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Sample records for carrageenan causing colitis

  1. Degraded carrageenan causing colitis in rats induces TNF secretion and ICAM-1 upregulation in monocytes through NF-kappaB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Benard

    Full Text Available Carrageenan (CGN is a high molecular weight sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweeds. In rodents, its degraded forms (dCGN can induce intestinal inflammation associated with macrophage recruitment and activation. The aim of this study was: 1 to analyze the size-dependent effects of dCGN on colon inflammation in vivo, and 2 to correlate these effects with monocyte/macrophage proliferation, cytokine production and expression of various cell surface antigens including ICAM-1 adhesion molecule. Peripheral blood monocytes (PBM and THP-1 monocytic cells were cultured in the presence of either 10 or 40 kDa, dCGN. The 40 kDa, but not the 10 kDa dCGN, induced colitis in in vivo. Degraded CGN inhibited THP-1 cell proliferation in vitro, arresting the cells in G1 phase. In addition, dCGN increased ICAM-1 expression in both PBM and THP-1 cells with a major effect seen after 40 kDa dCGN exposure. Also, dCGN stimulated monocyte aggregation in vitro that was prevented by incubation with anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Finally, dCGN stimulated TNF-alpha expression and secretion by both PBM and THP-1 cells. All these effects were linked to NF-kappaB activation. These data strongly suggest that the degraded forms of CGN have a pronounced effect on monocytes, characteristic of an inflammatory phenotype.

  2. The effect of ileotransversostomy on carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1983-01-01

    By oral administration of degraded carrageenan a colitis-like disease can be induced in guinea pigs which almost exclusively affects the caecum. To study the effect of degraded carrageenan on the distal colon and rectum, an ileotransversostomy was performed. In the non-operated group of animals...... ulcerative lesions and changes in the mucosal surface structure were observed only in the caecum and proximal colon after administration of degraded carrageenan. Animals with ileotransversostomy had similar lesions, but the distal colon and rectum were also severely affected, with formation of crypt...

  3. The prophylactic effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid and salazosulphapyridine on degraded-carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    placebo group, all guinea pigs developed many small punctiform ulcerations in the cecum (median, 30/cm2). In the 5-ASA group no protective effect was demonstrated, since the number of ulcerations was 37/cm2. The difference is not statistically significant. However, the SASP group presented significantly......Experimental colitis was induced in guinea pigs by administration of 5% degraded carrageenan for 5 days. The prophylactic effect of a slow-release preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA; 13 mg/100 g/day) was compared with approximately equimolar amounts of salazosulphapyridine (SASP; 26 mg/100...... fewer ulcerations (4/cm2). The concentrations of 5-ASA and/or its acetylated metabolite were several times higher in the cecum content and twice as high in plasma in the SASP group, indicating a difference in the absorption patterns of 5-ASA and the two drugs. These results and the etiological...

  4. Pseudomembranous Colitis: Not Always Caused by Clostridium difficile

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    Derek M. Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although classically pseudomembranous colitis is caused by Clostridium difficile, it can result from several etiologies. Certain medications, chemical injury, collagenous colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia, and other infectious pathogens can reportedly cause mucosal injury and subsequent pseudomembrane formation. We present the case of a middle-aged woman with vascular disease who was incorrectly diagnosed with refractory C. difficile infection due to the presence of pseudomembranes. Further imaging, endoscopy, and careful histopathology review revealed chronic ischemia as the cause of her pseudomembranous colitis and diarrhea. This case highlights the need for gastroenterologists to consider non-C. difficile etiologies when diagnosing pseudomembranous colitis.

  5. Enterotoxicity of a nonribosomal peptide causes antibiotic-associated colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneditz, Georg; Rentner, Jana; Roier, Sandro; Pletz, Jakob; Herzog, Kathrin A T; Bücker, Roland; Troeger, Hanno; Schild, Stefan; Weber, Hansjörg; Breinbauer, Rolf; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Högenauer, Christoph; Zechner, Ellen L

    2014-09-01

    Antibiotic therapy disrupts the human intestinal microbiota. In some patients rapid overgrowth of the enteric bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca results in antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis (AAHC). We isolated and identified a toxin produced by K. oxytoca as the pyrrolobenzodiazepine tilivalline and demonstrated its causative action in the pathogenesis of colitis in an animal model. Tilivalline induced apoptosis in cultured human cells in vitro and disrupted epithelial barrier function, consistent with the mucosal damage associated with colitis observed in human AAHC and the corresponding animal model. Our findings reveal the presence of pyrrolobenzodiazepines in the intestinal microbiota and provide a mechanism for colitis caused by a resident pathobiont. The data link pyrrolobenzodiazepines to human disease and identify tilivalline as a target for diagnosis and neutralizing strategies in prevention and treatment of colitis. PMID:25157164

  6. Overall and cause-specific mortality in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Tine; Gamborg, Michael; Munkholm, Pia;

    2007-01-01

    studies on overall and cause-specific mortality in patients with UC. METHODS: The MEDLINE search engine and abstracts from international conferences were searched for relevant literature by use of explicit search criteria. STATA meta-analysis software was used to calculate pooled risk estimates (SMR......OBJECTIVES: It remains debated whether patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at greater risk of dying and whether a possible alteration in mortality can be attributed to specific causes of death. We aimed to clarify this issue by conducting a meta-analysis of population-based inception cohort...... estimate was 1.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-1.2, P= 0.42). However, greater risk of dying was observed during the first years of follow-up, in patients with extensive colitis, and in patients from Scandinavia. Metaregression analysis showed an increase in SMR by increasing cohort size. UC...

  7. Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MT, Lichtenstein GR. Ulcerative colitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and ... of the colon and rectum. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and ...

  8. Collagenous colitis as a possible cause of toxic megacolon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, S C

    2009-03-01

    Collagenous colitis is a microscopic colitis characterized by normal appearing colonic mucosa on endoscopy. It is regarded as a clinically benign disease which rarely results in serious complications. We report a case of toxic megacolon occurring in a patient with collagenous colitis. This is the first reported case of toxic megacolon occurring in this subset of patients.

  9. Limb Loss Caused by Thrombosis led to the Diagnosis of Ulcerative Colitis

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    Seyed Mohammad Vahid Hosseini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Arterial thrombosis associated with ulcerative colitis usuallyoccurs in the postoperative period with a good response to anticoagulanttherapy and embolectomy. Our patient was a 14-yearoldgirl with ulcerative colitis who presented with bilateral pulslessextremities, which did not respond to medical treatmentand embolectomy. Subsequent colectomy did not save herlimbs. The repeated thrombosis caused gangrene of extremitiesin the below knee region leading to bilateral amputation.Thrombosis can be the first presentation of ulcerative colitis.

  10. Cytomegalovirus-associated colitis causing diarrhea in an immunocompetent patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Carter; David Olchovsky; Russell Pokroy; David Ezra

    2006-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients. We report a case of disabling and life threatening diarrhea in an immunocompetent elderly woman due to CMV colitis. The diagnosis of CMV was based on histological examination of tissues biopsied at colonoscopy, positive CMV antigen and high CMV-IgM titer in peripheral blood samples and a good response to systemic gancyclovir treatment.We conclude that CMV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of colitis in elderly immunocompetent patients.

  11. Concurrent amoebic and histoplasma colitis:A rare cause of massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Soon; Koh; April; Camilla; Roslani; Kumar; Vasudeavan; Vimal; Mohd; Shariman; Ramasamy; Umasangar; Rajkumar; Lewellyn

    2010-01-01

    Infective colitis can be a cause of massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding requiring acute surgical intervention. Causative organisms include entamoeba and histoplasma species. However, concurrent colonic infection with both these organisms is very rare, and the in vivo consequences are not known. A 58-year-old male presented initially to the physicians with pyrexia of unknown origin and bloody diarrhea. Amoebic colitis was diagnosed based on biopsies, and he was treated with metronidazole. Five days later...

  12. Pseudomembranous colitis: an unusual cause of neutrocytic ascites.

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    Spahr, L; de Saussure, P; Felley, C; Pugin, J; Hadengue, A

    1999-07-01

    Severe cases of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) may be associated with intraperitoneal fluid accumulation. However, the characteristics of the liquid are seldom described. Specifically, neutrocytic ascites has only been reported once. We report a case of a severe PMC complicated by a highly neutrocytic ascites which remained culture-negative. We discuss the possible mechanisms leading to ascites formation in this condition and review ascitic fluid characteristics in patients with PMC. PMID:10445802

  13. Microscopic colitis as a missed cause of chronic diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nooroudien Mohamed; Monique Marais; Juanita Bezuidenhout

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of increased in-traepithelial lymphocytes, using immunohistochemistry in patients with normal colonoscopy and near normal biopsy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all non-malig-nant colon mucosal biopsies between 2005 and 2007, reported as normal, chronic inflammation or melanosis coli in patients who were undergoing routine colonos-copy. Immunohistochemistry using CD3 was performed on all mucosal biopsies and an intraepithelial lympho-cyte count (IEL) was determined. Cases with an IEL count of ≥ 20 IELs per 100 surface epithelial cells were correlated with demographic, clinical and follow-up data. A further subgroup was evaluated for lymphocytic colitis.RESULTS: Twenty (8.3%) of 241 cases revealed an IEL count ≥ 20. Six (2.5%) patients were identified as having lymphocytic colitis (P < 0.001), of whom, five were missed on initial evaluation (P = 0.01). Four of these five patients were labeled with diarrhea-predom-inant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). On follow-up, three of the remaining 20 cases were diagnosed with malignancy (renal cell carcinoma and myelodysplastic syndrome) and one had an unknown primary tumor with multiple liver metastases. Two cases of collag-enous colitis with an IEL count < 10 were included in this study. Increased IELs were not confined to pa-tients with diarrhea as a primary presenting symptom, but were also present in patients with abdominal pain (n = 7), constipation (n = 3) and loss of weight (n = 1). CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemistry using CD3 is of value in identifying and quantifying IELs for the pres-ence of microscopic colitis in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS.

  14. Repeated Predictable Stress Causes Resilience against Colitis-Induced Behavioral Changes in Mice

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    Ahmed M Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of mental disorders and can be exacerbated by stress. In this study which was performed with male 10-week old C57Bl/6N mice, we used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis to evaluate behavioral changes caused by intestinal inflammation, to assess the interaction between repeated psychological stress (water avoidance stress, WAS and colitis in modifying behavior, and to analyze neurochemical correlates of this interaction. A 7-day treatment with DSS (2 % in drinking water decreased locomotion and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and reduced social interaction. Repeated exposure to WAS for 7 days had little influence on behavior but prevented the DSS-induced behavioral disturbances in the open field and social interaction tests. In contrast, repeated WAS did not modify colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase content and circulating proinflammatory cytokines, parameters used to assess colitis severity. DSS-induced colitis was associated with an increase in circulating neuropeptide Y (NPY, a rise in the hypothalamic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and a decrease in the hippocampal expression of NPY mRNA, brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA. Repeated WAS significantly decreased the relative expression of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in the hippocampus. The effect of repeated WAS to blunt the DSS-evoked behavioral disturbances was associated with a rise of circulating corticosterone and an increase in the expression of hypothalamic NPY mRNA. These results show that experimental colitis leads to a particular range of behavioral alterations which can be prevented by repeated WAS, a model of predictable chronic stress, while the severity of colitis remains unabated. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying the resilience effect of repeated WAS involves hypothalamic NPY and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  15. Risk for colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: Changes, causes and management strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Laszlo Lakatos; Laszlo Lakatos

    2008-01-01

    The risk of colorectal cancer for any patient with ulcerative colitis is known to be elevated, and is estimated to be 2% after 10 years, 8% after 20 years and 18% after 30 years of disease. Risk factors for cancer include extent and duration of ulcerative colitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, a family history of sporadic colorectal cancer, severity of histologic bowel inflammation, and in some studies, young age at onset of colitis. In this review, the authors discuss recent epidemiological trends and causes for the observed changes. Population-based studies published within the past 5 years suggest that this risk has decreased over time, despite the low frequency of colectomies. The crude annual incidence rate of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis ranges from approximately 0.06% to 0.16% with a relative risk of 1.0-2.75. The exact mechanism for this change is unknown; it may partly be explained by the more widespread use of maintenance therapy and surveillance colonoscopy.

  16. Guanylate cyclase C deficiency causes severe inflammation in a murine model of spontaneous colitis.

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    Eleana Harmel-Laws

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guanylate Cyclase C (GC-C; Gucy2c is a transmembrane receptor expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. Activation of GC-C by its secreted ligand guanylin stimulates intestinal fluid secretion. Familial mutations in GC-C cause chronic diarrheal disease or constipation and are associated with intestinal inflammation and infection. Here, we investigated the impact of GC-C activity on mucosal immune responses. METHODS: We utilized intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide to elicit a systemic cytokine challenge and then measured pro-inflammatory gene expression in colonic mucosa. GC-C(+/+ and GC-C(-/- mice were bred with interleukin (IL-10 deficient animals and colonic inflammation were assessed. Immune cell influx and cytokine/chemokine expression was measured in the colon of wildtype, IL-10(-/-, GC-C(+/+IL-10(-/- and GC-C(-/-IL-10(-/- mice. GC-C and guanylin production were examined in the colon of these animals and in a cytokine-treated colon epithelial cell line. RESULTS: Relative to GC-C(+/+ animals, intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide injection into GC-C(-/- mice increased proinflammatory gene expression in both whole colon tissue and in partially purified colonocyte isolations. Spontaneous colitis in GC-C(-/-IL-10(-/- animals was significantly more severe relative to GC-C(+/+IL-10(-/- mice. Unlike GC-C(+/+IL-10(-/- controls, colon pathology in GC-C(-/-IL-10(-/- animals was apparent at an early age and was characterized by severely altered mucosal architecture, crypt abscesses, and hyperplastic subepithelial lesions. F4/80 and myeloperoxidase positive cells as well as proinflammatory gene expression were elevated in GC-C(-/-IL-10(-/- mucosa relative to control animals. Guanylin was diminished early in colitis in vivo and tumor necrosis factor α suppressed guanylin mRNA and protein in intestinal goblet cell-like HT29-18-N2 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The GC-C signaling pathway blunts colonic mucosal inflammation that is initiated by

  17. [Microscopic colitis: update 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgmann, Konstantin; Fraga, Montserrat; Schoepfer, Alain M; Yun, Pu

    2014-09-01

    Microscopic colitis, which includes lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis, represents a frequent cause of chronic watery diarrhea especially in the elderly population. Several medications, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors or antidepressants, as well as cigarette smoking have been recognized as risk factors for microscopic colitis. The diagnosis of microscopic colitis is based on a macroscopically normal ileo-colonoscopy and several biopsies from the entire colon, which demonstrate the pathognomonic histopathologic findings. Therapy is mainly based on the use of budesonide. Other medications, such as mesalazine, cholestyramine and bismuth, have been evaluated as well but the evidence is less solid. PMID:25276996

  18. Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: Emotional Factors

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    ... Ulcerative Colitis: Emotional Factors Q & A Go Back Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: Emotional Factors Q & A Email ... WHAT IS THE CAUSE OF ULCERATIVE COLITIS AND CROHN’S DISEASE? The origin of IBD is still unknown. It ...

  19. MMP-19 deficiency causes aggravation of colitis due to defects in innate immune cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, R; Tureckova, J; Kanchev, I; Khoylou, M; Skarda, J; Prochazka, J; Spoutil, F; Beck, I M; Zbodakova, O; Kasparek, P; Korinek, V; Chalupsky, K; Karhu, T; Herzig, K-H; Hajduch, M; Gregor, M; Sedlacek, R

    2016-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are potential biomarkers for disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, clinical trials targeting MMPs have not succeeded, likely due to poor understanding of the biological functions of individual MMPs. Here, we explore the role of MMP-19 in IBD pathology. Using a DSS-induced model of colitis, we show evidence for increased susceptibility of Mmp-19-deficient (Mmp-19(-/-)) mice to colitis. Absence of MMP-19 leads to significant disease progression, with reduced survival rates, severe tissue destruction, and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory modulators in the colon and plasma, and failure to resolve inflammation. There was a striking delay in neutrophil infiltration into the colon of Mmp-19(-/-) mice during the acute colitis, leading to persistent inflammation and poor recovery; this was rescued by reconstitution of irradiated Mmp-19(-/-) mice with wild-type bone marrow. Additionally, Mmp-19-deficient macrophages exhibited decreased migration in vivo and in vitro and the mucosal barrier appeared compromised. Finally, chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) was identified as a novel substrate of MMP-19, suggesting a link between insufficient processing of CX3CL1 and cell recruitment in the Mmp-19(-/-) mice. MMP-19 proves to be a critical factor in balanced host response to colonic pathogens, and for orchestrating appropriate innate immune response in colitis. PMID:26555704

  20. SHORT-TERM PERORAL TOXICITY OF UNDEGRADED CARRAGEENAN IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, E.

    1973-01-01

    Undegraded carrageenan was administered orally to pigs at levels of 0 (control), 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight/day for 12 wk. No effects attributable to carrageenan treatment were seen with respect to behaviour, body-weight gain, feed utilization, haematology, blood chemistry, urine analysis or...... organ weights. The treatment resulted, however, in changes in the intestinal flora: the total counts of aerobic bacteria were decreased in the colon and rectum and the number of Lactobacilli was reduced in the rectum. No ulcerative colitis or erosions of the mucous membrane of caecum and colon were...

  1. Collagenous Colitis and Spondylarthropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kaouther Ben Abdelghani; Hana Sahli; Leila Souabni; Selma Chekili; Salwa Belhadj; Selma Kassab; Ahmed Laatar; Leith Zakraoui

    2012-01-01

    Collagenous colitis is a recent cause of chronic diarrhea. Cooccurrence with spondylarthropathy is rare. We describe two cases: one man and one woman of 33 and 20 years old were suffering from spondylarthropathy. They then developed collagenous colitis, 4 and 14 years after the onset of spondylarthropathy. The diagnosis was based on histological features. A sicca syndrome and vitiligo were observed with the female case. The presence of colitis leads to therapeutic problems. This association s...

  2. Clarithromycin-induced haemorrhagic colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Miyauchi, Ryosuke; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    Haemorrhagic colitis by Klebsiella oxytoca has been described as an antibiotic-associated colitis, particularly with the use of ampicillin. Here we report a patient with haemorrhagic colitis caused by K oxytoca after the use of clarithromycin. A 67-year-old Japanese woman with diabetes presented with mucobloody diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Stool culture grew K oxytoca. Colonoscopy showed the appearance of haemorrhagic colitis. Further history taking revealed that she had received a course of...

  3. Clarithromycin-induced haemorrhagic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Ryosuke; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    Haemorrhagic colitis by Klebsiella oxytoca has been described as an antibiotic-associated colitis, particularly with the use of ampicillin. Here we report a patient with haemorrhagic colitis caused by K oxytoca after the use of clarithromycin. A 67-year-old Japanese woman with diabetes presented with mucobloody diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Stool culture grew K oxytoca. Colonoscopy showed the appearance of haemorrhagic colitis. Further history taking revealed that she had received a course of oral clarithromycin for upper respiratory tract infection. She had recovered by conservative treatment. We should be careful about gastrointestinal symptoms in patients on clarithromycin, which can cause haemorrhagic colitis associated with K oxytoca. PMID:23964038

  4. Ischaemic colitis and lung infiltrates caused by extramedullary haematopoiesis in a patient with an acute erythroid leukaemia following polycythaemia vera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brada, SJL; de Wolf, JTM; Poppema, S; Vellenga, E

    1998-01-01

    A patient with 'spent' polycythaemia vera showed extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in non-haematopoietic tissue clinically resulting in an ischaemic colitis and respiratory symptoms due to lung infiltrates. On laboratory investigation, the EMH also included immature erythroblasts due to

  5. Eosinophilic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnenna Okpara; Bassam Aswad; Gyorgy Baffy

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease with a bimodal peak of prevalence in neonates and young adults. EC remains a little understood condition in contrast to the increasingly recognized eosinophilic esophagitis. Clinical presentation of EC is highly variable according to mucosal, transmural, or serosal predominance of inflammation. EC has a broad differential diagnosis because colon tissue eosinophilia often occurs in parasitic infection, drug-induced allergic reactions,inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders, which require thorough searching for secondary causes that may be specifically treated with antibiotics or dietary and drug elimination.Like eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease involving other segments of the gastrointestinal tract, EC responds very well to steroids that may be spared by using antihistamines, leukotriene inhibitors and biologics.

  6. Microscopic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münch, A; Aust, D; Bohr, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is an inflammatory bowel disease presenting with chronic, non-bloody watery diarrhoea and few or no endoscopic abnormalities. The histological examination reveals mainly two subtypes of MC, lymphocytic or collagenous colitis. Despite the fact that the incidence in MC has ...

  7. Iota-Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of rhinovirus infection

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    Meier Christiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs are the predominant cause of common cold. In addition, HRVs are implicated in the worsening of COPD and asthma, as well as the loss of lung transplants. Despite significant efforts, no anti-viral agent is approved for the prevention or treatment of HRV-infection. Results In this study we demonstrate that Iota-Carrageenan, a sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweed, is a potent anti-rhinoviral substance in-vitro. Iota-Carrageenan reduces HRV growth and inhibits the virus induced cythopathic effect of infected HeLa cells. In addition, Iota-Carrageenan effectively prevents the replication of HRV1A, HRV2, HRV8, HRV14, HRV16, HRV83 and HRV84 in primary human nasal epithelial cells in culture. The data suggest that Iota-Carrageenan acts primarily by preventing the binding or the entry of virions into the cells. Conclusion Since HRV infections predominately occur in the nasal cavity and the upper respiratory tract, a targeted treatment with a product containing Iota-Carrageenan is conceivable. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether Iota-Carrageenan-based products are effective in the treatment or prophylaxis of HRV infections.

  8. THE PROPERTIES OF CARRAGEENAN GELS

    OpenAIRE

    Grubnik I.M., Gladukh Ye.V., Chernyaev S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies on the functional properties of carrageenan, depending on the concentration of sodium chloride and xanthan in gels. It is established that the main factors in the syneresis of carrageenan gels are its concentration, the presence of ions and gums in solution. If using sodium chloride there is a change in the structure of mesh of the resulting gel, which leads to an increase in syneresis.

  9. THE PROPERTIES OF CARRAGEENAN GELS

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    Grubnik I.M., Gladukh Ye.V., Chernyaev S.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the functional properties of carrageenan, depending on the concentration of sodium chloride and xanthan in gels. It is established that the main factors in the syneresis of carrageenan gels are its concentration, the presence of ions and gums in solution. If using sodium chloride there is a change in the structure of mesh of the resulting gel, which leads to an increase in syneresis.

  10. Microscopic colitis

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    Gianluca Ianiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic colitis may be defined as a clinical syndrome, of unknown etiology, consisting of chronic watery diarrhea, with no alterations in the large bowel at the endoscopic and radiologic evaluation. Therefore, a definitive diagnosis is only possible by histological analysis. The epidemiological impact of this disease has become increasingly clear in the last years, with most data coming from Western countries. Microscopic colitis includes two histological subtypes [collagenous colitis (CC and lymphocytic colitis (LC] with no differences in clinical presentation and management. Collagenous colitis is characterized by a thickening of the subepithelial collagen layer that is absent in LC. The main feature of LC is an increase of the density of intra-epithelial lymphocytes in the surface epithelium. A number of pathogenetic theories have been proposed over the years, involving the role of luminal agents, autoimmunity, eosinophils, genetics (human leukocyte antigen, biliary acids, infections, alterations of pericryptal fibroblasts, and drug intake; drugs like ticlopidine, carbamazepine or ranitidine are especially associated with the development of LC, while CC is more frequently linked to cimetidine, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and lansoprazole. Microscopic colitis typically presents as chronic or intermittent watery diarrhea, that may be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss and incontinence. Recent evidence has added new pharmacological options for the treatment of microscopic colitis: the role of steroidal therapy, especially oral budesonide, has gained relevance, as well as immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine. The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agents, infliximab and adalimumab, constitutes a new, interesting tool for the treatment of microscopic colitis, but larger, adequately designed studies are needed to confirm existing data.

  11. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

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    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  12. Carrageenan Gum and Adherent Invasive Escherichia coli in a Piglet Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Impact on Intestinal Mucosa-associated Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, Peris M; Sepehri, Shadi; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including Crohn's disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic conditions characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation. Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) pathotype has been increasingly implicated in the etiopathogenesis of IBD. In a 21-day study, we investigated the effects of AIEC strain UM146 inoculation on microbiota profile of the ileal, cecal, ascending and descending colon in a pig model of experimental colitis. Carrageenan gum (CG) was used to induce colitis in weaner piglets whereas AIEC strain UM146 previously isolated from a CD patient was included to investigate a cause or consequence effect in IBD. Treatments were: (1) control; (2) CG; (3) AIEC strain UM146; and (4) CG+UM146. Pigs in groups 2 and 4 received 1% CG in drinking water from day 1 of the study while pigs in groups 3 and 4 were inoculated with UM146 on day 8. Following euthanization on day 21, tissue mucosal scrapings were collected and used for DNA extraction. The V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene was then subjected to Illumina sequencing. Microbial diversity, composition, and the predicted functional metagenome were determined in addition to short chain fatty acids profiles in the digesta and inflammatory cytokines in the intestinal tissue. CG-induced colitis decreased bacterial species richness and shifted community composition. At the phylum level, an increase in Proteobacteria and Deferribacteres and a decrease in Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were observed in CG and CGUM146 compared to control and UM146. The metabolic capacity of the microbiome was also altered in CG and CGUM146 compared to UM146 and control in the colon. We demonstrated that CG resulted in bacterial dysbiosis and shifted community composition similar to what has been previously observed in IBD patients. However, AIEC strain UM146 alone did not cause any clear changes compared to CG or control in our experimental IBD pig model. PMID:27092122

  13. Glycoaminoglycan (GAG) deficiency in protective barrier as an underlying, primary cause of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease interstitial cystitis and possibly Reiter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, A L

    1999-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and interstitial cystitis share many common features, the most important of which is a defect in the glycoaminoglycan (GAG) defensive barrier. This defect allows penetration of toxins causing localized inflammatory response, followed by fibrosis and distant pathological changes, together with a myriad of biochemical and immunological changes. The latter has caused confusion as to etiology of the aforementioned disorders. This hypothesis is somewhat supported by the fact that agents such as glucosamine and pentosan polysulphate (Elmiron) that replace the GAG layer, improve the conditions. The potential for extrapolation of this hypothesis to atherosclerosis and arthropathies exists. There is a great danger in modern medical research that if one misses the wood for the trees, one becomes hopelessly lost in the minutiae of research. At present, it is embarrassing that ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's (CR) and interstitial cystitis (IC) are the cause of a great deal of morbidity and occasionally mortality, yet after intensive research, the etiology and effective treatment eludes us. The research in the past has focused extensively on inflammatory response in the mucosal lining, and biochemical, infective and immunological changes in the serum. This has led to a vast array of research pathways that seem at the present time to be totally lost and, might I say, aimless in direction, as a cause for these conditions, that remain amongst the most imperically treated in modern medicine. Another possible syndrome in this class would be Reiter's, which has many features in common with the above. The basic tenet of a GAG deficiency hypothesis is that, as shown in Figure 1A, an intact GAG layer provides, firstly, a mechanical and electrostatic defence against penetration of infective agents, toxins, antigenic protein moieties, etc. and, secondly, the prevention of extravasation of body fluid components. A degraded GAG layer is the start of the

  14. Colitis ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Jess, Tine; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Seidelin, Jakob B

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a prevalent inflammatory bowel disease of the colonic mucosa affecting approximately 20,000-25,000 Danes. Apart from subgroups with early onset, extensive and long-standing inflammation, or primary sclerosing cholangitis the risk of developing colorectal cancer is of the...

  15. Emerging applications of radiation-modified carrageenans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, Lucille V., E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Aranilla, Charito T.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2014-10-01

    The Philippines supplies almost half of the world’s processed carrageenan as ingredient for different applications. In order to maintain the country’s competitive advantage, R and D on radiation processed carrageenan with various potential applications had been undertaken. PVP-carrageenan hydrogels for wound dressing had been developed. A carrageenan-based radiation dose indicator can detect radiation dose of as low as 5 kGy. Irradiated carrageenan has also been tested as plant growth promoter. Irradiated carrageenans have been found have been found to contain some antioxidant properties which increase with increasing dose and concentration. Carboxymethyl carrageenans had also been developed that shows promising effect as super water absorbent for soil conditioner in plants.

  16. CMV - gastroenteritis/colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colitis - cytomegalovirus; Gastroenteritis - cytomegalovirus; Gastrointestinal CMV disease ... system. The following increase your risk for CMV gastroenteritis/colitis: AIDS Bone marrow or organ transplant Chemotherapy ...

  17. Acute colitis: differential diagnosis using multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate the utility of multidetector CT (MDCT) in helping to establish the underlying cause of acute colitis. Methods and materials: All patients who had acute colitis with a well-identified cause and underwent abdomen 64-MDCT were included in the study. MDCT images were retrospectively analysed in a blinded fashion and the CT findings were correlated with the eventual aetiological diagnosis. Results: The study population included 105 patients. Acute colitis was related to inflammatory bowel disease in 43 cases. MDCT was used to identify six relevant signs of inflammatory colitis: the “comb” sign (p < 0.001), enlarged lymph nodes (p < 0.001), abscess (p = 0.026), fibro-fatty infiltration (p = 0.007), small bowel involvement (p < 0.001), and the absence of an “empty colon” sign (p = 0.045). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified three independent signs of inflammatory colitis: the “comb” sign, small bowel involvement, and enlarged lymph nodes. Acute colitis was related to bacterial infection in 35 cases. Five signs were significantly associated with infectious colitis: continuous distribution (p = 0.020), an “empty colon” sign (p = 0.002), absence of fat stranding (p = 0.013), and absence of a “comb” sign (p = 0.010) and absence of enlarged lymph nodes (p = 0.035). Multivariate analysis identified three independent signs: the “empty colon” sign and absence of fat stranding and of a “comb” sign. The remaining causes were ischaemic colitis (n = 21) and drug-related colitis (n = 6). MDCT examination provided five relevant signs of ischaemic colitis: fat stranding (p = 0.002), discontinuous distribution (p < 0.001), and absence of enlarged lymph node (p < 0.001), a “comb” sign (p = 0.006) and small bowel involvement (p = 0.037). Conclusions: MDCT provides certain suggestive signs that may be helpful in distinguishing the underlying aetiological cause of acute colitis

  18. 21 CFR 172.620 - Carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.620 Carrageenan. The food additive carrageenan may...

  19. Microscopic colitis: A review of etiology, treatment and refractory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tina; Cave, David; Marshall, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic, nonbloody diarrhea. Microscopic colitis is more common in women than men and usually affects patients in their sixth and seventh decade. This article reviews the etiology and medical management of microscopic colitis. The etiology of microscopic colitis is unknown, but it is associated with autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, polyarthritis, and thyroid disorders. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor of microscopic colitis. Exposure to medications, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, is suspected to play a role in microscopic colitis, although their direct causal relationship has not been proven. Multiple medications, including corticosteroids, anti-diarrheals, cholestyramine, bismuth, 5-aminosalicylates, and immunomodulators, have been used to treat microscopic colitis with variable response rates. Budesonide is effective in inducing and maintaining clinical remission but relapse rate is as high as 82% when budesonide is discontinued. There is limited data on management of steroid-dependent microscopic colitis or refractory microscopic colitis. Immunomodulators seem to have low response rate 0%-56% for patients with refractory microscopic colitis. Response rate 66%-100% was observed for use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for refractory microscopic colitis. Anti-TNF and diverting ileostomy may be an option in severe or refractory microscopic colitis. PMID:26269669

  20. Anorexia nervosa and necrotizing colitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, J. C.; Madden, M V; Leaper, D J

    1985-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is associated with a mortality approaching 5% in patients severely enough affected to warrant hospital care (Hsu, 1980). The main causes of death are inanition, electrolyte disturbances or suicide. We report here a case of necrotizing colitis associated with anorexia nervosa, an association which has not been described previously.

  1. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  2. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  3. Cytotoxic Effects of Klebsiella oxytoca Strains Isolated from Patients with Antibiotic-Associated Hemorrhagic Colitis or Other Diseases Caused by Infections and from Healthy Subjects▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Joainig, Martina M.; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Leitner, Eva; Weberhofer, Paul; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Lippe, Irmgard; Feierl, Gebhard; Krause, Robert; Hinterleitner, Thomas; Zechner, Ellen L.; Högenauer, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis (AAHC) is associated with Klebsiella oxytoca. This study analyzed whether cytotoxic properties are linked to specific subtypes of K. oxytoca. Klebsiella isolates from stools of AAHC patients, healthy carriers, and diarrhea patients as well as from infections of other organs were investigated. Cytotoxic effects on human epithelial cells were limited to the species K. oxytoca and were not detectable for any other Klebsiella species. Isolates from AAHC p...

  4. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, D.A. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Radiological Institute, Columbus Children`s Hospital, OH (United States); Buonomo, C. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fishman, S.J. [Department of Surgery, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Furuta, G.; Nurko, S. [Department of Gastroenterology, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs.

  5. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.)

  6. Fulminant herpes colitis in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Serag, H B; Zwas, F R; Cirillo, N W; Eisen, R N

    1996-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a well-recognized cause of gastrointestinal infection, most commonly in patients with underlying immunodeficiency. The esophagus, perianum, and rectum are the most common sites of involvement; however, extensive colitis is rare. We describe a woman with Crohn's disease who developed pathologically proven HSV colitis. We review the literature and present the possible implications of the diagnosis. PMID:8724263

  7. Complications of collagenous colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2008-01-01

    Microscopic forms of colitis have been described, including collagenous colitis. This disorder generally has an apparently benign clinical course. However, a number of gastric and intestinal complications, possibly coincidental, may develop with collagenous colitis. Distinctive inflammatory disorders of the gastric mucosa have been described, including lymphocytic gastritis and collagenous gastritis. Celiac disease and collagenous sprue (or collagenous enteritis) may occur. Colonic ulceration has been associated with use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, while other forms of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, may evolve from collagenous colitis. Submucosal "dissection", colonic fractures or mucosal tears and perforation from air insufflation during colonoscopy may occur and has been hypothesized to be due to compromise of the colonic wall from submucosal collagen deposition. Similar changes may result from increased intraluminal pressure during barium enema contrast studies. Finally, malignant disorders have also been reported, including carcinoma and lymphoproliferative disease.

  8. Amyloid Goiter Secondary to Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunyamin Aydin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse amyloid goiter (AG is an entity characterized by the deposition of amyloid in the thyroid gland. AG may be associated with either primary or secondary amyloidosis. Secondary amyloidosis is rarely caused by inflammatory bowel diseases. Secondary amyloidosis is relatively more common in the patients with Crohn’s disease, whereas it is highly rare in patients with ulcerative colitis. Diffuse amyloid goiter caused by ulcerative colitis is also a rare condition. In the presence of amyloid in the thyroid gland, medullary thyroid cancer should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis. Imaging techniques and biochemical tests are not very helpful in the diagnosis of secondary amyloid goiter and the definitive diagnosis is established based on the histopathologic analysis and histochemical staining techniques. In this report, we present a 35-year-old male patient with diffuse amyloid goiter caused by secondary amyloidosis associated with ulcerative colitis.

  9. Amyloid Goiter Secondary to Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Bunyamin; Koca, Yavuz Savas; Koca, Tugba; Yildiz, Ihsan; Gerek Celikden, Sevda; Ciris, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse amyloid goiter (AG) is an entity characterized by the deposition of amyloid in the thyroid gland. AG may be associated with either primary or secondary amyloidosis. Secondary amyloidosis is rarely caused by inflammatory bowel diseases. Secondary amyloidosis is relatively more common in the patients with Crohn's disease, whereas it is highly rare in patients with ulcerative colitis. Diffuse amyloid goiter caused by ulcerative colitis is also a rare condition. In the presence of amyloid in the thyroid gland, medullary thyroid cancer should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis. Imaging techniques and biochemical tests are not very helpful in the diagnosis of secondary amyloid goiter and the definitive diagnosis is established based on the histopathologic analysis and histochemical staining techniques. In this report, we present a 35-year-old male patient with diffuse amyloid goiter caused by secondary amyloidosis associated with ulcerative colitis. PMID:27051538

  10. Loss of Dok-1 and Dok-2 in mice causes severe experimental colitis accompanied by reduced expression of IL-17A and IL-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseda, Masazumi; Arimura, Sumimasa; Shimura, Eri; Nakae, Susumu; Yamanashi, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Appropriate immune responses and mucosal barrier functions are required for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Defects in this defense system may lead to inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Downstream of tyrosine kinases 1 (Dok-1) and its closest homolog, Dok-2, are preferentially expressed in immune cells, and play essential roles in the negative regulation of multiple signaling pathways in both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the function of these proteins in intestinal homeostasis remained unclear. Here we show that Dok-1/-2 double knockout (DKO) mice were highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis compared with Dok-1 or Dok-2 single KO and wild type (WT) mice. Furthermore, DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice exhibited increased colonic tissue damage accompanied by reduced proliferation of the epithelial cells relative to WT controls, suggesting that Dok-1/-2 DKO mice have defects in the repair of intestinal epithelial lesions. In addition, the levels of the Th17 cytokines IL-17A and IL-22, which have protective roles in DSS-induced colitis, were reduced in DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice compared with WT mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Dok-1 and Dok-2 negatively regulate intestinal inflammation, apparently through the induction of IL-17A and IL-22 expression. PMID:27450811

  11. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of Thiolated Carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchaoin, Wongsakorn; Bonengel, Sonja; Hussain, Shah; Huck, Christian W; Ma, Benjamin N; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to generate and characterize a thiolated carrageenan. Thiolated carrageenan (carrageenan-SH) was synthesized from kappa (κ)- and iota (ι)-carrageenan by bromine replacement of the hydroxyl moieties followed by substitution to thiol groups using thiourea. Thiolated κ- and ι-carrageenan exhibited 176.57 ± 20.11 and 109.51 ± 18.26 μmol thiol groups per gram polymer, respectively. The resazurin test in Caco-2 cells revealed no toxic effect of both thiolated carrageenans at a concentration below 0.1% (w/v). Regarding efflux pump inhibitory effect, cellular accumulation of multidrug-resistance protein 2 substrate, sulforhodamine 101, was 1.38- and 1.35-fold increased in cells treated with thiolated κ- and ι-carrageenan, respectively. Modification of κ- and ι-carrageenan led to 3.9- and 2.0-fold increase in dynamic viscosity of mucus-thiolated carrageenan mixture within 4 h. Furthermore, residence time of κ- and ι-carrageenan-SH on porcine intestinal mucosa was 6.4- and 1.8-fold prolonged, respectively, as demonstrated by rotating cylinder method, indicating improved mucoadhesive properties. Hence, thiolation of carrageenans led to novel pharmaceutical excipients for various applications. PMID:26038249

  12. Surgery for Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crohn's Disease & Ulcerative Colitis Go Back Surgery for Crohn's Disease & Ulcerative Colitis Email Print + Share ( Disclaimer: Surgery information ... helps you to learn what to expect. About Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis ...

  13. Stereomicroscopic and histologic changes in the colon of guinea pigs fed degraded carrageenan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1980-01-01

    A colitis-like state induced in Guinea Pigs fed degraded carrageenan orally. By means of a combined semimacroscopic and histologic technique the course of the disease was followed during 28 days. The changes were primarily seen and became most prominent in the caecum. The first lesions were...... observed following 24 hours of treatment as small rounded foci initially with degenerative changes and inflammation in the surface epithelium, later forming superficial focal ulcerations. Ulcerative changes gradually progressed during the experiment, forming linear and later large, geographical ulcerations....... Topographically the ulcerative process was strongly related to the larger submucosal vessels. Nonulcerated parts of the mucosa were not changed until following 7-14 days of treatment. The mucosa became bulging, granulated and finally villus-like. Accumulation of macrophages was found under the surface epithelium...

  14. Non-Clinical Safety Evaluation of Intranasal Iota-Carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebar, Alexandra; Koller, Christiane; Seifert, Jan-Marcus; Chabicovsky, Monika; Bodenteich, Angelika; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Carrageenan has been widely used as food additive for decades and therefore, an extended oral data set is available in the public domain. Less data are available for other routes of administration, especially intranasal administration. The current publication describes the non-clinical safety and toxicity of native (non-degraded) iota-carrageenan when applied intranasally or via inhalation. Intranasally applied iota-carrageenan is a topically applied, locally acting compound with no need of systemic bioavailability for the drug’s action. Animal experiments included repeated dose local tolerance and toxicity studies with intranasally applied 0.12% iota-carrageenan for 7 or 28 days in New Zealand White rabbits and nebulized 0.12% iota-carrageenan administered to F344 rats for 7 days. Permeation studies revealed no penetration of iota-carrageenan across nasal mucosa, demonstrating that iota-carrageenan does not reach the blood stream. Consistent with this, no relevant toxic or secondary pharmacological effects due to systemic exposure were observed in the rabbit or rat repeated dose toxicity studies. Data do not provide any evidence for local intolerance or toxicity, when carrageenan is applied intranasally or by inhalation. No signs for immunogenicity or immunotoxicity have been observed in the in vivo studies. This is substantiated by in vitro assays showing no stimulation of a panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines by iota-carrageenan. In conclusion, 0.12% iota-carrageenan is safe for clinical use via intranasal application. PMID:25875737

  15. Acyclovir-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, T D; Finnerty, J P; Swale, V; Beer, T

    1997-04-01

    Three patients developed acute colitis, either de novo, or as an exacerbation of pre-existing colitis, following the use of oral acyclovir, prescribed for Herpes zoster or Herpes simplex infection. Rechallenge with oral acyclovir was performed in one patient, and resulted in a recurrence of colitic symptoms. It is speculated that acyclovir can have a direct irritant effect on large bowel mucosa. PMID:9146784

  16. Degradation of carrageenan by low energy electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of κ-carrageenan using vessel-type low energy electron accelerator was investigated. Carrageenan with different molecular weights were obtained from irradiation of high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) κ-carrageenan. Other results presented were obtained from degradation studies of carrageenan by gamma rays. The decrease in molecular weight was accompanied by partial desulfation. From comparison of radiation degradation yield (Gd), it was found that the susceptibility to radiation of the three types of carrageenans in aqueous/gel forms follows the order of λ->ι->>κ- and could have been influenced by their conformational state. κ-carrageenan with molecular weight of ca. 10,000 showed strong growth promotion effect for potato in tissue culture. (author)

  17. Genetics Home Reference: ulcerative colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition colitis gravis idiopathic proctocolitis inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis type ... for professional medical care or advice. Users with questions about a personal health condition should consult with ...

  18. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the full interactive experience. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America Find a Doctor Find a support group Log ... Findings about IBD at Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America’s Advances in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Clinical and Research ...

  19. Complexation between carrageenan and methylene blue for sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2013-11-01

    Theoretical studies on the methylene blue (MB)-carrageenans complexation at solution and solid states have been carried out via ultraviolet spectrophotoscopy and reflectometry methods. The equilibrium constant (Ka) of the MBcarrageenans complexation follows the order of Iota > Lambda > Kappa carrageenans, which indicated Iota-carrageenan forms a stable complex. MB-carrageenan complexation reaction showed decrease in Ka value from 210.71 ppm-1 to 114.57 ppm-1 when the reaction temperature increased from 298 K to 323 K. Le Chatelier's principle and mass action law explained that the MB-carrageenan complexation was an exothermic reaction (ΔH=-18.54 kJmol-1) that release heat. Thus MB-carrageenan complex was less stable at high temperature and tend to dissociate into free MB and carrageenan molecules. It was also supported by the van't Hoff equation. The reaction is a spontaneous process (ΔG=-13.23 kJmol-1) where the randomness of the molecules reduced (ΔS=-17.83 Jmol-1K-1) due to complexation. Besides, linear regression of the concentration and absorption of the MB-carrageenan reaction obeys the Beer Lambert law, which elucidated that the complexation process was not affected by any concentration dependent factors such as aggregation and self-quenching. Moreover, linear Benesi Hilderbrend plot revealed that the interaction between MB and carrageenan was a reversible and stoichiometric reaction with 1:1 ratio. However, the molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) and molar adsorption coefficient (μa) of the MB-carrageenan complex were lower compared to free MB, described that the complex was less adsorptive. The sensor constructed based on these theoretical investigations showed response behavior that was similar with solution test as both have attraction for carrageenans in the sequence of Iota-, Lambda-, Kappa- carrageenans. Likewise, carrageenan sensor was more selective towards Iota-carrageenan than to Lambda- and Kappa-carrageenans, and no response observed when

  20. Herpes simplex virus colitis complicating ulcerative colitis: A case report and brief review on superinfections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunter, Marco Oliver; Walles, Thorsten; Fritz, Peter; Meyding-Lamadé, Uta; Thon, Klaus-Peter; Fellermann, Klaus; Stange, Eduard Friedrich; Lamadé, Wolfram

    2007-09-01

    In patients with inflammatory bowel disease herpes simplex virus infection has been described as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Here we present the case of a 35-year old woman with an exacerbation of ulcerative colitis caused by herlpes simplex virus infection (HSV-2). The diagnosis was confirmed histologically following subtotal colectomy. After intravenous treatment with aciclovir for 2 weeks postoperative hematochezia stopped. Herpes simplex virus colitis is a rare but potentially fatal complication of immunosuppressive treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Prompt diagnosis and efficient antiviral therapy are mandatory to improve prognosis. PMID:21172183

  1. Ulcerative colitis in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rukunuzzaman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disorder of colon. Frequency of UC is gradually increasing over few years worldwide. Prevalence is 35 to 100/100 000 people in USA, 1% of them are infants. UC develops in a genetically predisposed individual with altered intestinal immune response. An eight-month-old girl presented with loose bloody stool, growth failure, and moderate pallor. The girl was diagnosed as a case of UC by colonoscopy and biopsy. Treatment was thereafter started with immunosuppressive drugs. After initial induction therapy with parenteral steroid and infliximab, the patient is now on remission with azathioprine and mesalamine. UC is rare in Bangladesh, especially in children, and it is rarer during infancy. Several conditions like infective colitis, allergic colitis, Meckel′s diverticulitis, Crohn′s disease, etc. may mimic the features of UC. So, if a child presents with recurrent bloody diarrhea, UC should be considered as differential diagnosis.

  2. Antiviral activity of lambda-carrageenan prepared from red seaweed (Gigartina skottsbergii) against BoHV-1 and SuHV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Jésica V; Novo, Sabrina Galdo; González, Marcelo J; Ciancia, Marina; Bratanich, Ana C

    2015-02-01

    The antiviral effect of polysaccharides has been known for many years. Carrageenans are considered a good alternative for the prevention of a wide range of diseases, mainly caused by enveloped viruses. The advantages lie on their high availability, low cost and low induction of resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of two viral pathogens of veterinary interest to the presence of lambda-carrageenan. This is the first report of a lambda-carrageenan having antiviral activity against animal viruses belonging to the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, BoHV-1 (bovine herpesvirus type 1) strain Cooper and SuHV-1 (suid herpesvirus type 1) strain Bartha. Lambda-carrageenan was able to reduce infectivity of both viruses with a more pronounced effect against BoHV-1. These results proved, as previously shown for human herpes virus type 1, that these compounds could be used as potential antiviral agents in the veterinary field. PMID:25435342

  3. Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of papillomavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Buck

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Certain sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV types are causally associated with the development of cervical cancer. Our recent development of high-titer HPV pseudoviruses has made it possible to perform high-throughput in vitro screens to identify HPV infection inhibitors. Comparison of a variety of compounds revealed that carrageenan, a type of sulfated polysaccharide extracted from red algae, is an extremely potent infection inhibitor for a broad range of sexually transmitted HPVs. Although carrageenan can inhibit herpes simplex viruses and some strains of HIV in vitro, genital HPVs are about a thousand-fold more susceptible, with 50% inhibitory doses in the low ng/ml range. Carrageenan acts primarily by preventing the binding of HPV virions to cells. This finding is consistent with the fact that carrageenan resembles heparan sulfate, an HPV cell-attachment factor. However, carrageenan is three orders of magnitude more potent than heparin, a form of cell-free heparan sulfate that has been regarded as a highly effective model HPV inhibitor. Carrageenan can also block HPV infection through a second, postattachment heparan sulfate-independent effect. Carrageenan is in widespread commercial use as a thickener in a variety of cosmetic and food products, ranging from sexual lubricants to infant feeding formulas. Some of these products block HPV infectivity in vitro, even when diluted a million-fold. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether carrageenan-based products are effective as topical microbicides against genital HPVs.

  4. 21 CFR 172.626 - Salts of carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of carrageenan. 172.626 Section 172.626 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.626 Salts of carrageenan. The food additive...

  5. 21 CFR 172.623 - Carrageenan with polysorbate 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carrageenan with polysorbate 80. 172.623 Section 172.623 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.623 Carrageenan with...

  6. SHORT-TERM PERORAL TOXICITY OF UNDEGRADED CARRAGEENAN IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, E.

    1973-01-01

    Undegraded carrageenan was administered orally to pigs at levels of 0 (control), 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight/day for 12 wk. No effects attributable to carrageenan treatment were seen with respect to behaviour, body-weight gain, feed utilization, haematology, blood chemistry, urine analysis or...... the intestinal mucosa are not considered to be a significant toxic effect....

  7. Modification biological activity of S and R forms of Proteus mirabilis and Burkholderia cepacia lipopolysaccharides by carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabski, Michał; Barabanova, Anna; Gałczyńska, Katarzyna; Węgierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Dzidowska, Kamila; Augustyniak, Daria; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Lankoff, Anna; Yermak, Irina; Molinaro, Antonio; Kaca, Wiesław

    2016-09-20

    The modification of biological features of S and R forms of Proteus mirabilis and Burkholderia cepacia LPS by kappa/iota and kappa/beta carrageenans was shown in Limulus activation test, ELISA, human complement activation and apoptotic assay. The role of positively charged substituent Ara4N in lipid A was evaluated as a suspected major domain for interactions with sulphate groups of carrageenans.The experiments obtained by three serological methods indicated that not only lipid A part of LPS but also polysaccharide elements such as core and O-specific chain are involved in interaction with carrageenes. Carrageenans turned out to be non-cytotoxic for A549 cells and were able to inhibit the apoptotic effect caused by lipid A of P. mirabilis and B. cepacia. PMID:27261765

  8. Visualization of carrageenan hydrogels by electron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Andrew; Øiseth, Sofia; Crameri, Sandra; Lundin, Leif

    2013-10-01

    The visualization of hydrogels and other forms of hydrated, soft matter pose a significant challenge for studies by electron microscopy. The main challenges can be subdivided into: (1) accurate preservation of structure, (2) ensuring a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio, and (3) acquisition of comprehensive datasets. A shortcoming in any of these areas will lead to measurement uncertainty. We demonstrate the characteristic differences between the polymer networks formed by the potassium and sodium forms of κ-carrageenan, in 3D and at a resolution sufficient to resolve fiber bundles. Finally, we discuss the uncertainties involved in quantitative measurements obtainable with current methodologies as well as prospects for improvement.

  9. The expression of REG 1A and REG 1B is increased during acute amebic colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Kristine M.; Guo, Xiaoti; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Mondal, Dinesh; Bardhan, Pradip K.; Sugawara, Akira; Duggal, Priya; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite, is an important cause of diarrhea and colitis in the developing world. Amebic colitis is characterized by ulceration of the intestinal mucosa. We performed microarray analysis of intestinal biopsies during acute and convalescent amebiasis in order to identify genes potentially involved in tissue injury or repair. Colonic biopsy samples were obtained from 8 patients during acute E. histolytica colitis and again 60 days after recovery. Gene expressio...

  10. Assessment of the inhibition of Dengue virus infection by carrageenan via real-time monitoring of cellular oxygen consumption rates within a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Hao; Lin, Yi-Syun; Wu, Chih-Wei; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic device combined with a light modulation system was developed to assess the inhibitory effect of carrageenan on Dengue virus (DENV) infection via real-time monitoring of cellular oxygen consumption rates (OCRs). Measuring cellular OCRs, which can reflect cellular metabolic activity, enabled us to monitor the process of viral infection in real time and to rapidly determine the antiviral activity of potential drugs/chemical compounds. The time variation of the cellular OCR of single cells that were infected in situ by DENV at different multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) values was first successfully measured within a microfluidic device. The influence of the timing of carrageenan treatment on DENV infection was then examined by real-time monitoring of cellular OCRs in three groups. Cells that were pre-treated with carrageenan and then infected with DENV served as a pre-treatment group, cells to which carrageenan was added simultaneously with DENV served as a virucide group, and cells that were pre-infected with DENV and then treated with carrageenan served as a post-treatment group. By monitoring cellular OCRs, we could rapidly evaluate the inhibitory effect of carrageenan on DENV infection, obtaining a result within 7 h and showing that carrageenan had strong and effective anti-DENV activity in the three groups. In particular, a strong inhibitory effect was observed in the virucide group. Moreover, once the virus enters host cells in the post-treatment group, the immediate treatment with carrageenan for the infected cells has higher efficiency of antiviral activity. Our proposed platform enables to perform time-course or dose-response measurements of changes in cellular metabolic activity caused by diseases, chemical compounds, and drugs via monitoring of the cellular OCR, with rapid and real-time detection. This approach provides the potential to study a wide range of biological applications in cell-based biosensing, toxicology, and drug discovery

  11. SANS contrast in iota-carrageenan gels and solutions in D2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Denef, B.; Mortensen, K.;

    1997-01-01

    SANS of Na+-iota-carrageenan in D2O/saline solutions was measured as a function of concentration, temperature and type of counterions (K+ or Na+). High and low scattering-contrasted gels and solutions were detected. High contrast is caused by aggregation of low-hydrated chains at high concentration...... of carrageenan in the presence of gel-promoting counterions. The aggregates do not disappear at 60 degrees C, although at this temperature the molecules should partially lose their ordered conformation. The network formation, observed by SANS, does not happen in high-contrast system immediately after cooling...... and takes a few hours to be completed at 12 degrees C. The minimum concentration sufficient for the high-contrast regime in 0.1 M KCl lies between 15 and 25 mg/ml....

  12. Clostridium difficile Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Trudel, Judith L.

    2007-01-01

    Clostridium difficile enterocolitis is endemic in most modern hospitals. The spectrum of clinical presentation varies from the asymptomatic carrier state to fulminant colitis with toxic megacolon and perforation. Highly toxigenic and lethal strains of C. difficile have emerged worldwide. Medical treatment consists of discontinuing the precipitating antibiotic, supportive measures and bowel rest, and antibiotic treatment with metronidazole or vancomycin. Surgical treatment may be necessary in ...

  13. Ulcerative Colitis in Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Md Rukunuzzaman; A. S. M. Bazlul Karim

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disorder of colon. Frequency of UC is gradually increasing over few years worldwide. Prevalence is 35 to 100/100 000 people in USA, 1% of them are infants. UC develops in a genetically predisposed individual with altered intestinal immune response. An eight-month-old girl presented with loose bloody stool, growth failure, and moderate pallor. The girl was diagnosed as a case of UC by colonoscopy and biopsy. Treatment was thereafter ...

  14. Diet in the Aetiology of Ulcerative Colitis: A European Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Andrew R; Luben, Robert; Olsen, Anja;

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims: The causes of ulcerative colitis are unknown, although it is plausible that dietary factors are involved. Case-control studies of diet and ulcerative colitis are subject to recall biases. The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between the intake of...... was supplied and the subjects were followed up for the development of ulcerative colitis. Each incident case was matched with four controls and dietary variables were divided into quartiles. Results: A total of 139 subjects with incident ulcerative colitis were identified. No dietary associations were...

  15. Diagnosis and management of microscopic colitis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohr J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Johan Bohr,1,3 Anna Wickbom,1,3 Agnes Hegedus,2 Nils Nyhlin,1,3 Elisabeth Hultgren Hörnquist,3 Curt Tysk1,3 1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine/Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, 3School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden Abstract: Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis, together constituting microscopic colitis, are common causes of chronic diarrhea. They are characterized clinically by chronic nonbloody diarrhea and a macroscopically normal colonic mucosa where characteristic histopathological findings are seen. Previously considered rare, they now have emerged as common disorders that need to be considered in the investigation of the patient with chronic diarrhea. The annual incidence of each disorder is five to ten per 100,000 inhabitants, with a peak incidence in 60- to 70-year-old individuals and a predominance of female patients in collagenous colitis. The etiology and pathophysiology are not well understood, and the current view suggests an uncontrolled mucosal immune reaction to various luminal agents in predisposed individuals. Clinical symptoms comprise chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and fecal incontinence that may impair the patient's health-related quality of life. An association is reported with other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, thyroid disorders, diabetes mellitus, and arthritis. The best-documented treatment, both short-term and long-term, is budesonide, which induces clinical remission in up to 80% of patients after 8 weeks' treatment. However, after successful budesonide therapy is ended, recurrence of clinical symptoms is common, and the best possible long-term management deserves further study. The long-term prognosis is good, and the risk of complications, including colonic cancer, is low. We present an update of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of

  16. In Situ Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles in Carrageenan Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Ana L. Daniel-da-Silva; Trindade, T; Goodfellow, Brian J.; Costa, Benilde F. O.; Correia, Rui N.; Gil, Ana M

    2007-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized in the presence of carrageenan polysaccharides using an in situ coprecipitation method. Iron coordination to the sulfate groups of the polysaccharide was confirmed by FTIR. The polysaccharide type ( , é, or ì) and concentration have been varied and their effects on particle morphology and chemical stability of the resultant nanocomposite investigated. The presence of carrageenan induces the formation of smaller particles, ...

  17. Enzyme-Assisted Preparation of Furcellaran-Like κ-/β-Carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préchoux, Aurélie; Genicot, Sabine; Rogniaux, Hélène; Helbert, William

    2016-02-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated galactans that are widely used in industrial applications for their thickening and gelling properties, which vary according to the amount and distribution of ester sulfate groups along the galactan backbone. To determine and direct the sulfation of κ-carrageenan moieties, we purified an endo-κ-carrageenan sulfatase (Q15XH1 accession in UniprotKB) from Pseudoalteromonas atlantica T6c extracts. Based on sequence analyses and exploration of the genomic environment of Q15XH1, we discovered and characterized a second endo-κ-carrageenan sulfatase (Q15XG7 accession in UniprotKB). Both enzymes convert κ-carrageenan into a hybrid, furcellaran-like κ-/β-carrageenan. We compared the protein sequences of these two new κ-carrageenan sulfatases and that of a previously reported ι-carrageenan sulfatase with other predicted sulfatases in the P. atlantica genome, revealing the existence of additional new carrageenan sulfatases. PMID:26585588

  18. Herpes simplex colitis in a child with combined liver and small bowel transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, S; Kato, T; Ruiz, P; Mittal, N; Babinski, L; Tzakis, A

    2001-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been a rare cause of gastrointestinal (GI) infection, especially in immunocompromised patients. A variety of GI sites may be involved; however, only three reported cases of HSV colitis have been documented in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HSV colitis in a small bowel transplant recipient. PMID:11560759

  19. The Intranasal Application of Zanamivir and Carrageenan Is Synergistically Active against Influenza A Virus in the Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokutti-Kurz, Martina; König-Schuster, Marielle; Koller, Christiane; Graf, Christine; Graf, Philipp; Kirchoff, Norman; Reutterer, Benjamin; Seifert, Jan-Marcus; Unger, Hermann; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva; Nakowitsch, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Background Carrageenan is a clinically proven and marketed compound for the treatment of viral upper respiratory tract infections. As infections caused by influenza virus are often accompanied by infections with other respiratory viruses the combination of a specific anti-influenza compound with the broadly active antiviral polymer has huge potential for the treatment of respiratory infections. Thus, the combination of the specific anti-influenza drug Zanamivir together with carrageenan in a formulation suitable for intranasal application was evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. Principal Findings We show in-vitro that carrageenan and Zanamivir act synergistically against several influenza A virus strains (H1N1(09)pdm, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7). Moreover, we demonstrate in a lethal influenza model with a low pathogenic H7N7 virus (HA closely related to the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus) and a H1N1(09)pdm influenza virus in C57BL/6 mice that the combined use of both compounds significantly increases survival of infected animals in comparison with both mono-therapies or placebo. Remarkably, this benefit is maintained even when the treatment starts up to 72 hours post infection. Conclusion A nasal spray containing carrageenan and Zanamivir should therefore be tested for prevention and treatment of uncomplicated influenza in clinical trials. PMID:26053018

  20. Tofacitinib in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Thomas P; Moran, Gordon W; Ghosh, Subrata

    2016-05-01

    Cytokines orchestrate immune and inflammatory responses involved in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Protein kinases are essential for signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. Janus kinases (JAKs) are a family of protein tyrosine kinases that play a pivotal role in cytokine receptor signaling. Indeed, a major subgroup of cytokines use Type I and II cytokine receptors which signal via the activation of JAKs. Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor that has been studied in autoimmune pathologies, including UC and rheumatoid arthritis with good overall efficacy and acceptable safety profile. This literature review was performed with the goal of summarizing the knowledge on JAK inhibitors in UC treatment. PMID:27140405

  1. Prolongation of Carrageenan-induced Inflammation in Human Colonic Epithelial Cells by Activation of an NFκB – BCL10 Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthakur, Alip; Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Natarajan, Arivarasu A.; Kumar, Anoop; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2013-01-01

    Carrageenan, a sulfated polysaccharide that is widely used as a food additive, induces inflammatory responses in animal models and human cells. The carrageenan-induced inflammatory cascades involve TLR4- and BCL10-dependent activation of NF-κB, leading to increased IL-8 production. Translocations involving BCL10 in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are associated with constitutive activation of NF-κB. This report presents a mechanism by which carrageenan exposure leads to prolonged activation of both BCL10 and NF-κB in human colonic epithelial cells. Study findings demonstrate that nuclear RelA and RelB bind to an NF-κB binding motif in the BCL10 promoter in human colonic epithelial NCM460 and HT-29 cells. In vitro oligonucleotide binding assay, non-radioactive gel shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) indicate binding of RelA and RelB to the BCL10 promoter. Prolonged inflammation follows activation of the BCL10-NFκB inflammatory loop in response to carrageenan, shown by increased BCL10, RelA, and IL-8 for 36 to 48 hours and increased RelB for 24 hours following withdrawal of carrageenan after 12 hours. In contrast, exposure to dextran sulfate sodium, which does not cause inflammation through TLR4 and BCL10 in the colonic epithelial cells, did not provoke prolonged activation of inflammation. The carrageenan-enhanced BCL10 promoter activity was blocked by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and MB-132 which inhibit NF-κB activation. These results indicate that NF-κB binding to the BCL10 promoter can lead to prolonged activation of the carrageenan-induced inflammatory cascade by a transcriptional mechanism involving an NF-κB – BCL10 loop. PMID:22579587

  2. Characterization of ι-carrageenan and its derivative based green polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumaah, Fatihah Najirah; Mobaraka, Nadhratun Naiim; Ahmad, Azizan; Ramli, Nazaruddin [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The new types of green polymer electrolytes based on ι-carrageenan derivative have been prepared. ι-carrageenan act as precursor was reacted with monochloroacetic acid to produce carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan. The powders were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to confirm the substitution of targeted functional group in ι-carrageenan. The green polymer electrolyte based on ι-carrageenan and carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan was prepared by solution-casting technique. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity ι-carrageenan film were higher than carboxymethyl ι-carrageenan which 4.87 ×10{sup −6} S cm{sup −1} and 2.19 ×10{sup −8} S cm{sup −1}, respectively.

  3. Characterization of ɽ -carrageenan and its derivative based green polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaah, Fatihah Najirah; Mobaraka, Nadhratun Naiim; Ahmad, Azizan; Ramli, Nazaruddin

    2013-11-01

    The new types of green polymer electrolytes based on ɽ -carrageenan derivative have been prepared. ɽ -carrageenan act as precursor was reacted with monochloroacetic acid to produce carboxymethyl ɽ -carrageenan. The powders were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to confirm the substitution of targeted functional group in ɽ -carrageenan. The green polymer electrolyte based on ɽ -carrageenan and carboxymethyl ɽ -carrageenan was prepared by solution-casting technique. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity ɽ -carrageenan film were higher than carboxymethyl ɽ -carrageenan which 4.87 ×10-6 S cm-1 and 2.19 ×10-8 S cm-1, respectively.

  4. Management of colitis caused by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy has assumed a role of primary importance in the management of gynecologic and other malignant growths. To be effective, the treatment dosage must be adequate. However, with higher dosages for curative radiation therapy, damage from the treatment may promote prolonged morbidity and even death. The effects of this treatment may be intensified by predisposing conditions within the patient, but the damage seems to be related to the insertion of radium. Prior to therapy, each patient must be individualized, and any predisposing factors should be kept in mind during treatment to recognize and treat these complications early. Once complications have arisen, the most conservative modality of dealing with the irradiated tissue is best, since these areas of intestinal injury do not heal. This requires early diversion or resection as conservative therapy, because fistulas and bleeding will become recurrent and intractable. If diversion fails to control bleeding, resection is necessary, even if it involves an abdominoperineal resection. Therefore, conservative therapy can become radical for this supposedly benign illness

  5. Europium ion as a probe for binding sites to carrageenans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Ana P.; Goncalves, Rogeria R.; Serra, Osvaldo A. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil); Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil)], E-mail: medzaniquelli@ffclrp.usp.br; Wong, Kenneth [Laboratorio de Fisico-Quimica, Centro de Pesquisas de Paulinia, Rhodia Brasil, Paulinia, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    Carrageenans, sulfated polysaccharides extracted from red algae, present a coil-helix transition and helix aggregation dependence on the type and concentration of counterions. In this study, we focus attention on a mixed valence counterion system: Eu{sup 3+}/Na{sup +} or K{sup +} with different gel-forming carrageenans: kappa, iota, and kappa-2. Results of stationary and time-dependent luminescence showed to be a suitable tool to probe ion binding to both the negatively charged sulfate group and the hydroxyl groups present in the biopolymer. For lower europium ion concentrations, a single longer decay emission lifetime was detected, which was attributed to the binding of europium ion to the carrageenan sulfate groups. An additional decay ascribed to europium binding to hydroxyl groups was observed above a threshold concentration, and this decay was dependent on the carrageenan charge density. Symmetry of the europium ion microenvironment was estimated by the ratio between the intensities of its emission bands, which has been shown to depend on the concentration of europium ions and on the specificity of the monovalent counterion bound to the carrageenan.

  6. Europium ion as a probe for binding sites to carrageenans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrageenans, sulfated polysaccharides extracted from red algae, present a coil-helix transition and helix aggregation dependence on the type and concentration of counterions. In this study, we focus attention on a mixed valence counterion system: Eu3+/Na+ or K+ with different gel-forming carrageenans: kappa, iota, and kappa-2. Results of stationary and time-dependent luminescence showed to be a suitable tool to probe ion binding to both the negatively charged sulfate group and the hydroxyl groups present in the biopolymer. For lower europium ion concentrations, a single longer decay emission lifetime was detected, which was attributed to the binding of europium ion to the carrageenan sulfate groups. An additional decay ascribed to europium binding to hydroxyl groups was observed above a threshold concentration, and this decay was dependent on the carrageenan charge density. Symmetry of the europium ion microenvironment was estimated by the ratio between the intensities of its emission bands, which has been shown to depend on the concentration of europium ions and on the specificity of the monovalent counterion bound to the carrageenan

  7. Molecular Modeling of Lectin-Like Protein from Acacia farnesiana Reveals a Possible Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Vanessa Erika Ferreira; Matias da Rocha, Bruno Anderson; Batista da Nóbrega, Raphael; Silva-Filho, José Caetano; Teixeira, Claudener Souza; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Ferreira, Sergio Henrique; Figueiredo, Jozi Godoy; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Delatorre, Plinio

    2013-01-01

    Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL) is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA). Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN). This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through structural comparison with anti-inflammatory legume lectins. The AFAL model was obtained by molecular modeling and molecular docking with glycan and carrageenan were performed to explain the AFAL structural behavior and biological activity. Pisum sativum lectin was the best template for molecular modeling. The AFAL structure model is folded as a β sandwich. The model differs from template in loop regions, number of β strands and carbohydrate-binding site. Carrageenan and glycan bind to different sites on AFAL. The ability of AFAL binding to carrageenan can be explained by absence of the sixth β-strand (posterior β sheets) and two β strands in frontal region. AFAL can inhibit pathway inflammatory process by carrageenan injection by connecting to it and preventing its entry into the cell and triggers the reaction. PMID:24490151

  8. Molecular modeling of lectin-like protein from Acacia farnesiana reveals a possible anti-inflammatory mechanism in Carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Vanessa Erika Ferreira; Matias da Rocha, Bruno Anderson; Batista da Nóbrega, Raphael; Silva-Filho, José Caetano; Teixeira, Claudener Souza; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Ferreira, Sergio Henrique; Figueiredo, Jozi Godoy; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Delatorre, Plinio

    2013-01-01

    Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL) is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA). Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN). This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through structural comparison with anti-inflammatory legume lectins. The AFAL model was obtained by molecular modeling and molecular docking with glycan and carrageenan were performed to explain the AFAL structural behavior and biological activity. Pisum sativum lectin was the best template for molecular modeling. The AFAL structure model is folded as a β sandwich. The model differs from template in loop regions, number of β strands and carbohydrate-binding site. Carrageenan and glycan bind to different sites on AFAL. The ability of AFAL binding to carrageenan can be explained by absence of the sixth β -strand (posterior β sheets) and two β strands in frontal region. AFAL can inhibit pathway inflammatory process by carrageenan injection by connecting to it and preventing its entry into the cell and triggers the reaction. PMID:24490151

  9. Molecular Modeling of Lectin-Like Protein from Acacia farnesiana Reveals a Possible Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Erika Ferreira Abrantes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA. Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN. This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through structural comparison with anti-inflammatory legume lectins. The AFAL model was obtained by molecular modeling and molecular docking with glycan and carrageenan were performed to explain the AFAL structural behavior and biological activity. Pisum sativum lectin was the best template for molecular modeling. The AFAL structure model is folded as a β sandwich. The model differs from template in loop regions, number of β strands and carbohydrate-binding site. Carrageenan and glycan bind to different sites on AFAL. The ability of AFAL binding to carrageenan can be explained by absence of the sixth β-strand (posterior β sheets and two β strands in frontal region. AFAL can inhibit pathway inflammatory process by carrageenan injection by connecting to it and preventing its entry into the cell and triggers the reaction.

  10. NMR study on the network structure of a mixed gel of kappa and iota carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bingjie; Du, Lei; Matsukawa, Shingo

    2016-10-01

    The temperature dependencies of the (1)H T2 and diffusion coefficient (D) of a mixed solution of kappa-carrageenan and iota-carrageenan were measured by NMR. Rheological and NMR measurements suggested an exponential formation of rigid aggregates of kappa-carrageenan and a gradual formation of fine aggregates of iota-carrageenan during two step increases of G'. The results also suggested that longer carrageenan chains are preferentially involved in aggregation, thus resulting in a decrease in the average Mw of solute carrageenans. The results of diffusion measurements for poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) suggested that kappa-carrageenan formed thick aggregates that decreased hindrance to PEO diffusion by decreasing the solute kappa-carrageenan concentration in the voids of the aggregated chains, and that iota-carrageenan formed fine aggregates that decreased the solute iota-carrageenan concentration less. DPEO in a mixed solution of kappa-carrageenan and iota-carrageenan suggested two possibilities for the microscopic network structure: an interpenetrating network structure, or micro-phase separation. PMID:27312613

  11. Interactions between K-carrageenan and chitosan in nanolayered coatings - Structural and transport properties

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Pinheiro; Bourbon, A. I.; Medeiros, Bartolomeu G. de S.; Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes da; Silva, Maria do Carmo Hespanhol da; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G.; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Vicente, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The interactions between -carrageenan and chitosan, two oppositely charged polysaccharides, have been investigated through microcalorimetric and quartz crystal microbalance measurements. Microcalorimetric measurements show that -carrageenan/chitosan interaction is an exothermic process and that the alternate deposition of -carrageenan and chitosan results in the formation of a nanolayered coating mainly due to the electrostatic interactions existing between the two polyelectrol...

  12. Tensile and tear strength of carrageenan film from Philippine eucheuma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Annabelle V; Ambal, Wilhelmina O; Estrella, Romulo R; Pangilinan, Rolando; De Vera, Carlos J; Pacis, Raymund L; Rodriguez, Ner; Villanueva, Merle A

    2004-01-01

    The tensile and tear strength of carrageenan film from Philippines Eucheuma species were investigated using NEC tensilon universal-testing machine according to American Society for Testing Materials methods. These properties are important for assessing carrageenan film as packaging material. The kappa and iota types were used in the study. The effect of glycerine on the tensile and tear strength including elongation was also evaluated. Addition of glycerine tended to lower the tensile strength of the film and increase its elongation properties including the tear strength. Carrageenan film without glycerine was much stronger. Glycerine made the film more flexible and easy to deform. The composite film of carrageenan and konjac gum did not exhibit elongation. It also showed higher tensile strength than did the composite film of carrageenan and xanthan gum. Compared with iota-type carrageenan film, kappa-type carrageenan film without glycerine was more comparable to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film in terms of tensile strength as was the composite film of carrageenan-konjac gum. The kappa-type carrageenan film with glycerine was more comparable to LDPE film in terms of tear strength. The elongation reading for carrageenan film was lower than that for LDPE film. Morphologic studies showed that the carrageenan film had sets of pores distributed randomly at different places as compared to LDPE film. It also showed that the carrageenan film was more fibrous than LDPE film. PMID:15085409

  13. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Edible Surface Coating Based on Carrageenan Conjugated with Silver Nanoparticles on Sekaki Papaya (Carica Papaya cv. Sekaki): A New Antimicrobial Edible Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibacterial properties of edible surface coating based on carrageenan incorporated with silver nanoparticles (SNPs), was investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to obtain optimum concentration of SNPs. Results obtained indicate that SNPs with concentration of 40 ml L-1 effectively inhibited the growth of both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Sekaki papaya fruits were then coated with prepared edible coating formulation comprising of carrageenan (0.8 % w/v) and glycerol (1.0 % w/v) with and without SNPs (40 ppm) and stored at ambient conditions (26±2 degree Celsius and 60±10 % RH). Microbial analysis of coated and uncoated papaya samples during storage indicated that the edible coating comprising of carrageenan, glycerol and SNPs, strongly inhibited the growth of fungus that caused post harvest diseases of papaya as compared to uncoated and coated papaya fruits with edible coating without SNPs. (author)

  14. Follistatin Alleviates Synovitis and Articular Cartilage Degeneration Induced by Carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun; Abula, Kahaer; Inoue, Makiko; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Activins are proinflammatory cytokines which belong to the TGFβ superfamily. Follistatin is an extracellular decoy receptor for activins. Since both activins and follistatin are expressed in articular cartilage, we hypothesized that activin-follistatin signaling participates in the process of joint inflammation and cartilage degeneration. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of follistatin in a carrageenan-induced mouse arthritis model. Synovitis induced by intra-articular injection of carrageenan was significantly alleviated by preinjection with follistatin. Macrophage infiltration into the synovial membrane was significantly reduced in the presence of follistatin. In addition, follistatin inhibited proteoglycan erosion induced by carrageenan in articular cartilage. These data indicate that activin-follistatin signaling is involved in joint inflammation and cartilage homeostasis. Our data suggest that follistatin can be a new therapeutic target for inflammation-induced articular cartilage degeneration. PMID:25574420

  15. Oxidative Stress and Carbonyl Lesions in Ulcerative Colitis and Associated Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqi Wang; Sai Li; Yu Cao; Xuefei Tian; Rong Zeng; Duan-Fang Liao; Deliang Cao

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has long been known as a pathogenic factor of ulcerative colitis (UC) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC), but the effects of secondary carbonyl lesions receive less emphasis. In inflammatory conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion free radical (O2 ∙−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (HO∙), are produced at high levels and accumulated to cause oxidative stress (OS). In oxidative status, accumulated ROS can cause protein dy...

  16. Intracolonic Vancomycin for Severe Clostridium difficile Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Peter K.; Huh, Heesun C.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Feinberg, Elyssa J.; Ahmad, Salman; Coyle, Christina; Teperman, Sheldon; Boothe, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile colitis is associated with increased age, antibiotic usage, and hospitalization. Severe C. difficile colitis refractory to medical therapy may require surgical intervention including subtotal colectomy. We initiated an adjuvant intracolonic vancomycin (ICV) enema protocol for inpatients with severe C. difficile colitis and compared the response to this therapy in patients from the community and nursing homes.

  17. Light-emitting diodes at 940nm attenuate colitis-induced inflammatory process in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belém, Mônica O; de Andrade, Giovana M M; Carlos, Thalita M; Guazelli, Carla F S; Fattori, Victor; Toginho Filho, Dari O; Dias, Ivan F L; Verri, Waldiceu A; Araújo, Eduardo J A

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presents intense inflammatory infiltrate, crypt abscesses, ulceration and even loss of function. Despite the clinical relevance of IBD, its current therapy remains poorly effective. Infrared wavelength phototherapy shows therapeutic potential on inflammation. Our goal was to evaluate whether light-emitting diodes (LED) at 940nm are capable of mitigating the colitis-induced inflammatory process in mice. Forty male Swiss mice were assigned into five groups: control; control treated with LED therapy; colitis without treatment; colitis treated with LED therapy; colitis treated with Prednisolone. Experimental colitis was induced by acetic acid 7.5% (pH2.5) rectal administration. LED therapy was performed with light characterized by wavelength of 940nm, 45nm bandwidth, intensity of 4.05J/cm(2), total power of 270mW and total dose of 64.8J for 4min in a single application. Colitis-induced intestinal transit delay was inhibited by LED therapy. Colitis caused an increase of colon dimensions (length, diameter, total area) and colon weight (edema), which were inhibited by LED therapy. LED therapy also decreased colitis-induced tissue gross lesion, myeloperoxidase activity, microscopic tissue damage score and the presence of inflammatory infiltrate in all intestinal layers. Furthermore, LED therapy inhibited colitis-induced IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. We conclude LED therapy at 940nm inhibited experimental colitis-induced colon inflammation in mice, therefore, rendering it a promising therapeutic approach that deserves further investigation. PMID:27424097

  18. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42±19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  19. Brachyspira murdochii colitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, A. S.; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochete Brachyspira murdochii is considered a normal intestinal commensal. In the present study, however, a field case of B murdochii–associated catarrhal colitis was identified in a pig, as characterized by extensive spirochetal colonization of the surface...... epithelium. Experimentally, 8 weaned pigs were challenged with the B murdochii isolate, reproducing catarrhal colitis in 2 animals. By applying fluorescent in situ hybridization using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA, B murdochii organisms were found in high numbers and were...... closely associated with the surface epithelium in the pigs with catarrhal colitis. The results indicate that, when present in high numbers, B murdochii is low pathogenic for pigs....

  20. Ischemic colitis associated with intestinal vasculitis: Histological proof in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong Rok Lee; Chang Nyol Paik; Jin Dong Kim; Woo Chul Chung; Kang-Moon Lee; Jin Mo Yang

    2008-01-01

    Ischemic colitis is an uncommon complication in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SIE). In previously reported cases of colitis caused by SLE, intestinal vasculitis is implicated as the causative process, but is rarely confirmed histologically. We described a case of a 32-year-old man with increased activity of SLE, who presented with hematochezia and abdominal pain due to ischemic colitis with small vessel vasculitis which was proven by sigmoidoscopic biopsy. The clinical course of the patient was improved after steroid and conservative management.

  1. Radiolysis studies of kappa carrageenan for bio based materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappa (κ-) carrageenan oligomers are known to have several biological activities such as anti-HIV, anti-herpes, anti tumor and antioxidant properties. Recent progress in the development of radiation modified κ-carrageenan has resulted in new applications such as plant growth promoter, radiation dose indicator and hydrogels for wound dressing. This study would investigate on the changes in chemical structure, gelation and conformational transition behavior and molecular size of κ-carrageenan at doses from 0 to 200 kGy and would be correlated to these functions for the development of bio-based materials. Pulse radiolysis studies on κ-carrageenan was carried out to determine what transient species directly affects the degradation rate of κ-carrageenan in aqueous solution. The results reveal that there is no seeming reaction of the hydrated electron with κ-carrageenan. OH reacts with κ-carrageenan at a fast rate of approximately 1.2 x 109M-1a-1. This value was influenced by conformational change from helix to coil by the addition of the metal ion Na+, reduction of molecular weight by the hydrolysis reaction and reduction of reactive sites by seasonally or irradiation. Most applications from the radiation degradation of polysaccharides started with the use of the ''hit and miss'' process where polysaccharides were irradiated at a certain dose range and finding out which dose is suitable for a specific function. Measurement of the radiation degradation yield (Gd) at different conditions can give an approximation of the Mw at an absorbed dose. This will allow the production of oligomers with a specified Mw. With the use of the Gd both in solid and in aqueous solution, one can also make a rough calculation whether it is more economical to irradiateκ-carrageenan in solid r in aqueous solution. Results of this experiment reveal that the radiation yields (Gd) of κ-carrageenan in solid and in aqueous (1%) were as follows: 2.5, 1.7 and 1.2 x 10-7 mol J-1 for solid in

  2. Cholangiographic findings in ulcerative colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) was performed in 28 patients with hepatobiliary disease associated with ulcerative colitis. The films were reviewed and correlated with diagnoses at liver biopsy. Thirteen patients with extrahepatic as well as intrahepatic bile duct abnormalities had characteristic cholangiographic findings compatible with sclerosing cholangitis, together with cholangiocarcinoma in one patient. Six patients had intrahepatic bile duct involvement only, and the cholangiographic abnormalities differed from those of sclerosing cholangitis. In 5 of these patients cirrhosis of the liver was found at biopsy or clinically. The result indicates that in patients with hepatobiliary disease suggested in association with ulcerative colitis, ERC gives valuable information. (Auth.)

  3. λ-Carrageenan P32 Is a Potent Inhibitor of Rabies Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhaochen; Tian, Dayong; Zhou, Ming; Xiao, Wenjie; Zhang, Yachun; Li, Mingming; Sui, Baokun; Wang, Wei; Guan, Huashi; Chen, Huanchun; Fu, Zhen F.; Zhao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Rabies, caused by rabies virus (RABV), is an acute, fatal encephalitic disease that affects many warm-blooded mammals. Currently, post-exposure prophylaxis regimens are effective for most rabies cases, but once the clinical signs of the disease appear, current treatment options become ineffective. Carrageenan has been reported as a potent inhibitor of many viruses. In this study, the λ-carrageenan (λ-CG) P32 was investigated for its potential role in inhibiting RABV infection. Our results show that P32 specifically inhibits the replication of several RABV strains but not vesicular stomatitis virus in multiple cell lines and shows low cytotoxicity. P32 mainly abrogated viral replication during the early stage of the post-adsorption period. Further studies demonstrated that P32 could affect not only viral internalization but also viral uncoating by blocking cell fusion mediated by RABV glycoprotein. Moreover, P32 can fully inhibit RABV infection in vitro during the post-adsorption period, whereas heparin and heparan sulfate, which possess similar structures to P32, showed significant but not complete inhibition of RABV infectivity. Collectively, our results indicate that λ-CG P32 is a promising agent that can inhibit RABV infection mainly by inhibiting viral internalization and glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion and can be used for the development of novel anti-RABV drugs. PMID:26465753

  4. Self-assembled carrageenan/protamine polyelectrolyte nanoplexes-Investigation of critical parameters governing their formation and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dul, Maria; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Kelly, Hazel; Healy, Anne Marie; Sasse, Astrid; Tajber, Lidia

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of cross-linker free polyelectrolyte complex formation at the nanoscale between carrageenan (CAR) and protamine (PROT). The properties of CAR/PROT nanoparticles (NPs) were dependent on the carrageenan type: kappa (KC), iota (IC) and lambda (LC), concentration of components, addition of divalent cations, weight mixing ratio (WMR) of constituents and mode of component addition. In the case of 0.1% w/v solutions, IC-based NPs had the smallest particle sizes (100-150nm) and low polydispersity indices (0.1-0.4). A decrease in the solution concentration from 0.1% to 0.05% w/v enabled the formation of KC/PROT NPs. All carrageenans exhibited the ability to form NPs with surface charge ranging from -190 to 40mV. The inclusion of divalent cations caused an increase in the particle size and zeta potential. Infrared analysis confirmed the presence of a complex between CAR and PROT and showed that IC chains undergo structural changes when forming NPs. Colloidal stability of NPs was related to the initial surface charge of particles and was time- and pH-dependent. IC was found to be the most suitable type of CAR when forming nanoplexes with PROT. PMID:25843867

  5. Exogenous Ghrelin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Gałązka, Krystyna; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Gil, Krzysztof; Olszanecki, Rafał; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that ghrelin reduces colonic inflammation induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and dextran sodium sulfate. In the present study we determined the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Rectal administration of 3% acetic acid solution led to induction of colitis in all animals. Damage of the colonic wall was accompanied by an increase in mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Moreover, induction of colitis led to a reduction in colonic blood flow and DNA synthesis. Administration of ghrelin after induction of colitis led to faster regeneration of the colonic wall and reduction in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase. In addition, treatment with ghrelin improved mucosal DNA synthesis and blood flow. Our study disclosed that ghrelin exhibits a strong anti-inflammatory and healing effect in acetic acid-induced colitis. Our current observation in association with previous findings that ghrelin exhibits curative effect in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis suggest that therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the colon is universal and independent of the primary cause of colitis. PMID:27598133

  6. Intractable colitis associated with chronic granulomatous disease in a young girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Aytaç; Kuloğlu, Zarife; Doğu, Figen; İkincioğulları, Aydan; Ensari, Arzu; Çiftçi, Ergin; Kansu, Aydan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an autosomal recessive or X-linked disorder caused by NADPH oxidase deficiency leading to an impaired ability of reactive superoxide anion and metabolite formation and recurring severe bacterial and fungal infections, with a high mortality rate. Diarrhea, colitis, ileus, perirectal abscess formation and anal fissures are reported gastrointestinal findings in these patients. We report a case of intractable colitis associated with CGD in a young girl. PMID:26690604

  7. Studies of barrier function in patients with ulcerative colitis and pouchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Persborn, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Background and aim: The cause of ulcerative colitis (UC) is largely unknown. However, there is a presumed genetic component to susceptibility and altered intestinal barrier function has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ulcerative colitis. There is evidence that the increased intestinal permeability in IBD is partly controlled by delicate intercellular circuits in the colonic tissue linked to the enteric nervous system. Little is, however, known about how this is regulated in detail. ...

  8. Role of Leptin-Mediated Colonic Inflammation in Defense against Clostridium difficile Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Madan, Rajat; Guo, Xiaoti; Naylor, Caitlin; Buonomo, Erica L.; Mackay, Donald; Noor, Zannatun; Concannon, Patrick; Scully, Kenneth W.; Pramoonjago, Patcharin; Kolling, Glynis L.; Cirle A Warren; Duggal, Priya; William A. Petri

    2014-01-01

    The role of leptin in the mucosal immune response to Clostridium difficile colitis, a leading cause of nosocomial infection, was studied in humans and in a murine model. Previously, a mutation in the receptor for leptin (LEPR) was shown to be associated with susceptibility to infectious colitis and liver abscess due to Entamoeba histolytica as well as to bacterial peritonitis. Here we discovered that European Americans homozygous for the same LEPR Q223R mutation (rs1137101), known to result i...

  9. Kolorektal cancerudvikling ved colitis ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Jane; Langholz, E.; Frisch, Morten; Bjerrum, J.T.; Nielsen, O.H.

    2010-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is believed to carry a predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. International clinical guidelines suggest that UC patients should have a colonoscopy performed every year or up to every third year from approximately eight years after diagnosis for early...

  10. Treatment of experimental ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazebnik, L B; Lychkova, A E; Knyazev, O V

    2012-10-01

    The effects of infliximab, an anticytokine drug, on the course of inflammatory process was studied on the model of ulcerative colitis induced by injection of picrylsulfonic acid. Infliximab prevented the development of toxic dilatation and a drop of bioelectric activity of smooth muscles via maintenance of activity of the intramural nervous system neurons. PMID:23113311

  11. Management of pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Dan; Levine, Arie; Escher, Johanna C; Griffiths, Anne M; Russell, Richard K; Dignass, Axel; Dias, Jorge Amil; Bronsky, Jiri; Braegger, Christian P; Cucchiara, Salvatore; de Ridder, Lissy; Fagerberg, Ulrika L; Hussey, Séamus; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Kolacek, Sanja; Kolho, Kaija Leena; Lionetti, Paolo; Paerregaard, Anders; Potapov, Alexander; Rintala, Risto; Serban, Daniela E; Staiano, Annamaria; Sweeny, Brian; Veerman, Gigi; Veres, Gabor; Wilson, David C; Ruemmele, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) shares many features with adult-onset disease but there are some unique considerations; therefore, therapeutic approaches have to be adapted to these particular needs. We aimed to formulate guidelines for managing UC in children based on a systematic review (SR) of...

  12. Biofunctionalized magnetic hydrogel nanospheres of magnetite and {kappa}-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L; Fateixa, Sara; Trindade, Tito; Goodfellow, Brian J; Gil, Ana M [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guiomar, Antonio J [Department of Biochemistry and CNC, University of Coimbra, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Costa, Benilde F O [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, Nuno J O, E-mail: ana.luisa@ua.p [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Aragon, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-09-02

    Magnetic hydrogel {kappa}-carrageenan nanospheres were successfully prepared via water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions combined with thermally induced gelation of the polysaccharide. The size of the nanospheres (an average diameter () of about 50 and 75 nm) was modulated by varying the concentration of surfactant. The nanospheres contained superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (8 nm), previously prepared by co-precipitation within the biopolymer. Carboxyl groups, at a concentration of about 4 mmol g{sup -1}, were successfully grafted at the surface of these magnetic nanospheres via carboxymethylation of the {kappa}-carrageenan. The carboxylated nanospheres were shown to be thermo-sensitive in the 37-45 {sup 0}C temperature range, indicating their potential as thermally controlled delivery systems for drugs and/or magnetic particles at physiological temperatures. Finally, preliminary results have been obtained for IgG antibody conjugation of the carboxylated nanospheres and the potential of these systems for bio-applications is discussed.

  13. Biofunctionalized magnetic hydrogel nanospheres of magnetite and κ-carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L.; Fateixa, Sara; Guiomar, António J.; Costa, Benilde F. O.; Silva, Nuno J. O.; Trindade, Tito; Goodfellow, Brian J.; Gil, Ana M.

    2009-09-01

    Magnetic hydrogel κ-carrageenan nanospheres were successfully prepared via water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions combined with thermally induced gelation of the polysaccharide. The size of the nanospheres (an average diameter (∅) of about 50 and 75 nm) was modulated by varying the concentration of surfactant. The nanospheres contained superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (∅8 nm), previously prepared by co-precipitation within the biopolymer. Carboxyl groups, at a concentration of about 4 mmol g-1, were successfully grafted at the surface of these magnetic nanospheres via carboxymethylation of the κ-carrageenan. The carboxylated nanospheres were shown to be thermo-sensitive in the 37-45 °C temperature range, indicating their potential as thermally controlled delivery systems for drugs and/or magnetic particles at physiological temperatures. Finally, preliminary results have been obtained for IgG antibody conjugation of the carboxylated nanospheres and the potential of these systems for bio-applications is discussed.

  14. Carrageenans from red seaweeds as promoters of growth and elicitors of defense response in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pushp Sheel Shukla; Tudor eBorza; Critchley, Alan T; Balakrishnan ePrithiviraj

    2016-01-01

    Plants incessantly encounter abiotic and biotic stresses that limit their growth and productivity. However, conversely, plant growth can also be induced by treatments with various abiotic and biotic elicitors. Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides that represent major cellular constituents of seaweeds belonging to red algae (Rhodophyta). Recent research has unraveled the biological activity of carrageenans and of their oligomeric forms, the oligo carrageenans (OCs), as promoters of...

  15. Preparation and characterization of carboxymethylated carrageenan modified with collagen peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lihong; Tong, Jun; Tang, Chang; Wu, Huan; Peng, Min; Yi, Jiayan

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan collagen peptide (CMKC-COP) was via an imide-bond forming reaction between carboxyl groups in carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan (CMKC) and amino groups in collagen peptide in the presence of 1-ethyl-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxy sulfosuccinimide (NHS). CMKC-COP products were verified with infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results of degree of substitution (DS) of CMKC-COP was presented, which are depended on reaction time, molar ratio of collagen peptide to carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan and reaction temperature. The optimal reaction conditions were studied by means of single factor experiment. Also MTT assay was applied to evaluate the effects of CMKC-COP on proliferation of chick embryo fibroblasts. The animal experiment results indicated that the wound covered with CMKC-COP were completely filled with new epithelium within 2 weeks without any significant adverse side reactions. Therefore, the CMKC-COP showed the potentiality to repair skin in cosmetic, biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. PMID:26526172

  16. Carrageenan and agaran structures from the red seaweed Gymnogongrus tenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Recalde, Mercedes; Canelón, Dilsia J; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Matulewicz, María C; Cerezo, Alberto S; Ciancia, Marina

    2016-01-20

    The galactan system biosynthesized by the red seaweed Gymnogongrus tenuis (Phyllophoraceae) is constituted by major amounts of κ/ι-carrageenans, with predominance of ι-structures, which were isolated by extraction with hot water in high yield (∼ 45%). A small amount of non-cyclized carrageenans mostly of the ν-type was also obtained. Besides, 12% of these galactans are agaran structures, which were present in major quantities in the room temperature water extracts, but they were also found in the hot water extract. They are constituted by 3-linked β-D-galactose units partially substituted on C-6 with sulfate or single stubs of β-D-xylose and 4-linked residues that comprise α-L-galactose units partially sulfated or methoxylated on C-3 or sulfated on C-3 and C-6 and 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactose. Related structural patterns were previously found for agarans synthesized by other carrageenophytes. Results presented here show that these agarans are low molecular weight molecules independent of the carrageenan structures, with strong interactions between them. PMID:26572482

  17. Facile preparation of monolithic κ-carrageenan aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kathirvel; Ratke, Lorenz

    2014-05-14

    To the best of our knowledge, it is the first study reporting the synthesis of monolithic κ-carrageenan aerogels with meso- and macroporous structures, being unique in physical and chemical properties. We demonstrate a novel method to synthesize κ-carrageenan aerogels in which potassium thiocyanate was used as the source of specific ions. Aerogels were characterized by envelope density analysis, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray powder diffractometry and IR spectroscopy. By varying the concentration of κ-carrageenan between 0.5 and 3 wt%, the envelope density can be linearly increased from 40 to 160 kg m⁻³. The sulphate functional groups in the wet gel and the specific ions are the key factors controlling the volume shrinkage of aerogels which average about 66%. The aerogels exhibit a fibrillar structure similar to cellulose aerogels. The fibril thickness was observed to be 10-15 nm and the specific surface area was about 230 m² g⁻¹. The existing meso- and macroporous structures were confirmed by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The aerogels were completely pure, free of specific ions and confirmed to be amorphous by powder X-ray diffraction. Hence, these porous materials can provide a matrix with a chelating function which can be used as a host in many applications. PMID:24718695

  18. Empyema Caused by Clostridium difficile

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren A; Gibb, A. Patrick; Gill, M John

    1999-01-01

    Extraintestinal infections of Clostridium difficile are rare and often associated with underlying disorders. A case of empyema caused by aspiration of C difficile in a patient with carcinoid syndrome and C difficile colitis is described.

  19. Clear cell colitis: A form of microscopic colitis in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan J(o)zefczuk; Bogdan Marian Wozniewicz

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To describe a new clinical and pathological subtype of microscopic colitis in children.METHODS: A selected group of children with abdominal pain, constipation and/or diarrhoea showing discrete or no macroscopic abnormalities on endoscopy was described.RESULTS: Multiple biopsies of colon showed large mononuclear clear cells in lamina propria of mucous membrane provided that good quality histological sections were performed and observed under a higher magnification. Otherwise, they could be misinterpreted as artefacts. Their presence in routine histology might suggest a systemic storage disease (Whipple's disease), and neuronal intestine dysplasia.Using immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy we confirmed their origin from CD68 positive mononuclear macrophages.CONCLUSION: The presence of large clear cells is a constant microscopic feature. Failure of transient large bowel stationary macrophages plays a role in the pathogenesis of this benign microscopic clear cell colitis,sometimes coexisting with allergy.

  20. Macrophage expression in acute radiation colitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although radiation therapy is important in the treatment of tumors in pelvic and abdominal region, it may cause radiation injury as a side effect. But there is no effective way of preventing or curing the damages. The mechanism of acute radiation colitis has not been elucidated yet. Our previous reports have revealed that X-ray irradiation induce apoptosis of epithelial stem cells in colon. Then a hypothesis of the radiation colitis can be put forward, DNA damage by irradiation, apoptosis of mucosal epithelial stem cells and degeneration of epithelial gland structure, macrophages phagocyte the debris, being activated and secreting various inflammatory cytokines, infiltration of inflammatory cells. Several recent reports show that macrophages may play an important role in the process of inflammatory bowel diseases such ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. We studied radiation colitis using rat animal models. Male Wister rats were irradiated by a single fraction dose of 22.5 Gy X-ray at laparotomy, shielding except for an approximately 2.5 cm length of rectum. Histological changes and macrophage accumulation in the rectum mucosa were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot method with the specimens which were taken on the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14th day after irradiation. Severe macrophage accumulation in the lamina propria of the rectum was observed on the 5th day. At the same time, severe destruction of mucosal structure and inflammatory cells infiltration were also observed. Based on the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine producing effects of macrophage in rat and the increased expression in inflammatory bowel disease patients, speculate that intervention in the macrophage-cytokine network could form a future target for the treatment of acute radiation colitis. (author)

  1. Kinetic study of κ-carrageenan degradation and its impact on mechanical and structural properties of chitosan/κ-carrageenan film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mahdiyar; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir; Ettelaie, Rammile; Rafe, Ali

    2016-05-20

    The purpose of the current research was to study κ-carrageenan degradation behavior under thermal treatment, and its influence on chitosan κ-carrageenan film properties. A pseudo-first-order reaction equation was applied by using reciprocal plots of κ-carrageenan molecular mass versus heating time, which showed a strong dependence on heating time. Incorporation of thermally treated κ-carrageenan into the chitosan had diminished both water resistance and water vapor permeability of the blend, in contrast to those for intact or untreated κ-carrageenan. A dramatic decrease of equilibrium moisture content and tensile strength were noticed, and these parameters were more affected by the longer times. Furthermore, the contact angle of the films was found to be a function of the heating time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed apparent agglomeration of κ-carrageenan through the thermal process. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the intact blend had the flattest surface, whilst the blend containing treated κ-carrageenan had high roughness. PMID:26917387

  2. Ulcerative colitis associated with chronic granulomatous disease: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanzade, Farid; Sayarri, Aliakbar; Tajik, Pantea

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is an inherited primary immunodeficiency disease which increases the body's susceptibility to infections caused by certain bacteria and fungi. CGD is a rare disease, caused by four genes, one type is 1X linked and the other three are "autosomal recessive". Although clinical presentation is variable, but characteristic features are recurrent pneumonia, lymphadenitis, hepatic or other abscesses. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms are common in x-linked recessive form of CGD. These include gastric and esophageal obstruction and inflammatory bowel disease. GI involvement including small and large intestines, the findings of luminal narrowing and the presence of granuloma can make it difficult to distinguish from Crohn's disease. On the other hands according to the literature ulcerative colitis is rarely reported in patients with CGD. Our case presented with ulcerative colitis with CGD. PMID:26328046

  3. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-02-03

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  4. Pythium insidiosum colitis in a dog: treatment and clinical outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyumi Fujimori; Erika Rondon Lopes; Samara Rosolem Lima; Daphine Ariadne Jesus de Paula; Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de Almeida; Edson Moleta Colodel; Caroline Argenta Pescador; Pedro Eduardo Brandini Néspoli; Luciano Nakazato; Valéria Dutra; Roberto Lopes de Souza; Valéria Régia Franco Sousa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this report is to describe the clinical, pathological and imaging findings and treatment of colitis caused by Pythium insidiosum in a canine presenting haematochezia and progressive weight loss. Through imaging, a thickening of the transverse and descending colon was observed. Histopathological analysis of the large intestine fragment revealed the presence of hyphae, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR as P. insidiosum. Antifungal treatment with itraconazole impleme...

  5. Pythium insidiosum colitis in a dog: treatment and clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyumi Fujimori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this report is to describe the clinical, pathological and imaging findings and treatment of colitis caused by Pythium insidiosum in a canine presenting haematochezia and progressive weight loss. Through imaging, a thickening of the transverse and descending colon was observed. Histopathological analysis of the large intestine fragment revealed the presence of hyphae, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR as P. insidiosum. Antifungal treatment with itraconazole implemented after partial surgical resection, resulted in control of the disease.

  6. Damage to the Enteric Nervous System in Experimental Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sanovic, Srdan; Lamb, Damian P.; Blennerhassett, Michael G

    1999-01-01

    Inflammation of the intestine causes pain and altered motility, at least in part through effects on the enteric nervous system. While these changes may be reversed with healing, permanent damage may contribute to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and post-enteritis irritable bowel syndrome. Since little information exists, we induced colitis in male Sprague-Dawley rats with dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and used immunocytochemistry to examine the number and distribution of enteric neurons at ti...

  7. Estimation of thermal distribution in tissue-mimicking phantom made of carrageenan gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoon; Jung, Jihee; Kim, Moojoon; Ha, Kanglyeol

    2015-07-01

    To probe the temperature elevation effect caused by ultrasound, the use of a tissue-mimicking phantom was newly suggested. Carrageenan gel was adopted to realize not only the required transparency for visualization but also the acoustic characteristics similar to those of human tissue. To visualize the temperature elevation effect inside the phantom, thermochromic film with a critical temperature of discoloration was introduced. From the visualized image, the temperature elevation due to planar and focused ultrasound in the phantom was obtained quantitatively. To verify the suggested method, the bioheat equation was solved numerically by the Fourier transform method. The theoretical results show good agreement with experimental ones regarding the temperature distribution while plane and focused ultrasound was irradiated into the phantom.

  8. Turner Syndrome with Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hyodo, Hiromi; TOMITA, Yuichiro; Hirai, Kohta; HIRAKAWA, Hitoshi; Ueno, Shigeru; Ishiguro, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disease frequently associated with autoimmune disorders including diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although the etiology of IBD has not been fully elucidated, genetic analysis has recently revealed several susceptibility genes. Recently, cases with Turner syndrome associated with IBD have been reported. We report here a 13-yr-old girl with Turner syndrome associated with ulcerative colitis. The patient was undergoing gro...

  9. Radiographical evaluation of ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak, Parakkal; Bruining, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Radiographical modalities have become important diagnostic tools in cases of ulcerative colitis (UC). Imaging can be used non-invasively to determine the extent of involvement, severity of disease and to detect disease-related complications and extra-intestinal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) manifestations. While abdominal X-rays and barium enemas still retain their relevance in specific clinical settings, the use of computed tomography enterography (CTE) or magnetic resonance enterography ...

  10. Colitis after polytrauma: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    William E. Carter, MD, MPH; Isaac A. Darko, MD; Priya Chandan, MD, MPH; Ajit B. Pai, MD

    2014-01-01

    Across the medical literature, delayed diagnosis and treatment leads to more costly and worse outcomes. Rehabilitation patients, especially those with polytrauma, often have a complex mixture of medical, social, and psychological health problems that can impair effective diagnosis and treatment. The case presentation describes the procession toward the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis in a preinjury asymptomatic male, suggesting a potential mechanism for its emergence and describing the effect...

  11. Current treatment of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johannes Meier; Andreas Sturm

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease featuring recurrent inflammation of the colonic mucosa. The goal of medical treatment is to rapidly induce a steroid-free remission while at the same time preventing complications of the disease itself and its treatment. The choice of treatment depends on severity, localization and the course of the disease. For proctitis, topical therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds is used. More extensive or severe disease should be treated with oral and local 5-ASA compounds and corticosteroids to induce remission. Patients who do not respond to this treatment require hospitalization. Intravenous steroids or, when refractory, calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine, tacrolimus), tumor necrosis factor-α antibodies (infliximab) or immunomodulators (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine) are then called for. Indications for emergency surgery include refractory toxic megacolon, perforation, and continuous severe colorectal bleeding. Close collaboration between gastroenterologist and surgeon is mandatory in order not to delay surgical therapy when needed. This article is intended to give a general, practice- orientated overview of the key issues in ulcerative colitis treatment. Recommendations are based on published consensus guidelines derived from national and international guidelines on the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  12. Preparation of hybrid nano biocomposite κ-carrageenan/cellulose nanocrystal/nanoclay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakuwan, Siti Zarina; Ahmad, Ishak; Ramli, Nazaruddin

    2013-11-01

    Biodegradable composites film based on κ-carrageenan and nano particles as filler was prepared to study the mechanical strength of carrageenan composites. Solution casting technique was used to prepare_this biocomposite. Preparation of composite film and nano filler involve two stages, preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from kenaf with alkali treatment, bleaching, and hydrolysis followed by the preparation of two types of nano composite. Tensile test was carried on the composite film based on κ-carrageenan with the variation percentage of CNC and nano clay to obtain the optimum CNC and nano clay loading. After that hybrid nano-biocomposite film based on κ-carrageenan with the variation percentage of CNC/nano clay (OMMT) according to optimum value of composite carrageenan/CNC and composite carrageenan/nano clay film was prepared. The effect of nano filler on the mechanical properties of carrageenan films was examined. κ-carrageenan biocomposite increased with the optimum at 4% CNC and nano clay composition. Additional improvement of tensile strength with hybridization of CNC and nanoclay indicated better mechanical properties.

  13. The Effects of plasticizers and palmitic acid toward the properties of the carrageenan Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heru Wibowo, Atmanto; Listiyawati, Oktaviana; Purnawan, Candra

    2016-02-01

    Varied plasticizers and palmitic acid additive have been added in the carrageenan film. The film was made by mixing of the carrageenan and plasticizers (glycerol, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol) with composition of 92:3, 90:6, 87:9, 84:12, 81:15(%w/w) and in the presence of palmitic acid as additive with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% of total weight. Casting method was used for the film molding and drying at 60oC with the oven for 12 hours. To investigate the effects of plasticizers and additive, some mechanical tests on film were performed. The test result concludes that plasticizers in the film decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation break of the carrageenan film. The additive of palmitic acid decreased the tensile strength of the carrageenan film and also decreased the-the water absorbance of the film. The highest tensile strength of films made was with the formulation of carrageenan: PEG with composition of 92:3 (% w/w). The highest elongation break of the film was for carrageenan:PVA with the composition of 81: 15 (%w/w) and carrageenan:palmitic acid:PEG with the composition of 92: 3: 1 (%w/w). The lowest water absorption of the film was achieved for carrageenan:PVA:palmitic acid with the composition of 87: 3: 5 (%w/w).

  14. The inhibitory effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on carrageenan-induced nociception in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuka; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Matsuoka, Yoshikazu; Yabuki-Kawase, Akiko; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Maeda, Shigeru; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies showed that the administration of dexmedetomidine relieved hyperalgesia in the presence of neuropathic pain. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the local administration of dexmedetomidine is useful for relieving acute inflammatory nociception, such as postoperative pain. Thus, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on acute inflammatory nociception. Acute inflammatory nociception was induced by an intraplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the hindpaws of rats, and dexmedetomidine was also injected combined with carrageenan. The paw withdrawal threshold based on von Frey filament stimulation was measured until 12 h after injection. We compared the area under the time-curve (AUC) between carrageenan and carrageenan with dexmedetomidine. To clarify that the action of dexmedetomidine was via α2-adrenoceptors, we evaluated the effect of yohimbine, a selective antagonist of α2-adrenoceptors, on the anti-nociception of dexmedetomidine. As the results, the intraplantar injection of carrageenan with over 10 μM dexmedetomidine significantly increased AUC, compared to that with only carrageenan injection. This effect of dexmedetomidine was reversed by the addition of yohimbine to carrageenan and dexmedetomidine. These results demonstrated that the locally injected dexmedetomidine was effective against carrageenan-induced inflammatory nociception via α2-adrenoceptors. The findings suggest that the local injection of dexmedetomidine is useful for relieving local acute inflammatory nociception. PMID:26160316

  15. The effect of methylsulfonylmethane on the experimental colitis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), naturally occurring in green plants, fruits and vegetables, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. MSM is an organosulfur compound and a normal oxidative metabolite of dimethyl sulfoxide. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of MSM in a rat model of experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 1 ml of 5% of acetic acid. Rats were treated with MSM (400 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 days. Animals were euthanized and distal colon evaluated histologically and biochemically. Tissue samples were used to measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1β) levels. Results showed that MSM decreased macroscopic and microscopic colonic damage scores caused by administration of acetic acid. MSM treatment also significantly reduced colonic levels of MDA, MPO and IL-1β, while increased the levels of GSH and CAT compared with acetic acid-induced colitis group. It seems that MSM as a natural product may have a protective effect in an experimental ulcerative colitis. - Research Highlights: → Methylsulfonylmethane occurs naturally in some green plants, fruits and vegetables. → Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. → We evaluated the effects of MSM in a rat model of experimental ulcerative colitis. → MSM has protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis in rat.

  16. Structural characterization and antioxidant activities of κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides degraded by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Yang, Bingying; Wu, Yanmin; Liu, Yang; Gu, Xiao; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Chengjian; Cao, Hongzhi; Huang, Linjuan; Wang, Zhongfu

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, four kinds of κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides were obtained by the degradation of parent κ-carrageenan using free radical depolymerization, mild acid hydrolysis, κ-carrageenase digestion and partial reductive hydrolysis, respectively. Their structure types were accurately and comparatively elucidated by ESI-MS and CID MS/MS. The antioxidant activities of different degraded products were investigated by four different antioxidant assays, including superoxide radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The methods of depolymerization had an influence on the antioxidant activities of κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides obtained from κ-carrageenan. These results indicated that the antioxidant activities of κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides could be related to the degree of polymerization, the content of reducing sugar and sulfate groups, and the structure of reducing terminus. PMID:25704717

  17. Cationization of kappa- and iota-carrageenan--Characterization and properties of amphoteric polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Tamara; Prado, Héctor J; Bonelli, Pablo R; Cukierman, Ana L; Fissore, Eliana L; Gerschenson, Lia N; Matulewicz, María C

    2015-08-01

    Commercial kappa- and iota carrageenans were cationized with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. For kappa-carrageenan three derivatives with different degrees of substitution were obtained. Native and amphoteric kappa-carrageenans were characterized by NMR and infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy; methanolysis products were studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Young moduli and the strain at break of films, differential scanning calorimetry, rheological and flocculation behavior were also evaluated; the native and the amphoteric derivatives showed different and interesting properties. Cationization of iota-carrageenan was more difficult, indicating as it was previously observed for agarose, that substitution starts preferentially on the 2-position of 3,6-anhydrogalactose residues; in iota-carrageenan this latter unit is sulfated. PMID:25933524

  18. Carbohydrate availability of arroz caldo with lambda-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumelod, B D; Ramirez, R P; Tiangson, C L; Barrios, E B; Panlasigui, L N

    1999-07-01

    Total available carbohydrate (sugars and starches) and total dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) make up the total carbohydrate content of a food. Soluble fiber decreases the availability of glucose by delaying its absorption in the proximal small intestine, thus reducing the postprandial glucose levels (Jenkins et al., 1978; Schneeman, 1987a). Carrageenan, a seaweed extract, is a good source of soluble fiber (Montaño et al., 1985). This study aimed to determine the effect of carrageenan incorporation into arroz caldo on carbohydrate availability by monitoring the postprandial blood glucose levels of normal subjects. Control and experimental arroz caldo samples were prepared and subjected to proximate analysis and feeding studies. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content of the experimental (2.03%) was about thrice that of the control (0.68%). Using randomized crossover design, preweighed 55 g available carbohydrate serving portions of control and experimental arroz caldo samples, with 3.45 and 14.84 g TDF, respectively, were fed to ten fasting normal subjects then their postprandial blood glucose levels were determined at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min intervals. Results of the short-term in vivo study showed that the mean postprandial glycaemic responses of subjects after consuming the experimental sample were significantly lower than the levels after consuming the control at 15, 45, and 90 min (P arroz caldo than control (147.29 +/- 53.34). The hypoglycaemic effect of carrageenan may prove useful in the prevention and management of metabolic conditions such as diabetes. PMID:10719574

  19. Crohn's colitis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    OpenAIRE

    Boyne, M.; Dye, K.

    2000-01-01

    A 17 year old girl with active Crohn's colitis developed idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura that was managed with intravenous immune globulins and cyclosporin A. The possible association between Crohn's disease and immune thrombocytopenia is explored.


Keywords: Crohn's disease; colitis; thrombocytopenia

  20. Cyclooxygenase-2 immunoreactivity in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Rumessen, Jüri J; Csillag, Claudio;

    2009-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown aetiology and pathogenesis. In ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, prostaglandins may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation, and increased expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been detected. The purpose of...

  1. Molecular Modeling of Lectin-Like Protein from Acacia farnesiana Reveals a Possible Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Erika Ferreira Abrantes; Bruno Anderson Matias da Rocha; Raphael Batista da Nóbrega; José Caetano Silva-Filho; Claudener Souza Teixeira; Benildo Sousa Cavada; Carlos Alberto de Almeida Gadelha; Sergio Henrique Ferreira; Jozi Godoy Figueiredo; Tatiane Santi-Gadelha; Plinio Delatorre

    2013-01-01

    Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL) is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA). Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN). This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through stru...

  2. Probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikx, Lauranne A A P; Dieleman, Levinus A; Hoentjen, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota is one of the key players in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. Manipulation of this microflora with probiotics and prebiotics is an attractive strategy in the management of ulcerative colitis. Several intervention studies for both the induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis patients have been performed. Most of these studies evaluated VSL#3 or E. Coli Nissle 1917 and in general there is evidence for efficacy of these agents for induction and maintenance of remission. However, studies are frequently underpowered, lack a control group, and are very heterogeneous investigating different probiotic strains in different study populations. The absence of well-powered robust randomized placebo-controlled trials impedes the widespread use of probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis. However, given the promising results that are currently available, probiotics and prebiotics may find their way to the treatment algorithm for ulcerative colitis in the near future. PMID:27048897

  3. Kalium kanalers rolle i inflammation i Colitis Ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Koch

    2011-01-01

    Gennemgang af T-cellers kalium kanaler og deres mulige rolle i Colitis Ulcerosa. Artiklen skrevet til Den danske Colitis-Crohn Forenings Medlemsblad.......Gennemgang af T-cellers kalium kanaler og deres mulige rolle i Colitis Ulcerosa. Artiklen skrevet til Den danske Colitis-Crohn Forenings Medlemsblad....

  4. COMPARISON OF SELECTIVE AND NON SELECTIVE CYCLO-OXYGENASE 2 INHIBITORS IN EXPERIMENTAL COLITIS EXACERBATION: role of leukotriene B4 and superoxide dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wander BREGANÓ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are considered one of the most important causes of reactivation of inflammatory bowel disease. With regard to selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors, the results are controversial in experimental colitis as well as in human studies. Objectives The aim this study is to compare nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs effects, selective and non selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors, in experimental colitis and contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs provoke colitis exacerbation. Methods Six groups of rats: without colitis, with colitis, and colitis treated with celecoxib, ketoprofen, indometacin or diclofenac. Survival rates, hemoglobin, plasmatic albumin, colonic tissue of interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, prostaglandin E2, catalase, superoxide dismutase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, chemiluminescence induced by tert-butil hydroperoxides, and tissue and plasmatic leukotriene B4 were determined. Results The groups treated with diclofenac or indometacin presented lower survival rates, hemoglobin and albumin, higher tissue and plasmatic leukotriene B4 and tissue superoxide dismutase than the group treated with celecoxib. Ketoprofen presented an intermediary behavior between diclofenac/indometacin and celecoxib, concerning to survival rate and albumin. The groups without colitis, with colitis and with colitis treated with celecoxib showed leukotriene B4 and superoxide dismutase lower levels than the groups treated with nonselective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors. Conclusions Diclofenac and indometacin presented the highest degree of induced colitis exacerbation with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, celecoxib did not show colitis exacerbation, and ketoprofen presented an intermediary behavior between diclofenac/indometacin and celecoxib. These results suggest that leukotriene B4 and superoxide dismutase can be

  5. The value of surgical treatment in abdominal emergencies : fulminant clostridium difficile colitis and severe abdominal trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilden, Gwendolyn Mariëtta

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a combination of traumatic and non-traumatic events in the abdomen, and the optimization of treatment in both entities. The first part describes the very prevalent infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile. The colitis caused by this infection can be severe and complicat

  6. Colitis ulserosaa sairastavan potilaan ohjaus

    OpenAIRE

    Södervik, Satu; Liimatainen, Erja

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana olivat Keski-Suomen Sairaanhoitopiirin sisätautiosasto 11 ja sisätau-tien poliklinikka. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten Colitis ulcerosa potilaat kokevat saa-mansa ohjauksen riittävyyden ja ajankohdan, sekä mitä asioita hoitajat ohjaavat potilaille ja millä taval-la hoitajat haluavat kehittää jo annettavaa ohjausta. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli, että tutkimustuloksia voidaan hyödyntää sisätautien osastoilla ja polikli-nikoilla annettavassa C...

  7. Colitis after polytrauma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Carter, MD, MPH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Across the medical literature, delayed diagnosis and treatment leads to more costly and worse outcomes. Rehabilitation patients, especially those with polytrauma, often have a complex mixture of medical, social, and psychological health problems that can impair effective diagnosis and treatment. The case presentation describes the procession toward the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis in a preinjury asymptomatic male, suggesting a potential mechanism for its emergence and describing the effect of delayed diagnosis on the efficiency of rehabilitative care. As such, the differential diagnosis for early posttraumatic diarrhea should remain broad, particularly if unexplained or ineffectively controlled.

  8. Semi-commercialization of PVP-carrageenan hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) has developed the PVP-Carrageenan hydrogel wound dressing by radiation processing. The PVP-Carrageenan hydrogel has undergone clinical testing for burn and bedsores. It has already a pending patent application (No. 1-2000-02471) at the Philippine Patent Office. The techno-economic feasibility study has also been completed. In order to commercialize this product, a project on semi-commercialization in partnership with the investor was proposed to Technology Incubation for Commercialization (TECHNICOM), a technology transfer program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). TECHNICOM was established in 2003 under the National Science and Technology Plan (2002-2020) as a strategic technology transfer program. The program aims to identify key technological breakthroughs especially those generated by R and D institutes. It can intervene through the following: technology assessment/commercial prototype development; business plan/feasibility study preparation; intellectual property rights protection; technology valuation negotiation and licensing; semi-commercial production assistance and training/consultancy services. High technology applications with commercial potentials are given priority. Under semi-commercialization stage, government funds will be provided to match private sector investment in the commercial application of a particular technology innovation. This will lessen the risk of commercialization and ensure commitment from the investors. Commercial success in the shortest time is ensured since scientist can then work closely with the private sector at the production floor while testing the gaps in the technology. (author)

  9. Multi-step carboxymethylation of kappa-Carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many polysaccharide derivatives have been prepared by carboxymethylation reactions in order to increase the range of potential applications of these natural polymers in the chemical, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Carboxymethylation of kappa-carrageenan was attempted for the first time to synthesize derivatives with various degree of substitution. A multistep carboxymethylation was performed under heterogeneous reaction conditions, in isopropyl alcohol/water slurry medium, with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution for activation, and monochloroacetic acid for etherification. The derivatives obtained had average degree of substitutions from 1.20 to 1.92 as determined by potentiometric back-titration. Chemical and structural characterization were accomplished by Gel Permeation Chromatography, Elemental analysis, FT-IR Spectroscopy, 1H N and 13C NMR Spectroscopy. The relative reactivity of the hydroxyl groups in κ-carrageenan dimer unit proceeded in the order O-C2G4S > O-C6G4S >O-C2AG at a ratio of 1:0.6:O.4. (author)

  10. Assessment of the influence of the inflammatory process on the activation of blood platelets and morphological parameters in patients with ulcerative colitis (colitis ulcerosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Kemona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (colitis ulcerosa is a non-specific inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. The symptoms which are observed in the course of ulcerative colitis are: an increase in the number of leukocytes and blood platelets, an increase in the concentration of IL-6 and anemia. Blood platelets are the key element, linking the processes of hemostasis, inflammation and the repair of damaged tissues. Activation of blood platelets is connected with changes in their shape and the occurrence of the reaction of release. P-selectin appears on the surfaces of activated blood platelets and the concentration level of soluble P-selectin increases in the blood plasma. The aim of this study was to define whether the increased number of blood platelets in patients with ulcerative colitis accompanies changes in their activation and morphology. A total of 16 subjects with ulcerative colitis and 32 healthy subjects were studied. Mean platelet count, morphological parameters of platelets and MPC were measured using an ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. Concentrations of sP-selectin and IL-6 in serum were marked by immunoassay (ELISA. MPC, concentration of sP-selectin and IL-6 were significantly higher in subjects with ulcerative colitis compared to those in the healthy group. There was a decrease of MPV in patients with ulcerative colitis, which is statistically significant. Chronic inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis causes an increase in the number of blood platelets, a change in their morphology and activation. Decreased MPV value reflects activation and the role blood platelets play in the inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of the colon. A high concentration of sP-selectin, which is a marker of blood platelet activation, demonstrates their part in the inflammatory process. The increase in the concentration of sP-selectin correlated positively with the increase in concentration of IL-6. This is why it may be a useful marker

  11. Protective Effect of Laminaria japonica with Probiotics on Murine Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jae Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40, IL-12 (P70, IL-17, and TNF-α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 (P40 but not IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-12 (P70. In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics.

  12. Carrageenans from red seaweeds as promoters of growth and elicitors of defense response in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushp Sheel Shukla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants incessantly encounter abiotic and biotic stresses that limit their growth and productivity. However, conversely, plant growth can also be induced by treatments with various abiotic and biotic elicitors. Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides that represent major cellular constituents of seaweeds belonging to red algae (Rhodophyta. Recent research has unraveled the biological activity of carrageenans and of their oligomeric forms, the oligo carrageenans (OCs, as promoters of plant growth and as elicitors of defense responses against pests and diseases. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which carrageenans and OCs mediate plant growth and plant defense responses. Carrageenans and OCs improve plant growth by regulating various metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and ancillary pathways, cell division, purine and pyrimidine synthetic pathways as well as metabolic pathways involved in nitrogen and sulfur assimilation. Carrageenans and OCs also induce plant defense responses against viroids, viruses, bacteria, fungi and insects by modulating the activity of different defense pathways, including salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene signaling pathways. Further studies will likely substantiate the beneficial effects of carrageenans and of OCs on plant growth and plant defense responses and open new avenues for their use in agriculture and horticultural industry.

  13. Green sonochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles at varying concentrations of κ-carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsupikhe, Randa Fawzi; Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor B.; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainudin, Norhazlin

    2015-07-01

    A green sonochemical method was developed for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in different concentrations of kappa carrageenan (κ-carrageenan). The κ-carrageenan was used as a natural eco-friendly stabilizer, and ultrasonic irradiation was used as a green reducing agent. The number of Ag-NPs increased with increasing κ-carrageenan concentrations. Formation of Ag/κ-carrageenan was determined by UV-visible spectroscopy where the surface plasmon absorption maximum was observed at 402 to 420 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the Ag-NPs are of a face-centered cubic structure. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum indicated the presence of Ag-NPs in κ-carrageenan. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image for the highest concentration of κ-carrageenan showed the distribution of Ag-NPs with an average particle size near to 4.21 nm. Scan electron microscopy (SEM) images illustrated the spherical shape of the Ag-NPs. The use of photo irradiation provides a green and economic feature to this work.

  14. λ-Carrageenan Suppresses Tomato Chlorotic Dwarf Viroid (TCDVd) Replication and Symptom Expression in Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangha, Jatinder S; Kandasamy, Saveetha; Khan, Wajahatullah; Bahia, Navratan Singh; Singh, Rudra P; Critchley, Alan T; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2015-05-01

    The effect of carrageenans on tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) replication and symptom expression was studied. Three-week-old tomato plants were spray-treated with iota(ɩ)-, lambda(λ)-, and kappa(κ)-carrageenan at 1 g·L-1 and inoculated with TCDVd after 48 h. The λ-carrageenan significantly suppressed viroid symptom expression after eight weeks of inoculation, only 28% plants showed distinctive bunchy-top symptoms as compared to the 82% in the control group. Viroid concentration was reduced in the infected shoot cuttings incubated in λ-carrageenan amended growth medium. Proteome analysis revealed that 16 tomato proteins were differentially expressed in the λ-carrageenan treated plants. Jasmonic acid related genes, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and lipoxygenase (LOX), were up-regulated in λ-carrageenan treatment during viroid infection. Taken together, our results suggest that λ-carrageenan induced tomato defense against TCDVd, which was partly jasmonic acid (JA) dependent, and that it could be explored in plant protection against viroid infection. PMID:26006710

  15. Antitumor and Adjuvant Activity of λ-carrageenan by Stimulating Immune Response in Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min; Shao, Bin; Nie, Wen; Wei, Xia-Wei; Li, Yu-Li; Wang, Bi-Lan; He, Zhi-Yao; Liang, Xiao; Ye, Ting-Hong; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2015-01-01

    λ-Carrageenan is a seaweed polysaccharide which has been generally used as proinflammatory agent in the basic research, however, how the immunomodulating activity of λ-carrageenan affects tumor microenvironment remains unknown. In this study, we found that intratumoral injection of λ-carrageenan could inhibit tumor growth in B16-F10 and 4T1 bearing mice and enhance tumor immune response by increasing the number of tumor-infiltrating M1 macrophages, DCs and more activated CD4(+)CD8(+) T lymphocytes in spleen. In addition, λ-carrageenan could enhance the secretion of IL17A in spleen and significantly increase the level of TNF-α in tumor, most of which was secreted by infiltrating macrophages. Moreover, λ-carrageenan exhibited an efficient adjuvant effect in OVA-based preventative and therapeutic vaccine for cancer treatment, which significantly enhanced the production of anti-OVA antibody. The toxicity analysis suggested that λ-carrageenan was with a good safety profile. Thus, λ-carrageenan might be used both as a potent antitumor agent and an efficient adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26098663

  16. Gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan nano gels as potential drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to produce, characterize and assess the potential of gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan nano gels for drug delivery system. The carboxy methylation of κ-carrageenan was carried out in 2 propanol, activated with appropriate amount of 16N sodium hydroxide and reacted with monochloroacetic acid as etherifying agent. The carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan was further subjected to gamma-irradiation followed by the formation of nano gels. In this study, nano gels were prepared from gamma irradiated carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan encapsulating a model redox indicator (methylene blue, neutral, with a pH range of 6.0-7.6), using reverse microemulsions combined with thermally induced gelation. Nano gels were characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Differential Thermal Analysis. In vitro drug loading and in vitro drug release studies were done. It was found that gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan has the potential for drug delivery system, prolonged release in particular. Furthermore, it was proven that the loading capacity,as well as the amount of drug release, increases with the dose of gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan nano gels. No significant interaction effect was seen among the different dose of gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan nano gels; a significant increase in the methylene blue release was observed with time. (author)

  17. Carrageenan-grafted magnetite nanoparticles as recyclable sorbents for dye removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L., E-mail: ana.luisa@ua.pt; Salgueiro, Ana M., E-mail: a38242@ua.pt; Creaney, Bianca, E-mail: bianca.creaney@gmail.com; Oliveira-Silva, Rui, E-mail: ruipedro.silva@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Department of Chemistry, CICECO, Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal); Silva, Nuno J. O., E-mail: nunojoao@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Department of Physics, CICECO, Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal); Trindade, Tito, E-mail: tito@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Department of Chemistry, CICECO, Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal)

    2015-07-15

    The efforts dedicated to improving water decontamination procedures have prompted the interest in the development of efficient, inexpensive, and reusable sorbents for the uptake of dye pollutants. In this work, novel sorbents consisting of carrageenan polysaccharides grafted to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared. κ- and ι-carrageenan were first chemically modified by carboxymethylation and then covalently attached via amide bond to the surface of aminated silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles, both steps monitored using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The kinetics and the equilibrium behavior of the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) adsorption onto the carrageenan sorbents were investigated. ι-carrageenan sorbents displayed higher MB adsorption capacity that was ascribed to high content of sulfonate groups. Overall, the pseudo-second order equation provided a good description of the adsorption kinetics. The κ-carrageenan sorbents followed an unusual Z-type equilibrium adsorption isotherm whereas the isotherm of ι-carrageenan sorbents, although displaying a conventional shape, could not be successfully predicted by isotherm models commonly used. Noteworthy, both sorbents were long-term stable and could easily be recycled by simply rinsing with KCl aqueous solution. The removal efficiency of κ-carrageenan sorbents was 92 % in the first adsorption cycle and kept high (>80 %) even after six consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles.

  18. Carrageenan-grafted magnetite nanoparticles as recyclable sorbents for dye removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efforts dedicated to improving water decontamination procedures have prompted the interest in the development of efficient, inexpensive, and reusable sorbents for the uptake of dye pollutants. In this work, novel sorbents consisting of carrageenan polysaccharides grafted to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared. κ- and ι-carrageenan were first chemically modified by carboxymethylation and then covalently attached via amide bond to the surface of aminated silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles, both steps monitored using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The kinetics and the equilibrium behavior of the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) adsorption onto the carrageenan sorbents were investigated. ι-carrageenan sorbents displayed higher MB adsorption capacity that was ascribed to high content of sulfonate groups. Overall, the pseudo-second order equation provided a good description of the adsorption kinetics. The κ-carrageenan sorbents followed an unusual Z-type equilibrium adsorption isotherm whereas the isotherm of ι-carrageenan sorbents, although displaying a conventional shape, could not be successfully predicted by isotherm models commonly used. Noteworthy, both sorbents were long-term stable and could easily be recycled by simply rinsing with KCl aqueous solution. The removal efficiency of κ-carrageenan sorbents was 92 % in the first adsorption cycle and kept high (>80 %) even after six consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles

  19. Inflammatory cells′ role in acetic acid-induced colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Sanei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals are the known mechanisms responsible for inducing colitis with two origins: Inflammatory cells and tissues. Only the inflammatory cells can be controlled by corticosteroids. Our aim was to assess the importance of neutrophils as one of the inflammatory cells in inducing colitis and to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Colitis was induced in three groups by exposing them to acetic acid through enema (group 1, ex vivo (group 3, and enema after immune suppression (group 5. Each group had one control group that was exposed to water injection instead of acetic acid. Tissue samples were evaluated and compared based on macroscopic damages and biochemical and pathological results. Results: Considering neutrophilic infiltration, there were significant differences between groups 1, 3, 5, and the control of group 1. Groups 3, 5, and their controls, and group 1 and the control of group 3 had significant differences in terms of goblet depletion. Based on tissue originated H 2 O 2 , we found significant differences between group 1 and its control and group 3, and also between groups 5 and the control of group 3. All the three groups were significantly different from their controls based on Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP and such differences were also seen between group 1 with two other groups. Conclusion: Neutrophils may not be the only cause of oxidation process in colitis, and also makes the effectiveness of corticosteroids in the treatment of this disease doubtful.

  20. Low bone mass in microscopic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakatos Péter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microscopic colitis presents with similar symptoms to classic inflammatory bowel diseases. Osteoporosis is a common complication of Crohn's disease but there are no data concerning bone metabolism in microscopic colitis. Aims The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone density and metabolism in patients with microscopic colitis. Methods Fourteen patients microscopic colitis were included in the study, and 28 healthy persons and 28 age and gender matched Crohn's disease patients were enrolled as controls. Bone mineral density was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine, femoral neck and the radius. Serum bone formation and bone resorption markers (osteocalcin and beta-crosslaps, respectively were measured using immunoassays. Results Low bone mass was measured in 57.14% patients with microscopic colitis. Bone mineral density at the femoral neck in patients suffering from microscopic colitis and Crohn's disease was lower than in healthy controls (0.852 ± 0.165 and 0.807 ± 0.136 vs. 1.056 ± 0.126 g/cm2; p 2; p 2. Mean beta-crosslaps concentration was higher in microscopic colitis and Crohn's disease patients than controls (417.714 ± 250.37 and 466.071 ± 249.96 vs. 264.75 ± 138.65 pg/ml; p Conclusions Low bone mass is frequent in microscopic colitis, and alterations to bone metabolism are similar to those present in Crohn's disease. Therefore, microscopic colitis-associated osteopenia could be a significant problem in such patients.

  1. Biologics in the management of ulcerative colitis – comparative safety and efficacy of TNF-α antagonists

    OpenAIRE

    Afzali, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Rebecca Fausel,1 Anita Afzali1,2 1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Inflammatory Bowel Disease Program, UW Medicine – Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Ulcerative colitis can cause debilitating symptoms and complications such as colonic strictures, colonic dysplasia, colorectal cancer, and toxic megacolon or perforation. Goals of treatment in ulcerative colitis include resolution of gastrointestin...

  2. Biologics in the management of ulcerative colitis – comparative safety and efficacy of TNF-α antagonists

    OpenAIRE

    Fausel R; Afzali A

    2015-01-01

    Rebecca Fausel,1 Anita Afzali1,2 1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Inflammatory Bowel Disease Program, UW Medicine – Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Ulcerative colitis can cause debilitating symptoms and complications such as colonic strictures, colonic dysplasia, colorectal cancer, and toxic megacolon or perforation. Goals of treatment in ulcerative colitis include resolution of gastrointestinal s...

  3. Left Ventricular Thrombosis in Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Saleh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular thrombi usually occur in the setting of an acute myocardial infarction, left ventricular aneurysm, or dilated cardiomyopathy. In the absence of ventricular wall motion abnormalities, they are rare. This report describes a patient with ulcerative colitis in whom two-dimensional echocardiography revealed a left intraventricular mass. Thrombosis in ulcerative colitis is a serious condition and can occur in a very young population. This case also shows that left ventricular thrombi can occur in the active setting of ulcerative colitis.

  4. Asymptomatic ulcerative colitis and pyoderma gangrenosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Arti

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A Total of 11 patients of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG; 5 males and 6 females were observed over 8 years. The ages ranged between 35-72 years. Nine patients were associated with ulcerative colitis, one with chronic renal failure, and one was labelled idiopathic. Three of the 9 patients of PG, who had ulcerative colitis presented first with skin lesions and had clinically silent, but acute, ulcerative colitis, diagnosed only after colonoscopy and rectal biopsy. This highlights the need for investigation including colonoscopy and biopsy even in asymptomatic patients of PG. Most of the cases benefitted from medical treatment (Corticosteroids + Salazopyrin.

  5. A Limited Role of p53 on the Ability of a Hexane Fraction of American Ginseng to Suppress Mouse Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Poudyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is debilitating and carries a high colon cancer risk. Apoptosis of inflammatory cells is a key mechanism regulating UC. We have recently shown that American ginseng (AG, and to a greater extent, a Hexane fraction of AG (HAG can cause apoptosis and suppress mouse colitis through a p53-mediated mechanism. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HAG suppresses colitis through a p53 mechanism. We found only a limited impact of p53 in the ability of HAG to induce inflammatory cell apoptosis and suppress mouse colitis in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we asked whether HAG could cause cell cycle arrest of HCT116 colon cancer cells in vitro. Interestingly, HAG caused a G1 arrest of such cells independent of p53 status. Findings are significant because HAG suppresses colitis and associated colon cancer, and mutation in p53 is observed in most colitis-driven colon cancers. Therefore, HAG might be very effective in targeting the inflammatory cells and cancer cells since it induces apoptosis of inflammatory cells and cell cycle arrest in both p53−/− and WT p53 colon cancer cells.

  6. CARRAGEENAN-INDUCED NFκB ACTIVATION DEPENDS ON DISTINCT PATHWAYS MEDIATED BY REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES AND HSP27 OR BY BCL10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2013-01-01

    Carrageenans are highly sulfated polysaccharides that are widely used as food additives due to their ability to improve food texture. They are also widely recognized for their ability to induce inflammation in animal models of colitis. Recently, we reported that carrageenan (CGN) activated a pathway of innate immunity in human colonic epithelial cells mediated by Bcl10 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10). However, increases in phospho-IκBα and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were not completely inhibited by silencing Bcl10, suggesting that CGN also influenced another mechanism, or mechanisms, of inflammation. In this report, we demonstrate that CGN increases production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human colonic epithelial cells. The combination of ROS quenching by the free radical scavenger Tempol and of Bcl10 silencing by siRNA completely inhibited the CGN-induced increases in nuclear NFκB (p65), phospho-IκBα, and secretion of IL-8. The CGN-induced increase in ROS was associated with declines in phosphorylation of MAPK 12 (p38γ), MAPK 13 (p38δ), and heat-shock protein (Hsp) 27. The CGN-induced decline in phospho-Hsp27 was reversed by co-administration of Tempol (100nM), but unaffected by silencing Bcl10. Since Hsp27 phosphorylation is inversely associated with phosphorylation of the IκBα kinase (IKK) signalosome, CGN exposure appears to affect the IKK signalosome by both the catalytic component, mediated by ROS-phospho-Hsp27, and the regulatory component, mediated by Bcl10 interaction with IKKγ (Nemo). Hence, the CGN-activated inflammatory cascades related to innate immunity and to generation of ROS may be integrated at the level of the IKK signalosome. PMID:18452717

  7. Assessment of the influence of the inflammatory process on the activation of blood platelets and morphological parameters in patients with ulcerative colitis (colitis ulcerosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Polińska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (colitis ulcerosa is a non-specific inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Thesymptoms which are observed in the course of ulcerative colitis are: an increase in the number of leukocytes andblood platelets, an increase in the concentration of IL-6 and anemia. Blood platelets are the key element, linkingthe processes of hemostasis, inflammation and the repair of damaged tissues. Activation of blood platelets is connectedwith changes in their shape and the occurrence of the reaction of release. P-selectin appears on the surfacesof activated blood platelets and the concentration level of soluble P-selectin increases in the blood plasma. The aimof this study was to define whether the increased number of blood platelets in patients with ulcerative colitisaccompanies changes in their activation and morphology. A total of 16 subjects with ulcerative colitis and 32healthy subjects were studied. Mean platelet count, morphological parameters of platelets and MPC were measuredusing an ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. Concentrations of sP-selectin and IL-6 in serum were marked byimmunoassay (ELISA. MPC, concentration of sP-selectin and IL-6 were significantly higher in subjects with ulcerativecolitis compared to those in the healthy group. There was a decrease of MPV in patients with ulcerativecolitis, which is statistically significant. Chronic inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis causes an increase inthe number of blood platelets, a change in their morphology and activation. Decreased MPV value reflects activationand the role blood platelets play in the inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of the colon. A highconcentration of sP-selectin, which is a marker of blood platelet activation, demonstrates their part in the inflammatoryprocess. The increase in the concentration of sP-selectin correlated positively with the increase in concentrationof IL-6. This is why it may be a useful marker of the activity of

  8. Intestinal microecology in rats with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the abundance and diversity ofthe gut flora in rats with dextran sulfate sodium(DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis(UC)to provide new knowledge about the pathogenesis of this disease.Methods Twenty-six

  9. Atypical disease phenotypes in pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Arie; de Bie, Charlotte I; Turner, Dan; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Sladek, Malgorzata; Murphy, M Stephen; Escher, Johanna C; Pærregaard, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) may be particularly challenging since isolated colitis with overlapping features is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), while atypical phenotypes of UC are not uncommon. The Paris classification allows more accurate phenotyping of...... atypical inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Our aim was to identify the prevalence of atypical disease patterns in new-onset pediatric UC using the Paris classification....

  10. Synthesis of superabsorbent hydrogel by radiation crosslinking of acrylic acid, semi-refined kappa-carrageenan and sugarcane bagasse blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superabsorbent hydrogels have three-dimensional networks that enable it to exhibit great water absorption capacity leading to its promising applications. However, existing commercial hydrogels are mainly acrylic acid which causes environmental problems. In this study, the incorporation of agricultural waste as filler and polysaccharide from natural sources as binder for the production of superabsorbent hydrogel was done to reduce the use of acrylic acid as well as its environmental impact while adding value to the incorporated materials. A series of superabsorbent hydrogel with the blend of acrylic acid, semi-refined kappa carrageenan and sugarcane bagasse were synthesized by radiation crosslinking. The gel fraction and swelling capacity of the hydrogels were determined and studied. The characterizations were facilitated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). In the results obtained from analyses, the characteristic peaks of acrylic acid and sugarcane bagasse were observed in the FTIR spectra and the three step peaks if synthesized hydrogel in its TGA implies an improvement in thermal stability of the product. The synthesized superabsorbent hydrogel blends had exhibited comparable gel fraction to that of the polyacrylic acid hydrogel, had great swelling capacity, and achieved equilibrium degree of swelling within 72-96 hours. The optimum synthesized superabsorbent hydrogel is 3% semi-refined kappa-carrageenan, 3% sugarcane bagasse, 15% acrylic acid neutralize up to 50% and irradiated at 15kGy dose which exhibited a swelling of 599.53 and gel fraction of 39.73. (author)

  11. Synthesis of Kappa-carrageenan oligomers via synergistic action of gamma radiation and hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the synthesis of k-carrageenan oligometers with the simultaneous action of gamma radiation and hydrogen peroxide was carried out. Effects on molecular weight and structure of k-carrageenan were assessed using GPC, UV-VIS and FT-IR. Radiation degradation yield (G(s)) and reaction rate constants (k) based on Mn values were also determined. The results showed that k-carrageenan oligomers with Mw of less than 10 kDa can be prepared easily at low doses (2.5-5 kGy) in the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (0.25-0.5%). The G(s)) and k values increased significantly with the presence of H2O2. Structural changes in k-carrageenan treated by the degradation agents were accompanied by appearance of UV peak at 260 nm and characteristic FT-IR band at 1728 cm-1. (Author)

  12. Diethylcarbamazine Attenuates the Development of Carrageenan-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Edlene Lima; Barbosa, Karla Patricia de Souza; Fragoso, Ingrid Tavares; Donato, Mariana Aragão Matos; Oliveira dos Santos Gomes, Fabiana; da Silva, Bruna Santos; Silva, Amanda Karolina Soares e; Rocha, Sura Wanessa Santos; Amaro da Silva Junior, Valdemiro; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2014-01-01

    Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) is an antifilarial drug with potent anti-inflammatory properties as a result of its interference with the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of DEC in a mouse model of acute inflammation (carrageenan-induced pleurisy). The injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity induced the accumulation of fluid containing a large number of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) as well as infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased expression of interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Carrageenan also induced the expression of nuclear factor-κB. The oral administration of DEC (50 mg/Kg) three days prior to the carrageenan challenge led to a significant reduction in all inflammation markers. The present findings demonstrate that DEC is a potential drug for the treatment of acute lung inflammation. PMID:24550603

  13. Colitis associated with biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity. Now, a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents, usually administered by infusion, have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents, adverse effects have been documented, including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease. In some, only limited symptoms have been recorded, but in others, severe colitis with serious complications, such as bowel perforation has been recorded. In others, adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis, while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection. Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases, or be responsible for disease exacerbation. Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response. This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies, notably, malignant melanoma. Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated. One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe, and occasionally, fatal. Other agents include rituximab (an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, including infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept.

  14. SANS study of surfactant ordering in kappa-carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evmenenko, G.; Theunissen, E.; Mortensen, K.;

    2001-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering using contrast variation by H2O/D2O has been applied for the structural investigation of kappa -carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) complexes. interaction of kappa -carrageenan with an ionic surfactant involves self-assembly of the surfactant molecules in con...... from the position and the half-width of the Braggs peaks of the scattering patterns. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Lansoprazole-associated collagenous colitis: Diffuse mucosal cloudiness mimicking ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuro Chiba; Takeshi Sugawara; Haruhiko Tozawa; Hidehiko Tsuda; Toru Abe; Takuo Tokairin; Iwao Ono; Eriko Ushiyama

    2009-01-01

    There have only been a few reports on lansoprazoleassociated collagenous colitis. Colonic mucosa of collagenous colitis is known to be endoscopically normal. We present a case of collagenous colitis where the mucosa showed diffuse cloudiness mimicking ulcerative colitis. A 70-year-old woman developed watery diarrhea four to nine times a day. She had interstitial pneumonia at 67 and reflux esophagitis at 70 years. Lansoprazole 30 mg/d had been prescribed for reflux esophagitis for nearly 6 mo. Lansoprazole was withdrawn due to its possible side effect of diarrhea. Colonoscopy disclosed diffuse cloudiness of the mucosa which suggested ulcerative colitis. Consequently sulfasalazine 2 g/d was started. The patient's diarrhea dramatically disappeared on the following day. However, biopsy specimens showed subepithelial collagenous thickening and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria, confirming the diagnosis of collagenous colitis. One month after sulfasalazine therapy was initiated, colonoscopic and histological abnormalities resolved completely. Five months later the diarrhea recurred. The findings on colonoscopy and histology were the same as before, confirming a diagnosis of collagenous colitis relapse. We found that the patient had begun to take lansoprazole again 3 mo ahead of the recent diarrhea. Withdrawal of lansoprazole promptly resolved the diarrhea. Endoscopic and histological abnormalities were also completely resolved, similar to the first episode. Retrospectively, the date of commencement of sulfasalazine and discontinuation of lansoprazole in the first episode was found to be the same. We conclude that this patient had lansoprazole-associated collagenous colitis.

  16. Colonic production of nitric oxide gas in ulcerative colitis, collagenous colitis and uninflamed bowel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Anders; Lassen, Inge Nordgaard; Matzen, Peter;

    2002-01-01

    ulcerative colitis, 10 patients with collagenous colitis and 20 controls with uninflamed mucosa. METHODS: The tip of a Teflon tube was placed in the caecum during colonoscopy. Subsequently, argon was infused at a constant rate for 70-180 min. Argon and NO in gas sampled from the rectum were measured by...

  17. Cytomegalovirus Colitis in a Burn Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jeff T; Zieger, Madeline; Sood, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cytomegalovirus in the burn population is high. However, its role in the clinical management of burn patients is still being defined. This report documents a 41-year-old man who developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis after being admitted with a 72% burn. Before the administration of ganciclovir, the authors had difficulty controlling his quantitative wound cultures with serial debridements, topical agents, and systemic antibiotics for known pathogens, which led to graft loss. After the ganciclovir was given, his quantitative wound cultures improved without changing the authors' topical agents or systemic antibiotics and had improved graft take. Whether CMV infection alone contributed to an increased morbidity in this patient or the combination of bacteria/fungal infection with CMV led to a synergistic effect is still not clearly understood. CMV may have contributed to a dysfunction in his cell mediated immunity, which, in turn, lowered the bacterial and fungal load necessary to cause graft loss. Patients who continue to do poorly despite adequate treatment for known pathogens may need to be screened for CMV and treated. PMID:26056763

  18. Characterization and antioxidant properties of alcoholic extracts from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different extracts from unirradiated and gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan (solid and 1% w/v aqueous solution) were obtained with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) at concentrations of 40%, 60% and 80% v/v at room temperature. Physical and chemical properties of the different IPA extracts were analyzed by GPC, UV, and FT-IR. The extracts consisted of low molecular weight fragments with an average molecular weight (Mw) ranging from 2300 Da to 5000 Da. UV analyses of extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed varying maximum absorptions in the range of 265–280 nm. FT-IR spectra of all extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed all the important functional groups of carrageenan in the fingerprint region (4000–600 cm−1) and additional carbonyl C=O and C=C double bond peaks. Antioxidant properties of the different extracts were investigated using reducing power assay. The reducing power of extracts from the irradiated solution follows the order of 80%>60%>40% while no trend was observed for all extracts from irradiated solid κ-carrageenan. - Highlights: • Alcoholic extracts from irradiated κ-carrageenan (solid and 1% w/v) were obtained. • Extracts consisted of low molecular weight oligomers with Mw from 2300 to 5000 Da. • Structural analysis showed C=O and C=C functional groups in the extracts. • Fraction with Mw<2000 Da exhibited higher antioxidant potential

  19. Population Studies and Carrageenan Properties in Eight Gigartinales (Rhodophyta) from Western Coast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leonel

    2013-01-01

    Eight carrageenophytes, representing seven genera and three families of Gigartinales (Florideophyceae), were studied for 15 months. The reproductive status, dry weight, and carrageenan content have been followed by a monthly random sampling. The highest carrageenan yields were found in Chondracanthus acicularis (61.1%), Gigartina pistillata (59.7%), and Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (58.0%). Species of Cystocloniaceae family produces predominantly iota-carrageenans; Gigartinaceae family produces hybrid kappa-iota carrageenans (gametophytic plants) and lambda-family carrageenans (sporophytic plants); Phyllophoraceae family produces kappa-iota-hybrid carrageenans. Quadrate destructive sampling method was used to determine the biomass and line transect. Quadrate nondestructive sampling method, applied along a perpendicular transect to the shoreline, was used to calculate the carrageenophytes cover in two periods: autumn/winter and spring/summer. The highest cover and biomass were found in Chondrus crispus (3.75%–570 g/m2), Chondracanthus acicularis (3.45%–99 g/m2), Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (2.45%–207.5 g/m2), and Mastocarpus stellatus (2.02%–520 g/m2). PMID:24288514

  20. Optimization of the extraction of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Webber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to optimize an alternative method of extraction of carrageenan without previous alkaline treatment and ethanol precipitation using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. In order to introduce an innovation in the isolation step, atomization drying was used reducing the time for obtaining dry carrageenan powder. The effects of extraction time and temperature on yield, gel strength, and viscosity were evaluated. Furthermore, the extracted material was submitted to structural analysis, by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR, and chemical composition analysis. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation. Carrageenan yield and gel viscosity were influenced only by the extraction temperature. However, gel strength was influenced by both, extraction time and extraction temperature. Optimal extraction conditions were 74 ºC and 4 hours. In these conditions, the carrageenan extract properties determined by the polynomial model were 31.17%, 158.27 g.cm-2, and 29.5 cP for yield, gel strength, and viscosity, respectively, while under the experimental conditions they were 35.8 ± 4.68%, 112.50 ± 4.96 g.cm-2, and 16.01 ± 1.03 cP, respectively. The chemical composition, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy analyses showed that the crude carrageenan extracted is composed mainly of κ-carrageenan.

  1. Usefulness of colonoscopy in ischemic colitis Utilidad de la colonoscopia en la colitis isquémica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lozano Maya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: the ischemic colitis is intestinal the most frequent cause of ischemia. With this work we determine the demographic and clinical characteristics, and the usefulness of the colonoscopy in the patients with ischemic colitis diagnosed in our centre in relation to a change of therapeutic attitude. Method: retrospective study in which were selected 112 patients diagnosed with ischemic colitis by colonoscopy and biopsy, in a period of five years. It was analyzed: age, sex, reason for examination, factors of cardiovascular risk, endoscopic degree of ischemia, change in the therapeutic attitude, treatment and outcome. Results: the average age was of 73.64 ± 12.10 years with an equal incidence in women (50.9% and the men (49.1%. The associated factors were the HTA (61.1%, tobacco (37.2% and antecedents of cardiovascular episode (52.2%. The most frequent reason for colonoscopy was rectorrhagia (53.6% followed of the abdominal pain (30.4%, being urgent the 65.3%. Colonoscopy allowed a change in the therapeutic attitude in the 50 increasing in the urgent one to the 65.75%. Global mortality was of 27.67%. The serious ischemic colitis (25% was more frequent in men (64.3% in urgent indication (85.71% and attends with high mortality (53.57%. Surgical treatment in the 57.14% was made with a good evolution in the 50%, whereas the patients with mild or moderate ischemic colitis had a better prognosis (favourable evolution in 80.95% with smaller requirement of the surgical treatment (4.76%, p Introducción: la colitis isquémica es la causa más frecuente de isquemia intestinal. Realizamos un estudio con el objetivo de analizar las características demográficas, clínicas y la utilidad de la colonoscopia en los pacientes diagnosticados de colitis isquémica en nuestro centro en relación a un cambio de actitud terapéutica. Método: estudio retrospectivo en el que se seleccionaron 112 pacientes diagnosticados de colitis isquémica mediante

  2. Fatal hæmofagocytisk lymfohistiocytose og mononukleose hos en patient med colitis ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Ingvardsen, Charlotte; Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie; Homøe, Preben

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of Epstein-Barr virus primo infection with the development of lethal haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in a 22 year-old man, who was being treated with azathioprin for colitis ulcerosa. HLH is a rare, life-threatening disease, which is caused by an inappropriate activation...

  3. Fatal hæmofagocytisk lymfohistiocytose og mononukleose hos en patient med colitis ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Ingvardsen, Charlotte; Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie; Homøe, Preben

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of Epstein-Barr virus primo infection with the development of lethal haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in a 22 year-old man, who was being treated with azathioprin for colitis ulcerosa. HLH is a rare, life-threatening disease, which is caused by an inappropriate activatio...

  4. Vedolizumab as induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feagan, Brian G; Rutgeerts, Paul; Sands, Bruce E;

    2013-01-01

    Gut-selective blockade of lymphocyte trafficking by vedolizumab may constitute effective treatment for ulcerative colitis.......Gut-selective blockade of lymphocyte trafficking by vedolizumab may constitute effective treatment for ulcerative colitis....

  5. Antiviral treatment in patients with cytomegalovirus positive ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir OZTURK

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus in patients with ulcerative colitis receiving immunosuppressive drugs. Many studies suggested that CMV infection is an exacerbating factor in patients with ulcerative colitis. The role of CMV in exacerbations of ulcerative colitis has been discussed. One of studies starting this discussion is an article entitled “CMV positive ulcerative colitis: A single center experience and literature review” by Kopylov et al. However, we think that there are some poi...

  6. Cytokine Expression of Microscopic Colitis Including Interleukin-17

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eunkyoung; Park, Young Sook; Park, Dae Rim; Jung, Sung Ae; Han, Dong Soo; Jang, Byung Ik; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Won Ho; Jo, Yun Ju; Lee, Ki Ho; Lee, Won Mi; Kim, Eun Kyung; Koo, Hae Soo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Microscopic colitis is characterized by chronic watery diarrhea with specific pathological changes that can be diagnosed by microscopic examination. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of proinflammatory cytokines to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of microscopic colitis. Methods This study consisted of six patients with lymphocytic colitis, six patients with collagenous colitis, and six patients with functional diarrhea but normal pathology. We performed an immunoh...

  7. The Analgesic Efficacy of Intra-Articular Acetaminophen in an Experimental Model of Carrageenan-Induced Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, Oguzhan; Canbay, Ozgur; Celebi, Nalan; Sahin, Altan; Konan, Ali; Atilla, Pergin; Aypar, Ulku

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen is one of the most common drugs used for the treatment of pain and fever.OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of intra-articular (IA) acetaminophen on carrageenan-induced arthritic pain-related behaviour and spinal c-Fos expression in rats.METHODS: The present study was performed using 20 Sprague Dawley rats. Forty microlitres of IA 0.9% NaCl was injected in the control group, and 40 μL of IA carrageenan was injected in the carrageenan group. One hour after carrageenan...

  8. Different phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms mediate carrageenan nociception and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rory A; Falk, Lovissa; Larsson, Mathilda; Leinders, Mathias; Sorkin, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) participate in signal transduction cascades that can directly activate and sensitize nociceptors and enhance pain transmission. They also play essential roles in chemotaxis and immune cell infiltration leading to inflammation. We wished to determine which PI3K isoforms were involved in each of these processes. Lightly anesthetized rats (isoflurane) were injected subcutaneously with carrageenan in their hind paws. This was preceded by a local injection of 1% DMSO vehicle or an isoform-specific antagonist to PI3K-α (compound 15-e), -β (TGX221), -δ (Cal-101), or -γ (AS252424). We measured changes in the mechanical pain threshold and spinal c-Fos expression (4 hours after injection) as indices of nociception. Paw volume, plasma extravasation (Evans blue, 0.3 hours after injection), and neutrophil (myeloperoxidase; 1 hour after injection) and macrophage (CD11b+; 4 hour after injection) infiltration into paw tissue were the measured inflammation endpoints. Only PI3K-γ antagonist before treatment reduced the carrageenan-induced pain behavior and spinal expression of c-Fos (P ≤ 0.01). In contrast, pretreatment with PI3K-α, -δ, and-γ antagonists reduced early indices of inflammation. Plasma extravasation PI3K-α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.05), and -γ (P ≤ 0.01), early (0-2 hour) edema -α (P ≤ 0.05), -δ (P ≤ 0.001), and -γ (P ≤ 0.05), and neutrophil infiltration (all P ≤ 0.001) were all reduced compared to vehicle pretreatment. Later (2-4 hour), edema and macrophage infiltration (P ≤ 0.05) were reduced by only the PI3K-δ and -γ isoform antagonists, with the PI3K-δ antagonist having a greater effect on edema. PI3K-β antagonism was ineffective in all paradigms. These data indicate that pain and clinical inflammation are pharmacologically separable and may help to explain clinical conditions in which inflammation naturally wanes or goes into remission, but pain continues unabated. PMID:26313408

  9. Sonographic and Endoscopic Findings in Cocaine-Induced Ischemic Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Thomas; Wilkens, Rune; Bonderup, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine-induced ischemic colitis is a recognized entity. The diagnosis is based on clinical and endoscopic findings. However, diagnostic imaging is helpful in the evaluation of abdominal symptoms and prior studies have suggested specific sonographic findings in ischemic colitis. We report...... sonographic and endoscopic images along with abdominal computed tomography in a case of cocaine-induced ischemic colitis....

  10. The effects of sucrose on the mechanical properties of acid milk proteins-kappa-carrageenan gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sabadini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties have been widely correlated with textural characteristics to determine the interactions during the process formation of dairy gel. These interactions are strongly affected by process conditions and system composition. In the present study, the rheological of acid-induced protein dairy gels with (2(7-3 and without (2(6-2 sucrose and subjected to small and large deformations were studied using an experimental design. The independent variables were the sodium caseinate, whey protein concentrate (WPC, carrageenan and sucrose concentrations as well as stirring speed and heat treatment time and temperature. Mechanical deformation tests were performed at 0.1, 1, 5, and 9 mm/s up to 80% of initial height. A heavy dependence of rupture stress on increasing crosshead speed and the formation of harder gels with the addition of sucrose were observed. Moreover the elastic and viscous moduli, obtained by fitting the Maxwell model to stress relaxation data, increased with increasing addition of sucrose. These results can be explained by preferential hydration of the casein with sucrose, causing an induction of casein-polysaccharide and casein-casein interactions.

  11. Discovery of a novel iota carrageenan sulfatase isolated from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Marie Genicot

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of some marine red algae. These polysaccharides are widely used as gelling, stabilizing, and viscosifying agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Since the rheological properties of these polysaccharides depend on their sulfate content, we screened several isolated marine bacteria for carrageenan specific sulfatase activity, in the aim of developing enzymatic bioconversion of carrageenans. As a result of the screening, an iota-carrageenan sulfatase was detected in the cell-free lysate of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora strain PscT. It was purified through Phenyl Sepharose and Diethylaminoethyl Sepharose chromatography. The pure enzyme, Psc -CgsA, was characterized. It had a molecular weight of 115.9 kDaltons and exhibited an optimal activity/stability at pH ~8.3 and at 40°C ± 5°C. It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Psc -CgsA specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-S sulfate of iota-carrageenan. The purified enzyme could transform iota-carrageenan into hybrid iota-/alpha- or pure alpha-carrageenan under controlled conditions. The gene encoding Psc -CgsA, a protein of 1038 amino acids, was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the sequence analysis revealed that Psc -CgsA has more than 90% sequence identity with a putative uncharacterized protein Q3IKL4 from the marine strain Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, but besides this did not share any homology to characterized sulfatases. Phylogenetic studies show that P. carrageenovora sulfatase thus represents the first characterized member of a new sulfatase family, with a C-terminal domain having strong similarity with the superfamily of amidohydrolases, highlighting the still unexplored diversity of marine polysaccharide modifying enzymes.

  12. Discovery of a novel iota carrageenan sulfatase isolated from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genicot, Sabine; Groisillier, Agnès; Rogniaux, Hélène; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Barbeyron, Tristan; Helbert, William

    2014-08-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of some marine red algae. These polysaccharides are widely used as gelling, stabilizing, and viscosifying agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Since the rheological properties of these polysaccharides depend on their sulfate content, we screened several isolated marine bacteria for carrageenan specific sulfatase activity, in the aim of developing enzymatic bioconversion of carrageenans. As a result of the screening, an iota-carrageenan sulfatase was detected in the cell-free lysate of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora strain PscT. It was purified through Phenyl Sepharose and Diethylaminoethyl Sepharose chromatography. The pure enzyme, Psc ?-CgsA, was characterized. It had a molecular weight of 115.9 kDaltons and exhibited an optimal activity/stability at pH ~8.3 and at 40°C ± 5°C. It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Psc ?-CgsA specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-S sulfate of iota-carrageenan. The purified enzyme could transform iota-carrageenan into hybrid iota-/alpha- or pure alpha-carrageenan under controlled conditions. The gene encoding Psc ?-CgsA, a protein of 1038 amino acids, was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the sequence analysis revealed that Psc ?-CgsA has more than 90% sequence identity with a putative uncharacterized protein Q3IKL4 from the marine strain Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, but besides this did not share any homology to characterized sulfatases. Phylogenetic studies show that P. carrageenovora sulfatase thus represents the first characterized member of a new sulfatase family, with a C-terminal domain having strong similarity with the superfamily of amidohydrolases, highlighting the still unexplored diversity of marine polysaccharide modifying enzymes.

  13. Exosomes from Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Suppress Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivoraitė, Ugnė; Jarmalavičiūtė, Akvilė; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Ramanauskaitė, Giedrė; Vaitkuvienė, Aida; Kašėta, Vytautas; Biziulevičienė, Genė; Venalis, Algirdas; Pivoriūnas, Augustas

    2015-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the effects of human dental pulp stem cell-derived exosomes on the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice. Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation from the supernatants of stem cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) cultivated in serum-free medium. At 1 h post-carrageenan injection, exosomes derived from supernatants of 2 × 10(6) SHEDs were administered by intraplantar injection to BALB/c mice; 30 mg/kg of prednisolone and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Edema was measured at 6, 24, and 48 h after carrageenan injection. For the in vivo imaging experiments, AngioSPARK750, Cat B 750 FAST, and MMPSense 750 FAST were administered into the mouse tail vein 2 h post-carrageenan injection. Fluorescence images were acquired at 6, 24, and 48 h after edema induction by IVIS Spectrum in vivo imaging system. Exosomes significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced edema at all the time points studied (by 39.5, 41.6, and 25.6% at 6, 24, and 48 h after injection, respectively), to similar levels seen with the positive control (prednisolone). In vivo imaging experiments revealed that, both exosomes and prednisolone suppress activities of cathepsin B and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) at the site of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation, showing more prominent effects of prednisolone at the early stages, while exosomes exerted their suppressive effects gradually and at later time points. Our study demonstrates for the first time that exosomes derived from human dental pulp stem cells suppress carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice. PMID:25903966

  14. Golimumab in unresponsive ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippert E

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Elisabeth Lippert, Martina Müller, Claudia Ott University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg, Germany Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammation mainly affecting the colon mucosa. It predominantly occurs in younger patients. Until recently, the main goals in the treatment of UC were to temper the symptoms, such as diarrhea, pain, and weight loss, by using mesalazine and steroids. With newer medications, such as immunomodulators (thiopurines and the biologics providing blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, the goals of the therapy in UC have changed to long-term remission and mucosal healing. The first available anti-TNF therapy in UC included infusion therapy with infliximab every few weeks. In 2012, subcutaneously administered adalimumab gained approval for the treatment of UC in Germany. In patients with a mild disease, therapy with mesalazine, orally or topically, can be sufficient. In patients with moderate to severe disease, therapy with azathioprine or anti-TNF is often required to reach disease control; however, this is only efficient in about two-thirds of patients. Some patients either show no response or a lost response while on treatment. So, further medical options are warranted in the treatment of UC. With golimumab, a new approach in the treatment of mild to moderate UC recently became available in Germany and is a promising new option in the therapy regimen for patients with UC. Keywords: anti-TNF, biological therapy, inflammatory bowel disease

  15. Inflammatory cytokine gene expression in mesenteric adipose tissue during acute experimental colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Conan Mustain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Production of inflammatory cytokines by mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Animal models of colitis have demonstrated inflammatory changes within MAT, but it is unclear if these changes occur in isolation or as part of a systemic adipose tissue response. It is also unknown what cell types are responsible for cytokine production within MAT. The present study was designed to determine whether cytokine production by MAT during experimental colitis is depot-specific, and also to identify the source of cytokine production within MAT. METHODS: Experimental colitis was induced in 6-month-old C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (2% in drinking water for up to 5 days. The induction of cytokine mRNA within various adipose tissues, including mesenteric, epididymal, and subcutaneous, was analyzed by qRT-PCR. These adipose tissues were also examined for histological evidence of inflammation. The level of cytokine mRNA during acute colitis was compared between mature mesenteric adipocytes, mesenteric stromal vascular fraction (SVF, and mesenteric lymph nodes. RESULTS: During acute colitis, MAT exhibited an increased presence of infiltrating mononuclear cells and fibrotic structures, as well as decreased adipocyte size. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were significantly increased in MAT but not other adipose tissue depots. Within the MAT, induction of these cytokines was observed mainly in the SVF. CONCLUSIONS: Acute experimental colitis causes a strong site-specific inflammatory response within MAT, which is mediated by cells of the SVF, rather than mature adipocytes or mesenteric lymph nodes.

  16. Development of edible films and coatings from alginates and carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli-Kafrani, Elham; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Masoudpour-Behabadi, Mahdieh

    2016-02-10

    The use of renewable resources, which can reduce waste disposal problems, is being explored to produce biopolymer films and coatings. Renewability, degradability, and edibility make such films particularly suitable for food and nonfood packaging applications. Edible films and coatings play an important role in the quality, safety, transportation, storage, and display of a wide range of fresh and processed foods. They can diminish main alteration by avoiding moisture losses and decreasing adverse chemical reaction rates. Also, they can prevent spoilage and microbial contamination of foods. Additionally, nanomaterials and food additives, such as flavors, antimicrobials, antioxidants, and colors, can be incorporated into edible films and coatings in order to extend their applications. Water-soluble hydrocolloids like polysaccharides usually impart better mechanical properties to edible films and coatings than do hydrophobic substances. They also are excellent barriers to oxygen and carbon dioxide. Recently, there has been much attention on carrageenan and alginate as sources of film-forming materials. Thus, this review highlights production and characteristics of these films. PMID:26686140

  17. Formation of carrageenan-CaCO3 bioactive membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas F B; Maniglia, Bianca C; Pereira, Lourivaldo S; Tapia-Blácido, Delia R; Ramos, Ana P

    2016-01-01

    The high biocompatibility and resorbability of polymeric membranes have encouraged their use to manufacture medical devices. Here, we report on the preparation of membranes consisting of carrageenan, a naturally occurring sulfated polysaccharide that forms helical structures in the presence of calcium ions. We incorporated CaCO3 particles into the membranes to enhance their bioactivity and mechanical properties. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction data confirmed CaCO3 incorporation into the polymeric matrix. We tested the bioactivity of the samples by immersing them in a solution that mimics the ionic composition and pH of the human body fluid. The hybrid membranes generated hydroxyapatite, as attested by X-ray diffraction data. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopies aided investigation of membrane topography before and after CaCO3 deposition. The wettability and surface free energy, evaluated by contact angle measures, increased in the presence of CaCO3 particles. These parameters are important for membrane implantation in the body. Moreover, membrane stiffness was up to 110% higher in the presence of the inorganic particles, as revealed by Young's modulus. PMID:26478280

  18. Release of Tenofovir from Carrageenan-Based Vaginal Suppositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Toral; Hayes, John E.; Ziegler, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    Microbicides are an active area of research for HIV prevention, being developed as a woman-initiated method of prevention during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have produced microbicide prototypes in the form of semisoft vaginal suppositories prepared from carrageenan and conducted both qualitative and quantitative studies using these prototypes to determine the physical properties that drive acceptability and possibly adherence. In order to ensure that the suppositories function as effective drug delivery vehicles, we have conducted in vitro dissolution studies in water, vaginal simulant fluid (VSF) and semen simulant fluid (SSF) with suppositories loaded with the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir (TFV). TFV was released via diffusion and matrix erosion in water or by diffusion out of the matrix in VSF and SSF. Diffusion studies were conducted in two different volumes of VSF and SSF. The volume of VSF/SSF into which TFV diffused and the size of the suppositories determined the rate of diffusion from the suppositories. About 45%–50% of the encapsulated TFV diffused out of the suppositories within the first two hours, irrespective of suppository size, diffusion medium (VSF/SSF) and the volume of medium. Prior work indicates that a short waiting period between insertion and coitus is highly desired by women; present data suggest our microbicide prototypes have rapid initial release followed by a slow release curve over the first 24 h. PMID:24999606

  19. Characterization of in vitro dengue virus resistance to carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Laura B; Damonte, Elsa B

    2016-07-01

    The λ-carrageenan (λ-car) is a potent and selective inhibitor of dengue virus (DENV) infection targeted to virus adsorption and internalization, due to the structural similarities with the mammalian cell receptor heparan sulfate. To further characterize the antiviral activity of λ-car, the selection and the phenotypic and genomic features of λ-car resistant DENV-2 variants are studied here in comparison to control virus. Resistant variants were rapidly selected in Vero cells after three passages in presence of the drug. No difference was detected in the growth profiles in Vero and C6/36 cells between resistant and control viruses. By contrast, the kinetics of adsorption and internalization of resistant variants in Vero cells was significantly diminished whereas entry to C6/36 cells was unaffected. By plaque purification and sequence analysis of the population, two types of resistant clones were found: some clones presented two mutations in E protein, K126E, and F422L; but other equally λ-car resistant clones had no mutations in E. Furthermore, no mutations were found in other viral proteins like prM, C, or NS1. The genomic disparity in E protein was also associated to differences in phenotype stability. The stable genomic resistance here described provides information about determinants in E protein involved in receptor binding and membrane fusion for uncoating. PMID:26694200

  20. Lessons learned from a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study with a iota-carrageenan nasal spray as medical device in children with acute symptoms of common cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazekas Tamas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common cold is caused by a variety of respiratory viruses. The prevalence in children is high, and it potentially contributes to significant morbidity. Iota-carragenan, a polymer derived from red seaweed, has reduced viral load in nasal secretions and alleviated symptoms in adults with common cold. Methods We have assessed the antiviral and therapeutic activity of a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in children with acute symptoms of common cold. A cohort of 153 children between 1–18 years (mean age 5 years, displaying acute symptoms of common cold were randomly assigned to treatment with a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan (0.12% as verum or 0.9% sodium chloride solution as placebo for seven days. Symptoms of common cold were recorded and the viral load of respiratory viruses in nasal secretions was determined at two consecutive visits. Results The results of the present study showed no significant difference between the iota carrageenan and the placebo group on the mean of TSS between study days 2–7. Secondary endpoints, such as reduced time to clearance of disease (7.6 vs 9.4 days; p = 0.038, reduction of viral load (p = 0.026, and lower incidence of secondary infections with other respiratory viruses (p = 0.046 indicated beneficial effects of iota-carrageenan in this population. The treatment was safe and well tolerated, with less side effects observed in the verum group compared to placebo. Conclusion In this study iota-carrageenan did not alleviate symptoms in children with acute symptoms of common cold, but significantly reduced viral load in nasal secretions that may have important implications for future studies. Trial registration ISRCTN52519535, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN52519535/

  1. Substance P Modulates Colitis-Asscociated Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Koon, Hon Wai; Shih, David; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Zhao, Dezheng; Fazelbhoy, Zafeer; Hing, Tressia; Xu, Hua; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Norma; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2010-01-01

    Substance P (SP) and the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) are involved in the development of colitis and mucosal healing after colonic inflammation. We studied whether SP modulates colonic fibrosis by using a chronic model of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and NK-1R-deficient (NK-1R KD) mice. We found increased mRNA expression levels of collagen, vimentin, and the fibrogenic factors transforming growth factor β1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 in the chron...

  2. Immobilization and Bioelectrochemistry of Hemoglobin Based on Carrageenan and Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Composite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛春; 张洋; 王璐; 贾能勤

    2012-01-01

    A novel biopolymer/room-temperature ionic liquid composite film based on carrageenan, room temperature ionic liquid (IL) [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4)] was explored for immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) and construction of biosensor. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalytic behaviors of Hb entrapped in the IL-carrageenan composite film on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were investigated. UV-vis spectroscopy demonstrated that Hb in the IL-carrageenan composite film could retain its native secondary structure. A pair of well-defined redox peaks of Hb was obtained at the Hb-IL-carrageenan composite film modified electrode through direct electron transfer between the protein and the underlying electrode. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) was 2.02 s 1, indicating great facilitation of the electron transfer between Hb and IL-carrageenan composite film modified electrode. The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward reduction of hydrogen peroxide with a linear range of 5.0 × 10-6 to 1.5 ×10-4 mol/L and the detection limit was 2.12 ×10 7 mol/L (S/N= 3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant KM^app for hydrogen peroxide was estimated to be 0.02 mmol/L, indicating that the biosensor possessed high affinity to hydrogen peroxide. In addition, the proposed biosensor showed good reproducibility and stability.

  3. Characterization and antioxidant properties of alcoholic extracts from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relleve, Lorna; Abad, Lucille

    2015-07-01

    Different extracts from unirradiated and gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan (solid and 1% w/v aqueous solution) were obtained with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) at concentrations of 40%, 60% and 80% v/v at room temperature. Physical and chemical properties of the different IPA extracts were analyzed by GPC, UV, and FT-IR. The extracts consisted of low molecular weight fragments with an average molecular weight (Mw) ranging from 2300 Da to 5000 Da. UV analyses of extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed varying maximum absorptions in the range of 265-280 nm. FT-IR spectra of all extracts from irradiated carrageenan showed all the important functional groups of carrageenan in the fingerprint region (4000-600 cm-1) and additional carbonyl C=O and C=C double bond peaks. Antioxidant properties of the different extracts were investigated using reducing power assay. The reducing power of extracts from the irradiated solution follows the order of 80%>60%>40% while no trend was observed for all extracts from irradiated solid κ-carrageenan.

  4. Evaluation of polyethylenimine/carrageenan multi-layer for antibacterial activity of pathogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of multi-layer of polyethylenimine (PEI) and carrageenan (κ,ι, λ) for potential use as coating on biomaterial surface. The multi-layer of PEI/carrageenan was formed using the layer-by-layer assembly absorption technique and was monitored by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and bio molecular interaction analysis. All samples were prepared in phosphate buffer solution and applied to mica disk alternately. The micrographs showed the formation of bi-layer of polyethylenimine and carrageenan (κ, ι, λ) as observed in the change of height of the layer and surface morphology. The bimolecular binding of carrageenan with polyethylenimine was also investigated using a biosensor. The sensorgram showed that PEI interacted molecularly with carrageenan. Results were: 1,916.08 pg/nm2 for kappa type; 1,844.1 pg/nm2 for iota type and 6,074.24 pg/nm2 for lambda type. The multi-layer showed antibacterial activity against Enterobacter cloaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcal strains (Enterococcus faecalis (EF) 29212 and 29505). (author)

  5. Fecal calprotectin and ulcerative colitis endoscopic activity index as indicators of mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvaei, Tarang; Maleki, Iradj; Nagshvar, Farshad; Fakheri, Hafez; Hosseini, Vahid; Valizadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Neishaboori, Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory large bowel disease with recurrent variable periods of exacerbation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the correlation of UCEIS with fecal calprotectin (FC) level to assess disease activity in UC patients in order to determine whether FC can prognosticate clinical outcome and disease activity of UC instead of colonoscopic evaluation. Our endoscopic investigations revealed the extension of UC as the following: proctitis (11.6%), procto-sigmoiditis (18.5%), left-sided colitis (15.8%), extensive colitis (11.7%), and normal endoscopy (42.4%). Conclusively, we suggest that FC can be used as a reliable tool to evaluate disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients. Moreover, our findings indicate a significant correlation between FC level and mucosal healing. PMID:25366383

  6. Effect of epichlorohydrin on the wet spinning of carrageenan fibers under optimal parameter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Xue, Zhixin; Yan, Miao; Liu, Jingjing; Xia, Yanzhi

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by the extensive application of carrageenans, this work prepared carrageenan fibers via wet spinning. The optimum spinning parameters were explored by means of an orthogonal test. According to the results of tensile test, dope concentration, draw ratio, coagulation bath temperature, and coagulation bath concentration set to 9%, 1.2, 15°C and 5%, respectively, were the optimum spinning conditions. These parameters were then applied to fabricate fibers treated with epichlorohydrin in a stretch bath. The result of tensile testing demonstrated a positive improvement in the intensity, and SEM showed obvious necking phenomenon of the crosslinked carrageenan fibers. The structures and special groups were characterized with X-ray diffraction and FTIR, and the results indicated the regularity of the net structure and the increase in ether bond and methylene. In some, crosslinking reactions in optimum parameter conditions yield excellent fibers and thus present promising applications. PMID:27312634

  7. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkiflee Kuedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior.

  8. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuedo, Zulkiflee; Sangsuriyawong, Anantita; Klaypradit, Wanwimol; Tipmanee, Varomyalin; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa

    2016-01-01

    Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior. PMID:27007359

  9. A case of reactive arthritis due to Clostridium difficile colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essenmacher, Alex C.; Khurram, Nazish; Bismack, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive arthritis is an acute, aseptic, inflammatory arthropathy following an infectious process but removed from the site of primary infection. It is often attributed to genitourinary and enteric pathogens, such as Chlamydia, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Yersinia, in susceptible individuals. An uncommon and less recognized cause of this disease is preceding colonic infection with Clostridium difficile, an organism associated with pseudomembranous colitis and diarrhea in hospitalized patients and those recently exposed to antibiotics. Recognition of this association may be complicated by non-specific presentation of diarrhea, the interval between gastrointestinal and arthritic symptoms, and the wide differential in mono- and oligoarthritis. We present the case of a 61-year-old, hospitalized patient recently treated for C. difficile colitis who developed sudden, non-traumatic, right knee pain and swelling. Physical examination and radiographs disclosed joint effusion, and sterile aspiration produced cloudy fluid with predominant neutrophils and no growth on cultures. Diagnostic accuracy is enhanced by contemporaneous laboratory investigations excluding other entities such as gout and rheumatoid arthritis and other infections that typically precede reactive arthritis. Contribution of Clostridium infection to reactive arthritis is an obscure association frequently difficult to prove, but this organism is warranted inclusion in the differential of reactive arthritis. PMID:26908381

  10. Influence of lambda-carrageenan on the release of systematic series of volatile flavor compounds from viscous food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylaite, Egle; Ilgunaite, Z.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge;

    2004-01-01

    , except with the most hydrophobic compounds. Analysis of flavor release under nonequilibrium conditions revealed a suppressing effect of lambda-carrageenan on the release rates of aroma compounds, and the extent of decrease in release rates was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the aroma......The effect of lambda-carrageenan addition level (0.1, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5% w/w) and viscosity on the release of systematic series of aroma compounds (aldehydes, esters, ketones, and alcohols) was studied in thickened viscous solutions containing lambda-carrageenan and 10 wt % of sucrose. Air......-liquid partition coefficients K (37degreesC) of a total of 43 aroma compounds were determined in pure water and in the lambda-carrageenan solutions by static headspace gas chromatography. Mass transfer of the aroma compounds in water and in the thickened lambda-carrageenan solutions which had a wide viscosity...

  11. Efficacy of a Carrageenan nasal spray in patients with common cold: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The common cold is the most widespread viral infection in humans. Iota-carrageenan has previously shown antiviral effectiveness against cold viruses in clinical trials. This study investigated the efficacy of a carrageenan-containing nasal spray on the duration of the common cold and nasal fluid viral load in adult patients. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 211 patients suffering from early symptoms of the common cold were treated for seven days. Application was performed three times daily with either a carrageenan-supplemented nasal spray or saline solution as placebo with an overall observation period of 21 days. The primary endpoint was the duration of disease defined as the time until the last day with symptoms followed by all other days in the study period without symptoms. During the study, but prior unblinding, the definition of disease duration was adapted from the original protocol that defines disease duration as the time period of symptoms followed by 48 hours without symptoms. Results In patients showing a laboratory-confirmed cold virus infection and adherence to the protocol, alleviation of symptoms was 2.1 days faster in the carrageenan group in comparison to placebo (p = 0.037). The primary endpoint that had been prespecified but was changed before unblinding was not met. Viral titers in nasal fluids showed a significantly greater decrease in carrageenan patients in the intention-to-treat population (p = 0.024) and in the per protocol population (p = 0.018) between days 1 and 3/4. Conclusions In adults with common cold virus infections, direct local administration of carrageenan with nasal sprays reduced the duration of cold symptoms. A significant reduction of viral load in the nasal wash fluids of patients confirmed similar findings from earlier trials in children and adults. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN80148028 PMID:24219370

  12. Cytomegalovirus-colitis hos immunkompetent ung mand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva; Grønbaek, Karin; Linnemann, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    A healthy young man was hospitalized due to fever, malaise and bloody stools for three weeks. The patient had a primary CMV infection based on biochemical, serological and ultrasonic results, and a colonoscopy was consistent with left-sided CMV colitis. He recovered spontaneously, though haematoc...

  13. Future targets for immune therapy in colitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Claesson, M H

    2008-01-01

    Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis, collectively termed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the bowel. It is generally accepted that the pathology associated with IBD is characterized by a hyper-reactive immune response in the gut wall directed against...

  14. Manipulation of enteric flora in ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario Guslandi

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Reviewing the available therapeutic options in the medical treatment of ulcerative colitis, Xu et al.[1], have omitted to mention an important aspect in the pharmacological management of the disease, namely the possibility to promote clinical and endoscopic improvement by manipulating the enteric flora.

  15. Colitis following fecal diversion: still a challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Leonaldson dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available After fecal diversion, nonspecific colitis may be seen in the defunctionalized colon. The purpose of this prospective study is to identify specific findings that could help in the differential diagnosis between diversion colitis and other inflammatory bowel diseases in order to avoid inappropriate diagnosis and therapy. It was studied, prospectively, thirteen consecutive patients from two public hospitals of Rio de Janeiro who had undergone temporary colostomy for indications other than inflammatory bowel disease. They were submitted to endoscopy with biopsy of both proximal and distal colorectal segments, and prospectively evaluated before and after restoration of intestinal continuity. Endoscopy with biopsy of both proximal and distal excluded colorectal segments showed a nonspecific mucosal and submucosal inflammation, resembling ulcerative colitis ( p < 0.01. There was endoscopic resolution in all patients once restoration of intestinal continuity was established (p < 0.01 and also histologic improvement after the stoma closure. In conclusion there are no specific findings that make possible an unequivocal distinction between diversion colitis and other nonspecific inflammatory diseases. Diagnosis should be achieved if after stoma closure occur remission of endoscopic large bowel inflammatory signs with improvement in mucosal histologic appearance and prompt relief of clinical complaints.

  16. Selenoprotein P in colitis-associated carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Sarah P.; Whitten-Barrett, Caitlyn; Williams, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are often deficient in micronutrients such as selenium and have an increased risk of colon cancer. We tested whether the selenium transport protein, selenoprotein P, could modify colitis-associated cancer. Our results indicate that global SEPP1 haploinsufficiency augments tumorigenesis and mediates oxidative damage in the intestine. PMID:27314080

  17. Cerebral Arterial Thrombosis in Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Casella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis, mainly venous, is a rare and well-recognized extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. We describe a 25-year-old Caucasian man affected by ulcerative colitis and sclerosing cholangitis with an episode of right middle cerebral arterial thrombosis resolved by intraarterial thrombolysis. We perform a brief review of the International Literature.

  18. Dietary uptake of Wedelia chinensis extract attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available SCOPE: Traditional medicinal herbs are increasingly used as alternative therapies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Here we evaluated the effect of Wedelia chinensis, a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia, on the prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced acute colitis in mice. General safety and the effect of different extraction methods on the bioactivity of W. chinensis were also explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were administrated hot water extract of fresh W. chinensis (WCHF orally for one week followed by drinking water containing 2% DSS for nine days. WCHF significantly attenuated the symptoms of colitis including diarrhea, rectal bleeding and loss of body weight; it also reduced the shortening of colon length and histopathological damage caused by colonic inflammation. Among four W. chinensis extracts prepared using different extraction techniques, WCHF showed the highest anti-colitis efficacy. Analyses of specific T-cell regulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-12 revealed that WCHF treatment can suppress the Th1 and Th17, but not Th2, responses in colon tissues and dendritic cells of DSS-induced colitis mice. A 28-day subacute toxicity study showed that daily oral administration of WCHF (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight was not toxic to mice. CONCLUSION: Together, our findings suggest that specific extracts of W. chinensis have nutritional potential for future development into nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. Nicotine Inhibits Clostridium difficile Toxin A-Induced Colitis but Not Ileitis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigna, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine is protective in ulcerative colitis but not Crohn's disease of the small intestine, but little is known about the effects of nicotine on Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis. Isolated ileal or colonic segments in anesthetized rats were pretreated with nicotine bitartrate or other pharmacological agents before intraluminal injection of toxin A. After 3 hours, the treated segments were removed and inflammation was assessed. Nicotine biphasically inhibited toxin A colitis but not ileitis. Pretreatment with the nicotinic receptor antagonist, hexamethonium, blocked the effects of nicotine. Pretreating the colonic segments with hexamethonium before toxin A administration resulted in more inflammation than seen with toxin A alone, suggesting that a tonic nicotinic anti-inflammatory condition exists in the colon. Nicotine also inhibited toxin A-induced increased colonic concentrations of the TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1) agonist, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and release of the proinflammatory neuropeptide, substance P. Pretreatment with nicotine did not protect against direct TRPV1-mediated colitis caused by intraluminal capsaicin. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors tonically protect the colon against inflammation and nicotine inhibits toxin A colitis but not toxin A ileitis in rats in part by inhibition of toxin A-induced activation of TRPV1 by endogenous TRPV1 agonists such as LTB4. PMID:26881175

  20. Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5μL of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice

  1. Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naho Maruyama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5 μL of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice.

  2. The Experimental Research (In Vitro) of Carrageenans and Fucoidans to Decrease Activity of Hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavliga, Stanislav N; Kompanets, Galina G; Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu

    2016-06-01

    The effect of carrageenans and fucoidans on the activity of Hantavirus is studied. It has been found that among carrageenans a significant antiviral effect is exerted by the ι-type, which decreases the viral titer by 2.5 log focus forming units per mL; among fucoidans, by a preparation from Laminaria cichorioides, which reduces the number of infected cells from 27.0 to 5.3 after pretreatment of both the macrophage culture and Hantavirus. The antiviral effect of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica is shown to grow in direct proportion to the increase of dose of the preparation. PMID:26943130

  3. Colitis caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, S.; Keat, A. C.; Keat, E. C.

    1986-01-01

    Four cases of acute proctocolitis associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy are presented. The drugs implicated were flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, naproxen and ibuprofen. After resolution of symptoms and signs of proctocolitis three of the four patients were subsequently rechallenged with the implicated drug: in each there was a rapid relapse. PMID:3774712

  4. Colitis caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi, S.; Keat, A C; Keat, E C

    1986-01-01

    Four cases of acute proctocolitis associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy are presented. The drugs implicated were flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, naproxen and ibuprofen. After resolution of symptoms and signs of proctocolitis three of the four patients were subsequently rechallenged with the implicated drug: in each there was a rapid relapse.

  5. RNase-L deficiency exacerbates experimental colitis and colitis-associated cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tiha M.; ArindamChakrabarti; Ezelle, Heather J.; E. Brennan-Laun, Sarah; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Polyakova, Irina; H. Silverman, Robert; Hassel, Bret A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The endoribonuclease RNase-L is a type-I interferon (IFN)-regulatedcomponent of the innate immune response that functions in antiviral, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities. RNase-L produces RNA agonists of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), sensors of cytosolic pathogen-associated RNAs that induce cytokines including IFNβ. IFNβ and RLR signaling mediate protective responses against experimental colitis and colitis-associated cancer (CAC) and contribute to gastrointestinal (GI) homeostasis. Therefore, we investigated a role for RNase-L in murine colitis and CAC and its association with RLR signaling in response to bacterial RNA. Methods Colitis was induced in wild type (WT) and RNase-L-deficient mice (RNase-L−/−) by administration of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). CAC was induced by DSS and azoxymethane (AOM). Histological analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed on colon tissue to analyze immune cell infiltration and tissue damage following induction of colitis. Expression of cytokines was measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA. Results DSS-treated RNase-L−/− mice exhibited a significantly higher clinical score, delayed leukocyte infiltration, reduced expression of IFNβ, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-18at early times post-DSS exposure and increased mortalityas compared to WT mice. DSS/AOM-treated RNase-L−/−mice displayed an increased tumor burden. Bacterial RNA triggeredIFNβproductionin an RNase-L-dependent manner and provided a potential mechanism by whichRNase-L contributes to the GI immune response to microbiota and protects against experimental colitis and CAC. Conclusions RNase-L promotes the innate immune response to intestinal damage and ameliorates murine colitis and CAC. The RNase-L-dependent production of IFNβ stimulated by bacterial RNA may be a mechanism to protectagainst GI inflammatory disease. PMID:23567782

  6. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Effects of the Organic Extract of the Red Sea Marine Sponge Xestospongia testudinaria against Carrageenan Induced Rat Paw Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shitany, Nagla A.; Abbas, Aymn T.; Abdel-dayem, Umama A.; Azhar, Esam I.; Ali, Soad S.; van Soest, Rob W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are found to be a rich source of bioactive compounds which show a wide range of biological activities including antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulator effects of the methanolic extract of the Red Sea marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria. The chemical composition of the Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract was determined using Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) was measured to assess the antioxidant activity of the sponge extract. Carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema was adopted in this study. Six groups of rats were used: group1: Control, group 2: Carrageenan, group 3: indomethacin (10 mg/kg), group 4–6: Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg). Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity was performed by both calculating the percentage increase in paw weight and hisopathologically. Assessment of the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity was performed. GC-MS analysis revealed that there were 41 different compounds present in the methanolic extract. Sponge extract exhibited antioxidant activity against DPPH free radicals. Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract (100 mg/kg) significantly decreased % increase in paw weight measured at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after carrageenan injection. Histopathologically, the extract caused a marked decrease in the capillary congestion and inflammatory cells infiltrate. The extract decreased paw malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) and increased the reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activity. It also decreased the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 β(IL-1β) and IL-6. The results of this study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of the methanolic extract of the Red Sea

  7. Enhanced excitability of guinea pig inferior mesenteric ganglion neurons during and following recovery from chemical colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, David R

    2012-11-01

    Postganglionic sympathetic neurons in the prevertebral ganglia (PVG) provide ongoing inhibitory tone to the gastrointestinal tract and receive innervation from mechanosensory intestinofugal afferent neurons primarily located in the colon and rectum. This study tests the hypothesis that colitis alters the excitability of PVG neurons. Intracellular recording techniques were used to evaluate changes in the electrical properties of inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) neurons in the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and acetic acid models of guinea pig colitis. Visceromotor IMG neurons were hyperexcitable 12 and 24 h, but not 6 h, post-TNBS during "acute" inflammation. Hyperexcitability persisted at 6 days post-TNBS during "chronic" inflammation, as well as at 56 days post-TNBS when colitis had resolved. In contrast, there was only a modest decrease in the current required to elicit an action potential at 24 h after acetic acid administration. Vasomotor neurons from inflamed preparations exhibited normal excitability. The excitatory effects of XE-991, a blocker of the channel that contributes to the M-type potassium current, and heteropodatoxin-2, a blocker of the channel that contributes to the A-type potassium current, were unchanged in TNBS-inflamed preparations, suggesting that these currents did not contribute to hyperexcitability. Riluzole, an inhibitor of persistent sodium currents, caused tonic visceromotor neurons to accommodate to sustained current pulses, regardless of the inflammatory state of the preparation, and restored a normal rheobase in neurons from TNBS-inflamed preparations but did not alter the rheobase of control preparations, suggesting that enhanced activity of voltage-gated sodium channels may contribute to colitis-induced hyperexcitability. Collectively, these data indicate that enhanced sympathetic drive as a result of hyperexcitable visceromotor neurons may contribute to small bowel dysfunction during colitis. PMID:22961805

  8. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Carrageenan at Different Temperatures, Isolated from Hypnea musciformis from Karachi Coast Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Junaid Mahmood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describe the basic tools like viscosity measurements and thermodynamic parameters of the polysaccharide isolated from Hypnea musciformis (red algae of Karachi Coast (Pakistan showed characteristics of κ-carrageenan. An IR spectrum showed a fairly sharp band at 1210, 1225 cm-1 corresponding to sulphate ester and is in accordance with the high sulphate content of κ-carrageenan. Viscosity measurements revealed a linear relationship with increase in concentration and decreased with the rise in temperature of aqueous solutions of κ-carrageenan. Thermodynamic parameters were determined by the change in viscosity data as a function of temperature and concentration. The free energy change of activation (ΔGη increased regularly as the concentration of aqueous κ-carrageenan increased, as well as rises in temperature. Higher values of free energy change of activation, (ΔGη showed the higher association of κ-carrageenan with water at given temperature. The values of entropy change of activation (ΔSη of viscous flow also increased with the increase in concentration and temperature of aqueous κ-carrageenan solution. The high negative values of entropy change of activation (ΔSη showed that the solution of κ-carrageenan was more ordered in initial state than the activated one.

  9. Genetic update on inflammatory factors in ulcerative colitis: Review of the current literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia; Sarlos; Erzsebet; Kovesdi; Lili; Magyari; Zsolt; Banfai; Andras; Szabo; Andras; Javorhazy; Bela; Melegh

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis(UC) is one of the main types of inflammatory bowel disease, which is caused by dysregulated immune responses in genetically predisposed individuals. Several genetic factors, including interleukin and interleukin receptor gene polymorphisms and other inflammation-related genes play central role in mediating and modulating the inflammation in the human body, thereby these can be the main cause of development of the disease. It is clear these data are very important for understanding the base of the disease, especially in terms of clinical utility and validity, but summarized literature is exiguous for challenge health specialist that can used in the clinical practice nowadays. This review summarizes the current literature on inflammationrelated genetic polymorphisms which are associated with UC. We performed an electronic search of Pubmed Database among publications of the last 10 years, using the following medical subject heading terms: UC, ulcerative colitis, inflammation, genes, polymorphisms, and susceptibility.

  10. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat

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    Heni Rachmawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW. Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Radioprotection potential of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan used as food additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrageenans are a group of natural carbohydrates that are present in the structure of certain varieties of red algae (Rhodophyceae). They are used in emulsions, for syneresis control and to grow up, to promote adhesiveness and dispersion. In the industry of foods they can be used for instance, as thickness and gelling agents, alone or together with other additives. The processing of foods by radiation is increasing considerably, because the efficiency of the process in the industrial decontamination of products. The objective of this work was to study the action of the ascorbic acid as potential radioprotector of the carrageenan against 60 Co gamma radiation effects, using the viscosity as parameter. Samples of commercial carrageenan dissolved at 1,0% were irradiated in the presence or not of ascorbic acid, with doses of 0.0 kGy; 1.0 kGy; 2.5 kGy; 5.0 kGy and 10.0 kGy. After the irradiation the relationships viscosity/dose were established for the temperature of 60 deg C. For the dose of 10.0 kGy a better protecting effect of the ascorbic acid on the carrageenan was seen. The implications of the use of this antioxidant is discussed as a form of minimizing the effect of the radiation in irradiated foods. (author)

  12. Influence of cyclodextrins on texture behavior and freeze-thaw stability of kappa-carrageenan gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Du, Lei; Zhang, Guangjie; Jin, Zhengyu; Liu, Hui

    2016-11-01

    The influences of cyclodextrins (CDs) on texture characteristics and freeze-thaw stability of κ-carrageenan gel were investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA) and synthesis test. The TPA results demonstrated that the texture behavior of gelatinized κ-carrageenan was obvious influenced by CDs. Hardness was strengthened at low CD concentrations (1-2%, w/w) and then weakened along with the increase of CD concentrations. Springiness was significantly weakened after the CDs were added. Gumminess showed the similar change as hardness and chewiness dropped along with the concentration increasing of CDs, while cohesiveness had little change after the addition of CDs. Moreover, CDs improved the freeze-thaw stability of gelatinized κ-carrageenan. In both texture behavior and freeze-thaw stability aspects, the influences of modified CDs were superior to that of natural CDs. According to the experimental results, a proposed model was given to illuminate the distribution of CDs in the gelatinized κ-carrageenan. PMID:27211687

  13. Diethylcarbamazine Attenuates the Development of Carrageenan-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlene Lima Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diethylcarbamazine (DEC is an antifilarial drug with potent anti-inflammatory properties as a result of its interference with the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of DEC in a mouse model of acute inflammation (carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity induced the accumulation of fluid containing a large number of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs as well as infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased expression of interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Carrageenan also induced the expression of nuclear factor-κB. The oral administration of DEC (50 mg/Kg three days prior to the carrageenan challenge led to a significant reduction in all inflammation markers. The present findings demonstrate that DEC is a potential drug for the treatment of acute lung inflammation.

  14. Update in the treatment of paediatric ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greifer, Melanie K; Markowitz, James F

    2006-10-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an important disease in the paediatric population. Ulcerative colitis is one of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, and is medically incurable. However, the arsenal of medications has grown as knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease advances. This review looks at the classical treatments for children with ulcerative colitis, including the 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and imunomodulators, as well as biological therapy and other, newer modalities. PMID:17020417

  15. Evaluation of dairy allergy among ulcerative colitis patients

    OpenAIRE

    judaki, Arezo; Hafeziahmadi, Mohamadreza; Yousefi, Atefe; Havasian, Mohamad Reza; Panahi, Jafar; Sayehmiri, Koroush; Alizadeh, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    The intestine is the largest mucosal organ of the body and also the first line immune homeostasis. Inflammatory bowel disease or IBD is divided into ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. One of the problems that can occur with UC is dietary allergy to some foods. This study aimed to evaluated the dairy allergy among patients with ulcerative colitis. This study is a Case - control study, that studied 72 patients with Ulcerative Colitis, after recording history of the disease, colonoscopy and...

  16. Intestinal epithelial vitamin D receptor signaling inhibits experimental colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Weicheng; Chen, Yunzi; Golan, Maya Aharoni; Annunziata, Maria L.; Du, Jie; Dougherty, Urszula; Kong, Juan; Musch, Mark; Huang, Yong; Pekow, Joel; Zheng, Changqing; Bissonnette, Marc; Hanauer, Stephen B.; Li, Yan Chun

    2013-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of vitamin D on colitis have been previously documented. Global vitamin D receptor (VDR) deletion exaggerates colitis, but the relative anticolitic contribution of epithelial and nonepithelial VDR signaling is unknown. Here, we showed that colonic epithelial VDR expression was substantially reduced in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. Moreover, targeted expression of human VDR (hVDR) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) protected mice from developing...

  17. Quality of life in patients with ulcerative colitis treated surgically

    OpenAIRE

    Kozłowska, Katarzyna A.; Bączyk, Grażyna; Krokowicz, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ulcerative colitis belongs to the group of inflammatory bowel diseases. The specific symptoms and chronic nature of the disease significantly affect the quality of patients’ lives. Quality-of-life assessment helps to define its determining factors as well as the efficiency of surgical procedures. Aim Quality-of-life evaluation of patients with ulcerative colitis treated surgically. Material and methods A retrospective review was carried out on 35 patients with ulcerative colitis,...

  18. Characterization of radiation modified κ-carrageenan oligomers for bio-based materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    κ-carrageenan oligomers are known to have several biological activities such as anti-HIV, anti-herpes, antitumor and antioxidant properties. Recent progress in the development of radiation modified κ-carrageenan has resulted in new applications such as plant growth promoter, radiation dose indicator and hydrogels for wound dressing. This presentation would touch on the changes in chemical structure, gelation and conformational transition behavior and molecular size of κ-carrageenan at doses from 0 to 200 kGy and would be correlated to these functions for the development of bio-based materials. Chemical and spectral analyses were carried out using UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, reducing sugar analysis, free sulfate and carboxylic acid analysis. The chemical and spectral analyses of the radiolytic products indicated increasing reducing sugars, carbonyl, carboxylic acids, and sulfates with increasing doses which reached a maximum level at a certain dose depending on the irradiation condition. Values were very much lower in solid irradiation (in vacuum and in air) as compared to aqueous irradiation. NMR data also revealed an intact structure of the oligomer irradiated at 100 kGy in the specific fraction that contains an Mw = (3-10) kDa. κ-carrageenan oligomers exhibited antioxidant properties as determined by hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay. The degree of oxidative inhibition increased with increasing dose which can be attributed to higher reducing sugar. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments showed that a dose of up to 50 kGy, sol-gelation transition was still observed. Beyond 50 kGy, no gelation took place, instead appearance of fast relax-carrageenan mode in characteristic decay time function was observed at doses of (75-150) kGy. Optimum peak intensity was found at 100 kGy (mol wt. 5-10 kDa) which coincides with the optimum plant growth promoter effect in κ-carrageenan

  19. Asymptomatic and Persistent Elevation of Pancreatic Enzymes in an Ulcerative Colitis Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Liverani; Filippo Leonardi; Lucia Castellani; Carla Cardamone; Andrea Belluzzi

    2013-01-01

    Azathioprine has been extensively used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. It might cause pancreatic damage in the form of either asymptomatic elevation in serum amylase/lipase or overt acute pancreatitis. Here we report the case of a 61-year-old patient with ulcerative colitis who had been treated with azathioprine for three years, achieving clinical remission. During treatment he presented an asymptomatic elevation of serum pancreatic enzymes, without any signs of pancreatitis...

  20. Level of Fecal Calprotectin Correlates With Endoscopic and Histologic Inflammation and Identifies Patients With Mucosal Healing in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theede, Klaus; Holck, Susanne; Ibsen, Per;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), mucosal healing is an important goal of treatment. However, mucosal healing is difficult to determine on the basis of clinical evaluation alone, and endoscopy is uncomfortable and can cause complications. Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a...

  1. Acute cytomegalovirus colitis presenting during primary HIV infection: an unusual case of an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    von Both, U; Laffer, R; Grube, C.; Bossart, W; Gaspert, A; Günthard, H. F.

    2008-01-01

    Severe ulcerous cytomegalovirus pancolitis developed during primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a patient who underwent early combination antiretroviral treatment. This massive inflammatory process led to acute colon perforation. Serological testing demonstrated cytomegalovirus reactivation. Severe immunosuppression caused by primary HIV infection resulted in cytomegalovirus colitis, and initiation of early combination antiretroviral therapy triggered an immune reconstitut...

  2. Herpes simplex virus colitis in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Andrew J; Craven, Paul; Holland, Andrew J A; Jones, Cheryl A; Badawi, Nadia; Isaacs, David

    2002-09-01

    Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract in neonates with congenital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is rarely described. We report a case of a newborn with disseminated HSV infection associated with profuse hematochezia and late sigmoid colon perforation. Histologic examination showed patchy areas of ulceration with multinucleated giant cells and HSV nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction in colonic tissue. No clinically apparent episodes of recurrent colitis occurred in the first year of life. PMID:12380594

  3. Ischemic Colitis in an Endurance Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase Grames

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old female running the Marine Corps Marathon developed diarrhea at mile 12. After finishing the race she noted that she was covered in bloody stool. A local emergency department suspected ischemic colitis. After discharge, her primary care physician instructed her to discontinue the use of all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Her symptoms resolved and she returned to running without any complications. This paper describes the pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and management options.

  4. Selective gelatinase blockage ameliorates acute DSS colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Heimesaat, M. M.; Dunay, I R; Fuchs, D.; Trautmann, D.; Fischer, A; Kühl, A. A.; Loddenkemper, C.; Batra, A.; Siegmund, B.; Krell, H.-W.; Bereswill, S.; Liesenfeld, O.

    2011-01-01

    In the experimental models of intestinal inflammation and humans with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), increased levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and -9 (also referred to as gelatinase A and B, respectively), in inflamed tissue sites can be detected. In the presented study, we investigated potential beneficial effects exerted by doxycycline nonselectively blocking MMPs and the selective gelatinase inhibitor RO28-2653 in acute DSS colitis. Treatment wit...

  5. Roentgenological and clinical studies on radiation colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-six patients with radiation induced colitis in two institutes, 20 irradiated externally and 36 irradiated both externally and intracavitarily, were studied. The severity of radiation injuries was classified into 4 grades according to roentgenological and romanoscopical findings. Based on the charts of TAO system, radiation doses were calculated at the anterior rectal wall where maximum absorption dose of the colon was expected. The most frequent complaint was bloody stool which started about one year after irradiation. Onset of subjective symptoms was significantly delayed in milder cases (Grade II) than in more severe groups (Grades III, IV). Only minor injuries (Grade I) were noted in most of the externally irradiated, whereas more severe findings of radiation colitis were frequent in cervical cancer patients irradiated both intracavitarily and externally. The most common site involved in cervical cancer patients was the anterior colonic wall at the recto-sigmoid junction just behind the uterine cervix. In terms of relationship between time dose fractionation (TDF) and severity of radiation colitis, it was found that remarkable radiation injuries (Grades III, IV) occurred in the group of TDF value of 117 or more (more than 7500 rad). Therefore the author recommend the TDF value of 110 or less in cervical cancer cases with radiation therapy to keep radiation injury under Grade II. (author)

  6. Bacteria penetrate the inner mucus layer before inflammation in the dextran sulfate colitis model.

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    Malin E V Johansson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protection of the large intestine with its enormous amount of commensal bacteria is a challenge that became easier to understand when we recently could describe that colon has an inner attached mucus layer devoid of bacteria (Johansson et al. (2008 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 15064-15069. The bacteria are thus kept at a distance from the epithelial cells and lack of this layer, as in Muc2-null mice, allow bacteria to contact the epithelium. This causes colitis and later on colon cancer, similar to the human disease Ulcerative Colitis, a disease that still lacks a pathogenetic explanation. Dextran Sulfate (DSS in the drinking water is the most widely used animal model for experimental colitis. In this model, the inflammation is observed after 3-5 days, but early events explaining why DSS causes this has not been described. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When mucus formed on top of colon explant cultures were exposed to 3% DSS, the thickness of the inner mucus layer decreased and became permeable to 2 microm fluorescent beads after 15 min. Both DSS and Dextran readily penetrated the mucus, but Dextran had no effect on thickness or permeability. When DSS was given in the drinking water to mice and the colon was stained for bacteria and the Muc2 mucin, bacteria were shown to penetrate the inner mucus layer and reach the epithelial cells already within 12 hours, long before any infiltration of inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION: DSS thus causes quick alterations in the inner colon mucus layer that makes it permeable to bacteria. The bacteria that reach the epithelial cells probably trigger an inflammatory reaction. These observations suggest that altered properties or lack of the inner colon mucus layer may be an initial event in the development of colitis.

  7. Exposure to Common Food Additive Carrageenan Alone Leads to Fasting Hyperglycemia and in Combination with High Fat Diet Exacerbates Glucose Intolerance and Hyperlipidemia without Effect on Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Unterman, Terry; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared. Results. Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state. Conclusions. Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse. PMID:25883986

  8. Deficient production of reactive oxygen species leads to severe chronic DSS-induced colitis in Ncf1/p47phox-mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Rodrigues-Sousa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colitis is a common clinical complication in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD, a primary immunodeficiency caused by impaired oxidative burst. Existing experimental data from NADPH-oxidase knockout mice propose contradictory roles for the involvement of reactive oxygen species in colitis chronicity and severity. Since genetically controlled mice with a point-mutation in the Ncf1 gene are susceptible to chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, we tested whether they presented increased predisposition to develop chronic colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced in Ncf1-mutant and wild-type mice by a 1st 7-days cycle of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, intercalated by a 7-days resting period followed by a 2nd 7-days DSS-cycle. Cytokines were quantified locally in the colon inflammatory infiltrates and in the serum. Leukocyte infiltration and morphological alterations of the colon mucosa were assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Clinical scores demonstrated a more severe colitis in Ncf1-mutant mice than controls, with no recovery during the resting period and a severe chronic colitis after the 2nd cycle, confirmed by histopathology and presence of infiltrating neutrophils, macrophages, plasmocytes and lymphocytes in the colon. Severe colitis was mediated by increased local expression of cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17A and phosphorylation of Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2. Serological cytokine titers of those inflammatory cytokines were more elevated in Ncf1-mutant than control mice, and were accompanied by systemic changes in functional subsets of monocytes, CD4+ T and B cells. CONCLUSION: This suggests that an ineffective oxidative burst leads to severe chronic colitis through local accumulation of peroxynitrites, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lymphocytes and systemic immune deregulation similar to CGD.

  9. Isolation and characterization of kappa-carrageenan from hypnea musciformis (Red Alga) collected from Karachi coast, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypnea musciformis, collected from Karachi cost of Pakistan, was used for the isolation of a thickening and emulsifying agent, carrageenan. Various extraction were employed and the yield of carrageenan obtain was in the range of 34-44%. Total sugar contents were found to be 31.8-55.4% 3,6-Anhydrogalactose, a component of the total sugar, was present in the range of 19.9-27.6%. Sulphate and ash contents were high, 14.8-41% and 15.4-53%, respectively. The positive rotation of these polysaccharides indicated a predominance of alpha-D-glycosidic linkages in their structure. IR spectral studies showed kappa-carrageenan as the major phycolloid, with a very small contamination of iota-type carrageenan, whereas lambda-type was not detected. Polysaccharides obtained showed a positive elicitor activity in garden peas (pisum sativum). HPLC analysis indicated the presence of a single major component. (author)

  10. Hemostatic efficacy evaluation of radiation crosslinked carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan and chitosan with varying degrees of substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito; Barba, Bin Jeremiah D.; Vista, Jeanina Richelle M.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl derivatives of kappa-carrageenan and chitosan, with varying degrees of substitution, were synthesized by multi-step reaction technique and evaluated for hemostatic efficacy through in vitro assays. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of carboxymethyl group while 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated degrees of substitution ranging from 1.15-1.58 and 0.45-0.51 for carboxymethyl-κ-carrageenan and carboxymethylchitosan, respectively. Derivatives formed into paste consistency (30% w/v) were successfully crosslinked by gamma irradiation at 30 kGy. The data obtained from whole blood clotting and platelet adhesion assays showed a significant increase in hemostatic capability of κ-carrageenan and chitosan as a consequence of carboxymethylation and crosslinking modifications. In addition, the level of efficacy was comparable to that of a chitosan-based commercial product. These results suggest the potential of κ-carrageenan and chitosan derivatives for development into hemostatic agents.

  11. Encapsulation of lactase (β-galactosidase) into κ-carrageenan-based hydrogel beads: Impact of environmental conditions on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zipei; Zhang, Ruojie; Chen, Long; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-01

    Encapsulation of enzymes in hydrogel beads may improve their utilization and activity in foods. In this study, the potential of carrageenan hydrogel beads for encapsulating β-galactosidase was investigated. Hydrogel beads were fabricated by injecting an aqueous solution, containing β-galactosidase (26 U) and carrageenan (1 wt%), into a hardening solution (5% potassium chloride). Around 63% of the β-galactosidase was initially encapsulated in the hydrogel beads. Encapsulated β-galactosidase had a higher activity than that of the free enzyme over a range of pH and thermal conditions, which was attributed to the stabilization of the enzyme structure by K(+) ions within the carrageenan beads. Release of the enzyme from the beads was observed during storage in aqueous solutions, which was attributed to the relatively large pore size of the hydrogel matrix. Our results suggest that carrageenan hydrogel beads may be useful encapsulation systems, but further work is needed to inhibit enzyme leakage. PMID:26830562

  12. A case report of severe ulcerative colitis with mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Kei; Okuyama, Yusuke; Ueda, Tomohiro; Matsuyama, Kiichi; Urata, Yoji; Yoshida, Norimasa

    2016-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy developed prominent mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema while receiving treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and oral corticosteroids for severe ulcerative colitis. We ruled out infection and initiated oral administration of tacrolimus, after which both the underlying disease and mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema improved. However, he continued to experience repeated bouts of ulcerative colitis, so we ultimately opted for surgical intervention. Although mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema is rare, it is one of the known extra-intestinal complications and can be particularly concerning. In this patient, mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema might have been caused by the vulnerability of pulmonary alveolar walls to steroid medication and the increase of pulmonary alveolar pressure with abdominal pain and breath holding. Here, we report a case of inflammatory bowel disease with mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema, along with a review of the literature. PMID:26947047

  13. Samtidig debut af kollagen colitis og mb. Crohn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Nielsen, Preben Løvgreen; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2002-01-01

    A case report of a 69-year-old man with synchronous onset and diagnosis of collagenous colitis and Crohn's disease is discussed.......A case report of a 69-year-old man with synchronous onset and diagnosis of collagenous colitis and Crohn's disease is discussed....

  14. Severe cytomegalovirus colitis with hemolytic anemia mimicking travelers’ diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakyoung Hwang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of cytomegalovirus (CMV colitis mimicking travelers’ diarrhea following short-term travel is reported. The patient was a Croatian man visiting Korea for work. He presented with fever and severe bloody diarrhea. He was diagnosed with a primary CMV infection complicated with CMV colitis and hemolytic anemia and recovered with antiviral therapy and concomitant steroid therapy.

  15. Dr.Dong Demao's Experience in Treating Chronic Ulcerative Colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凌云

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chronic ulcerative colitis (chronic non-specific ulcerative colitis) is a kind of non-specific inflammation occurred in the colonic mucosa layers. As a lingering and troublesome condition that often attacks people aged 20-40, it is characterized by recurrent diarrhea, abdominal pain, pus- and mucus-stained stools in clinic.

  16. Metabolic and inflammatory faecal markers in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the excretion of the inflammatory and metabolic faecal markers calprotectin, lactoferrin, and short-chain fatty acids in symptomatic and quiescent collagenous colitis.......To evaluate the excretion of the inflammatory and metabolic faecal markers calprotectin, lactoferrin, and short-chain fatty acids in symptomatic and quiescent collagenous colitis....

  17. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Ultrasound-Assisted Depolymerization of κ-Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnawati Ratnawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted depolymerization of κ-carrageenan has been studied at various temperatures and times. The κ-carrageenan with initial molecular weight of 545 kDa was dispersed in water to form a 5 g/L solution, which was then depolymerized in an ultrasound device at various temperatures and times. The viscosity of the solution was measured using Brookfield viscometer, which was then used to find the number-average molecular weight by Mark-Houwink equation. To obtain the kinetics of κ-carrageenan depolymerization, the number-average molecular weight data was treated using midpoint-chain scission kinetics model. The pre-exponential factor and activation energies for the reaction are 2.683×10-7 mol g-1 min-1 and 6.43 kJ mol-1, respectively. The limiting molecular weight varies from 160 kDa to 240 kDa, and it is linearly correlated to temperature. The results are compared to the result of thermal depolymerization by calculating the half life. It is revealed that ultrasound assisted depolymerization of κ-carrageenan is faster than thermal depolymerization at temperatures below 72.2°C. Compared to thermal depolymerization, the ultrasound-assisted process has lower values of Ea, ΔG‡, ΔH‡, and ΔS‡, which can be attributed to the ultrasonically induced breakage of non-covalent bonds in κ-carrageenan molecules. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 18th January 2016; Accepted: 19th January 2016 How to Cite: Ratnawati, R., Prasetyaningrum, A., Wardhani, D.H. (2016. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Ultrasound-Assisted Depolymerization of κ-Carrageenan. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11(1: 48-58. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.415.48-58 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.415.48-58

  18. Carrageenan-Induced Colonic Inflammation Is Reduced in Bcl10 Null Mice and Increased in IL-10-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Xue, Liquan; Devkota, Suzanne; Chang, Eugene; Morris, Stephan; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2013-01-01

    The common food additive carrageenan is a known activator of inflammation in mammalian tissues and stimulates both the canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-κB activation. Exposure to low concentrations of carrageenan (10 μg/mL in the water supply) has produced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin signaling in C57BL/6 mice. B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 10 (Bcl10) is a mediator of inflammatory signals from Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 in myeloid and epithelial cells. Since the TLR4 signaling pathway is activated in diabetes and by carrageenan, we addressed systemic and intestinal inflammatory responses following carrageenan exposure in Bcl10 wild type, heterozygous, and null mice. Fecal calprotectin and circulating keratinocyte chemokine (KC), nuclear RelA and RelB, phospho(Thr559)-NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), and phospho(Ser36)-IκBα in the colonic epithelial cells were significantly less (P < 0.001) in the carrageenan-treated Bcl10 null mice than in controls. IL-10-deficient mice exposed to carrageenan in a germ-free environment showed an increase in activation of the canonical pathway of NF-κB (RelA) activation, but without increase in RelB or phospho-Bcl10, and exogenous IL-10 inhibited only the canonical pathway of NF-κB activation in cultured colonic cells. These findings demonstrate a Bcl10 requirement for maximum development of carrageenan-induced inflammation and lack of complete suppression by IL-10 of carrageenan-induced inflammation. PMID:23766559

  19. Antiviral treatment in patients with cytomegalovirus positive ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kadir; Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus(CMV) is a common virus in patients with ulcerative colitis receiving immunosuppressive drugs. Many studies suggested that CMV infection is an exacerbating factor in patients with ulcerative colitis. The role of CMV in exacerbations of ulcerative colitis has been discussed. One of studies starting this discussion is an article entitled "CMV positive ulcerative colitis: A single center experience and literature review" by Kopylov et al. However, we think that there are some points that should be emphasized about the study. Especially, the small number of patients in the study has led to meaningless results. Large controlled prospective trials are needed to clarify the benefit of antiviral therapy for active ulcerative colitis patients.

  20. A Novel Zebrafish Model to Provide Mechanistic Insights into the Inflammatory Events in Carrageenan-Induced Abdominal Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-Ying; Feng, Chien-Wei; Hung, Han-Chun; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Chen, Chun-Hong; Chen, Wu-Fu; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Wang, Hui-Min David; Sung, Chun-Sung; Sun, Yu-Min; Wu, Chang-Yi; Liu, Wangta; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A suitable small animal model may help in the screening and evaluation of new drugs, especially those from natural products, which can be administered at lower dosages, fulfilling an urgent worldwide need. In this study, we explore whether zebrafish could be a model organism for carrageenan-induced abdominal edema. The research results showed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 1.5% λ-carrageenan in a volume of 20 µL significantly increased abdominal edema in adult zebrafish. Levels of the proinflammatory proteins tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were increased in carrageenan-injected adult zebrafish during the development of abdominal edema. An associated enhancement was also observed in the leukocyte marker, myeloperoxidase (MPO). To support these results, we further observed that i.p. methylprednisolone (MP; 1 µg), a positive control, significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation 24 h after carrageenan administration. Furthermore, i.p. pretreatment with either an anti-TNF-α antibody (1∶5 dilution in a volume of 20 µL) or the iNOS-selective inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG; 1 µg) inhibited carrageenan-induced abdominal edema in adult zebrafish. This new animal model is uncomplicated, easy to develop, and involves a straightforward inducement of inflammatory edema for the evaluation of small volumes of drugs or test compounds. PMID:25141004

  1. Clostridium difficile-associated colitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Mark W.; Beck, Paul L

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the basic microbiology, pathogenesis of disease, and diagnosis of the nosocomial pathogen Clostridium difficile and to examine therapies recommended by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE: was searched using MeSH headings. Controlled trials for therapy were sought, but case-control studies and observational reviews were included. MAIN MESSAGE: Clostridium difficile causes approximately 20% of cases of diarrhea associated with ant...

  2. Anti-inflammatory potential of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. on carrageenan induced paw edema in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Ann Catherine; Muthukumar, S P; Halami, Prakash M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory ability of novel indigenous probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum MCC 2759, L. fermentum MCC 2760 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii MCC 2775 in a carrageenan induced acute inflammatory paw edema model. Probiotic cultures were administered to male Wistar rats via oral route. Carrageenan at a concentration of 1% was injected into hind paw of rats 30min after oral gavage on the 8th day of treatment regimen. Paw thickness (mm), stair climbing activity and motility score were the parameters used to score the inflammatory response. L. fermentum MCC 2759, L. fermentum MCC 2760 and L. delbrueckii MCC 2775 showed significant reduction in paw thickness (P40%) of the probiotic cultures used. Therefore, L. fermentum MCC 2759, L. fermentum MCC 2760 and L. delbrueckii MCC 2775 may be used as potent anti-inflammatory agents with probiotic health benefits. PMID:26314910

  3. Controlled release of acetylsalicylic acid from polythiophene/carrageenan hydrogel via electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairatwachapun, Sanita; Paradee, Nophawan; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2016-02-10

    Blends between polythiophene (PTh) and a carrageenan hydrogel were fabricated as the matrix for the electric field assisted drug release. The pristine carrageenan and the blend films were prepared by the solution casting using acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as the anionic model drug and Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and Ba(2+) as the crosslinking agents. The ASA was released by the Fickian diffusion mechanism. The diffusion coefficient decreased with increasing crosslinking ratio or decreasing crosslinking ionic radii. The diffusion coefficients were greater with the applied electrical potentials by an order of magnitude relative to those without electric field. Moreover, the diffusion coefficients with PTh as the drug carrier were higher than those without PTh. Thus, the presence of the conductive polymer in the hydrogel blend coupled with applied electric field is shown here to drastically enhance the drug delivery rate. PMID:26686123

  4. Evaluation of the swelling behaviour of iota-carrageenan in monolithic matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, András; Buchholcz, Gyula; Sovány, Tamás; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2015-08-10

    The swelling properties of monolithic matrix tablets containing iota-carrageenan were studied at different pH values, with measurements of the swelling force and characterization of the profile of the swelling curve. The swelling force meter was linked to a PC by an RS232 cable and the measured data were evaluated with self-developed software. The monitor displayed the swelling force vs. time curve with the important parameters, which could be fitted with an Analysis menu. In the case of iota-carrageenan matrix tablets, it was concluded that the pH and the pressure did not influence the swelling process, and the first section of the swelling curve could be fitted by the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. PMID:25966465

  5. Hydrophobic lappaconitine loaded into iota-carrageenan by one step self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenxiu; Saldaña, Marleny D A; Zhao, Yujia; Wu, Lingling; Dong, Tungalag; Jin, Ye; Zhang, Ji

    2016-02-10

    New data on the loading of pH-sensitive lappaconitine loaded into iota-carrageenan (LA-ICG) is provided. This LA-ICG ionic biopolymer was prepared by one step self-assembly. The LA-ICG was characterized in terms of the loading capacity, lappaconitine (LA) releasing behavior, pH-sensitivity, and analgesic properties. Iota-carrageenan (ICG) high loading capacity reached up to 26.18% (w/w). Also, the LA, loaded with ICG, was released faster in an acidic environment than that in neutral or alkaline environments. Animal analgesic experiments showed that the LA-ICG of low molecular weight had earlier onset time and longer duration than the LA. These results suggest that the ICG of low molecular weight has great potential to achieve the synergistic effect of LA. In addition, the ICG can be used as a novel natural polymeric carrier for loading a hydrophobic alkaloid. PMID:26686125

  6. Micro-mesoporous carbon spheres derived from carrageenan as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Bing; Liu, Pei-Fang; Lu, Hai-Ting

    2014-12-01

    The polysaccharide carrageenan is used as a natural precursor to prepare micro-mesoporous carbon spheres. The carbon spheres were synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization of carrageenan, and subsequent chemical activation by KOH at different temperatures. The obtained micro-mesoporous carbon spheres have high surface area (up to 2502 m2 g-1) and large pore volume (up to 1.43 cm3 g-1). Moreover, the micro- and mesoporosity can be finely tuned be modifying the activation temperatures in the range of 700-900 °C. The carbon spheres activated at 900 °C present high specific capacitance of 230 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and good ion transport kinetics. The good capacitive performance can be ascribed to the high specific surface area, well-controlled micro- and mesoporosity and narrow pore size distribution.

  7. Conservation of Williams pear using edible coating with alginate and carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessiane Silva de Moraes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical parameters of Williams pear, stored at 25 ºC for 15 days, with and without edible coating. Edible coatings prepared with alginate 2% and carrageenan 0.5% were tested. The analyses carried out on the samples were: weight loss, pH, soluble solids, firmness, and color. The edible coatings were characterized in terms of mechanical properties, permeability, thickness, and opacity. The results show that the application of edible coatings with carrageenan and alginate in pears influenced physical and chemical characteristics such as weight loss, pH, total soluble solids, color, and firmness of the fruit. However, the alginate coating showed the best results on pear conservation since it had lower water vapor permeability and greater tensile strength, and therefore it can be used as a protective film on these fruits.

  8. Effect of carrageenan addition on the yield and functional properties of charqui (Jerked Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Rocha Garcia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the application of carrageenan (CAR to improve the functional properties of the jerked beef (JF and to increase its processing yield. JB produced from Vastus lateralis with CAR (1.0% at 25ºC and NaCl (15.0% had approximately 15.0% higher moisture and a 32.0% higher processing yield in comparison to the control samples.JB-CAR presented shear force approximately 5.0 and 20% lower in the samples uncooked salted and desalted cooked, respectively, and sensorial acceptance above 80%. The results demonstrated the possibility of applying carrageenan to jerked beef in order to obtain an increase in the processing yield and a tender product while maintaining the sensorial quality and its intermediate-moisture meat product nature.

  9. Substance P modulates colitis-associated fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Hon Wai; Shih, David; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Zhao, Dezheng; Fazelbhoy, Zafeer; Hing, Tressia; Xu, Hua; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Norma; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2010-11-01

    Substance P (SP) and the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) are involved in the development of colitis and mucosal healing after colonic inflammation. We studied whether SP modulates colonic fibrosis by using a chronic model of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and NK-1R-deficient (NK-1R KD) mice. We found increased mRNA expression levels of collagen, vimentin, and the fibrogenic factors transforming growth factor β1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 in the chronically inflamed colons of WT mice treated with repeated intracolonic TNBS administrations. Fibrosis in TNBS-treated mice was also evident immunohistochemically by collagen deposition in the colon. Treatment of TNBS-exposed WT mice with the NK-1R antagonist CJ-12255 reduced colonic inflammation, colonic fibrosis, fibroblast accumulation, and expression levels of the fibrogenic factors. NK-1R knockout mice chronically exposed to TNBS had similar colonic inflammation compared with WT, but reduced colonic fibrosis, fibroblast accumulation, and expression levels of fibrogenic factors. Immunohistochemical staining also showed co-localization of NK-1R with fibroblasts in inflamed colons of mice and in colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease. Exposure of human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts to SP (10 nmol/L) increased cell migration. SP stimulated collagen synthesis in CCD-18Co fibroblasts in the presence of transforming growth factor β1 and insulin-like growth factor 1, and this effect was reduced by Akt inhibition. Thus, SP, via NK-1R, promotes intestinal fibrogenesis after chronic colitis by stimulating fibrotic responses in fibroblasts. PMID:20889569

  10. Mechanism of diarrhea in microscopic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marijana Protic; Njegica Jojic; Daniela Bojic; Svetlana Milutinovic; Dusanka Necic; Bozidar Bojic; Petar Svorcan; Miodrag Krstic; Obren Popovic

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To search the pathophysiological mechanism of diarrhea based on daily stool weights, fecal electrolytes,osmotic gap and pH.METHODS: Seventy-six patients were included: 51 with microscopic colitis (MC) [40 with lymphocytic colitis (LC);11 with collagenous colitis (CC)]; 7 with MC without diarrhea and 18 as a control group (CG). They collected stool for 3 d. Sodium and potassium concentration were determined by flame photometry and chloride concentration by titration method of Schales. Fecal osmotic gap was calculated from the difference of osmolarity of fecal fluid and double sum of sodium and potassium concentration.RESULTS: Fecal fluid sodium concentration was significantly increased in LC 58.11±5.38 mmol/L (P<0.01)and CC 54.14±8.42 mmol/L (P<0.05) than in CG 34.28±2.98 mmol/L. Potassium concentration in LC 74.65±5.29 mmol/L (P<0.01) and CC 75.53±8.78 mmol/L (P<0.05) was significantly less compared to CG 92.67±2.99 mmol/L.Chloride concentration in CC 36.07±7.29 mmol/L was significantly higher than in CG 24.11±2.05 mmol/L (P<0.05).Forty-four (86.7%) patients had a secretory diarrhea compared to fecal osmotic gap. Seven (13.3%) patients had osmotic diarrhea.CONCLUSION: Diarrhea in MC mostly belongs to the secretory type. The major pathophysiological mechanism in LC could be explained by a decrease of active sodium absorption. In CC, decreased Cl/HCO3 exchange rate and increased chloride secretion are coexistent pathways.

  11. Determination of Immobilization Process Parameters of Corynebacterium glutamicum on Kappa carrageenan, Its Application in L-lysine Fermentation and The Investigation Into Its Storage Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Suong Thi Hong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    The parameters of the immobilized process of Corynebacterium glutamicum on kappa carrageenan were identified by Plackett-Burman matrix, and the experiments were designed by response surface methodology having the central composite designs (RSM-CCD). The maximum yield of cell immobilization on kappa carrageenan carrier reached at 78% ± 2%. Optimal parameters were 3 grams kappa carrageenan per 100 militters sterile water and 58.58 million cfu/mL, forming gels at 100C for 25 minutes ...

  12. Turner Syndrome Associated with Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Takaya, Junji; Teraguchi, Masayuki; Ikemoto, Yumiko; Yoshimura, Ken; Yamato, Fumiko; Higashino, Hirohiko; Kobayashi, Yohnosuke; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 7-yr-old girl with Turner syndrome, ulcerative colitis (UC) and coarctation of the aorta. The diagnosis of Turner syndrome was made in early infancy (karyotype analysis 45, X). Growth hormone treatment was started at 3 yr and 2 mo of age. From the age of 4 yr and 5 mo, the patient suffered from persistent diarrhea with traces of blood and intermittent abdominal discomfort. As these symptoms gradually deteriorated, she was referred to our clinic at the age of 7 yr for f...

  13. Cellular and Molecular Immunopathogenesis of Ulcerative Colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzhen Zhang; Xuhui Zhao; Dechun Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory disease of the rectal and colonic mucosa and seems to result from a complex series of interactions between susceptibility genes, the environment and the immune system. Various components of the mucosal immune system are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of UC. Evidence from animal models also suggests that an altered immune response to the commensal microflora of the host plays a central role in the development of UC. So in this review, we elucidate the cells and molecules which are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of the disease from four aspects: antigens in the intestine, dendritic cells, toll like receptors and NF-κB in the UC.

  14. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTY OF VANILLIN IN CARRAGEENAN INDUCED PAW EDEMA MODEL IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    SRIKANTH D, Vishma Hydie Menezes, Nischal Saliyan, Rathnakar UP*, Shiv Prakash G, Sahana D Acaharya, Ashok Shenoy K, Udupa AL

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Vanillinis known to have antimutagenic, anti-invasive and metastatic suppression potential. Antinociceptive property in acetic acid induced visceral pain models, antioxidant and hepato-protective properties of in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats have also been demonstrated. Objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of vanillin on acute inflammation induced by carrageenan in rats.Methods: Rats were assigned to five groups [Control, Asprin and three Vanillin groups,] of s...

  15. Radiation Processed Carrageenan Improves Plant Growth, Physiological Activities, and Alkaloids Production in Catharanthus roseus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Naeem, M.; Mohd Idrees; Tariq Aftab; M. Masidur Alam; Khan, M. Masroor A.; Moin Uddin; Lalit Varshney

    2015-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant that produces indole alkaloids used in cancer chemotherapy. Commercially important antineoplastic alkaloids, namely, vinblastine and vincristine, are mainly present in the leaves of C. roseus. Gamma-rays irradiated carrageenan (ICR) has been proven as plant growth promoting substance for a number of medicinal and agricultural plants. Considering the importance of ICR as a promoter of plant growth and alkaloids production in C....

  16. Density and Viscosity of Ternary Mixtures of kappa -Carrageenan, Sodium Chloride, and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Andresa V.; Rojas, Edwin E. Garcia; Giraldo-Zuniga, Abraham D.

    2013-02-01

    The viscosity and density of ternary mixtures containing kappa -carrageenan, sodium chloride, and water have been measured from (303 to 318) K at different values of pH. The presence of NaCl in the ternary systems produced an electro-viscous effect that influenced the viscosity and density of the system. The polynomial models used to correlate the viscosity and density gave good fits to the experimental data.

  17. Fabrication of κ-Carrageenan Fibers by Wet Spinning: Spinning Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Lingyan Kong; Ziegler, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the fabrication of κ-carrageenan fibers by a wet-spinning method and discusses three important spinning parameters: coagulation bath composition, spinning rate and post-spinning mechanical drawing. The as-spun fiber diameter decreased with KCl and ethanol concentration in the coagulation bath. In general, the ultimate tensile stress and elongation at break both increased for KCl concentration from 0.1 to 0.5 M with and without ethanol, with no significant change above ...

  18. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Shao

    Full Text Available The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 and cytopathic effect (CPE inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731 and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04 replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8, A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN, A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26, A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08, and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07 viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  19. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qiang; Guo, Qiang; Xu, Wen ping; Li, Zandong; Zhao, Tong tong

    2015-01-01

    The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) and cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731) and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04) replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8), A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN), A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26), A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08), and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07) viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731. PMID:25969984

  20. Subarachnoid meloxicam does not inhibit the mechanical hypernociception on carrageenan test in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanucha Fidelis da Luz Moura

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the antinociceptive effects of subarachnoid meloxicam on the mechanical hypernociception induced by carrageenan in rats. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial. Eighteen adult male Wistar rats underwent a cannula implantation into the subarachnoid space and were randomly divided into two groups: Group I received saline solution 5 µL, while Group II received meloxicam 30 mg. The mechanical hypernociception was induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan and evaluated using a digital analgesy meter every 30 min during a 4-h period. The results were recorded as the Δ withdrawal threshold (in g, calculated by subtracting the measurement value after treatment from baseline. RESULTS: The Δ withdrawal threshold mean values were lower in the group of patients treated with meloxicam over all time points between 45 and 165 min, however, there was no statistical significance (p = 0.835 for this difference. CONCLUSION: Subarachnoid meloxicam at a dose of 30 µg animal-1 did not suppress the mechanical hypernociception in a model of inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar administration of carrageenan in rats. The data suggest that other dosages should be investigated the drug effect is discarded.

  1. Caries-­preventive Effect of 1300ppm Fluoride and Carrageenan Containing Toothpaste

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    Anton Rahardjo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Various studies stated that the increase concentration of fluoride in toothpastes leads to the reduction of calcium loss in enamel. Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the difference between the effect of 1300ppm fluoride with carrageenan toothpaste and 1000ppm fluoride only toothpaste on roughness and hardness of enamel surface. Methods: Enamel specimens were obtained from 30 extracted human premolars. The enamel specimens were randomly assigned to one of the three groups, 1300ppm fluoride with carrageenan toothpaste, 1000ppm fluoride only toothpaste and toothpaste with no fluoride as a negative control. The samples were immersed in 1% citric acid with pH 4 for 150 seconds for demineralization, afterwards exposed to each toothpaste for 6 minutes. Results: The results demonstrated that toothpaste with 1300ppm fluoride with carregeenan has two times greater efficacy in triggering remineralization than toothpaste with 1000ppm fluoride only, with regards to surface roughness and hardness recovery in an in vitro caries model. Conclusion: The results suggested that treatment of enamel with toothpaste containing 1300ppm fluoride with carrageenan has high potential in inducing remineralization on enamel.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i1.125

  2. Phase diagrams of hybrid carrageenans extracted from Ahnfeltiopsis devoniensis and Chondrus crispus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Azevedo, G; Hilliou, L

    2016-01-20

    NaCl and KCl phase diagrams of two kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenans (KI) are established, and the rheological properties of obtained solutions and gels are reported. KI were extracted from Ahnfeltiopsis devoniensis and Chondrus crispus seaweeds and showed different chemical composition, 48 mol% of kappa carrageenan (K) and 52 mol% of iota carrageenan (I), and 78 mol% of K and 22 mol% of I, respectively. Phase diagrams are systematically compared those of blends of commercial K and I (K+I) showing equivalent chemical compositions. Results confirm that KI clearly differ from mixtures of K and I. K+I form gels at lower polysaccharide concentration and ionic strength, and exhibit gel separation from a liquid phase when large amount (>0.1 mol/L) of KCl is used. In contrast, no syneresis was found in KI gels formed under similar conditions. Both KI and K+I gels are strain hardening, and show a concentration scaling of the elasticity with exponents ranging from 1.1 to 3.2 depending on the type of salt and ionic strength. The strain at break of KI gels does not show salt specificity and is similar to the strain at break of K+I gels in KCl under similar salt and polysaccharide concentrations. K+I gels in NaCl are more fragile than in KCl, thus showing salt specificity. PMID:26572375

  3. Inherited CARD9 deficiency in otherwise healthy children and adults with Candida species-induced meningoencephalitis, colitis, or both.

    OpenAIRE

    Lanternier, Fanny; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Barbati, Elisa; Chaussade, Hélène; Koumar, Yatrika; Levy, Romain; Denis, Blandine; Brunel, Anne-Sophie; Martin, Sophie; Loop, Michèle; Peeters, Julie; de Selys, Ariel; Vanclaire, Jean; Vermylen, Christiane; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Invasive infections of the central nervous system or digestive tract caused by commensal fungi of the genus Candida are rare and life-threatening. The known risk factors include acquired and inherited immunodeficiencies, with patients often displaying a history of multiple infections. Cases of meningo-encephalitis and/or colitis caused by Candida remain unexplained. We studied five previously healthy children and adults with unexplained invasive disease of the central nervous system, or the d...

  4. De novo sequencing and comparative analysis of three red algal species of Family Solieriaceae to discover putative genes associated with carrageenan biosysthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Lipu; WANG Xumin; YU Jun; WU Shuangxiu; SUN Jing; WANG Liang; LIU Tao; CHI Shan; LIU Cui; LI Xingang; YIN Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    Betaphycus gelatinus, Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum of Family Solieriaceae, Order Gi-gartinales, Class Rhodophyceae are three important carrageenan-producing red algal species, which pro-duce different types of carrageenans, beta (β)-carrageenan, kappa (κ)-carrageenan and iota (ι)-carrageenan. So far the carrageenan biosynthesis pathway is not fully understood and few information is about the So-lieriaceae genome and transcriptome sequence. Here, we performed the de novo transcriptome sequencing, assembly, functional annotation and comparative analysis of these three commercial-valuable species using an Illumina short-sequencing platform Hiseq 2000 and bioinformatic software. Furthermore, we compared the different expression of some unigenes involved in some pathways relevant to carrageenan biosynthe-sis. We finally found 861 different expressed KEGG orthologs which contained a glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway (21 orthologs), carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms (16 orthologs), galactose metabolism (5 orthologs), and fructose and mannose metabolism (9 orthologs) which are parts of the carbohydrate me-tabolism. We also found 8 different expressed KEGG orthologs for sulfur metabolism which might be impor-tantly related to biosynthesis of different types of carrageenans. The results presented in this study provided valuable resources for functional genomics annotation and investigation of mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of carrageenan in Family Solieriaceae.

  5. Diarrhea and Colitis in Mice Require the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2-Encoded Secretion Function but Not SifA or Spv Effectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fierer, Joshua; OKAMOTO, SHARON; Banerjee, Ananya; Guiney, Donald G.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the roles of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) and two SPI-2 effectors in Salmonella colitis and diarrhea in genetically resistant BALB/c.D2Slc11a1 congenic mice with the wild-type Nramp1 locus. Wild-type Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium 14028s caused a pan-colitis, and the infected mice developed frank diarrhea with a doubling of the fecal water content. An ssaV mutant caused only a 26% increase in fecal water content, without producing the pathological changes...

  6. [Environmental risk factors in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (excluding tobacco and appendicectomy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantchou, Prévost; Monnet, Elisabeth; Carbonnel, Franck

    2006-01-01

    A rapid increase in the incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in developed countries, the occurrence of Crohn's disease in spouses, and a lack of complete concordance in monozygotic twins are strong arguments for the role of environmental factors in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Research in the field of environmental factors in IBD is based upon epidemiological (geographical and case-control), clinical and experimental studies. The role of two environmental factors has clearly been established in IBD. Smoking is a risk factor for Crohn's disease and a protective factor for ulcerative colitis; appendectomy is a protective factor for ulcerative colitis. Many other environmental factors for IBD have been investigated, including infectious agents, diet, drugs, stress and social status. They are detailed in the present review. Among them, atypical Mycobacteria, oral contraceptives and antibiotics could play a role in Crohn's disease. To date, three hypotheses associate environmental factors with the pathophysiology of IBD (loss of tolerance of intestinal immune system towards commensal bacterial flora): the hygiene, infection and cold chain hypotheses. Much work remains to be done to identify risk factors for IBD. Research identifying environmental factors that might cause a predisposition to IBD is useful. It may lead to disease prevention in subjects who are genetically predisposed and disease improvement in patients. PMID:16885870

  7. Proinflammatory role of the histamine H4 receptor in dextrane sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Bastian; Rezniczek, Thomas; Seifert, Roland; Neumann, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    Millions of people worldwide are suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which severely affects patients' life qualities and even life expectancies. The cause of the ailment is unknown and a profound understanding of the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms is still lacking. The biogenic amine histamine is one of several inflammatory mediators, to which a pathogenetic role in IBD has been attributed. Out of the four known histamine receptors, the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) has been demonstrated to act proinflammatory in experimental models of several inflammatory diseases. In order to evaluate a potential involvement of H4R in IBD we investigated the effect of genetic or pharmacological blockade of H4R-signaling in the model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. We analysed severity and progression of clinical signs of colitis, as well as histopathologic alterations in the colons and systemic or local cytokine concentrations. Both genetic deficiency and pharmacological blockade of H4R with the selective antagonist JNJ7777120 improved clinical and histological signs of colitis and dampened the inflammatory cytokine response. Our results indicate a proinflammatory role of histamine via H4R in IBD, thus extending the current pathophysiological understanding of IBD and demonstrating the therapeutic potential of selective H4R-antagonists for patients suffering from IBD. PMID:26365468

  8. Ulcerative colitis and neurofibromatosis type 1 with bilateral psoas muscle neurofibromas: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tavakkoli

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • The most common gastrointestinal involvement in  eurofibromatosis is due to tumoral lesions which may  resent with gastrointestinal bleeding or obstruction. We report a case of concurrent ulcerative colitis and  eurofibromatosis.A 39 year-old woman, known case of neurofibromatosis, was admitted to our department with complaint of chronic bloody diarrhea. After thorough clinical examination and paraclinical assessments,  ncluding colonoscopy and biopsy, ulcerative colitis was confirmed as the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Another rare finding in this patient was bilateral neurofibroma in psoas muscle that was detected on abdominal spiral Computer Tomography scan.
    • KEYWORDS: Ulcerative Colitis, Neurofibromatosis, Von Recklinghausen’s Disease, Mast Cells, Bilateral   urofibroma, Psoas Muscle.

  9. Role of leptin-mediated colonic inflammation in defense against Clostridium difficile colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Rajat; Guo, Xiaoti; Naylor, Caitlin; Buonomo, Erica L; Mackay, Donald; Noor, Zannatun; Concannon, Patrick; Scully, Kenneth W; Pramoonjago, Patcharin; Kolling, Glynis L; Warren, Cirle A; Duggal, Priya; Petri, William A

    2014-01-01

    The role of leptin in the mucosal immune response to Clostridium difficile colitis, a leading cause of nosocomial infection, was studied in humans and in a murine model. Previously, a mutation in the receptor for leptin (LEPR) was shown to be associated with susceptibility to infectious colitis and liver abscess due to Entamoeba histolytica as well as to bacterial peritonitis. Here we discovered that European Americans homozygous for the same LEPR Q223R mutation (rs1137101), known to result in decreased STAT3 signaling, were at increased risk of C. difficile infection (odds ratio, 3.03; P = 0.015). The mechanism of increased susceptibility was studied in a murine model. Mice lacking a functional leptin receptor (db/db) had decreased clearance of C. difficile from the gut lumen and diminished inflammation. Mutation of tyrosine 1138 in the intracellular domain of LepRb that mediates signaling through the STAT3/SOCS3 pathway also resulted in decreased mucosal chemokine and cell recruitment. Collectively, these data support a protective mucosal immune function for leptin in C. difficile colitis partially mediated by a leptin-STAT3 inflammatory pathway that is defective in the LEPR Q223R mutation. Identification of the role of leptin in protection from C. difficile offers the potential for host-directed therapy and demonstrates a connection between metabolism and immunity. PMID:24166957

  10. Fidaxomicin in the treatment of colitis due to Clostridium difficile: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cortese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI and Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea (CDAD is increasing in Canada, USA, and Europe and represents a considerable clinical problem. Both naïve and hypervirulent strains can be considered as opportunistic bacteria affecting immunocompromised, antibiotic-treated, critical, or subcritical patients with a microbiota disruption. CDI arising is strictly related to antibiotic, single or combined, and/or proton pump inhibitor treatment. CDI can cause a syndrome with systemic involvement and complex treatment, sometimes requiring surgical interventions (e.g. colectomy in fulminant colitis. Antibiotic treatment with metronidazole by mouth is the first choice and generally vancomycin is administered in case of lack of effectiveness. Fidaxomicin is a new macrocyclic antibiotic for C. difficile with microflora-sparing properties. This paper reports our initial experience in 11 patients with non-responder or relapsing CDIs. Fidaxomicin was effective in 10 cases (91%. Only one patient with an active ulcerative colitis did not respond and was treated with fecal-microbiota transplantation. In two patients diarrhea persisted, but just the ulcerative colitis one was C. difficile-related. No adverse events were experienced.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/cmi.v8i1s.956

  11. Grim19 Attenuates DSS Induced Colitis in an Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-kyung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwon, Jeong-Eun; Seo, Hyeon-Beom; Lee, Han Hee; Lee, Bo-In; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-01-01

    DSS induced colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, which destabilizes the gut and induces an uncontrolled immune response. Although DSS induced colitis is generally thought to develop as a result of an abnormally active intestinal immune system, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Gene associated with retinoid interferon induced mortality (Grim) 19 is an endogenous specific inhibitor of STAT3, which regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the influence of GRIM19 in a DSS induced colitis mouse model. We hypothesized that Grim19 would ameliorate DSS induced colitis by altering STAT3 activity and intestinal inflammation. Grim19 ameliorated DSS induced colitis severity and protected intestinal tissue. The expression of STAT3 and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α in colon and lymph nodes was decreased significantly by Grim19. Moreover, DSS induced colitis progression in a Grim19 transgenic mouse line was inhibited in association with a reduction in STAT3 and IL-17 expression. These results suggest that Grim19 attenuates DSS induced colitis by suppressing the excessive inflammatory response mediated by STAT3 activation. PMID:27258062

  12. Colitis ulcerativa idiopática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Torreblanca Xiques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La colitis ulcerativa es una enfermedad crónica, inflamatoria y ulcerosa, que se origina en la mucosa del colon y se caracteriza por la inflamación crónica del tracto gastrointestinal, casi siempre por una diarrea, que puede ser profusa y sanguinolenta. Se trata de un paciente masculino, de 35 años de edad, de raza blanca, con antecedentes de salud previa, que acude al médico por presentar desde hace cuatro meses diarreas con sangre, moco y pus, acompañado de dolor abdominal, astenia, anorexia y pérdida de peso, y en ocasiones de fiebre de 39 grados centígrados. Se realizaron estudios hematológicos, radiológicos y endoscópicos. Se confirmó el diagnóstico por anatomía patológica de colitis ulcerativa idiopática. Se aplicó terapéutica actualizada con el uso de mesalazina. El paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente

  13. Golimumab for the treatment of ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löwenberg M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mark Löwenberg,1 Nanne KH de Boer,2 Frank Hoentjen3 1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Abstract: The introduction of therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor (TNF had a major impact on the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC. Infliximab and adalimumab are powerful agents that are used for remission induction and maintenance therapy in UC and have an acceptable safety profile. However, a proportion of UC patients for whom therapy with anti-TNF agents is indicated fail or become intolerant to treatment with infliximab or adalimumab. Hence, there remains an unmet need for novel anti-TNF agents. Golimumab (Simponi®, a human anti-TNF antibody that is administered by monthly subcutaneous injections, is the most recently introduced TNF blocker for the treatment of UC. Here, we will discuss recent literature on clinical efficacy and safety of golimumab induction and maintenance treatment in patients with UC. Furthermore, we will discuss the positioning of golimumab for UC in current treatment algorithms. Keywords: ulcerative colitis, UC, antitumor necrosis factor, TNF, antibodies, golimumab

  14. Management and treatment of distal ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Calafiore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory condition that is confined to the colonic mucosa. Its main symptoms include diarrhea, rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. Approximately two-thirds of UC patients have disease confined distal to the splenic flexure, which can be treated effectively with topical therapy. This means the active drug can be delivered directly to the site of inflammation, limiting the systemic absorption and potential side effects. Topical treatment with aminosalicylates is the most effective approach in the treatment of these forms, provided that the formulation reaches the upper margin of the disease. Given this, the suppository formulation is the treatment of choice for proctitis and distal sigmoiditis. Thanks to their proximal spread, enemas, foams and gels represent the treatment of choice for proctosigmoiditis and for distal ulcerative colitis. Oral aminosalicylates are less effective than topical therapies in patients with active disease, while the combination of topical and oral treatment is more effective in patients refractory to topical or oral mono-therapy. Topically administered aminosalicylates play an important role in the maintenance of remission, but the long-term adhesion to therapy is poor. For this reason, the oral formulation is the first-line therapy in the maintenance of remission. Refractory patients can be treated with topical steroids or systemic steroids and TNF-alpha inhibitors in severe forms.

  15. [Surgery of ulcerative colitis using ileoanal anastomosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, J; Oota, M; Matsumoto, M; Natori, H

    1985-09-01

    The ideal surgical treatment for ulcerative colitis is the ileoanal anastomosis (IAA), which, however, is not yet generally accepted as a practical procedure because of a suboptimal fecal function, frequent postoperative complications and technical difficulties. Based on one (U.) of the authors experiences on 36(34) polyposis and 19(12) colitis (paracentesis indicate the number of cases in (U.)'s previous appointment, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1977-1983). The practical procedure of IAA can be achieved by combining the following basic principles; a direct anastomosis of J-shape ileal pouch to the anal sphincteric mechanism, temporarily exclusion of the anastomosis by a loop-ileostomy, mucosectomy confined to the lower rectum leaving the short muscular cuff, and meticulous dissection of inflamed mucosa of the anal canal minimizing the damage to the internal sphincter which is achieved by the prone ano-abdominal approach. At elective operation, the procedure can be performed either as primary surgery or as the secondary following rectum preserving operation, in which, coeco-rectal anastomosis is advisable for preserving the ileocolic vessels that is helpful for J-pouch construction. In emergency surgical program, IAA is still be preserved as a final restructive surgery following colectomy with an open rectal exclusion or Turnbull' s total colonic exclusion. In this occasion, an ascendicostomy is advisable for preserving the ileocolic vessels. PMID:4088260

  16. Magnetic/pH-responsive beads based on caboxymethyl chitosan and κ-carrageenan and controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza; Etemadi, Hossein; Soleymani, Fatemeh

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of magnetic and pH-sensitive beads derived from κ-carrageenan and carboxymethyl chitosan for drug delivery. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized inside a mixture of biopolymers by in situ method. The structural properties of hydrogel beads were characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD, and VSM techniques. The swelling ratio of beads indicated pH-dependent properties with maximum water absorbing at pH 7.4. Introducing magnetic nanoparticles caused a decrease in swelling capacity from 16.4 to 10 g/g. Drug loading and release efficiency were investigated using diclofenac sodium as a model system. The in vitro drug release studies exhibited significant behaviors on the subject of physiological simulated pHs and external alternative magnetic fields. The maximum cumulative release was around 82% at pH 7.4. The presence of magnetite nanoparticles certainly influenced the drug release patterns. The response of beads to external stimulus makes them as good candidates for novel drug delivery systems. PMID:26005146

  17. The Mutyh base excision repair gene influences the inflammatory response in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Casorelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mutyh DNA glycosylase is involved in the repair of oxidized DNA bases. Mutations in the human MUTYH gene are responsible for colorectal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis. Since defective DNA repair genes might contribute to the increased cancer risk associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, we compared the inflammatory response of wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice to oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The severity of colitis, changes in expression of genes involved in DNA repair and inflammation, DNA 8-oxoguanine levels and microsatellite instability were analysed in colon of mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS. The Mutyh(-/- phenotype was associated with a significant accumulation of 8-oxoguanine in colon DNA of treated mice. A single DSS cycle induced severe acute ulcerative colitis in wild-type mice, whereas lesions were modest in Mutyh(-/- mice, and this was associated with moderate variations in the expression of several cytokines. Eight DSS cycles caused chronic colitis in both wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice. Lymphoid hyperplasia and a significant reduction in Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells were observed only in Mutyh(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that, in this model of ulcerative colitis, Mutyh plays a major role in maintaining intestinal integrity by affecting the inflammatory response.

  18. Characterization of colonic cellular glycoconjugates in colitis and cancer-prone tamarins versus colitis and cancer-resistant primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R; King, N; Alroy, J

    1988-06-01

    Differences in colonic secretory glycoconjugates (ie, mucin) between normal and ulcerative colitis-prone patients have been noted. Similar differences may occur in a corresponding primate model, the cotton-top tamarin (CTT), Saguinus oedipus, a New World monkey which suffers from spontaneous chronic colitis and colon cancer. Lectin reagents were used to characterize and compare colonic cell surface, cytoplasmic, and secretory glycoconjugates of 9 clinically healthy cotton-top tamarins, 7 colitis-susceptible, cancer-resistant tamarins (Callithrix jacchus, Saguinus fuscicollis), and 8 colitis and cancer-resistant primates (Aotus trivirgatus, Saimiri sciureus, Macaca fascicularis, and Macaca mulatta). Paraffin-embedded colonic sections were labeled with ten different biotinylated lectins and visualized by the avidin-biotin peroxidase (ABC) method. Significant differences were demonstrated in the pattern of lectin staining between the colitis-resistant and colitis-prone groups of primates. The differences were noted with Griffonia simplicifolia-I (GS-I), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), peanut agglutinin (PNA) before and after neuraminidase, Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I), soybean agglutinin (SBA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and succinylated WGA (S-WGA). Significant differences between the CTT and phylogenetically related colitis-prone but cancer-resistant tamarins were demonstrated with SBA, UEA-I, and PNA after desialylation with neuraminidase. These results suggest that differences in colonic cellular glycoconjugates between colitis- and cancer-susceptible species versus colitis-susceptible, cancer-resistant species may be associated with risk of cancer. PMID:3132857

  19. Dietary Crocin Inhibits Colitis and Colitis-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Male ICR Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kunihiro Kawabata; Nguyen Huu Tung; Yukihiro Shoyama; Shigeyuki Sugie; Takayuki Mori; Takuji Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    A natural carotenoid crocin is contained in saffron and gardenia flowers (crocuses and gardenias) and is used as a food colorant. This study reports the potential inhibitory effects of crocin against inflammation-associated mouse colon carcinogenesis and chemically induced colitis in male ICR mice. In the first experiment, dietary crocin significantly inhibited the development of colonic adenocarcinomas induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in mice by week 18. Crocin ...

  20. Expression of the spinal 5-HT7 receptor and p-ERK pathway in the carrageenan inflammatory pain of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo Young; Ki, Hyoung Gon; Kim, Joung Min; Oh, Jin Myung; Yang, Ji Hoon; Kim, Woong Mo; Lee, Hyung Gon; Yoon, Myung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the inhibitory role of the 5-hydroxytrypatmine receptor 7(5-HT7R) on nociceptive processing is generally recognized, an excitatory effect associated with a reduced 5-HT7R expression has also been observed in the nerve injury model. In the carrageenan model, no significant effect is produced by the 5-HT7R activation, but the change in 5-HT7R expression has not been examined. Lesioning of the spinal serotonergic pathway enhances allodynia in the carrageenan model, but it also relieves several other pain states, including in the formalin model. While lesioning suppresses the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) of the spinal cord in the formalin model, its role in the carrageenan model has not been reported. Methods Following intraplantar injections of carrageenan, the spinal 5-HT7R expression was examined using Western blotting in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effect of serotonergic pathway lesioning with intrathecal 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on the expression of the phospho-ERK was measured. Results The expression of the 5-HT7R in the carrageenan model was not significantly different from that of naive animals. The expression of the spinal p-ERK in the carrageenan model was significantly increased, but returned to the level of a naive rat 1 hour after the carrageenan injection. However, it remained significantly higher 1 hour after the injection in the animals treated with 5,7-DHT than in the naive and control rats. Conclusions The expression of the spinal 5-HT7R is not altered by peripheral inflammation with carrageenan, suggesting that the lack of antinociceptive effect of the 5-HT7R activation is partly attributable to the absence of changes in the expression of the 5-HT7R in the spinal cord. The extended increase of the spinal p-ERK might be related to the enhanced pain behavior in the animals with lesions of the spinal serotonergic pathway in the carrageenan model. PMID:25844136

  1. Spectrum of non-inflammatory bowel disease and non-infectious colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioannis E Koutroubakis

    2008-01-01

    A variety of inflammatory diseases of the colon,which can be differentiated from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and infectious colitis by their clinical,endoscopic and histological characteristics,are reported as nonIBD and non-infectious colitis.These diseases include microscopic colitis,ischemic colitis,segmental colitis associated with diverticula,radiation colitis,diversion colitis,eosinophilic colitis and Behcet's colitis.The etiopathogenesis of most of these diseases remains obscure and the epidemiological data are rather limited.These conditions are often troublesome for the patient and are associated with diagnostic difficulties for the physician.In many cases the treatment is empirical and there is a need for future research using randomized controlled trials.

  2. Oxidative Stress and Carbonyl Lesions in Ulcerative Colitis and Associated Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has long been known as a pathogenic factor of ulcerative colitis (UC and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC, but the effects of secondary carbonyl lesions receive less emphasis. In inflammatory conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS, such as superoxide anion free radical (O2∙-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and hydroxyl radical (HO∙, are produced at high levels and accumulated to cause oxidative stress (OS. In oxidative status, accumulated ROS can cause protein dysfunction and DNA damage, leading to gene mutations and cell death. Accumulated ROS could also act as chemical messengers to activate signaling pathways, such as NF-κB and p38 MAPK, to affect cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. More importantly, electrophilic carbonyl compounds produced by lipid peroxidation may function as secondary pathogenic factors, causing further protein and membrane lesions. This may in turn exaggerate oxidative stress, forming a vicious cycle. Electrophilic carbonyls could also cause DNA mutations and breaks, driving malignant progression of UC. The secondary lesions caused by carbonyl compounds may be exceptionally important in the case of host carbonyl defensive system deficit, such as aldo-keto reductase 1B10 deficiency. This review article updates the current understanding of oxidative stress and carbonyl lesions in the development and progression of UC and CAC.

  3. Idelalisib: a rare cause of enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagoni, Harika; Chaudhari, Dhara; Reddy, Chakradhar; Young, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Idelalisib is an oral, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitor, approved by FDA since July 2014 for the treatment of relapsed follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Data from three phases of the study involving idelalisib demonstrate diarrhea (47%) to be the common adverse effect. The other side effects are pyrexia (28%), fatigue (30%), nausea (29%), cough (29%), pneumonia (25%), abdominal pain (26%) and rash (21%). The characteristic histological findings of idelalisib colitis include intraepithelial lymphocytosis, neutrophilic cryptitis and epithelial cell apoptosis within the crypts. Histological findings help differentiate among other causes of diarrhea and entero-colitis. We present a female patient with recurrent follicular lymphoma treated with idelalisib and presented with diarrhea. She was found to have entero-colitis and was treated successfully with drug discontinuation and prednisone. PMID:27065742

  4. Carrageenan-induced inflammation promotes ROS generation and neutrophil extracellular trap formation in a mouse model of peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Cristiane R; Funchal, Giselle A; Luft, Carolina; de Oliveira, Jarbas R; Porto, Bárbara N; Donadio, Márcio V F

    2016-04-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a combination of DNA fibers and granular proteins, such as neutrophil elastase (NE). NETs are released in the extracellular space in response to different stimuli. Carrageenan is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from Chondrus crispus, a marine algae, used for decades in research for its potential to induce inflammation in different animal models. In this study, we show for the first time that carrageenan injection can induce NET release in a mouse model of acute peritonitis. Carrageenan induced NET release by viable neutrophils with NE and myeloperoxidase (MPO) expressed on DNA fibers. Furthermore, although this polysaccharide was able to stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by peritoneal neutrophils, NADPH oxidase derived ROS were dispensable for NET formation by carrageenan. In conclusion, our results show that carrageenan-induced inflammation in the peritoneum of mice can induce NET formation in an ROS-independent manner. These results may add important information to the field of inflammation and potentially lead to novel anti-inflammatory agents targeting the production of NETs. PMID:26786873

  5. Characterization of low molecular weight fragments from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan used as plant growth promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Aurigue, Fernando B.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Montefalcon, Djowel Recto V.; Lopez, Girlie Eunice P.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation degraded κ-carrageenan (1% solution at absorbed doses of 20 kGy and 30 kGy) were tested for its plant growth promoter (PGP) effect on pechay plants under hydroponics condition. Results revealed that higher PGP effects were found in κ-carrageenan irradiated at an absorbed dose of 30 kGy. Mw of irradiated κ-carrageenan as measured by GPC were determined to be 7362 Da and 6762 Da for 20 kGy and 30 kGy, respectively. Fractionation of the irradiated κ-carrageenan (30 kGy) was done to separate different Mw fractions using Mw cut-off filters of 1 kDa, 3 kDa, and 5 kDa. The PGP effect of the different retentates showed that biological activity in plants followed the order of 5 kDa>3 kDa>1 kDa using hydroponics condition but the reverse was observed in the order of 1 kDa>3 kDa>5 kDa when absorbed in plants by foliar spraying. GPC chromatogram indicated at least three (3) low molecular weight (LMW) fragments from radiation modified κ-carrageenan solution with an Mw<2000 Da. A fragment has also been identified with an Mw of as low as 160 Da which was produced under acidic (un-neutralized) condition. This may be attributed to the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF).

  6. Characterization of low molecular weight fragments from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan used as plant growth promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Aurigue, Fernando B.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Montefalcon, Djowel Recto V.; Lopez, Girlie Eunice P.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation degraded κ-carrageenan (1% solution at absorbed doses of 20 kGy and 30 kGy) were tested for its plant growth promoter (PGP) effect on pechay plants under hydroponics condition. Results revealed that higher PGP effects were found in κ-carrageenan irradiated at an absorbed dose of 30 kGy. Mw of irradiated κ-carrageenan as measured by GPC were determined to be 7362 Da and 6762 Da for 20 kGy and 30 kGy, respectively. Fractionation of the irradiated κ-carrageenan (30 kGy) was done to separate different Mw fractions using Mw cut-off filters of 1 kDa, 3 kDa, and 5 kDa. The PGP effect of the different retentates showed that biological activity in plants followed the order of 5 kDa>3 kDa>1 kDa using hydroponics condition but the reverse was observed in the order of 1 kDa>3 kDa>5 kDa when absorbed in plants by foliar spraying. GPC chromatogram indicated at least three (3) low molecular weight (LMW) fragments from radiation modified κ-carrageenan solution with an Mwhydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF).

  7. Faecal mucus degrading glycosidases in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, J M; Gallimore, R; Elias, E; Allan, R N; Kennedy, J F

    1985-08-01

    Because the normal faecal flora includes bacteria which can produce mucus-digesting glycosidases, it follows that increased digestion of colonic mucus by these bacterial enzymes could be important in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Faecal activities of potential mucus-degrading glycosidases have therefore been assayed in samples from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and normal controls. The enzymes alpha-D-galactosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, beta-NAc-D-glucosaminidase alpha-L-fucosidase and neuraminidase were assayed. Considerable glycosidase activity was present in most faecal samples. Similar activities of all the enzymes assayed were found in faeces from patients with ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and normal controls and there was no significant correlation with disease activity. These results imply that relapse of ulcerative colitis is not initiated by increased degradation of colonic mucus by faecal glycosidases but do not exclude a role for bacterial mucus degradation in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. PMID:2991089

  8. Mindfulness May Be Helpful for People with Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Mindfulness May Be Helpful for People With Ulcerative Colitis Share: meditation_man_three_women.jpg © Jupiter Images Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), a type of meditation, ...

  9. Microbiota role in mouse model of colitis-associated cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Klára; Kverka, Miloslav; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Zákostelská, Zuzana; Rossmann, Pavel; Kopečný, Jan; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. s. 170-170. ISSN 0953-8178 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : dextran sodium sulfate * colitis * colon Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  10. Extraintestinal manifestations in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isene, Rune; Bernklev, Tomm; Høie, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]), symptoms from outside the gastrointestinal tract are frequently seen, and the joints, skin, eyes, and hepatobiliary area are the most usually affected sites (called extraintestinal...

  11. Clostridium difficile Infection Worsens the Prognosis of Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Negrón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of Clostridium difficile infections among ulcerative colitis (UC patients is well characterized. However, there is little knowledge regarding the association between C difficile infections and postoperative complications among UC patients.

  12. Pathogenesis and biomarkers of carcinogenesis in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Gudjonsson, Thorkell; Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Vainer, Ben; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict

    2011-01-01

    One of the most serious complications of ulcerative colitis is the development of colorectal cancer. Screening patients with ulcerative colitis by standard histological examination of random intestinal biopsy samples might be inefficient as a method of cancer surveillance. This Review focuses on...... the current understanding of the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer and how this knowledge can be transferred into patient management to assist clinicians and pathologists in identifying patients with ulcerative colitis who have an increased risk of colorectal cancer....... Inflammation-driven mechanisms of DNA damage, including the generation and effects of reactive oxygen species, microsatellite instability, telomere shortening and chromosomal instability, are reviewed, as are the molecular responses to genomic stress. We also discuss how these mechanisms can be translated into...

  13. Anti-ulcer, anti-protozoan and anti-cancer activities of irradiated κ-carrageenan: some biological effects of irradiated food grade-carrageenan on various gastrointestinal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    κ carrageenan and its radiolytic products are both shown to strongly inhibit pepsin activity based on our in vitro peptic ulcer model. Generated Lineweaver-Burke (LB) plots resemble the trend for competitive inhibition except that the changes in the slopes are too large rendering Km to approach a negative value. Our observations corroborate with the published dual behavior of carrageenan in inhibiting peptic ulcers, that is, by exerting simultaneously both enzyme (E) competitive inhibition and substrate (S) occlusion. Irradiated-carrageenan does not display anti-protozoan activity against Tetrahymena and pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica, and anti-tumor potential based on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) nauplus tests and the MTT assay with human MCF7 breast carcinoma cell line. (Author)

  14. Ischemic colitis due to vigorous physical exercise Colitis isquémica en relación con ejercicio físico extenuante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Z. Rosado-Dawid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise has been related with both beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal tract as with adverse effects on the latter. Gastrointestinal bleeding is one of these. In general, gastrointestinal bleeding is transient and mild. However, some cases caused by intestinal ischemia can sometimes be more serious due to the amount of bleeding and the presence of mucosal lesions. We present the case of a patient with abdominal pain and rectal bleeding caused by an extensive ischemic colitis due to vigorous physical exercise.El ejercicio físico se ha relacionado con beneficios sobre el tracto digestivo así como efectos adversos sobre el mismo. El sangrado gastrointestinal es una de las complicaciones descritas asociadas al mismo. Por lo general, la hemorragia digestiva en estos casos es transitoria y leve. Sin embargo, algunos casos ocasionados por isquemia intestinal tienen una repercusión más grave por la cuantía de la hemorragia y la propia alteración de la mucosa intestinal. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con dolor abdominal y rectorragia causada por colitis isquémica extensa secundaria a la práctica de un entrenamiento intenso.

  15. Budesonide for ulcerative colitis Budesonida en el tratamiento de la colitis ulcerosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Marín-Jiménez

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we examined studies published on oral and topical formulations of budesonide (Entocort® and Budenofalk®, in Spain: Entocord® and Intestifalk® for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. This glycocorticosteroid has a potent local action and an important first-pass liver metabolism. It has proven successful over the last years as a controlled-release formulation. It obtained results similar to prednisolone, without the latter's significant suppression of plasma cortisol. Many publications exist on the effects of oral budesonide for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD. These have led to the registration of this drug for the treatment of CD. Studies on oral formulations of budesonide for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC are scarce. After reviewing published evidence, we suggest the conduction of controlled trials for the treatment of UC to obtain evidence-based efficacy and safety results in order to benefit patients with this form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD.En esta revisión repasamos los estudios publicados hasta la fecha con las formulaciones orales y las preparaciones tópicas rectales de budesonida (Entocort® y Budenofalk®, en España Entocord® e Intestifalk® para el tratamiento de la colitis ulcerosa. Este glucocorticosteroide de una elevada acción tópica y un importante metabolismo de primer paso hepático se ha utilizado en los últimos años como una formulación de liberación controlada, proporcionando resultados similares a la prednisolona pero sin suprimir de forma apreciable los niveles de cortisol plasmático. Aunque se han publicado muchos estudios sobre los efectos de la budesonida oral para el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Crohn, los estudios sobre esta misma forma galénica de administración de budesonida para el tratamiento de los pacientes con colitis ulcerosa son escasos. Después de revisar los trabajos publicados al respecto, se sugiere la necesidad de realizar un estudio controlado

  16. Desulfovibrio bacterial species are increased in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Debate persists regarding the role of Desulfovibrio subspecies in ulcerative colitis. Combined microscopic and molecular techniques enable this issue to be investigated by allowing precise enumeration of specific bacterial species within the colonic mucous gel. The aim of this study was to combine laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine Desulfovibrio copy number in crypt-associated mucous gel in health and in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies were harvested from healthy controls (n = 19) and patients with acute (n = 10) or chronic (n = 10) ulcerative colitis. Crypt-associated mucous gel was obtained by laser capture microdissection throughout the colon. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA and Desulfovibrio copy number\\/mm were obtained by polymerase chain reaction at each locus. Bacterial copy numbers were interrogated for correlation with location and disease activity. Data were evaluated using a combination of ordinary linear methods and linear mixed-effects models to cater for multiple interactions. RESULTS: Desulfovibrio positivity was significantly increased in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis at multiple levels within the colon, and after normalization with total bacterial signal, the relative Desulfovibrio load was increased in acute colitis compared with controls. Desulfovibrio counts did not significantly correlate with age, disease duration, or disease activity but interlevel correlations were found in adjacent colonic segments in the healthy control and chronic ulcerative colitis groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of Desulfovibrio subspecies is increased in ulcerative colitis and the data presented suggest that these bacteria represent an increased percentage of the colonic microbiome in acute ulcerative colitis.

  17. Ulcerative colitis Presenting as leukocytoclastic vasculitis of skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabiye Akbulut; Ersan Ozaslan; Firdevs Topal; Levent Albayrak; Burcak Kayhan; Cumali Efe

    2008-01-01

    A number of cutaneous changes are known to occur in the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD),including pyoderma gangrenosum, erythema nodosum,perianal disease, erythematous eruptions, urticaria, and purpura. However, occurrence of skin manifestations prior to the development of ulcerative colitis is a rare occasion. Here, we report a case of ulcerative colitis associated with leukocytoclastic vasculitis in which the intestinal symptoms became overt 8 mo after the development of skin lesions.

  18. Benign retroperitoneal schwannoma presenting as colitis: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Fass, Gary; Hossey, Didier; Nyst, Michel; Smets, Dirk; Saligheh, Esmail Najar; Duttmann, Ruth; Claes, Kathleen; da Costa, Pierre Mendes

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of a patient presenting with clinical , radiological and endoscopic features of colitis due to a compressive left para-aortic mass. Total open surgical excision was performed, which resulted in complete resolution of colitis. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed benign retroperitoneal schwannoma. These neural sheath tumors rarely occur in the retroperitoneum. They are usually asymptomatic but as they enlarge they may compress adjacent structures, which leads to a ...

  19. Emergency surgery of fulminant ulcerative colitis and toxic megacolon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsikas B.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Subtotal colectomy and ileostomy (SCI is now urgently used as the life-saving management of the severe, life - threatening, progressions in the course of ulcerative colitis (UC. PURPOSE. To evaluate the efficacy of SCI in patients with severe colitis, we reviewed our own experience in 12 patients with this condition. METHODS. Patients undergoing SCI included 6 males and 6 females aged 12 to 56 years (mean 35,8 years. The duration of the disease averaged 29 months (range 4 to 92 months. Three had had their disease less than 6 months. Eleven patients had total colitis and only one patient had left-sided colitis. Three patients endured a continuous course and in 9 the course was intermittent. All were anemic with protein concentration less than 5 gm/dl at the time of surgery. Five patients had fulminant colitis with severe hemorrhage and seven patients with pancolitis developed toxic megacolon with unrecognized perforation in one case preoperatively. All patients underwent an emergency SCI with either intrapelvic oversewing the rectum (7 patients or exteriorizing it as a mucus fistula (5 patients. One patient with toxic megacolon died in the first postoperative day because of uncontroled septic shock. The remainder 11 patients survived and later underwent rectectomy, anal mucosectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA. CONCLUSION. SCI for patients with fulminant ulcerative colitis and toxic megacolon is a life-saving procedure which gives the chance for ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA a second time. Key Words: Ulcerative colitis, fulminant colitis, toxic megacolon, subtotal colectomy.

  20. Preventive and Therapeutic Euphol Treatment Attenuates Experimental Colitis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael C. Dutra; Claudino, Rafaela F.; Bento, Allisson F; Marcon, Rodrigo; Schmidt, Éder C.; Bouzon, Zenilda L.; Luiz F Pianowski; Calixto, João B

    2011-01-01

    Background The tetracyclic triterpene euphol is the main constituent found in the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli. This plant is widely known in Brazilian traditional medicine for its use in the treatment of several kinds of cancer, including leukaemia, prostate and breast cancers. Here, we investigated the effect of euphol on experimental models of colitis and the underlying mechanisms involved in its action. Methodology/Principal Findings Colitis was induced in mice either with dextran sulfate s...

  1. A rare complication of ulcerative colitis: Pyoderma gangrenosum

    OpenAIRE

    AKIN, Hatice Şule; Coşkun, Adil; KARATAY, Pınar; SAVK, Ekin; Yaşa, Mehmet Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare inflammatory skin illness characterized by ulcers. It can be seen with unknown etiology or with some systemic disorders such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and monoclonal gammopathy. Ulcers may be seen as single or multiple. We present in this article a pyoderma gangrenosum case that occurred with the activation of ulcerative colitis. A 21-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with a one-month history of symptoms of bloody and mucoid defecation with...

  2. Dipeptidyl peptidase expression during experimental colitis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazbeck, Roger; Sulda, Melanie L; Howarth, Gordon S;

    2010-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase (DP) activity partially attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in mice. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms of this protection.......We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase (DP) activity partially attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in mice. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms of this protection....

  3. Acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with severe ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiho; Sagara; Yasuo; Horie; Yumiko; Anezaki; Hideaki; Miyazawa; Masahiro; Iizuka

    2010-01-01

    Various extraintestinal manifestations including pulmonary abnormalities have been reported in patients with ulcerative colitis. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious and fatal pulmonary manifestation. We have experienced a 67-year-old male patient with ARDS associated with a severe type of ulcerative colitis (UC). Severe dyspnea symptoms occurred during the treatment of UC in a previous hospital and the patient was transferred to our hospital on June 27, 2007. Both blood and sputa culture...

  4. Hydrophobic adhesin of E coli in ulcerative colitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, D A; Axon, A T

    1988-01-01

    Pathogenic E coli have adhesive properties which are mirrored by an increase in their surface hydrophobicity. E coli isolated from patients with ulcerative colitis possess a mannose resistant adhesin similar to that found in pathogenic E coli. In this study 42 E coli isolates from patients with colitis have been compared with 15 from controls to assess hydrophobicity and cellular adherence. The salting out method and the buccal epithelial cell technique were used respectively. E coli isolated...

  5. Randomised controlled trial of azathioprine withdrawal in ulcerative colitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawthorne, A. B.; Logan, R. F.; Hawkey, C. J.; Foster, P. N.; Axon, A T; Swarbrick, E T; Scott, B B; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether azathioprine can prevent relapse in ulcerative colitis. DESIGN--One year placebo controlled double blind trial of withdrawal or continuation of azathioprine. SETTING--Outpatient clinics of five hospitals. SUBJECTS--79 patients with ulcerative colitis who had been taking azathioprine for six months or more. Patients in full remission for two months or more (67), and patients with chronic low grade or corticosteroid dependent disease (12) were randomised separate...

  6. Temporal Comorbidity of Mental Disorder and Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Cawthorpe, David; Davidson, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The authors used physician diagnoses from Calgary, Alberta, for patient visits from fiscal years 1994 to 2009 for treatment of any presenting concern (763,449 patients) to identify 5113 patients with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, and found 4192 patients also had a diagnosis of a mental disorder. Patients with mental disorder had a significantly higher annual prevalence. The mental disorder grouping neuroses/depression was most likely to arise before diagnosis of ulcerative colitis.

  7. Predictive Factors for Severe Outcomes in Ischemic Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seok Reyol; Jee, Sam Ryong; Song, Geun Am; Park, Seun Ja; Lee, Jong Hun; Song, Chul Soo; Park, Hee Ug

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Ischemic colitis includes a wide clinical spectrum ranging from mild to severe forms. This study aimed to determine the factors that are related to the occurrence of severe ischemic colitis. Methods This multicenter study was conducted retrospectively in Korea. The patients were divided into mild and severe groups. This study surveyed clinical characteristics, blood tests, endoscopic findings, and imaging studies. Results In the comparison of comorbidities, the severe group ha...

  8. Fulminant ulcerative colitis in late pregnancy and the puerperium.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, J. B.; Turner, G. M.; Williamson, R C

    1987-01-01

    Four patients underwent emergency colectomy during pregnancy or the puerperium for complications of ulcerative proctocolitis. Three had inactive colitis at conception, while in the fourth the disease started during pregnancy. Three patients required subtotal colectomy and ileostomy for toxic dilatation during the third trimester or within 5 days of delivery, and the fourth underwent proctocolectomy postpartum for intractable colitis. There were no maternal deaths but 2 of 4 infants died. One ...

  9. Reactive arthritis induced by recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Marr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile colitis is a common infection that can be difficult to resolve and may result in recurrent infections. Reactive arthritis is a rare presentation of this disease and its treatment is not well differentiated in the literature. We describe a case of reactive arthritis occurring in a patient with a history of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis while currently receiving a taper of oral vancomycin. His arthritis symptoms resolved with corticosteroids and continued treatment with anticlostridial antibiotics.

  10. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in the same patient.

    OpenAIRE

    White, C.L.; Hamilton, S R; Diamond, M. P.; Cameron, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A well documented case of a patient with both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is presented. A 29 year old woman underwent resection of her terminal ileum and ascending colon for typical Crohn's disease with ileocolitis. Eleven years later, an ileoproctocolectomy was performed for typical ulcerative colitis involving the left colon. The resection specimen also showed evidence of colonic Crohn's disease near the anastomotic site. This unusual case shows that Crohn's disease and ulcerativ...

  11. Probiotics in the Management of Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibbar, Richa; Dieleman, Levinus A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid progress has been made to understand the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases and to identify new treatments. Interaction of the gut microbiota on the host inflammatory response has suggested that alternative therapies, such as probiotics, might have a complementary role in treating and preventing disease flares. Multiple probiotics and their formulations have been studied for both the induction and maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis (UC); however, mainly Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and VSL#3 have been shown to provide significant benefits for the prevention and treatment of mild to moderate UC. Although these data are promising, there is still a paucity of robust, randomized-controlled trials to suggest that probiotics be utilized as part of a standard treatment regimen. With continued research and a movement toward carefully selected, individualized management based on an individual's specific microbiota composition and function, probiotics may become an integral part of tailored therapy for UC. PMID:26447965

  12. Treatment of severe steroid refractory ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gert Van Assche; Séverine Vermeire; Paul Rutgeerts

    2008-01-01

    Although systemic steroids are highly efficacious in ulcerative colitis (UC),failure to respond to steroids sUll poses an important challenge to the surgeon and physician alike. Even if the life Lime risk of a fulminant UC flare is only 20%, this condition is potentially life threatening and should be managed in hospital. If patients fail 3 to 5 d of intravenous corticosteroids and optimal supportive care, they should be considered for any of three options: intravenous cyclosporine (2 mg/kg for 7 d, and serum level controlled),infliximab (5 mg/kg N,0-2-6 wk) or total colectomy.The choice between these three options is a medicalsurgical decision based on clinical signs, radiological and endoscopic findings and blood analysis (CRP, serum albumin).Between 65 and 85% of patients will initially respond to cyclosporine and avoid colectomy on the short term. Over 5 years only 50% of initial responders avoid colectomy and outcomes are better in patients naive to azathioprine (bridging strategy).The data on infliximab as a medical rescue in fulminant colitis are more limited although the efficacy of this anti tumor necrosis factor (TNF) monoclonal antibody has been demonstrated in a controlled trial. Controlled data on the comparative efficacy of cyclosporine and infliximab are not available at this moment. Both drugs are immunosuppressants and are used in combination with steroids and azathioprine, which infers a risk of serious, even fatal, opportunistic infections. Therefore,patients not responding to these agents within 5-7 d should be considered for colectomy and responders should be closely monitored for infections.

  13. Hypersensitive prostaglandin and thromboxane response to hormones in rabbit colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammation of the colon is associated with increased production of prostaglandins (PG) and thromboxanes (Tx), and these eicosanoids may contribute to the inflammatory, secretory, and motility dysfunctions in colitis. To evaluate the potential role of peptide hormones in the enhanced eicosanoid release, colitis was established in rabbits by a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to dinitrochlorobenzene and by an immune-complex-mediated reaction. PG and Tx were identified in the venous effluent of isolated perfused colons by radiochromatography after [14C]arachidonic acid prelabeling, as well as by bioassay, and then quantitated by immunoassay. The two colitis models were morphologically similar. Basal release of PGE2, PGI2, and TxA2 was two- to threefold greater from colitis tissue than from control tissue. Bradykinin (BK) and angiotensin II (ANG II) increased release of 14C-labeled eicosanoids, whereas several gastrointestinal hormones had no effect. In control colons, BK and ANG II increased PGE2 and PGI2 release (by about 2-fold) but did not alter TxA2. In contrast, BK and ANG II markedly exaggerated the release of eicosanoids in colitis. Since BK and possibly ANG II are increased at sites of inflammation, the hypersensitive eicosanoid response to these peptides may augment the eicosanoid-mediated manifestations of colitis

  14. Biologics in the management of ulcerative colitis – comparative safety and efficacy of TNF-α antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausel R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Fausel,1 Anita Afzali1,2 1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Inflammatory Bowel Disease Program, UW Medicine – Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Ulcerative colitis can cause debilitating symptoms and complications such as colonic strictures, colonic dysplasia, colorectal cancer, and toxic megacolon or perforation. Goals of treatment in ulcerative colitis include resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms, healing of colonic mucosa, and prevention of disease complications. Our treatment armamentarium has expanded dramatically over the past 10 years, and we now have multiple biologic agents approved for the treatment of moderate-severe disease, in addition to conventional therapies such as 5-aminosalicylates, thiopurines, and corticosteroids. In this review, we will provide a detailed discussion of the three tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α inhibitors currently approved for treatment of ulcerative colitis: infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab. All three agents are effective for inducing and maintaining clinical response and remission in patients with ulcerative colitis, and they have comparable safety profiles. There are no head-to-head trials comparing their efficacy, and the choice of agent is most often based on insurance coverage, route of administration, and patient preference. Combination therapy with an immunomodulator is proven to be more effective than anti-TNF monotherapy, and patients who lose response to an anti-TNF agent should undergo dose intensification in order to regain clinical response. Despite therapeutic optimization, a significant percentage of patients will not achieve clinical remission with anti-TNF agents, and so newer therapies are on the horizon. Keywords: ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab

  15. Retrospective Evaluation of Cases Diagnosed with Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülseren Şahin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ti­on: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal canal characterised by remissions and exacerbations. This study aimed to make a retrospective evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of patients being monitored with a diagnosis of IBD.Materials and Methods: Medical records of 18 patients with a diagnosis of IBD and 7 years of follow-up at our pediatric gastroenterology departments were investigated with respect to demographic data, complaints on presentation and accompanying diseases. Unusual findings from physical examination, endoscopic findings, histopathological findings and the applied treatments were examined.Results: The 18 patients (10 female, 8 male included in this study had a mean age of 13.6±2.9 years and the mean time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 6.9±4.5 months. Seventeen patients were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and 1 patient with intermediate colitis. There was a positive family history of the disease in 2 patients (11%. At the time of diagnosis, the most common complaints on presentation were found to be abdominal pain (100%, bloody diarrhea (94.5% and tenesmus (44.4%. The most frequent laboratory findings were CRP positivity (89%, increased sedimentation rate (83.3% and iron-deficient anaemia (77.7%. On colonoscopy, pancolitis involvement (66.6% was most frequently encountered. Accompanying diseases to IBD were found to be familial Mediterranean fever (FMF (11%, celiac disease (5.5% and Heliobacter pylori gastritis (5.5%. One patient (5.5% who did not respond to medical treatment for pancolitis involvement underwent a colectomy. Discussion: The number of diagnoses of IBD in childhood is gradually increasing. Nonetheless, it can be difficult to define diseases with non-specific symptoms and this may cause a delay in diagnosis. Because of the association of autoimmune diseases with IBD, despite appropriate therapy, diseases with no remission

  16. Sinularin from Indigenous Soft Coral Attenuates Nociceptive Responses and Spinal Neuroinflammation in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hong Wen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three decades ago, the marine-derived compound sinularin was shown to have anti-edematous effects on paw edema induced by carrageenan or adjuvant. To the best of our knowledge, no new studies were conducted to explore the bioactivity of sinularin until we reported the analgesic properties of sinularin based on in vivo experiments. In the present study, we found that sinularin significantly inhibits the upregulation of proinflammatory proteins, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and upregulates the production of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells according to western blot analysis. We found that subcutaneous (s.c. administration of sinularin (80 mg/kg 1 h before carrageenan injection significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced nociceptive behaviors, including thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, and hindpaw weight-bearing deficits. Further, s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced microglial and astrocyte activation as well as upregulation of iNOS in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Moreover, s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg inhibited carrageenan-induced tissue inflammatory responses, redness and edema of the paw, and leukocyte infiltration. The results of immunohistochemical studies indicate that s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg could upregulate production of TGF-β1 in carrageenan-induced inflamed paw tissue. The present results demonstrate that systemic sinularin exerts analgesic effects at the behavioral and spinal levels, which are associated with both inhibition of leukocyte infiltration and upregulation of TGF-β1.Three decades ago, the marine-derived compound sinularin was shown to have anti-edematous effects on paw edema induced by carrageenan or adjuvant. To the best of our knowledge, no new studies were conducted to explore the bioactivity of sinularin until we reported the

  17. Formation of κ-carrageenan-gelatin polyelectrolyte complexes studied by (1)H NMR, UV spectroscopy and kinematic viscosity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voron'ko, Nicolay G; Derkach, Svetlana R; Vovk, Mikhail A; Tolstoy, Peter M

    2016-10-20

    The intermolecular interactions between an anionic polysaccharide from the red algae κ-carrageenan and a gelatin polypeptide, forming stoichiometric polysaccharide-polypeptide (bio)polyelectrolyte complexes in the aqueous phase, were examined. The major method of investigation was high-resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Additional data were obtained by UV absorption spectroscopy, light scattering dispersion and capillary viscometry. Experimental data were interpreted in terms of the changing roles of electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds when κ-carrageenan-gelatin complexes are formed. At high temperatures, when biopolymer macromolecules in solution are in the state of random coil, hydrophobic interactions make a major contribution to complex stabilization. At the temperature of gelatin's coil→helix conformational transition and at lower temperatures, electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds play a defining role in complex formation. A proposed model of the κ-carrageenan-gelatin complex is discussed. PMID:27474666

  18. Overexpression of Elastin Affects the Protease to Anti-Protease Balance and Protects Mice from Colitis. : Elafin protects from colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Motta*, Jean-Paul; Magne, Laurent; Descamps, Delphyne; Rolland, Corinne; Squarzoni-Dale, Camila; Rousset, Perrine; Balloy, Viviane; Huerre, Michel; Jenne, Dieter; Wartelle, Julien; Belaaouaj, Azzaq; Mas, Emmanuel; Vinel, Jean-Pierre; Alric, Laurent; Chignard, Michel

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS:: Colon tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been reported to have increased proteolytic activity, but no studies have clearly addressed the protease to anti-protease balance in the pathogenesis of colitis. We investigated the role of Elafin, a serine protease inhibitor expressed by skin and mucosal surfaces in human inflammatory conditions, and the proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase-3 (PR-3), in mice with colitis. METHODS:: We studie...

  19. The monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 suppresses inflammatory pain in the mouse carrageenan model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Wise, Laura E.; Chen, Yugang; Gujjar, Ramesh; Mahadevan, Anu; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The present study tested whether the selective monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor JZL184 would reduce allodynia and paw edema in the carrageenan test. Main methods The anti-edematous and anti-allodynic effects of JZL184 were compared to those of PF-3845, an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and diclofenac, a non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Cannabinoid receptor involvement in the anti-edematous and anti-allodynic effects of JZL184 was evaluated by administration of the respective CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists rimonabant and SR144528 as well as with CB1(−/−) and CB2(−/−) mice. JZL184 (1.6, 4, 16, or 40 mg/kg) was administered for six days to assess tolerance. Key findings JZL184 administered before or after carrageenan significantly attenuated carrageenan-induced paw edema and mechanical allodynia. Complementary genetic and pharmacological approaches revealed that the anti-allodynic effects of JZL184 required both CB1 and CB2 receptors, but only CB2 receptors mediated its anti-edematous actions. Importantly, both the anti-edematous and anti-allodynic effects underwent tolerance following repeated injections of high dose JZL184 (16 or 40 mg/kg), but repeated administration of low dose JZL184 (4 mg/kg) retained efficacy. Significance These results suggest that the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 reduces inflammatory nociception through the activation of both CB1 and CB2 receptors, with no evidence of tolerance following repeated administration of low doses. PMID:22749865

  20. Nicorandil inhibits neutrophil recruitment in carrageenan-induced experimental pleurisy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tamires C; Coura, Giovanna M E; Melo, Ivo S F; Batista, Carla R A; Augusto, Paulo Sérgio A; Godin, Adriana M; Araújo, Débora P; César, Isabela C; Ribeiro, Lucas S; Souza, Danielle G; Klein, André; de Fátima, Ângelo; Machado, Renes R; Coelho, Márcio M

    2015-12-15

    Nicorandil is a drug characterized by the coupling of a nitric oxide (NO) donor to nicotinamide. We have previously demonstrated that nicotinamide exhibits activity in different models of pain and inflammation. Now, we investigated the effects induced by per os (p.o.) administration of nicorandil (25, 50 or 100mg/Kg) on neutrophil recruitment in a carrageenan-induced model of pleurisy in mice. Effects induced by nicorandil (100mg/kg) were compared with those induced by equimolar doses of nicotinamide (58mg/kg) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-nicotinamide (NHN; 79mg/kg). We also investigated whether effects on the production of inflammatory mediators play a role in the activity of nicorandil. P.o. nicorandil, 0.5h before and 1h after the i.pl. injection of carrageenan, reduced neutrophil recruitment. However, equimolar doses of nicotinamide or NHN failed to induce such effect. Single treatment (previous or late) with nicorandil (100mg/Kg, p.o.) also reduced neutrophils recruitment, although to a lesser extent when compared to the double treatment. Nicorandil reduced the concentrations of interleukin-1β, CXCL-1 and prostaglandin E2 in the pleural exudate. Concluding, we demonstrated the activity of nicorandil in a model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. This activity was characterized by reduction of the neutrophil accumulation and inhibition of production of inflammatory mediators. The effects induced by nicorandil on the leukocytes recruitment and production of inflammatory mediators contribute to a better understanding of its clinical benefits and indicate that these benefits may be due to its vasodilating and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26607465

  1. Evaluation of Food Intake in Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Faghfoori

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the colon of unknown cause that is associated with important nutrition deficiencies such as protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Because no study has been carried out to date in Iran, the aim of this pilot study was the assessment of dietary intake of these patients. Methods: In this pilot study, 41 UC patients whose disease severity was mild or moderate were selected. Data about diet restrictions were collected via a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed 3 times during a 2 month period with 30 days interval and 3-day food-recall (9days in general. Results: Subjects were 26 men and 15 women and 65.9% patients avoided completely or limited milk intake. Dietary limitation about fruits and vegetables was 24.4 and 43.9 percent, respectively and legumes intake was 58.5%. Mean calorie intake in 41 patients was 2125.14±60.83 calories/day and in two groups, calcium and fiber intake was significantly less than the standard dietary recommendation. Conclusion: Dietary intake examination showed some deficiencies such as calcium and iron deficiency and fiber intake was low because the intake of fruits, vegetables and legumes was limited.

  2. Idelalisib-associated Colitis: Histologic Findings in 14 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Anna-Sophie; Panarelli, Nicole C; Geyer, Julia T; Bhavsar, Erica B; Furman, Richard R; Leonard, John P; Jessurun, Jose; Yantiss, Rhonda K

    2015-12-01

    Idelalisib is an inhibitor of the PI3Kδ isoform approved for treatment of patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Many patients develop gastrointestinal symptoms during idelalisib therapy; however, the pathologic effects of this drug have not been characterized. We identified 50 patients who received at least 3 months of idelalisib therapy. Clinical findings and symptoms were noted for each patient, and endoscopic findings were recorded for those who underwent colonoscopic examination. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from colonic biopsy samples were evaluated for histologic patterns of injury. Twenty-three (46%) patients experienced diarrhea during treatment with idelalisib, including 8 with severe symptoms (≥7 stools/d above baseline and/or requiring hospitalization). Fourteen patients underwent colonoscopic examination with mucosal biopsy. Twelve (86%) of these had colitis characterized by intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt cell apoptosis, and neutrophilic infiltration of crypt epithelium. Eleven patients had symptoms severe enough to warrant drug withdrawal, including 9 who were also treated with corticosteroids. Idelalisib commonly causes diarrheal symptoms in patients undergoing therapy for B-cell neoplasia, which may be severe in nearly 20% of patients. Characteristic histologic features include the combination of intraepithelial lymphocytosis and crypt cell apoptosis, often accompanied by neutrophils. Discontinuation of the drug results in symptomatic improvement and resolution of histologic changes. PMID:26448188

  3. Optimization of Konjac Gel Texture Prepared with-κ-carrageenan and Sweeteners and their Applications in Orange Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Akesowan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of konjac proportion in 1% konjac/κ-carrageenan blend (25:75-50:50 and sweetener concentration (sucrose and xylitol at 2-20% and erythritol-sucralose at 0.25-2.5% on gel strength of konjac gels using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The statistical analysis revealed that all models of konjac gels with sweeteners were effective and adequate fitted. The most variable affecting gel strength was konjac/κ-carrageenan n blend. Quadratic effect of konjac/κ-carrageenan blend was more profound (p<0.001 on konjac gels with each sweetener. The variation of xylitol and sucrose had a linear effect (p<0.001 and a quadratic effect (p<0.05 on gel strength, respectively, while an increase in erythritol-sucralose had no significant effect. Also, the interaction between the two variables had no significant effect on gel strength. The optimal conditions for the highest gel strength were 1% konjac/κ-carrageenan (39.56:60.44 with 9.58% sucrose, 1% konjac/κ-carrageenan (39.87:60.13 with 2% xylitol and 1% konjac/κ-carrageenan (38.18:61.82 with 0.94% erythritol-sucralose. Orange konjac jellies made with three optimal conditions showed no significant differences in appearance and color. Most panelists preferred sweet and texture of the jelly with erythritol-sucralose than that with xylitol. Nevertheless, the jelly with sucrose significantly received the most scores of sweet and overall acceptance. The appropriate level of texture and sweet was evident on the jelly with sucrose, followed by that with erythritol-sucralose and xylitol, respectively.

  4. Characterization of k-carrageenan/Locust bean gumbased films with b-carotene emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Joana; Silva, H. D.; Rojas, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.; Vicente, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    New bio-based materials have been exploited to develop biodegradable and edible films as an effort to extend shelf life and improve quality of food while reducing packaging waste. The objective of this study was to investigate physicochemical properties of k-carrageenan/locust bean gum (k-car/LBG) films with different bcarotene emulsion concentrations. To prepare oil-in-water emulsions, b-carotene (0.03% v/v) was dissolved in mediumchain triglycerides (MCTs), and the solution was mixed ...

  5. Construction of biosensor systems for determining the pathophysiological potential of carrageenan variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Angela; End, Caroline; Christiansen, Helle;

    2009-01-01

    In vitro systems for monitoring safety of nutritional additives are desirable for high-throughput screenings and as a substitute for animal models. Carrageenan (CGN) is a sulfated polysaccharide widely used as a thickener and texturizer in human nutrition and is intensely discussed regarding its...... pathophysiological potential. Low molecular weight (lm) variants of CGN are considered to exert more profound pathophysiological effects in vivo than high molecular weight (hm) variants. We used a systematic approach to construct reporter systems allowing distinction between CGN-variants with different...

  6. Optimization of Konjac Gel Texture Prepared with-κ-carrageenan and Sweeteners and their Applications in Orange Jelly

    OpenAIRE

    Adisak Akesowan; Anchan Choonhahirun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of konjac proportion in 1% konjac/κ-carrageenan blend (25:75-50:50) and sweetener concentration (sucrose and xylitol at 2-20% and erythritol-sucralose at 0.25-2.5%) on gel strength of konjac gels using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The statistical analysis revealed that all models of konjac gels with sweeteners were effective and adequate fitted. The most variable affecting gel strength was konjac/κ-carrageenan n blend. Quadratic effect of konjac/κ-ca...

  7. Polymer electrolyte system based on carrageenan-poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) composite for dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. A.; Camacho, D. H.

    2015-06-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-κ-carregeenan polymer electrolyte blend was prepared and incorporated as the electrolyte system in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Polymer blends prepared with different κ-carrageenan concentrations and molecular weights were investigated. It was found that the conductivity of the polymer blend increases with higher κ-carrageenan concentration, and lowers with degraded κ-carregeenan. The polymer blend was incorporated in a DSSC and yielded a solar cell with efficiency (η) of 0.421%.

  8. Spontaneous colitis in Muc2-deficient mice reflects clinical and cellular features of active ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf A Wenzel

    Full Text Available The colonic mucus layer plays a critical role in intestinal homeostasis by limiting contact between luminal bacteria and the mucosal immune system. A defective mucus barrier in animal models allows bacterial contact with the intestinal epithelium and results in spontaneous colitis. A defective mucus barrier is also a key feature of active ulcerative colitis (UC. Alterations in the immune compartment due to intestinal bacterial breach in mice lacking the colon mucus barrier have not been characterized and correlated to active UC.To characterize alterations in the immune compartment due to intestinal bacterial breach in Muc2-/- mice, which lack the colon mucus barrier, and correlate the findings to active UC.Bacterial contact with colon epithelium and penetration into colon tissue was examined in Muc2-/- mice and colon biopsies from patients with active UC using fluorescence microscopy and qPCR. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, CD103+ dendritic cell subsets and macrophages in colon from Muc2-/- mice and biopsies from UC patients were quantitated by flow cytometry.Inflamed UC patients and Muc2-/- mice had bacteria in contact with the colon epithelium. Bacterial rRNA was present in colonic mucosa in humans and Muc2-/- mice and in the draining lymph nodes of mice. Inflamed Muc2-/- mice and UC patients had elevated colon neutrophils, T cells and macrophages while a reduced frequency of CD103+ DCs was present in the inflamed colon of both mice and humans.The parallel features of the colon immune cell compartment in Muc2-/- mice and UC patients supports the usefulness of this model to understand the early phase of spontaneous colitis and will provide insight into novel strategies to treat UC.

  9. Lactobacillus GG prevents recurrence of colitis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats after antibiotic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dieleman, L A; Goerres, M S; Arends, A.; Sprengers, D; Torrice, C; Hoentjen, F; Grenther, W B; Sartor, R. B.

    2003-01-01

    Background and aims: Bacteroides vulgatus induces colitis in gnotobiotic HLA-B27 transgenic (TG) rats while broad spectrum antibiotics prevent and treat colitis in specific pathogen free (SPF) TG rats although disease recurs after treatment ends. Lactobacilli treat human pouchitis and experimental colitis. We investigated if Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L GG) can prevent colitis in TG rats monoassociated with B vulgatus and if L GG or Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (LP 299v) can treat establishe...

  10. Melatonin reduces bacterial translocation and apoptosis in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alper Akcan, Can Kucuk, Erdogan Sozuer, Duygu Esel, Hizir Akyildiz, Hulya Akgun, Sabahattin Muhtaroglu, Yucel Aritas

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of exogenous melatonin on bacterial translocation and apoptosis in a rat ulcerative colitis model.METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: groupI: control, group II: experimental colitis, group III: colitis plus melatonin treatment. On d 11 after colitis, plasma tumor necrosis factor-α, portal blood endotoxin levels, colon tissue myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activity were measured. Bacterial translocation was quantified by blood, lymph node, liver...

  11. Antiinflammatory activity of tenoxicam gel on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenoxicam is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, used in the treatment of inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the musculoskeletal system. It is from the oxicam group of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. It is widely prescribed for the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, extra-articular disorders, bursitis, tendonitis, and nonarticular rheumatic condition. Tenoxicam has some side effects when taken orally, viz., epigastric pain, heartburn, nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, peptic ulcer, and hepatic impairment. The aim of this study was to formulate topical gel containing 1% of tenoxicam in 1% carbopol-940 and PEG-4000 and to evaluate it for antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The studies were conducted on Wistar rats of either sex (160-180 g. The change in oedema volume of the rat hind paw was measured using mercury plethysmometer. The readings were measured in terms of volume displaced in millimetre using a micropipette that has mark to 10 divisions in 1 ml. The carbopol gel formulation of tenoxicam containing 15% of ethanol and 5% of sodium lauryl sulphate was significantly more effective against oedema formation than the other formulation of tenoxicam gel and compared to the marketed product of piroxicam gel. Results suggest that the 1% tenoxicam gel in carbopol-940 inhibited 52% of carrageenan-induced oedema formation as compared with the 44% inhibition obtained with marketed product of piroxicam gel.

  12. Interaction between κ- and ι-carrageenan and anthocyanins from Vaccinium myrtillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navikaite, Vesta; Simanaviciute, Deimante; Klimaviciute, Rima; Jakstas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas

    2016-09-01

    Anthocyanins (ATCs) from the Vaccinium myrtillus water extract have been incorporated into the κ-carrageenan (κ-CARG) or ι-carrageenan (ι-CARG) during complexation in dilute solutions or adsorption onto the microgranules of κ-CARG or ι-CARG cross-linked with epichlorohydrin. At the optimal weight ratio of CARG to ATC at 0.4:1 and the total ATCs and CARG concentration≤0.07g/L, stable dispersions of the κ-CARG/ATCs or ι-CARG/ATCs complex nanosize particles were obtained. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models have been used to describe the equilibrium adsorption of ATCs on cross-linked CARG. The introduction of ATCs into CARG and cross-linked CARG was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The data of the HPLC analysis showed that during adsorption on cross-linked ι-CARG microgranules ATCs are isolated from the crude water extract of wild bilberries, whereas other phenolics remain in the adsorption solution. After desorption from cross-linked CARG/ATC into different media the sufficiently pure and stable solutions of ATCs were obtained. PMID:27185113

  13. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action. PMID:23990384

  14. Ebselen Attenuates Lung Injury in Experimental Model of Carrageenan-Induced Pleurisy in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronilho, Fabricia; Florentino, Drielly; Silvestre, Fernanda; Danielski, Lucineia Gainski; Nascimento, Diego Zapelini; Vieira, Andriele; Kanis, Luiz Alberto; Fortunato, Jucelia Jeremias; Badawy, Marwa; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, Joao

    2015-08-01

    The study evaluates the role of Ebselen (Eb), an organoselenium compound in animal model of acute lung injury induced by carrageenan (CG). Wistar rats received saline or 2 % λ-carrageenan in the pleural cavity, and treatment with Eb (50 mg/kg intragastrically) or dexamethasone (Dx) (0.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal) after CG administration. After 4 h, rats were euthanized and the pleural exudate removed for analysis of the total cell count, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and nitrite/nitrate. Moreover, lung tissue were removed to verify the myeloperoxidase activity and oxidative damage. Eb showed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocyte influx, myeloperoxidase activity, and nitrite/nitrate concentration. Eb presented with an anti-inflammatory activity similar to Dx and an antioxidant activity better than Dx. This study suggests that Eb plays an important role against the oxidative damage associated with anti-inflammatory activity in animal model of acute lung injury, proving to be similar or potentially more effective than Dx. PMID:25616904

  15. Three-Dimensional Supermacroporous Carrageenan-Gelatin Cryogel Matrix for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Archana; Bhat, Sumrita; Vishnoi, Tanushree; Nayak, Vijayashree; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    A tissue-engineered polymeric scaffold should provide suitable macroporous structure similar to that of extracellular matrix which can induce cellular activities and guide tissue regeneration. Cryogelation is a technique in which appropriate monomers or polymeric precursors frozen at sub-zero temperature leads to the formation of supermacroporous cryogel matrices. In this study carrageenan-gelatin (natural polymers) cryogels were synthesized by using glutaraldehyde and 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC-NHS) as crosslinking agent at optimum concentrations. Matrices showed large and interconnected pores which were in the range of 60–100 μm diameter. Unconfined compression analysis showed elasticity and physical integrity of all cryogels, as these matrices regained their original length after 90% compressing from the original size. Moreover Young's modulus was found to be in the range of 4–11 kPa for the dry cryogel sections. These cryogels also exhibited good in vitro degradation capacity at 37 °C within 4 weeks of incubation. Supermacroporous carrageenan-gelatin cryogels showed efficient cell adherence and proliferation of Cos-7 cells which was examined by SEM. PI nuclear stain was used to observe cell-matrix interaction. Cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was checked by MTT assay which showed that cryogels are biocompatible and act as a potential material for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:23936806

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of linezolid on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Obara, Shigeaki; Kuroda, Yuko; Kizu, Junko

    2015-12-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of linezolid has recently been reported using in vitro experimental models. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of linezolid has not yet been demonstrated using in vivo experimental models. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of linezolid and other anti-MRSA agents using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The pretreatment with 50 mg/kg linezolid significantly suppressed edema rates, compared with control (5% glucose), with edema rates at 0.5 and 3 h after the administration of carrageenan being 17.3 ± 3.5 and 30.8 ± 3.0%, respectively. On the other hand, edema rates were not suppressed by the pretreatments with 50 mg/kg vancomycin, teicoplanin, arbekacin, and daptomycin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that linezolid exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were observed at linezolid concentrations that are achievable in human serum with conventional dosing. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the anti-inflammatory activities of linezolid, in addition to its antimicrobial effects, have a protective effect against destructive inflammatory responses in areas of inflammation. PMID:26362409

  17. Development and characterization of a new hydrogel based on galactomannan and κ-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paulo A G; de Seixas, José R P C; Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Santos, Gustavo R C; Mourão, Paulo A S; Barros, Wilson; Correia, Maria T S; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2015-12-10

    A new hydrogel based on two natural polysaccharides was prepared in aqueous medium with 1.7% (w/v) galactomannan (from Cassia grandis seeds) and different concentrations of κ-carrageenan (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%w/v), CaCl2 (0.0, 0.1 and 0.2M) and pH (5.0, 5.5 and 6.0), using a full factorial design based on rheological parameters. The best formulation was obtained with 1.7% (w/v) galactomannan and 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan, containing 0.2M CaCl2 at pH 5.0. Nuclear magnetic resonance and scanning electron microscopy where used in order to characterize the hydrogel formulation. A shelf life study was carried out with this formulation along 90 days-period of storage at 4 °C, evaluating pH, color, microbial contamination and rheology. This hydrogel showed no significant changes in pH, no microbial contamination and became more translucent along the aging. Analyses by nuclear magnetic resonance and rheology showed a larger organization of the polysaccharides in the hydrogel matrix. The results demonstrated that this hydrogel was stable with possible applications in medical and cosmetic fields. PMID:26428171

  18. Three-Dimensional Supermacroporous Carrageenan-Gelatin Cryogel Matrix for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A tissue-engineered polymeric scaffold should provide suitable macroporous structure similar to that of extracellular matrix which can induce cellular activities and guide tissue regeneration. Cryogelation is a technique in which appropriate monomers or polymeric precursors frozen at sub-zero temperature leads to the formation of supermacroporous cryogel matrices. In this study carrageenan-gelatin (natural polymers cryogels were synthesized by using glutaraldehyde and 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC-NHS as crosslinking agent at optimum concentrations. Matrices showed large and interconnected pores which were in the range of 60–100 μm diameter. Unconfined compression analysis showed elasticity and physical integrity of all cryogels, as these matrices regained their original length after 90% compressing from the original size. Moreover Young’s modulus was found to be in the range of 4–11 kPa for the dry cryogel sections. These cryogels also exhibited good in vitro degradation capacity at 37 °C within 4 weeks of incubation. Supermacroporous carrageenan-gelatin cryogels showed efficient cell adherence and proliferation of Cos-7 cells which was examined by SEM. PI nuclear stain was used to observe cell-matrix interaction. Cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was checked by MTT assay which showed that cryogels are biocompatible and act as a potential material for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  19. Mechanical and water barrier properties of agar/κ-carrageenan/konjac glucomannan ternary blend biohydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Wang, Long-Feng

    2013-07-01

    Multicomponent hydrogel films composed of agar, κ-carrageenan, konjac glucomannan powder, and nanoclay (Cloisite(®) 30B) were prepared and their mechanical and water barrier properties such as water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water solubility (WS), water uptake ratio (WUR), water vapor uptake ratio (WVUR) were determined. Mechanical, water vapor barrier, and water resistance properties of the ternary blend film exhibited middle range of individual component films, however, they increased significantly after formation of nanocomposite with the clay. Especially, the water holding capacity of the ternary blend biopolymer films increased tremendously, from 800% to 1681% of WUR for agar and κ-carrageenan films up to 5118% and 5488% of WUR for the ternary blend and ternary blend nanocomposite films, respectively. Water vapor adsorption behavior of films was also tested by water vapor adsorption kinetics and water vapor adsorption isotherms test. Preliminary test result for fresh spinach packaging revealed that the ternary blend biohydrogel films had a high potential for the use as an antifogging film for packaging highly respiring agricultural produce. In addition, the ternary blend nanocomposite film showed an antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:23688456

  20. Clostridium difficile associated infection, diarrhea and colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perry Hookman; Jamie S Barkin

    2009-01-01

    A new, hypervirulent strain of Clostridium difficile, called NAP1/BI/027, has been implicated in C. difficile outbreaks associated with increased morbidity and mortality since the early 2000s. The epidemic strain is resistant to fluoroquinolones in vitro, which was infrequent prior to 2001. The name of this strain reflects its characteristics, demonstrated by different typing methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NAP1), restriction endonuclease analysis (BI) and polymerase chain reaction (027). In 2004 and 2005, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasized that the risk of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is increased, not only by the usual factors, including antibiotic exposure, but also gastrointestinal surgery/manipulation, prolonged length of stay in a healthcare setting, serious underlying illness, immune-compromising conditions, and aging. Patients on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have an elevated risk, as do peripartum women and heart transplant recipients. Before 2002, toxic megacolon in C. difficile-associated colitis (CDAC), was rare, but its incidence has increased dramatically. Up to twothirds of hospitalized patients may be infected with C. difficile. Asymptomatic carriers admitted to healthcare facilities can transmit the organism to other susceptible patients, thereby becoming vectors. Fulminant colitis is reported more frequently during outbreaks of C. difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C. difficile infection with IBD carries a higher mortality than without underlying IBD. This article reviews the latest information on C. difficile infection, including presentation, vulnerable hosts and choice of antibiotics, alternative therapies, and probiotics and immunotherapy. We review contact precautions for patients with known or suspected C. difficileassociated disease. Healthcare institutions require accurate and rapid diagnosis for early detection of possible outbreaks, to initiate

  1. B cells exposed to enterobacterial components suppress development of experimental colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Esben Gjerløff Wedebye; Larsen, Hjalte List; Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Pedersen, Anders Elm

    2012-01-01

    development of colitis. Suppression was dependent on B cell-derived IL-10, as co-transfer of IL-10 knockout ebx-B cells failed to suppress colitis. Ebx-B cell-mediated suppression of colitis was associated with a decrease in interferon gamma (IFN-¿)-producing T(H) 1 cells and increased frequencies of Foxp3...

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOME TEXTURE PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF CARRAGEENAN GELS AS A RESULT OF ITS DEFINED DIVERSIFIED FREEZING AND THAWING TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozłowicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Model samples of carrageenan gels based on water, milk and juice were air-blast frozen and frozen by immersion in glycol and in liquid nitrogen. The gel freezing rate was determined on the basis of the kinetics of freezing. Carrageenan gel samples were characterized by evaluation of its thawing drip loss and hardness determined with compression and penetration tests. Freezing in liquid nitrogen ensured the highest freezing rates. Thawing drip loss of gels significantly depended on the carrageenan content, pH of the solution, freezing method and freezing rate. The resulting relationships are linear functions with high determination coefficients. The results of compression and penetration tests prove the significant effect of the carrageenan content and pH on gel hardness. The higher carrageenan content in a sample, the higher compression force and penetration of the gel. Gel freezing resulted in lower hardness. Freezing conditions had a significant effect on the properties tested. The correlation between compression forces and penetration depending on the carrageenan content and the freezing method was described using regression equations with high determination coefficients. Gels based on milk and juice with 2.2% carrageenan content are recommended for immersion freezing at rates above 5.0 cm·h-1.

  3. Pseudomembranous colitis: CT findings in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectrum of nodular haustral thickening and an 'accordion' pattern have been reported as specific features of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) in adults. A retrospective review of nine patients with PMC was performed to assess whether this spectrum of CT findings also occurred in children. In four girls and five boys, CT scans were performed within 3 days of a positive stool toxin assay for Clostridium difficile. Documented CT abnormalities included nodular haustral thickening, the 'accordion' pattern, colonic wall thickening, ascites, and pericolonic edema. These results were then correlated as to their impact on the clinical outcome. Circumferential colon wall thickening was identified in 7/9 (78%) patients (mean thickening 14.5 mm). Nodular haustral thickening was identified in 4/9 (44%) and the 'accordion' pattern in 2/9 (22%). Other findings included pericolonic edema in 3/9 (33%) and ascites in 1/9 (11%). Wall thickening was confined to the left colon and rectum in 2/9 (22%), to the right colon in 2/9 (22%), and involved the whole colon in 3/9 (33%). Although CT findings associated with PMC in children may be suggestive for this diagnosis, CT is less specific than laboratory and clinical findings. (orig.)

  4. Pseudomembranous colitis: CT findings in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Boland, G.W.L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Cleveland, R.H. [The Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bramson, R.T. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Lee, M.J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A spectrum of nodular haustral thickening and an `accordion` pattern have been reported as specific features of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) in adults. A retrospective review of nine patients with PMC was performed to assess whether this spectrum of CT findings also occurred in children. In four girls and five boys, CT scans were performed within 3 days of a positive stool toxin assay for Clostridium difficile. Documented CT abnormalities included nodular haustral thickening, the `accordion` pattern, colonic wall thickening, ascites, and pericolonic edema. These results were then correlated as to their impact on the clinical outcome. Circumferential colon wall thickening was identified in 7/9 (78%) patients (mean thickening 14.5 mm). Nodular haustral thickening was identified in 4/9 (44%) and the `accordion` pattern in 2/9 (22%). Other findings included pericolonic edema in 3/9 (33%) and ascites in 1/9 (11%). Wall thickening was confined to the left colon and rectum in 2/9 (22%), to the right colon in 2/9 (22%), and involved the whole colon in 3/9 (33%). Although CT findings associated with PMC in children may be suggestive for this diagnosis, CT is less specific than laboratory and clinical findings. (orig.)

  5. New bio-polymeric membranes composed of alginate-carrageenan to be applied as polymer electrolyte membranes for DMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini Cabello, S. D.; Mollá, S.; Ochoa, N. A.; Marchese, J.; Giménez, E.; Compañ, V.

    2014-11-01

    Novel polyelectrolyte membranes were prepared from pure solutions of alginate (Alg), carrageenan (Car) and their mixtures. The films were crosslinked and sulfonated and then, characterized by several techniques: ionic exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, mechanical thermal properties, and also functional properties such as methanol permeability and proton conductivity. The results show that Alg/Car membranes have a ductile behavior. Low carrageenan concentrations have a weak thermoprotective effect, which slightly delays both Tg and Tm of prepared membranes. The methanol permeability of Alg/Car membranes increase with the carrageenan content varying from 0.55 × 10-6 cm2 s-1 for Alg/Car 100/00 to 4.89 × 10-6 cm2 s-1 for Alg/Car 80/20. The Proton conductivities of the membranes increase with the carrageenan content from 9.79 × 10-3 S cm-1 for Alg/Car 100/00 until 3.16 × 10-2 S cm-1 for Alg/Car 80/20 at 90 °C. Finally the proton transfer mechanism is discussed in terms of the conductivity activation energy and the dependence of the proton diffusion coefficient with the temperature has been studied.

  6. Computed tomography of Crohn`s disease and ulcerative colitis; Computertomographische Morphologie von Morbus Crohn und Colitis ulcerosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H.M. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Wein, B. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Adam, G. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Ruppert, D. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Guenther, R.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    We analysed the CT examinations of 109 patients with 197 involved bowel locations. 81 patients suffered from Crohn`s disease, 28 from ulcerative colitis. Diagnosis was based on the combination of clinical, endoscopic and histopathologic findings. Three radiologists evaluated the CT series concerning the presence of morphologic changes analogous to conventional radiographic findings. In Crohn`s disease, we found irregular outer contours in 26% of cases. The bowel wall was thickened in 82%. In acute phases, the bowel wall was thickened in 100%. Abscess and fistula as complications of inflammatory disease were present in 26 and 14% respectively. In ulcerative colitis, a target sign of the bowel wall was present in 40%, whereas in Crohn`s disease a homogeneous wall density was present in all but two cases. Reduced attenuation due to submucosal fat deposits was found in 16% and mucosal tunneling in 27% of cases with ulcerative colitis. Even if severe mucosal destructions were found, the outer contour of the gut was smooth and regular in 95% of the ulcerative colitis cases. CT can provide additional information on acuity, extent and complications in inflammatory bowel disease. In combination with conventional radiographic findings a three-step classification for Crohn`s disease and ulcerative colitis (early changes, acute and chronic phase) can be proposed. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Wir untersuchten computertomographisch 109 Patienten mit 197 erkrankten Darmsegmenten. 81 Patienten litten an M. Crohn und 28 an Colitis ulcerosa. Die Diagnose wurde durch Kombination klinischer, endoskopischer, radiologischer und bioptischer Befunde gesichert. Drei Radiologen bewerteten die Computertomographien und verglichen die Ergebnisse mit den konventionell-radiologischen Befunden. Bei den Patienten mit M. Crohn fanden wir in 26% der Faelle eine irregulaere aeussere Darmwand. Eine Darmwandverdickung lag in 82% vor und fand sich regelmaessig in Darmabschnitten mit floriden Veraenderungen

  7. Vancomycin-sensitive bacteria trigger development of colitis-associated colon cancer by attracting neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuriko; Ito, Sachiko; Isobe, Ken-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease confers an increased risk of developing colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). During the active colitis or developing tumor stage, commensal bacteria show dynamic translocation. However, whether alteration of the bacterial composition in the gut causes CAC is still unclear. To clarify the effect of commensal bacteria on CAC development, we employed an azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced murine CAC model treated with or without antibiotics. In addition, we analyzed the effects of antibiotics on infiltration of myeloid cells, colonic inflammatory responses, and colorectal cancer formation. We found that vancomycin treatment dramatically suppressed tumor development. In addition, AOM/DSS treatment greatly induced the infiltration of Gr-1(high)/CD11b(high) neutrophils to the colon, which led to the production of tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Vancomycin treatment suppressed the infiltration of neutrophils induced by AOM/DSS. Moreover, vancomycin treatment greatly reduced the colon injury and DNA damage caused by AOM/DSS-induced NO radicals. Our results indicate that vancomycin-sensitive bacteria induced colon inflammation and DNA damage by attracting neutrophils into damaged colon tissue, thus promoting tumor formation. PMID:27050089

  8. The colitis-associated transcriptional profile of commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron enhances adaptive immune responses to a bacterial antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Hansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD may be caused in part by aberrant immune responses to commensal intestinal microbes including the well-characterized anaerobic gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B. theta. Healthy, germ-free HLA-B27 transgenic (Tg rats develop chronic colitis when colonized with complex gut commensal bacteria whereas non-transgenic (nTg rats remain disease-free. However, the role of B. theta in causing disease in Tg rats is unknown nor is much known about how gut microbes respond to host inflammation. METHODS: Tg and nTg rats were monoassociated with a human isolate of B. theta. Colonic inflammation was assessed by histologic scoring and tissue pro-inflammatory cytokine measurement. Whole genome transcriptional profiling of B. theta recovered from ceca was performed using custom GeneChips and data analyzed using dChip, Significance Analysis of Microarrays, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA software. Western Blots were used to determine adaptive immune responses to a differentially expressed B. theta gene. RESULTS: B. theta monoassociated Tg rats, but not nTg or germ-free controls, developed chronic colitis. Transcriptional profiles of cecal B. theta were significantly different in Tg vs. nTg rats. GSEA revealed that genes in KEGG canonical pathways involved in bacterial growth and metabolism were downregulated in B. theta from Tg rats with colitis though luminal bacterial concentrations were unaffected. Bacterial genes in the Gene Ontology molecular function "receptor activity", most of which encode nutrient binding proteins, were significantly upregulated in B. theta from Tg rats and include a SusC homolog that induces adaptive immune responses in Tg rats. CONCLUSIONS: B. theta induces colitis in HLA-B27 Tg rats, which is associated with regulation of bacterial genes in metabolic and nutrient binding pathways that may affect host immune responses. These studies of the host-microbial dialogue may lead to

  9. [Meloxicam-induced colitis revealed by acute abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddik, H; Rabhi, M

    2013-03-01

    Whether intestinal toxicity of preferential or selective COX-2 inhibitors is reduced compared with that of standard NSAIDs is controversial. A 26-year-old woman presented with acute abdominal pain and bloody diarrhoea a few days after beginning meloxicam treatment. Endoscopic examination of the colon showed erythematous and ulcerative lesions involving 15 cm of the left colon. No aetiology has been found for colitis. Diarrhea disappeared 1 week after meloxicam was stopped. Total colonoscopy 3 months and 2 years later was normal. The role of meloxicam in the etiology of colitis was considered plausible. This report and a few other cases in the literature suggest that cyclooxygenase-2 selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug inhibitor toxicity should be investigated in case of unexplained acute colitis. PMID:23537413

  10. Inherited determinants of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleynen, Isabelle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Jostins, Luke;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease; treatment strategies have historically been determined by this binary categorisation. Genetic studies have identified 163 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease, mostly shared...... between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. We undertook the largest genotype association study, to date, in widely used clinical subphenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease with the goal of further understanding the biological relations between diseases. METHODS: This study included patients from 49...... centres in 16 countries in Europe, North America, and Australasia. We applied the Montreal classification system of inflammatory bowel disease subphenotypes to 34,819 patients (19,713 with Crohn's disease, 14,683 with ulcerative colitis) genotyped on the Immunochip array. We tested for genotype...

  11. Cytomegalovirus colitis mimicking rectal carcinoma in an immunocompetent elderly woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidlovskii, Elena; Deroux, Alban; Bernard, Sylvain; Couturier, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis is uncommon in immunocompetent patients, despite a high seroprevalence rate of CMV in the general population. CMV infection has been described in individuals with compromised immune systems: in AIDS, under corticosteroid and immune modulating treatment, with cancer or haematological malignancies. Its most frequent clinical presentation is a necrotising ulcerative form; pseudotumoural CMV colitis has been described as highly exceptional. We report a case of CMV colitis mimicking rectal carcinoma in an immunocompetent elderly woman. The immunosenescence and protein-energy malnutrition increase incidence and severity of infectious diseases in elderly individuals. Immunosenescence may affect all aspects of immunity; severe protein malnutrition modifies mostly cellular immunity, growing susceptibility to infections. PMID:27166009

  12. Is there an association of microscopic colitis and irritable bowel syndrome-A subgroup analysis of placebo-controlled trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Madisch; Birgit Bethke; Manfred Stolte; Stephan Miehlke

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR With great interest we read the recent retrospectice study by Barta et al (1) dealing with the clinical presentation of patients with microscopic colitis. They investigated in a cohort of 53 patients with microscopic colitis (46 with collagenous colitis, 7 with lymphocytic colitis)the relationship between microscopic colitis and both constipation and diarrhea. One of their mean finding was that abdominal pain, diarrhea and constipation was a common symptom complex of patients with microscopic colitis, thus the face of microcopic colitis resembles the subgroups of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

  13. Matrine ameliorates spontaneously developed colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cong; Xu, Zheng; Gai, Renhua; Huang, Kehe

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice spontaneously develop T cell-mediated colitis. Previous reports have shown that Matrine may reduce the symptoms of acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). However, whether Matrine impacts chronic colitis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether Matrine could limit the symptoms of spontaneously developed colitis and its potential molecular mechanisms. IL-10 deficient mice were given Matrine or a PBS control by oral gavage daily for 4weeks and were euthanized at week 2 or week 4. We measured body weight, colon length and weight, and histological scores. We also evaluated the spontaneous secretion of IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon explant cultures as well as IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion in unseparated mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, and assessed IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression in colon tissue. In addition, we analyzed the proportions of CD4-positive and CD8-positive cells in unseparated MLN cells. Our results show that Matrine-treated mice exhibited better body weight recovery than controls and that histological scores and spontaneously secreted IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon tissue were significantly decreased in treated mice compared with controls. The proportion of CD4-positive cells of MLNs in treated mice was significantly smaller than that in controls at week 4. Both cytokine production and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 were significantly reduced in treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, our results indicate that Matrine may ameliorate spontaneously developed chronic colitis and could be considered as a therapeutic alternative for chronic colitis. PMID:27179305

  14. Heparin-Functionalized chitosan/ κ-carrageenan complexes as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell-based approaches to tissue regeneration are playing an increasingly important role in bone and cartilage repair. This is made possible through the use of growth factors, which are signaling molecules that induce a number of effects such as cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. But problems arise as these growth factors tend to be expensive, short-lived and slow moving through the extracellular matrix, making them very inefficient in their current form of introduction. One such growth factor is basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The general objective of this study is to construct heparin-functionalized chitosan/κ-carrageenan scaffolds, which when bound to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), may be used in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells for differentiation into cartilage. In this study, gels of semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPN) of chitosan and κ-carrageenan (2:4:1 blend ration) were prepared using calcium chloride as a cross-linker. The gels were then functionalized with heparin, which is known for its growth factor binding ability, using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) as cross-linker. The functionalized gels were then reshaped into scaffold on the wells of 48-well plates through freeze-dry method. The scaffolds were found to be realatively porous with pore sizes larger than 100 μm which satisfies the requirements for cell culture. Subsequent thermogravimetric analysis shows that the scaffolds were relatively stable with a degradation temperature of 277°C. Additionally, there was no observable separation of the individual degradation temperatures of chitosan and κ-carrageenan, confirming that a single miscible phase in the form of a semi-IPN structure was created. Results of scanning electron microscopy also showed that the scaffolds were stable under 2 hours of UV sterilization. The FTIR spectra of the heparinized PEC showed characteristic absorption bands (S=O asymetric stretch) in the area of 1160

  15. A 90-day dietary study on kappa carrageenan with emphasis on the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Myra L; Nuber, David; Blakemore, William R; Harriman, Jay F; Cohen, Samuel M

    2007-01-01

    Groups of Fischer 344 rats (20/sex/group) received control or treated diets at levels of 0, 25,000 or 50,000 ppm kappa carrageenan with a molecular weight range (Mw) of 196,000-257,000 Da for 90 days. The Low Molecular Weight Tail (LMT) ranged between 1.9% and 12.0%<50 kDa (mean 7%) based on the results of a program initiated to develop a validated analytical method to measure the LMT. This is the first GLP dietary study in which carrageenan is characterized by percentage LMT. Clinical examinations were performed daily. Individual food consumption/body weight measurements were made weekly. Ophthalmic exam was conducted prior to and at the end of treatment. Hematology/serum chemistry and urinalysis evaluations were done at necropsy, as were organ weight determinations for adrenals, brain, heart, kidneys, liver, ovaries, spleen, testes and thyroid with parathyroids. Full histopathological evaluation of organs was conducted on the control and 50,000 ppm groups, including hematoxylin-eosin-stained cross sections of paraffin-embedded rolled colon. Clinical signs were limited to soft feces in high dose rats and to a lesser extent in low dose rats. There were no treatment-related effects on body weights, urinalysis, hematology or clinical chemistry parameters, or on organ weights or ophthalmic, macroscopic or microscopic findings. The gastrointestinal tract appeared normal in detailed histopathological evaluation using the Swiss roll technique. The NOAEL is 50,000 ppm in the diet (mean calculated test material consumption of 3394+/-706 mg/kg/day in males, 3867+/-647 mg/kg/day in females). The results of the study provide evidence that it is not necessary to characterize carrageenan by a specification for LMT (less than 5% below 50 kDa) as has been done in Commission Directive 2004/45/EC of 16 April 2004 (Commission Directive, 2004/45/EC of 16 April 2004 amending Directive 96/77/EC laying down specific purity criteria on food additives other than colors and sweeteners

  16. Activation of the Renin-Angiotensin System Promotes Colitis Development

    OpenAIRE

    Yongyan Shi; Tianjing Liu; Lei He; Urszula Dougherty; Li Chen; Sarbani Adhikari; Lindsay Alpert; Guolin Zhou; Weicheng Liu; Jiaolong Wang; Deb, Dilip K.; John Hart; Liu, Shu Q.; John Kwon; Joel Pekow

    2016-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays pathogenic roles in renal and cardiovascular disorders, but whether it is involved in colitis is unclear. Here we show that RenTgMK mice that overexpress active renin from the liver developed more severe colitis than wild-type controls. More than 50% RenTgMK mice died whereas all wild-type mice recovered. RenTgMK mice exhibited more robust mucosal TH17 and TH1/TH17 responses and more profound colonic epithelial cell apoptosis compared to wild-type cont...

  17. Review article: colitis-associated cancer -- time for new strategies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a feared and potentially life-threatening complication of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn\\'s colitis. Currently, the main preventive strategy is a secondary one, i.e. surveillance colonoscopy usually after 8 years of disease duration, when the risk for neoplasia begins to increase. Despite its widespread acceptance, dysplasia and cancer surveillance is unproven in terms of reducing mortality or morbidity and there is a remarkable lack of uniformity in the manner in which it is practised. In this review article, the pitfalls of dysplasia surveillance are summarized and the need for novel chemopreventive and perhaps pharmabiotic approaches for prevention are highlighted.

  18. Ischemic colitis after mesotherapy combined with anti-obesity medications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong; Bin; Kim; Won; Moon; Seun; Ja; Park; Moo; In; Park; Kyu-Jong; Kim; Jae; Nam; Lee; Seong; Joo; Kang; Lee; La; Jang; Hee; Kyung; Chang

    2010-01-01

    Mesotherapy and anti-obesity medications are gradually gaining worldwide popularity for purposes of body contouring and weight loss.Their adverse effects are various,but there is a tendency to disregard them.Ischemic colitis is one of the most common diseases associated with non-obstructive blood vessel disorders.However,there have been no case reports about the adverse effects resulting from mesotherapy only or in combination with anti-obesity medications.We report on an interesting case of ischemic coliti...

  19. A case of herpes zoster associated with colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okimura, H; Muto, M; Ichimiya, M; Mogami, S; Takahata, H; Asagami, C

    1996-09-01

    A 58-year-old Japanese woman who had herpes zoster in association with colitis was successfully treated with intravenously administrated acyclovir. Vesicular lesions with red haloes ranged from the left side of her buttock to the left extremity, corresponding to the L4 to S2 dermatomes. Her colitis was considered to have been induced by varicella-zoster virus, based on the facts that the clinical courses were correlated and that the innervation of the affected site of the colon corresponded to an infected dermatome (S2). PMID:8916665

  20. Refractory ulcerative colitis and iatrogenic colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, C M; Serio, G; Rocca, E; Rocca, F

    2009-02-01

    Colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpes virus-8 associated mesenchymal tumour, is exceedingly rare in human immunodeficiency virus-negative subjects and almost always reported in association with severe, refractory, inflammatory bowel disease. In this paper we report a case--the second from Italy--of a colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative, heterosexual man with severe refractory ulcerative colitis. Kaposi's sarcoma developed after starting glucocorticosteroid therapy, supporting the theory that colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma associated with ulcerative colitis is iatrogenic. PMID:18054849

  1. [Neutrophilic dermatosis in ulcerative colitis occurring in advanced age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Maldonado, M D; Calvo Catalá, J; Ronda Gasulla, A; Hortelano Martínez, E; Herrera Ballester, A; Febrer Bosch, I

    1994-08-01

    The Neutrophilic dermatosis (ND) is considered as an independent entity with diverse clinical manifestations among which there are: gangrenous pyoderma, nodous erythema, Sweets Syndrome, vesiculopustula eruptions associated to ulcerous colitis and intestinal short circuit syndrome with or without short circuit. Histologically, they are characterized by infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, generally at the dermic level, but also at the epidermic. They are usually associated to systemic diseases, especially to chronic intestinal inflammatory disease. Our aim was to describe two forms of clinical presentation of neutrophilic dermatosis: gangrenous pyoderma and vesiculopustula eruption, associated to ulcerous colitis starting at advances ages. PMID:7772690

  2. Ulcerative Colitis associated with Sclerosing Cholangitis and Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoduț Andrei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ulcerative colitis is a chronic intestinal inflammation, part of inflammatory bowel disease, which also includes Crohn’s disease. Both have extraintestinal manifestations, but those that tend to occur more commonly with ulcerative colitis include chronic active hepatitis, pyoderma gangrenosum and ankylosing spondylitis. Many individuals present with overlapping non-diagnostic features of more than one of these conditions that is referred to in the literature as autoimmune overlap syndrome. Sclerosing cholangitis associated with IBD is often referred to as overlap syndrome.

  3. Ischemic colitis after mesotherapy combined with anti-obesity medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Bin; Moon, Won; Park, Seun Ja; Park, Moo In; Kim, Kyu-Jong; Lee, Jae Nam; Kang, Seong Joo; Jang, Lee La; Chang, Hee Kyung

    2010-03-28

    Mesotherapy and anti-obesity medications are gradually gaining worldwide popularity for purposes of body contouring and weight loss. Their adverse effects are various, but there is a tendency to disregard them. Ischemic colitis is one of the most common diseases associated with non-obstructive blood vessel disorders. However, there have been no case reports about the adverse effects resulting from mesotherapy only or in combination with anti-obesity medications. We report on an interesting case of ischemic colitis after mesotherapy combined with anti-obesity medications in a 39-year-old female who had no risk factors. PMID:20333798

  4. Effect of some plant starches and carrageenan as fat substitutes in chicken patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S K; Prabhakaran, P; Tanwar, V K; Biswas, S

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different flours on the physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of chicken patties. pH; cooking yield %; water holding capacity (WHC); proximate analysis (cooked); cholesterol content; and storage stability studies of control (Con) and sorghum flour (SF; 10%w/w), finger millet flour (FMF; 10%w/w), and carrageenan (Cgn; 0.5% w/w) treated chicken patties were observed in this study. Texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters like hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and sensory parameters were estimated on cooked patties. Highly significant (P 0.05) difference in pH, WHC, and protein % among control and treatments were noticed. Storage stability was dependent on treatments and storage periods. Significant difference (P 0.05) between Con and treatments. PMID:26726332

  5. Release mechanism of omega-3 fatty acid in κ-carrageenan/polydextrose undergoing glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, Vilia Darma; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    A high-solid matrix of κ-carrageenan with polydextrose was developed to entrap α-linolenic acid, which is an omega-3 bioactive compound. Physicochemical analysis of this system utilised modulated DSC, dynamic oscillation in shear, ESEM, FTIR and WAX diffraction. The carbohydrate matrix was conditioned through an extensive temperature range to induce changes in molecular morphology and identify the network glass transition temperature. Thermally induced variation in phase morphology was employed to rationalise transportation patterns of the bioactive compound within the high-solid preparation. Thus, experimental observations using UV-vis spectroscopy modelled diffusion kinetics to document the mobility arresting effect of the vitrifying matrix on the micro-constituent. Within the glass transition region, results argue that free volume theory is the molecular process governing structural relaxation. Further, Less Fickian diffusion follows well the rate of molecular transport of α-linolenic acid as a function of time and temperature of observation in the condensed matrix. PMID:25933532

  6. Bacteria penetrate the normally impenetrable inner colon mucus layer in both murine colitis models and patients with ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Malin E. V.; Gustafsson, Jenny K.; Holmén-Larsson, Jessica; Jabbar, Karolina S.; Xia, Lijun; Xu, Hua; Ghishan, Fayez K.; Carvalho, Frederic A.; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Sjövall, Henrik; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The inner mucus layer in mouse colon normally separates bacteria from the epithelium. Do humans have a similar inner mucus layer and are defects in this mucus layer a common denominator for spontaneous colitis in mice models and ulcerative colitis (UC)? Methods and results The colon mucus layer from mice deficient in Muc2 mucin, Core 1 O-glycans, Tlr5, interleukin 10 (IL-10) and Slc9a3 (Nhe3) together with that from dextran sodium sulfate-treated mice was immunostained for Muc2, and...

  7. Sulfate-reducing bacteria colonize pouches formed for ulcerative colitis but not for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis remains the "gold standard" in surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Pouchitis occurs mainly in patients with a background of ulcerative colitis, although the reasons for this are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize differences in pouch bacterial populations between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous pouches. METHODS: After ethical approval was obtained, fresh stool samples were collected from patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (n = 10), familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 7) pouches, and ulcerative colitis ileostomies (n = 8). Quantitative measurements of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were performed. RESULTS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from 80 percent (n = 8) of ulcerative colitis pouches. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were absent from familial adenomatous polyposis pouches and also from ulcerative colitis ileostomy effluent. Pouch Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, and Clostridium perfringens counts were increased relative to ileostomy counts in patients with ulcerative colitis. Total pouch enterococci and coliform counts were also increased relative to ileostomy levels. There were no significant quantitative or qualitative differences between pouch types when these bacteria were evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria are exclusive to patients with a background of ulcerative colitis. Not all ulcerative colitis pouches harbor sulfate-reducing bacteria because two ulcerative colitis pouches in this study were free of the latter. They are not present in familial adenomatous polyposis pouches or in ileostomy effluent collected from patients with ulcerative colitis. Total bacterial counts increase in ulcerative colitis pouches after stoma closure. Levels of Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci, and coliforms were similar in both pouch groups. Because sulfate-reducing bacteria are

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of red pepper (Capsicum baccatum) on carrageenan- and antigen-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Fernando; Alves, Márcia K; Vieira, Sílvio M; Carvalho, Toni A; Leite, Carlos E; Lunardelli, Adroaldo; Poloni, José A; Cunha, Fernando Q; de Oliveira, Jarbas R

    2008-04-01

    Inflammation is a pivotal component of a variety of diseases, such as atherosclerosis and tumour progression. Various naturally occurring phytochemicals exhibit anti-inflammatory activity and are considered to be potential drug candidates against inflammation-related pathological processes. Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum (Willd.) Eshbaugh (Solanaceae) is the most consumed species in Brazil, and its compounds, such as capsaicinoids, have been found to inhibit the inflammatory process. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of C. baccatum have not been characterized. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of C. baccatum juice in animal models of acute inflammation induced by carrageenan and immune inflammation induced by methylated bovine serum albumin. Pretreatment (30 min) of rats with pepper juice (0.25-2.0 g kg(-1)) significantly decreased leucocyte and neutrophil migration, exudate volume and protein and LDH concentration in pleural exudates of a pleurisy model. This juice also inhibited neutrophil migration and reduced the vascular permeability on carrageenan-induced peritonitis in mice. C. baccatum juice also reduced neutrophil recruitment and exudate levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in mouse inflammatory immune peritonitis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the main constituent of C. baccatum juice, as extracted with chloroform, is capsaicin. In agreement with this, capsaicin was able to inhibit the neutrophil migration towards the inflammatory focus. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the anti-inflammatory effect of C. baccatum juice and our data suggest that this effect may be induced by capsaicin. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect induced by red pepper may be by inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the inflammatory site. PMID:18380920

  9. Metabolic pathway of 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose in carrageenan-degrading microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Bok; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lim, Hyun Seung

    2016-05-01

    Complete hydrolysis of κ-carrageenan produces two sugars, D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose (D-AnG). At present, however, we do not know how carrageenan-degrading microorganisms metabolize D-AnG. In this study, we investigated the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation by comparative genomic analysis of Cellulophaga lytica LIM-21, Pseudoalteromonas atlantica T6c, and Epulopiscium sp. N.t. morphotype B, which represent the classes Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Clostridia, respectively. In this bioinformatic analysis, we found candidate common genes that were believed to be involved in D-AnG metabolism. We then experimentally confirmed the enzymatic function of each gene product in the D-AnG cluster. In all three microorganisms, D-AnG metabolizing genes were clustered and organized in operon-like arrangements, which we named as the dan operon (3,6-d-anhydro-galactose). Combining bioinformatic analysis and experimental data, we showed that D-AnG is metabolized to pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate via four enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the following route: 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose → 3,6-anhydro-D-galactonate → 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-galactonate (D-KDGal) → 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-galactonate → pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The pathway of D-AnG degradation is composed of two parts: transformation of D-AnG to D-KDGal using two D-AnG specific enzymes and breakdown of D-KDGal to two glycolysis intermediates using two DeLey-Doudoroff pathway enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation. PMID:26875872

  10. Transcriptional analysis of left-sided colitis, pancolitis, and ulcerative colitis-associated dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob T; Nielsen, Ole H; Riis, Lene B; Pittet, Valerie; Mueller, Christoph; Rogler, Gerhard; Olsen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown why patients with extensive ulcerative colitis (UC) have a higher risk of colorectal cancer compared with patients with left-sided UC. This study characterizes the inflammatory processes in left-sided UC, pancolitis, and UC-associated dysplasia at the transcriptional level...... compared with left-sided UC and controls, whereas laminin γ2 (LAMC2) was found with a lower expression in dysplasia compared with the remaining 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates pancolitis and left-sided UC as distinct inflammatory processes at the transcriptional level, and identifies INSRA......, MKNK2, and LAMC2 as potential critical transcripts in the inflammation-driven preneoplastic process of UC....

  11. Lung disease and ulcerative colitis--mesalazine-induced bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia or pulmonary manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeser, A; Pletz, M W; Hagel, S; Kroegel, C; Stallmach, A

    2015-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis can be associated with numerous extraintestinal organ manifestations. Pulmonary disease in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is supposed to be a rare entity and has to be distinguished from infectious complications and side-effects of medications used in the treatment of IBD. We present the case of a 20-year-old male patient with ulcerative colitis and a 4-week history of respiratory symptoms, malaise, fever and respiratory insufficiency under a medication with mesalazine. Computed tomography showed bilateral subpleural consolidations, bronchoscopy revealed signs of acute bronchitis. The diagnostic work-up ruled out an infectious cause. Under the tentative diagnosis of a mesalazine-induced bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP) the medication with mesalazine was withdrawn and the patient received a corticosteroid trial. The symptoms quickly improved and prednisone was tapered and stopped after 6 months. Unexpectedly, lung function after complete resolution of respiratory symptoms revealed a residual obstructive ventilatory defect that might be due to an asymptomatic pulmonary manifestation of ulcerative colitis. A review of the literature shows that pulmonary manifestations in IBD as well as pulmonary toxicity of mesalazine might not be as rare as expected and should be included as differential diagnoses in the work-up of respiratory symptoms in patients with IBD. A pragmatic therapeutic approach is reasonable in critically ill patients as it is not always easy to distinguish both entities. PMID:26367026

  12. Pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon due to C. difficile in an inpatient hospitalized for home accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piergiorgio Chiriacò

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is the main cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea. It can result in symptoms ranging from moderate diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis. Among the risk factors, there is antibiotic therapy, responsible for intestinal flora disruption.A 72-year-old man presented to the Emergency Room for a home accident, a fall, that resulted in a cranio-facial trauma and tibio-tarsal fracture. He was administered cefazolin. Then he underwent surgery and the antibiotic therapy was switched to teicoplanin + levofloxacin; three days after, he started having diarrhea and mild fever. Rifaximin was added. A further exacerbation prompted the replacement of antibiotic therapy with tazobactam-piperacillin and metronidazole. Owing to the detection in fecal examination of CDI signs, tazobactam-piperacillin were replaced with vancomicin. Due to the persistence of symptoms, the worsening of physical conditions and the onset of pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon, fidaxomicin therapy was started, with symptom resolution in few days. A patient’s follow-up at five months post-treatment showed no CDI recurrence.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/cmi.v9i1s.1158

  13. Acute ischemic colitis during scuba diving:Report of a unique case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantinos Goumas; Androniki Poulou; Ioannis Tyrmpas; Dimitrios Dandakis; Stavros Bartzokis; Magdalini Tsamouri; Kalipso Barbati; Dimitrios Soutos

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of clinical symptoms due to decompression during diving,varies significantly,as mainly minor disturbances for the gastrointestinal tract in particular have been reported.The following case debates whether diving can cause severe symptoms from the gastrointestinal system.We describe a clinical case of ischemic colitis presented in a 27-year-old male,who manifested abdominal pain while in the process of scuba diving 20 meters undersea,followed by bloody diarrhoea as soon as he ascended to sea level.Taking into account his past medical history,the thorough,impeccable clinical and laboratory examinations and presence of no other factors predisposing to ischemia of the colon,we assume that a possible relationship between diving conditions and the pathogenesis of ischemic colitis may exist.This unusual case might represent a hematologic manifestation of decompression sickness,due to increased coagulability and/or transient air emboli,occurring during a routine scuba diving ascent to sea level.

  14. Immunological mechanisms involved in probiotic-mediated protection against Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Yang, G; Meng, F; Yang, W; Hu, J; Ye, L; Shi, C; Wang, C

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a group of chronic, incurable inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract that cause severe diarrhoea, intestinal inflammation, pain, fatigue and weight loss. In this study, we first developed a model of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis and then evaluated the protective effects of selected probiotics on inflammation. The results showed that administration of a combination of probiotics including Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 and Lactobacillus plantarum A significantly increased the production of CD11c(+) dendritic cells in the spleen (3.62% vs phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-treated control, Pprobiotics significantly up-regulated the development of CD4(+)/CD25(+)/Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in MLNs by approximately 2.07% compared to the effect observed in the PBS-treated control (P<0.01) and down-regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-17, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, by 0.11, 0.11 and 0.15%, respectively, compared to the effect observed in the PBS-treated control (P<0.01).These effects conferred protection against colitis, as shown by histopathological analyses. PMID:26925601

  15. Altered cGMP dynamics at the plasma membrane contribute to diarrhea in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Kavisha; Sinha, Chandrima; Zhang, Weiqiang; Moon, Chang Suk; Ren, Aixia; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Dostmann, Wolfgang R; Adebiyi, Adebowale; Haberman, Yael; Denson, Lee A; Wang, Xusheng; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2015-10-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) belongs to inflammatory bowel disorders, a group of gastrointestinal disorders that can produce serious recurring diarrhea in affected patients. The mechanism for UC- and inflammatory bowel disorder-associated diarrhea is not well understood. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane-conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel plays an important role in fluid and water transport across the intestinal mucosa. CFTR channel function is regulated in a compartmentalized manner through the formation of CFTR-containing macromolecular complexes at the plasma membrane. In this study, we demonstrate the involvement of a novel macromolecular signaling pathway that causes diarrhea in UC. We found that a nitric oxide-producing enzyme, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), is overexpressed under the plasma membrane and generates compartmentalized cGMP in gut epithelia in UC. The scaffolding protein Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 2 (NHERF2) bridges iNOS with CFTR, forming CFTR-NHERF2-iNOS macromolecular complexes that potentiate CFTR channel function via the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway under inflammatory conditions both in vitro and in vivo. Potential disruption of these complexes in Nherf2(-/-) mice may render them more resistant to CFTR-mediated secretory diarrhea than Nherf2(+/+) mice in murine colitis models. Our study provides insight into the mechanism of pathophysiologic occurrence of diarrhea in UC and suggests that targeting CFTR and CFTR-containing macromolecular complexes will ameliorate diarrheal symptoms and improve conditions associated with inflammatory bowel disorders. PMID:26261085

  16. Ulcerative colitis as a polymicrobial infection characterized by sustained broken mucus barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Jiao; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Jian-Ping; Yang, Xi-Yan; Lu, Fang-Gen

    2014-01-01

    To reduce medication for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), we need to establish the etiology of UC. The intestinal microbiota of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been shown to differ from that of healthy controls and abundant data indicate that it changes in both composition and localization. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is significantly higher in IBD patients compared with controls. Probiotics have been investigated for their capacity to reduce the severity of UC. The luminal surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract are covered by a mucus layer. This normally acts as a barrier that does not allow bacteria to reach the epithelial cells and thus limits the direct contact between the host and the bacteria. The mucus layer in the colon comprises an inner layer that is firmly adherent to the intestinal mucosa, and an outer layer that can be washed off with minimal rinsing. Some bacteria can dissolve the protective inner mucus layer. Defects in renewal and formation of the inner mucus layer allow bacteria to reach the epithelium and have implications for the causes of colitis. In this review, important elements of UC pathology are thought to be the intestinal bacteria, gut mucus, and the mucosa-associated immune system. PMID:25071341

  17. Absorption studies after eleal J-pouch anastomosis for ulcerative colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption studies were performed in 17 patients with ulcerative colities operated on with colectomy and an ileal two-limbed J-pouch anastomosis. The patients were studied 3 and ≥ 18 months after closure of the temporary ileostomy. Increased stool mass was found in all patients and was unchanged with time. Moderate steatorrhoea was present in 29% of the patients 3 months postoperatively, but faecal fat excretion normalized with time. Calcium absoption was normal in all but one patient regardless of time after operation. An abnormal bacterial deconjugatio, evaluated by a 14C-glycocholic acid breath test was present in 27% of the patients and increased significantly with time. 40% of the patients had increased faecal bile acid excretion. B12 malabsorption was present in 29-35% of the patients. In conclusion, ileal J-pouch anastomosis for ulcerative colitis causes increased stool mass in all patients and produces moderate bile acid deconjugation and malabsoption in about one-third to half. Substitution therapy with vitamin B12 is necessary in about one-third of the patients. Intestinal adaptation as far as absorption is concerned is minimal after the first 3 postoperative months. 29 refs., 8 figs

  18. Isolation of Clostridium difficile from the environment and contacts of patients with antibiotic-associated colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.H.; Fekety, R.; Batts, D.H.; Brown, D.; Cudmore, M.; Silva, J. Jr.; Waters, D.

    1981-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most important cause of antibiotic-associated colitis, but its epidemiology remains unknown. Using a selective medium for the isolation of C. difficile, cultures were obtained from the environment and contacts of hospitalized patients carrying C. difficile in their stools. In areas where carriers had diarrhea, 85 (9.3%) of 910 cultures of floors and other surfaces, especially those subject to fecal contamination, were positive. In areas where there were no known carriers, only 13 (2.6%) of 497 cultures of similar sites were positive (P less than 0.005). C difficile was isolated from hands and stools of asymptomatic hospital personnel, from sewage and soil, and from the home of a patient. Environmental isolates were toxigenic. C. difficile inoculated onto a floor persisted there for five months. Further studies are needed to document how often floor persisted there for five months. Further studies are needed to document how often C. difficile shed by patients with antibiotic-associated colitis is acquired by other persons and whether isolation precautions are capable of limiting the organism's spread.

  19. A cluster of fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis in an intensive care unit in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastalegname, M; Grieco, S; Giuliano, S; Falcone, M; Caccese, R; Carfagna, P; D'ambrosio, M; Taliani, G; Venditti, M

    2014-06-01

    We describe, for the first time, a cluster of lethal fulminant health-care associated Clostridium difficile (CD) colitis in Italy, observed in the intensive care unit (ICU) of an Italian tertiary care hospital in Rome. For all cases the cause of ICU admission was CD-related septic shock. Three out of seven patients were residents in a long-term care facility in Rome, and the others had been transferred to the ICU from different medical wards of the same hospital. Five patients died within 96 h of ICU admission. Because of a clinical deterioration after 4 days of adequate antibiotic therapy, two patients underwent subtotal colectomy: both of them died within 30 days of surgical intervention. In four cases, ribotyping assay was performed and ribotype 027 was recognized. This high mortality rate could be attributable to three findings: the extent of disease severity induced by the strain 027, the delay in antimicrobial therapy administration, and the lack of efficacy of the standard antibiotic treatment for fulminant CD colitis compared to an earlier surgical approach. In order to contain a CD infection epidemic, control and surveillance measures should be implemented, and empirical therapy should be administered. Because of potential 027 ribotype CD spread in Italy, CDI should be regarded with a high index of suspicion in all patients presenting with shock and signs or symptoms suggesting abdominal disease, and an early surgical approach should be considered. PMID:24523055

  20. Study on anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of clomipramine in carrageenan- and lipopolysaccharide-induced rat models of inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, Ilia; Delev, Delian; Petrova, Atanaska; Stanimirova, Irina; Draganova, Krassimira; Kostadinova, Ivanka; Murdjeva, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of clomipramine in carrageenan- and lipopolysaccharide-induced (LPS-induced) models of inflammation by investigating the changes in serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β after single and repeated administration of the drug. In order to study the effect of single and repeated doses of clomipramine on carrageenan-induced paw oedema, male Wistar rats were divided in five groups (n = 8): control, positive control group and three experimental groups treated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg bw clomipramine, respectively. The effect of single and repeated doses of clomipramine on serum cytokine levels was studied as animals were divided in four groups: two control groups treated with saline and two experimental groups treated with clomipramine 20 mg/kg bw. Carrageenan and LPS were injected immediately after clomipramine or saline injection. Serum cytokine concentrations were tested by enzyme immunoassay. Following acute administration only the highest dose that was used inhibited the carrageenan-induced inflammation. Oedema inhibition was observed with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg bw clomipramine after repeated administration. Single and repeated administration of clomipramine at a dose of 20 mg/kg bw did not significantly change the serum levels of TGF-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α when compared to the controls in carrageenan-induced inflammation. Following LPS-induced inflammation clomipramine significantly increased the serum levels of TGF-1β after repeated administration and decreased TNF-α in rats after single-dose and repeated pretreatment with 20 mg/kg bw clomipramine. A significant increase in the levels of IL-10 in relation to this inflammatory model was observed only in single dose treated animals. Clomipramine possesses an anti-inflammatory effect in the carrageenan-induced model of exudative inflammation. In LPS-induced inflammation

  1. Soluble CD83 ameliorates experimental colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, J; Kreiser, S; Döbbeler, M; Nicolette, C; DeBenedette, M A; Tcherepanova, I Y; Ostalecki, C; Pommer, A J; Becker, C; Günther, C; Zinser, E; Mak, T W; Steinkasserer, A; Lechmann, M

    2014-07-01

    The physiological balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes is dysregulated in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) as in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Conventional therapy uses anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive corticosteroids to treat acute-phase symptoms. However, low remission rate and strong side effects of these therapies are not satisfying. Thus, there is a high medical need for new therapeutic strategies. Soluble CD83, the extracellular domain of the transmembrane CD83 molecule, has been reported to have interesting therapeutic and immunosuppressive properties by suppressing dendritic cell (DC)-mediated T-cell activation and inducing tolerogenic DCs. However, the expression and function of CD83 in IBD is still unknown. Here, we show that CD83 expression is upregulated by different leukocyte populations in a chemical-induced murine colitis model. Furthermore, in this study the potential of sCD83 to modulate colitis using an experimental murine colitis model was investigated. Strikingly, sCD83 ameliorated the clinical disease symptoms, drastically reduced mortality, and strongly decreased inflammatory cytokine expression in mesenteric lymph nodes and colon. The infiltration of macrophages and granulocytes into colonic tissues was vigorously inhibited. Mechanistically, we could show that sCD83-induced expression of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase is essential for its protective effects. PMID:24424524

  2. Impact of probiotics on colonic microflora in patients with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, B. S.; Ahmed, J.; Macfie, J.; Mølbak, Lars; Leser, T. D.

    Background: Probiotics colonise the gut and may exert beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to assess if probiotics change the spectrum of colonic microflora in patients with colitis when taken daily for a period of one month Methods: This is a prospective double blind randomised crossover...

  3. Impact of probiotics on colonic microflora in patients with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, B. S.; Ahmed, J.; Macfie, J.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Probiotics colonise the gut and may exert beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to assess if probiotics change the spectrum of colonic microflora in patients with colitis when taken daily for a period of one month Methods: This is a prospective double blind randomised crossover...

  4. Curcumin represses the activity of inhibitor-κB kinase in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by S-nitrosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ning-Jo; Hu, Jia-Yuan; Wu, Chien-Sheng; Kong, Zwe-Ling

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of curcumin using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and the potential role of curcumin in regulation of anti-inflammation through S-nitrosylation. After curcumin treatment for 6days, the body weight and disease activity index of DSS-induced mice was alleviated and the colonic length was also rescued. Western blot presented that the protein expression of iNOS can be reduced by curcumin. Consistently, mRNA level of iNOS and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, was also repressed. Moreover, Curcumin reduced the amount of nitrite in DSS-induced colitis but not affected total S-nitrosylation level on proteins on day 6, indicating that curcumin inhibited NO oxidation. Furthermore, the protection of S-nitrosylation on IKKβ in DSS-induced colitis for 6days by curcumin caused the repression of IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. In conclusion, this study verified that curcumin-mediated S-nitrosylation may be as an important regulator for anti-inflammation in DSS-induced colitis of mice. PMID:27233000

  5. Differential effects of energy balance on experimentally-induced colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah J McCaskey; Elizabeth A Rondini; Ingeborg M Langohr; Jenifer I Fenton

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To characterize the influence of diet-induced changes in body fat on colitis severity in SMAD3-/-mice.METHODS:SMAD3-/-mice (6-8 wk of age) were randomly assigned to receive a calorie restricted (30%of control; CR),control (CON),or high fat (HF) diet for 20 wk and were gavaged with sterile broth or with Helicobacter hepaticus (H.hepaticus) to induce colitis.Four weeks after infection,mice were sacrificed and the cecum and colons were processed for histological evaluation.RESULTS:Dietary treatment significantly influenced body composition prior to infection (P < 0.05),with CR mice having less (14% ± 2%) and HF-fed mice more body fat (32% ± 7%) compared to controls (22% ±4%).Differences in body composition were associated with alterations in plasma levels of leptin (HF > CON > CR) and adiponectin (CON > HF ≥ CR) (P < 0.05).There were no significant differences in colitis scores between CON and HF-fed mice 4 wk post-infection.Consistent with this,differences in proliferation and inflammation markers (COX-2,iNOS),and infiltrating cell types (CD3+ T lymphocytes,macrophages) were not observed.Unexpectedly,only 40% of CR mice survived infection with H.hepaticus,with mortality observed as early as 1 wk following induction of colitis.CONCLUSION:Increased adiposity does not influence colitis severity in SMAD3-/-mice.Importantly,caloric restriction negatively impacts survival following pathogen challenge,potentially due to an impaired immune response.

  6. Altered response to hydrogen sulphide during experimental colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidle, J; Würner, L; Diener, M

    2012-09-10

    Hydrogen sulphide (H(2) S) is produced in the intestine by sulphate-reducing bacteria and during metabolism of L-cysteine within the mucosa. This gasotransmitter induces anion secretion by stimulating enteric neurons and by a direct effect on epithelial cells. As H(2) S is discussed to exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions, we aimed to investigate the role of H(2) S during experimental colitis by comparing the effects of blockade of H(2) S-forming endogenous enzymes with the effect of a S-reduced diet to diminish microbial production of H(2) S. Rectal application of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) was used to induce chronic colitis. The level of inflammation was assessed macroscopically and histologically. In Ussing chamber experiments, colonic specimens from TNBS-treated animals exhibited a higher tissue conductance, that is, a higher epithelial permeability, and a slightly reduced basal short-circuit current (a measure of net ion transport) in relation to non-inflamed control tissue. Analgetic treatment with flupirtine, a central antinociceptive analgetic, did not interfere with the induction of the inflammatory response so that all animals were treated with flupirtine to reduce pain and distress during the development of colitis. The secretory response evoked by an exogenous H(2) S donor, NaHS, was significantly decreased after induction of colitis, whereas the response to Ca(2+) - or cAMP-dependent secretagogues was unaltered. This downregulation was not observed in the colitis group fed on a S-reduced diet. The decreased NaHS response indicates a desensitization of the tissue by inflammation, which might be explained by an upregulation of colonic H(2) S production as described in some models of inflammation. PMID:22963333

  7. Use of antioxidants substances to protect the hydrocolloids carrageenan, agaran and alginates used in food industry when exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrageenan, agaran e alginates are hydrocolloids largely employed in every kind of food products as stabilizing agent and viscosity builder. The human body does not absorb them, so they do not introduce extra calories in the diet. Irradiation is presented as an important alternative method in food preservation because do not induce temperature increase being of good efficiency in cold food ingredients decontamination. In this work aqueous solutions of carrageenan, agar e sodium alginate were gamma irradiated (0-10 kGy) in presence of ascorbic acid, roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract and soy isoflavone. Edible polysaccharide solutions showed to be suitable systems for the evaluation of ionizing radiation effects as they presented a singular radiosensitivity through viscosity changes. The results obtained showed that in general the antioxidants employed had a radioprotective action that can be of importance in the future commercial applications of food irradiation. (author)

  8. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of carrageenan, agarans and alginates to be used as food additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrageenan, agarans and alginates are phycocolloids, which change the consistence of the foodstuff and prevent undesirable changes such as moisture migration or textural profile changes. These phycocolloids are additives used in large scale for all kind of food products. They are not absorbed for the human organism and do not introduce extra calories in the diet. The process of irradiation, is an alternative method of great potential, because do not increase the temperature and it is highly in the decontamination of food ingredients. In this work, agar alginates and carrageenan were irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of the irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. The viscosity of these hydrocolloids shows a decrease when submitted to an irradiation with doses until 10 kGy. (author)

  9. The Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria-fermented Soybean Milk Products on Carrageenan-induced Tail Thrombosis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAMIYA, Seitaro; OGASAWARA, Masayoshi; ARAKAWA, Masayuki; HAGIMORI, Masayori

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis is characterized by congenital and acquired procatarxis. Lactic acid bacteria-fermented soybean milk products (FS-LAB) inhibit hepatic lipid accumulation and prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation. However, the therapeutic efficacy of FS-LAB against thrombosis has yet to be investigated. In this study, FS-LAB were administered subcutaneously into the tails of rats, with the subsequent intravenous administration of κ-carrageenan 12 hr after the initial injection. In general, administration of κ-carrageenan induces thrombosis. The length of the infarcted tail regions was significantly shorter in the rats administered a single-fold or double-fold concentration of the FS-LAB solution compared with the region in control rats. Therefore, FS-LAB exhibited significant antithrombotic effects. Our study is the first to characterize the properties of FS-LAB and, by testing their efficacy on an in vivo rat model of thrombosis, demonstrate the potency of their antithrombotic effect. PMID:24936368

  10. The analgesic efficacy of intra-articular acetaminophen in an experimental model of carrageenan-induced arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Oguzhan; Canbay, Ozgur; Celebi, Nalan; Sahin, Altan; Konan, Ali; Atilla, Pergin; Aypar, Ulku

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen is one of the most common drugs used for the treatment of pain and fever. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of intra-articular (IA) acetaminophen on carrageenan-induced arthritic pain-related behaviour and spinal c-Fos expression in rats. METHODS: The present study was performed using 20 Sprague Dawley rats. Forty microlitres of IA 0.9% NaCl was injected in the control group, and 40 μL of IA carrageenan was injected in the carrageenan group. One hour after carrageenan injection, 400 μg of IA acetaminophen was injected in the IA acetaminophen group, and 400 μg of intraperitoneal (IP) acet-aminophen was injected in the IP acetaminophen group. One day before injection, and 4 h and 8 h after injection, diameters of both knee joints, motility of the rat, paw loading and joint mobility were assessed. After the rats were euthanized, L3 and L4 spinal segments were excised for c-Fos assessment. RESULTS: IA acetaminophen decreased both the severity and distribution of c-Fos expression. IP acetaminophen decreased only the distribution of c-Fos expression. IA acetaminophen decreased knee diameter at 8 h. IA and IP acetaminophen increased rat motility and paw loading scores. Joint mobility scores of IP acetaminophen were similar to saline at 8 h. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study indicate an analgesic and/or possible anti-inflammatory effect of IA acetaminophen and provide further evidence on the efficacy of systemic acetaminophen injection in reducing arthritic pain. PMID:24093120

  11. Oligo-Carrageenans Enhance Growth and Contents of Cellulose, Essential Oils and Polyphenolic Compounds in Eucalyptus globulus Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Moenne; Contreras, Rodrigo A.; Alberto González

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) originated in Australia and has been introduced in countries with temperate weather in order to obtain wood for cellulose extraction and building purposes. In this work, we analyzed the potential stimulation of growth in height and trunk diameter as well as the content of holo-cellulose, α-cellulose (long cellulose chains), essential oils and polyphenolic compounds (PPCs) in E. globulus trees treated with oligo-carrageenans (OCs) kappa, lambda and iota, at 1 mg...

  12. Acoustic Assessment of a Konjac–Carrageenan Tissue-Mimicking Material at 5–60 MHz

    OpenAIRE

    Kenwright, David A.; Sadhoo, Neelaksh; Rajagopal, Srinath; Anderson, Tom; Moran, Carmel M.; Hadoke, Patrick W.; Gray, Gillian A.; Zeqiri, Bajram; Peter R. Hoskins

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic properties of a robust tissue-mimicking material based on konjac–carrageenan at ultrasound frequencies in the range 5–60 MHz are described. Acoustic properties were characterized using two methods: a broadband reflection substitution technique using a commercially available preclinical ultrasound scanner (Vevo 770, FUJIFILM VisualSonics, Toronto, ON, Canada), and a dedicated high-frequency ultrasound facility developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, Teddington, UK), wh...

  13. Mechanical stability analysis of carrageenan-based polymer gel for magnetic resonance imaging liver phantom with lesion particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Eunji; Naguib, Hani; Haider, Masoom

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Medical imaging is an effective technique used to detect and prevent disease in cancer research. To optimize medical imaging, a calibration medium or phantom with tissue-mimicking properties is required. Although the feasibility of various polymer gel materials has previously been studied, the stability of the gels’ properties has not been investigated. In this study, we fabricated carrageenan-based polymer gel to examine the stability of its properties such as density, conductivity, permittivity, elastic modulus, and T1 and T2 relaxation times over six weeks. We fabricated eight samples with different carrageenan and agar concentrations and found that the density, elastic modulus, and compressive strength fluctuated with no specific pattern. The elastic modulus in sample 4 with 3 wt. % carrageenan and 1.5 wt. % agar fluctuated from 0.51 to 0.64 MPa in five weeks. The T1 and T2 relaxation times also varied by 23% to 29%. We believe that the fluctuation of these properties is related to the change in water content of the sample due to cycles of water expulsion and absorption in their containers. The fluctuation of the properties should be minimized to achieve accurate calibration over the shelf life of the phantom and to serve as the standard for quality assurance. Furthermore, a full liver phantom with spherical lesion particles was fabricated to demonstrate the potential for phantom production. PMID:26158073

  14. In vitro evaluation of anti-calcification and anti-coagulation on sulfonated chitosan and carrageenan surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campelo, Clayton Souza; Lima, Luana Dias; Rebêlo, Luciana Magalhães; Mantovani, Diego; Beppu, Marisa Masumi; Vieira, Rodrigo Silveira

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, great effort has been devoted to the development of biomaterials that come into contact with blood. The surfaces of these materials need to be of suitable mechanical strength, and present anti-thrombogenic and anti-calcification properties. Chitosan is a natural polymer that has attracted attention due to its potential to act as a biomaterial. However, chitosan contains amino groups in its structure that may promote thrombogenesis and calcification. A strategy to reduce these properties constitutes the introduction of sulfonate groups (R-SO3-) in the chitosan chain. Another interesting biopolymer with similar characteristics to those of heparin is carrageenan, which has sulfate groups in its structure. As such, we evaluated “in vitro” calcification and thrombogenic processes on surfaces of pristine and sulfonated chitosan and on polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) of chitosan and carrageenan. Results indicate that PEC demonstrate significant reductions in calcification and thrombogenic potential, probably due to the presence of sulfonate groups in both the carrageenan and treated chitosan. PMID:26652370

  15. Drug Release Kinetics and Front Movement in Matrix Tablets Containing Diltiazem or Metoprolol/λ-Carrageenan Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Colombo, Paolo; Zanelotti, Laura; Caramella, Carla

    2014-01-01

    In this work we investigated the moving boundaries and the associated drug release kinetics in matrix tablets prepared with two complexes between λ-carrageenan and two soluble model drugs, namely, diltiazem HCl and metoprolol tartrate aiming at clarifying the role played by drug/polymer interaction on the water uptake, swelling, drug dissolution, and drug release performance of the matrix. The two studied complexes released the drug with different mechanism indicating two different drug/polymer interaction strengths. The comparison between the drug release behaviour of the complexes and the relevant physical mixtures indicates that diltiazem gave rise to a less soluble and more stable complex with carrageenan than metoprolol. The less stable metoprolol complex afforded an erodible matrix, whereas the stronger interaction between diltiazem and carrageenan resulted in a poorly soluble, slowly dissolving matrix. It was concluded that the different stability of the studied complexes affords two distinct drug delivery systems: in the case of MTP, the dissociation of the complex, as a consequence of the interaction with water, affords a classical soluble matrix type delivery system; in the case of DTZ, the dissolving/diffusing species is the complex itself because of the very strong interaction between the drug and the polymer. PMID:25045689

  16. In situ synthesis of new magnetite chitosan/carrageenan nanocomposites by electrostatic interactions for protein delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jie; Yu, Xiaoqin; Xu, Enbo; Wu, Zhengzong; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-10-20

    We present a simple method to develop magnetite chitosan/carrageenan nanocomposites by in situ synthesis under mild conditions, and then their potential for controlled release of macromolecules was also evaluated. The structural, morphological and magnetic properties of the as-prepared materials were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyzer and transmission electron microscopy. With the varying mass ratio (chitosan to Fe3O4-carrageenan nanocomposite), the developed nanocarriers presented sizes within 73-355nm and zeta potentials of -42-32mV. Using bovine serum albumin as model protein, the adsorption and release behaviors were investigated. Nanocarriers evidenced excellent loading capacity of 181mgg(-1) at protein concentration of 0.2mgmL(-1), and demonstrated capacity to provide a sustained release up to 85% of adsorbed protein in 30min in intestinal medium rather than acidic medium. These results suggest that the developed magnetite chitosan/carrageenan nanocomposites are promising in the application of magnetically targeted delivery of therapeutic macromolecules. PMID:26256165

  17. Drug Release Kinetics and Front Movement in Matrix Tablets Containing Diltiazem or Metoprolol/λ-Carrageenan Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggero Bettini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the moving boundaries and the associated drug release kinetics in matrix tablets prepared with two complexes between λ-carrageenan and two soluble model drugs, namely, diltiazem HCl and metoprolol tartrate aiming at clarifying the role played by drug/polymer interaction on the water uptake, swelling, drug dissolution, and drug release performance of the matrix. The two studied complexes released the drug with different mechanism indicating two different drug/polymer interaction strengths. The comparison between the drug release behaviour of the complexes and the relevant physical mixtures indicates that diltiazem gave rise to a less soluble and more stable complex with carrageenan than metoprolol. The less stable metoprolol complex afforded an erodible matrix, whereas the stronger interaction between diltiazem and carrageenan resulted in a poorly soluble, slowly dissolving matrix. It was concluded that the different stability of the studied complexes affords two distinct drug delivery systems: in the case of MTP, the dissociation of the complex, as a consequence of the interaction with water, affords a classical soluble matrix type delivery system; in the case of DTZ, the dissolving/diffusing species is the complex itself because of the very strong interaction between the drug and the polymer.

  18. Deep eutectic solvents as efficient solvent system for the extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2016-01-20

    Three different deep eutectic solvents (DESs) prepared by the complexation of choline chloride with urea, ethylene glycol and glycerol along with their hydrated counterparts were used for the selective extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii. Upon comparison of the quality of the polysaccharide with the one obtained using water as extraction media as well as the one extracted using widely practiced conventional method, it was found that, the physicochemical as well as rheological properties of κ-carrageenan obtained using DESs as solvents was at par to the one obtained using conventional method and was superior in quality when compared to κ-carrageenan obtained using water as solvent. Considering the tedious nature of the extraction method employed in conventional extraction process, the DESs can be considered as suitable alternative solvents for the facile extraction of the polysaccharide directly from the seaweed. However, among the hydrated and non-hydrated DESs, the hydrated ones were found to be more effective in comparison to their non-hydrated counterparts. PMID:26572431

  19. Berberine ameliorates chronic relapsing dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice by suppressing Th17 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Xiao, Hai-Tao; Hu, Dong-Dong; Fatima, Sarwat; Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Mu, Huai-Xue; Lee, Nikki P; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an increasingly common condition particularly in developed countries. The lack of satisfactory treatment has fueled the search for alternative therapeutic strategies. In recent studies, berberine, a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, has shown beneficial effects against animal models of acute UC. However, UC usually presents as a chronic condition with frequent relapse in patients. How berberine will act on chronic UC remains unclear. In the present study, we adopted dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic relapsing colitis model to assess the ameliorating activity of berberine. Colitis was induced by two cycles of 2.0% DSS for five days followed by 14days of drinking water plus a third cycle consisting of DSS only for five days. The colitis mice were orally administered 20mg/kg berberine from day 13 onward for 30days and monitored daily. The body weight, stool consistency, and stool bleeding were recorded for determination of the disease activity index (DAI). At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed and samples were collected and subjected to histological, RT-qPCR, Western blot, and LC-MS analyses. Lymphocytes were isolated from spleens and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and cultured for flow cytometry analysis of IL-17 secretion from CD4(+) cells and the Th17 cell differentiation. Results showed that berberine significantly ameliorated the DAI, colon shortening, colon tissue injury, and reduction of colonic expression of tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-1 and occludin of colitis mice. Notably, berberine treatment pronouncedly reduced DSS-upregulated Th17-related cytokine (IL-17 and ROR-γt) mRNAs in the colon. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-23, and the phosphorylation of STAT3 in colon tissues from DSS-treated mice were pronouncedly inhibited by berberine. Moreover, the up-regulation of IL-17 secretion from CD4(+) cells of spleens and MLNs caused by DSS were significantly

  20. American ginseng suppresses inflammation and DNA damage associated with mouse colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yu; Kotakadi, Venkata S.; Ying, Lei; Hofseth, Anne B.; Cui, Xiangli; Wood, Patricia A; Windust, Anthony; Matesic, Lydia E.; Pena, Edsel A.; Chiuzan, Codruta; Singh, Narendra P.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.; Wargovich, Michael J.; Hofseth, Lorne J.

    2008-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a dynamic, idiopathic, chronic inflammatory condition associated with a high colon cancer risk. American ginseng has antioxidant properties and targets many of the players in inflammation. The aim of this study was to test whether American ginseng extract prevents and treats colitis. Colitis in mice was induced by the presence of 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water or by 1% oxazolone rectally. American ginseng extract was mixed in the chow at level...

  1. Gold nanoparticles and/or N-acetylcysteine mediate carrageenan-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in a concentration-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Marcos M S; Petronilho, Fabricia; Vuolo, Francieli; Ferreira, Gabriela K; De Costa, Leandro; Santos, Giulia P; Effting, Pauline S; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Dal-Bó, Alexandre G; Frizon, Tiago E; Silveira, Paulo C L; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2015-10-01

    We report the effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in an acute inflammation model induced by carrageenan (CG) and compared this effect with those induced by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) alone and by the synergistic effect of NAC and AuNP together. Male Wistar rats received saline or saline containing CG administered into the pleural cavity, and some rats also received NAC (20 mg/kg) subcutaneously and/or AuNP administered into the pleural cavity immediately after surgery. Four hours later, the rats were sacrificed and pleural exudates obtained for evaluation of cytokine levels and myeloperoxidase activities. Oxidative stress parameters were also evaluated in the lungs. The results demonstrated that the inflammatory process caused by the administration of CG into the pleural cavity resulted in a substantial increase in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and myeloperoxidase and a reduction in interleukin-10 levels. These levels seem to be reversed after different treatments in animals. Antioxidant enzymes exhibited positive responses after treatment of NAC + AuNP, and all treatments were effective at reducing lipid peroxidation and oxidation of thiol groups induced by CG. These findings suggest that small compounds, such as NAC plus AuNP, may be useful in the treatment of conditions associated with local inflammation. PMID:25917538

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Κ-Carrageenan-chitosan hollow capsules for the encapsulation and controlled release of 5-flourouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer multilayer capsules are made by generating a template, coating it with alternating layers of different polymers and removing the template to make it hollow. It is considered a good drug delivery system as the capsules are very versatile and can be adjusted according to the kind of drug delivery system as the capsules are very versatile and can be adjusted according to the kind of drug being encapsulated by just changing the polymers and template used. Κ-Carrageenan and chitosan are polyelectrolytic biocompatible polymers which are widely studied and used for a variety of biomedical applications. Polymer multilayer capsule can be made with these polymers using the layer-by-layer deposition (LbL) method. The strong electrostatic attraction between these two oppositely charged polymers which males the capsules stable and their biocompatibility makes them excellent candidates for drug delivery applications. The drug to be encapsulated in this study is fluorouracil, a widely used drug for the treatment of cancerous tumors with a large variety of side effects which requires controlled and targeted delivery in the patient. The objectives of this study are the following: to synthesize κ-carrageenan-chitosan hollow capsules with 1 layer κ-carrageenan, and 5, 10, and 11 alternating layers of κ-carrageenan and chitosan, to obtain the fluorescence images and microscopy images of the hollow capsules, and to determine the encapsulation and release profile of fluorouracil as a function of time. Hollow capsules with 5 layers of alternating chitosan and κ-carrageenan have been synthesized with polystyrene as the core template, and the polystyrene removed after depositing the polymer layers by washing it with THF. The capsules were then subjected to gamma irradiation at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). It was determined from the UV-Vis spectroscopy of the THF washings that five washings are needed to completely remove the polystyrene core template from

  3. Pimaradienoic Acid Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Leukocyte Recruitment and Edema in Mice: Inhibition of Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide and Cytokine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Sandra S; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Zarpelon, Ana C; Possebon, Maria I; de Souza, Anderson R; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S; Arakawa, Nilton S; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-01-01

    Pimaradienoic acid (PA; ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) is a pimarane diterpene found in plants such as Vigueira arenaria Baker (Asteraceae) in the Brazilian savannas. Although there is evidence on the analgesic and in vitro inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways, and paw edema by PA, its anti-inflammatory effect deserves further investigation. Thus, the objective of present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of PA in carrageenan-induced peritoneal and paw inflammation in mice. Firstly, we assessed the effect of PA in carrageenan-induced leukocyte recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity. Next, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of PA. The effect of PA on carrageenan-induced oxidative stress in the paw skin and peritoneal cavity was assessed. We also tested the effect of PA on nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and inflammatory cytokine production in the peritoneal cavity. PA inhibited carrageenan-induced recruitment of total leukocytes and neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner. PA also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity in the paw skin. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of PA depended on maintaining paw skin antioxidant activity as observed by the levels of reduced glutathione, ability to scavenge the ABTS cation and reduce iron as well as by the inhibition of superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, PA inhibited carrageenan-induced peritoneal production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. PA presents prominent anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced inflammation by reducing oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and cytokine production. Therefore, it seems to be a promising anti-inflammatory molecule that merits further investigation. PMID:26895409

  4. Unusual Case of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in Patient with Ulcerative Colitis in Remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Lalit Kumar; Dalai, Siba Prasad; Panda, Sameer; Hui, Pankaj Kumar; Nayak, Sachidananda

    2016-05-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis along with deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and arterial thrombosis have occasionally been reported as a complication in the active phase of UC being attributed to its pro-thrombotic state. This paper depicts a 38-year-old female with a history of UC in remission who developed sudden onset headache, blurring of vision and seizures. Subsequent diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis was made with MRI venography and treated with low molecular weight heparin with complete resolution of symptoms. The highlights of this case underscore the importance of evaluating cerebral venous sinus thrombosis as a cause of acute onset neurological deterioration in a setting of inflammatory bowel disease. It also emphasizes on the hypothesis that the risk of venous thrombosis or other hypercoagulable states have no direct relationship with the disease activity or flare-up. PMID:27437291

  5. Herpes simplex induced necrotizing tonsillitis in an immunocompromised patient with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Laura; Vos, Xander G; Löwenberg, Mark

    2016-02-16

    We here present the case of a 22-year-old female of Suriname ethnicity with ulcerative colitis who received treatment with mercaptopurine and infliximab. She presented herself with a severe necrotizing tonsillitis due to herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Combination therapy consisting of immunomodulators and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents is increasingly being used. Anti-TNF therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing serious infections, and especially patients receiving combination treatment with thiopurines are at an increased risk. We here show that HSV infections can cause a severe tonsillitis in immunocompromised patients. Early recognition is essential when there is no improvement with initial antibiotic therapy within the first 24 to 72 h. HSV infections should be in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients presenting with a necrotizing tonsillitis and can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Early treatment with antiviral agents should be considered especially if antibiotic treatment fails in such patients. PMID:26881193

  6. A double conundrum: concurrent presentation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Brien, Susie; Taylor, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 31-year-old man who presented with a 3-day history of crampy abdominal pain, anorexia, malaise and diarrhoea of increasing frequency, with the passage of both mucus and haematochezia. The patient's biochemical investigations revealed hyponatraemia, hypothyroidism and elevated inflammatory markers. The patient underwent an ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid and was diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis. He was started on thyroxine and fluid was restricted. He was also investigated for alternative causes of hyponatraemia. With improvement in his hyponatraemia, the patient underwent a colonoscopy with biopsies confirming a concurrent diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. He was started on mesalazine and prednisolone and discharged from hospital. He suffered a flare shortly after discharge and was readmitted to hospital. He was again discharged, on a higher dose of prednisolone, with outpatient follow-up at our hospital's gastroenterology clinic. PMID:27107058

  7. Increased lymphocyte apoptosis in mouse models of colitis upon ABT-737 treatment is dependent upon BIM expression

    OpenAIRE

    C. Lutz; M. Mozaffari; Tosevski, V; Caj, M; Cippà, P; McRae, B L; Graff, C L; Rogler, G; Fried, M; Hausmann, M

    2015-01-01

    Exaggerated activation of lymphocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Medical therapies are linked to the BCL-2 family-mediated apoptosis. Imbalance in BCL-2 family proteins may cause failure in therapeutic responses. We investigated the role of BCL-2 inhibitor ABT-737 for lymphocyte apoptosis in mice under inflammatory conditions. B.6129P2-interleukin (IL)-10(tm1Cgn) /J (IL-10(-/-) ) weighing 25-30 g with ongoing colitis were used. Fifty mg/kg/day ABT-737...

  8. Prevalence of microscopic colitis in patients with diarrhea of unknown etiology in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and demography of microscopic colitis in patients with diarrhea of unknown etiology and normal colonoscopy in Turkey. METHODS: Between March, 1998 to July, 2005, 129 patients with chronic non-bloody diarrhea of unexplained etiology who had undergone full colonoscopy with no obvious abnormalities were included in the study. Two biopsies were obtained from all colonic segments and terminal ileum for diagnosis of microscopic colitis. On histopathologic examination, criteria for lymphocytic colitis (intraepithelial lymphocyte ≥ 20 per 100 intercryptal epithelial cells, change in surface epithelium, mononuclear infiltration of the lamina propria) and collagenous colitis (subepithelial collagen band thickness ≥ 10 μm) were explored. RESULTS: Lymphocytic colitis was diagnosed in 12 (9%) patients (Female/Male: 7/5, mean age: 45 year, range: 27-63) and collagenous colitis was diagnosed in only 3 (2.5%) patients (all female, mean age: 60 years, range: 54-65). CONCLUSION: Biopsy of Turkish patients with the diagnosis of chronic non-bloody diarrhea of unexplained etiology and normal colonoscopic findings will reveal microscopic colitis in approximately 10% of the patients. Lymphocytic colitis is 4 times more frequent than collagenous colitis in these patients

  9. Treatment tactics in patient with rectal cancer complicating ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Barsukov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A successful treatment of a young patient with a 15-year anamnesis of ulcerative colitis, who has been diagnosed with rectal cancer, is presented in this case report. A non-standard surgical intervention has been performed following all principles of oncologic surgery. A subtotal colectomy has been performed with ultra-low anterior resection of rectum. Ascendoanal anastomosis has been performed forming the neo-rectum. There were no complications in postoperative period. Considering disease stage (T3N1M0 adjuvant XELOX was administered for 6 months along with 2 cycles of prophylactic treatment with 5-aminosalycilic acid. During 2-years follow-up there are no signs of rectal cancer and ulcerative colitis progression. After pelvic electrostimulation defecation frequency decreased to 3–4 times per day, a patient has complete social rehabilitation.

  10. Common carotid arterial thrombosis associated with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hitoshi Nogami; Tsuneo Iiai; Satoshi Maruyama; Tatsuo Tani; Katsuyoshi Hatakeyama

    2007-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis was transferred to our hospital with left hemiparesis due to cerebral infarction. Cervical ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging angiography revealed thrombosis at the right common carotid artery and the right internal carotid artery. Antithrombotic and anticoagulant therapies were commenced. After about 2 wk of the treatment, the frequency of her diarrhea increased. She underwent emergency subtotal colectomy, but 10 d later an abundant hemorrhage from the remnant rectum occurred, so the remnant rectum was resected and an ileal pouch anal anastomosis was performed. Antithrombotic and anticoagulant therapies were continued, but neither her neurological status nor magnetic resonance imaging angiography findings showed subsequent changes. She was discharged 3 mon after operation. This is a rare case of common carotid arterial thrombosis occurring as a complication of ulcerative colitis, in which antithrombotic and anticoagulant therapies are considered to provoke a deterioration of the patient's bowel disease.

  11. Characterization of nanobiocomposite kappa-carrageenan film with Zataria multiflora essential oil and nanoclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Haghshenas, Mehrdad; Khaksar, Ramin

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to improve the physical, mechanical and water-vapor permeability (WVP) properties of kappa-carrageenan (KC) films by including montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay in the film-forming solution. To further improve these properties, the combined effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (ZEO) and MMT was also investigated. The incorporation of MMT improved the physical and mechanical properties of KC film. Film made from KC alone had a tensile strength (TS) of 26.29MPa, while the KC film with 10% nanoclay had a TS of 34.67. Further analysis was provided by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy that confirmed the dispersion of MMT in the KC matrix. It was also shown that the combined effect of nanoclay and ZEO significantly improved the TS and EB of KC films. ZEO decreased the WVP of the nanocomposite films; for example, 3% ZEO reduced WVP by around 78%. The antimicrobial activity of nanocomposite films was also studied using the overlay and vapor-phase methods; the films effectively inhibited the growth of five pathogens tested. Thus, the incorporation of both nanoclay and ZEO into KC films is a promising way to manufacture films with better mechanical, antimicrobial and WVP properties. PMID:24832987

  12. Factors contributing to the bioburden level of polyvinylpyrrolidone-kappa carrageenan hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recurring problem of high bioburden level of Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Kappa Carrageenan (PVP-KC) hydrogels produced in industrial scale has befuddled both the researchers and the manufacturer involved in the hydrogel's production. In an attempt to find a solution to this problem, different modifications in the current method of production have been devised and the bioburden levels of PVP-KC hydrogels produced using the modified methods were determined. The critical factors in the production parameters contributing to the biobuden of the hydrogels were then identified. Results showed a high bioburden level for the PVP-KC hydrogel prepared by overnight soaking of the PVP-KC components in non-sterile distilled water prior to further processing and eventual storage at room temperature preceding irradiation. This indicates that water sterility and storage temperature are critical factors that contribute to the hydrogel's bioburden level. Addition of bactericidal agent, namely Sodium metabisulfite, can decrease the bioburden counts of PVP-KC hydrogels by more than 350 times. (author)

  13. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sodium Valproate on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mj Khoshnood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABESTRACT: Introduction & objective: Inflammation is a body defensive response to the endogenous and exogenous stimulators such as chemical, radiation, trauma and invasive microorganism, which result pain and tissue necrosis. There are many natural and synthetic drugs for treatment of inflammation and lot of them are under investigation. Sodium valporate is an antiepileptic drug used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizure notably absence, myocolonic seizure, acute manic phase of bipolar disorder and prophylaxis of migraine. The previous observations showed sodium valporate increases level of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the central and peripheral nervous system. In acute inflammation, GABA showed a significant attenuation of paw edema and nociception. The aim of this study was evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of sodium valporate. Materials & Methods: In order to evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiexudative of sodium valporate doses of 200,400 and 600 mg/kg were investigated on rat paw edema that induced by carrageenan. In addition, the plasma leakage in the inflamed tissue was evaluated by application of trypan blue as intravenous injection. Dexamethason was used as positive control. Results: Results showed sodium valporate doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg decreased inflammatory and exudative effect as compared to control group. Conclusion: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of this drug were not evident but we can say sodium valporate in addition to already proved effects has anti-inflammatory effect.

  14. Amorphous nanodrugs prepared by complexation with polysaccharides: carrageenan versus dextran sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Kiew, Tie Yi; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous nanodrugs prepared by electrostatic complexation of drug molecules with oppositely charged polysaccharides represent a promising bioavailability enhancement strategy for poorly-soluble drugs owed to their high supersaturation generation capability and simple preparation. Using ciprofloxacin (CIP) as the model drug, we investigated the effects of using dextran sulfate (DXT) or carrageenan (CGN) on the (1) preparation efficiency, (2) physical characteristics, (3) supersaturation generation, (4) antimicrobial activity, and (5) cytotoxicity of the amorphous drug-polysaccharide nanoparticle complex (nanoplex) produced. Owing to the higher charge density and chain flexibility of DXT, coupled with the greater hydrophobicity of CGN, the CIP-DXT nanoplex exhibited superior preparation efficiency and larger size than the CIP-CGN nanoplex. Whereas the low solubility and high gelation tendency of CGN resulted in superior supersaturation generation capability for the CIP-DXT nanoplex. The non-cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, colloidal, and amorphous state stability were established for both nanoplexes, making them an ideal supersaturated drug delivery system. PMID:25498670

  15. Rheology of κ/ι-hybrid carrageenan from Mastocarpus stellatus: Critical parameters for the gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Chenlo, F; Moreira, R

    2016-05-01

    The sol-gel diagrams of kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenan (KI) extracted from Mastocarpus stellatus powders with two different average particle sizes of the seaweed powders (117.0μm and 77.5μm) prior to the biopolymer extraction, are reported for the first time, together with rheological properties of obtained KI gels. Extraction yields for KI isolated from algae and average molecular weight of KI, determined by gel permeation chromatography, decreased with increasing the particle size of the powder. Rheological results indicated that tested samples exhibited stable and weak gel properties, except those prepared at 1.5% KI in 1.0mol/L NaCl where stronger gels were found. Aqueous KI extracts with larger molecular weight led to stronger gels and also formed gels at lower biopolymer concentration in NaCl above 0.15mol/L. All gels reached stability after 20min of maturation. The data sets showed a strong temperature dependency. Gel setting temperatures significantly depended on the KI and NaCl content, whereas gel melting temperatures (68.0±0.7°C) were independent of both salt concentrations. PMID:26827757

  16. Influence of structural features of carrageenan on the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes with chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volod'ko, A V; Davydova, V N; Glazunov, V P; Likhatskaya, G N; Yermak, I M

    2016-03-01

    The polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) of carrageenans (CG)-κ-, κ/β-, λ-and x-CG with chitosan were obtained. The formation of PEC was detected by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and by centrifugation in a Percoll gradient. The influence of the structural peculiarities of CG on its interaction with chitosan was studied. The results of centrifugation showed that x-CG with a high degree of sulphation (SD) was completely bound to chitosan, unlike low SD κ-CG and κ/β-CG. Binding constant values showed there was a high affinity of CG for chitosan. CG with flexible macromolecule conformation and high SD exhibited the greatest binding affinity for chitosan. The full-atomic 3D-structures of the PEC κ-CG: chitosan in solution have been obtained by the experiments in silico for the first time. The amino groups of chitosan make the largest contribution to the energy of the complex formation by means of hydrogen and ionic bonds. The most probable complexes have stoichiometries of 1:1 and 1:1.5. PMID:26712704

  17. Evaluation of kappa carrageenan as potential carrier for floating drug delivery system: Effect of cross linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumaran, Suguna; Muhamad, Ida Idayu

    2015-12-30

    Genipin, a natural and non-toxic cross linker, was used to prepare cross linked floating kappa carrageenan/sodium carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels and the effect of genipin on hydrogels characterization was investigated. Calcium carbonates were employed as gas forming agents. Ranitidine hydrochloride was used as drug. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were carried out to study the changes in the characteristics of hydrogels. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed to study microstructure of hydrogels. The result showed that all formulated hydrogels had excellent floating behavior. It was discovered that the cross linking reaction showed significant effect on gel strength, porosity and swelling ratio compared to non-cross linked hydrogels. It was found that the drug release was slower and lesser after being cross linked. Microstructure study shows that cross linked hydrogels exhibited hard and rough surface. Therefore, genipin can be an interesting cross linking agent for controlled drug delivery in gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26453788

  18. Gelam Honey Attenuates Carrageenan-Induced Rat Paw Inflammation via NF-κB Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Saba Zuhair; Mohd Yusoff, Kamaruddin; Makpol, Suzana; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum

    2013-01-01

    The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Gelam honey in inflammation induced rats via NF-κB signalling pathway. Rats paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the right hind paw. Rats were pre-treated with Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o.) and NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.), in two time points (1 and 7 days). Our results showed that Gelam honey at both concentrations suppressed the gene expressions of NF-κB (p65 & p50) and IκBα in inflamed rats paw tissues. In addition, Gelam honey inhibited the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB and decreased the cytosolic degradation of IκBα dose dependently in inflamed rats paw tissues. The immunohistochemical expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were also decreased in inflamed rats paw tissues when treated with Gelam honey. The results of our findings suggest that Gelam honey exhibits its inhibitory effects by attenuating NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and inhibiting IκBα degradation, with subsequent decrease of inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α. PMID:24015236

  19. Review for carrageenan-based pharmaceutical biomaterials: favourable physical features versus adverse biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhan, Xiudan; Wan, Jianbo; Wang, Yitao; Wang, Chunming

    2015-05-01

    Carrageenan (CRG) is a family of natural polysaccharides derived from seaweeds and has widely been used as food additives. In the past decade, owing to its attractive physicochemical properties, CRG has been developed into versatile biomaterials vehicles for drug delivery. Nevertheless, studies also emerged to reveal its adverse effects on the biological system. In this review, we critically appraise the latest literature (two thirds since 2008) on the development of CRG-based pharmaceutical vehicles and the perspective of using CRG for broader biomedical applications. We focus on how current strategies exploit the unique gelling mechanisms, strong water absorption and abundant functional groups of the three major CRG varieties. Notably, CRG-based matrices are demonstrated to increase drug loading and drug solubility, enabling release of orally administrated drugs in zero-order or in a significantly prolonged period. Other amazing features, such as pH-sensitivity and adhesive property, of CRG-based formulations are also introduced. Finally, we discuss the adverse influence of CRG on the human body and then suggest some future directions for the development of CRG-based biomaterials for broader applications in biomedicine. PMID:25659668

  20. Mapping the Complex Phase Behaviors of Aqueous Mixtures of κ-Carrageenan and Type B Gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiping; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Ke; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O

    2015-07-30

    We report a detailed and complete phase diagram for an aqueous mixture of oppositely charged gelling biopolymers, type B gelatin and κ-carrageenan (KC) at pH 7.0. The phase diagram is studied in the ionic strength-temperature coordinate by means of turbidity, rheological and differential scanning calorimetric measurements, and macroscopic phase compositional analysis. Seven phase regions are identified, including (I) compatible region, (II) electrostatically induced associative phase separation (EIAPS) region, (III) hydrogen bonding induced associative phase separation (HBIAPS) region, (IV) coexistence of EIAPS and HBIAPS, (V) segregative phase separation (SPS) region, (VI) coexistence of HBIAPS and SPS, and (VII) SPS trapped by gelation. The HBIAPS reported for the first time here is attributed to the extensive hydrogen bonding formation between gelatin and KC above their conformational transition temperatures, as probed by addition of urea and methylene blue as well as by 2D (1)H-(1)H NOESY NMR. NaCl is found to have dual effects on HBIAPS. The electrostatic complexation at lower ionic strength facilitates the formation of hydrogen bonds between gelatin and KC and hence the HBIAPS. It is believed that the local structural arrangement of gelatin molecules or the change in local solvent environment prior to triple helix formation during cooling enables the formation of hydrogen bonds with KC. PMID:26147592

  1. Gelam honey attenuates carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation via NF-κB pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Zuhair Hussein

    Full Text Available The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Gelam honey in inflammation induced rats via NF-κB signalling pathway. Rats paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the right hind paw. Rats were pre-treated with Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o. and NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o., in two time points (1 and 7 days. Our results showed that Gelam honey at both concentrations suppressed the gene expressions of NF-κB (p65 & p50 and IκBα in inflamed rats paw tissues. In addition, Gelam honey inhibited the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB and decreased the cytosolic degradation of IκBα dose dependently in inflamed rats paw tissues. The immunohistochemical expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were also decreased in inflamed rats paw tissues when treated with Gelam honey. The results of our findings suggest that Gelam honey exhibits its inhibitory effects by attenuating NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and inhibiting IκBα degradation, with subsequent decrease of inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α.

  2. Radiation Processed Carrageenan Improves Plant Growth, Physiological Activities, and Alkaloids Production in Catharanthus roseus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don (Apocynaceae is a medicinal plant that produces indole alkaloids used in cancer chemotherapy. Commercially important antineoplastic alkaloids, namely, vinblastine and vincristine, are mainly present in the leaves of C. roseus. Gamma-rays irradiated carrageenan (ICR has been proven as plant growth promoting substance for a number of medicinal and agricultural plants. Considering the importance of ICR as a promoter of plant growth and alkaloids production in C. roseus, a pot experiment was carried out to explore the effect of ICR on the plant growth, physiological activities, and production of anticancer alkaloids in C. roseus at 120 and 150 days after planting (DAP. Foliar application of ICR (at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg L−1 significantly improved the performance of C. roseus. 80 mg L−1 of ICR enhanced the leaf yield by 29.2 and 35.4% and the herbage yield by 32.5 and 37.4% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively, over the control. The spray of ICR at 80 mg L−1 increased the yield of vinblastine by 64.3 and 65.0% and of vincristine by 75.5 and 77.0% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control.

  3. Fulminant herpes simplex hepatitis in a patient with ulcerative colitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shlien, R D; Meyers, S; Lee, J A; Dische, R; Janowitz, H D

    1988-01-01

    A 16 year old girl with ulcerative colitis developed hepatitis with a high fever, leukopenia and a marked rise in serum transaminases without jaundice. There were no skin, oral, or genital lesions. Liver biopsy was precluded by abnormalities in coagulation. Postmortem examination of the liver by light and electron microscopy, culture, immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescent staining confirmed the diagnosis of hepatitis due to type 1 herpes simplex virus. Despite the rarity, this viral aetiolog...

  4. Managing Ulcerative Colitis – The Guidelines and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell RKL Lie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Management guidelines offer clinicians clear, evidence-based and often succinct treatment advice. For ulcerative colitis these guidelines describe the use of 5-ASA, corticosteroids, thiopurines, cyclosporine, and anti-TNFα therapies. However, guidelines do have some drawbacks, mainly a lack of concrete advice concerning patients resistant to these aforementioned therapies. This review gives a short overview of current guidelines and addresses treatment alternatives for conventional therapies.

  5. Ulcerative Colitis Associated with Aplastic Anemia; A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ghavidel, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Anemia is the most common hematologic disorder in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). In some cases, normochromic anemia results from the presence of chronic disease; however blood loss or malabsorption may lead to an iron deficiency anemia with hypochromic appearance. Other rare hematologic manifestations associated with UC include myelodysplastic syndromes and leukemia. Several investigators have suggested a clinical association between inflammatory bowel disease and myelodysplastic synd...

  6. Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum Prevents Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    SLIVA, DANIEL; Loganathan, Jagadish; JIANG, JIAHUA; Jedinak, Andrej; Lamb, John G.; TERRY, COLIN; Baldridge, Lee Ann; Adamec, Jiri; Sandusky, George E.; DUDHGAONKAR, SHAILESH

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest that mushroom intake is inversely correlated with gastric, gastrointestinal and breast cancers. We have recently demonstrated anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity of triterpene extract isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether GLT prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice. Methods/Principal Findings Colon carcinogenesis was induced by the food-borne carcinogen (2-Amino-1-methyl-...

  7. Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum Prevents Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Adamec, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest that mushroom intake is inversely correlated with gastric, gastrointestinal and breast cancers. We have recently demonstrated anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity of triterpene extract isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether GLT prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice. Methods/Principal Findings Colon carcinogenesis was induced by the food-borne carcinogen (2-Amino-1-...

  8. Norovirus Gastroenteritis Accompanied by Ischemic Colitis : A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Zenda, Takahiro; Kaneko, Shuichi; Noriki, Sakon

    2010-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of frequent bloody diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. While the patient was diagnosed with norovirus gastroenteritis based on the presence by chance of positive norovirus antigen in the stool samples, endoscopic as well as pathological examinations demonstrated left-sided ischemic colitis. The patient soon recovered solely by supportive treatment. Although it is believed that patients with viral gastroenteritis do not develop blo...

  9. Colitis is associated with a loss of intestinofugal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinofugal neurons sense and receive information regarding mechanical distension of the bowel and transmit this information to postganglionic sympathetic neurons in the prevertebral ganglia. Previous studies have demonstrated that trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is associated with a loss of myenteric neurons that occurs within the first 12 h following the inflammatory insult. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that intestinofugal neurons are among th...

  10. Immunomodulators and Immunosuppressants for Japanese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeki Bamba; Tomoyuki Tsujikawa; Masaya Sasaki; Yoshihide Fujiyama; Akira Andoh

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by a long-standing chronic course with remissions and exacerbations. Previously, patients do not respond to 5-aminosalicylic acid compounds and corticosteroids are considered for colectomies, however, in recent years, alternative treatments emerged for steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent UC. In this review article, we focus on immunomodulators (such as azathioprine [AZA] and 6-mercaptopurine [6-MP]) and immunosuppressants (such as cyclosporine A [C...

  11. Two Cases of Diffuse Duodenitis Associated with Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuya Endo; Masatake Kuroha; Hisashi Shiga; Yoichi Kakuta; Seiichi Takahashi; Yoshitaka Kinouchi; Tooru Shimosegawa

    2012-01-01

    The upper gastrointestinal tract is not generally considered a target organ in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, several cases showing upper gastrointestinal involvement in UC have been reported. In this report, we present 2 rare cases of diffuse duodenitis accompanying pancolonic UC. Case patient 1 was a 44-year-old man who developed diffuse duodenitis shortly after colectomy and was successfully treated with mesalazine. Case patient 2 was a 25-year-old woman who developed diffuse duodenitis...

  12. Controlled trial of azathioprine in chronic ulcerative colitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, A P; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1982-01-01

    A double-blind controlled trial of azathioprine in a dose of 2-2.5 mg/kg body weight over six months was conducted among 44 patients with active chronic ulcerative colitis. Three patients treated with placebo did not complete the trial because their disease became so severe that colectomy was performed. Among patients who completed the trial the mean dose of prednisolone necessary to control the disease decreased in those treated with azathioprine and those treated with placebo; the reduction...

  13. Diagnostic Value of Fecal Calprotectin in Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Hamed; Barzin, Gilda; Yousefinia, Mahsa; Mohammadkhani, Ashraf; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Amir Houshang; Tayebi, Sirous; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ansari, Reza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation limited to the mucosal layer of the colon. Calprotectin is a zinc and calcium binding protein derived from neutrophils and monocytes. It is easily detectable in tissue samples, body fluids, and stools, which makes it a potentially valuable marker of inflammation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the value of fecal calprotectin (FC) as a marker of disease activity in patients with UC. METHODS S...

  14. The Role of Fecal Calprotectin in Investigating Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Ünal; Evren Semizel; Muhittin Serdar; Çiğdem Ömür Ecevit; Yılmaz Karaca; Emine Mert Yılmaz; Hasan Kocaefe; Hasan Erhun Kasırga

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Fecal calprotectin (FCP) can be found in high concentrations in inflammatory bowel disease due to the increase in leucocyte turnover in intestinal wall or increase of migration of neutrophils into the lumen. In this study, we aimed to determine the FCP values of the ulcerative colitis (UC) patients at the time of diagnosis and to investigate the applicability and effectiveness of this non-invasive method in the diagnosis of the disease, routinely.Materials and Methods: A total o...

  15. Ischemic colitis after mesotherapy combined with anti-obesity medications

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Bin; Moon, Won; Park, Seun Ja; Park, Moo In; Kim, Kyu-Jong; Lee, Jae Nam; Kang, Seong Joo; Jang, Lee La; Chang, Hee Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Mesotherapy and anti-obesity medications are gradually gaining worldwide popularity for purposes of body contouring and weight loss. Their adverse effects are various, but there is a tendency to disregard them. Ischemic colitis is one of the most common diseases associated with non-obstructive blood vessel disorders. However, there have been no case reports about the adverse effects resulting from mesotherapy only or in combination with anti-obesity medications. We report on an interesting ca...

  16. [Management of diagnosis and treatment in ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Caroline; Barret, Maximilien; Dhooge, Marion; Oudjit, Ammar; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain; Abitbol, Vered

    2015-02-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease limited to the mucosa and affecting the rectum and the colon continuously. Salicylates are the first line treatment for moderate forms. Corticosteroids are used to induce remission, but are not given as maintenance therapy. Thiopurines are indicated as maintenance therapy in case of failure of salicylates or cortico-dependence. Anti TNF alpha are indicated in cortico-resistant severe flares or if cortico- dependence. Vedolizumab (anti-integrin) is the first non anti-TNF alpha biotherapy available for the treatment of UC. Severe acute colitis is a medical emergency; diagnosis is based on Lichtiger score. An emergency colectomy for severe acute colitis is indicated in cases of surgical complication or resistance to medical therapy. UC patients with extension beyond splenic flexure are at risk of colorectal cancer, increasing with the duration of the disease, severity of mucosal inflammation, family history of colorectal cancer, and the existence of sclerosing cholangitis. Annual surveillance colonoscopy is required in patients with sclerosing cholangitis regardless of the extension of their UC. PMID:25534469

  17. Increased Production of Lysozyme Associated with Bacterial Proliferation in Barrett's Esophagitis, Chronic Gastritis, Gluten-induced Atrophic Duodenitis (Celiac Disease), Lymphocytic Colitis, Collagenous Colitis, Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    The mucosa of the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, the large intestine and rectum are unremittingly challenged by adverse micro-environmental factors, such as ingested pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, and harsh secretions with digestive properties with disparate pH, as well as bacteria and secretions from upstream GI organs. Despite the apparently inauspicious mixture of secretions and bacteria, the normal GI mucosa retains a healthy state of cell renewal. To by-pass the tough microenvironment, the epithelia of the GI react by speeding-up cell exfoliation, by increasing peristalsis, eliminating bacteria through secretion of plasma cell-immunoglobulins and by increasing production of natural antibacterial enzymes (lysozyme) and host defense peptides (defensin-5). Lysozyme was recently found up-regulated in Barrett's esophagitis, in chronic gastritis, in gluten-induced atrophic duodenitis (celiac disease), in collagenous colitis, in lymphocytic colitis and in Crohn's colitis. This up-regulation is a response directed towards the special types of bacteria thriving in the microenvironment in each of the aforementioned clinical inflammatory maladies. The purpose of that up-regulation is to protect the mucosa affected by the ongoing chronic inflammation. Bacterial antibiotic resistance continues to exhaust our supply of effective antibiotics. The future challenge is how to solve the increasing menace of bacterial resistance to anti-bacterial drugs. Further research on natural anti-bacterial enzymes such as lysozyme, appears mandatory. PMID:26637845

  18. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyagari A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

  19. Synthesis of magnetic oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite adsorbent and its application in cationic Methylene Blue dye adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Osman; Tunç, Sibel; Polat, Tülin Gürkan; Bozoğlan, Bahar Kancı

    2016-08-20

    In this study, magnetic oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube (OMWCNT)-Fe3O4 and OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized and used as adsorbent for the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Magnetic nanocomposites were characterized by using of specific surface area, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope measurements. The results of characterization analyses exhibited that OMWCNT was successfully modified with κ-carrageenan. Furthermore, OMWCNT-Fe3O4 and OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were of a super-paramagnetic property. Adsorption studies revealed that the data of adsorption kinetics and isotherm were well fitted by the pseudo second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. The adsorption amounts of magnetic adsorbents increased with contact time and initial dye concentration. Compared with magnetic OMWCNT-Fe3O4 nanocomposite, magnetic OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite showed a better adsorption performance for the removal of MB from aqueous solution. Therefore, OMWCNT-κ-carrageenan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite may be used as a magnetic adsorbent to remove the cationic dyes from wastewaters. PMID:27178911

  20. Preparation and characterization of semi-refined kappa carrageenan-based edible film for nano coating application on minimally processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, Godras Jati; Praseptiangga, Danar; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji; Maimuni, Bawani Hindami

    2016-02-01

    Shorter and easier processing of semi-refined kappa carrageenan extracted from Euchema cottonii red seaweed result in cheaper price of the polysaccharide. In this study, edible film was prepared from the semi-refined carrageenan without any salt addition. The effect of the carrageenan concentration (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% w/v) on physical and mechanical properties of the edible film was studied. Edible film thickness and tensile strength increased but elongation at break and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) decreased as the concentration increased. Based on the characteristic of the edible film, formulation using 2% carrageenan was recommended. The edible film demonstrated the characteristic as follow: 0.054 mm thickness, 21.14 MPa tensile strength, 12.36% elongation at break, and 9.56 g/m2.hour WVTR. It was also noted the carrageenan-based edible film indicated potential physical and mechanical characteristics for nano coating applications on minimally processed food.

  1. Diet containing partially hydrogenated vegetable fat enhances the carrageenan induced paw inflammation but not oxidative stress markers in liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Lokesh, B R

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of feeding Partially hydrogenated vegetable fat (PHVF) on carrageenan induced paw inflammation and oxidative stress markers in liver of rats. In addition, the effect of feeding rats with Linseed Oil (LSO, α-linolenic acid, n-3 PUFA) or PHVF blended with incremental amounts of LSO on these markers were also monitored. Rats weighing 200 g were given 1 mL of different oils (PHVF, Groundnut Oil; GNO, Olive Oil; OO and LSO) per day for 15 days. Rats given PHVF showed higher levels of paw inflammation in response to carrageenan injection. Rats given LSO showed least amounts of paw inflammation when injected with carrageenan. A second set of experiment was conducted by feeding weaning rats with AIN-93 purified diet supplemented with PHVF or PHVF with incremental amounts of LSO for 60 days. The rats fed PHVF showed higher degree of carrageenan induced inflammation as compared to rats given GNO and LSO. However, the rats fed PHVF showed lower levels of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls, 8-hydroxy guanine and antioxidant enzyme activities in liver homogenate as compared to those given LSO. In conclusion dietary PHVF rendered the rats prone to higher levels of carrageenan induced inflammation which can be reduced by giving PHVF blended with LSO. However, oxidative stress markers found to be higher levels in rats given LSO or PHVF blended with LSO as compared to rats given PHVF as sole source of fat. PMID:26396384

  2. Preventive and therapeutic euphol treatment attenuates experimental colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C Dutra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tetracyclic triterpene euphol is the main constituent found in the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli. This plant is widely known in Brazilian traditional medicine for its use in the treatment of several kinds of cancer, including leukaemia, prostate and breast cancers. Here, we investigated the effect of euphol on experimental models of colitis and the underlying mechanisms involved in its action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colitis was induced in mice either with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS or with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS, and the effect of euphol (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg on colonic injury was assessed. Pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines were measured by immunohistochemistry, enzyme-Linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA, real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and flow cytometry. Preventive and therapeutic oral administration of euphol attenuated both DSS- and TNBS-induced acute colitis as observed by a significant reduction of the disease activity index (DAI, histological/microscopic damage score and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity in colonic tissue. Likewise, euphol treatment also inhibited colon tissue levels and expression of IL-1β, CXCL1/KC, MCP-1, MIP-2, TNF-α and IL-6, while reducing NOS2, VEGF and Ki67 expression in colonic tissue. This action seems to be likely associated with inhibition of activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB. In addition, euphol decreased LPS-induced MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ, but increased IL-10 secretion from bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro. Of note, euphol, at the same schedule of treatment, markedly inhibited both selectin (P- and E-selectin and integrin (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and LFA-1 expression in colonic tissue. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these results clearly demonstrated that orally-administered euphol, both preventive or therapeutic treatment were effective in reducing the severity of colitis in two models of chemically-induced mouse colitis and suggest

  3. Autoimmunity in ulcerative colitis: humoral and cellular immune response bytropomyosin in ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Geng; Masato Taniguchi; Hui Hui Dai; JJ-C Lin; Jim Lin; Kiron Moy Das

    2000-01-01

    AIM Autoimmunity has been emphasized in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). We reported thattropomyosin (TM) or TM related protein is a putative autoantigen in UC. In human fibroblast, at least 8isoforms of TM have been identified with molecular weight range from 30kD to 40kD, depending upon theisoforms, and human TM isoforms (hTM5) has been found the main isoform in human intestinal epithelialcells. In this study, hTM5 was used as a putative auto-antigen for the humoral and T cell immune responses inpatients with UC, Crohn's disease (CD) and healthy subjects (HS) as controls.METHODS Anti-bTM antibody was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using human sera(UC 59, CD 28, HS 26) against hTM isoforms. The IFN-γ production by peripheral blood T cells followingstimulation by recombinant hTM5 was analyzed by ELISPOT assay.RESULTS Anti-hTM5 antibody (IgG1) was detected in 15/59 (25.4%) patients with UC, 3/28 (10.γ%)with CD, and 3/26 (11.5%) of HS. The OD value in UC was significantly higher than in CD and HS groups(P < 0.05; P < 0.01 respectively). Western blot analysis demonstrated immunoreactivity against hTM5 inseveral UC sera. ELISPOT assay demonstrated that IFN-γ production is significantly higher in UC (7/18),39.0%), compared with CD (0/8, 0%) and HS (0/7, 0%), (P<0.05).CONCLUSION A significantly higher immune response to hTM5 was present in UC compared to CD andHS. Further studies of the hTM5/peptides may provide immuno-biochemical mechanism of autoimmuneprocess in UC.

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 contributes to gut microbe homeostasis in a model of infectious colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues David M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with increased expression of zinc-dependent Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9. A stark dysregulation of intestinal mucosal homeostasis has been observed in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. We therefore sought to determine the contribution of MMP-9 to the pathogenesis of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis and its effects on gut microbiome homeostasis. Results Wild-type and MMP-9−/− mice aged 5–6 weeks were challenged with C. rodentium by orogastric gavage and sacrificed either 10 or 30 days post-infection. Disease severity was assessed by histological analysis of colonic epithelial hyperplasia and by using an in vivo intestinal permeability assay. Changes in the inflammatory responses were measured by using qPCR, and the composition of the fecal microbiome evaluated with both qPCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Activation and localization of MMP-9 to the apical surface of the colonic epithelium in response to C. rodentium infection was demonstrated by both zymography and immunocytochemistry. The pro-inflammatory response to infection, including colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia and barrier dysfunction, was similar, irrespective of genotype. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling of terminal restriction fragments revealed a different fecal microbiome composition and C. rodentium colonization pattern between genotypes, with MMP-9−/− having elevated levels of protective segmented filamentous bacteria and interleukin-17, and lower levels of C. rodentium. MMP-9−/− but not wild-type mice were also protected from reductions in fecal microbial diversity in response to the bacterial enteric infection. Conclusions These results demonstrate that MMP-9 expression in the colon causes alterations in the fecal microbiome and has an impact on the pathogenesis of bacterial-induced colitis in mice.

  5. Complications of Tumor Necrosis Factor-± Blockade in Chronic Granulomatous Disease—Related Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Uzel, Gulbu; Orange, Jordan S.; Poliak, Nina; Marciano, Beatriz E.; Heller, Theo; Holland, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a genetic disorder of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, which predisposes patients to infections and inflammatory complications, including severe colitis. Management of CGD colitis is a challenge because standard immunosuppressive therapy increases the risk of infection in already immunocompromised hosts.

  6. Topical Rosiglitazone Treatment Improves Ulcerative Colitis by Restoring Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G.; Brynskov, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Impaired epithelial expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma) has been described in animal colitis models and briefly in patients with ulcerative colitis, but the functional significance in humans is not well defined. We examined PPAR gamma expression...

  7. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Matuszyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.

  8. Differential Acute Effects of Selenomethionine and Sodium Selenite on the Severity of Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Hiller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The European population is only suboptimally supplied with the essential trace element selenium. Such a selenium status is supposed to worsen colitis while colitis-suppressive effects were observed with adequate or supplemented amounts of both organic selenomethionine (SeMet and inorganic sodium selenite. In order to better understand the effect of these selenocompounds on colitis development we examined colonic phenotypes of mice fed supplemented diets before the onset of colitis or during the acute phase. Colitis was induced by treating mice with 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS for seven days. The selenium-enriched diets were either provided directly after weaning (long-term or were given to mice with a suboptimal selenium status after DSS withdrawal (short-term. While long-term selenium supplementation had no effect on colitis development, short-term selenite supplementation, however, resulted in a more severe colitis. Colonic selenoprotein expression was maximized in all selenium-supplemented groups independent of the selenocompound or intervention time. This indicates that the short-term selenite effect appears to be independent from colonic selenoprotein expression. In conclusion, a selenite supplementation during acute colitis has no health benefits but may even aggravate the course of disease.

  9. Differential acute effects of selenomethionine and sodium selenite on the severity of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Franziska; Oldorff, Lisa; Besselt, Karolin; Kipp, Anna Patricia

    2015-04-01

    The European population is only suboptimally supplied with the essential trace element selenium. Such a selenium status is supposed to worsen colitis while colitis-suppressive effects were observed with adequate or supplemented amounts of both organic selenomethionine (SeMet) and inorganic sodium selenite. In order to better understand the effect of these selenocompounds on colitis development we examined colonic phenotypes of mice fed supplemented diets before the onset of colitis or during the acute phase. Colitis was induced by treating mice with 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for seven days. The selenium-enriched diets were either provided directly after weaning (long-term) or were given to mice with a suboptimal selenium status after DSS withdrawal (short-term). While long-term selenium supplementation had no effect on colitis development, short-term selenite supplementation, however, resulted in a more severe colitis. Colonic selenoprotein expression was maximized in all selenium-supplemented groups independent of the selenocompound or intervention time. This indicates that the short-term selenite effect appears to be independent from colonic selenoprotein expression. In conclusion, a selenite supplementation during acute colitis has no health benefits but may even aggravate the course of disease. PMID:25867950

  10. Safety and efficacy of Profermin(R) to induce remission in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Israelsen, Hans; von Ryberg, Bjørn;

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To test the efficacy and safety of Profermin(R) in inducing remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: The study included 39 patients with mild to moderate UC defined as a Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) > 4 and < 12 (median: 7.5), who were treated ope...

  11. Efficacy of Adalimumab as a long term maintenance therapy in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Edel

    2013-03-01

    Adalimumab is a recombinant human IgG1 monoclonal antibody to TNF-alpha. There are limited data with regard to its efficacy in ulcerative colitis. We report experience of adalimumab in ulcerative colitis in a single centre with a focus on the ability of this agent to maintain response and avoid colectomy in the medium to long-term.

  12. Systemic lupus erythematosus in association with ulcerative colitis: related autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, H P; Ostlere, L S; Rustin, M H

    1994-03-01

    We report a patient who developed urticaria, angio-oedema and polyarthropathy secondary to the hypocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome, a year prior to the onset of ulcerative colitis. Ten years later, primary sclerosing cholangitis and the antiphospholipid syndrome developed concomitantly. We believe this patient represents only the second reported case of idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) occurring in association with ulcerative colitis. PMID:8148283

  13. A case of ulcerative colitis presenting as pyoderma gangrenosum and lung nodule

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a phenomenon of cutaneous ulceration where etiology is not well understood. About half of the cases have an associated extracutanoeus manifestation or associated systemic diseases. Most commonly associated systemic disorders include inflammatory bowel disease, hematologic malignancies, autoimmune arthritis, and vasculitis. We are reporting a case where pyoderma gangrenosum has presenting features for ulcerative colitis.Keywords: ulcerative colitis; pyoderma gangrenosum...

  14. A precordial rub in a boy with a severe attack of ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badina, Laura; Ferrara, Giovanna; Guastalla, Pierpaolo; Barbi, Egidio

    2014-04-01

    A case of a pneumomediastinum mimicking a pericarditis in a boy with an occult perforation due to ulcerative colitis is reported. Pneumomediastinum is a rare complication of severe attacks of ulcerative colitis, with or without the previous development of a toxic megacolon, that should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24694884

  15. Retrospective analysis of old-age colitis in the Dutch inflammatory bowel disease population

    OpenAIRE

    Hadithi, M. al; Cazemier, M.; Meijer, G. A.; Bloemena, E.; Felt-Bersma, R.J.F.; Mulder, C. J. J.; Meuwissen, S G M; Pena, A S; Bodegraven, van, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To describe the characteristics of Dutch patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) first diagnosed above 60 years of age-a disease also known as old-age colitis (OAC) and to highlight a condition that has a similar appearance to IBD, namely segmental colitis associated with diverticular disease (SCAD).

  16. Fungal Colitis by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Galeazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PBM is an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus called Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It occurs in Latin America, with incidence of 1 to 3 per 100,000 inhabitants in endemic areas. The digestive tract is usually not affected, but when it occurs, it may lead to events similar to colorectal neoplasm and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is a case report of a 68-year-old female patient, with diarrhea without blood or mucus for 6 months, weight loss of 8 kg over the period. Abdominal ultrasonography showed some mass in the right colon, suggestive of cancer and liver perihilar lymph node. Colonoscopy showed lesions suggestive of Crohn's disease. Biopsy showed chronic granulomatous colitis of fungal etiology: Paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient did not tolerate oral treatment with itraconazole and subsequently sulfadiazine, requiring hospital admission for the treatment with amphotericin B. The presence of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the digestive tract may be associated with bloody diarrhea, mucus, rectal hemorrhage, abdominal pain, malabsorption syndrome. Histopathological studies show the fungus and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate and granulation tissue. The differential diagnoses are tuberculosis, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. The treatment is oral antifungal (itraconazole, sulfadiazine or intravenous (amphotericin B based. The case has caused diagnostic confusion between colon cancer (clinical and US and Crohn's disease (colonoscopy.Paracoccidioidomicose (PBM é uma infecção causada por um fungo dimórfico: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Ocorre na América Latina, com incidência de 1 a 3 por 100.000 habitantes em áreas endêmicas. O acometimento do trato digestivo é infrequente, sendo que pode levar a manifestações semelhantes à neoplasia colorretal e doença inflamatória intestinal (DII. Relatamos o caso da paciente feminina, 68 anos, com diarreia sem sangue ou muco há seis meses, com

  17. Effect of tumbling time, injection rate and k-carrageenan addition on processing, textural and color characteristics of pork Biceps femoris muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia PATRAŞCU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of tumbling time (0-9 hours, injection rate (20-50% and k carrageenan addition (0.25 - 0.5% on quality characteristics of cooked pork Biceps femoris muscle have been studied. Properties of injected and tumbled meat samples were determined by measuring processing characteristics (tumbling yield, cooking yield and expressible moisture, color (L*, a*, b*, Hue angle and Chroma and texture (firmness, toughness, adhesiveness, work of adhesion and fracturability. Increasing tumbling time up to 9 h led to better hydration properties and increased the cooking yield for all samples, both with 0.25% and 0.5% of k-carrageenan addition. It also decreased the firmness and toughness of the evaluated samples. Biceps femoris samples containing a higher level of k-carrageenan were tenderer than those containing less polysaccharide. Neither injection rate nor tumbling time affected the color components of the analyzed samples.

  18. Biopolymer electrolytes based on blend of kappa-carrageenan and cellulose derivatives for potential application in dye sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan was used as the principle host for developing new biopolymer electrolytes based on the blend of carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose. The blending of carboxymethyl cellulose into carboxymethyl kappa-carragenan was found to be a promising strategy to improve the material properties such as conductive properties. The electrolyte samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, ionic transference number measurement and linear sweep voltammetry in order to investigate their structural, thermal and electrochemical properties. Impedance study showed that the ionic conductivity increased with the increment of ammonium iodide concentration. The highest room temperature ionic conductivity achieved was 2.41 × 10−3 S cm−1 at 30 wt% of the salt. The increment of conductivity was due to the increase of formation of transient cross-linking between the carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose chains and the doping salt as indicated the Tg trend. The conductivity was also attributed by the increase in the number of charge carriers in the biopolymer electrolytes system. The interactions between polymers and salt were confirmed by FTIR study. The transference number measurements showed that the conductivity was predominantly ionic. Temperature dependent conductivity study showed that conductivity increased with the reciprocal of temperature. The conductivity-temperature plots suggested that the conductivity obeyed the Vogel–Tammann–Fulcher relation and the activation energy for the best conducting sample was 0.010 eV. This system was used for the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells, FTO/TiO2-dye/CMKC/CMCE-NH4I + I2/Pt. The fabricated cell showed response under light intensity of 100 mW cm−2 with efficiency of 0.13% indicating that the blend biopolymer system has

  19. Oxysophocarpine Ameliorates Carrageenan-induced Inflammatory Pain via Inhibiting Expressions of Prostaglandin E2 and Cytokines in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Hong-Ling; Jin, Shao-Ju; Zhou, Ru; Qiao, Hai-Qi; Du, Juan; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Cheng-Jun; Niu, Yang; Sun, Tao; Yu, Jian-Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Oxysophocarpine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora alopecuroides. We investigated the analgesic effect of oxysophocarpine on carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain in mice, in order to explore its possible mechanisms. Mouse ear swelling tests and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests were used to investigate the effects of oxysophocarpine on inflammatory pain in mice. Morphological changes on inflamed paw sections were measured by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The mRNA and protein expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 were investigated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, western-blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In our results, oxysophocarpine shows a significant anti-inflammatory effect in the mouse ear swelling test. Oxysophocarpine also significantly reduced the paw edema volume and improved mechanical allodynia threshold value on carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain, as well as relieved paw tissues inflammatory damage and reduced the numbers of neutrophils in mice. Oxysophocarpine significantly suppressed over-expression of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2, and inhibited the over-phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Based on these findings we propose that oxysophocarpine attenuates inflammatory pain by suppressing the levels of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6. PMID:26132856

  20. User Preferences in a Carrageenan-Based Vaginal Drug Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bangde; Zaveri, Toral; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Topical microbicides are a promising solution to address the global threat of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To be successful, a microbicide not only needs to be biologically functional but also highly acceptable to users. User acceptability of microbicides can be incorporated early in the product formulation and design process. Previous qualitative research revealed women had strong preferences regarding product shape, while preferences related to size and firmness were less clear. Here, we explored the effect of size and firmness on the acceptability of semisolid ovoid microbicide prototypes intended for vaginal use. Sexually active women (n = 74) were randomized to one of two conditions: with and without applicator. Nine different prototypes were evaluated; they were formulated to low, medium and high firmness using mixtures of kappa and iota carrageenan and potassium chloride. Three sizes were produced at each firmness level. Women manipulated all nine prototypes, rating them for perceived effectiveness, imagined ease-of-insertion and willingness-to-try on visual analog scales. The influence of size and firmness on these three outcome measures were assessed using ANOVA and response surface models. Results indicated size and firmness both influenced the outcome measures, but firmess was more influential than size. Also, the specific effects of size and firmness depended strongly on presence or absence of an applicator. Generally, women in the without applicator condition wanted a larger, firmer product. Collectively, these data suggest efforts to rationally design of microbicides for enhanced user acceptability must consider factors like size and firmness. Also, the decision to include or forego an applicator should be addressed early in the design process, as it strongly influences other design decisions. PMID:23358688

  1. Etanercept administration prevents the inflammatory response induced by carrageenan in the murine air pouch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Rodrigo Antônio; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases that affect approximately 1% of world's population. The development of TNF inhibitors in the last decade represents a great advance in the treatment of mild and severe forms of RA. Etanercept is one of these drugs that is useful for RA treatment, but the mechanism of inhibition of the signaling pathway of inflammation was not completely elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of etanercept in comparison to reference drugs (dexamethasone and indomethacin). Inflammation was induced by subcutaneal administration of carrageenan in the Swiss albino mice using the murine air pouch model. Exudation; leukocytes; myeloperoxidase (MPO); adenosine deaminase (ADA); nitric oxide metabolites (NOx); tumor necrosis factor (TNF); interferon gamma (IFN-γ); interleukins (IL) IL-6, IL-17, IL-10, IL-4, and IL-2; nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation and apoptosis were evaluated 24 h after the induction of inflammation. Treatment with etanercept significantly inhibited exudate concentrations; leukocyte count; MPO and ADA activities; NOx, TNF, IFN-γ, and IL-17 levels; and NF-kappa B activation (p < 0.05). Etanercept induced apoptosis, reducing the number of viable neutrophils without increasing necrosis (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of etanercept may be via decrease of NF-κB activation. This effect promoted the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NOx and the induction of neutrophil apoptosis. The effect of etanercept upon neutrophils apoptosis may indicate the use of this drug therapy in the early stage of rheumatoid arthritis disease. PMID:26255064

  2. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Two Carrageenan-based Formulations to Prevent HPV Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Aixa; Kleinbeck, Kyle; Mizenina, Olga; Kizima, Larisa; Levendosky, Keith; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Villegas, Guillermo; Ford, Brian E.; Cooney, Michael L.; Teleshova, Natalia; Robbiani, Melissa; Herold, Betsy C.; Zydowsky, Thomas; Romero, José A. Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Commercial vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) have low uptake due to parental autonomy, dosing regimen, cost, and cold chain storage requirements. Carrageenan (CG)-based formulations prevent HPV infection in vitro and in vivo but data are needed on the durability of anti-HPV activity and the effect of seminal plasma (SP). The Population Council's PC-515 gel and the lubricant Divine 9 were tested for their physicochemical properties and anti-HPV activity against HPV16, 18, and 45 pseudoviruses (PsVs). Anti-PsV activity was estimated using the luciferase assay in HeLa cells and the HPV PsV luciferase mouse model. Formulations were applied intravaginally either 2 h pre/2 h post (-2 h/+2 h) or 24 h pre (-24 h) relative to challenge with HPV16 or 45 PsV in PBS or SP/PBS. Both formulations showed broad-spectrum anti-HPV activity in vitro (IC50: 1-20ng/ml), significantly decreasing HPV PsV infection in the mouse model (-2h/+2h, p<0.0001). PC-515 protected better than Divine 9 in the -24 h dosing regimen (p<0.0001) and comparable to Divine 9 in the -2 h/+2 h regimen (p=0.9841). PC-515 retained full activity in the murine model when PsV solutions contained human SP. The durable, potential broad-spectrum anti-HPV activity of CG formulations in the presence of SP supports their further development to prevent HPV acquisition. PMID:24909570

  3. Carrageenan Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Vitro1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Borthakur, Alip; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies in animal models have shown that the commonly used food additive carrageenan (CGN) induces inflammation and intestinal neoplasia. We performed the first studies to determine the effects of CGN exposure on human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in tissue culture and tested the effect of very low concentrations (1–10 mg/L) of undegraded, high-molecular weight CGN. These concentrations of CGN are less than the anticipated exposure of the human colon to CGN from the average Western diet. In the human colonic epithelial cell line NCM460 and in primary human colonic epithelial cells that were exposed to CGN for 1–8 d, we found increased cell death, reduced cell proliferation, and cell cycle arrest compared with unexposed control cells. After 6–8 d of CGN exposure, the percentage of cells reentering G0–G1 significantly decreased and the percentages of cells in S and G2-M phases significantly increased. Increases in activated p53, p21, and p15 followed CGN exposure, consistent with CGN-induced cell cycle arrest. Additional data, including DNA ladder, poly ADP ribose polymerase Western blot, nuclear DNA staining, and activities of caspases 3 and 7, indicated no evidence of increased apoptosis following CGN exposure and were consistent with CGN-induced necrotic cell death. These data document for the first time, to our knowledge, marked adverse effects of low concentrations of CGN on survival of normal human IEC and suggest that CGN exposure may have a role in development of human intestinal pathology. PMID:18287351

  4. Foaming Properties of Whey Protein Isolate and λ-Carrageenan Mixed Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengshan; Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-08-01

    Heating protein with polysaccharide under neutral or near neutral pH can induce the formation of soluble complex with improved functional properties. The objective of our research was to investigate the effects of λ-carrageenan (λC) concentrations and pH on foaming properties of heated whey protein isolate (WPI) and λC soluble complex (h-cpx) in comparison to heated WPI with added λC (pWPI-λC), and unheated WPI with λC (WPI-λC). In all 3 WPI-λC systems at pH 7, increasing λC concentration led to improved foamability until a certain concentration before it decreased. Despite their higher viscosity, both heated systems (pWPI-λC and h-cpx) showed significantly better foamability and foam stability compared to WPI-λC. Rheological results of foams with 0.25% λC suggested that higher elasticity and viscous films were produced in h-cpx and pWPI-λC systems corresponding to better foam stability. Foam microstructure images indicated that foams produced from h-cpx had thicker film and consisted of smaller initial bubble area and more uniform bubble size. Results from the effect of pH (6.2, 6.5, and 7.0) further confirmed that stronger interactions between WPI and λC during heating contributed to the improved foaming properties. Foam stability was higher in h-cpx system at all 3 pH levels, especially under pH 6.2 where there were strongest interactions between the biopolymers. PMID:26121991

  5. Griffithsin and Carrageenan Combination To Target Herpes Simplex Virus 2 and Human Papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendosky, Keith; Mizenina, Olga; Martinelli, Elena; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Kizima, Larisa; Rodriguez, Aixa; Kleinbeck, Kyle; Bonnaire, Thierry; Robbiani, Melissa; Zydowsky, Thomas M; O'Keefe, Barry R; Fernández-Romero, José A

    2015-12-01

    Extensive preclinical evaluation of griffithsin (GRFT) has identified this lectin to be a promising broad-spectrum microbicide. We set out to explore the antiviral properties of a GRFT and carrageenan (CG) combination product against herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) as well as determine the mechanism of action (MOA) of GRFT against both viruses. We performed the experiments in different cell lines, using time-of-addition and temperature dependence experiments to differentiate inhibition of viral attachment from entry and viral receptor internalization. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to assess GRFT binding to viral glycoproteins, and immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry were used to identify the specific glycoprotein involved. We determined the antiviral activity of GRFT against HSV-2 to be a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 230 nM and provide the first evidence that GRFT has moderate anti-HPV activity (EC50 = 0.429 to 1.39 μM). GRFT blocks the entry of HSV-2 and HPV into target cells but not the adsorption of HSV-2 and HPV onto target cells. The results of the SPR, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemistry analyses of HSV-2 combined suggest that GRFT may block viral entry by binding to HSV-2 glycoprotein D. Cell-based assays suggest anti-HPV activity through α6 integrin internalization. The GRFT-CG combination product but not GRFT or CG alone reduced HSV-2 vaginal infection in mice when given an hour before challenge (P = 0.0352). While GRFT significantly protected mice against vaginal HPV infection when dosed during and after HPV16 pseudovirus challenge (P < 0.026), greater CG-mediated protection was afforded by the GRFT-CG combination for up to 8 h (P < 0.0022). These findings support the development of the GRFT-CG combination as a broad-spectrum microbicide. PMID:26369967

  6. Relationship between Mast Cells and the Colitis with Relapse Induced by Trinitrobenzesulphonic Acid in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Ana Carolina; Costa de Oliveira, Déborah Mara; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio; Gomes, José Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the role of mast cells in colitis with relapse induced in Wistar rats by trinitrobenzenosulphonic acid. Colitis induction increased the histamine concentration in the colon, which peaked on day 26. The number of mast cells, probably immature, was ten times higher on day 8. Different from animals infected with intestinal parasites, after colitis remission, mast cells do not migrate to the spleen, showing that mast cell proliferation presents different characteristics depending on the inflammation stimuli. Treatment with sulfasalazine, doxantrazole, quercetin, or nedocromil did not increase the histamine concentration or the mast cell number in the colon on day 26, thereby showing absence of degranulation of these cells. In conclusion, although mast cell proliferation is associated with colitis, these cells and their mediators appear to play no clear role in the colitis with relapses. PMID:19436763

  7. Relationship between Mast Cells and the Colitis with Relapse Induced by Trinitrobenzesulphonic Acid in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Luchini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the role of mast cells in colitis with relapse induced in Wistar rats by trinitrobenzenosulphonic acid. Colitis induction increased the histamine concentration in the colon, which peaked on day 26. The number of mast cells, probably immature, was ten times higher on day 8. Different from animals infected with intestinal parasites, after colitis remission, mast cells do not migrate to the spleen, showing that mast cell proliferation presents different characteristics depending on the inflammation stimuli. Treatment with sulfasalazine, doxantrazole, quercetin, or nedocromil did not increase the histamine concentration or the mast cell number in the colon on day 26, thereby showing absence of degranulation of these cells. In conclusion, although mast cell proliferation is associated with colitis, these cells and their mediators appear to play no clear role in the colitis with relapses.

  8. Carrageenan type effect on soybean oil/soy protein isolate emulsion employed as fat replacer in panela-type cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Nery, E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to modify the fatty acid profile of panela-type cheese (a Mexican fresh cheese, emulsified soybean oil with soy protein isolate and different carrageenan (iota, kappa or lambda was employed as fat replacer. The replacement of milk fat in panela-type cheese resulted in higher cheese yield values and moisture content, besides a concomitant lower fat phase and higher protein content, due to a soy protein isolate in emulsified soybean oil. Fat replacement resulted in a harder but less cohesive, spring and resilient texture, where differences in texture could be attributed to the specific carrageenan-casein interactions within the rennet coagulated cheese matrix. The FTIR analysis showed that the milk fat replacement changed the fatty acid profile, also in function of the type of carrageenan employed. Lambda carrageenan containing emulsions improved moisture retention and maintained the textural properties of panela-type cheese.Para modificar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los quesos tipo panela (queso fresco popular en México, se utilizó aceite de soja emulsionado con aislado de proteína de soja y diferentes carrageninas (iota, kappa o lambda como sustituto de la grasa. Reemplazar la grasa de la leche en el queso tipo panela resultó en mayor rendimiento quesero y mayor contenido de humedad, además de una concomitante menor fase grasa y mayor contenido de proteína, debido al aislado de proteína de soja en el aceite de soja emulsionado. La sustitución de la grasa dio como resultado una textura más dura, pero menos cohesiva, elástica y resiliente, donde estas diferencias podrían ser atribuidas a la interacción especifica entre carrageninas-caseinas en la matriz coagulada del queso. El análisis de FTIR muestra que reemplazar la grasa de la leche cambia el perfil de ácidos grasos, también en función del tipo de carragenina empleado. Las emulsiones con lambda carrageninas mejoraron la retención de humedad y mantuvieron las

  9. Increased lymphocyte apoptosis in mouse models of colitis upon ABT-737 treatment is dependent upon BIM expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, C; Mozaffari, M; Tosevski, V; Caj, M; Cippà, P; McRae, B L; Graff, C L; Rogler, G; Fried, M; Hausmann, M

    2015-08-01

    Exaggerated activation of lymphocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Medical therapies are linked to the BCL-2 family-mediated apoptosis. Imbalance in BCL-2 family proteins may cause failure in therapeutic responses. We investigated the role of BCL-2 inhibitor ABT-737 for lymphocyte apoptosis in mice under inflammatory conditions. B.6129P2-interleukin (IL)-10(tm1Cgn) /J (IL-10(-/-) ) weighing 25-30 g with ongoing colitis were used. Fifty mg/kg/day ABT-737 was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.). Haematological analyses were performed with an ADVIA 2120 flow cytometer and mass cytometry with a CyTOF 2. Following i.p. administration, ABT-737 was detected in both spontaneous and acute colitis in peripheral blood (PBL) and colon tissue. Treatment led to lymphopenia. CD4(+) CD44(+) CD62L(+) central memory and CD8(+) , CD44(+) CD62L(-) central memory T cells were decreased in PBL upon ABT-737 compared to vehicle-receiving controls. Increased apoptosis upon ABT-737 was determined in blood lymphocytes, splenocytes and Peyer's patches and was accompanied by a decrease in TNF and IL-1B. ABT-737 positively altered the colonic mucosa and ameliorated inflammation, as shown by colonoscopy, histology and colon length. A decreased BIM/BCL-2 ratio or absence of BIM in both Bim(-) (/) (-) and Il10(-) (/) (-) × Bim(-) (/) (-) impeded the protective effect of ABT-737. The BIM/BCL-2 ratio decreased with age and during the course of treatment. Thus, long-term treatment resulted in adapted TNF levels and macroscopic mucosal damage. ABT-737 was efficacious in diminishing lymphocytes and ameliorating colitis in a BIM-dependent manner. Regulation of inappropriate survival of lymphocytes by ABT-737 may provide a therapeutic strategy in IBD. PMID:25845418

  10. Intestine-Specific Mttp Deletion Increases the Severity of Experimental Colitis and Leads to Greater Tumor Burden in a Model of Colitis Associated Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Xie; Hitoshi Matsumoto; Ilke Nalbantoglu; Kerr, Thomas A.; Jianyang Luo; Rubin, Deborah C; Susan Kennedy; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2013-01-01

    Background Gut derived lipid factors have been implicated in systemic injury and inflammation but the precise pathways involved are unknown. In addition, dietary fat intake and obesity are independent risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer. Here we studied the severity of experimental colitis and the development of colitis associated cancer (CAC) in mice with an inducible block in chylomicron secretion and fat malabsorption, following intestine-specific deletion of microsomal t...

  11. Luminal and parenteral TFF2 and TFF3 dimer and monomer in two models of experimental colitis in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Kissow, Hannelouise; Hare, Kristine; Hartmann, Bolette; Thim, Lars

    2005-01-01

    , and both injected and orally administered TFF peptide have protective and healing functions in the gastric mucosa. AIM: To investigate the possible treatment effect of luminally and parenterally administered TFF peptides in experimental colitis in rats. METHODS: Colitis was induced by administration...... dimer 5 mg/kg twice per day throughout the study [dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)] or from day 4 to 7 (mitomycin C). Colitis severity was scored in a stereomicroscope and histologically. RESULTS: Luminal treatment with TFF3 in its dimeric form significantly improved the colitis score in both colitis...

  12. Chronic eosinophilic pancreatitis and ulcerative colitis in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breider, M A; Kiely, R G; Edwards, J F

    1985-04-15

    A generalized debilitating disease in a horse was believed to be related to hypersensitivity to migrating strongyle larvae. The clinical signs included weight loss, diarrhea, and ulcers on all 4 coronary bands. The mare's condition deteriorated rapidly, so the mare was euthanatized and necropsied. The major histopathologic findings were chronic multifocal eosinophilic pancreatitis, hepatic portal fibrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and chronic ulcerative eosinophilic colitis. This case was similar to previously reported cases of chronic eosinophilic gastroenteritis in horses. Although the etiologic agent was not evident, the distribution and character of the lesions were consistent with a hypersensitivity response to migrating parasitic larvae, most probably Strongylus equinus. PMID:3997643

  13. Increased levels of homocysteine in patients with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabiye; Akbulut; Emin; Altiparmak; Firdevs; Topal; Ersan; Ozaslan; Metin; Kucukazman; Ozlem; Yonem

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate serum levels of homocysteine (Hcys) and the risk that altered levels carry for thrombosis development in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. METHODS: 55 UC patients and 45 healthy adults were included. Hcys, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured in both groups. Clinical history and thrombo- embolic events were investigated. RESULTS: The average Hcys level in the UC patients was 13.3 ± 1.93 μmmol/L (range 4.60-87) and was higher than the average Hcys level of the control group whi...

  14. Processed coffee alleviates DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd L. Fiebich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and it has been demonstrated that it has important therapeutic activities not only because of its caffeine content but also owing to the presence of other biologically active small molecules such as chlorogenic acid, trigonelline and cyclopentadiones. However, chlorogenic acid is degraded into catechol, pyrogallol and hydroxyhydroquinone, which are thought to induce irritation of the gastric mucosa. To reduce the content of irritant compounds processing methods have been developed prior to roasting the coffee beans.Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective effects of processed coffee (Idee-Kaffee on in LPS-treated human primary monocytes and in a murine model of colon inflammation (IBD model.Results: In this study we have analyzed the effects on inflammatory events in cultured cells and in mice drinking a commercially available processed coffee. The processed coffee inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, IL-6 and IL-8, and other inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin (PGE2 and 8-isoprostane in cultured human primary monocytes. Oral administration of dissolved processed coffee, i.e., in its usual beverage form, improved greatly the adverse macroscopic and histological features of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Processed coffee not only largely prevented DSS-induced colitis but also dramatically suppressed in vivo NF-B and STAT3 activities through inhibition of IB and STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, this solubleFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(5:133-145coffee bean extract reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-11, and IL-6 and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in colonic tissues.Conclusions: This work identified

  15. Influencia de los factores emocionales en la colitis ulcerosa

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor I. Lega; Jorge Lega-Siccar

    2014-01-01

    Los resultados del análisis estadístico sugieren una diferencia entre los dos grupos de enfermos en cuanto a manifestaciones psíquicas. El patrón de la personalidad de los enfermos con colitis ulcerativa idiopática es bien definido, y lo encontrado en el grupo del presente estudio, no difiere de lo escrito en la literatura mundial. En estos pacientes se han encontrado circunstancias psíquicas o físicas, que han tenido estrecha relación con la exacerbación y persistencia de la enfermedad, así ...

  16. Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitor C75 Ameliorates Experimental Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Shingo; Yang, Weng-Lang; Aziz, Monowar; Kameoka, Shingo; Wang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Abnormalities of lipid metabolism through overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), which catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids, are associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C75 is a synthetic α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone compound that inhibits FASN activity. We hypothesized that C75 treatment could effectively reduce the severity of experimental colitis. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed 4% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 7 d. C75 (5 mg/kg body weight) or...

  17. Fecal Calprotectin and Clinical Disease Activity in Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaija-Leena Kolho; Dan Turner

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore fecal calprotectin levels in pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) in relation with the validated clinical activity index PUCAI. Methods. This study included all 37 children (median age 14 years) with UC who had calprotectin measured (PhiCal ELISA Test) by the time of PUCAI assessment at the Children's Hospital of Helsinki in a total of 62 visits. Calprotectin values 1000  μ g/g). The best cut-off value for calprotectin for predicting poor outcome was 800  μ g/g (sensitivity...

  18. Automated image analysis in the study of collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Kristensson, Martin; Engel, Ulla;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop an automated image analysis software to measure the thickness of the subepithelial collagenous band in colon biopsies with collagenous colitis (CC) and incomplete CC (CCi). The software measures the thickness of the collagenous band on microscopic...... agreement between the four pathologists and the VG app was κ=0.71. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the Visiopharm VG app is able to measure the thickness of a sub-epithelial collagenous band in colon biopsies with an accuracy comparable to the performance of a pathologist and thereby provides a promising...

  19. Smoking status influences clinical outcome in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreas, Munch; Curt, Tysk; Johan, Bohr; Ahmed, Madisch; Bonderup, Ole Kristian; Ralf, Mohrbacher; Ralph, Mueller; Roland, Greinwald; Magnus, Ström; Stephan, Miehlke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between clinical and histological parameters in collagenous colitis (CC) is poorly understood. Smoking is a risk factor for CC, whereas its impact on clinical activity and outcome is not well-known. METHODS: In a post-hoc analysis from pooled data of two randomized...... collagen band, inflammation of the lamina propria, total numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes, degeneration). Moreover, we analyzed the predictive value of baseline parameters on clinical outcome in a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Pooled data from 202 patients with active CC were available thereof...

  20. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus GG alleviated DSS-induced colitis in mice and activated epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoyo Yoda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was assessed for its ability to alleviate DSS-induced colitis in mice and activate epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. In this study mice were treated with DSS to induce colitis and they were given Lactobacillus GG fermented milk to assess the effect of probiotic on colitis. Lactobacillus GG fermented milk significantly reduced the colitis associated changes suggesting a protective effect against DSS induced colitis.