acids in the samples determined by the CZE-UV method developed were statistically equal to those obtained with the comparative LC-MS/MS method according to the paired t-test with a confidence level of 95%. PMID:24725863

  5. Study on the Gelling Properties of k Carrageenan with Textural Analyzer and Rheometer%质构仪及流变仪研究k-卡拉胶的凝胶特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟都; 朱慧; 王雅琼; 李言郡; 李卫群; 赵益臻

    2016-01-01

    本文研究了1.5%k-卡拉胶溶液(质量浓度)的粘度以及水凝胶与钾凝胶的凝胶特性,分别从凝胶强度、弹性模量及动态粘度等指标进行考察。同时,研究了卡拉胶自身含有的离子对粘度以及凝胶特性的影响。实验结果表明k-卡拉胶中K、Na、Ca、Mg含量存在差异性,这些元素含量,特别是K、Ca含量的高低影响卡拉胶溶液的粘度以及水凝胶的凝胶强度、弹性模量值、动态粘度值。水凝胶在凝胶强度测定中出现脆性,增加钾离子明显提高凝胶体的凝胶强度、弹性模量及动态粘度,形成的钾凝胶易析水收缩而未出现脆性。水凝胶耐剪切能力强于钾凝胶,流动时应变高于钾凝胶,应力亦相应低于钾凝胶。另外,水凝胶与钾凝胶的弹性模量基本不随频率增加而增加,而动态粘度却随频率出现明显的剪切稀化现象。%In this paper the viscosity of 1.5%k Carrageenan solution (m/m)as well as the gelling properties of hydro-gel and potassium-gel were studied separately,investigated from the gelling strength,elastic modulus and dynamic viscosity etc. The influences of ion content contained in carrageenan on viscosity and gelling properties were studied. The experimental results showed that there existed the difference on K,Na,Ca and Mg content in k Carrageenan,which would affect the viscosity of carrageenan solution and gelling strength,elastic modulus and dynamic viscosity of hydro-gel especially the content of K and Ca. In the determination of gelling strength of hydro-gel the brittleness occurred. The increase of potassium in the carrageenan solution would significantly improve the gelling strength,elastic modulus and dynamic viscosity of gel which were easy to show syneresis and not brittleness. The hydro-gel was more resistant to shear and the value of strain was higher than that of the potassium-gel on the occurrence of flow while the value of stress was lower

  6. Secagem do Polissacarídeo l-Carragena Usando um Leito de Jorro Fluidizado Bidimensional Drying of l-Carrageenan Using a Two Dimensional Spouted Fluidized Bed Dryer

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    Héctor José Ciro Velásquez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. Suspensões de l-carragena foram secas usando um secador de leito de jorro fluidizado bidimensional com partículas inertesplásticas de ABS (acrilonitrilo-butadieno-estireno. O desempenho do secador (produção de pó e retenção de sólidos e qualidade do produto seco obtido (propriedades reológicas e teor de umidade foi avaliado. Os resultados mostraram que a eficiência de produção média de pó foi de 23% com uma retenção média de 71%. A variável mais relevante na secagem das suspensões foi a vazão de alimentação, sendo que um aumento desta variável produziu um baixo rendimento de pó e aumentou a retenção de sólidos dentro do leito. O produto reconstituído de l-carragena obtido nas condições otimizadas de secagem formou suspensões de natureza altamente pseudoplástica, porém com propriedades viscoelásticas características de suspensões altamente diluídas (G''>G', mostrando valores de viscosidade, módulos elástico (G' e de perda (G'' menores que o produto comercial.Abstract. l-carrageenan suspensions were dried using a two dimensional spouted fluidized bed dryer with inert particles of ABS (acrylonitrile butadine styrene. The dryer performance (powder production and solid retention and quality properties of final product (rheological properties and moisture content were evaluated. According to results the mean powder production of l-carrageenan using ABS as inert particle was of 23% with a solid retention of 71%. The most significant variable in the drying of suspension was the feed mass flow rate, as its increase produced a diminishing of the powder production and increasing of the solids retention in the bed. The reconstituted suspensions of l-carrageenan obtained from optimized conditions of drying formed highly pseudoplastic suspensions with viscoelastic properties of highly diluted (G''>G' systems. In addition, the rheological characteristics as viscosity, storage (G' and loss moduli (G'' were lower

  7. Isolamento, fracionamento e atividade anticoagulante de iota-carragenanas da Solieria filiformis Isolation, fractionation and anticoagulant activity of iota-carrageenans from Solieria filiformis

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    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo isolar, fracionar e avaliar o potencial anticoagulante de iota-carragenanas (i-CARs da rodofícea Solieria filiformis, quando obtidas por dois métodos de extração (M I e M II. As i-CARs foram isoladas com papaína bruta em tampão acetato de sódio 0,1M (pH 5,0, contendo cisteína 5mM e EDTA 5mM (M I ou água (80°C (M II e, em seguida, determinada sua composição química de carboidratos totais, sulfato livre (SL e proteínas contaminantes. As i-CARs foram submetidas à cromatografia de troca iônica (DEAE-celulose usando um gradiente de cloreto de sódio, sendo avaliado o tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA e tempo de protrombina das frações obtidas e comparadas à heparina (193UI mg-1. Uma fração anticoagulante também foi submetida ao procedimento de eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. A diferença no rendimento de i-CARs entre os métodos foi 10,14%. A composição química de SL (29,40% e o fracionamento, por DEAE-celulose, indicaram o M I mais eficiente na obtenção de i-CARs, comparado ao M II. O TTPA também foi somente alterado para as i-CARs do M I. Contudo, a atividade anticoagulante in vitro de uma fração rica (8,52UI mg-1 foi inferior à da heparina.This study aimed to isolate, fractionate and evaluate the anticoagulant potential of iota-carrageenans (i-CARs from Solieria filiformis when two extraction methods (M I and M II were used. i-CARs were isolated with papain in 0.1M sodium acetate (pH 5.0 containing 5mM cystein and 5mM EDTA (M I or water (80°C (M II, and then their chemical composition of total carbohydrates, free sulfate (FS and contaminant proteins were determined. i-CARs were submitted to anion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose using a sodium chloride gradient,being evaluated the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT and prothrombin time of obtained fractions and compared to heparin (193IU mg-1. A rich fraction of anticoagulant was also submitted to 0

  8. 2种大孔树脂用于麒麟菜生产卡拉胶的脱色%Decolorization of carrageenane from eucheuma by two kinds of macroporous resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫静芳; 焦琳舒; 张生生; 陈阳阳; 王昱沣

    2015-01-01

    卡拉胶作为一种具有商业价值的亲水凝胶,在食品、药品等领域具有广泛的应用,但在提取过程中色素的溶出会影响产品的品质.文中采用大孔树脂D301和D315对麒麟菜卡拉胶进行脱色研究,以脱色率和多糖保留率为指标,在单因素的基础上,采用正交实验对2种大孔树脂的脱色工艺进行优化.结果表明:大孔树脂D301的脱色效果优于D315,最佳脱色条件为温度50℃、pH 9.0、树脂用量为0.12 g/mL、脱色时间80 min,在此条件下的脱色率达48.44%,多糖保留率则为84.30%.所采用方法操作简单,成本低,为工业生产中卡拉胶脱色提供了理论基础.%As a kind of hydrophilic gel which had commercial value,carrageenan was applied widely in the industry of medicine and food.But the existence of color material would affect the quality of it.In this research,macroporous resin D301 and D315 were used to decolor carrageenan extracted from Eucheuma.Taking decoloration rate and retention rate of polysaccharide as evaluation standards,and comparing with the decolor result of active carbon,orthofonal method was applied to optimize the decolor procession of the two decolorants on the basis of single factor experiments for the first time.The results showed that the decoloration rate of active carbon was relatively low with numerous residue of active carbon in the carrageenan solvent.The performance of macroporous resin D315 was not efficient for having a low rentation rate of polysaccharide.The macroporous resin D301 had the most efficient performance in the decoloration procession.The optimal conditions were that the temperature was 50 ℃,the pH was 7.0,the amount of macroporous resin was 0.12 g/mL,and the used time was 80 min.On the optimal conditions,the decoloration rate was 48.44%,and the polysaccharide rentation rate was 84.30%.The method we applied is simple and cheap,as well as provides base for the industrial decolor procession of carrageenan.

  9. Yolk antibody were extracted in eggs by Chloroform methods, hydrolysis methods and carrageenan methods%氯仿法、水解法、卡拉胶法提取鸡蛋中卵黄抗体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 霍乃蕊

    2013-01-01

    卵黄抗体(egg-yolk antibody,IgY)具有一些IgG所没有的优良特性,与哺乳动物的IgG相比,IgY的提取具有方法简单,提取率高且方法多样等优点.本文旨在对当前条件下卵黄抗体的提取方法进行比较.选取水溶法(Water Dilution,WD)、氯仿法(Chloroform,CHL)和卡拉胶法(Carrageenan,CAR)制备IgY,根据电泳结果,比较三种方法得率高低.SDS-PAGE结果表明,氯仿法的得率较其他两种方法高一些.

  10. Effects of Intraplantar Injection of Carrageenan on Central Dopamine Release%脚掌内注射角叉菜胶对中枢多巴胺释放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀; 张玉秋; 张玲妹; 吴根诚

    2001-01-01

    @@ 中枢多巴胺(DA)系统参与痛觉调制已被大量的实验所证实,但在炎症痛中的具体作用还不甚清楚.角叉菜胶(carrageenan)由一种植物粉末提炼而成.脚掌内皮下注射(i.p1.)该物质可引起局部组织肿胀和炎症,是一种简便的炎症痛的动物模型.本实验即是以角叉菜胶诱导的炎症痛为模型,来观察炎症痛时中枢DA及其代谢产物的释放变化.

  11. 蚓激酶抗角叉菜胶诱导大鼠血栓形成作用%Effect of Lumbrokinase on Thrombosis Induced by Carrageenan in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢德芳; 方成; 王春维; 周海

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the thrombolytic effect of Lumbrokinase (LK) from Eisenia foetida on thrombopoiesis of rats induced by carrageenan. Methods:Rats are randomly divided into normal control group, model control group, small dose lumbrokinase group (2000IU/kg) and high dose lumbrokinase group (4000IU/kg). Thrombopoiesis at rats' tail is induced by subcutaneous injection of 1%carrageenan (5mg/kg). Thrombus length are detected 24h and 48h respectively after injecting carrageenan, and humerus artery blood of rats are separated at 49th hour and blood coagulation index were measured. Results:The high dose LK can obivously decrease the black tail occurrence and the black tail length;Compared with model control group, both the low does LK and the high does LK can extend the prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and reduce the content of human fibrinogen (Fib). In addition, PT length (P<0.05) and Fib content reducing (P<0.05) were significant in the high dose lumbrokinase group, and difference have statistical significance. The high dose lumbrokinase group could also relieve the lose of body weight induced by carrageenan. Conclusion:LK could prevent and relieve the thrombosis and improve the fibrinolytic function of body.%目的:通过大鼠角叉菜胶诱导大鼠血栓模型,对从赤子爱胜蚓中提取的蚓激酶的溶栓效果进行研究。方法:大鼠随机分为正常组、模型对照组、蚓激酶小剂量组(2000IU/kg)和蚓激酶大剂量组(4000IU/kg)。经脚趾皮下注射1%角叉菜胶(5mg/kg)制作血栓模型,于造模后24h、48h分别测量黑尾长度,第49h分离肱动脉采血,测定凝血指标。结果:高剂量的蚓激酶能够降低角叉菜胶诱导的大鼠尾部血栓形成率,减小角叉菜胶诱导的大鼠尾部血栓平均长度;与模型对照组相比,高、低剂量组均能使凝血酶原时间(PT)、凝血酶时间(TT)延长,纤维蛋白原含量(Fib)下降,其中高剂量组PT显著延长(P<0.05)

  12. Influência do amido e carragena nas propriedades texturiais de surimi de tilápia (Oreochomis sp. Influence of starch and carrageenan on textural properties on tilapia (Oreochomis sp. surimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas carcaças residuais da filetagem industrial de tilápias (Oreochomis sp. na obtenção de carne de pescado separada mecanicamente (CPSM para elaboração de surimi. Amidos de diferentes fontes, como milho ceroso, milho ceroso modificado e mandioca, e o polissacarídeo carragena foram usados como ingredientes, e estudados seus efeitos no comportamento do gel de surimi. O surimi elaborado a partir de carcaças residuais da filetagem industrial, apresentou um rendimento final de 25% (peso/peso. A análise instrumental de textura apresentou um efeito fortalecedor, em relação à força de penetração dos amidos no gel de surimi, sendo esse efeito proporcional à viscosidade (r = 0,81, pFillet frames from industrial processing of tilapias (Oreochomis sp. was utilized to obtained minced meat for surimi. Starch from differents sources ( waxy maize starch, modified waxy maize starch and tapioca and the polysaccharide carrageenan was utilized like additives, and then studied their effects on surimi gel behaviour. Tilapia surimi showed a yield of 25% (weight/weight. The instrumental analysis of texture showed a strong effect of starch in relation to penetration force in surimi gel, these effect was proportional to starches viscosity (r = 0,81, p<0,05, studied by Brabender amylograph, by other hand, both starch and carrageenan showed a decresed in viscoelasticity of surimi gel (p<0,005.

  13. Effects of Carrageenan and Xanthan Gum on Texture of Processed Acid-coagulated Cheese%卡拉胶和黄原胶对酸性凝胶型再制干酪质构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖杨; 苗君莅; 郑远荣; 刘振民

    2012-01-01

    The effects of carrageenan and xanthan gum on the texture and sensory quality of processed acid-coagulated cheese were studied.Under the acidic condition of pH 4.25,addition of carrageenan,along with 0.2% locust bean gum,could increase the hardness of cheese and result in the formation of hard and sticky gels.The presence of xanthan gum was effective in enhancing the springiness and chewiness of processed acid-coagulated cheese and soft,smooth and elastic gels were formed.Combined addition of carageenan and xanthan gum to processed acid-coagulated cheese can meet various texture requirements.%通过质构仪分析和感官评定,研究卡拉胶和黄原胶对酸性再制干酪质构的影响。结果表明:在pH4.25的酸性条件下,在添加0.2%刺槐豆胶的基础上,添加卡拉胶能增强再制干酪的硬度,形成的凝胶硬实且黏厚;添加黄原胶能增强再制干酪的弹性和咀嚼性,形成的凝胶柔滑且富有弹性。可按不同质构需求将两者复配起来运用于酸性凝胶型再制干酪的加工。

  14. Carrageenan oligosaccharides inhibit growth-factor binding and heparanase activity%卡拉胶寡糖与 bFGF 的结合活性及其对乙酰肝素酶活性的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海敏; 高洋; 严小军

    2011-01-01

    为探讨卡拉胶寡糖作为硫酸肝素类似物的抗肿瘤和抗血管新生机制,以宫颈肿瘤细胞 HeLa 和人脐静脉内皮细胞 HUVEC 为研究对象,考察几种不同聚合范围的寡糖结合 bFGF 及抑制乙酰肝素酶活性的作用.发现卡拉胶寡糖对正常细胞和肿瘤细胞均表现出低毒特征.在低浓度下,具有结合 bFGF 并能抑制 bFGF 引起的细胞增殖能力,其中λ-卡拉胶寡糖(聚合度2~8)效果最明显,在质量浓度为 20μg·mL-1 时,可达30%的抑制率.几种寡糖对乙酰肝素酶活性有不同趋势的抑制作用,在 HeLa 细胞中,λ-卡拉胶寡糖的抑制活性最高;在 HUVEC 细胞中,聚合度在9~17的k-卡拉胶寡糖活性最高.结果表明,卡拉胶寡糖的类硫酸肝素生物活性与其分子量大小、硫酸取代量有明显的关系,低分子量、高硫酸基取代是其高活性的关键.%This study is designed to investigate the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis mechanism of carrageenan oligosaccharides. The effects of carrageenan oligosaccharides on basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induced cell proliferation, heparanase activity and bFGF binding ability were evaluated in human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Results indicate that, at rational concentrations, carrageenan oligosaccharides showed low cytotoxic effect. At relatively low concentrations (0.2-200 μg·mL-1), these oligosaccharides could competitively bind bFGF and inhibit bFGF induced cell proliferation. In these samples, oligo-λ-carrageenans (dp2-8) were the most potent bFGF antagonists. At concentration of 20 μg·mL-1, their inhibitory ratio reached to 30%. The heparanase enzyme assay revealed that three kinds of carrageenan oligosaccharides showed different inhibitory activities to two cell lines. For HeLa cell, oligo-λ-carrageenans showed highest inhibitory effect, but for HUVEC, oligo-K-carrageenans (dp9-17) were the best inhibitors. Current

  15. Effects of Locus Bean Gum, Kappa Carrageenan and Iota Carrageenan on the Syneresis, Texture and Some Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Ham / Efecto de la Goma de Algarrobo, la Carragenina Kappa y la Carragenina Iota Sobre la Sinéresis, Textura y Algunas C

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    César Augusto Sepúlveda Cossio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluated the effect of the additionof locus bean gum (LBG, Kappa carrageenan (KC and Iotacarrageenan (IC on some characteristics of cooked ham. For this purpose, a 2% mixture of LBG: KC: IC was added to the formula of a cooked ham standard brine, established according to the following ratios of 14 treatments (T: (T1: 100% IC; (T2: 100% KC; (T3: 50: 50 LBG: KC mixture; (T4: 50: 50 LBG: IC mixture; (T5: 33.33: 66.67KC: IC mixture; (T6: 66.67: 33.33 KC: IC mixture; (T7: 25: 75 LBG: KC mixture; (T8: 25: 75 LBG: IC mixture; (T9: 50: 16.17: 33.33 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T10: 50: 33.33: 16.17 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T11: 25: 56.25: 18.75 LBG: KC: IC mixture; (T12: 25: 18.75: 56.25 LBG: KC: ICmixture; (T13: 12.5: 43.75: 43.75 LBG: KC: IC mixture and (T14: 37.5: 31.25: 31.25 LBG: KC: IC mixture. For all brines, the cooked ham was prepared and extended to 100%, and characteristics of hardness and elasticity were evaluated 14 and 28 days after manufacturing, through a texture analysis profile (TAP; along with syneresis in the packaging (purges by gravimetric analysis and, hardness, elasticityand general appearance; and sensory attributes through a sensory analysis. The lowest syneresis was shown for T11 and the lowest predicted syneresis by a third grade polynomial was shown in the mixtures 18.12: 64.46: 17.42 and 16.36: 65.56: 18.08 of LBG: KC: IC for days 14 and 28, respectively, with a syneresis value of 0.88%and 2.83%; the highest instrumental hardness (TAP was found inT7, and the highest predicted hardness at 14 days was found in mixture 24.72: 75.28 of LBG: KC, with a value of 22.74 N, while the highest predicted elasticity coinciding with a high hardness region was found in mixture 26.21: 67.82 : 8.98 of LBG: KC: IC, with a value of 0.93. In the sensory analysis, T7 and T11 (sampling points closer to these optimal were those that received the best scores in the evaluated parameters.

  16. Study on Viscosity of κ-Carrageenan and Gelatin Solutions and Their Mixture using for Candy%软糖用κ-卡拉胶与明胶溶液及其复配液的表观粘度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 李丹丹; 李汴生; 阮征

    2012-01-01

    本文研究了剪切速率、胶液浓度、测定温度对k-卡拉胶及明胶溶液表现粘度的影响,并将两者进行复配,研究了复配比例、复配胶溶液浓度及测定温度对复合胶溶液表现粘度的影响.研究结果表明,单一胶体溶液的表观粘度随着浓度的增加而增加;随着测定温度的升高而下降,卡拉胶溶液表现出剪切变稀的假塑性,明胶溶液随着剪切速率的变化,表观粘度趋于稳定.复配胶的表观粘度随k-卡拉胶所占比例的增大而增大,随着复配胶浓度的增加而增加,随着测定温度的升高而降低;在总胶含量4%,卡拉胶比明胶为3:7的配比下,复配胶液流动性好,冷却后可形成富有弹性和咀嚼性的凝胶体.%The impact of shear rate, concentration and testing temperature on the viscosity of K-carrageenan and gelatin solution was studied in this paper. Gelatin and K-carrageenan were compounded and the influences of mixture ratio, concentration and temperature on the viscosity of complex solution were concerned The results showed that the viscosity of single K-carrageena and gelatin solution was increased with the increase of concentration; and decreased with the testing temperature. Carrageenan solution showed shear-thinning pseudoplastic; the apparent viscosity of gelatin solution trended to stabilize with the shear rate changes. The viscosity of mixture solution was improved with the increase of K-carrageenan content in the complex and the concentration of complex solution, and decreased with the testing temperature. With the total content 4% and the ratio of carrageenan and gelatin was 3:7, an easy flowing solution which can form the gel with elasticity and chewiness was gained.

  17. Effect of the biopolymer mixing ratio on the formation of electrostatically coupled whey protein-κ- and ι-carrageenan networks in the presence and absence of oil droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ricky S H; Nickerson, Michael T

    2014-08-27

    The rheological properties of 1.0% (w/w) whey protein isolate (WPI)-κ-/ι-carrageenan (CG) mixtures were investigated during a slow acidification process by glucono-δ-lactone from pH 7.00 to ∼4.20 as a function of biopolymer mixing ratio and in the presence and absence of oil droplets. In all cases, electrostatic coupled biopolymer and emulsion gel networks were formed at pH values corresponding to where attractive interactions between WPI and CG began. Formed WPI-CG complexes were found to be surface active, capable of lowering interfacial tension and forming viscoelastic interfacial films within emulsion-based systems. Both biopolymer and emulsion-based gels increased in strength and elasticity as the CG content increased, regardless of the type of CG present. However, WPI-ι-CG coupled networks were stronger than WPI-κ-CG networks, presumably due to the higher number of sulfate groups attracting the WPI molecules.

  18. Oligo-Carrageenan Kappa-Induced Reducing Redox Status and Activation of TRR/TRX System Increase the Level of Indole-3-acetic Acid, Gibberellin A3 and trans-Zeatin in Eucalyptus globulus Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto González

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus trees treated with oligo-carrageenan (OC kappa showed an increase in NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione levels and activation of the thioredoxin reductase (TRR/thioredoxin (TRX system which enhance photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth. In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and the activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR/thioredoxin (TRX increased the level of growth-promoting hormones, trees were treated with water (control, with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of ascorbate synthesis, lycorine, glutathione synthesis, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, NADPH synthesis, CHS-828, and thioredoxin reductase activity, auranofine, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for four additional months. Eucalyptus trees treated with OC kappa showed an increase in the levels of the auxin indole 3-acetic acid (IAA, gibberellin A3 (GA3 and the cytokinin trans-zeatin (t-Z as well as a decrease in the level of the brassinosteroid epi-brassinolide (EB. In addition, treatment with lycorine, BSO, CHS-828 and auranofine inhibited the increase in IAA, GA3 and t-Z as well as the decrease in EB levels. Thus, the reducing redox status and the activation of TRR/TRX system induced by OC kappa increased the levels of IAA, GA3 and t-Z levels determining, at least in part, the stimulation of growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  19. 嵌合型卡拉胶——特别为加工干酪定制的稳定剂和质构改进剂%Hybrid carrageenan,a special product for processed cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Bisgaard

    2009-01-01

    一些关于嵌合型卡拉胶(hybrid carrageenan)分子结构的基础科研工作,为特制的卡拉胶产品用于加工干酪提供了理论基础.嵌合型卡拉胶兼含kappa和iota型复合分子结构,能改善加工干酪的最终性能.新的高度灵活的卡拉胶产品的应用性能广泛,能获得加工干酪的生产过程和最终产品的良好性能.目前已经开发出满足生产商和消费者需求的、基于嵌合型卡拉胶的亲水胶体解决方案.该方案性价比很好,适用于大块加工干酪、模拟干酪、包装的切片干酪、涂抹型干酪等,使之耐受机械处理、黏附性低、并保持再融化特性、拉伸性、热稳定性等.

  20. Phototherapy with low intensity laser in carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory process in mice paw - dosimetry studies; Fototerapia com laser em baixa intensidade em processo inflamatorio agudo induzido por carragenina em pata de camundongos - estudos de dosimetria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneguzzo, Daiane Thais

    2010-07-01

    The importance of modulation of inflammation on the treatment of inflammatory diseases and the difficulty in determining the laser irradiation parameters has led us to study the effects of different protocols of phototherapy with low intensity laser (power, energy, time and place of irradiation) in the treatment and prevention of edema in acute inflammatory process using the experimental model of paw edema induced by carrageenan (CGN) in three strains of mice (Balb-c, Swiss and C57BL/6). The first stage of the study evaluated different combinations of energy (1J and 3J) with different powers (30, 60 and 100mW) in Balb-C mice paw irradiated 1 and 2h after injection of CGN. The second stage studied different combinations of location (foot, inguinal lymph nodes and both) and exposure time (2 and 1h before, 1h and immediately before the CGN, 1 and 2h and 3.5 and 4.5h after CGN) using fixed irradiation parameters (1J, 100mW, 35J/cm{sup 2}, spot area of 0.028 cm{sup 2}). The third stage compared different strains of mice Balb-c and C57BL/6) in the best local and time parameters found in step 2. At all stages, we evaluated the change in paw volume by plethysmography and inflammatory infiltrate by histomorphometry or analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO). The results showed that laser phototherapy treated and prevented edema and modulated the inflammatory process with paw and inguinal lymph nodes irradiations accordingly with the parameters and mice strain used. (author)

  1. Avaliação da influência de amido e carragena nas características físico-químicas e sensoriais de presunto cozido de peru Evaluation of the influence of starch and carrageenan on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of cooked turkey ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alexandre Pedroso

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Segundo a legislação brasileira, a adição de carragena em presunto é facultativa, contudo não é permitida a adição de amido neste tipo de produto. Neste trabalho, utilizou-se um planejamento fatorial 2² com duplicata no ponto central, variando amido (0 a 2% e carragena (0 a 1% em presunto de peru. Tanto o amido quanto a carragena apresentaram efeitos negativos para perda por cozimento e para perda por reaquecimento, indicando que a presença destes hidrocolóides favoreceu a permanência de água nos produtos. Contudo não houve diferenças significativas de pH e na composição centesimal, tensão de cisalhamento e avaliação sensorial. Além disso, uma característica de sinergismo entre os polissacarídeos foi notada. Amostras elaboradas com 1% de carragena apresentaram formação de um exsudado gelatinoso, embora as amostras que continham 1% de carragena e 2% de amido não apresentaram este efeito, indicando que o amido reduz a formação de exsudado gelatinoso em presunto de peru com adição de carragena. A utilização de amido em presunto pode melhorar algumas características físico-químicas, reduzir defeitos e não apresentar diferenças sensoriais quando comparado ao padrão brasileiro sem adição de amido.The use of carrageenan in ham is facultative, but the addition of starch is not allowed by the Brazilian legislation in this kind of product. In this work, a 2² experimental design was used, with duplicates of the central point, considering starch (0 to 2% and carrageenan levels (0 to 1% in the production of turkey ham. In both cases, starch and carrageenan showed negative effects on the purge loss and on the reheating loss, indicating that the presence of the hydrocolloids favored the retention of water in the product. However, there were no significant differences in pH, chemical composition, shear values and in the sensory evaluation. A synergistic effect between the polysaccharides was noted. Samples made with 1

  2. κ-卡拉胶寡糖对小鼠皮肤成纤维细胞增殖和胶原分泌的影响%Effects of κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides on cell proliferation and collagen secretion in cultured mouse skin fibroblast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天琦; 吴海歌; 姚子昂

    2013-01-01

    目的研究κ-卡拉胶寡糖对小鼠皮肤成纤维细胞增殖和胶原分泌的影响.方法原代培养小鼠皮肤成纤维细胞,传代培养后加入不同浓度的κ-卡拉胶寡糖作用,应用细胞计数法,四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)比色法,检测κ--卡拉胶寡糖对皮肤成纤维细胞增殖的影响,ELISA法检测κ--卡拉胶寡糖对皮肤成纤维细胞分泌Ⅰ型、Ⅲ型胶原蛋白的影响.结果12.5μg/mL~100μg,/mL范围内,各组κ-卡拉胶寡糖对小鼠皮肤成纤维细胞均有一定促进增殖作用,其中以100μg/mL时最为显著(P<0.01).用25μg/mL和50μg/mLκ-卡拉胶寡糖处理小鼠皮肤成纤维细胞后,与对照组相比,Ⅰ型胶原蛋白分泌明显增加(P<0.05);12.5μg/mL~100μg/mL范围内,各组κ-卡拉胶寡糖均显著促进Ⅲ型胶原蛋白分泌(P<0.05).结论κ-卡拉胶寡糖能有效促进小鼠皮肤成纤维细胞增殖和胶原分泌.%Objective: To investigate the effect of κ - carrageenan oligosaccharides on cell proliferation and collagen secretion in cultured mouse skin fibroblasts. Methods; The primary mouse skin fibroblasts were isolated and cultured in vitro. The cells were treated with κ- carrageenan oligosaccharides in different concentration in exponential phase of cell growth. The cell proliferation was measured by cell counting and MTT colormetric assay. Type I and type IE collagen secretion was detected by ELJSA. Results: Compared with the control group,the growth of mouse skin fibroblasts was enhanced. When the cells were stimulated by κ- carrageenan oligosaccharides,100μg/mL is most significant (P < 0.01). Type Ⅰ collagen secretion was increased (P<0.05) after the cells were stimulated by 25μg/mL and 50μg/mL κ - carrageenan oligosaccharides; type Ⅲ collagen secretion was increased ( P < 0. 05) after the cells were stimulated by k - carrageenan oligosaccharides. Conclusion: κ - carrageenan oligosaccharides can enhance the growth of mouse skin fibroblasts and

  3. Analysis of compositions of Eucheuma spinosum and studies on the technological parameters in ι-carrageenan extraction from this alga%刺麒麟菜基本成分分析和ι-卡拉胶的提取工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏; 张立新; 史大永

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide plenty data for ι-carrageenan production, the chemical compositions of Eucheuma spinosum were analyzed and technological parameters for ι-carrageenan extraction from this alga were studied. By oven drying method, ignition, Kjeldahl method and Soxhlet extraction, the contents of water, ash, crude protein and crude fat in Eucheuma spinosum were determined to be 12.93%, 22.68%, 4.19%, and 0.58%, respectively. The optimal parameters were established by orthogonal design to be treated with 9% potassium hydroxide for 5 hours under room temperature and extracted for 4 hours at 90 ℃. The yield of extraction was 47.6% and the gel strength of ι-carrageenan product was 59 g/cm2.%以印尼海域刺麒麟菜(Eucheuma spinosum)为原料, 分别采用烘箱法、高温灼烧法、凯式定氮法、索氏提取法对其水分、灰分、粗蛋白、粗脂肪含量进行测定, 通过正交试验确定最佳提取工艺参数。结果表明, 该刺麒麟菜中水分、灰分、粗蛋白、粗脂肪含量分别为12.93%, 22.68%, 4.19%和0.58%。最佳提取工艺参数由正交试验确定为: 常温下, 9% KOH 处理5 h, 90 ℃提取4 h。得到凝胶强度为59g/cm2, 产率为47.6%的ι-卡拉胶产品。

  4. Determination of Trace Hexavalent Chromium in Carrageenan Vacant Capsules by Tributyl Phosphate Extracting and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy%磷酸三丁酯萃取-石墨炉原子吸收分光光度法测定海藻多糖空心胶囊中痕量六价铬

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 郭盈杉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a method of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy for quantitative determination of trace hexavalent chromium in Carrageenan Vacant Capsules. Methods The sample was extracted with Tributly Phosphate(TBP)and digested by the microwave dissolution system. The trace hexavalent chromium in Carrageenan Vacant Capsules was determined by the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results The sample concentration of chromium within the range of 0 ~ 40 ng / mL showed the good linear relation with the absorbance( r = 0. 999 7)and the average recovery rate was 88. 08% ,RSD = 0. 78%( n = 9). Conclusion This method is accurate,reliable,easy to operate,highly sensitive and suitable for the quality control of hexavalent chromium in Car-rageenan Vacant Capsules.%目的:建立海藻多糖空心胶囊中痕量六价铬的定量测定方法。方法采用磷酸三丁酯(TBP)萃取、微波消解、石墨炉原子吸收分光光度法,测定海藻多糖空心胶囊中的痕量六价铬。结果铬进样质量浓度在0~40 ng / mL 范围内与吸光度呈良好的线性关系(r =0.9997),平均回收率为88.08%,RSD =0.78%(n =9)。结论该方法定量准确可靠,方法操作简便、灵敏度高,适用于海藻多糖空心胶囊的六价铬质量控制。

  5. Analysis of Oligo-κ-carrageenan by Reversed Phase Ion-pair Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry%κ-卡拉胶寡糖的反相离子对-超高效液相色谱-四极杆-飞行时间质谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洋; 陈海敏; 徐继林; 陈德莹; 严小军

    2009-01-01

    A method was developed to elucidate the structures of sulfated oligosaccharides through establishment of an effective reversed phase ion pair ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry( RPIP-UPLC-ESI-TOF-MS). Heptylamine (20 mmol/L,pH4) has been selected as the ion-pairing agent.κ-Carrageenan oligosaccharides have been separated on BEH C_(18) column using MeOH/H_2O with 25% heptylammonium formate as eluent in linear gradient mode. Mass spectra were obtained by ESI-Q-TOF-MS in both positive and negative modes. κ-Carrageenan oligosaccharides were well separated up to pentatetrasaccharide,and ESIMS analysis for κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides up to hepta-cosasccharide. The results showed that all acid hydrolyzed κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides were odd sugars,which was further confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ( PAGE). The characteristic fragmentation pattern of ion-pair oligosaccharides in mass spectra can be applied for rapid structure identification.%建立反相离子对-超高效液相色谱(RPIP-UPLC)和电喷雾离子源-四极杆-飞行时间质谱(ESI-Q-TOF-MS)联用技术快速分离鉴定硫酸寡糖的方法.以20 mmol/L庚胺(pH 4)为离子对试剂,25%庚胺甲酸盐纯水溶液(A)和25%庚胺甲酸盐甲醇溶液(B)为梯度洗脱溶剂,κ-卡拉胶寡糖通过BEH C_(18)反相柱分离后,分别在正、负离子模式下进行四极杆-飞行时间质谱分析.结果表明,聚合度为3~45的κ-卡拉胶寡糖在BEH C_(18)柱上得到很好的分离,从每一个色谱峰对应的质谱图中可以准确获得直至27糖的各寡糖结构信息,均为奇数糖,与聚丙烯凝胶电泳结果吻合.所得的寡糖断裂规律对卡拉胶寡糖的快速鉴定和结构解析具有重要意义.

  6. Determinaion of Oligo-λ-carrageenans by reversed phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray Ionization-QqQ-Mass Spectrometry%离子对-反相高效液相色谱-三重四级杆质谱法测定λ-卡拉胶寡糖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官巧灵; 陈海敏; 陈娟娟; 严小军

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立离子对-反相高效液相色谱(RPIP-HPLC)和电喷雾离子源-三重四级杆质谱(ESI-QqQ-MS)联用技术快速分离鉴定多阴离子λ-卡拉胶寡糖的方法.方法 采用Hypersil GOLD C18色谱柱(100mm×2.1mm,3μm),流速0.2mL·min-1,柱温30℃,考察3种离子对试剂(庚胺、二丁胺、三丙胺)、不同离子对试剂浓度(3、5和8 mmol/L)及流动相pH值(pH4.5、5.5、6.5)对λ-卡拉胶寡糖分离效果的影响.结果 当流动相组成为5 mmol·L-1庚胺乙酸盐水溶液(pH5.5)和5 mmol·L-1庚胺乙酸盐甲醇溶液(pH 5.5)时,聚合度(DP)在2~15间的λ-卡拉胶寡糖分离效果较好,同时从相应的质谱数据中能准确获得各聚合度λ-卡拉胶寡糖的结构信息.结论 该方法能较好地分离并鉴定多阴离子λ-卡拉胶寡糖,所得寡糖质谱信息对λ-卡拉胶寡糖的结构解析有借鉴作用.%Objective An effective method,reversed phase ion pair high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization QqQ mass spectrometry (RPIP-HPLC-ESI-QqQ-MS),was developed to separate and identify polyanionic λ-carrageenan oligosaccharides with different polymerization degree.Methods The Hypersil GOLD C18 column(100 mm×2.1 mm,3μm)was used to separate oligoλ-carrageenans.The flow rate was 0.2 mL · min-1 and the column temperature was 30℃.The separation conditions were optimized with different solvent systems in which the species and concentration of ion-pairing reagent and the pH of mobile phase were varied.The ion-pairing reagent was heptylammonium,dibutylammonium,tripropylammonium,respectively.Mass spectra were obtained synchronously by ESI-QqQ-MS in positive mode.Results Oligo-λ-carrageenans,of which the polymerization degree was between 2 to 15,were separated preferably by using MeOH/H2O with 5 mmol · L-1 heptylammonium acetate acid (adjusted to pH 5.5 with acetate acid) as eluent in linear gradient mode.The accurate structure information of these oligosaccharides

  7. 大豆蛋白/κ-卡拉胶冷致凝胶的制备及控释特性%Preparation and Controlled Release Property of Soy Protein/κ-Carrageenan Cold-Set Gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓泉; 周小玲; 王晓园; 尹寿伟

    2011-01-01

    为构建具有控释特性的可食性输送载体,利用转谷氨酰胺酶交联大豆蛋白与κ-卡拉胶形成蛋白/多糖复合冷致凝胶,分析了复合凝胶的微结构与流变学性质,并将复合凝胶冷冻干燥压制成片剂,对其在模拟胃肠液中对核黄素的控释特性和释放动力学进行了分析.结果表明:复合凝胶呈现致密的网络结构,κ-卡拉胶的加入增强了复合凝胶的强度和硬度,荷载核黄素则弱化了复合凝胶的强度和硬度;在模拟消化道中,复合凝胶及片剂胃液释放1h的累积释放率低于17%,移入肠液后9h累积释放率为75%~100%,缓释效果良好;核黄素在模拟胃液和肠液中的释放机制不同,分别由Fick扩散和非Fick扩散控制.%In order to construct edible conveying carriers with excellent controlled release properties, soy protein/ K-carrageenah mixed cold-set gels were produced via the crosslinking of microbial transglutaminase ( MTGase). Then, the microstructure and rheological properties of the mixed gels were analyzed, and the tablets flaked by the gels via the freeze-drying were used as the controlled release carriers for riboflavin to investigate the release properties and the release dynamics in simulated gastrointestinal fluid. The results show that ( 1) the mixed gels are structurally in dense network; (2) K-carrageenan improves the strength and hardness of the mixed gels, while riboflavin weakens the gel properties; (3) in simulated gastrointestinal condition, the one-hour accumulative release rate of the gels and the tablets for riboflavin in simulated gastric fluid is lower than 17% but ranges from 75% to 100% after a moving to simulated intestinal fluid for 9h, which means that both the gels and the tablets have sustained release effect for riboflavin. In addition, it is found that the release mechanisms of riboflavin in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids are different from each other; Specifically, one is controlled

  8. Inhibition of carrageenan-induced expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA by low level laser therapy in a rat paw edema model Inibição da expressão de RNA mensageiro de pré-calicreínas tecidual e plasmática pela laserterapia em modelo de edema de pata induzido pela carragenina em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés P. Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROND: Low level laser therapy (LLLT has been used clinically in order to treat inflammation, where tissue and plasma prekallikrein have crucial importance. Plasma prekallikrein (PPK is synthesized by the hepatocytes and secreted into the bloodstream, where it participates in the surface-dependent activation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, kinin generation and inflammation. Tissue prekallikrein is associated with important disease states (including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegeneration and has been utilized or proposed as clinically important biomarker or therapeutic target of interest. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if LLLT modulates tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA expression in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. METHODS: Experimental groups were assigned as followed: A1 (Control-saline, A2 (Carrageenan-only, A3 (laser 660nm only and A4 (Carrageenan + laser 660nm. Edema was measured by a plethysmometer. Subplantar tissue was collected for the quantification of prekallikreins mRNA by Real time-Polymerase Chain Reaction. RESULTS: A significantly decrease in the edema was observed after laser irradiation. Expression of prekallikreins increased after carrageenan injection. Tissue and plasma prekallikrein mRNA expression significantly decreased after LLLT's 660nm wavelength. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins is modulated by LLLT, which can be used in clinical practice due to its anti-inflammatory effects.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A laserterapia de baixa potência tem sido usada para o tratamento de processos inflamatórios diversos em que a calicreína tecidual e a plasmática possuem participação ativa. A pré-calicreína plasmática (PPK é sintetizada pelos hepatócitos e secretada na corrente sanguínea, onde participa da ativação da coagulação, fibrinólise, geração de cininas e inflamação. A pré-calicreína tecidual está associada com importantes doenças (incluindo c

  9. Effect of acupuncture on TNF-alpha, IL-1b and IL-10 concentrations in the peritoneal exudates of carrageenan-induced peritonitis in rats Efeito da acupuntura sobre a concentração de TNF-alfa, IL-1b e IL-10 no exsudato peritoneal de ratos com peritonite induzida por carragenina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Valéria Rizzo Scognamillo-Szabó

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an ancient and empirical therapeutic procedure known by its efficacy in the treatment of pain. However, the influence of acupuncture on inflammatory process is still poorly understood and additional research is needed. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of action of manual acupuncture on the inhibition of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by the inflammatory stimulus carrageenan in Wistar rats. Previous results from our laboratory showed that this anti-inflammatory effect is not due to endogenous corticoid release. Furthermore, the concentration of IL-1b, but not of TNF-alpha or IL-10 in the carrageenan-induced exudates was reduced in the acupuncture group. Further research will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of acupuncture as described here.A acupuntura é método terapêutico milenar reconhecido por sua eficácia no tratamento da dor, porém seu efeito sobre processos inflamatórios é ainda pouco conhecido e maiores estudos são necessários. Neste trabalho, é investigado o mecanismo de ação da acupuntura manual sobre a inibição na migração de neutrófilos para a cavidade peritoneal induzida por carragenina em ratos Wistar. Resultados prévios indicam que esse efeito antiinflamatório não depende de hormônios corticóides. Entretanto, as concentrações de IL-1b no exsudato induzido por carragenina foram reduzidas pelo tratamento com acupuntura. Por outro lado os níveis de TNF-alfa e IL-10 não foram afetados pelo tratamento. Mais pesquisas poderão elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na ação antiinflamatória da acupuntura.

  10. STUDY ON DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DYNAM ICALLY STUDY ON SYNERGISTIC INTERACTION AND GELATION OF CARRAGEENAN AND AMOPHOPHALLOGLUEOMANNAN%卡拉胶与魔芋葡甘聚糖协同相互作用及其凝胶化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东保; 彭学东; 詹东风

    2001-01-01

    魔芋葡甘聚糖(Amo)为非凝胶多糖,但它与卡 拉胶进行共混可以得到凝胶,这是多糖分子间相互作用的结果。当多糖浓度为1%,卡拉胶与Am o的共混比例为60/40时可得到协同相互作用的最大值;同时也讨论了制备温度(Tp)和 体系盐(KCl)离子浓度对凝胶化的影响,并且观察到当制备温度为100 ℃,体系盐离子浓度为 0.2 mol/L时,可得到凝胶强度的最大值。从FT-IR谱图上分析了两种多糖分子间相互作用的机理。%The amophophalloglueomannan(Amo) is not ge lation polysaccharide. It can get gelation when carrageenan and Amo are mixed. This is the interaction result of polysaccharide′s molecules. There is a synergi stic interaction maximum while the mixed ratio of carrageenan and Amo is 60/40, the total polysaccharide concentration is 1%. The gelation effect of the pr eparation temperature(Tp) and balk salt ionic concentration have been stu died. It has been observed that, there is a jelly-glue strength maximum when Tp is 100 ℃ and salt ionic concentration is 0.2 mol/L. The melting tem perature (Tm) of the gels and the viscosity of melting gels were increased while put the salt in the mixed balk. Interactions between molecules and molecu les of two polysaccharides were investigated by FT-IR sectro-metry.

  11. Caracterização tecnológica de sobremesas lácteas achocolatadas cremosas elaboradas com concentrado protéico de soro e misturas de gomas carragena e guar Technological characterization of creamy chocolate dairy desserts prepared with whey protein concentrate and a mixture of carrageenan and guar gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Hideko Lemos Nikaedo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de sobremesas lácteas tem apresentado importante crescimento nesta última década, justificado pelo progresso tecnológico em ingredientes e processos. Neste trabalho efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química e sensorial de sobremesas lácteas achocolatadas cremosas, nas quais o concentrado protéico de soro - CPS (3,0; 2,0 e 1,0% foi usado com o leite em pó integral (5,0; 6,0 e 7,0%, carragena (0,05; 0,15 e 0,25%, goma guar (0,25; 0,15 e 0,05%, chocolate em pó (2,8%, açúcar (11,5% e sorbato de potássio (0,08%. Os resultados mostram que é viável utilizar o CPS em substituição ao leite em pó, oferecendo um produto com menores teores de gordura e de sólidos totais, e maior teor de proteínas. O produto apresentou melhor qualidade nutricional, além da redução calórica, favorecendo seu consumo por pessoas preocupadas com a saúde. A sobremesa elaborada com 1,00% de CPS, 7,00% de leite em pó, 0,05% de carragena e 0,25% de goma guar foi considerada a melhor pelos provadores, com aceitabilidade acima do valor 4 (bom.The consumption of dairy desserts has boomed in the last few decades, due to the technological progress in the development of ingredients and processes. In this study the physicochemical and sensory characterization of creamy chocolate dairy desserts were carried out. Whey powder concentrate - WPC (3.0; 2.0 and 1.0% was used with whole milk powder (5.0; 6.0 and 7.0%, carrageenan (0.05; 0.15 and 0.25%, guar gum (0.25; 0.15 and 0.05%, cocoa powder (2.8%, sugar (11.5% and potassium sorbate (0.08%, according to the trial. The results showed that it is possible to use WPC, replacing whole milk powder, and therefore creating a product with low fat and total solids, and high protein content. The final product presented better nutritional quality, besides reduced caloric value, which favors the consumption by people concerned with health. The experimental dairy dessert prepared with 1.00% WPC, 7.00% whole milk

  12. Study of the inflammatory process induced by injection of carrageenan or formalin in the rat temporomandibular joint Estudo do processo inflamatório induzido pela injeção de carragenina ou de formalina na articulação temporomandibular de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cruvinel Goulart

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the injection of two phlogistic agents, carrageenan and formalin, in the rat TMJ, and the inflammatory process induced by these substances. In this study, a total of 45 adult rats were distributed in two experimental groups and a control group. The animals were sacrificed after three hours, 24 hours, three days, seven days, and 15 days after a single injection of each substance. Histological data initially demonstrated an inflammatory process represented by acute infiltration, which later became mixed, and finally chronic in both experimental groups. Hyperplasia of the synovial membrane was observed after three days, being intense at seven days, and present after 15 days only in the formalin group. Local saline injection in the control group caused no inflammatory reaction. It was concluded that a single local injection of carrageenan or formalin was enough to induce inflammatory reaction in the TMJ and periarticular soft tissues, and that the resulting processes were similar, but more persistent in the formalin group.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da injeção de dois agentes flogísticos, ou seja, carragenina ou formalina, na ATM do rato, e a evolução do quadro inflamatório provocado por essas substâncias. Foram utilizados 45 ratos, divididos em dois grupos experimentais e um grupo controle. Os animais foram sacrificados em lotes de três de cada grupo após três horas, 24 horas, três dias, sete dias e 15 dias da injeção. Histologicamente a reação inflamatória em ambos os grupos experimentais iniciou-se com infiltrado inflamatório agudo, tornando-se misto e depois crônico. Sinais de hiperplasia da membrana sinovial foram observados aos três dias, intensos aos sete dias, estando presentes aos 15 dias somente no grupo da formalina. A injeção de solução salina (grupo controle não provocou reação inflamatória. No presente trabalho foi concluído que uma

  13. Engineering articular cartilage using newly developed carrageenan basedhydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, Elena Geta

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage holds specific functionality in the human body creating smooth gliding areas and allowing the joints to move easily without pain. However, due to its avascular nature and to the low metabolic activity of the constituent cells-the chondrocytes, cartilage has a low regenerative potential. The current surgical options to treat damaged cartilage are not long lasting and involve frequent revisions. Tissue engineering may provide an alternative approach for cartilage...

  14. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in κ-carrageenan

    CERN Document Server

    Ravindra, Pogaku

    2015-01-01

    This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For...

  15. 卡拉胶对明胶/卡拉胶混合物性质的影响%Effect of Carrageenan on Properties of Blend Gelatin/Carrageenan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Guedj; 董彦博

    2002-01-01

    高黏度的明胶一直备受关注。当前。照相明胶的黏度大约为4.5-5.0mPa·s,通过一些加工调整可能将黏度提高到9-10mPa·s。在这篇文章中,我们将介绍一种黏度高于30mPa·s的明胶。为什么需要高黏度的明胶呢?

  16. Neutrophils and the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 mediate carrageenan-induced antinociception in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana L. Pagano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously shown that the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 secreted by neutrophils mediates the antinociceptive response in an acute inflammatory model induced by the intraperitoneal injection of glycogen in mice.

  17. Gelled vegetable desserts containing pea protein, k-carrageenan and starch

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Isabel; M.C. NUNES; Raymundo, Anabela

    2006-01-01

    Due to recent animal diseases, cholesterol in take worries and strong demand for healthy food, there is a greater pressure for the direct consumption of vegetable proteins in food products. In this work, the objective is to develop alternative of strictly vegetable origin desserts based on gelled systems with required physical structure and perceived texture. For this reason, it is important to control the properties of the biopolymer mixtures and understand the phase separation beha...

  18. Investigation of Moisture Sorption, Permeability and Drug Release Behavior of Carrageenan/Poly Vinyl Alcohol Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. K. Bajpai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes moisture sorption behavior and water vapor permeability of gluteraldehyde –crosslinked Carrageenen/polyvinyl alcohol (Carr/PVA films. The moisture uptake has been studied under various relative humidity (RH and the data obtained has been interpreted in the terms of various isotherm models such as GAB, Oswin and Halsey models. The moisture permeability through the films has been characterized in the terms of various parameters like water vapor transmission rate (WVTR, permeance (P and Water vapor permeability (WVP. It was found that these parameters are greatly affected by the degree of crosslinking of the films. Finally, the model drug Gentamycin Sulphate was loaded in to the films and its release was monitored kinetically in the physiological buffer (PF at 370C. The films exhibited diffusion controlled release mechanism.

  19. Antiinflammatory activity of tenoxicam gel on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta G; Gaud R

    2006-01-01

    Tenoxicam is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, used in the treatment of inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the musculoskeletal system. It is from the oxicam group of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. It is widely prescribed for the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, extra-articular disorders, bursitis, tendonitis, and nonarticular rheumatic condition. Tenoxicam has some side effects when taken orally, viz., epigastric pain, heartbu...

  20. Anti-inflammatory potential of Agaricus in carrageenan-induced model of local inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrazzag A. Elmajdoub

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: These data may indicate that Agaricus extract has the potential of anti-inflammatory activity that could be applied in acute inflammatory disorders. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 497-502

  1. Photoprotective Effects of Carrageenan against UVB-Irradiation in Human Keratinocytes Hacat Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Keir, Jeffrey G.; Rolfe, Heidi; Guadagni, Donald; MOHAMED, S. M.; Ho, S K; Aboo-Sufee, S.M.I; Vangeta, V.K.; Chu, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Serial dermatoscopic monitoring of pigmented skin lesions may introduce a delay in diagnosis of melanoma. Conversely it is argued that feature-poor melanomas may not otherwise be diagnosed without a large increase in biopsy rates. This study compared average Breslow thickness of melanomas that have been serially monitored with those that have not. Method: A retrospective analysis of a clinical audit of all histopathologically confirmed melanomas detected over a two-year period i...

  2. Adhesion and viability of two enterococcal strains on covalently grafted chitosan and chitosan/kappa-carrageenan multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratskaya, S.; Marinin, D.; Simon, F.; Synytska, A.; Zschoche, S.; Busscher, H. J.; Jager, D.; van der Mei, H. C.

    2007-01-01

    Chitosans are natural aminopolysaccharides, whose low cytotoxicity suggests their potential use for nonadhesive, antibacterial coatings on biomaterials implant surfaces. Here, the antiadhesive behavior and ability to kill bacteria upon adhesion ("contact killing") of chitosan coatings were evaluated

  3. Systemic administration of Rosmarinus officinalis attenuates the inflammatory response induced by carrageenan in the mouse model of pleurisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Julia Salvan; Facchin, Bruno Matheus; Bastos, Juliana; Siqueira, Mariana Araújo; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2013-11-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis, also named rosemary, is a native plant from the Mediterranean region that is useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Studies using experimental models and/or in vitro tests have shown the important biological effects of rosemary. In this context, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of rosemary must be investigated to support the discovery of new substances with anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract oil free obtained from the leaves of rosemary in an animal model of inflammation, thus evaluating its medicinal use for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Also its ethanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions, as well as its isolated compounds carnosol and rosmarinic acid were analyzed. Swiss mice were used for the in vivo experiments. The effect of this herb on the inhibition of the leukocytes, exudation, myeloperoxidase, and adenosine-deaminase activities, nitrite/nitrate, interleukin 17A, and interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression was determined. The crude extract and its derived fractions, in addition to its isolated compounds, inhibited leukocytes and decreased exudation and myeloperoxidase and adenosine-deaminase activities, as well as nitrite/nitrate and interleukin 17A levels and mRNA expression, besides increasing interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression. Rosemary showed important anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocytes and decreasing exudation. These effects were associated with a decrease in the proinflammatory parameters (myeloperoxidase, adenosine-deaminase, nitrite/nitrate, and interleukin 17A) and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin 10). This study confirms the anti-inflammatory properties of rosemary and validates its use in folk medicine to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism and asthma. PMID:24288274

  4. Functional role of starch and kappa-carrageenan on the rheology and flavour of a custard dessert (COST 921 recipe)

    OpenAIRE

    González Tomás, Luis; Tárrega, Amparo; Costell, Elvira

    2005-01-01

    Flavour release and perception are complex processes in which different physico-chemical and physiological phenomena may be involved 1. Whereas flavour release is mainly governed by chemical and/or physical interactions between flavour compounds and the food matrix 2, perception is strongly influenced by physiological factors like mouth volume, saliva flow rate and air flow rate through the mouth and nose 3. In the framework of COST 921 action, the main objective of this work was to study the...

  5. Effect of Brij 97 in the presence and absence of carrageenan on the transdermal delivery of 5-Fluorouracil / Carli Neethling

    OpenAIRE

    Neethling, Catharina Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The skin is the largest and most easily accessible organ of the human body thus making it the ideal route for systemic drug delivery. The transdermal route of drug delivery offers several advantages compared to the traditional routes including elimination of first pass metabolism and higher patient compliance. However, many drugs are topically and systemically ineffective when applied onto the skin, due to their almost complete failure to penetrate the skin. The main limitation li...

  6. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Leucas indica by carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammation is basically a defense phenomenon but can lead to serious pathological conditions. It is treated by various agents with good to moderate success because of both considerable toxicity and side effects. There are various mediators to cause an inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the associated symptoms and tissue injury. Even though non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world, their use as anti-inflammatory agents continues to be principally limited by their undesired side effects. Hence, the traditional medical practitioners and scientists are turning towards Indian System of Medicine (ISM. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of Leucas indica were subjected to solvent extraction by using 90 % ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug 75, 150 & 300mg/kg were selected and subjected to preclinical anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Results : Oral administration of Ethanolic Extract Of Leaves of Leucas Indica (EELLI at doses of 150 mg/kg and 300mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity 52.58% (p<0.01 and 36.87% (p<0.05 respectively compared to control. Conclusion: Even though oral administration of EELLI has shown significant anti-inflammatory activity, further studies are required to evaluate its comprehensive analysis including quantitative / semi quantitative analysis, characterize its chemical structure and assess its pharmacotherapeutic activities with exact mechanism of action as an anti-inflammatory agent. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 302-305

  7. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione syntheses and TRR/TRX activities enhancing photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eGonzález

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the effect of OC kappa in redox status, photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus globulus, trees were treated with water (control, with OC kappa at 1 mg mL-1, or treated with inhibitors of NAD(PH, ascorbate (ASC and glutathione (GSH syntheses and thioredoxin reductase (TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO and auranofin, respectively, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for 4 months. Treatment with OC kappa induced an increase in NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses, TRR and thioredoxin (TRX activities, photosynthesis, growth and activities of basal metabolism enzymes such as rubisco, glutamine synthetase (GlnS, adenosine 5´-phosphosulfate reductase (APR, involved in C, N and S assimilation, respectively, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes. Treatment with inhibitors and OC kappa showed that increases in ASC, GSH and TRR/TRX enhanced NADPH synthesis, increases in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced ASC and GSH syntheses, and only the increase in NADPH enhanced TRR/TRX activities. In addition, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH and TRR/TRX enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Moreover, the increase in NADPH, ASC and TRR/TRX enhanced activities of rubisco, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes, the increase in GSH, NADPH, and TRR/TRX enhanced APR activity, and the increase in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced GlnS activity. Thus, OC kappa increases NADPH, ASC and GSH syntheses leading to a more reducing redox status, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH syntheses and TRR/TRX activities are cross-talking events leading to activation of photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  8. Matrix properties affect the sensory perception of emulsion-filled gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Wijk, de R.A.; Velde, van de F.; Aken, van G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The breakdown properties and sensory perception of emulsion-filled gels with different matrices were studied at varying emulsion concentrations. The gel matrices used were cold-set whey protein isolate (WPI), gelatin, ¿-carrageenan and a mixture of ¿-carrageenan and ¿-carrageenan. The oil-in-water e

  9. Influência do amido e carragena nas propriedades texturiais de surimi de tilápia (Oreochomis sp.) Influence of starch and carrageenan on textural properties on tilapia (Oreochomis sp.) surimi

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO; Luiz Henrique BEIRÃO

    1999-01-01

    Foram utilizadas carcaças residuais da filetagem industrial de tilápias (Oreochomis sp.) na obtenção de carne de pescado separada mecanicamente (CPSM) para elaboração de surimi. Amidos de diferentes fontes, como milho ceroso, milho ceroso modificado e mandioca, e o polissacarídeo carragena foram usados como ingredientes, e estudados seus efeitos no comportamento do gel de surimi. O surimi elaborado a partir de carcaças residuais da filetagem industrial, apresentou um rendimento final de 25% (...

  10. Secagem do polissacarídeo λ-carragena usando um leito de jorro fluidizado bidimensional / drying of λ-carrageenan using a two dimensional spouted fluidized bed dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Ciro Velásquez, Héctor José; Menegalli, Florencia Cecilia; Lopes Da Cunha, Rosiane

    2012-01-01

    Resumo. Suspensões de λ-carragena foram secas usando um secador de leito de jorro fluidizado bidimensional com partículas inertesplásticas de ABS (acrilonitrilo-butadieno-estireno). O desempenho do secador (produção de pó e retenção de sólidos) e qualidade do produto seco obtido (propriedades reológicas e teor de umidade) foi avaliado. Os resultados mostraram que a eficiência de produção média de pó foi de 23% com uma retenção média de 71%. A variável mais relevante na secagem das suspensões ...

  11. Secagem do Polissacarídeo l-Carragena Usando um Leito de Jorro Fluidizado Bidimensional Drying of l-Carrageenan Using a Two Dimensional Spouted Fluidized Bed Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor José Ciro Velásquez; Florencia Cecilia Menegalli; Rosiane Lopes Da Cunha

    2012-01-01

    Resumo. Suspensões de l-carragena foram secas usando um secador de leito de jorro fluidizado bidimensional com partículas inertesplásticas de ABS (acrilonitrilo-butadieno-estireno). O desempenho do secador (produção de pó e retenção de sólidos) e qualidade do produto seco obtido (propriedades reológicas e teor de umidade) foi avaliado. Os resultados mostraram que a eficiência de produção média de pó foi de 23% com uma retenção média de 71%. A variável mais relevante na secagem das suspensões ...

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect of all-trans retinoic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar rats: Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Gill

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: From above findings, it can be concluded that ATRA exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect, possibly through activation of PPAR-β/δ and subsequent reduction of oxido-nitrosative stress.

  13. BLW保水型卡拉胶的功能及其在肉制品中的应用%Funcion of BLW carrageenan and its application in meat products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海涛; 李彦涛

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 卡拉胶的概述 卡拉胶目前真正在商业领域中生产和使用的只有κ(Kappa)型、(ι)(Iota)型、λ(Landa)型三种.在中国,绝大部分卡拉胶生产商都以生产κ(Kappa)型卡拉胶为主,主要应用于食品、生化及医学研究领域当中.

  14. Influence of Tableting on Enzymatic Activity of Papain along with Determination of Its Percolation Threshold with Microcrystalline Cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Manu; Sharma, Vinay; Majumdar, Dipak K.

    2014-01-01

    The binary mixture tablets of papain and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP), carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar were prepared by direct compression. Carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar provided maximum protection to enzyme activity compared to MCC and DCP. However, stability studies indicated highest loss of enzyme activity with carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar. Therefore, compression behaviour of different binary mixtures of papain with MCC at different compa...

  15. Studies on the role of mononuclear phagocytes in resistance to acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M

    1983-01-01

    The role of mononuclear phagocytes in various phases of the acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection was studied. The anti-macrophage agent carrageenan delayed virus clearance. Carrageenan was most effective when given before virus inoculation, suggesting that it interfered...... with early events in the host response to the virus. Correspondingly, carrageenan enhanced early virus multiplication. Pretreatment with carrageenan apparently did not inhibit induction of the T-cell response and had little or no direct effect on T-cell-dependent anti-viral activity. The LCMV-induced natural...

  16. Inhibition of carrageenan-induced expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA by low level laser therapy in a rat paw edema model Inibição da expressão de RNA mensageiro de pré-calicreínas tecidual e plasmática pela laserterapia em modelo de edema de pata induzido pela carragenina em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Moisés P. Silva; Flávia Bortone; Marcelo P. Silva; Thiago R. Araújo; Maricília S. Costa; José A. Silva Júnior

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROND: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used clinically in order to treat inflammation, where tissue and plasma prekallikrein have crucial importance. Plasma prekallikrein (PPK) is synthesized by the hepatocytes and secreted into the bloodstream, where it participates in the surface-dependent activation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, kinin generation and inflammation. Tissue prekallikrein is associated with important disease states (including cancer, inflammation, and neurodeg...

  17. Caracterização tecnológica de sobremesas lácteas achocolatadas cremosas elaboradas com concentrado protéico de soro e misturas de gomas carragena e guar Technological characterization of creamy chocolate dairy desserts prepared with whey protein concentrate and a mixture of carrageenan and guar gum

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Hideko Lemos Nikaedo; Florence Franco Amaral; Ana Lúcia Barretto Penna

    2004-01-01

    O consumo de sobremesas lácteas tem apresentado importante crescimento nesta última década, justificado pelo progresso tecnológico em ingredientes e processos. Neste trabalho efetuou-se a caracterização físico-química e sensorial de sobremesas lácteas achocolatadas cremosas, nas quais o concentrado protéico de soro - CPS (3,0; 2,0 e 1,0%) foi usado com o leite em pó integral (5,0; 6,0 e 7,0%), carragena (0,05; 0,15 e 0,25%), goma guar (0,25; 0,15 e 0,05%), chocolate em pó (2,8%), açúcar (11,5...

  18. EFECTO DE LA ADICIÓN DE CARRAGENINA KAPPA I.II Y GOMA TARA SOBRE CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CALIDAD DEL JAMÓN DE CERDO PICADO Y COCIDO EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF KAPPA I.II CARRAGEENAN AND TARA GUM ON QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COOKED AND CHOPPED PORK HAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Alonso Restrepo Molina; Fabio Alexander Molina Cote; Kenneth Roy Cabrera Torres

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluaron sinéresis, color y dureza instrumental y, sensorialmente las características de olor, sabor, color y dureza en jamones inyectados, cocidos y picados de cerdo, los cuales se habían elaborado aplicando en la salmuera de inyección una mezcla de hidrocoloides compuesta por carragenina kappa I.II y goma tara en una proporción de 79:21, en niveles del 1% y 1,2%, usando tres repeticiones para el estudio. Los jamones así elaborados se compararon contra un jamón testigo, elaborado sin el ...

  19. Differing contribution of non-immune phagocytes to protection of mice against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial growth and lethality in Listeria monocytogenes infection of mice were augmented by either gamma-irradiation or treatment with carrageenan, whereas bacterial growth and lethality in Escherichia coli infection of mice were only augmented by gamma-irradiation but not by treatment with carrageenan. Protection against L. monocytogenes, at least in the early phases, appears to depend mainly on macrophages, since carrageenan depletes macrophages but not polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), while protection against E. coli appears to depend mainly on PMN. The course of local infection was similar to that of systemic infection except for the lack of initial decrease of bacterial growth. (author)

  20. Physical properties and heavy metal uptake of encapsulated Escherichia coli expressing a metal binding gene (NCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, S S; Pazirandeh, M

    1999-01-01

    A recombinant Escherichia coli expressing the Neurospora crassa metallothionein gene (NCP) has previously been shown to remove low levels of Cd and other metals from solution. For further development as a biosorbent, the encapsulation of the NCP is investigated by various matrices. The NCP was encapsulated in alginate, chitosan-alginate or kappa-carrageenan, and its physical properties characterized. Results indicated that encapsulation in alginate resulted in fragile beads, whereas encapsulation in kappa-carrageenan or chitosan-alginate provided more physical and chemical integrity to the beads. Maximal heavy metal removal by cells encapsulated in carrageenan occurred within 3 h, while a gradual increase in removal was observed up to 24 h for cells encapsulated in chitosan-alginate. Metal removal by cells encapsulated in alginate beads was lower than those encapsulated in carrageenan or chitosan-alginate.

  1. Antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of hydroethanolic extract from Macrosiphonia velame (A. St.-Hil.) M. Arg. in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Reginaldo Vicente Ribeiro; Regilane Matos da Silva; Joaquim Corsino da Silva Lima; Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martins

    2010-01-01

    Macrosiphonia velame (Apocynaceae), popularly known as "velame-branco", is mainly used for treating inflammatory conditions. The antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of the hydroethanolic extract of the xylopodium from M. velame (HEMv) were evaluated using several animal models. HEMv showed low acute oral toxicity with LD50 of 4.176 ± 218.5 mg/kg in mice. In tests of carrageenan and dextran-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats, and croton oil-induced...

  2. Versatile High Throughput Microarray Analysis for Marine Glycobiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asunción Salmeán, Armando

    Algal cell walls are a type of extracellular matrix mainly made of polysaccharides, highly diverse, complex and heterogeneous. They possess unique and original polymers in their composition including several polysaccharides with industrial relevance such as agar, agarose, carrageenans (red algae...... decaying tissue as a nutrient source. We successfully optimized the method and characterized four new carbohydrate-recognizing proteins (two carrageenan binders, one arabynoxylan binder and one xyloglucan binder), which may be used as analytical probes for polysaccharide research. Finally, we also wanted...

  3. Synergistic anti-inflammatory effects of Laminaria japonica fucoidan and Cistanche tubulosa extract

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Park, Dongsun; Yang, Yun-Hui; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Kim, Tae-Su; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2012-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of fuciodan and Cistanche tubulosa (CT) extract were investigated in vitro macrophage culture system and in vivo carrageenan-induced air pouch inflammation model. CT extract inhibited nitric oxide production from activated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, while fucoidan was inactive. In vivo air pouch inflammation model, carrageenan-induced vascular exudation and increased nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 concentrations in the exudates were synergistically suppressed...

  4. PENINGKATAN KECEPATAN PROSES PENGERINGAN KARAGINAN MENGGUNAKAN PENGERING ADSORPSI DENGAN ZEOLIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Djaeni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drying carrageenan product still deals with low product quality and energy efficiency. The drying with airdehumidified by activated natural zeolite has a potential for drying the product. In this concept, air as dryingmedium was contacted with zeolite to reduce its relative humidity. Hence, the driving force of drying increasesand the process can be conducted at moderate temperature (40-60oC to retain the quality. This research looksinto the effectiveness of adsorption dryer with zeolite for drying carrageenan. The natural zeolite is activated byheating 300-400oC for 2-3 hours. The zeolite is then used to dehumidify the ambient air as drying medium. Inthis work, the effect of drying temperature and carrageenan thickness on water content in carrageenan duringthe drying were studied. Results showed with air velocity 3.0 m/sec, thickness of carrageenan 1-2 mm,operational drying time 3 hours and air temperature 40-60oC, water content in carrageenan can be reducedfrom 82.0% to 25%. This result is very promising for industrial application.

  5. Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects in mice of a sulfated polysaccharide fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luciano de Sousa; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; Silva, Renan Oliveira; Barros, Francisco Clark Nogueira; Freitas, Ana Lúcia Ponte; Aragão, Karoline Sabóia; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; Barbosa, André Luiz dos Reis; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim

    2013-02-01

    Many algal species contain relatively high concentrations of polysaccharide substances, a number of which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and/or immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in mice of a sulfated polysaccharide fraction (PLS) extracted from the algae Gracilaria caudata. The antiinflammatory activity of PLS was evaluated using several inflammatory agents (carrageenan, dextran, bradykinin, and histamine) to induce paw edema and peritonitis in Swiss mice. Samples of the paw tissue and peritoneal fluid were removed to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity or TNF-α and IL-1β levels, respectively. Mechanical hypernociception was induced by subcutaneous injection of carrageenan into the plantar surface of the paw. Pretreatment of mice by intraperitoneal administration of PLS (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.05) compared to vehicle-treated mice. Similarly, PLS 10 mg/kg effectively inhibited edema induced by dextran and histamine; however, edema induced by bradykinin was unaffected by PLS. PLS 10 mg/kg inhibited total and differential peritoneal leukocyte counts following carrageenan-induced peritonitis. Furthermore, PLS reduced carrageenan-increased MPO activity in paws and reduced cytokine levels in the peritoneal cavity. Finally PLS pretreatment also reduced hypernociception 3-4 h after carrageenan. We conclude that PLS reduces the inflammatory response and hypernociception in mice by reducing neutrophil migration and cytokines concentration.

  6. Surface characterization of selected polymer thin films by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of available x-ray characterizations tools for grazing incidence techniques was done to be able to probe nano-size thin films. Alignment of a Philips x-ray powder diffractometer was improved to let it perform as an x-ray reflectometer. X-ray reflectometry was coupled with total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Evaluation of the performance of this grazing incidence techniques was done by preparing polymer thin films of carboxymethylcellulose, carrageenan and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The thickness of the films were varied by varying the process parameters such as concentration, spin speed and spin time. Angle-dispersive total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy profiles of three films showed film formation only in carrageenan and PVP. For both carrageenan and PVP, an increase in concentration yielded a corresponding increase in intensity of the fluorescent or scattered peaks. XRR profiles of carrageenan thin films yielded a mean value for the critical angle close to quartz substrate. Thickness measurements of the prepared carrageenan thin films showed that concentration was the main determinant for final film thickness over the other process parameters. Sulfur fluorescent intensity derived from the TXRF measurement showed a linear relationship with the measured thickness by XRR. For PVP, measured critical angle is lower than quartz. Poor adhesion of the polymer onto the substrate yielded a limited number of thickness measurements made from the XRR profiles. (Author)

  7. Sintesis membran Poliuretan dari Karagenan dan 2, 4 Toylulene diisosianat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Marlina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the synthesis of Polyurethane (PU Membrane from Carrageenan and 2,4 toylulene diisocyanante (TDI. The PU membrane made from the Gracilaria sp of red seaweed has rendement of 60.5% from the total weight of the dried sea grass. The produced Carrageenan has pure properties with containing many OH groups which can be used to synthesize membrane. The dope solution to produce good membrane was made at the temperature of 60 oC for the reaction of 5 minutes by varying concentration of carrageenan 5-35 % (b/v. PU membrane was constructed using petri dish with the thickness of about 0.1 mm. To control the thickness of the membrane, the volume of dope solution was used about 12 mL, and the membrane was produced with 10 cm in diameter. The membrane had been synthesized at the temperature of 60 oC with varied concentration of Carrageenan 15% (b/v to the toylulene diisocyanate (TDI. The produced membrane has the optimal properties with the tensile strength of 340 kgf/mm2, the elongation percentage of 9%, the glass temperature transition of 243.6 oC and the melting point of 423.02 oC. The optimum PU membrane obtained was good in mechanical and physical properties, strong, elastic and transparent. Keywords: carrageenan, flux, membrane, polyurethane, rejection factor, TDI

  8. [Sensory characterization of lupin pudding using surface response methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Miranda, H; Wittig, E; Catalán, M

    1996-09-01

    Full fat sweet lupin flour (Lupinus albus c.v. Multolupa) with 39.6% protein and 13.0% lipid content, and carrageenan were used to incorporate them to commercial pudding formula with the specific purpose to prepare an optimized pudding for diabetic people. Using response surface methodology, several experimental pudding trails were prepared and sensorially assessed to optimize the variables that may influence the overall sensory quality of pudding meals. Different concentrations of lupin flour and carrageenan were tested simultaneously at three levels each parameter, requiring nine combinations to be analyzed for a panel of eleven trained judges. Appearance, aroma, taste, color, texture were tested to determine total sensory quality using a composite scoring test. It was concluded that appropriate concentration of lupin flour range from 7% to 11%, and carrageenan from 0.4% to 0.5% to be added to the pudding formulation. This result was confirmed by hedonic test of acceptability. PMID:9429627

  9. Preparation and characterization of cellulose composite hydrogels from tea residue and carbohydrate additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijun; Huang, Huihua

    2016-08-20

    Composite hydrogels were prepared from tea cellulose in ionic liquid of 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and effect of κ-carrageenan, chitosan, guar gum and soluble starch on characteristics of the prepared hydrogels were investigated. The prepared hydrogels were characterized via Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetry analysis, differential scanning calorimetry. Sodium salicylate was used as the model drug to compare the swelling, drug loading and releasing kinetics of the prepared hydrogels. Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay and relative growth rates were adopted to evaluate cell cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of the prepared hydrogels. Chitosan and guar gum could improve thermostability and mechanical characteristics of the composite hydrogels, while κ-carrageenan or soluble starch could improve equilibrium swelling ratio, sodium salicylate loading and releasing. Guar gum and chitosan could increase permeation resistance and were beneficial for release control of the hydrogels. Addition of chitosan, κ-carrageenan, guar gum and soluble starch were proven cell compatibility and non-cytotoxicity. PMID:27178928

  10. Marine Compounds with Therapeutic Potential in Gram-Negative Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yermak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the potential use of compounds, including lipid A, chitosan, and carrageenan, from marine sources as agents for treating endotoxemic complications from Gram-negative infections, such as sepsis and endotoxic shock. Lipid A, which can be isolated from various species of marine bacteria, is a potential antagonist of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide (LPSs. Chitosan is a widespread marine polysaccharide that is derived from chitin, the major component of crustacean shells. The potential of chitosan as an LPS-binding and endotoxin-neutralizing agent is also examined in this paper, including a discussion on the generation of hydrophobic chitosan derivatives to increase the binding affinity of chitosan to LPS. In addition, the ability of carrageenan, which is the polysaccharide of red alga, to decrease the toxicity of LPS is discussed. We also review data obtained using animal models that demonstrate the potency of carrageenan and chitosan as antiendotoxin agents.

  11. Involvement of Interleukin-10 in the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Sanyinjiao (SP6 Acupuncture in a Mouse Model of Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Duarte da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the anti-inflammatory effect of manual acupuncture at the Sanyinjiao or Spleen 6 (SP6 point on carrageenan-induced peritonitis in mice and investigated mechanisms that may underlie this effect. In the first set of experiments, male Swiss mice were allocated into five groups: the control (sterile saline, dexamethasone (DEXA, invasive sham-acupuncture (non-acupoint, SP6 acupuncture and carrageenan-treated groups. Ten minutes after needle retention or 30 min after DEXA treatment, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of carrageenan (750 μg/mouse. After 4 h, total leukocyte and differential cell counts (neutrophils and mononuclear, myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, vascular permeability and cytokine levels were evaluated. In another set of experiments, adrenalectomized (ADX mice were used to study the involvement of the adrenal gland on the therapeutic effects of acupuncture. Mice were allocated into two groups: the ADX and sham-operated animals (Sham ADX that were subdivided into four subgroups each: the control (sterile saline, DEXA, SP6 acupuncture and carrageenan-treated groups. The SP6 and DEXA treatments inhibited the inflammatory cell infiltration, vascular permeability and MPO activity in carrageenan-injected mice. In addition, the SP6 treatment also increased interleukin (IL-10 levels. In contrast, when the animals were adrenalectomized, the SP6 treatment failed to reduce total leukocyte and the plasma extravasation. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the anti-inflammatory effect of SP6 acupuncture in a model of carrageenan-induced peritonitis. Our results demonstrated that SP6 acupuncture depends of the adrenal glands and increased IL-10 levels to produce its anti-inflammatory action.

  12. Imobilisasi Crude Enzim Papain Yang Diisolasi Dari Getah Buah Pepaya (Carica papaya L) Dengan Menggunakan Kappa Karagenan Dan Kitosan Serta Pengujian Aktivitas Dan Stabilitasnya

    OpenAIRE

    Wibisono, Eko

    2011-01-01

    Crude papain enzyme has been isolated from papaya fruit latex (Carica papaya L) with Balls and Lineweaver method, where the crude papain enzyme was immobilized by entrapping the lattice type by using the kappa carrageenan and chitosan, and then tested its activity with the Murachi method. The activity of free crude papain enzyme 82.493 μg/ml at a temperature of 55oC and pH 7, the immobilized crude enzyme papain with kappa carrageenan 78.706 μg/ml at a temperature of 60oC and pH 6.5, and the i...

  13. Contribution of non-immune phagocytes to protection of mice against Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial kinetics of Vibrio cholerae 569B in the local infection of mice was examined after the γ-ray-irradiation or the treatment with carrageenan. In the control mice, bacterial number decreased exponentially. In the mice treated with carrageenan gave similar tendency. In the irradiated mice, however, decrease in bacterial number was not as significant and the clearance was never observed. From these results, it is concluded that the protection against V. cholerae local infection depends mainly on polymorphonuclear cells in the early phase. (author)

  14. Activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors attenuates the induction and maintenance of inflammatory pain in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Steven J R; Winyard, Lisa A; Medhurst, Stephen J; Clayton, Nick M; Wilson, Alex W; Kendall, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of cannabinoid agonists on established inflammatory hyperalgesia. We have compared the effects of pre-administration versus post-administration of a potent non-selective cannabinoid agonist HU210 and a selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH-133 on hindpaw weight bearing and paw oedema in the carrageenan model of inflammatory hyperalgesia. For comparative purposes we also determined the effects of the mu-opioid receptor agonist morphine and the COX2 inhibitor rofecoxib in this model. At 3 h following intraplantar injection of carrageenan (2%, 100 microl) there was a significant (P pain responses.

  15. Examination of some protective conditions on technological properties of irradiated food grade polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn and cassava starches, agar-agar and kappa carrageenan, polysaccharides used as food additives, were gamma irradiated with doses suitable for microbial decontamination. Starches were analysed in paste and pudding viscosity and paper chromatography; agar and carrageenan, in viscosity and compression tests on gels and custards. Afterwards, substances were added to verify whether they could prevent irradiation technological impairment. Results revealed significant differences between control and irradiated samples in most determinations. No added substance was able to protect the functional properties of these additives. (author)

  16. Examination of some protective conditions on technological properties of irradiated food grade polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeil Pietranera, M.S. E-mail: pietrane@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Narvaiz, P. E-mail: narvaiz@cae.cnea.gov.ar

    2001-02-01

    Corn and cassava starches, agar-agar and kappa carrageenan, polysaccharides used as food additives, were gamma irradiated with doses suitable for microbial decontamination. Starches were analysed in paste and pudding viscosity and paper chromatography; agar and carrageenan, in viscosity and compression tests on gels and custards. Afterwards, substances were added to verify whether they could prevent irradiation technological impairment. Results revealed significant differences between control and irradiated samples in most determinations. No added substance was able to protect the functional properties of these additives. (author)

  17. DMBT1 functions as pattern-recognition molecule for poly-sulfated and poly-phosphorylated ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    End, Caroline; Bikker, Floris; Renner, Marcus;

    2009-01-01

    at unraveling the molecular basis of its function in mucosal protection and of its broad pathogen-binding specificity. We report that DMBT1 directly interacts with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and carrageenan, a structurally similar sulfated polysaccharide, which is used as a texturizer and thickener in human...... dietary products. However, binding of DMBT1 does not reduce the cytotoxic effects of these agents to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. DSS and carrageenan compete for DMBT1-mediated bacterial aggregation via interaction with its bacterial-recognition motif. Competition and ELISA studies identify poly...

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NEWER MACROLIDES WITH ETORICOXIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra Naidu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of macrolides and to compare with standard non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID etoricoxib. This study was conducted in male wistar albino rats by inducing edema with 1% carrageenan. Animals were divided into 5 groups with 6 in each and paw edema volume was measured by digital plethysmograph before and 3hrs after 1% carrageenan administration. Percentage of inhibition of paw edema was calculated. Results showed macrolides having significant anti-inflammatory activity & the anti-inflammatory activity of roxithromycin was almost equally comparable with etoricoxib

  19. Drug: D03411 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nt]; Pharmaceutic aid [viscosity-inclreasing agent] Same as: C08818 CAS: 9000-07-1 PubChem: 17397551 NIKKAJI: J203.713K ... ...D03411 Drug Carrageenan (NF); Marine colloids (TN) Pharmaceutic aid [suspending age

  20. Structural analysis and cytokine-induced activity of gelling sulfated polysaccharide from the cystocarpic plants of Ahnfeltiopsis flabelliformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Anna O; Anastyuk, Stanislav D; Sokolova, Ekaterina V; Isakov, Vladimir V; Glazunov, Valery P; Helbert, William; Yermak, Irina M

    2016-10-20

    Gelling sulfated polysaccharide from the cystocarpic plants of Ahnfeltiopsis flabelliformis was studied. According to FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy data, the polysaccharide was found to be iota/kappa-carrageenan with iota- and kappa-type units in a 2:1 ratio containing beta-carrageenan units and minor amounts of nu- and mu-carrageenans. The HPLC and ESI MS/MS data of enzymatic hydrolysis products revealed that the main components of the polymer chain are iota-carrabiose, iota-carratetraose and hybrid tetra- and hexasaccharides consisting of kappa- and iota-units. Xylose was a substituent of a hydroxyl group at C-6 of 1,3-linked β-d-galactose in the total polysaccharides. It was shown that the ability of carrageenans to increase the synthesis of cytokines depended on their molecular weight. The polysaccharide induced the synthesis of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, whereas oligosaccharides increased the synthesis of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at high concentrations. PMID:27474596

  1. Preparation and sensory perception of fat-free foams : Effect of matrix properties and level of aeration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minor, M.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Zoet, F.D.; Wijk, de R.A.; Aken, van G.A.

    2009-01-01

    The sensory perception of fat-free model foams with a consistency between pourable (liquid; xanthan thickened) and spoonable (semi-solid; gelled; carrageenan thickened) and varying level of aeration was studied. At low air contents (5, 10% v/v) perception is largely determined by the matrix properti

  2. Luminescence response of an osmium(II) complex to macromolecular polyanions for the detection of heparin and chondroitin sulfate in biomedical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Wu, Jain; Saez, Christopher; Campana, Maria; Megehee, Elise G; Wang, Enju

    2013-12-01

    Heparin, dextran sulfate (DS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and carrageenan are found to enhance the luminescence intensity of an osmium(II) carbonyl complex with phenanthroline (phen) and 4-phenylpyridine (4-phpy) ligands in aqueous and ethanol solutions. The enhancing effect of the polyanions on the luminescence of the complex is heavily dependent on the sulfate content and other factors such as structure, solubility, and counter ions of the polyanion. The highly sulfated dextran and ι-carrageenan have the most profound effect, while the low charged κ-carrageenan and CS have the least response in aqueous solution. All polyanions exhibited enhanced luminescence intensity of the complex in ethanol solutions, and even the low charged CS and κ-carrageenan enhanced the luminescence more than 4 times. DS contamination of the sodium heparin at 5% can show a significant increase in luminescence response. The osmium complex is found to be highly successful in the fast and sensitive detection of heparin in commercial injectable samples with various backgrounds as well as the detection of CS in over the counter food supplement tablets. PMID:24267085

  3. Application of composite protective coatings on the surface of sausages with different water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tyburcy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emulsion coatings on the surface of sausages counteract weight loss during storage. Therefore they could be applied instead of synthetic foils, which are used for vacuum packaging. The aim of this study was the assessment of the properties of two emulsion coatings (with different carrageenan content applied on the surface of two Polish sausages with various water content (kabanosy and frankfurterki. Material and methods. Sausages were coated with emulsions containing gelatine, kappa-carrageenan, beeswax, lard, glycerol and water. Coated and uncoated sausages were stored for 7, 14 or 21 days at the temperature of 4-6°C. After each storage period weight losses and hardness of peeled sausages, as well as colour values (L*, a*, b* and water activity of removed coatings were determined. Results. Coated sausages incurred smaller weight loss and after similar storage periods they were characterized by lower hardness in comparison with uncoated sausages. Reducing the carrageenan content decreased the consumption of emulsion for coating. However, it did not have any impact on the barrier properties of coating. Water activity of coatings decreased during storage. Their colour values also changed. Conclusions. Irrespective of water content in the sausages, emulsion coatings effectively inhibited their weight loss during storage. The coating with lower content of carrageenan could be recommended. Instability of coatings colour during storage implies the need of adding a colorant to the composition of emulsion.  

  4. Safety and acceptability of the candidate microbicide Carraguard in Thai women: Findings from a phase II clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H. Kilmarx; J.H.H.M. van de Wijgert; S. Chaikummao; H.E. Jones; K. Limpakarnjanarat; B.A. Friedland; J.M. Karon; C. Manopaiboon; N. Srivirojana; S. Yanpaisarn; S. Supawitkul; N.L. Young; P.A. Mock; K. Blanchard; T.D. Mastro

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the safety and acceptability of vaginal application of Carraguard, a carrageenan-derived candidate microbicide gel. Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded clinical trial was conducted in Chiang Rai, northern Thailand. Methods: Women were asked to insert one

  5. Food product models developed to evaluate starch as a food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wischmann, Bente; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    proteins, whole egg, carrageenan). The viscous properties were calculated in a controlled stress rheometer, and the power law index, n, and the consistency index, K, was calculated. The viscoelastic properties at small deformations were measured by oscillating viscometry. Also a spreadability analysis...

  6. Impaired endothelial barrier function in apolipoprotein M-deficient mice is dependent on sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pernille M; Liu, Catherine H; Swendeman, Steven L;

    2016-01-01

    by decreased plasma levels of S1P and reduced S1P1 stimulation. In a carrageenan-induced model of inflammation, Apom(-/-) mice had increased vascular leakage compared with that in WT mice. Adenoviral overexpression of ApoM in Apom(-/-) mice decreased the vascular leakage compared to adenoviral overexpression...

  7. Virus elimination in acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Correlation with virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity rather than cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Volkert, M; Bro-Jørgensen, K

    1983-01-01

    correlation between the host's ability to mount a virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and its capacity to combat virus. Moreover, pretreatment with silica and carrageenan prolonged viraemia without impairment of the peak Tc-cell response. These findings indicate that Tc cells have...

  8. Screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gel formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ochoa Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of vaginal drug delivery formulations requires special attention to vehicle properties that optimize vaginal coating and retention. The aim of the present work was to perform a screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gels formulated with carbomer or carrageenan in binary combination with a second polymer (carbomer, guar or xanthan gum. The gels were characterised using in vitroadhesion, spreadability and leakage potential studies, as well as rheological measurements (stress and frequency sweep tests and the effect of dilution with simulated vaginal fluid (SVF on spreadability. Results were analysed using analysis of variance and multiple factor analysis. The combination of polymers enhanced adhesion of both primary gelling agents, carbomer and carrageenan. From the rheological point of view all formulations presented a similar behaviour, prevalently elastic and characterised by loss tangent values well below 1. No correlation between rheological and adhesion behaviour was found. Carbomer and carrageenan gels containing the highest percentage of xanthan gum displayed good in vitro mucoadhesion and spreadability, minimal leakage potential and high resistance to dilution. The positive results obtained with carrageenan-xanthan gum-based gels can encourage the use of natural biocompatible adjuvants in the composition of vaginal products, a formulation field that is currently under the synthetic domain.

  9. AN EFFECTIVE METHOD TO IMPROVE THE WET STRENGTH OF POLY(DIALLYLDIMETHYL-AMMONIUM CHLORIDE) HYDROGELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ren; Hong-fei Ha

    2002-01-01

    New IPN hydrogels composed of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and natural macromolecule,kappa-carrageenan (KC) were prepared by gamma irradiation and their properties were studied. The results show that both the gel strength and the swelling capacity of the IPN hydrogels were enhanced significantly as compared with those of the pure hydrogels of PDADMAC.

  10. Deformation and fracture of emulsion-filled gels: Effect of oil content and deformation speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Vliet, van T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Aken, van G.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2009-01-01

    The large deformation properties of gelatine, ¿-carrageenan and whey protein isolate (WPI) gels filled with bound and unbound oil droplets were studied as a function of compression speed. The rheological properties of the gel matrices controlled the compression speed-dependency of the gels containin

  11. Deformation and fracture of emulsion-filled gels: Effect of gelling agent concentration and oil droplet size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Vliet, van T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Velde, van de F.; Aken, van G.A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the ratio between the modulus of the oil droplets and that of the gel matrix (varied by changing gelling agent concentration and oil droplet size) on the large deformation properties of gelatine, ¿-carrageenan and whey protein isolate (WPI) gels was studied at different compression spe

  12. Involvement of the Heme-Oxygenase Pathway in the Antiallodynic and Antihyperalgesic Activity of Harpagophytum procumbens in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenti, Carmela; Aricò, Giuseppina; Chiechio, Santina; Di Benedetto, Giulia; Parenti, Rosalba; Scoto, Giovanna M

    2015-01-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens (H. procumbens), also known as Devil's Claw, has been used to treat a wide range of pathological conditions, including pain, arthritis and inflammation. Inflammatory mediators, released at the site of injury, can sensitize nociceptive terminals and are responsible for allodynia and hyperalgesia. Carbon monoxide (CO), produced in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), may play a role in nociceptive processing and has also been recognized to act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the nervous system. This study was designed to investigate whether the HO/CO pathway is involved in the analgesic response of H. procumbens in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia in rats. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated by using von Frey filaments and the plantar test, respectively. The results of our experiments showed that pretreatment with the HO inhibitor ZnPP IX significantly decreased the antihyperalgesic effect produced by H. procumbens (800 mg/kg, i.p.) in carrageenan-injected rats. Consistently, the pretreatment with hemin, a HO-1 substrate, or CORM-3, a CO releasing molecule, before a low dose of H. procumbens (300 mg/kg, i.p.) induced a clear antiallodynic response in carrageenan injected rats. These results suggest the involvement of HO-1/CO system in the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effect of H. procumbens in carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. PMID:26389871

  13. Involvement of the Heme-Oxygenase Pathway in the Antiallodynic and Antihyperalgesic Activity of Harpagophytum procumbens in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Parenti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Harpagophytum procumbens (H. procumbens, also known as Devil’s Claw, has been used to treat a wide range of pathological conditions, including pain, arthritis and inflammation. Inflammatory mediators, released at the site of injury, can sensitize nociceptive terminals and are responsible for allodynia and hyperalgesia. Carbon monoxide (CO, produced in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO, may play a role in nociceptive processing and has also been recognized to act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the nervous system. This study was designed to investigate whether the HO/CO pathway is involved in the analgesic response of H. procumbens in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia in rats. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated by using von Frey filaments and the plantar test, respectively. The results of our experiments showed that pretreatment with the HO inhibitor ZnPP IX significantly decreased the antihyperalgesic effect produced by H. procumbens (800 mg/kg, i.p. in carrageenan-injected rats. Consistently, the pretreatment with hemin, a HO-1 substrate, or CORM-3, a CO releasing molecule, before a low dose of H. procumbens (300 mg/kg, i.p. induced a clear antiallodynic response in carrageenan injected rats. These results suggest the involvement of HO-1/CO system in the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effect of H. procumbens in carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain.

  14. Celastrol Attenuates Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain Mediated by Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhe Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Celastrol, a major active ingredient of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (thunder god vine, has exhibited a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and immunosuppression. In the present study, we used animal models of inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain, generated by carrageenan injection and spared nerve injury (SNI, respectively, to evaluate the effect of celastrol and to address the mechanisms underlying pain processing. Intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of celastrol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of carrageenan-induced edema and allodynia. Real-time PCR analysis showed that celastrol (0.3 mg/kg, i.p. significantly reduced mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, in carrageenan-injected mice. In SNI mice, pain behavior studies showed that celastrol (1 mg/kg, i.p. effectively prevented the hypersensitivity of mechanical nociceptive response on the third day post-surgery and the seventh day post-surgery. Furthermore, the anti-hyperalgesic effects of celastrol in carrageenan-injected mice and SNI mice were reversed by SR144528 (1 mg/kg, i.p., a specific cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2 receptor antagonist, but not by SR141716 (1 mg/kg, i.p., a specific cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1 receptor antagonist. Taken together, our results demonstrate the analgesia effects of celastrol through CB2 signaling and propose the potential of exploiting celastrol as a novel candidate for pain relief.

  15. Sulfated polysaccharides are potent and selective inhibitors of various enveloped viruses, including herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, M.; Snoeck, R; Pauwels, R; De Clercq, E

    1988-01-01

    Several sulfated polysaccharides (dextran sulfate, pentosan polysulfate, fucoidan, and carrageenans) proved to be potent inhibitors for herpes simplex virus, human cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sindbis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. They were moderately inhibitory to vaccinia virus but not inhibitory to adenovirus, coxsackievirus, poliovirus, parainfluenza virus, and reovirus. These results indicate that, with the exception of parainfluenza virus, enveloped viruses ar...

  16. Hederagenin, a major component of Clematis mandshurica Ruprecht root, attenuates inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cells and in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Won; Park, Sang Mi; Zhao, Rongjie; Lee, Chu; Chun, Wonjoo; Son, Yonghae; Kim, Sung Hun; Jung, Ji Yun; Jegal, Kyung Hwan; Cho, Il Je; Ku, Sae Kwang; Kim, Young Woo; Ju, Seong A; Kim, Sang Chan; An, Won G

    2015-12-01

    Clematis mandshurica Ruprecht root has been used in Asia as a traditional anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antitumor agent. Its main active component is hederagenin, a naturally occurring triterpene, and in this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of hederagenin in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and RT-PCR. In addition, its effects on acute inflammation in vivo were observed using a carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema assay. Furthermore, the changes on the histopathology and histomorphometry of hind paw skins were examined using carrageenan-treated mice. Treatment with hederagenin (10, 30 and 100μM) resulted in inhibited levels of protein expression of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB as well as production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 induced by lipopolysaccharide. Consistent with these results, hederagenin also dose-dependently reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA levels of iNOS and COX-2, and of the above-mentioned cytokines. Interestingly, results of the carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema assay showed an anti-edema effect of hederagenin. Furthermore, hederagenin (30mg/kg) inhibited the carrageenan-induced increases in skin thicknesses, infiltrated inflammatory cells, and mast cell degranulation. These results suggest that hederagenin may possess anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26481049

  17. Interactions and hybrid complex formation of anionic algal polysaccharides with a cationic glycine betaine-derived surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covis, Rudy; Vives, Thomas; Gaillard, Cédric; Benoit, Maud; Benvegnu, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between anionic algal polysaccharides ((κ)-, (ι)-, (λ)-carrageenans, alginate and ulvan) and a cationic glycine betaine (GB) amide surfactant possessing a C18:1 alkyl chain has been studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), zeta-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and surface tension measurements. It was observed that this cationic surfactant derived from renewable raw materials induced cooperative binding with the anionic polymers at critical aggregation concentration (CAC) and the CAC values are significantly lower than the corresponding critical micelle concentration (CMC) for the surfactant. The CMC of cationic GB surfactant was obtained at higher surfactant concentration in polysaccharide solution than in pure water. More interestingly, the presence of original polysaccharide/surfactant hybrid complexes formed above the CMC value was evidenced from (κ)-carrageenan by microscopy (TEM and AFM). Preliminary investigations of the structure of these complexes revealed the existence of surfactant nanoparticles surrounded with polysaccharide matrix, probably resulting from electrostatic attraction. In addition, ITC measurements clearly showed that the interactions of the κ-carrageenan was stronger than for other polysaccharides ((ι)-, (λ)-carrageenans, alginate and ulvan). These results may have important impact on the use of the GB amide surfactant in formulations based on algal polysaccharides for several applications such as in food, cosmetics, and detergency fields.

  18. Visualisation of biopolymer mixtures using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) and covalent labelling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van de F.; Weinbreck, F.; Edelman, M.W.; Linden, van der E.; Tromp, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) has been used to study the behaviour of mixtures of proteins, gelatine, whey proteins and ß-lactoglobulin, and polysaccharides, dextran, gellan gum, carrageenan, gum Arabic, and starch. CSLM proved to be a suitable technique to visualise the microstructure o

  19. Physiological and Morphological Modifications in Immobilized Gibberella fujikuroi Mycelia

    OpenAIRE

    Saucedo, José Edmundo Nava; Barbotin, Jean-Noël; Thomas, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Constraints created by immobilization conditions modified the physiological behavior and morphological characteristics of Gibberella fujikuroi mycelia in comparison with their development in free-cell conditions. G. fujikuroi mycelia were immobilized in different support matrices (polyurethane, carrageenan, and alginate) and showed a variety of reactions in response to the different microenvironmental factors encountered during and after immobilization. The best support with respect to gibber...

  20. Comparative study on the effects of negatively-charged biopolymers on chitosan-based gels for the development of instantaneous gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeric electrolytic complexes are solutions of charged/ionized chains. These solutions of positive and negative charge can be combined to make instantaneous networks bonded by electrostatic interactions, a gel network. These electrostatic interaction allows for easy application in injectable gels as the network can be temporarily distributed with the application of force and reformed on the relief of it. Possible applications for these injectable gels include drug delivery and wound-healing. κ-Carrageenan, dextran sulfate, alginate, and chitosan are polyelectrolytic biocompatible polymers which are widely studied and used for a variety of biomedical applications. Gel networks are made by combining a negatively-charged (κ-Carrageenan, dextran sulfate, or alginate) and positively charged (chitosan) solutions. The strong electrostatic interaction between the opposite charges from the gel network and the inherent biocompatibility of the polymers allow future biomedical applications. Quat 188-modified chitosan has additional sites for electrostatic bonding, can be dissolved in neutral, basic, and acidic pH, and has shown inherent antibacterial activity. The objectives of this study are the following: to formulate chitosan-based gels mixing solutions of chitosan with solutions of either κ-Carrageenan, dextran sulfate, or alginate, study the gelation of the gels as function of time and pH (4, 7, and 9) using UV-Vis, characterize the chitosan-based gels through DSC and DMA, characterize the physiological degradation of the chitosan-based gels, and compare results with those from Quat 188-modified chitosan-based gels. Polyelectrolytic solutions of chitosan and negatively-charged biopolymer of similar viscosities were mixed. It was determined from the UV-Vis spectroscopy of the chitosan-carrageenan gels under pH7 buffer that the increase of concentration by a factor of 5 for 0.006M-0.0095M and 1.25 for 0.0095M-0.0150M Chitosan-Carrageenan gels improved gelation by the

  1. Participation of the NO/cGMP/K+ATP pathway in the antinociception induced by Walker tumor bearing in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implantation of Walker 256 tumor decreases acute systemic inflammation in rats. Inflammatory hyperalgesia is one of the most important events of acute inflammation. The L-arginine/NO/cGMP/K+ATP pathway has been proposed as the mechanism of peripheral antinociception mediated by several drugs and physical exercise. The objective of this study was to investigate a possible involvement of the NO/cGMP/K+ATP pathway in antinociception induced in Walker 256 tumor-bearing male Wistar rats (180-220 g). The groups consisted of 5-6 animals. Mechanical inflammatory hypernociception was evaluated using an electronic version of the von Frey test. Walker tumor (4th and 7th day post-implantation) reduced prostaglandin E2- (PGE2, 400 ng/paw; 50 µL; intraplantar injection) and carrageenan-induced hypernociception (500 µg/paw; 100 µL; intraplantar injection). Walker tumor-induced analgesia was reversed (99.3% for carrageenan and 77.2% for PGE2) by a selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME; 90 mg/kg, ip) and L-arginine (200 mg/kg, ip), which prevented (80% for carrageenan and 65% for PGE2) the effect of L-NAME. Treatment with the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (100% for carrageenan and 95% for PGE2; 8 µg/paw) and the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) blocker glibenclamide (87.5% for carrageenan and 100% for PGE2; 160 µg/paw) reversed the antinociceptive effect of tumor bearing in a statistically significant manner (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed an intrinsic peripheral antinociceptive effect of Walker tumor bearing in rats. This antinociceptive effect seemed to be mediated by activation of the NO/cGMP pathway followed by the opening of KATP channels

  2. Participation of the NO/cGMP/K{sup +}ATP pathway in the antinociception induced by Walker tumor bearing in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, A.L.R.; Pinheiro, C.A.; Oliveira, G.J.; Torres, J.N.L.; Moraes, M.O.; Ribeiro, R.A.; Vale, M.L.; Souza, M.H.L.P. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-03-30

    Implantation of Walker 256 tumor decreases acute systemic inflammation in rats. Inflammatory hyperalgesia is one of the most important events of acute inflammation. The L-arginine/NO/cGMP/K{sup +}ATP pathway has been proposed as the mechanism of peripheral antinociception mediated by several drugs and physical exercise. The objective of this study was to investigate a possible involvement of the NO/cGMP/K{sup +}ATP pathway in antinociception induced in Walker 256 tumor-bearing male Wistar rats (180-220 g). The groups consisted of 5-6 animals. Mechanical inflammatory hypernociception was evaluated using an electronic version of the von Frey test. Walker tumor (4th and 7th day post-implantation) reduced prostaglandin E{sub 2}- (PGE{sub 2}, 400 ng/paw; 50 µL; intraplantar injection) and carrageenan-induced hypernociception (500 µg/paw; 100 µL; intraplantar injection). Walker tumor-induced analgesia was reversed (99.3% for carrageenan and 77.2% for PGE{sub 2}) by a selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME; 90 mg/kg, ip) and L-arginine (200 mg/kg, ip), which prevented (80% for carrageenan and 65% for PGE{sub 2}) the effect of L-NAME. Treatment with the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (100% for carrageenan and 95% for PGE{sub 2}; 8 µg/paw) and the ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channel (KATP) blocker glibenclamide (87.5% for carrageenan and 100% for PGE{sub 2}; 160 µg/paw) reversed the antinociceptive effect of tumor bearing in a statistically significant manner (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed an intrinsic peripheral antinociceptive effect of Walker tumor bearing in rats. This antinociceptive effect seemed to be mediated by activation of the NO/cGMP pathway followed by the opening of KATP channels.

  3. In situ synthesis of magnetic CaraPVA IPN nanocomposite hydrogels and controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza, E-mail: grmnia@maragheh.ac.ir; Etemadi, Hossein

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels that focused on targeted drug delivery were synthesized by incorporation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), kappa-carrageenan (Cara), and magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles were obtained in situ in the presence of a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol/kappa-carrageenan (CaraPVA). The produced magnetite-polymers were cross-linked with freezing–thawing technique and subsequent with K{sup +} solution. The synthesized hydrogels were thoroughly characterized by transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. The dynamic swelling kinetic models of hydrogels were analyzed according to the first- and second-order kinetic models and were found that the experimental kinetics data followed the second-order model well. Drug loading and release efficiency were evaluated by diclofenac sodium (DS) as the model drug. The in vitro drug release studies from hydrogels exhibited significant behaviors on the subject of physiological simulated pHs and external magnetic fields. Investigation on the antibacterial activity revealed the ability of drug-loaded hydrogels to inactivate the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. The mucoadhesive properties of the hydrogels were studied and the hydrogels containing kappa-carrageenan showed good mucoadhesiveness in both simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. - Highlights: • In situ synthesis of magnetic kappa-carrageenan/PVA nanocomposite hydrogel. • Low salt sensitivity of magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels was observed. • The release of diclofenac sodium from hydrogels was pH-dependent. • The release of diclofenac sodium from magnetic hydrogels was affected by external magnetic field. • The hydrogels containing carrageenan component showed high

  4. In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of lovastatin in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Gonçalves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Statins are among the most prescribed drugs in recent clinical practice. They are also known for their pleiotropic actions, which are independent of their lipid-lowering properties. The effect of lovastatin was investigated against carrageenan-induced paw edema in male Wistar rats (200-250 g and on leukocyte migration, as measured by carrageenan-induced peritonitis in male Swiss mice (20-25 g, which are models of acute inflammation. Lovastatin (administered 1 h prior to carrageenan, at oral doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg, markedly attenuated paw edema formation in rats at the 4th hour after carrageenan injection (25, 43, and 37% inhibition, respectively. Inhibitions of 20, 45 and 80% were observed in the leukocyte migration, as evaluated by carrageenan-induced peritonitis in mice with lovastatin doses of 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg, as compared to controls. Furthermore, lovastatin (administered 1 h before initiation reduced the nociceptive effect of the formalin test in mice, at both phases, at doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg: first phase (51, 65, and 70%, respectively and second phase (73, 57, and 66% inhibition of licking time, respectively. The anti-nociceptive activity of lovastatin was inhibited by naloxone (3 mg/kg, sc. Lovastatin (0.01, 0.1, and 1 µg/mL inhibited by 23, 79, and 86%, respectively, the release of myeloperoxidase from human neutrophils. Leukocyte (predominantly neutrophils infiltration was almost completely reduced by lovastatin treatment, as observed in the model of acute paw edema with hematoxylin and eosin staining. In addition, lovastatin decreased the number of cells expressing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity. Therefore, the alterations in leukocyte activity and cytokine release could contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of lovastatin.

  5. Structure and Anti-influenza A (H1N1) Virus Activity of Three Polysaccharides from Eucheuma denticulatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guangli; LI Miaomiao; WANG Wei; LIU Xin; ZHAO Xiaoliang; LV Youjing; LI Guangsheng; JIAO Guangling; ZHAO Xia

    2012-01-01

    Three polysaccharides (EW,EH and EA) were prepared from a red alga Eucheuma denticulatum by sequential extraction with cold water,hot water and sodium hydroxide water solution.Their monosaccharide compositions,relative molecular mass and structural characterization were determined by gas chromatography,high performance liquid chromatography,fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods.EW was hybrid ι/κ/v-carrageenan (70ι/17κ/13v-carrabiose),EH was mainly ι-carrageenan,and EA was mainly α-1,4-Glucan (88%) but mixed with small amount of ι-carrageenan (12%).The relative molecular mass of EW,EH and EA was 480,580 and 510kDa,respectively.The anti-influenza A (H1N1) virus activity of these three polysaccharides was evaluated using the Madin-Darby canine kidney cells model.EW showed good anti-H1N1 virus activity,its IC50 was 276.5 μg mL-1,and the inhibition rate to H1N1 virus was 52% when its concentration was 250 μg mL-1.The IC50 of ι-carrageenan EH was 366.4 μgmL-1,whereas EA showed lower anti-H1N1 virus activity (IC50>430 μgmL-1).Available data obtained give positive evidence that the hybrid carrageenan EW from Eucheuma denticulatum can be used as potential anti-H1N1 virus inhibitor in future.

  6. Steroids block the anti-inflammatory effects of low level laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.; Albertini, Regiane; Lopes-Martins, Patricia Sardinha L.; Iversen, Vegard V.; Bjordal, Jan M.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Concomitant use of multiple therapies is common in musculoskeletal and airway disorders. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is considered a promising therapy in arthritis, tendinopathies and rhinitis. We designed two animal studies to assess if the expected anti-inflammatory effect LLLT could be affected by resection of the adrenal gland or concomitant use of the cortisol antagonist mifepristone. Methods: Two studies were performed, with 40 male Wistar rats and with 40 Balb C male mice respectively.. In both studies, four groups received carrageenan and one control group received saline. At 1, 2, and 3 hours after injections, LLLT irradiation was performed with a dose of 7.5 J/cm2. In the rat study, two of the carrageenan groups had the adrenal gland dissected. In the mice study, two of the carrageenan-injected groups were in addition pre-treated with orally administered mifepristone. Results: In the rat paw study, LLLT reduced edema significantly compared to the carrageenan only group (1.5 vs 0.9 ml, p< 0.05), but LLLT failed to inhibit edema formation in the group which had the adrenal gland resected. In carrageenan-induced pleurisy, LLLT significantly reduced the number of leukocyte cells ( p<0.0001, Mean 34.5 [95%CI: 32.8 - 36.2] versus 87.7 [95%CI: 81.0 - 94.4]), and that the effect of LLLT could be totally blocked by adding the cortisol antagonist mifepristone ( p<0.0001, Mean 34.5 [95%CI: 32.1 - 36.9] versus 82.9 [95%CI: 70.5 - 95.3]). Conclusion: Steroid therapy should not be used concomitantly with LLLT, as the anti-inflammatory effect of LLLT is lost if cortisol receptors are downregulated.

  7. Structure and anti-influenza A (H1N1) virus activity of three polysaccharides from Eucheuma denticulatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guangli; Li, Miaomiao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Lv, Youjing; Li, Guangsheng; Jiao, Guangling; Zhao, Xia

    2012-12-01

    Three polysaccharides (EW, EH and EA) were prepared from a red alga Eucheuma denticulatum by sequential extraction with cold water, hot water and sodium hydroxide water solution. Their monosaccharide compositions, relative molecular mass and structural characterization were determined by gas chromatography, high performance 1iquid chromatography, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods. EW was hybrid ı/κ/ν-carrageenan (70 ı/17κ/13ν-carrabiose), EH was mainly ı-carrageenan, and EA was mainly α-1,4-Glucan (88%) but mixed with small amount of ı-carrageenan (12%). The relative molecular mass of EW, EH and EA was 480, 580 and 510 kDa, respectively. The anti-influenza A (H1N1) virus activity of these three polysaccharides was evaluated using the Madin-Darby canine kidney cells model. EW showed good anti-H1N1 virus activity, its IC50 was 276.5 μg mL-1, and the inhibition rate to H1N1 virus was 52% when its concentration was 250 μg mL-1. The IC50 of ı-carrageenan EH was 366.4 μg mL-1, whereas EA showed lower anti-H1N1 virus activity (IC50>430 μg mL-1). Available data obtained give positive evidence that the hybrid carrageenan EW from Eucheuma denticulatum can be used as potential anti-H1N1 virus inhibitor in future.

  8. INFLUENCIA DEL ALGINATO DE SODIO SOBRE LA SINERESIS EN JAMÓN COCIDO INFLUENCE OF SODIUM ALGINATE ON SYNERESIS IN COOKED HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Amparo Montoya Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad del jamón de cerdo cocido usando alginato de sodio y carragenina durante la elaboración y almacenado a 8 0C durante 35 días. Fueron realizados dos tratamientos con alginato de sodio usando 0,3% y 0,5% y un tratamiento con carragenina 0,5%, después de la elaboración el jamón de cerdo cocido fue empacado al vacío a 8 0C durante 35 días. Los resultados indican que la mayor pérdida de agua fue observada a partir del día 21 del periodo de almacenamiento, sin presentar diferencias significativas entre tratamientos (P>0,05. La menor pérdida de agua correspondió al tratamiento con alginato de sodio al 0,5% y la mayor pérdida fue para el tratamiento con carragenina al 0,5% (PThe aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of cooked pork ham using sodium alginate and carrageenan during processing and storage at 8°C for 35 days. Two treatments were conducted using sodium alginate 0.3% and 0.5% and carrageenan treatment 0.5%, after preparation the pork cooked ham was vacuum packed at 8 °C for 35 days. The results indicate that the major water losses were presented from the 21 day of the storage period, without significant differences between treatments (P> 0.05. The lowest water loss corresponded to treatment with sodium alginate at 0.5% and the loss was greater for treatment with 0.5% carrageenan (P <0.05. The initial mesophilic count was of 1.03 log CFU / g, by the end of the storage period were obtained values of 5.74 log CFU / g showing no significant differences among treatments. The initial pH values of 6.64 were declining throughout the storage period, reaching values of 6.35. For flavor attribute highest and lowest scores corresponded to ham prepared with carrageenan 0.5% and alginate 0.3% respectively. The appearance attribute shows the highest scores for carrageenan 0.5%, while smaller values correspond to ham formulated with 0.3% alginate. For cutting force, the minor values

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoyele, Victor B; Adediji, Joseph O; Soladoye, Ayodele O

    2005-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Chromolaena odorata was investigated in rats using the carrageenan-induced oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and formalin-induced oedema methods. The extract was administered orally at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. In the carrageenan method the paw oedema was significantly reduced by all the doses of the extract administered, with the 200 mg/kg dose producing the highest oedema inhibition (80.5%). In the cotton pellet method, granuloma weight was significantly reduced from 14 +/- 0.1 to 9.0 +/- 0.1 mg, while in the formaldehyde induced arthritis the extract inhibited the oedema during the 10-day period. In conclusion, this study has established the anti-inflammatory activity of C. odorata and, thus, justifies the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of wounds and inflammation. PMID:16280100

  10. INVESTIGATION ON MODEL OF INFLAMMATORY PLEURAL EFFUSION IN GUINEA PIGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯源; 殷凯生; 王祥

    2002-01-01

    Objective To establish an animal model of inflammatory pleural effusion.Methods Forty guinea pigs were divided into two groups: experimental group with 7 subgroups and control group. In the experimental group the right chest cavity of each guinea pig was injected with 0.8~1.0 ml of 1% carrageenan, and guinea pigs of each subgroup were killed and observed respectively on day 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and day 14 after injection.Results Occurring on day 1(within 24 hours), pleural effusion reached the maximum on day 2~3 after injection, so did the neutrophil count in pleural effusion and inflammation of both pleura and lungs and then gradually decreased. The fibrosis and adhesion of pleura appeared on day 7 and were obvious on day 10. The encysted pleurisy was formed on day 14.Conclusion The carrageenan is an ideal pleural inflammatory inducer. This animal model is useful for studying pleural effusion.

  11. Cultivation of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii in Brazil and its pharmacological potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hayashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales is a red algae widely cultivated as the main source of raw material for the carrageenan industry. This hydrocolloid is normally used in the food industry as a gelling and stabilizing agent. The facility of its commercial farming based on vegetative propagation promoted the success of the aquaculture of this macroalgae that consequently stimulated studies focusing on new potential uses of this resource. This work presents a brief review of the studies related to K. alvarezii cultivation in southern and southeastern Brazil, the latest discoveries in the world concerning pharmacological studies with this species and the advantages of the use of carrageenan as a source of dietary fiber, cholesterol reducer, and antioxidant, anti-viral and anti-cancer compounds, as well as the effects in hemagglutination activity.

  12. IN VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM ROXB. STEM BARK ON ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are believed to be an important source of new chemical substance with potential therapeutic applicability. Several plant species traditionally used as anti-inflammatory.This research work is carryout for the anti-inflammatory activity of Pterocarpus marsupium roxb. Stem bark extracts using Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Ibuprofen 60mg/kg p.o. was kept as standard. The research was carried out in Wister strain weighing 150-200gm. The Methanol (100mg/Kg and Aqueous extract (100mg/Kg has exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Flavonoids present in stem bark may be responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. However, it needs isolation, structural elucidation and screening of above active principles to pin point activity of drug.

  13. BIOSORPTION OF LEAD (II ON MODIFIED BARKS EXPLAINED BY THE HARD AND SOFT ACIDS AND BASES (HSAB THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Astier,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of Douglas fir bark and its subsequent utilization in adsorption of Pb(II from aqueous solutions was investigated. The polysaccharidic moiety of barks was functionalized by periodate oxidation and derivatized after reductive amination in the presence of aminated oligo-carrageenans. Pb(II adsorption isotherms of derivatized barks were then determined and compared to the capabilities of crude barks using the Langmuir adsorption model in terms of affinity (b and maximum binding capacity (qmax. Compared to crude barks, the derivatization of barks by oligo-carrageenans resulted in significant enhancements of qmax and b by up to x8 and x4, respectively. The results obtained from crude barks on chemically grafted carboxylic and sulfated barks are discussed and interpreted through the Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB theory.

  14. Effects of different polysaccharides on the formation of egg yolk LDL complex nanogels for nutrient delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingyong; Hu, Qiaobin; Wang, Taoran; Xue, Jingyi; Luo, Yangchao

    2016-11-20

    Five polysaccharides, pectin, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), gum arabic, carrageenan and alginate, were studied to form complex nanogels with egg yolk low density lipoprotein (LDL). All nanogels were smaller than 85nm with high negative zeta potential, while LDL/carrageenan and LDL/alginate nanogels exhibited more heterogeneous size distribution. Fourier transform infrared spectrum suggested that hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions were involved to form nanogels. Overall, significant expansion of nanogels was observed after encapsulation of curcumin, being studied as a model lipophilic nutrient. Fluorescence spectra evidenced that LDL provided non-polar microenvironment for curcumin and polysaccharides played an important role in the encapsulation process. All nanogels showed sustained release of curcumin under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Furthermore, nanoscale, smooth and spherical ultrafine dry powders of nanogels were obtained by innovative nano spray drying technology. Our study indicated that LDL/polysaccharides may serve as potential oral delivery systems for lipophilic nutrients. PMID:27561504

  15. Antiinflammatory activity of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Se Ra; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated a new herbal preparation, HemoHIM, for its antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced edema, the formation of granulation tissues by cotton pellet and experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The HemoHIM was prepared by adding its ethanol-insoluble polysaccharide fraction to the total water extract of Angelica Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. The preparation (4 mg of solids/mL of drinking water, p.o., 50-100 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. In addition, HemoHIM also reduced the degree of TNBS-induced colitis and improved the gross and histological changes such as thickening, dilatation, ulceration, and infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions. These results demonstrate that the HemoHIM has a potent antiinflammatory effect. PMID:17486680

  16. Evaluation of Anti Inflammatory Properties and Possible Mechanism of Action of Egyptian Quince (CYDONIA OBLONGA) Leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to investigate the antiinflammatory effect of Cydonia oblonga (COL) evaluated by the following models: arachidonic acid-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The levels of glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nitric oxide (NO) in the hind paws of the carrageenan-treated rats were estimated. Moreover, the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione- S-transferase (GST) were investigated. The results showed that COL significantly reduced ear edema and paw edema in the rats. Furthermore, treatment with COL decreased the levels of LPO, NO, IL-6. and TNF-α, whereas increased the level of GSH. The increased activities of CAT and GST enzymes were ameliorated by COL administration. In conclusion, Cydonia oblonga possesses potent antiinflammatory activity through inhibition of NO, LPO, IL-6 and TNF-α levels leading to alleviate edema

  17. HPTLC analysis and Anti-inflammatory activity of Jatropha gossypifolia L. root in mice and Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani B Bhagat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Jatropha gossypifolia has been used in Indian traditional system but there is paucity of scientific data on anti-inflammatory activity of root. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced ear inflammation, carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma. Topical application of 0.5 and 1 mg extract significantly reduced the TPA induced ear inflammation. The extract (125 mg/kg p.o significantly reduced the carrageenan induced edema. Seven days administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg of extract significantly reduced the cotton pellet granuloma. The activity might be due to effects on several mediators involving cyclooxygenase pathway resulting in prostaglandin formation and leukocyte migration.

  18. EVALUATION OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA INDICA FRUIT RIND EXTRACTS IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatib N.A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia indica choisy (Kokum is known for its food, medicinal and commercial values. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind (GIFR for its anti inflammatory activity in rats. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan induced paw odema. The serum enzymes like Acid phoshatase(ACP and Alkaline Phosphatase(ALP were estimated. Both extracts at dose (200 & 400 mg/kg p.o single dose shows significant (P<0.001 anti inflammatory activity in (Carrageenan induced paw odema acute inflammation. The extracts treatment also showed significant (p<0.001 reduction in the levels of serum enzymes ACP & ALP. Similar results were obtained from aspirin (200mg/kg treated group. The result obtained from the present study indicates both aqueous and ethanolic extracts possessing anti inflammatory activity and further study required to establish its mechanism of action.

  19. Hydrocolloid-based nutraceutical delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Youngren, Susanne R. (Purdue)

    2012-07-11

    Nutraceuticals are important due to their inherent health benefits. However, utilization and consumption are limited by their poor water solubility and instability at normal processing and storage conditions. Herein, we propose an elegant and novel approach for the delivery of nutraceuticals in their active form using hydrocolloid matrices that are inexpensive and non-toxic with generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Iota-carrageenan and curcumin have been chosen as models of hydrocolloid and nutraceutical compounds, respectively. The iota-carrageenan network maintains a stable organization after encapsulating curcumin molecules, protects them from melting and then releases them in a sustained manner. These findings lay a strong foundation for developing value-added functional and medicinal foods.

  20. Oral Administration of Escin Inhibits Acute Inflammation and Reduces Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minmin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of escin on acute inflammation and intestinal mucosal injury in animal models. The effects of escin on carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model of acute inflammation, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP induced intestinal mucosal injury in a mouse model, were observed. It was shown that oral administration of escin inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema and decreases the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and cyclooxygenase- (COX- 2. In CLP model, low dose of escin ameliorates endotoxin induced liver injury and intestinal mucosal injury and increases the expression of tight junction protein claudin-5 in mice. These findings suggest that escin effectively inhibits acute inflammation and reduces intestinal mucosal injury in animal models.

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Helicteres gardneriana Ethanol Extract on Acute Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Oliveira de Melo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana (Nees Castiglioni was assayed in experimental models of pleurisy and microcirculation in situ. Treatment of animals with 500 mg/kg body weight reduced the exudate volume (35% reduction induced by intrapleural injection of carrageenan and the migration of polymorphonuclear cells into the inflamed pleural cavity of rats (40%. Additionally, rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the number of leukocytes that migrated toward the perivascular space in response to the carrageenan injection were decreased by the extract (500 mg/kg. These data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana and imply that inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial interactions is important in the extract's mechanism of action.

  2. Suplementasi Serat Pangan Karagenan dalam Diet untuk Memperbaiki Parameter Lipid Darah Mencit Hiperkolesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Apri Astuti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Karagenan merupakan bahan pangan alamiah yang mengandung serat cukup tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari pengaruh serat pangan karagenan pada parameter lipid darah mencit jantan hiperkolesterolemia. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Fisiologi Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia dan Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Institut Pertanian Bogor pada bulan Agustus 2011 sampai Maret 2012. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan lima kelompok perlakuan, yaitu kontrol negatif; mencit normokolesterolemia yang diberikan pakan standar, kontrol positif; mencit hiperkolesterolemia tanpa suplementasi karagenan, kelompok perlakuan; kelompok mencit hiperkolesterolemia yang diberikan suplementasi karagenan 15%, 30%, dan 46%. Kadar serat makanan tidak larut pada masing-masing pakan mencit percobaan ialah 6,92; 8,75; 10,48; 12,27; dan 14,05%. Parameter yang diukur ialah bobot badan, konsentrasi kolesterol total serum, hati, dan feses, serta kadar trigliserida, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL,dan glukosa dalam serum. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan suplementasi karagenan sebesar 46% menurunkan bobot badan sebesar 7,99%, kadar total kolesterol sebesar 18,78%, trigliserida sebesar 17,53%, dan LDL sebesar 71,33%, serta meningkatkan HDL sebesar 15,59−20,47%. Suplementasi serat pangan karagenan dapat menurunkan kandungan kolesterol hati sebesar 38,46% dan meningkatkan pembuangan kolesterol melalui feses sebesar 57,07%. Suplementasi serat pangan karagenan sebesar 46% dalam diet hiperkolesterolemik dapat memperbaiki parameter lipid darah mencit hiperkolesterolemia. Abstract The Carrageenan Dietary Fiber Suplementation in Feed to Improving BloodLipid Parameters of Hypercholesterolemic Mice.Carrageenan is example of food with high content of fiber. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of carrageenan supplementations on blood lipid parameters of hypercholesterolemic male mice. The experiment were

  3. Antiinflammatory activity of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Se Ra; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated a new herbal preparation, HemoHIM, for its antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced edema, the formation of granulation tissues by cotton pellet and experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The HemoHIM was prepared by adding its ethanol-insoluble polysaccharide fraction to the total water extract of Angelica Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. The preparation (4 mg of solids/mL of drinking water, p.o., 50-100 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. In addition, HemoHIM also reduced the degree of TNBS-induced colitis and improved the gross and histological changes such as thickening, dilatation, ulceration, and infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions. These results demonstrate that the HemoHIM has a potent antiinflammatory effect.

  4. R and D on utilization of indigenous materials for hydrogel wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization of indigenous materials for the preparation of hydrogel wound dressing is highlighted in this report. Hydrogels were prepared by two different formulations using PVP and PVA separately. Considering the price of the main two raw materials PVA was chosen for the next course of development. To reduce the cost of raw materials further flour was added to the PVA formulation. Ingredients concentrations for preparing good quality hydrogel were optimized. PVA containing both carrageenan and flour produces hydrogel with good properties. PVA containing 0.75% of both carrageenan and flour produces hydrogel of desirable properties. Seminar and demonstration about the usefulness of hydrogel for wound dressing were arranged at a city hospital. (author)

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity in mice of extracts from Mediterranean marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia, F; Ubeda, A; Ferrándiz, M L; Terencio, M C; Alcaraz, M J; García-Carrascosa, M; Capaccioni, R; Payá, M

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the marine invertebrates Leptogorgia ceratophyta, Holothuria tubulosa, Coscinasterias tenuispina and Phallusia fumigata on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice were investigated. The dichloromethane extract of Coscinasterias tenuispina and the methanol extract of Holothuria tubulosa administered p.o. at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, inhibited oedema in a dose-dependent manner 3 h after administration of carrageenan. Both extracts partially decreased elastase activity and PGE2 levels measured in homogenates from inflamed paws, without affecting the levels of this prostanoid present in stomach homogenates. As observed with the selective inhibitor NS398, both extracts can decrease cyclo-oxygenase activity in inflamed tissues but do not modify the constitutive cyclo-oxygenase enzyme. Therefore, these extracts represent new marine resources for the isolation of novel agents active on inflammatory conditions.

  6. Developing food-grade coatings for dry-cured hams to protect against ham mite infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Abbar, S; Phillips, T W; Williams, J B; Smith, B S; Schilling, M W

    2016-03-01

    Dry-cured hams may become infested with ham mites, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, during the aging process. Methyl bromide is the only known available fumigant pesticide that is effective at controlling ham mite infestations in dry cured ham plants. However, methyl bromide will be phased out of all industries as early as 2015 due to its status as an ozone-depleting substance. Research was conducted to develop and evaluate the potential of using food-grade film coatings to control mite infestations, without affecting the aging process and sensory properties of the dry-cured hams. Cubes coated with xanthan gum+20% propylene glycol and carrageenan/propylene glycol alginate+10% propylene glycol were effective at controlling mite infestations under laboratory conditions. Water vapor permeability was measured to estimate the impact of coatings during the aging process. It was evident that carrageenan/propylene glycol alginate coatings were permeable to moisture, which potentially makes them usable during aging. PMID:26624793

  7. Activity of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. root and Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. bark pastes in acute and chronic paw inflammation in Wistar rat

    OpenAIRE

    Dushyant Kumar; Kuntal Ganguly; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; S.D. Kholkute

    2014-01-01

    Background:The pastes prepared from roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and barks of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. are widely used by traditional healers for the treatment of arthritis in rural northern Karnataka. Objective: The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the safety and efficacy of traditionally used formulations in experimental animals.Materials and Methods: The study, approved by IAEC was carried out in male Wistar rats and dermal toxicity in rabbits. Carrageenan ...

  8. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. PMID:27052706

  9. IN VIVO ANTI INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Mittal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to appraise the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus roots belonging to family Liliaceae. Carrageenan is used to induce inflammation and Freund’s Complete Adjuvant is used to induce arthritis. The result of this study revealed that Asparagus racemosus show potent effect on both the condition at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively.

  10. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory activity of Abutilon indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Satish Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the synthetic drugs used at present as analgesic and antiinflammatory agents cause many side effects and toxic effects. Many medicines of plant origin with analgesic and antiinflammatory activity have been used since long time without adverse effects. The plant Abutilon indicum (AI is reported to be used as a febrifuge, anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory agent. It is also used to treat ulcers, toothache and hepatic disorders. Thus the present study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and antiinflammatory potential of the plant Abutilon indicum. The formalin induced paw licking and tail flick method were used to study the analgesic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant. Carrageenan induced hind paw edema model was used to study anti-inflammatory activity. 200 mg/kg dose was selected to study both activities. Wistar strain albino rats were used for all studies. Diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. In tail flick test the increase in the reaction time was highly significant (P < 0.001 with ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant Abutilon indicum as compared to the control group. Acute edema in the left hind paw of the animals was induced by sub plantar injection of 0.1 ml (1% carrageenan suspension in normal saline. The ethanolic extract of the plant significantly (P <0.01 reduced the paw edema in carrageenan treated rats. The effect was maximum at 3hr after the carrageenan injection. The significant suppression of inflammation during the whole experimental period indicates the long duration of action of the ethanolic extract of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds in the ethanolic extract of the plant under study. The phytochemical constituents present in these extracts may be responsible for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the plant Abutilon indicum and the actions may be

  11. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Gulecha; Sivakumar, T.; Aman Upaganlawar; Manoj Mahajan; Chandrashekhar Upasani

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FR...

  12. Cultivation of the red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii in Brazil and its pharmacological potential

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Hayashi; Renata P. Reis

    2012-01-01

    Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) is a red algae widely cultivated as the main source of raw material for the carrageenan industry. This hydrocolloid is normally used in the food industry as a gelling and stabilizing agent. The facility of its commercial farming based on vegetative propagation promoted the success of the aquaculture of this macroalgae that consequently stimulated studies focusing on new potential uses of this resource. This work presents a brief review of the s...

  13. Age-dependent sensitization of cutaneous nociceptors during developmental inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowski, Michael P.; Ross, Jessica L.; Weber, Jonathon D; Lee, Frank B; Shank, Aaron T.; Hudgins, Renita C

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well-documented that neonates can experience pain after injury. However, the contribution of individual populations of sensory neurons to neonatal pain is not clearly understood. Here we characterized the functional response properties and neurochemical phenotypes of single primary afferents after injection of carrageenan into the hairy hindpaw skin using a neonatal ex vivo recording preparation. Results During normal development, we found that individual afferent response pr...

  14. Tempol modulates changes in xenobiotic permeability and occludin oligomeric assemblies at the blood-brain barrier during inflammatory pain

    OpenAIRE

    Lochhead, Jeffrey J; McCaffrey, Gwen; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Finch, Jessica D.; DeMarco, Kristin M; Quigley, Colleen E.; Davis, Thomas P.; Ronaldson, Patrick T

    2011-01-01

    Our laboratory has shown that λ-carrageenan-induced peripheral inflammatory pain (CIP) can alter tight junction (TJ) protein expression and/or assembly leading to changes in blood-brain barrier xenobiotic permeability. However, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative stress during CIP is unknown. ROS (i.e., superoxide) are known to cause cellular damage in response to pain/inflammation. Therefore, we examined oxidative stress-associated effects at the blood-brain ba...

  15. 猕猴桃凝胶软糖的研制%Research of the kiwi gelatinous confection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔美兰; 刘谋泉

    2004-01-01

    The production technology and formula of the kiwi gelatinous confection were studied. The main material in the experiment was extract from the fresh kiwi .Results showed that the best product was obtained with 20% Kiwi,23% sugar,34% glucose syrup,0.8% carrageenan,0.4% agar,0.2% konjac flour,1.4% modified starches,0.1% KC1 through orthogonal study.

  16. Vegetable proteins and milk puddings

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Isabel; M.C. NUNES; Batista, P; Raymundo, Anabela; Alves, M. M.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, interest in animal free foods has increased tremendously due to factors like BSE crisis, rise of nutritionally dependent illnesses, like diabetes type II, cardiovascular and digestive diseases, along with ethic orientations of denying animal intakes of any kind. The use of proteins from leguminous seeds as an alternative to the animal proteins in dairy desserts was studied. Lupin, pea and soya protein isolates were used in combination with k- carrageenan, gellan a...

  17. Development and validation of an animal model of prostate inflammation-induced chronic pelvic pain: evaluating from inflammation of the prostate to pain behavioral modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic prostatitis/Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS is the most common type of prostatitis. Due to the lack of a suitable animal model partly, the pathogenesis for this condition is obscure. In the current study we developed and validated an animal model for nonbacterial prostatitis and prostate inflammation-induced chronic pelvic pain in rats with the use of intraprostatic injection of λ-carrageenan. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-350 g were used for the experiments. After intraprostatic injection of 3% λ-carrageenan, at different time points(after 24 h, 7 d, 14 d and 30 d of injection, radiant heat and von Frey filaments were applied to the scrotum of rats to measure the heat and mechanical thresholds respectively. Then the prostate was removed for histology, and cyclooxygenase (COX 2 protein expression was determined by Western-blot. Evans blue(50 mg/kg was also injected intravenously to assess for plasma protein extravasation at different time points after injection of λ-carrageenan. RESULTS: Compared to control group, inflamed animals showed a significant reduction in mechanical threshold (mechanical allodynia at 24 h and 7d(p = 0.022,0.046, respectively, and a significant reduction in heat threshold (thermal hyperalgesia at 24 h, 7d and 14 d(p = 0.014, 0.018, 0.002, respectively in the scrotal skin. Significant increase of inflammatory cell accumulation, COX2 expression and Evans blue extravasation were observed at 24 h, 7d and 14 d after injection. CONCLUSIONS: Intraprostatic λ-carrageenan injection induced neurogenic prostatitis and prostate inflammation pain, which lasted at least 2 weeks. The current model is expected to be a valuable preclinical tool to study the neurobiological mechanisms of male chronic pelvic pain.

  18. A study on the anti-inflammatory effects of new derivatives of 3-hydroxy pyridine-4-one

    OpenAIRE

    Valiollah Hajhashemi; Hoda Mojiri-Froshani; Lotfollah Saghaei; Afshin Fassihi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Derivatives of pyridine-4-one act as iron chelators and possess various pharmacological effects such as antifungal, antimalarial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. The aim of our study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the three new derivatives of pyridine-4-one. Materials and Methods: Carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and croton oil-induced ear edema in mice were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatry effects of three 3-hydroxy-pyridine-4-...

  19. Extracellular matrix hyaluronan signals via its CD44 receptor in the increased responsiveness to mechanical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, L F; Araldi, D; Bogen, O; Levine, J D

    2016-06-01

    We propose that the extracellular matrix (ECM) signals CD44, a hyaluronan receptor, to increase the responsiveness to mechanical stimulation in the rat hind paw. We report that intradermal injection of hyaluronidase induces mechanical hyperalgesia, that is inhibited by co-administration of a CD44 receptor antagonist, A5G27. The intradermal injection of low (LMWH) but not high (HMWH) molecular weight hyaluronan also induces mechanical hyperalgesia, an effect that was attenuated by pretreatment with HMWH or A5G27. Pretreatment with HMWH also attenuated the hyperalgesia induced by hyaluronidase. Similarly, intradermal injection of A6, a CD44 receptor agonist, produced hyperalgesia that was inhibited by HMWH and A5G27. Inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) and Src, but not protein kinase C (PKC), significantly attenuated the hyperalgesia induced by both A6 and LMWH. Finally, to determine if CD44 receptor signaling is involved in a preclinical model of inflammatory pain, we evaluated the effect of A5G27 and HMWH on the mechanical hyperalgesia associated with the inflammation induced by carrageenan. Both A5G27 and HMWH attenuated carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Thus, while LMWH acts at its cognate receptor, CD44, to induce mechanical hyperalgesia, HMWH acts at the same receptor as an antagonist. That the local administration of HMWH or A5G27 inhibits carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia supports the suggestion that carrageenan produces changes in the ECM that contributes to inflammatory pain. These studies define a clinically relevant role for signaling by the hyaluronan receptor, CD44, in increased responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. PMID:26996509

  20. Nitric oxide production by murine spleen cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosroseno, Wihaskoro; Herminajeng, Endang; Susilowati, Heni; Budiarti, Sri

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans) could induce murine spleen cells to produce nitric oxide (NO). Spleen cells derived from Balb/c mice were stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or LPS from Escherichia coli for 4 days. The effects of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA), polymyxin B, and cytokines (IFN-gamma and IL-4) on the production of NO were also assessed. The NO production from the carrageenan-treated spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or both LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans and IFN-gamma was determined. The carrageenan-treated mice were transferred with splenic macrophages and the NO production was assessed from the spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans and IFN-gamma. The results showed that NO production was detectable in the cultures of spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans in a dose-dependent fashion, but was lower than in the cells stimulated with LPS from E. coli. The NO production was blocked by NMMA and polymyxin B. IFN-gamma up-regulated but IL-4 suppressed the production of NO by the spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans. The carrageenan-treated spleen cells failed to produce NO after stimulation with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or both LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans and IFN-gamma. Adoptive transfer of splenic macrophages to the carrageenan-treated mice could restore the ability of the spleen cells to produce NO. The results of the present study suggest that LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans under the regulatory control of cytokines induces murine spleen cells to produce NO and that splenic macrophages are the cellular source of the NO production. Therefore, these results may support the view that NO production by LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans-stimulated macrophages may play a role in the course of periodontal diseases. PMID:16887678

  1. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT OF POLYGALA ROSMARINIFOLIA WIGHT & ARN (POLYGALACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Mohan et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Polygala rosmarinifolia whole plant was extracted with ethanol and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in rats using a carrageenan induced paw edema method. Ethanol extract exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity at 200mg/kg at 3rd hr after administration is compared with reference standard drug, Indomethacin. Observed pharmacological activity in the present study provides scientific validation of ethnomedicinal use of this plant in treating acute inflammation.

  2. Screening for anti-inflammatory components from Corydalis bungeana Turcz. based on macrophage binding combined with HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zi-Bo; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Zhao, Bing-Jie; Li, Chao; Tian, Gang; Niu, Ben; Qi, Hong; Feng, Liang; Shao, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background Corydalis bungeana Turcz. (CB; family: Corydalis DC.) is an anti-inflammatory medicinal herb used widely in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for upper respiratory tract infection, etc., but its anti-inflammatory active molecules are unknown. This study was designed to screen for the anti-inflammatory components from CB based on macrophage binding combined with HPLC. Methods Xylene-induced ear edema in mouse and carrageenan-induced hind-paw edema in rats were used to evaluate the ...

  3. DNA-Based Identification and Chemical Characteristics of Hypnea musciformis from Coastal Sites in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Tutor Ale; Kristian Barrett; Gloria Naa Dzama Addico; Nanna Rhein-Knudsen; Amoako Atta deGraft-Johnson; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    This work reveals new, important insights about the influence of broad spatial variations on the phylogenetic relationship and chemical characteristics of Ghanaian Hypnea musciformis—a carrageenan-containing red seaweed. DNA barcoding techniques alleviate the difficulty for accurate morphological identification. COI barcode sequences of the Ghanaian H. musciformis showed <0.7% intraspecies divergence, indicating no distinct phylogenetic variation, suggesting that they actually belong to th...

  4. Lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) bind to seaweed polysaccharides and activate the prophenoloxidase system in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Yong-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Gong, Hong-Yi; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2016-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), important pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and β-1,3-glucan (βG), known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and subsequently trigger innate immunity. Several seaweed polysaccharides and seaweed extracts increase immune parameters and resistance to pathogens. Here, we constructed the expression vector pET28b-LvLGBP and transferred it into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) for protein expression and to produce the recombinant protein LGBP (rLvLGBP) in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. We examined the binding of rLvLGBP with seaweed-derived polysaccharides including alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE), and Sargassum duplicatum extract (SDE), and examined the phenoloxidase activity of shrimp haemocytes incubated with a mixture of rLvLGBP and each polysaccharide. We also examined the binding of rLvLGBP with LPS and βG, and the phenoloxidase activity of shrimp haemocytes incubated with a mixture of rLvLGBP and LPS (rLvLGBP-LPS) or a mixture of rLvLGBP and βG (rLvLGBP-βG). An ELISA binding assay indicated that rLvLGBP binds to LPS, βG, alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, GTE, and SDE with dissociation constants of 0.1138-0.1770 μM. Furthermore, our results also indicated that the phenoloxidase activity of shrimp haemocytes incubated with a mixture of rLvLGBP and LPS, βG, alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, GTE, and SDE significantly increased by 328%, 172%, 200%, 213%, 197%, 194%, 191%, and 197%, respectively compared to controls (cacodylate buffer). We conclude that LvLGBP functions as a PRP, recognizes and binds to LPS, βG, alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, GTE, and SDE, and subsequently leads to activating innate immunity in shrimp. PMID:26522339

  5. Mechanisms of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) Fruit Extract in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Ishola, Ismail O.; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O.

    2014-01-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema a...

  6. Microglial interleukin-1β in the ipsilateral dorsal horn inhibits the development of mirror-image contralateral mechanical allodynia through astrocyte activation in a rat model of inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoon-Seong; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Moon, Ji-Young; Choi, Sheu-Ran; Kwon, Soon-Gu; Kang, Suk-Yun; Han, Ho-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Beitz, Alvin J; Oh, Seog-Bae; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2015-06-01

    Damage on one side of the body can also result in pain on the contralateral unaffected side, called mirror-image pain (MIP). Currently, the mechanisms responsible for the development of MIP are unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of spinal microglia and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the development of MIP using a peripheral inflammatory pain model. After unilateral carrageenan injection, mechanical allodynia (MA) in both hind paws and the expression levels of spinal Iba-1, IL-1β, and GFAP were evaluated. Ipsilateral MA was induced beginning at 3 hours after carrageenan injection, whereas contralateral MA showed a delayed onset occurring 5 days after injection. A single intrathecal (i.t.) injection of minocycline, a tetracycline derivative that displays selective inhibition of microglial activation, or an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) on the day of carrageenan injection caused an early temporary induction of contralateral MA, whereas repeated i.t. treatment with these drugs from days 0 to 3 resulted in a long-lasting contralateral MA, which was evident in its advanced development. We further showed that IL-1β was localized to microglia and that minocycline inhibited the carrageenan-induced increases in spinal Iba-1 and IL-1β expression. Conversely, minocycline or IL-1ra pretreatment increased GFAP expression as compared with that of control rats. However, i.t. pretreatment with fluorocitrate, an astrocyte inhibitor, restored minocycline- or IL-1ra-induced contralateral MA. These results suggest that spinal IL-1β derived from activated microglia temporarily suppresses astrocyte activation, which can ultimately prevent the development of contralateral MA under inflammatory conditions. These findings imply that microglial IL-1β plays an important role in regulating the induction of inflammatory MIP. PMID:25749305

  7. Enhanced xylitol production using immobilized Candida tropicalis with non-detoxified corn cob hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Yewale, Tatyaso; Panchwagh, Shruti; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Dhamole, Pradip B.; Jain, Rishi

    2016-01-01

    This study reports an industrially applicable non-sterile xylitol fermentation process to produce xylitol from a low-cost feedstock like corn cob hydrolysate as pentose source without any detoxification. Different immobilization matrices/mediums (alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, agarose gel, polyacrylamide, gelatin, and κ-carrageenan) were studied to immobilize Candida tropicalis NCIM 3123 cells for xylitol production. Amongst this calcium alginate, immobilized cells produced maximum amount of xy...

  8. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC STEM EXTRACTS OF RUBIA CORDIFOLIA LINN. IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Tailor Chandra Shekhar; Bahuguna Y M; Singh Vijender

    2010-01-01

    In the present Study of Ethanolic extract of Stem of Rubia cordifolia Linn.(Rubiaceae) was screened for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema rats. The effect was assessed by Difference in paw oedema volume, before & after the low & high dose administration of the extract in Rats. Ethanolic extract of Rubia cordifolia stem (20 & 40 mg./kg./ml.) were administered orally. Anti-inflammatory effects were compared with Standard drug- Indomethacin (10mg./kg/ml.). These observ...

  9. EVALUATION OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA INDICA FRUIT RIND EXTRACTS IN WISTAR RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib N.A; Pawase Kiran; Patil PA.

    2010-01-01

    Garcinia indica choisy (Kokum) is known for its food, medicinal and commercial values. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind (GIFR) for its anti inflammatory activity in rats. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan induced paw odema. The serum enzymes like Acid phoshatase(ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase(ALP) were estimated. Both extracts at dose (200 & 400 mg/kg p.o single dose) shows significant (P

  10. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad M. Hassan; Shahneaz A. Khan; Amir H. Shaikat; Md. Emran Hossain; Md. Ahasanul Hoque; Md Hasmat Ullah; Saiful Islam

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight...

  11. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Yousef A.; Samud, Awatef M.; El-Taher, Fathy E.; ben-Hussin, Ghazala; Elmezogi, Jamal S.; Badryia F. Al-Mehdawi; Salem, Hanan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache.Aim: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice.Methods: Analgesic activity was examined using acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer’s-yeast-induced pyrexia were used to ...

  12. Antihyperalgesic and antiedematous activities of bisabolol-oxides-rich matricaria oil in a rat model of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Maja; Popović, Višnja; Petrović, Silvana; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica; Micov, Ana; Pavlović-Drobac, Milica; Couladis, Maria

    2014-05-01

    From the dried flower heads of Matricaria recutita L., essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation, and in the obtained blue oil, α-bisabolol oxide A (21.5%), α-bisabolol oxide B (25.5%) and (Z)-spiroether (cis-en-yn-spiroether) (10.3%) were identified as the main compounds, by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry analyses. The antihyperalgesic effects of this oil were examined in a rat model of inflammation induced by carrageenan, through a modified 'paw-pressure' test. Antiedematous effects were examined in a rat model of inflammation induced by carrageenan, dextran and histamine, through plethysmometry. Matricaria oil (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited a significant dose-dependent reduction of hyperalgesia and edema induced by carrageenan in both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment schemes. It was more efficacious in the prophylactic treatment scheme, and the corresponding median effective dose (ED50 ) ± standard error of the mean (SEM) values were 49.8 ± 6.0 and 42.4 ± 0.2 mg/kg for antihyperalgesic and antiedematous effects, respectively. Prophylactic treatments with matricaria oil (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) caused a significant dose-dependent antiedematous effect in dextran-induced edema with lower efficacy than in the carrageenan model. In a dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o., matricaria oil caused a slight reduction of histamine-induced edema. These results suggest that bisabolol-oxide-rich matricaria oil may be effective against pain and edema present in various inflammatory conditions, which supports matricaria traditional uses. PMID:23983133

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Janaína K. L.; Araújo, Chrisjacele S. F.; Araújo, Tiago F. S.; Santos, Andréa F. S.; Teixeira, J.A.; Vera L M Lima; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.

    2016-01-01

    A galactose-specific lectin from Bauhinia monandra leaves (BmoLL) have been purified through ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by guar gel affinity chromatography column. This study aimed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of pure BmoLL in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by 1% carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice treated with BmoLL. Acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and hot plate methods evaluated antinociceptive activity. B...

  14. Investigation of biopolymer-based hydrogels as green and heterogeneous catalysts in C-C bond formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kühbeck, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The present dissertation evaluates the efficacy of different polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan, alginate and kappa-carrageenan) and proteins (e.g. gelatin, collagen, silk fibroin) as possible catalysts for a variety of C-C bond formation reactions. These biopolymers can be obtained in different forms (e.g. hydrogels, mesoporous materials). Among different forms hydrogels are one of the most interesting since they could act as biphasic and heterogeneous systems in chemical transformations and fa...

  15. The effects of levan on the acute inflammatory response.

    OpenAIRE

    Sedgwick, A D; Rutman, A.; Sin, Y. M.; Mackay, A. R.; Willoughby, D A

    1984-01-01

    The fructose polymer levan has been shown to affect the accumulation of leucocytes in inflammatory lesions. The present study has investigated the effect of levan on experimental pleurisy induced by carrageenan and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals. Total pleural polymorphonuclear leucocyte counts and exudate volumes were significantly reduced by levan treatment. We were, however, unable to detect any effect on mononuclear cell numbers. Furthermore, levan treatment significantly...

  16. Quality of casein based Mozzarella cheese analogue as affected by stabilizer blends

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, A. H.; Patel, H. G.; Suneeta, Pinto; Prajapati, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Suitability of xanthan gum (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG), carrageenan (CAR)-LBG, and XG-CAR in 1:1 proportion at 0.42% in the formulation was assessed in the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese analogue. The stabilizer blends did not significantly influence the composition, texture profile, organoleptic, baking qualities and pizza-related characteristics of cheese analogues. Considering the influence of stabilizer blend on the sensory quality of analogue and sensory rating of pizza pie, XG-LBG blen...

  17. Effect of postproduction heating on the texture properties of a standard sausage that contains a chicken paste meat extender

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Marcela González Rodríguez; Elizabeth Giraldo Lopera; Diego Alonso Restrepo Molina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the textureproperties of a standard sausage that contained a chicken meatextender at a replacement percentage of 35% of the PMD whensubjected to postproduction heating. An experimental designthat looked at the combination of three extenders in ten mixturepoints was used; the extenders were composed of fiber, pig skin,and carrageenan, respectively, and there was one product withoutan extender. Five days after production, the sausages were cookedfor t...

  18. Chlorpyrifos Detection by Piezoelectric Biosensor Based on Acetylcholinesterase Immobilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was immobilized on multilayer films assembled by poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) and ι-carrageenan (IC) on silver-coated crystal electrode surfaces to detect the chlorpyrifos belonging to the organophosphates pesticide.Mass sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used to study the effect of AChE concentration and pH of phosphate buffer solution on immobilized acetylcholinesterase.The optimized conditions were as follows: pH was 6.0 which was near isoelectric ...

  19. Evaluation of antiinflammatory activity ofTephrosia purpurea in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenoy Smita; Shwetha K; Prabhu K; Maradi R; Bairy KL; Shanbhag T

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of orally administered ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea in acute and subacute inflammation in rats.Methods: An ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea was prepared. Carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma were the models for acute and subacute inflammation respectively. Four groups of rats in each model were treated orally with 2% gum acacia, 100 mg /kg of aspirin, 500 mg/kg and 1 000 mg/kg of ethanolic extract ofTephrosia purpurea respectively. In carrageenan induced paw edema model, subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan was made into the hind paw of the rats sixty minutes after the administration of the respective drugs. The paw volume was measured immediately after injection of carrageenan, at 3 hours and at 6 hours. Then percentage inhibition of edema was calculated. In the cotton pellet granuloma model, animals were administered drugs for six days after placing cotton pellets in the axilla on each side. On the 7th day, dry weight of granuloma was calculated.Results:The rats treated withTephrosia purpurea did not exhibit any significant decrease in paw volume and serum ceruloplasmin levels as compared to the control and aspirin treated groups in the acute inflammation model; while, there was a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the weight of granuloma inTephrosia purpurea and aspirin treated groups as compared to control in subacute inflammation.Conclusions:The ethanolic extract of orally administered Tephrosia purpurea shows significant antiinflammatory effect in subacute inflammation but not in acute inflammation in rats.

  20. Protective Effect of Jiechangning (结肠宁)Decoction in Treating Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Guinea Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Wu-jun; QIU Qi-yu; QIU De-kai

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To study the therapeutic effects and mechanism of Jiechangning (结肠宁, JCN)decoction on carrageenan induced experimental ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: After sensitizing guinea pigs with carrageenan, we established UC animal models by free drinking water containing 2 % acid degraded carrageenan (ADC). JCN decoction was orally administered once a day for 2 weeks after carrageenan treatment. Salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) and normal saline were given to the other two groups as control. The levels of colon lipid peroxide (LPO), acid phosphatase (ACP)activity and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)were measured; colitis activity score (CAS) was carried out for assessment of the degree of tissue inflammation and injury; the colonic pathological changes were examined simultaneously with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and toluidine blue staining used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of JCN decoction and SASP. Results:Experimental colitis models resembling human UC were successfully induced. The levels of tissue LPO, ACP activity and the content of tissue TNF-α were markedly increased in the model group as compared with the normal control group (P<0.01) and were positively correlated with CAS. JCN decoction could reverse these changes like SASP. HE staining showed that JCN decoction and SASP could reduce CAS and the degree of tissue injury, toluidine blue staining revealed that mucosa and submucosa red metachromasia pellets in JCN group and SASP group were markedly fewer than those in the model group. Conclusion: JCN decoction is effective in treating experimental UC, which provides theoretical basis for its clinical application.

  1. Ceramic films produced by a gel-dipping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santacruz, I.; Ferrari, B.; Nieto, M.I.; Moreno, R. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Camino de Valdelatas s/n, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2003-09-01

    A novel method for manufacturing self-supporting ceramic films is based on the use of aqueous suspensions containing low concentrations of a biopolymer (carrageenan) and the formation of the film by immersion of a graphite substrate into the ceramic suspension heated at 60 C. A film is obtained by dipping after cooling at RT; burning out graphite during sintering leaves homogeneous, dense, and self-supported films (see Figure for an SEM image). (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Antiinflammatory properties of a peptide derived from interleukin-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klementiev, Boris; Enevoldsen, Maj N; Li, Shizhong;

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a potent antiinflammatory cytokine. However its use in the clinic is hampered by side effects. We here describe the identification of a novel synthetic peptide, termed Ph8, derived from α-helix C of IL-4, which interacts with IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα). Employing various cul...... and reduced acute inflammation in carrageenan-induced edema. Our findings indicate that Ph8 is a promising potential drug candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases....

  3. Photoinduced charge separation in an aqueous phase using nanoporous TiO{sub 2} film and a quasi-solid made of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Masao; Nomura, Tomoyo; Sasaki, Chie [Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito (Japan)

    2003-05-07

    Solar cells comprised of nanoparticulate TiO{sub 2} porous film photosensitized with an adsorbing dye have been utilized as photoinduced charge separation systems in aqueous media with the view to forming future artificial photosynthetic systems able to create fuels from solar energy and water. The photoinduced charge separation of the sensitized TiO{sub 2} cell in a quasi-solid, made from agarose or {kappa}-carrageenan, was investigated. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Central nervous system mast cells in peripheral inflammatory nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmeier Wilfried

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional aspects of mast cell-neuronal interactions remain poorly understood. Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of powerful pro-inflammatory mediators such as histamine and cytokines. Cerebral dural mast cells have been proposed to modulate meningeal nociceptor activity and be involved in migraine pathophysiology. Little is known about the functional role of spinal cord dural mast cells. In this study, we examine their potential involvement in nociception and synaptic plasticity in superficial spinal dorsal horn. Changes of lower spinal cord dura mast cells and their contribution to hyperalgesia are examined in animal models of peripheral neurogenic and non-neurogenic inflammation. Results Spinal application of supernatant from activated cultured mast cells induces significant mechanical hyperalgesia and long-term potentiation (LTP at spinal synapses of C-fibers. Lumbar, thoracic and thalamic preparations are then examined for mast cell number and degranulation status after intraplantar capsaicin and carrageenan. Intradermal capsaicin induces a significant percent increase of lumbar dural mast cells at 3 hours post-administration. Peripheral carrageenan in female rats significantly increases mast cell density in the lumbar dura, but not in thoracic dura or thalamus. Intrathecal administration of the mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglycate or the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk inhibitor BAY-613606 reduce the increased percent degranulation and degranulated cell density of lumbar dural mast cells after capsaicin and carrageenan respectively, without affecting hyperalgesia. Conclusion The results suggest that lumbar dural mast cells may be sufficient but are not necessary for capsaicin or carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia.

  5. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM THE LEAVES OF MAGNOLIA DENUDATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG DU; MING-LEI WANG; RUO-YUN CHEN; DE-QUAN YU

    2001-01-01

    20 compounds were isolated from the leaves of Magnolia denudata including 16 lignans, which (16) andβ-sitosterol (20), the other 15 compounds were obtained from this species for the first time. The absolute configurations of 3 compounds (1, 4,10) were determined by CD spectroscopy for the first time. The anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1, 2 and 16 were assessed and 2 was shown to have significant inhibition effect on mice hind-paw edema induced by carrageenan.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Chun Liao; Jeng-Shyan Deng; Chuan-Sung Chiu; Wen-Chi Hou; Shyh-Shyun Huang; Pei-Hsin Shie; Guang-Jhong Huang

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) and carrageenan (Carr)-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α ), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels p...

  7. Evaluation of Topical Preparations Containing Curcuma, Acacia and Lupinus Extracts as an Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    M M Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    Summary: This work was suggested on the basis of presence of curcuminoids in curcuma and the presence of flavonoidal constituent in acacia and lupinus. The aim of this study was to study their possible anti-inflammatory effect by separately formulation of the three extracts in a suitable gel formula for topical administration and comparison of the prepared gels with a standard gel in the market (diclosal Emulgel) by using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in albino rats. The extracts we...

  8. Perbandingan Efek Antiinflamasi Fraksi Etilasetat Daun Dandang Gendis (Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau) Bentuk Suspensi Dan Yang Diperangkapkan Dalam Matriks Nata De Coco

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Anna Leli

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of ethanol extract and comparison test antiinflammatory effects of ethylacetate fraction of dandang gendis (Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau) leaves, suspension and from a matrix was trapped into nata decoco made orally on the sole of the foot inflammation induced rat carrageenan 1%. Dandang gendis leaves powder was extracted by used 80% ethanolic, it was fractionation with n-hexane and ethylacetate. Ethylacetate fraction is obtained evaporated by rotary evaporator...

  9. Formulasi Gel Pengharum Ruangan dengan Pewangi Minyak Mawar dan Fiksatif Minyak Akar Wangi

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Mailani Silviana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Utilization synthetic air freshener has a negative effect for human health as it can cause respiratory problem, so that it is a need to develop natural air freshener. Purpose: To formulate air freshener gel using natural base gel, fragrance and fixative in various concentration. Methods:This research consisted of three stages. The first stage was determining the best gel base using combination of carrageenan and agar in 3% concentration by some ratios, they were 70:30, 60:40...

  10. Formulasi Gel Pengharum Ruangan Menggunakan Karagenan dan Natrium Alginat dengan Minyak Nilam sebagai Fiksatif

    OpenAIRE

    Panjaitan, Marini

    2016-01-01

    Background:Conventional air freshener gel mostly contains synthetic materials, especially the fragrance and the fixative agent. It can potentially harms human health and environment, therefore it is necessary to develop a product that is more friendly to environment and safe for human by using natural essential oil. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find the best ratio of carrageenan and sodium alginate as a carrier, to find the best concentration of lemon oil as fragrance, and to ...

  11. Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Seewaboon Sireeratawong; Arunporn Itharat; Nusiri Lerdvuthisopon; Pritsana Piyabhan; Parirat Khonsung; Supot Boonraeng; Kanjana Jaijoy

    2012-01-01

    Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn. are herbaceous plants in the Piperaceae family. The ethanol extract of P. interruptum and P. chaba inhibited ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Both extracts reduced transudative and granuloma weights as well as body weight gain and thymus weight of the chronic inflammatory model using cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. Moreover, both extracts exhibited analgesic activity on bot...

  12. Algae Along Qatar Coasts Utilization And Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel

    1999-01-01

    Most of marine algae have no equivalent on earth and therefore could be considered as irreplaceable sources of primary and secondary metabolites. This is especially the case for hydrocolloids from red and brown algae that are cultured and used at an industrial scale for food-processing (carrageenans and agars from red algae and alginates from brown algae are widely used as gelling agents and thickeners) but also for pharmaceutical uses (agar gels for culture of microorganisms). Others main ap...

  13. Biorefinery valorization of autohydrolysis wheat straw hemicellulose to be applied in a polymer-blend film

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Cerqueira, M. A.; Ruíz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa María; Vicente, A.A.; J. A. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were the extraction of hemicellulose from wheat straw (WS) and its utilization in the reinforcement of a κ-carrageenan/locust bean gum (κ-car/LBG) polymeric blend films (PBFs). WS hemicellulose extraction was performed under autohydrolysis process and hemicellulose extracted (HE) under optimum condition was used in PBFs. PBFs were prepared varying different proportions of HE into the κ-car/LBG film-forming solutions. Barrier properties (water vapor permeability, WVP), m...

  14. A comparative experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn and Premna latifolia Roxb leaves in Charles foster rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, Harshitha; Shrikanth, P.; Chaithra; Pushpan, Reshmi; Nishteswar, K.

    2011-01-01

    Agnimantha, a classical Ayurvedic drug is one among the dashamoolas, i.e., group of ten plants whose roots form the useful part. It is a main ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations. Various source plants from the genus Clerodendrum and Premna are used in different regions of the country. In this study, two species of Premna were selected and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema. The selected animals were divided into four groups and test d...

  15. Evaluation of Analgesic & Anti-inflammatory activity of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf root on Experimental Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kumar; Rajeev Kumar; Sanjay Yadav; Satyawan Singh; Surendra Nath Pandeya

    2010-01-01

    Desmostachia bipinnata (L.) Stapf (Gramineae) occurs widely in Egypt. This plant used traditionally as analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, asthma, thirst, jaundice, vaginal discharges, vesicle calculi, diseases of bladder, skin eruptions, vomiting, and sedative to pregnant uterus. So, in the present study, Desmostachia bipinnata roots were explored for their anti-inflammatory (carrageenan induced paw oedema) and analgesic potential (Hot plate method) on experimental model and compared ...

  16. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE BARK OF FICUS BENGALENSIS IN PLANTS OF DIFFERENT AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Vikas V.; Vijay R. Patil

    2010-01-01

    The medicinal plants have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. The aim of this study deals with the comparative evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of the bark of Ficus bengalensis in plants of different age. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by rat paw edema model induced by carrageenan for acute inflammation and cotton pellet granuloma model for chronic inflammation. Indomethacin was used as a st...

  17. Naringenin reduces inflammatory pain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Zarpelon, Ana C; Fattori, Victor; Manchope, Marília F; Mizokami, Sandra S; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-06-01

    Naringenin is a flavonoid widely consumed by humans that present anti-inflammatory activity and low toxicity. Recently, the analgesic effect of naringenin has been demonstrated in neuropathic pain models. Herein, we tested the analgesic effects of naringenin in several models of inflammatory pain. Mice received treatment with naringenin (16.7-150 mg/kg, per oral), or with the controls anti-inflammatory drugs indomethacin (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or dipyrone (80 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) prior the inflammatory stimuli injection. For acute pain, we used acetic acid- and PBQ-induced visceral pain (abdominal writhings), and formalin-, capsaicin-, and CFA-induced paw flinching and licking. By using an electronic version of von Frey filaments, we also investigated the effects of naringenin in pain intensity to a mechanical stimulus (mechanical hyperalgesia) after carrageenan, capsaicin, CFA, or PGE2 intraplantar injection. Naringenin (50 mg/kg) reduced acute pain behaviors induced by all tested stimuli, including both phases of formalin test, suggesting a direct nociceptor modulatory effect of this compound besides its anti-inflammatory activity. Accordingly, naringenin also inhibited the increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulus induced by carrageenan, capsaicin, and PGE2. Daily treatment with naringenin during 7 days also reduced CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia without gastric or hepatic toxicity. The mechanisms of naringenin involve the inhibition of carrageenan-induced oxidative stress, hyperalgesic cytokines (IL-33, TNF-α, and IL-1β) production and NF-κB activation in the paw skin. Naringenin also activated the analgesic NO-cyclic GMP-PKG-ATP sensitive K(+) channel signaling pathway to inhibit carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and neutrophil recruitment. These results suggest that naringenin inhibits both inflammatory pain and neurogenic inflammation. PMID:26907804

  18. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    OpenAIRE

    Choksi Krishna; Shenoy Ashoka M; A. R. Shabharaya; Lala Minaxi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg) and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg) were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg) to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate cou...

  19. Studies of the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wibool Ridtitid; Peerati Ruangsang; Wantana Reanmongkol; Malinee Wongnawa

    2007-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb. leaves at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was investigated for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The results revealed that the extract at test doses produced a significant anti-inflammatory activity at 3 h with an inhibition of paw edema of 8.6% (P

  20. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic leaf extract of the endangered tree species, Hildegardia populifolia (Roxb.) Schott and Endl

    OpenAIRE

    Saradha Maran; Paulsamy Subramanium

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was aimed at to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanolic leaf extracts of the endangered medicinal tree species, Hildegardia populifolia on laboratory animal. Methods: The anti-inflammatory potential of the extract has been determined by using carrageenan, formalin and histamine induced paw edema assays in Wistar rats. Indomethacin was used as a reference drug. The analgesic activity was tested by using acetic acid induced writhing res...

  1. Buccal Drug Delivery of Pravastatin Sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Shidhaye, Supriya S.; Thakkar, Pritesh V.; Neha M Dand; Vilasrao J. Kadam

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize formulations of mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of pravastatin sodium using carrageenan gum as the base matrix. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K 30, Pluronic® F 127, and magnesium oxide were used to improve tablet properties. Magnesium stearate, talc, and lactose were used to aid the compression of tablets. The tablets were found to have good appearance, uniform thickness, diameter...

  2. Effect of use of citrus bagasse as functional product-extender on physicochemical and textural properties of cooked ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Aguilar-Rico

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The substitution effect of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse on physico-chemical characteristics of cooked ham was evaluated. A 33 factorial design was used, with substitution levels of 0, 50 and 100%. The results indicate that the substitution of potato starch for orange bagasse results in increase in the ham yield, but to replace the carrageenan and/or soy protein by orange bagasse, cause decrease in yield below that non-substituted ham. Moreover, if even yields increase with substitution of potato starch by orange bagasse, however, the textural characteristics of the product obtained showed deficiency in comparison with thenon-substituted ham. Apparently orange bagasse substitution does not alter the matrix stability formation in ham, so there was no significant difference in expressible moisture. Substitution of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse in ham has highest influence on pH and color parameters, this due probably to compounds presents in the fruit (citric acid and carotenoids. Orange bagasse has high potential as a novel source of dietary fiber in food industry.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities A of eugenol essential oil in experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apparecido N. Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia caryophyllata, popular name "clove", is grown naturally in Indonesia and cultivated in many parts of the world, including Brazil. Clove is used in cooking, food processing, pharmacy; perfumery, cosmetics and the clove oil (eugenol have been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions include use in dental care, as an antiseptic and analgesic. The objective of this study was evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of eugenol used for dentistry purposes following oral administration in animal models in vivo. The anti-inflammatory activity of eugenol was evaluated by inflammatory exudates volume and leukocytes migration in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests in rats. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests in mice. Eugenol (200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the volume of pleural exudates without changing the total blood leukocyte counts. At dose of 200 mg/kg, eugenol significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced edema, 2-4 h after injection of the flogistic agent. In the hot-plate test, eugenol administration (100 mg/kg showed unremarkable activity against the time-to-discomfort reaction, recorded as response latency, which is blocked by meperidine. Eugenol at doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg had a significant antinociceptive effect in the test of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhing, compared to the control animals. The data suggest that eugenol possesses anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive activities.

  4. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ION EXCHANGE RESIN MATRIX TABLETS OF PROPRANOLOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosale Rahul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt was made to prepare and evaluate Indion 254 ion exchange resin based matrix tablets by using sodium alginate, carrageenan and tamarind seed polyose for controlled release of propranolol HCl. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The weight and drug contents of all the tablets were found to be uniform with the low SD values. The hardness and friability were within specified range. The pure drug propranolol HCl has shown complete dissolution within 60 min, whereas, drug-resin complex has shown drug release for 2.5 hrs. With the increase in concentration of carrageenan, the drug release was decreased whereas with the increase in concentration of tamarind seed polyose drug release was increased. The DSC and XRD analysis indicated that the drug was uniformly dispersed in an amorphous state in the polymer matrix. The FTIR analysis ruled out the interaction between drug and polymers used in the preparation. Swelling of the tablets decreased with an increased amount of carrageenan and it further decreased when the tablets were treated with glutaraldehyde. Swelling of the tablets increased with an increased amount of tamarind seed polyose. The in vitro drug release study indicated that the tablets containing tamarind seed polyose were capable of releasing the drug for 24 hrs. Drug release mechanism followed anomalous transport. The stability studies indicated that the formulations were stable, with respect to drug content and physical changes.

  5. Citral reduces nociceptive and inflammatory response in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Citral (CIT, which contains the chiral enantiomers, neral (cis and geranial (trans, is the majority monoterpene from Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus. The present study aimed to evaluate CIT for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in rodents. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied by measuring nociception through acetic acid and formalin tests, while inflammation was verified by inducing peritonitis and paw edema with carrageenan. All tested doses of CIT had significant protection (p<0.001 against acetic acid (0.8% induced nociceptive behavior and the effects were also similar to morphine while formalin induced nociception was significantly protected (p<0.05 only at higher dose (200 mg/kg of CIT in the first phase of the test. CIT significantly reduce (p<0.001 nociceptive behavior emanating from inflammation in second phase at all the doses.The pretreatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, systemic treatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced (p<0.001 the leukocyte migration in the carrageenan-induced migration to the peritoneal cavity. Our investigation shows that CIT possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive effects. It was also verified an anti-inflammatory activity. All together these results suggest that CIT might represent important tool for treatment of painful conditions.

  6. Microwave-assisted facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and spectroscopic investigation of the catalytic activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siby Joseph; Beena Mathew

    2015-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized in aqueous medium by a green, rapid and costefficient synthetic approach based on microwave irradiation. In this study, iota-carrageenan (I-carrageenan) is used both as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticles is determined using UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and high-resolution-transmission electron microscopic (HR-TEM) analysis. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images show that the nanoparticles are of spherical shape with an average diameter of 18.2 nm. I-carrageenan-stabilized silver nanoparticles show outstanding catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH4 in aqueous medium. The reaction follows pseudo-first-order kinetics and the reaction rate increases with the increase in amount of the catalyst. The study of the temperature dependence of reaction rate gives activation energy of 42.81 kJ mol−1. The synthesized silver nanoparticles are anticipated to be a promising material for pollution abatement.

  7. Carrageen Tomatoes Composite Health Care Beverage%角叉菜西红柿复合益生菌保健饮料研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯璐; 孙玲; 应润兵; 杨翔华

    2013-01-01

    In order to carrageenan as raw material , tomatoes for the materials , and the seed liquid mixing and fermentation, adding various component deployment of a probiotic health beverage. Analysis of mineral elements content in carrageenan, using cheap meal production microecological regulator. Through the orthogonal experiment to determine the fermentation condition and optimize the product selected out the best formula:carrageenan extract 20%, tomato juice 70%, sugar 6%, sour agent from 0.07%to 0.09%, natural pigments, spices, honey right amount.%  以角叉菜、西红柿为原料,与益生菌的种子液混合后进行发酵,添加多种配料调配成益生菌型保健饮料。分析角叉菜内矿物质元素含量,利用廉价豆粕生产微生态调节剂。通过正交实验确定发酵条件,并且优化选定出产品最佳配方为:角叉菜提取液20%,西红柿汁70%,蔗糖6%,酸味剂0.07%~0.09%,天然色素,香料,蜂蜜等适量。

  8. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of epiisopiloturine, an imidazole alkaloid isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valdelânia G; Silva, Renan O; Damasceno, Samara R B; Carvalho, Nathalia S; Prudêncio, Rafael S; Aragão, Karoline S; Guimarães, Maria A; Campos, Stefano A; Véras, Leiz M C; Godejohann, Markus; Leite, José Roberto S A; Barbosa, André L R; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R

    2013-06-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of epiisopiloturine (1), an imidazole alkaloid found in the leaves of Pilocarpus microphyllus. The anti-inflammatory activity of 1 was evaluated using several agents that induce paw edema and peritonitis in Swiss mice. Paw tissue and peritoneal fluid samples were obtained to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing, the hot plate test, and pain induction using formalin. Compared to vehicle treatment, pretreatment with 1 (0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg, ip) of mice significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.05). Furthermore, compound 1 at a dose of 1 mg/kg effectively inhibited edema induced by dextran sulfate, serotonin, and bradykinin, but had no effect on histamine-induced edema. The administration of 1 (1 mg/kg) following carrageenan-induced peritonitis reduced total and differential peritoneal leukocyte counts and also carrageenan-induced paw MPO activity and TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the peritoneal cavity. Pretreatment with 1 also reduced acetic acid-induced writhing and inhibited the first and second phases of the formalin test, but did not alter response latency in the hot plate test. Pretreatment with naloxone reversed the antinociceptive effect of 1. PMID:23734744

  9. Effect of postproduction heating on the texture properties of a standard sausage that contains a chicken paste meat extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela González Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the textureproperties of a standard sausage that contained a chicken meatextender at a replacement percentage of 35% of the PMD whensubjected to postproduction heating. An experimental designthat looked at the combination of three extenders in ten mixturepoints was used; the extenders were composed of fiber, pig skin,and carrageenan, respectively, and there was one product withoutan extender. Five days after production, the sausages were cookedfor two hours at 80°C. An instrumental texture analysis and afirmness and elasticity evaluation were carried out on the recentlyproduced samples and on samples after the subsequent thermaltreatments. Hardness, masticability and firmness decreased withthe application of the thermal treatments. In addition, a synergisticinteraction was seen between the fiber and the carrageenan at thetwo temperature levels. It was concluded that the fiber, the pig skinand the carrageenan did not exhibit properties that were similarto those of chicken paste because their applications demonstrateda marked decrease in the texture properties, a decrease thatwas more pronounced when the product was subjected topostproduction heating.

  10. 低温火腿专用注射胶体的研究%Study on special injected gel of low temperature ham

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙森伟; 王素梅

    2014-01-01

    Locust bean gum could improve the gel strength and elastic of K-carrageenan and reduce its drainage rate. When the ratio of carrageenan, Locust bean gum and glucose was 48. 75∶1. 25∶50, the gel strength, elastic and drainage rate was 436g, 7. 14mm, 2. 39%, respectively. Under this condition, the gel strength and elastic of compound gel were better than commercially carrageenan.%刺槐豆胶可以提高K-卡拉胶凝胶强度、弹性,降低卡拉胶的析水率。当卡拉胶∶刺槐豆胶∶葡萄糖为48.75∶1.25∶50时,复合胶体凝胶强度、弹性、析水率分别为436g、7.14mm、2.39%。复合胶体的凝胶强度、弹性都优于市售卡拉胶。

  11. 使用粒径分析仪分析黑米乳稳定性%Using Particle Size Analyzer Analysis the Stability of Black Rice Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令洁; 苗君莅; 张锋华; 龚广予

    2012-01-01

    The stability of the different product was analyzed through laser particle size analyzer detected carrageenan. Xanthan gum, guar gum and gellan gum four stabilizers were used alone or complex pairs in black rice milk. The results showed that the stability of the three samples of black rice milk with 0.08% gellan gum+0.02% xanthan gum, 0.09% gellan gum+0.01% carrageenan, and 0.08% guar+0.02% carrageenan were ideal. The system of black rice milk was under better control and the floating oil was well suppressed. The gellan gum couldn't stabilize black rice milk alone.%通过激光粒径分析仪检测分析卡拉胶、黄原胶、瓜尔豆胶以及结冷胶这四类稳定剂单独或复配对黑米乳产品稳定性的影响。结果发现,0.08%结冷胶+0.02%黄原胶、0.09%结冷胶+0.01%卡拉胶、0.08%瓜尔豆胶+0.02%卡拉胶等黑米乳饮料稳定性较好,单独使用结冷胶效果一般。

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia heyneana Spreng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganga Rao Battu; Sambasiva Rao Ethadi; Veda Priya G; Swathi Priya K; Chandrika K; Venkateswara Rao A; Satya Obbala Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the alcoholic extract of Euphorbia heyneana (E. heyneana) in carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. Methods:In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated for superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Three doses 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hours. Results:The alcoholic extract of E. heyneana produced dose dependent inhibition of superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radicals. In carrageenan induced inflammation model, all three doses produced significant percentage inhibition of rat paw oedema and 800 mg/kg dose produced maximum percent inhibition of rat paw oedema (47.06%) among the three doses compared to control group. Conclusions:It can be concluded that alcoholic extract of E. heyneana shows good in vitro antioxidant and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activities in rats.

  13. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of one synthetic product, N-(3-Florophenylethylcaffeamide (abbrev. FECA, by using animal model of λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of FECA was determined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and malondialdehyde (MDA in the edema paw tissue, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione reductase (GRd in the liver. The results showed that FECA reduced the paw edema at three, four and five hours after λ-carrageenan administration. The levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α, and MDA in the λ-carrageenan-induced edema paws were reduced and the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in liver tissues were raised by FECA. These results suggested that FECA possessed anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be related to the decrease of the levels of COX-2, NO, and TNF-α in inflamed tissues and the increase in the MDA level by increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd.

  15. Development of hydroethanolic extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae using factorial design followed by antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. R. Br., Convolvulaceae, is a medicinal plant that grows abundantly as a pan-tropical stand plant. The 3² (two factors and three levels factorial design, was applied to determine the best time and drug/solvent proportion to maximize the flavonoid content in the hydroethanolic extract by maceration process. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied at 5-20 mg/kg, i.p., using the writhing test and carrageenan-induced pleurisy models in mice. The optimized extract was able to inhibit more than 50% of abdominal writhing at 20 mg/kg, with 55.88%±2.4 of maximum inhibition. Indomethacin, used as positive control, inhibited 64.86% at 10 mg/kg. In the pleurisy model, the extract produced dose-dependent inhibition of the first phase of inflammation (4 h in the pleural cavity induced by injection of carrageenan (1% in mice. It inhibited 50%±0.82 (p<0.01 of exudation induced by carrageenan, and 60.88%±0.14 (p<0.01 of leukocyte migration to the pleural cavity. In conclusion, the results validate the technological conditions of the maceration process to produce an optimized bioactive herb extract for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory phytopharmaceuticals using 70 ºGL ethanol, a plant to solvent ratio of 12.5% (w/v, and ten days of maceration.

  16. 可食性涂膜对双孢蘑菇生理和品质的影响%Effect of Edible Coatings on Physiology and Quality of Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相友; 闫聪聪; 刘战丽

    2012-01-01

    The effects of carrageenan, carboxymethyl cellulose solution and their complex film on the physiology and quality of mushrooms stored at (2 ± 1 ) ℃ were studied. The minimum loss of weight was obtained in fruits coated with CMC coating, the minimum value of respiration rate, PPO activity, membrane permeability and the maximum hardness and L* value were obtained in mushrooms coated with carrageenan coating. Overall, the preservation effect of carrageenan film is the best, and it can extend the shelf-life of Agaricus bisporus to more than 12 d.%研究了卡拉胶、羧甲基纤维素钠及其复配涂膜对(2±1)℃下贮藏的双孢菇生理和品质的影响.实验结果表明:羧甲基纤维素钠涂膜抑制双孢菇失重率的效果最好;卡拉胶涂膜在抑制呼吸速率、PPO活性、细胞膜通透性的上升和果实硬度、白度的下降方面效果最好,可以将双孢菇的货架期延长至12d以上.

  17. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Ganga Rao; P. Umamaheswara Rao; E. Sambasiva Rao; T. Mallikarjuna Rao; V. S. Praneeth. D

    2012-01-01

    To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. Methods: In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. Results: All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. Conclusions:In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  18. Preparation of a Black Tea Jelly%红茶果冻的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志铭; 汤兴福; 吴云辉; 简文杰

    2011-01-01

    In this research, konjac powder, carrageenan and black tea powder were used as main raw materials to produce a new black tea jelly by the orthogonal experiment method The results indicated that, the best ratio of carrageenan to konjac glue, the total dosages of the mixture of carrageenan and konjac glue, sugar, black tea powder and citric acid were 7:3, 0.8%, 14%, 0.2% and 0.12%, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the hazel jelly can be prepared after water bath for 15 minutes. It tasted mild and crisp, with rich tea aroma.%本文以魔芋粉、卡拉胶、红茶粉为主要原料,采用正交试验方法探讨红茶果冻的最佳制作工艺.实验结果表明:卡拉胶和魔芋胶两者的配比为7∶3,总胶粉的添加量为0.8%,白砂糖添加量为14%,红茶粉添加量为0.2%,柠檬酸的添加量为0.12%,水浴15min得到浅褐色果冻,口感软滑爽脆,酸甜可口,且具有浓郁茶香味.

  19. Influence of Tableting on Enzymatic Activity of Papain along with Determination of Its Percolation Threshold with Microcrystalline Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manu; Sharma, Vinay; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2014-01-01

    The binary mixture tablets of papain and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP), carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar were prepared by direct compression. Carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar provided maximum protection to enzyme activity compared to MCC and DCP. However, stability studies indicated highest loss of enzyme activity with carrageenan, tragacanth, and agar. Therefore, compression behaviour of different binary mixtures of papain with MCC at different compaction pressures, that is, 40-280 MPa, was studied according to Heckel equation. The compressibility studies of binary mixtures indicated brittle behavior of papain. The application of percolation theory on the relationship between critical density as a function of enzyme activity and mixture composition revealed the presence of percolation threshold for binary mixture. Papain-MCC mixture composition showed significant percolation threshold at 18.48% (w/w) papain loading. Microcrystalline cellulose provided higher protection during stability study. However, higher concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose, probably as dominant particles, do not protect the enzyme with their plastic deformation. Below the percolation threshold, that is, 18.48% (w/w) papain amount in mixture with plastic excipient, activity loss increases strongly because of higher shearing forces during compaction due to system dominance of plastic particles. This mixture range should therefore be avoided to get robust formulation of papain.

  20. Stretching Impacts Inflammation Resolution in Connective Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrueta, Lisbeth; Muskaj, Igla; Olenich, Sara; Butler, Taylor; Badger, Gary J; Colas, Romain A; Spite, Matthew; Serhan, Charles N; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-07-01

    Acute inflammation is accompanied from its outset by the release of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), including resolvins, that orchestrate the resolution of local inflammation. We showed earlier that, in rats with subcutaneous inflammation of the back induced by carrageenan, stretching for 10 min twice daily reduced inflammation and improved pain, 2 weeks after carrageenan injection. In this study, we hypothesized that stretching of connective tissue activates local pro-resolving mechanisms within the tissue in the acute phase of inflammation. In rats injected with carrageenan and randomized to stretch versus no stretch for 48 h, stretching reduced inflammatory lesion thickness and neutrophil count, and increased resolvin (RvD1) concentrations within lesions. Furthermore, subcutaneous resolvin injection mimicked the effect of stretching. In ex vivo experiments, stretching of connective tissue reduced the migration of neutrophils and increased tissue RvD1 concentration. These results demonstrate a direct mechanical impact of stretching on inflammation-regulation mechanisms within connective tissue.

  1. Preliminary comparative study of anti-inflmmatory effect of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey: In vivo approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of unheated and heat-treated of Sahara honey. Methods: A total of 24 Swiss albino mice weighing 25–35 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Anti-inflammatory effect was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.5 mL of a 1% solution in normal saline. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: The total phenolic content capacity of the Sahara honey before and after heat treatment was between 72 and 97.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of honey respectively. Administration of unheated honey (oral administration reduced significantly (P < 0.05. The carrageenan induced mice paw edema model at 1, 3 and 6 h for 21.85%, 5.43% and 80.43%, respectively. Administration of heat-treated honey showed insignificant inhibition of carrageenan and induced paw edema at 1 h (31.16%, 3 h (0.25% and 6 h (34.19%. The 50 mg/kg diclofenac exhibited percent reduction in paw volume 16.12%, 8.90% and 15.32% after 1 h, 3 h and 6 h, respectively, when compared with control animals. No toxicity was identified. Conclusions: Our results suggest that unheated Sahara honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the mice paw edema size while heat-treated Sahara honey decreases the antiinflammatory activity.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects and possible mechanism of action of lupeol acetate isolated from Himatanthus drasticus (Mart. Plumel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Victor CC

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The species Himatanthus drasticus is popularly known in Northeast Brazil as "janaguba" and belongs to the family Apocynaceae. The latex collected from its stem bark is used for several purposes including anti-inflammatory properties and presents among its bioactive constituents the pentacyclic triterpene lupeol. The objective of the present work was to study in vivo and in vitro the lupeol acetate (LA isolated from the plant latex, in several models of inflammation. Methods Male Swiss mice (25-30 g, 6-24 animals per group were administered with LA, 30 min before the test initiation. In the evaluation of analgesic activity the formalin test was used. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the following tests: paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, and the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration into peritoneal cavities. Furthermore, the effect of LA on the myeloperoxidase release (MPO, an inflammation biomarker from human neutrophils was also determined, as well as its antioxidant potential by the DPPH assay. Results In the formalin test, LA (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p. inhibited both the 1st (neurogenic, 0-5 min and mainly the 2nd (inflammatory, 20-25 min phase. Naloxone completely reversed the LA effect, indicating the participation of the opioid system. LA also significantly inhibited carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw edemas, as well as the neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity evaluated by the carrageenan-induced pleurisia. In this model, the effect of a very low dose of LA (0.1 mg/kg was potentiated by the same dose of pentoxifylline (PTX, a known TNF-alpha inhibitor. LA (25 and 50 μg/ml was also very effective in inhibiting MPO released from stimulated human neutrophils, and significantly decreased the number of cells expressing iNOS activity in the paw of mice submitted to carrageenan-induced edema, suggesting a drug involvement with the NO system. Conclusions The anti-inflammatory effect of

  3. 海洋硫酸多糖几种脱硫方法的比较研究%Comparison of several desulfation methods of marine sulfated polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫; 王玉峰; 曾洋洋; 王培培; 韩章润; 吴建东; 于广利

    2012-01-01

    κ-carrageenan (sulfate content 25.1 %, molecular mass 83.1kD) was selected as studying material. The yields, sulfate contents and molecular masses of desulfated products of the methods of DMSO-MeOH (DMSO), trimethylchlo-rosilane (CTMS) and pyromellitic acid-Sb2O3 (PMA) were compared. The results showed that the yields of the desulfated κ-carrageenan were 45.3 %, 50.6 % and 62.0 %, the desulfation rates were 42.2 %, 48.6 % and 82.8 %, the molecular masses were 15.7 kD, 22.3 kD and 4.75 kD, respectively. According to the IR spectrum and sulfate content analysis, PMA method was better than the DMSO and CTMS method. PMA method was not only effective for κ-carrageenan, but also suitable for the desulfation of ι-carrageenan, λ-carrageenan and fucoidan polysaccharide.%以κ-卡拉胶(硫酸基含量25.1%,分子质量83.1 kD)为原料,研究了二甲基亚砜-甲醇法(DMSO法)、三甲基氯硅烷法(CTMS法)以及苯并四甲酸-三氧化二锑法(PMA法)对其脱硫后多糖样品的得率、硫酸基含量及分子质量的影响.结果表明,κ-卡拉胶经三种方法脱硫后,样品得率分别为45.3%、50.6%和62.0%,脱硫率分别为42.2%、48.6%和82.8%,分子质量分别为15.7、22.3和4.75 kD.通过红外光谱和硫酸基含量分析表明,PMA法脱硫效果优于DMSO和CTMS法.PMA法不仅对κ-卡拉胶有效,而且适合于l-卡拉胶、λ-卡拉胶和岩藻聚糖硫酸酯的脱硫.

  4. A pharmacological analysis on peony root-ramulus cinnamomi combination of the anti-inflammatory effects%白芍配伍桂枝抗炎的药理学作用及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐菲; 於建鹏; 张松

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find out the effects of Peony Root and Ramulus Cinnamomi on anti-inflammatory when used separately and in combina- tion.Methods 100 Kunming mice.male and female,were randomly divided into five groups, Including the control group,carrageenan group, white peony group, Gui Zhi group, compatibility group. 30 minutes after administration, carrageenan pleurisy in mice modeling. 5 hours of modeling, eye blood, detection of malondialdehyde, elastase content and the effect on CAMP-PDE activity.Results Compared with the control group, carrageenan MDA and elastase were significantly higher, P<0.05. And carrageenan group, white peony root group and Guizhi group,inhibited the increase of MDA and elastase levels, P<0.05; White peony root and cassia twig of compatibility group, obviously inhibited the increase of MDA and elastase levels, P<0.01. Compared with carrageenan group, white peony root group、Guizhi group obviously reduced CAMP-PDE activity(P<0.05).Compared with carrageenan group, the compatibility group obviously reduced CAMP-PDE activity(P<0.01).ConcIusion The drugs combination is more effective on anti-inflammatory.%目的 研究白芍配伍桂枝进行抗炎治疗的作用机制.方法 100只昆明系小鼠,雌雄各半,随机分为5组:对照组、角叉菜胶组、白芍组、桂枝组、配伍组.给药30 min后,角叉菜胶小鼠胸膜炎造模.造模5h后,眼球采血,检测丙二醛和弹性蛋白酶含量,以及对中性粒细胞CAMP-PDE活性的影响.结果 与对照组相比,角叉菜胶丙二醛含量和弹性蛋白酶含量明显升高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).与角叉菜胶组相比,白芍组和桂枝组抑制角叉菜胶组丙二醛含量和弹性蛋白酶含量的升高(P<0.05);白芍桂枝配伍组,明显抑制角叉菜胶组丙二醛含量和弹性蛋白酶含量的升高(P<0.01).与角叉菜胶组相比,白芍、桂枝组明显抑制CAMP-PDE活性(P<0.05);与角叉菜胶组相比,白芍桂枝

  5. Role of natural polysaccharides in radiation formation of PVA-hydrogel wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processed PVA-polysaccharides hydrogels have been observed to be suitable for producing transparent, flexible, mechanically strong, biocompatible, effective and economical hydrogel dressings. The dressings were formed in single stage irradiation process achieving gel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose. No synthetic plasticizers and additives were used. Different formulations containing poly-vinylalcohol (PVA) and polysaccharides selected from combinations of agar and carrageenan were used to make the dressings. The selected polysaccharides themselves form thermo-reversible gels and degrade on irradiation. Using concentration of polysaccharides as low as 0.5-2% resulted in increase of tensile strength from 45 g/cm2 to 411 g/cm2, elongation from 30% to 410% and water uptake from 25% to 157% with respect to PVA gel without polysaccharides. Besides improving mechanical strength, agar contributes more to elongation and carrageenan to mechanical strength of the gel dressing. PVA formulations containing the polysaccharides show significantly different pre-gel viscosities behaviour. Increasing the concentration of agar in the formulation to about 2% converts the sheet gel to paste gel useful for filling wound cavities. The results indicate that pre irradiation network structure of the formulation plays an important role in determining mechanical properties of the irradiated gel dressing. Formulations containing 7-9% PVA, 0.5-1.5% carrageenan and 0.5-1% agar gave highly effective usable hydrogel dressings. Scanning electron micrographs show highly porous structure of the gel. Clinical trials of wound dressing on human patients established safety and efficacy of the dressing. The dressing has been observed to be useful in treating burns, non-healing ulcers of diabetes, leprosy and other external wounds. The dressings are now being marketed in India under different brand names

  6. Studies on Radiation Synthesis of Poly(vinyl alcohol)- Natural Polysaccharides Hydrogel Wound Dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processed PVA-polysaccharides hydrogels have been observed to be suitable for producing transparent, flexible and mechanically strong, biocompatible, effective and economical hydrogel dressings(HD). The dressings were formed in single stage irradiation process achieving gel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose. No synthetic plasticizers and additives were used. Different formulations containing Poly-vinylalcohol, (PVA) and polysaccharides selected from combinations of agar and carrageenan were used to make the dressings. The selected polysaccharides themselves form thermo-reversible gels and degrade on irradiation. Using concentration of polysaccharides as low as 0.5 -2 % resulted in increase of tensile strength from 45 g/cm2 to 400 g/cm2, elongation from 30 % to 410 % and water uptake from 25 % to 120% with respect to PVA gel without polysaccharides. Besides improving mechanical strength, agar contributes more to elongation and carrageenan to mechanical strength of the gel dressing. The polysaccharides show different pre-gel viscosities behaviour indicating different individual contribution to the PVA network. Increasing the concentration of agar in the formulation to about 2% converts the sheet gel to paste gel useful for filling wound cavities. The polysaccharides also provide desirable plasticizer and humectant effect into the dressing. Formulations containing 7-9% PVA, 0.5- 1.5 % carrageenan and 0.5-1% agar gave highly effective usable hydrogel dressings. Scanning Electron Micrographs show highly porous structure of the gel. Clinical trials of wound dressing on human patients established safety and efficacy of the dressing. The dressing has been observed to be useful in treating burns, non healing ulcers of Diabetes, Leprosy and other external wounds. The dressings are now being marketed in India under different brand names

  7. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of derivative (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jamerson Ferreira; Nonato, Fabiana Regina; Zafred, Rafael Rosolen Teixeira; Leite, Nayara Maria Siqueira; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; da Silva, Anekécia Lauro; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Alves de Lima, Maria do Carmo

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to further investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone (BTTSC) as well as its antinociceptive effects. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using the model of ear edema induced by croton oil-induced and also evaluated in models of paw edema carrageenan-induced and by compound 48/80. Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect was performed through formalin test. In the nociception test induced by formalin the BTTSC showed activity in both phases of the pain, highlighting inflammatory pain, where it was able to reduce the time to paw lick 62.3, 84.30 and 100% at doses of 30, 100 and 300mgkg(-1). The anti-inflammatory activity was performed ear edema induced by croton oil, where none of the doses tested was capable of significantly regress edema. The paw edema carrageenan-induced showed activity compound, where the edema was reduced by 81.9 and 83.2% in the first two times of the experiment at the highest dose used. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80, showed that BTTSC after 15min of the inoculum phlogistic agent showed significant reduction of edema with values of 56.53% at a dose of 30mgkg(-1). Our results suggesting this compound exerts its antinociception effects connected with peripheral mechanisms. Furthermore, the compound was able to act in two phases of inflammation carrageenan-induced, highlighting the initial phase. This suggests an action on the early mediators of inflammation. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80 confirmed our hypothesis indicating action of the compound via histamine. PMID:27133079

  8. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  9. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of azadirachtin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Darly G; Godin, Adriana M; Menezes, Raquel R; Nogueira, Rafaela D; Brito, Ana Mercy S; Melo, Ivo S F; Coura, Giovanna Maria E; Souza, Danielle G; Amaral, Flávio A; Paulino, Tony P; Coelho, Márcio M; Machado, Renes R

    2014-06-01

    Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) extracts have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. However, the activities of azadirachtin, a limonoid and the major bioactive compound found in the extracts, have been poorly investigated in animal models. In the present study, we investigated the effects induced by azadirachtin in experimental models of pain and inflammation in mice. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and fibrovascular tissue growth induced by subcutaneous cotton pellet implantation were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of azadirachtin in mice. Zymosan-induced writhing and hot plate tests were employed to evaluate the antinociceptive activity. To explore putative mechanisms of action, the level of tumor necrosis factor-α in inflammatory tissue was measured and the effect induced by opioidergic and serotonergic antagonists was evaluated. Previous per os (p. o.) administration of azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) significantly reduced the acute paw edema induced by carrageenan. However, the concomitant increase of the paw concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α induced by this inflammatory stimulus was not reduced by azadirachtin. In addition to inhibiting the acute paw edema induced by carrageenan, azadirachtin (6, 60, and 120 mg/kg) inhibited the proliferative phase of the inflammatory response, as demonstrated by the reduced formation of fibrovascular tissue growth. Azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) also inhibited the nociceptive response in models of nociceptive (hot plate) and inflammatory (writhing induced by zymosan) pain. The activity of azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) in the model of nociceptive pain was attenuated by a nonselective opioid antagonist, naltrexone (10 mg/kg, i. p.), but not by a nonselective serotonergic antagonist, cyproheptadine. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the activity of azadirachtin in experimental models of nociceptive and inflammatory pain, and also in models of acute and chronic inflammation

  10. Laticifer proteins from Plumeria pudica inhibit the inflammatory and nociceptive responses by decreasing the action of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliana B. Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSome publications have described the pharmacological properties of latices proteins. Thus, in the present study proteins from Plumeria pudica Jacq., Apocynaceae, latex were evaluated for anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Obtained data showed that an intraperitoneal administration of different doses of latex was able to reduce the paw edema induced by carrageenan in a dose-dependent manner (better dose 40 mg/kg; 72.7% inhibition at 3rd and 78.7% at 4th hour and the edema induced by dextran (40 mg/kg; 51.5% inhibition at 30 min and 93.0% at 1st hour. Inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan was accompanied by a reduction of myeloperoxidase activity. Pre-treating animals with latex (40 mg/kg also inhibited the paw edema induced by histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, prostaglandin E2, compound 48/80. Additionally, the latex (40 mg/kg reduced the leukocyte peritoneal migration induced by carrageenan and this event was followed by reduction of IL-1β and TNF-α in peritoneal fluid. The latex-treatment (40 mg/kg reduced the animal abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid and the first phase on paw licking model induced by formalin. When latex was treated with heat (at 100 °C for 30 min, anti-edematogenic and myeloperoxidase activities were significantly reduced, indicating the involvement of heat-sensitive proteins on anti-inflammatory effect. Our results evidence that latex fluids are a source of proteins with pharmacological properties.

  11. Mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of a polysulfated fraction from Gracilaria cornea in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, Chistiane Oliveira; Souza, Ricardo Basto; Rodrigues, José Ariévilo Gurgel; Vanderlei, Edfranck de Sousa Oliveira; de Araújo, Ianna Wivianne Fernandes; Ribeiro, Natássia Albuquerque; Frota, Annyta Fernandes; Ribeiro, Kátia Alves; Chaves, Hellíada Vasconcelos; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves; da Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva; Bezerra, Mirna Marques; Benevides, Norma Maria Barros

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the sulfated polysaccharidic fraction obtained from red marine alga Gracilaria cornea (Gc-FI) were investigated using a paw edema model induced in rats by different inflammatory agents (carrageenan, dextran, serotonin, bradykinin, compound 48/80 or L-arginine). Gc-FI at the doses of 3, 9 or 27 mg/kg, subcutaneously--s.c., significantly inhibited rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, as confirmed by myeloperoxidase and Evans' blue assessments, respectively. Gc-FI (9 mg/kg, s.c.) inhibited rat paw edema induced by histamine, compound 48/80 and L-arginine. Additionally, Gc-FI (9 mg/kg, s.c.) inhibited Cg-induced edema in animals with intact mast cells but did not inhibit that with degranulated mast cells by compound 48/80, revealing a protective role on mast cell membranes. Gc-FI down-regulated the IL-1β, TNF-α and COX-2 mRNA and protein levels compared with those of the carrageenan group, based on qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses. After inhibition with ZnPP IX, a specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor, the anti-inflammatory effect of Gc-FI was not observed in Cg-induced paw edema, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effect of Gc-FI is, in part, dependent on the integrity of the HO-1 pathway. Gc-FI can target a combination of multiple points involved in inflammatory phenomena.

  12. Mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of a polysulfated fraction from Gracilaria cornea in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistiane Oliveira Coura

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the sulfated polysaccharidic fraction obtained from red marine alga Gracilaria cornea (Gc-FI were investigated using a paw edema model induced in rats by different inflammatory agents (carrageenan, dextran, serotonin, bradykinin, compound 48/80 or L-arginine. Gc-FI at the doses of 3, 9 or 27 mg/kg, subcutaneously--s.c., significantly inhibited rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, as confirmed by myeloperoxidase and Evans' blue assessments, respectively. Gc-FI (9 mg/kg, s.c. inhibited rat paw edema induced by histamine, compound 48/80 and L-arginine. Additionally, Gc-FI (9 mg/kg, s.c. inhibited Cg-induced edema in animals with intact mast cells but did not inhibit that with degranulated mast cells by compound 48/80, revealing a protective role on mast cell membranes. Gc-FI down-regulated the IL-1β, TNF-α and COX-2 mRNA and protein levels compared with those of the carrageenan group, based on qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses. After inhibition with ZnPP IX, a specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 inhibitor, the anti-inflammatory effect of Gc-FI was not observed in Cg-induced paw edema, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effect of Gc-FI is, in part, dependent on the integrity of the HO-1 pathway. Gc-FI can target a combination of multiple points involved in inflammatory phenomena.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity and chemical composition of the essential oils from Senecio flammeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kai-Jun; Wang, Wen-Xia; Dai, Jia-Li; Zhu, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Many species from Senecio genus have been used in traditional medicine, and their pharmacological activities have been demonstrated. This study investigated the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from Senecio flammeus. A total of 48 components representing 98.41 % of the total oils were identified. The main compounds in the oils were α-farnesene (11.26 %), caryophyllene (8.69 %), n-hexadecanoic acid (7.23 %), and α-pinene (6.36 %). The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils was evaluated in rodents (10-90 mg/kg bw) in classical models of inflammation [carrageenan-induced paw edema, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma]. The essential oils at doses of 10, 30, and 90 mg/kg bw significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema by 17.42 % (P < 0.05), 52.90 % (P < 0.05), and 66.45 % (P < 0.05) 4 h after carrageenan injection, respectively, and significantly reduced myeloperoxidase activity (P < 0.05). The essential oils (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg) also produced a significant dose-dependent response to reduce TPA-induced ear edema by 20.27 % (P < 0.05), 33.06 % (P < 0.05), and 53.90 % (P < 0.05), respectively. The essential oils produced significant dose-response anti-inflammatory activity against cotton pellet-induced granuloma that peaked at the highest dose of 90 mg/kg (49.08 % wet weight and 47.29 % dry weight). Results demonstrate that the essential oils of S. flammeus were effective in the treatment of both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, thereby supporting the traditional use of this herb. PMID:26417301

  14. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of derivative (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Jamerson Ferreira; Nonato, Fabiana Regina; Zafred, Rafael Rosolen Teixeira; Leite, Nayara Maria Siqueira; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; da Silva, Anekécia Lauro; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Alves de Lima, Maria do Carmo

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to further investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone (BTTSC) as well as its antinociceptive effects. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using the model of ear edema induced by croton oil-induced and also evaluated in models of paw edema carrageenan-induced and by compound 48/80. Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect was performed through formalin test. In the nociception test induced by formalin the BTTSC showed activity in both phases of the pain, highlighting inflammatory pain, where it was able to reduce the time to paw lick 62.3, 84.30 and 100% at doses of 30, 100 and 300mgkg(-1). The anti-inflammatory activity was performed ear edema induced by croton oil, where none of the doses tested was capable of significantly regress edema. The paw edema carrageenan-induced showed activity compound, where the edema was reduced by 81.9 and 83.2% in the first two times of the experiment at the highest dose used. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80, showed that BTTSC after 15min of the inoculum phlogistic agent showed significant reduction of edema with values of 56.53% at a dose of 30mgkg(-1). Our results suggesting this compound exerts its antinociception effects connected with peripheral mechanisms. Furthermore, the compound was able to act in two phases of inflammation carrageenan-induced, highlighting the initial phase. This suggests an action on the early mediators of inflammation. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80 confirmed our hypothesis indicating action of the compound via histamine.

  15. Effect of ricinoleic acid in acute and subchronic experimental models of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celme Vieira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies indicate that topical application of ricinoleic acid (RA, the main component of castor oil, exerts remarkable analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Pharmacological characterization has shown similarities between the effects of RA and those of capsaicin, suggesting a potential interaction of this drug on sensory neuropeptide-mediated neurogenic inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess RA anti-inflammatory activities in comparison with capsaicin in several models of acute and subchronic inflammation. The acute inflammation was induced by intradermal injection of carrageenan in the mouse or by histamine in the guinea-pig eyelid. In either experiment, the extent of the oedema thickness was measured. Subchronic oedema was induced by complete Freund's adjuvant injection in the ventral right paw of mice. Tissue substance P (SP was measured in the carrageenan experiments by radioimmunoassay (RIA. It was found that the acute topical application of RA (0.9 mg/mouse or capsaicin (0.09 mg/mouse significantly increased the mouse paw oedema induced by carrageenan, while an 8-day repeated topical treatment with the same doses of both compounds resulted in a marked inhibition of carrageenaninduced paw oedema matched by a reduction in SP tissue levels. Similar effects were found against histamine-induced eyelid oedema in guinea-pigs after acute or repeated application of RA or capsaicin. RA and capsaicin given for 1–3 weeks reduced the established oedema induced by Freund's adjuvant, a subchronic model of inflammation, particularly if given by the intradermal route. Either in mouse paw or in guineapig eyelid, capsaicin but not RA by itself produced a slight hyperemia and activation of a behavioural response (e.g. scratching of the eyelids. On the basis of the present results, RA may be seen as a new capsaicin-like, non-pungent anti-inflammatory agent suitable for peripheral application.

  16. Therapeutic effect of the endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitoylethanolamide, in rat acute inflammation: inhibition of nitric oxide and cyclo-oxygenase systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Barbara; Conti, Silvia; Giagnoni, Gabriella; Colleoni, Mariapia

    2002-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the endogenous fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide and its relationship to cyclo-oxygenase (COX) activity, nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen free radical production were investigated in the rat model of carrageenan-induced acute paw inflammation and compared with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) indomethacin. Palmitoylethanolamide (1, 3, 5, 10 mg kg−1; p.o.) and indomethacin (5 mg kg−1; p.o.) were administered daily after the onset of inflammation for three days and the paw oedema was measured daily; 24 h after the last dose (fourth day) the rats were killed and the COX activity and the content of nitrite/nitrate (NO2−/NO3−), malondialdehyde (MDA), endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and iNOS) were evaluated in the paw tissues. Palmitoylethanolamide had a curative effect on inflammation, inhibiting the carrageenan-induced oedema in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was not reversed by the selective CB2 receptor antagonist (N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrazole-3 carboxamide) (SR144528), 3 mg kg−1 p.o. On the fourth day after carrageenan injection, COX activity and the level of NO2−/NO3−, eNOS and MDA were increased in the inflamed paw, but iNOS was not present. Palmitoylethanolamide (10 mg kg−1) and indomethacin markedly reduced these increases. Our findings show, for the first time, that palmitoylethanolamide has a curative effect in a model of acute inflammation. The inhibition of COX activity and of NO and free radical production at the site of inflammation might account for this activity. PMID:12359622

  17. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase and cyclooxygenase-2 increases levels of endocannabinoid related molecules and produces analgesia via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in a model of inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Maulik D; Richardson, Denise; Robinson, Ian; Garle, Michael J; Patel, Annie; Sun, Yan; Sagar, Devi R; Bennett, Andrew J; Alexander, Stephen P H; Kendall, David A; Barrett, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2008-07-01

    The antinociceptive effects of the endocannabinoids (ECs) are enhanced by inhibiting catabolic enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The physiological relevance of the metabolism of ECs by other pathways, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) is less clear. To address this question we compared the effects of local inhibition of FAAH versus COX2 (URB597 and nimesulide, respectively) on inflammatory hyperalgesia and levels of endocannabinoids and related molecules in the hindpaw. Inflammatory hyperalgesia was measured following intraplantar injection of carrageenan. Effects of intraplantar injection of URB597 (25 microg and 100 microg) or nimesulide (50 microg) on hyperalgesia and hindpaw levels of anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) were determined. Although both doses of URB597 increased levels of AEA and 2AG in the carrageenan inflamed hindpaw, only the lower dose of URB597 attenuated hyperalgesia (P<0.05). Nimesulide attenuated both hyperalgesia and hindpaw oedema (P<0.001, P<0.01, respectively) and increased levels of PEA (P<0.05) in the hindpaw. Since both AEA and PEA are ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha), the effects of the PPARalpha antagonist GW6471 on nimesulide- and URB597-mediated effects were studied. GW6471, but not a PPARgamma antagonist, blocked the inhibitory effects of nimesulide and URB597 on hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that both COX2 and FAAH play a role in the metabolism of endocannabinoids and related molecules. The finding that PPARalpha antagonism blocked the inhibitory effects of nimesulide and URB597 suggests that PPARalpha contributes to their antinociceptive effects in the carrageenan model of inflammatory hyperalgesia.

  18. Effect of calcium chloride addition on ice cream structure and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F F; Resende, J V; Abreu, L R; Goff, H D

    2008-06-01

    The influence of calcium fortification by the addition of calcium chloride on quality parameters of ice cream based on physical properties was investigated, as was the effect of kappa-carrageenan at modifying the effects of this calcium fortification. Four ice cream mixes of conventional composition, with added kappa-carrageenan (0 or 0.025%) and added calcium chloride (0 or 4.4 g L(-1) = 40 mM of added Ca(2+)), were prepared. Modulated temperature-differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the effect of calcium chloride on the nucleation temperature, enthalpy of melting, and freezing point depression. The protein composition of 15.4% (wt/wt) reconstituted skim milk powder solutions with or without 4.4 g L(-1) added CaCl(2) and in the supernatant after ultracentrifugation was determined. Fat particle size distributions in ice cream were characterized by light scattering. Ice crystal sizes before and after temperature cycling were determined by cold-stage light microscopy. The results demonstrated that the addition of calcium chloride led to a substantial increase in ice crystal sizes and in fat partial coalescence, which were exacerbated by the addition of kappa-carrageenan. These results can be explained by the interaction between Ca(2+) ions and casein micelles, rather than any effects on freezing point depression. The calcium ions led to a more compact micelle, less serum beta-casein, and high fat destabilization, all of which would be expected to reduce macromolecular structure and volume occupancy in the unfrozen phase, which led to increased rates of ice recrystallization. PMID:18487638

  19. 阴离子多糖对大豆蛋白乳状液乳析稳定性的影响%Effects of anionic polysaccharides on the creaming stability of soy protein emulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王才华; 周雪松; 曾建新; 赵强忠; 赵谋明

    2013-01-01

    研究了卡拉胶、黄原胶和羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)3种阴离子多糖对大豆蛋白乳状液乳析稳定性的影响.结果表明:添加0.03%卡拉胶的乳状液乳析稳定性较好,而添加CMC或0.06%以上黄原胶的乳状液乳析稳定性则较差;随着阴离子多糖浓度的增加,添加CMC的乳状液顶部粒径d3,2增大,添加卡拉胶或黄原胶的大豆蛋白乳状液顶部粒径d3,2先减小后增大;添加阴离子多糖的乳状液的顶部粒径d3,2与乳析率呈较好的正相关性.%Effects of anionic polysaccharides such as carrageenan, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) , xan-than on the creaming stability of soy protein emulsion (SPE) were studied. Results show that adding 0.03% carrageenan could facilitate the creaming stability of SPE, but adding CMC or more than 0.06% xanthan could reduce the creaming stability of SPE. With the increase of anionic polysaccharides concentration, particle diameter d3,2 in the top of SPE increased with CMC and decreased first and then increased with carrageenan or xanthan. Creaming rate showed positive correlation with d3,2 in the top of SPE.

  20. Role of natural polysaccharides in radiation formation of PVA-hydrogel wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshney, Lalit [ISOMED, Radiation Technology Development Section, Radio-Chemistry and Isotope Group, B.A.R.C, Mumbai 400 085 (India)]. E-mail: lalitv@barc.gov.in

    2007-02-15

    Radiation processed PVA-polysaccharides hydrogels have been observed to be suitable for producing transparent, flexible, mechanically strong, biocompatible, effective and economical hydrogel dressings. The dressings were formed in single stage irradiation process achieving gel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose. No synthetic plasticizers and additives were used. Different formulations containing poly-vinylalcohol (PVA) and polysaccharides selected from combinations of agar and carrageenan were used to make the dressings. The selected polysaccharides themselves form thermo-reversible gels and degrade on irradiation. Using concentration of polysaccharides as low as 0.5-2% resulted in increase of tensile strength from 45 g/cm{sup 2} to 411 g/cm{sup 2}, elongation from 30% to 410% and water uptake from 25% to 157% with respect to PVA gel without polysaccharides. Besides improving mechanical strength, agar contributes more to elongation and carrageenan to mechanical strength of the gel dressing. PVA formulations containing the polysaccharides show significantly different pre-gel viscosities behaviour. Increasing the concentration of agar in the formulation to about 2% converts the sheet gel to paste gel useful for filling wound cavities. The results indicate that pre irradiation network structure of the formulation plays an important role in determining mechanical properties of the irradiated gel dressing. Formulations containing 7-9% PVA, 0.5-1.5% carrageenan and 0.5-1% agar gave highly effective usable hydrogel dressings. Scanning electron micrographs show highly porous structure of the gel. Clinical trials of wound dressing on human patients established safety and efficacy of the dressing. The dressing has been observed to be useful in treating burns, non-healing ulcers of diabetes, leprosy and other external wounds. The dressings are now being marketed in India under different brand names.

  1. Effects of ketamine on neuronal activity of the spinal dorsal horn in rats with unilateral hindpaw inflammation%氯胺酮对单足致炎大鼠脊髓背角神经元活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华; 李菁锦; 吕国蔚

    2000-01-01

    A total of 32 units were extracellularly recorded from the spinal dorsal horn of rats. Unitary discharges evoked by stimulation of A and C fiber in ipsilateral lateral and medial plantar nerve were increased after carrageenan injection to the plantar area. The evoked responses to both A and C fiber were significantly decreased or even disappeared after administration of ketamine. The windup phenomenon was observed in neurons located deeply in the dorsal horn following carrageenan injection and was significantly suppressed or abolished after ketamine administration. The results above show NMDA receptor appears to be involved in the increase of excitability and the development of windup phenomenon in the spinal cord dorsal horn associated with carrageenan induced inflammation.%在大鼠脊髓背角用细胞外记录技术共记录到32个单位.角叉菜胶一侧足底注射致炎后, 电刺激该侧足底内外侧神经激动其中A、C纤维时, 脊髓背角神经元的诱发放电数均显著增加; 静脉注射NMDA受体拮抗剂氯胺酮后, A、C纤维刺激诱发的放电反应均显著下降甚至消失. 致炎后脊髓背角深层单位出现Windup现象, 静脉注射氯胺酮后该现象减轻或消失.结果提示: 角叉菜胶致炎导致脊髓背角神经元兴奋性升高和Windup; NMDA受体参与炎症痛和Windup形成.

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils of Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jeane; Abebe, Worku; Sousa, S M; Duarte, V G; Machado, M I L; Matos, F J A

    2003-12-01

    Many species of the genus Eucalyptus from the Myrtaceae family are used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various medical conditions such as cold, flue, fever, and bronchial infections. In the current investigation, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil extracts from three species of Eucalyptus employing various standard experimental test models. Using acetic acid-induced writhes in mice and hot plate thermal stimulation in rats, it was shown that the essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora (EC), Eucalyptus tereticornis (ET), and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) induced analgesic effects in both models, suggesting peripheral and central actions. In addition, essential oil extracts from the three Eucalyptus species produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by inhibition of rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, neutrophil migration into rat peritoneal cavities induced by carrageenan, and vascular permeability induced by carrageenan and histamine. However, no consistent results were observed for some of the parameters evaluated, both in terms of activities and dose-response relationships, reflecting the complex nature of the oil extracts and/or the assay systems used. Taken together, the data suggest that essential oil extracts of EC, ET, and EG possess central and peripheral analgesic effects as well as neutrophil-dependent and independent anti-inflammatory activities. These initial observations provide support for the reported use of the eucalyptus plant in Brazilian folk medicine. Further investigation is warranted for possible development of new classes of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs from components of the essential oils of the Eucalyptus species. PMID:14611892

  3. Ursolic acid prevents augmented peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia in high-fat diet-induced obese rats by restoring downregulated spinal PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Song, Chengwei; Li, Haiou; Hou, Jingdong; Li, Dongliang

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several pain syndromes and is associated with increased pain sensitivity. Evidence suggests that obesity causes the downregulation of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR)α in the spinal cord, contributing to augmented peripheral edema and inflammatory hyperalgesia. Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, has been shown to upregulate PPARα in the peripheral tissues of obese animals. The present study hypothesized that UA prevents augmented peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia in obesity by restoring downregulated spinal PPARα. The present study demonstrated that Sprague‑Dawley rats fed a high‑fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks developed obesity and metabolic disorder. Following carrageenan injection, the HFD rats exhibited increased thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema, compared with the rats fed a low‑fat diet. Molecular investigations revealed that the HFD rats exhibited decreased PPARα activity, and exaggerated expression of inflammatory mediators and nuclear factor‑kB activity in the spinal cord in response to carrageenan. Oral administration of UA ameliorated obesity and metabolic disorder, and prevented increased thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema in the HFD rats. Additionally, UA normalized PPARα activity and inhibited the exaggerated spinal cord inflammatory response to carrageenan. Although the knockdown of spinal PPARα with small interfering RNA following the administration of UA did not alter obesity or metabolic parameters, it eradicated the beneficial effects of UA on thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema, and reversed the spinal cord inflammatory response. These results suggested that the systemic administration of UA inhibited the exaggerated spinal cord inflammatory response to peripheral inflammatory stimulation in HFD‑induced obesity by restoring downregulated spinal PPARα, preventing peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia. UA may be a

  4. Design, synthesis, characterization, quantum-chemical calculations and anti-inflammatory activity of novel series of thiophene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, M. H.; Salem, M. A.; Gouda, M. A.; Ahmed, N. S.; El-Sherif, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    Interaction of 1-(4-morpholinophenyl)ethanone 1 with either malononitrile or ethyl cyanoacetate 2 afforded Knoevenagel-Cope product 3. In subsequent treatment of 3 with sulfur, the 2-aminothiophene derivatives (4a, 4b) are formed under basic conditions. The solvent-free reaction of thiophene derivative 4a with ethyl cyanoacetate afforded thieno[2,3-d][1,3]oxazine derivative 6. The base catalyzed condensation of 2-aminothiophene derivative (4a) with ethyl cyanoacetate afforded N-(thieno-2-yl) cyanoacetamide derivative 7. The latter was used to synthesize different heterocyclic derivatives comprising, pyridine and coumarin rings. Also, several substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines have been prepared from reaction of 2-aminothiophene-3-carbonitrile 4b with some electrophilic reagents. The structure of the newly compounds were confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis and spectral data. The molecular modeling of the synthesized compounds has been drawn and their molecular parameters were calculated. Also, valuable information is obtained from calculation of the molecular parameters including electronegativity, net dipole moment of the compounds, total energy, electronic energy, binding energy, HOMO and LUMO energy. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of the tested compounds was performed in albino rats by producing carrageenan induced paw oedema and measuring the zone of inflammation at different time intervals i.e. 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after carrageenan injection. Results indicated that most of the tested compounds showed moderate to good activity comparable to indomethacin. Also, compound 16 with additional morpholine ring beside the thiophene ring inhibits carrageenan induced paw oedema more than the standard indomethacin drug at all the time scales studied. Thus, compound 16 is considered as a promising compound for further modification to obtain clinically useful anti-inflammatory agent.

  5. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, R.; Tozatti, M.G.; Silva, M.L.A.; Gimenez, V.M.M.; Pauletti, P.M.; Groppo, M.; Turatti, I.C.C.; Cunha, W.R.; Martins, C.H.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1. PMID:26200228

  6. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  7. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6 h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6 h at 200 and 400 mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

  8. Novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles as anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ega Durgashivaprasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring is a versatile moiety with a wide range of pharmacological properties. The present work deals with the synthesis and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of two novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (OSD and OPD. Materials and Methods: Carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema was employed as an acute model of inflammation. For evaluating sub-acute anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat air pouch was employed. Complete Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats was used as a model of chronic inflammation. To evaluate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used. Results: OSD (100 mg/kg reduced carrageen-induced paw edema by 60%, and OPD (100 mg/kg produced a modest 32.5% reduction. OSD also reduced leukocyte influx and myeloperoxidase in carrageenan-induced rat air pouch model. In complete Freund′s adjuvant-induced arthritis model, both OSD and OPD (200 mg/kg for 14 days reduced paw edema and NO levels. In LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, OSD and OPD inhibited formation of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, with OPD showing a better activity in comparison to OSD. Conclusions: OSD was the better of the two compounds in in vivo models of inflammation. The o-phenol substitution at position 2 of oxadiazole ring in OSD may be responsible for its better in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. The ability of the compounds to inhibit LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediator release suggests an anti-inflammatory mechanism targeting LPS-TLR4-NF-κB signalling pathway, which needs to be explored in detail. The disparate efficacy in vitro and in vivo also requires in-depth evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of these novel oxadiazoles.

  9. Synthesis, antiinflammatory and antibacterial activity of novel indolyl-isoxazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chalcones were synthesized by reacting indole-3-aldehyde, prepared by Vilsemeir Haack reaction with 4-substituted acetophenone in ethanolic KOH solution. These chalcones were immediately reacted with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in presence of glacial acetic acid as reagent to obtain the corresponding isoxazole derivatives. The synthesized heterocycles were characterized on the basis of physical, chemical tests and spectroscopic data. These compounds were tested for the acute antiinflammatory activity and antibacterial activity using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method and cup-plate method, respectively.

  10. Novel Epoxy Activated Hydrogels for Solving Lactose Intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Elnashar, Magdy M. M.; Hassan, Mohamed E.

    2014-01-01

    “Lactose intolerance” is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 5–10% w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3 U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11 U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel's mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the ...

  11. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Tamarindus indica Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Mishra, Vijay; Raut, Sushil; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Jain, Sunil K

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potential of a hydroethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves (HTI) along with its possible mode of action. The anti-inflammatory activity of HTI was estimated by carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema in male Wistar albino rats. Furthermore, HTI was assessed to determine its effects on membrane stabilization. The antinociceptive action was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick, and the hot plate model. Oral administration of HTI at the dose of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg body weight produced significant (Pindica as were mentioned in Indian traditional and folklore practices.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of Abutilon indicum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Priyanka; Chauhan, N S; Patel, J R

    2012-01-01

    Abutilon indicum Linn. had been broadly used for its reported biological activities in indigenous system of medicine. The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of A. indicum Linn. was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity at doses 250, 500 and 750 mg kg⁻¹ using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema in healthy Wistar albino rats. Results of in vivo activity led to the conclusion that the ethanolic extract of A. indicum showed predominantly significant activity in a dose-dependent manner, which is comparable to the reference standard ibuprofen. The results prove the traditional use of plant in the treatment of inflammation. PMID:21999427

  13. Effects of edible film coatings on shelf-life of mustafakemalpasa sweet, a cheese based dessert

    OpenAIRE

    Guldas, Metin; Bayizit, Arzu Akpinar; Yilsay, Tulay Ozcan; Yilmaz, Lutfiye

    2010-01-01

    It was aimed to investigate the shelf-life of single baked (one stage heating at 280–300 °C) mustafakemalpasa (MKP) cheese sweets coated with edible films such as κ-carrageenan, chitosan, corn zein and whey protein concentrate (WPC). The sweets prepared were coated, packed in polystyrene bags and stored at room temperature (20 ± 1 °C). The shelf-life of sweet samples was determined by microbiological analyses, aw, titratable acidity, pH and sensory analysis. The microorganisms exhibited growt...

  14. FORMULASI CINCAU JELLY DRINK (Premna oblongifolia L Merr SEBAGAI PANGAN FUNGSIONAL SUMBER ANTIOKSIDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Khoiriyah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objectives of this study were to make formulation of jelly drink product made from clump cincau leaf (Premna oblongifolia L Merr, to analyze hedonic and hedonic quality of the formulas, to analyze nutrient, fiber, and total phenol contents and antioxidative activity of the selected formula. The formulation was made to be three formulas, namely formula 1 (0.3% of carrageenan, formula 2 (0.4% of carrageenan, and formula 3 (0.5% of carrageenan. Ranking score showed the selected formula was the formula 1 (0.3% of carrageenan. Nutrient content of the selected formula showed that water, ash, protein, fat and carbohydrate level were 98.54%, 0.29%, 0.13%, 0.10%, and 0.95% (wet basis respectively. The total dietary fiber content of the selected formula was 2%, comprised of soluble 1.1% and insoluble dietary fiber 0.9%. The total phenol of the selected formula was 78.32 mg GAE/100g. Antioxidant activity of cincau jelly drink product which indicated by IC50 value was 1 045 μL, which is categorized as strong inhibitation capacity. The acceptance of the formula by consumers was 69.07% and it is categorized as moderate acceptance, with the most preference attribute was melon aroma.Keywords: cincau, dietary fiber, functional food, jelly drink, total phenolABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat formula jelly drink berbahan dasar cincau hijau (Premna oblongifolia L Merr, menganalisis organoleptik produk, kandungan gizi, serat, total fenol produk, dan aktivitas antioksidan dengan formula terpilih. Formula dibedakan menjadi tiga dengan perbedaan penambahan karagenan, yaitu formula 1 (0.3% karagenan, formula 2 (0.4% karagenan, dan formula 3 (0.5% karagenan. Nilai ranking menunjukkan bahwa formula terpilih adalah formula 1 (0.3% karagenan. Analisis proksimat menunjukkan kadar air, abu, protein, lemak dan karbohidrat secara berturut-turut yaitu 98.54%, 0.29%, 0.13%, 0.10%, dan 0.95% basis basah. Kadar serat pangan total formula terpilih

  15. [Entrapment of herbal extracts in biodegradable microcapsules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodina, T N; Rumsh, L D; Kunizhev, S M; Sukhorukov, G B; Vorozhtsov, G N; Fel'dman, B M; Rusanova, A V; Vasil'eva, T V; Strukova, S M; Markvicheva, E A

    2007-01-01

    The microcapsules with entrapped herbal water-soluble extracts Plantago major and Calendula officinalis L. (HE) were prepared by LbL-adsorption of carrageenan and modificated chitosan onto CaCO3 microparticles with their subsequent dissolving after the treatment of EDTA. Entrapment of HE was performed by adsorption and co-precipitation techniques. The co-precipitation provided better entrapment of HE compared to adsorption. In vitro release kinetics in an artificial gastric juice (AGJ) was studied. The HE release was shown to accelerate gastric ulcer treatment in a rat model.

  16. Rheo-NMR of the secondary flow of non-Newtonian fluids in square ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Christian B; Jeffrey, Kenneth R

    2011-01-28

    We report the first real-time observations of the entire fully developed laminar secondary flow field of aqueous 2% Viscarin GP-209NF (a λ-carrageenan polysaccharide) in a square duct as made using a modest rheological NMR imaging (rheo-NMR) apparatus. Simulations using the Reiner-Rivlin constitutive equation verify the results. An included rheo-NMR flow rate quantification study assesses the measurement precision. Rheo-NMR resolves slow flows superimposed on primary flows about 300 times greater, making it a universally accessible technique by which full secondary flow field data may be systematically gathered.

  17. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T. E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F

    2002-03-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use.

  18. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  19. Easy Measurement of Different Forces of Water Retention by Hydrocolloids through Water Loss at Same Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schleißinger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the water binding strength of different polysaccharides (agar-agar, alginate, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, cold swelling starch, guar gum, locust bean gum, pectin, pentosan and xanthan gum. Solutions with similar apparent viscosity were infrared dried with a moisture analyzer at 100°C. Drying times were investigated in order to examine the degree of water binding of hydrocolloids. Agar-agar and cellulose required the shortest drying time and differed significantly from the other tested substances indicating that they bind water in a less tight way.

  20. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of the flowers of Tabernaemontana coronaria (l R.BR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thambi Priya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol and aqueous extracts of Tabernaemontana coronaria flowers possessed significant in vitro superoxide, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide scavenging, and lipid peroxidation inhibiting activities. The antiinflammatory activity of the ethanol extract was evaluated by carrageenan-induced acute and formalin-induced chronic antiinflammatory models in mice. The extract showed remarkable antiinflammatory activity in both models, comparable to the standard reference drug diclofenac. The results suggest that the antiinflammatory activity of the ethanol extract of T. coronaria is possibly attributed to its free radical scavenging properties.

  1. Ferulic acid ethyl ester diminished Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced incapacitation through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Francisco Valmor Macedo; Gomes, Bruno de Sousa; Neto, Benedito de Sousa; Ferreira, Alana Rodrigues; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Carvalho e Martins, Maria do Carmo; Oliveira, Francisco de Assis

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) is a derivate from ferulic acid which reportedly has antioxidant effect; however, its role on inflammation was unknown. In this study, we investigated the orally administered FAEE anti-inflammatory activity on experimental inflammation models and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. CFA-induced arthritis has been evaluated by incapacitation model and radiographic knee joint records at different observation time. FAEE (po) reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p activities (p activity in radiographic records (p activity by inhibiting leukocyte migration, oxidative stress reduction, and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  2. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of bromelain by its encapsulation in katira gum nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernela, Manju; Ahuja, Munish; Thakur, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Bromelain-loaded katira gum nanoparticles were synthesized using 3 level optimization process and desirability approach. Nanoparticles of the optimized batch were characterized using particle size analysis, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Investigation of their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by employing carrageenan induced rat-paw oedema method showed that encapsulation of bromelain in katira gum nanoparticles substantially enhanced its anti-inflammatory potential. This may be attributed to enhanced absorption owing to reduced particle size or to protection of bromelain from acid proteases. PMID:27083339

  3. Use of radiation-induced degradation in controlling molecular weights of polysaccharides and conductivity of polyaniline blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Better understanding of chemistry of radiation-induced degradation is becoming of increasing importance on account of the utilization of polymeric materials in a variety of radiation environments as well as beneficial uses of degraded polymers. In this report degrading effects of radiation have been considered from the point of views of controlling the molecular weights of kappa- and iota-carrageenans and alginates on one hand and controlling the conductivity of polyaniline blends by doping via radiation induced HCl released from poly(vinyl chloride) on the other. (author)

  4. The use of radiation-induced degradation in: I. Controlled degradation of isoprene/isobutene rubber. II. Controlling molecular weights of polysaccharides. III. Controlling the conductivity of polyaniline blends via in-situ dehydrochlorination of pvc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Better understanding of chemistry of radiation-induced degradation is becoming of increasing importance on account of the utilization of polymeric materials in a variety of radiation environments as well as beneficial uses of degraded polymers. In this report degrading effects of radiation have been considered from the points of view of controlled degradation of isoprene/isobutene rubbers for recycling purposes and controlling the molecular weights of kappa- and iota-carrageenans and alginates and controlling the conductivity of polyaniline blends by in-situ doping via radiation-induced HCl released from poly(vinyl chloride) and iys copolymers. (author)

  5. Oligomer and mixed-metal compounds, potential multielectron transfer catalysts. Progress report, January 1, 1990--January 1, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rillema, D.P.

    1993-08-01

    Physical, photophysical, and photochemical properties of Ru(II), Re(I), Pt(II), and Cu(II) monometallic complexes and of Ru(II)-Ru(II), Ru(II)-Co(III), Ru(II)-Re(I) bimetallic complexes were investigated. In an application, Pt and Au working electrodes were modified with the hydrogel kappa-carrageenan (anionic polysaccharide from seaweed), which was cured on the electrode surface with Ru(II) trisbipyridine and methyl viologen. Max photocurrent obtained was 12 {mu}A.cm{sup 2}.

  6. Anti-inflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is the body's first response to infection or injury and is critical for both innate and adaptive immunity. It can be considered as part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. The search for natural compounds and phytoconstituents that are able to interfere with these mechanisms by preventing a prolonged inflammation could be useful for human health. Here, the anti-inflammatory properties of plant-based drugs are put together with both in vitro and acute (carrageenan, egg albumin and croton oil) and chronic (cotton pellet) in vivo models. PMID:26939273

  7. Atividade antiinflamatória de carboidrato produzido por fermentação aquosa de grãos de quefir Anti-inflammatory activity of carbohydrate produced from aqueous fermentation of kefir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. C. Moreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Kefir, a symbiont microorganism suspension, presents benefic effects to health. Some kefir grains were cultivated in brown sugar, allowing to isolate a substance named CSQ. This was evaluated on a biologic essay of mouse foot edema, presenting an inhibitory activity of 30+4 % against carrageenan after the stimulus. It was observed that a cultivation mean containing sucrose, and not the milky mean, lead to the production of different sugar polymeric chains of kefir. The results in vivo suggest that the CSQ exerted an anti-inflammatory activity.

  8. Anti-inflammation induced by counter-irritation or by treatment with non-steroidal agents inhibits the growth of a tumour of non-detected immunogenicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Sordelli, D O; Fontán, P. A.; Meiss, R. P.; Ruggiero, R. A.; Bustuoabad, O. D.

    1989-01-01

    Counter-irritation (CI) triggered by different non-specific irritant stimuli delayed the growth of a murine tumour of non-detected immunogenicity. The syngeneic LB tumour transplant by itself also induced CI and decreased the number of leukocytes migrating to a secondary s.c. irritant stimulus, e.g. sponge or carrageenan. On the other hand, partial inhibition of cell migration by treatment with either 0.5 mg kg-1 indomethacin or 0.3 mg kg-1 piroxicam retarded LB tumour growth, presumably by a...

  9. 固定化酵母を用いたワイン醸造

    OpenAIRE

    岸本, 憲明; 村上, 恭美; 藤田, 藤樹夫

    2008-01-01

    [Synopsis] Three types of wines were produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized within doublelayer calcium alginate and kappa-carrageenan gel beads and using free S. cerevisiae. The doublelayer alginate gel beads were prepared using 0.85 and 1.0% (w/v) sodium alginate and the flow ratesat 2.75 and 1.87 ml/min for inner and outer gels, respectively, under the conditions of the drop length at 1.5 cm between the nozzle and the surface of the CaC12 solution. Wine yeast was suspended in t...

  10. Dimethyl-diphenyl-propanamide derivatives as nonsteroidal dissociated glucocorticoid receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bingwei V; Weinstein, David S; Doweyko, Lidia M; Gong, Hua; Vaccaro, Wayne; Huynh, Tram; Xiao, Hai-Yun; Doweyko, Arthur M; McKay, Lorraine; Holloway, Deborah A; Somerville, John E; Habte, Sium; Cunningham, Mark; McMahon, Michele; Townsend, Robert; Shuster, David; Dodd, John H; Nadler, Steven G; Barrish, Joel C

    2010-12-01

    A series of 2,2-dimethyl-3,3-diphenyl-propanamides as novel glucocorticoid receptor modulators is reported. SAR exploration led to the identification of 4-hydroxyphenyl propanamide derivatives displaying good agonist activity in GR-mediated transrepression assays and reduced agonist activity in GR-mediated transactivation assays. Compounds 17 and 30 showed anti-inflammatory activity comparable to prednisolone in the rat carrageenan-induced paw edema model, with markedly decreased side effects with regard to increases in blood glucose and expression of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase. A hypothetical binding mode accounting for the induction of the functional activity by a 4-hydroxyl group is proposed. PMID:21073190

  11. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharide from Chlorella stigmatophora and Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, S; Gato, A; Lamela, M; Freire-Garabal, M; Calleja, J M

    2003-06-01

    Crude polysaccharide extracts were obtained from aqueous extracts of the microalgae Chlorella stigmatophora and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The crude extracts were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose columns. The molecular weights of the polysaccharides in each fraction were estimated by gel filtration on Sephacryl columns. The crude polysaccharide extracts of both microalgae showed anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. In assays of effects on the delayed hyper-sensitivity response, and on phagocytic activity assayed in vivo and in vitro, the C. stigmatophora extract showed immunosuppressant effects, while the P. tricornutum extract showed immunostimulatory effects. PMID:12820237

  12. Effect of addition of different hydrocolloids on pasting, thermal, and rheological properties of cassava starch

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Dias Leite; Joel Fernando Nicoleti; Ana Lúcia Barretto Penna; Célia Maria Landi Franco

    2012-01-01

    Starches and gums are hydrocolloids frequently used in food systems to provide proper texture, moisture, and water mobility. Starch-gum interaction in food systems can change the starch granule swelling and its gelatinization and rheological properties. In this study, the effect of the addition of xanthan gum (XG), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC), and carrageenan (CAR) at the concentrations of the 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45% (w/v) on the pasting, thermal, and rheological properties of ca...

  13. Thiazolidin-4-one, azetidin-2-one and 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives of isonicotinic acid hydrazide: synthesis and their biological evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    VIJENDER SINGH; ALKA ARORA; OZAIR ALAM; SUROOR A. KHAN; Sadaf J. Gilani

    2011-01-01

    A series of thiazolidin-4-one (2a–h; 3a–h), azetidin-2-one (4a–h) and 1,3,4-oxadiazole (5a–h) derivatives of isoninicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) were synthesized in order to obtain new compounds with potential anti-inflam­matory, analgesic, ulcerogenic and lipid peroxidation activities. The structures of the new compounds were supported by their IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectral data. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity by the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test me...

  14. EVALUTION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM LINN

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Bagri; Mohd. Ali; Vidhu Aeri; Shahnaz Sultana; Malay Bhowmik

    2010-01-01

    The aqueous-ethanolic (50%) extracts of fruit rind (PGR), flower (PGF), and leaves (PGL) of Punica granatum were examined for its oral anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at the doses of 150, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight. Oral pretreatment with the dried extracts of P. granatum produced statistically significant and dose dependent inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at all doses when compared to the control groups. The highest activity was shown in the PGR that at 500 mg/kg p.o...

  15. Involvement of serotonin and eicosanoids in the rat paw oedema response to the essential oil of Pilocarpus spicatus

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, J. C. R.; Rao, V.S.N.

    1992-01-01

    Subplantar injection of Pilocarpus spicatus essential oil (PSEO), induced rat hindpaw oedema in a dose-dependent manner. The time course study revealed that when compared to carrageenan-induced oedema, the oedema response to PSEO was greater at 1 h post-injection, and thereafter remained relatively constant until 5 h post-injection. By 24 h, it was still at almost the 50% level. This effect of PSEO was characterized using several inhibitors of oedema formation. Pretreatment with the H1-recept...

  16. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM LINN LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Nain Parminder; Saini Mamta; Malik Manisha

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic extract of dried leaves of Punica granatum linn was studied for the anti-inflammatory activity in rat using carrageenan induced paw edema with plethysmometer and analgesic activity on mice by Eddy’s hot plate & tail immersion method. A preliminary phytochemical screening of leaves extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and steroids. Among all the doses (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg, 600mg/kg, 800mg/kg) of methanolic extract 600mg/kg orally showed maximum signifi...

  17. Production and Immobilization of Partially Purified Lipase From Penicillium chrysogenum

    OpenAIRE

    Shafei, M. S.; Allam, R F

    2010-01-01

    An extracellular lipase from Penicillium chrysogenum produced maximal activity 225 U/mL after four days at pH 6.5. It was partially purified 4.1 fold by ammonium sulphate precipitation (70%). The enzyme was immobilized on various carriers viz. alginate, k-carrageenan and polyacrylamide gel. The immobilization yield of enzyme immobilized in kcarrageenan and polyacrylamide gel (63.41% and 48.93% respectively) was low in comparison to that immobilized with alginate (81.57%). Different concentra...

  18. Quality of casein based Mozzarella cheese analogue as affected by stabilizer blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, A H; Patel, H G; Suneeta, Pinto; Prajapati, J P

    2010-03-01

    Suitability of xanthan gum (XG)-locust bean gum (LBG), carrageenan (CAR)-LBG, and XG-CAR in 1:1 proportion at 0.42% in the formulation was assessed in the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese analogue. The stabilizer blends did not significantly influence the composition, texture profile, organoleptic, baking qualities and pizza-related characteristics of cheese analogues. Considering the influence of stabilizer blend on the sensory quality of analogue and sensory rating of pizza pie, XG-LBG blend (1:1) was preferred over XG-CAR and CAR-LBG. PMID:23572632

  19. Radiation processing of polysaccharides for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation of polysaccharides generates various types of degraded fragments by random scission. Polysaccharides can be easily degraded both in powder foam and solution. The radiation degraded polysaccharides induce various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of environmental stress, phytoalexins induction and can be applied not only in agriculture but also in medical fields. In this paper, the biological activities induced by radiation of chitosan, alginate, carrageenan, cellulose and pectin are reviewed for the agricultural use. (author)

  20. Influence of gelling additives in the green properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bodies obtained by aqueous gel casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, A.J. [IUT, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. Materiales; Baudin, C.; Moreno, R.; Nieto, M.I. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Ist. de Ceramica y Vidrio

    2002-07-01

    The use of gelling additives, as polysaccharides, in colloidal processing provides adequate mechanical properties to the green bodies to be handled. In this work, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gel casting is studied by using agar, agarose and carrageenan as gelling additives. The rheological behaviour of the gel casting slurries on cooling is studied. The green characteristics of the gel cast bodies prepared at different conditions are characterised in terms of density, microstructure and mechanical behaviour (bend strength, elastic modulus) at room temperature. A correlation between the obtained results is established and the best compositions and processing conditions are discussed. (orig.)

  1. 胶麒麟菜多糖的碱改性提取法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡祖林

    1984-01-01

    胶麒麟菜(Eucheuma gelatinae)是一种珍贵的热带、亚热带海产红藻,主要分布在我国台湾和海南岛的东部沿海珊瑚礁盘上,资源蕴藏量较为丰富,仅海南的琼海、文昌二县,正常年产可达350吨(干品)。该藻体含有丰富的多糖,是制取卡拉胶(Carrageenan)的优良原料。

  2. On the suppression of superconducting phase formation in YBCO materials by templated synthesis in the presence of a sulfated biopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Elliott; Schnepp, Zoe [Centre for Organized Matter Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock' s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Wimbush, Stuart C. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Hall, Simon R. [Centre for Organized Matter Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock' s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: simon.hall@bristol.ac.uk

    2008-11-15

    The use of biopolymers as templates to control superconductor crystallization is a recent phenomenon and is generating a lot of interest both from the superconductor community and in materials chemistry circles. This work represents a critical finding in the use of such biopolymers, in particular the contraindicatory nature of sulfur when attempting to affect a morphologically controlled synthesis. Synthesis of superconducting nanoparticles was attempted using carrageenan as a morphological template. Reactive sulfate groups on the biopolymer prevent this, producing instead significant quantities of barium sulfate nanotapes. By substituting the biopolymer for structurally analogous, non-sulfated agar, we show that superconducting nanoparticles could be successfully synthesized.

  3. Synthesis and biological evaluation of β -aroylpropionic acid based 1,3,4-oxadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husain A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, two new series, 1-(4-benzylphenyl-3-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-1-propanone and 1-(4-ethylphenyl-3-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl-1-propanone from β-(4-benzylbenzoylpropionic acid and β-(4-ethylbenzoylpropionic acid, respectively, were synthesized and tested for antiinflammatory, analgesic, lipid peroxidation, ulcerogenic and antibacterial actions. A fair number of compounds were found to have good antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test, while a few compounds showed significant antibacterial activity. The newly synthesized compounds showed very low ulcerogenic action.

  4. ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL METHYLPHENYL SEMICARBAZONE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Hemendra Pratap

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a series of methylphenylsemicarbazones was synthesized and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities by cotton pellet induced granuloma, formalin induced paw edema and carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. Most of the compounds were found to be more or comparable potent than the reference standard drug in all the three animal models. Based on the results of anti-inflammatory study it was found that chloro substitution in the aldehydic moiety and amino substitution in acetophenic moiety of chalcone (compound 28 exhibited better activity. Lengthening of carbon chain also favor anti-inflammatory activity.

  5. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of 2-substituted-((N, N-disubstituted)-1, 3-benzoxazole)-5-carboxamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena, M; Kiran, G; Rajyalakshmi, G; Venkateshwa, Rao J; Sarangapani, M

    2010-06-01

    A series of 2-substituted-((N, N-disubstituted)-1, 3-benzoxazole)-5-carboxamides derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of 2-substituted-5-carbomethoxy benzoxazole with different secondary amines. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of spectral (FT-IR, 1H NMR, MS) & elemental analysis. All these compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. All of these compounds exhibited significant activity. Among the tested compounds Ve, Vg, Vf and Va were considered to have potent anti-inflammatory activity and was comparable with standard.

  6. Preliminary pharmacological activity of the methanolic extract of Premna integrifolia barks in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajera Khatun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Premna integrifolia Linn (Family: Verbenaceae synonym of Premna serratifolia has tremendous medicinal value. Preliminary pharmacological studies were performed on the methanolic extract of Premna integrifolia (MEPI bark to investigate neuropharmacological, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Materials and methods: Neuropharmacology study was done by open field and hole cross test whereas acetic acid writhing test and formalin induced pain was done for analgesic activity of MEPI. Carrageenan induced inflammatory model was considered for anti-inflammatory activity evaluation.   Results: A statistically significant (p

  7. Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Itharat, Arunporn; Lerdvuthisopon, Nusiri; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Khonsung, Parirat; Boonraeng, Supot; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn. are herbaceous plants in the Piperaceae family. The ethanol extract of P. interruptum and P. chaba inhibited ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Both extracts reduced transudative and granuloma weights as well as body weight gain and thymus weight of the chronic inflammatory model using cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. Moreover, both extracts exhibited analgesic activity on both early phase and late phase of formalin test in mice and also showed antipyretic activity on yeast-induced hyperthermia in rats. PMID:22530143

  8. Retarding strawberry fruit senesce with edible coatings : case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Clara; Vicente, A.A.; Teixeira, J.A.; Miranda, Cândida

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the ability of starch, carrageenan and chitosan based coatings to extend the shelf life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa). To do so, the surface properties of fresh strawberry and the wettability of the coatings were studied. The superficial tension of the strawberry was 28.94 mN/m, and its polar and dispersive component was 22.99 mN/m and 5.95 mN/m, respectively. The critical superficial tension of the strawberry was 18.84 mN/m, ...

  9. New anti-inflammatory triterpene from the root of Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pooja; Jyotshna; Gupta, Namita; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Shanker, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    Liquid-liquid partitioning of Ricinus communis root methanol extract resulted in enrichment of compounds. Purification of the n-hexane fraction led to the isolation and characterisation of two triterpenes: one known compound lupeol (1) and a new diketone pentacyclic triterpene named as erandone (urs-6-ene-3,16-dione) (2), from the plant. Their structures were determined by various spectroscopic techniques. Crude methanolic, enriched n-hexane fraction and isolates at doses 100 mg/kg p.o. exhibited significant (P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema model.

  10. A review of the application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in food science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoyang; Wang, Yifen

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful nanoscale analysis technique used in food area. This versatile technique can be used to acquire high-resolution sample images and investigate local interactions in air or liquid surroundings. In this chapter, we explain the principles of AFM and review representative applications of AFM in gelatin, casein micelle, carrageenan, gellan gum, starch, and interface. We elucidate new knowledge revealed with AFM as well as ways to use AFM to obtain morphology and rheology information in different food fields.

  11. Antinociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extract from Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Açaí) in a rodent model of acute and neuropathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Sudo, Roberto T; Neto, Miguel L.; Monteiro, Carlos E.S.; Amaral, Rachel V.; Resende, Ângela C.; Souza, Pergentino J. C.; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; de Moura, Roberto S

    2015-01-01

    Background Plants rich in flavonoids, such as açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.), can induce antinociception in experimental animals. Here, we tested an extract obtained from the stones of açaí fruits (açaí stone extract, ASE), a native plant from the Amazon region of Brazil, in models of acute/inflammatory and chronic pain. Methods Antinociceptive effects of ASE were evaluated in the hot plate, formalin, acetic acid writhing, carrageenan, and neuropathic pain models, as well as in thermal hypera...

  12. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Cananga odorata Lam in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maniyar, Yasmeen A; C. H. Janaki Devi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluates the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Cananga odorata Lam (EECO) in experimental animals. Methods: Acute toxicity test was done following OECD guidelines. Carrageenan induced paw edema method in Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Aspirin in the dose of 300 mg/kg was used as the standard drug and three doses of EECO (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w. p.o) were used as the test drug. The results were measured at 1st hr, ...

  13. Seaweed hydrocolloid production: an update on enzyme assisted extraction and modification technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S

    2015-06-01

    Agar, alginate, and carrageenans are high-value seaweed hydrocolloids, which are used as gelation and thickening agents in different food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. The annual global production of these hydrocolloids has recently reached 100,000 tons with a gross market value just above US$ 1.1 billion. The techno-functional properties of the seaweed polysaccharides depend strictly on their unique structural make-up, notably degree and position of sulfation and presence of anhydro-bridges. Classical extraction techniques include hot alkali treatments, but recent research has shown promising results with enzymes. Current methods mainly involve use of commercially available enzyme mixtures developed for terrestrial plant material processing. Application of seaweed polysaccharide targeted enzymes allows for selective extraction at mild conditions as well as tailor-made modifications of the hydrocolloids to obtain specific functionalities. This review provides an update of the detailed structural features of κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans, agars, and alginate, and a thorough discussion of enzyme assisted extraction and processing techniques for these hydrocolloids.

  14. Layer-by-Layer films based on biopolymers extracted from red seaweeds and polyaniline for applications in electrochemical sensors of chromium VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LbL films based on PANI and polysaccharides of seaweeds were produced and applied sensors of Cr (VI). - Abstract: This paper proposes a new application for natural polysaccharides (agar and carrageenan), both extracted from the cell wall of red seaweeds. Thin films were prepared by the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) self-assembly technique onto ITO (tin-doped indium oxide), where the polysaccharides of interest were deposited in layers alternating with polyaniline (PANI). The films developed were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed the presence of agar as well as carrageenan, which improves the electrochemical stability of the conducting polymer in an acid medium. The interactions at the molecular level between PANI and the biopolymers affected the most appropriate sequence of deposition as employed in the process of material immobilization and also influenced the resulting morphology. Among the films studied, the most promising system as regards electrochemical measurements was the ITO/agar/PANI system, which was subsequently employed in the electrochemical detection of chromium (VI)

  15. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Tamarindus indica Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama A Suralkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seeds on anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in vivo using rat as an animal model at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight. The anti-inflammatory activities were investigated by utilizing carrageenan induced paw edema in rat. The analgesic activity was examined against tail immersion method in rats. The results showed that TI significantly (p<0.01 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. In tail immersion method, methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica has shown significant (p<0.01 increase in reaction time of tail in water maintained at 55°C indicating analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and flavonoids. These results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seed exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  16. Alginate-based hybrid aerogel microparticles for mucosal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, V S S; Gurikov, P; Poejo, J; Matias, A A; Heinrich, S; Duarte, C M M; Smirnova, I

    2016-10-01

    The application of biopolymer aerogels as drug delivery systems (DDS) has gained increased interest during the last decade since these structures have large surface area and accessible pores allowing for high drug loadings. Being biocompatible, biodegradable and presenting low toxicity, polysaccharide-based aerogels are an attractive carrier to be applied in pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, some polysaccharides (e.g. alginate and chitosan) present mucoadhesive properties, an important feature for mucosal drug delivery. This feature allows to extend the contact of DDS with biological membranes, thereby increasing the absorption of drugs through the mucosa. Alginate-based hybrid aerogels in the form of microparticles (aerogel microparticles were obtained for alginate, hybrid alginate/pectin and alginate/κ-carrageenan aerogels, presenting high specific surface area (370-548m(2)g(-1)) and mucoadhesive properties. The microparticles were loaded with ketoprofen via adsorption from its solution in sc-CO2, and with quercetin via supercritical anti-solvent precipitation. Loading of ketoprofen was in the range between 17 and 22wt% whereas quercetin demonstrated loadings of 3.1-5.4wt%. Both the drugs were present in amorphous state. Loading procedure allowed the preservation of antioxidant activity of quercetin. Release of both drugs from alginate/κ-carrageenan aerogel was slightly faster compared to alginate/pectin. The results indicate that alginate-based aerogel microparticles can be viewed as promising matrices for mucosal drug delivery applications.

  17. Release mechanisms behind polysaccharides-based famotidine controlled release matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmowafy, Enas M; Awad, Gehanne A S; Mansour, Samar; El-Shamy, Abd El-Hamid A

    2008-01-01

    Polysaccharides, which have been explored to possess gelling properties and a wide margin of safety, were used to formulate single-unit floating matrix tablets by a direct compression technique. This work has the aim to allow continuous slow release of famotidine above its site of absorption. The floating approach was achieved by the use of the low density polypropylene foam powder. Polysaccharides (kappa-carrageenan, gellan gum, xyloglucan, and pectin) and blends of polysaccharides (kappa-carrageenan and gellan gum) and cellulose ethers (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) were tried to modulate the release characteristics. The prepared floating tablets were evaluated for their floating behavior, matrix integrity, swelling studies, in vitro drug release studies, and kinetic analysis of the release data. The differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that changing the polymer matrix system by formulation of polymers blends resulted in formation of molecular interactions which may have implications on drug release characteristics. This was obvious from the retardation in drug release and change in its mechanistics.

  18. Esculin exhibited anti-inflammatory activities in vivo and regulated TNF-α and IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro through MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yu; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Hailin; Wang, Xiumei; Mu, Qingli; He, Zehong; Yao, Huan

    2015-12-01

    Esculin, a coumarinic derivative found in Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Horse-chestnut), has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. The present study is designed to investigate the protective effects of esculin on various inflammation models in vivo and in vitro and to clarify the possible mechanism. Induced-animal models of inflammation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged mouse peritoneal macrophages were used to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of esculin. In present study, xylene-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, and carrageenan-induced mouse pleurisy were attenuated by esculin. In vitro, the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in supernatant were reduced by esculin. Meanwhile, we found that esculin significantly inhibited LPS-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that esculin has potent anti-inflammatory activities in vivo and in vitro, which may involve the inhibition of the MAPK pathway. Esculin may be a promising preventive agent for inflammatory diseases in human. PMID:26391063

  19. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gulecha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FRII, FRIII, FRIV and FRV of F. religiosa at the dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o were tested. Results : The fraction FRI (40 mg/kg, p.o. and FRIII (40 mg/kg, p.o were found to be more effective (P<0.01 in preventing carrageenan induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma formation, and acetic acid induced writhing compared to the other fractions. FRI (20 mg/kg, p.o. and FRIII (20 mg/kg, p.o. were also found to be more effective in increasing latency period in tail flick method. Conclusion : Out of five different fractions of F. religiosa leaves tested, FRI and FRIII possess potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities against different models of inflammation and pain.

  20. Detection and characterisation of frauds in bovine meat in natura by non-meat ingredient additions using data fusion of chemical parameters and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Karen M; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius O; Santos Filho, Antônio M P; Lasmar, Marcelo C; Sena, Marcelo M

    2016-08-15

    Concerns about meat authenticity are increasing recently, due to great fraud scandals. This paper analysed real samples (43 adulterated and 12 controls) originated from criminal networks dismantled by the Brazilian Police. This fraud consisted of injecting solutions of non-meat ingredients (NaCl, phosphates, carrageenan, maltodextrin) in bovine meat, aiming to increase its water holding capacity. Five physico-chemical variables were determined, protein, ash, chloride, sodium, phosphate. Additionally, infrared spectra were recorded. Supervised classification PLS-DA models were built with each data set individually, but the best model was obtained with data fusion, correctly detecting 91% of the adulterated samples. From this model, a variable selection based on the highest VIPscores was performed and a new data fusion model was built with only one chemical variable, providing slightly lower predictions, but a good cost/performance ratio. Finally, some of the selected infrared bands were specifically associated to the presence of adulterants NaCl, tripolyphosphate and carrageenan. PMID:27006208