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Sample records for carrageenan causing colitis

  1. Degraded carrageenan causing colitis in rats induces TNF secretion and ICAM-1 upregulation in monocytes through NF-kappaB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Benard

    Full Text Available Carrageenan (CGN is a high molecular weight sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweeds. In rodents, its degraded forms (dCGN can induce intestinal inflammation associated with macrophage recruitment and activation. The aim of this study was: 1 to analyze the size-dependent effects of dCGN on colon inflammation in vivo, and 2 to correlate these effects with monocyte/macrophage proliferation, cytokine production and expression of various cell surface antigens including ICAM-1 adhesion molecule. Peripheral blood monocytes (PBM and THP-1 monocytic cells were cultured in the presence of either 10 or 40 kDa, dCGN. The 40 kDa, but not the 10 kDa dCGN, induced colitis in in vivo. Degraded CGN inhibited THP-1 cell proliferation in vitro, arresting the cells in G1 phase. In addition, dCGN increased ICAM-1 expression in both PBM and THP-1 cells with a major effect seen after 40 kDa dCGN exposure. Also, dCGN stimulated monocyte aggregation in vitro that was prevented by incubation with anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Finally, dCGN stimulated TNF-alpha expression and secretion by both PBM and THP-1 cells. All these effects were linked to NF-kappaB activation. These data strongly suggest that the degraded forms of CGN have a pronounced effect on monocytes, characteristic of an inflammatory phenotype.

  2. The effect of ileotransversostomy on carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1983-01-01

    By oral administration of degraded carrageenan a colitis-like disease can be induced in guinea pigs which almost exclusively affects the caecum. To study the effect of degraded carrageenan on the distal colon and rectum, an ileotransversostomy was performed. In the non-operated group of animals...

  3. The prophylactic effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid and salazosulphapyridine on degraded-carrageenan-induced colitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Experimental colitis was induced in guinea pigs by administration of 5% degraded carrageenan for 5 days. The prophylactic effect of a slow-release preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA; 13 mg/100 g/day) was compared with approximately equimolar amounts of salazosulphapyridine (SASP; 26 mg/100....... In the placebo group, all guinea pigs developed many small punctiform ulcerations in the cecum (median, 30/cm2). In the 5-ASA group no protective effect was demonstrated, since the number of ulcerations was 37/cm2. The difference is not statistically significant. However, the SASP group presented significantly...

  4. Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by a virus or a parasite Food poisoning due to bacteria Crohn disease Lack of blood flow (ischemic colitis) Past radiation to the large bowel (radiation stricture) Necrotizing enterocolitis ...

  5. Pseudomembranous Colitis: Not Always Caused by Clostridium difficile

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    Derek M. Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although classically pseudomembranous colitis is caused by Clostridium difficile, it can result from several etiologies. Certain medications, chemical injury, collagenous colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia, and other infectious pathogens can reportedly cause mucosal injury and subsequent pseudomembrane formation. We present the case of a middle-aged woman with vascular disease who was incorrectly diagnosed with refractory C. difficile infection due to the presence of pseudomembranes. Further imaging, endoscopy, and careful histopathology review revealed chronic ischemia as the cause of her pseudomembranous colitis and diarrhea. This case highlights the need for gastroenterologists to consider non-C. difficile etiologies when diagnosing pseudomembranous colitis.

  6. [Microscopic colitis - a frequent cause of chronic diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonciarz, Maciej; Mularczyk, Aldona; Kowalik, Tomasz; Kopała, Marek

    2016-11-25

    Chronic diarrhea is a very common problem in the general population. It requires a physician to differentiate its causes and depending on its etiology referring the patient to a hospital for diagnosis and subsequent treatment. One of the causes of chronic diarrhea may be microscopic colitis, which is characterized by the presence of clinical symptoms without endoscopic or radiological abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on a histopathological examination of the colon and thus clinical suspicion of the disease is so important for further diagnosis and treatment, which is primarily based on the use of topical steroids such as budesonide. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  7. Epithelial apoptosis: cause or consequence of ulcerative colitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epithelial apoptosis rates are increased in ulcerative colitis (UC). The increased apoptosis rate could expose mucosal cells to luminal pathogens and thereby be regarded as a primary pathogenic factor in UC. On the other hand, the local inflammatory reaction could cause epithelial...... apoptosis secondary to the release of cytotoxic mediators. If apoptosis is a primary defect, apoptosis rates could influence the degree of spreading of inflammation and the clinical course of UC. If apoptosis is a side effect of local inflammation, apoptosis rates would be expected only to correlate...

  8. Collagenous colitis as a possible cause of toxic megacolon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, S C

    2009-03-01

    Collagenous colitis is a microscopic colitis characterized by normal appearing colonic mucosa on endoscopy. It is regarded as a clinically benign disease which rarely results in serious complications. We report a case of toxic megacolon occurring in a patient with collagenous colitis. This is the first reported case of toxic megacolon occurring in this subset of patients.

  9. 5-Aminosalicylate intolerance causing exacerbation in pediatric ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hirotaka; Arai, Katsuhiro; Tang, Julian; Hosoi, Kenji; Funayama, Rie

    2017-05-01

    5-Aminosalicylate (5-ASA) is widely used as the first-line drug for ulcerative colitis (UC). 5-ASA is mostly a safe and effective drug, but it can bring about exacerbation due to 5-ASA intolerance. 5-ASA intolerance can be confusing and it can mislead physicians into considering unnecessary treatment escalation, including corticosteroid (CS), biologics, or even surgery. In spite of the clinical importance of 5-ASA intolerance, there have been few studies on its incidence, clinical features, and diagnosis. In order to evaluate the incidence, characteristic symptoms, disease course, and laboratory data of children with 5-ASA intolerance, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 80 children with UC. Eleven of 80 children (13.8%) with UC were diagnosed with 5-ASA intolerance. The median time between the initiation of 5-ASA and the onset of 5-ASA intolerance was 10 days (range, 4-20 days) in patients not receiving CS. Drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) was performed in 10 patients, and was positive in eight. C-reactive protein (CRP) increased significantly when exacerbation of colitis symptoms occurred. The incidence of 5-ASA intolerance was relatively high. Besides the challenge test, elevation of CRP and positive DLST appeared to support the diagnosis of 5-ASA intolerance. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. A case of obstructive colitis caused by rectal stenosis and adhesion due to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochika, Naoshige; Sugimoto, Takeki; Takano, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Michiya; Matsuura, Kimio; Araki, Keijiro

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of obstructive colitis associated with rectal stenosis and adhesion due to irradiation. A 68-year-old woman who had been suffering from constipation after an episode of irradiation for cervical cancer of the uterus two years previously was admitted to our hospital complaining of the lower abdominal pain. After two days, an operation was performed under a diagnosis or panperitonitis. Stenosis and adhesion of the rectum and necrosis at the oral side of the adhesion was recognized. Histologically, necrosis of the rectum from mucosa to serosa was recognized, and no neoplastic change was seen at the stenotic portion. The most common cause of local stenosis of the colon leading to obstructive colitis is colon cancer. Obstructive colitis caused by a benign stenosis as reported here is rare. (author)

  11. A case of obstructive colitis caused by rectal stenosis and adhesion due to irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochika, Naoshige; Sugimoto, Takeki; Takano, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Michiya; Matsuura, Kimio; Araki, Keijiro [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We report a case of obstructive colitis associated with rectal stenosis and adhesion due to irradiation. A 68-year-old woman who had been suffering from constipation after an episode of irradiation for cervical cancer of the uterus two years previously was admitted to our hospital complaining of the lower abdominal pain. After two days, an operation was performed under a diagnosis or panperitonitis. Stenosis and adhesion of the rectum and necrosis at the oral side of the adhesion was recognized. Histologically, necrosis of the rectum from mucosa to serosa was recognized, and no neoplastic change was seen at the stenotic portion. The most common cause of local stenosis of the colon leading to obstructive colitis is colon cancer. Obstructive colitis caused by a benign stenosis as reported here is rare. (author)

  12. Repeated Predictable Stress Causes Resilience against Colitis-Induced Behavioral Changes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of mental disorders and can be exacerbated by stress. In this study which was performed with male 10-week old C57Bl/6N mice, we used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis to evaluate behavioral changes caused by intestinal inflammation, to assess the interaction between repeated psychological stress (water avoidance stress, WAS and colitis in modifying behavior, and to analyze neurochemical correlates of this interaction. A 7-day treatment with DSS (2 % in drinking water decreased locomotion and enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and reduced social interaction. Repeated exposure to WAS for 7 days had little influence on behavior but prevented the DSS-induced behavioral disturbances in the open field and social interaction tests. In contrast, repeated WAS did not modify colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase content and circulating proinflammatory cytokines, parameters used to assess colitis severity. DSS-induced colitis was associated with an increase in circulating neuropeptide Y (NPY, a rise in the hypothalamic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and a decrease in the hippocampal expression of NPY mRNA, brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA. Repeated WAS significantly decreased the relative expression of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in the hippocampus. The effect of repeated WAS to blunt the DSS-evoked behavioral disturbances was associated with a rise of circulating corticosterone and an increase in the expression of hypothalamic NPY mRNA. These results show that experimental colitis leads to a particular range of behavioral alterations which can be prevented by repeated WAS, a model of predictable chronic stress, while the severity of colitis remains unabated. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying the resilience effect of repeated WAS involves hypothalamic NPY and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  13. Ischemic Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leiden, may increase the risk of ischemic colitis. High cholesterol, which can lead to atherosclerosis. Reduced blood flow, due to heart failure, low blood pressure and shock. Previous abdominal surgery. Scar tissue that forms after surgery may cause ...

  14. Fulminant pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 in a healthy young woman in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Kou, Tadayuki; Kato, Haru; Watanabe, Masaki; Uno, Shoichi; Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Fukuda, Tadashi; Hata, Atsuko; Yazumi, Shujiro

    2014-11-01

    In the past two decades, Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction ribotype 027 strain has rapidly emerged as the leading cause of antibiotic-associated colitis in North America and Europe; however, it has been reported only occasionally in Japan. We report a case of fulminant pseudomembranous colitis caused by this strain in a healthy young woman in Japan without any previous medical history. The strain isolated from our patient was susceptible to both gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin, thus representing a historic strain. The acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance was reported as the important key genetic event linked to the virulence of this strain. It is noteworthy that the fluoroquinolone-susceptible 027 strain caused fulminant colitis in a healthy young woman in a non-endemic area. Our experience suggests that C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 has the potential virulence factors that are not associated with a fluoroquinolone resistance-conferring mutation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease that causes inflammation and sores, called ulcers, in the lining of the rectum and ... colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy, and imaging tests to diagnose UC. Several types of ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  16. [Coffee enema induced acute colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Jung; Song, Seung Kyun; Jeon, Jin Ho; Sung, Mi Kyung; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Youn Soo

    2008-10-01

    Rectal enema used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes infrequently causes colitis. In medical practice, enemas are known to incidentally bring about colitis by mechanical, thermal, or direct chemical injuries. Coffee enema is told to ameliorate the constipation in alternative medicine. We hereby report a case of acute colitis resulting from coffee enema, which was presented with severe abdominal pain and hematochezia.

  17. Synergistic effect of κ-carrageenan on oxazolone-induced inflammation in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Feng; Gao, Xin; Niu, Tingting; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Yan, Xiaojun; Chen, Haimin

    2016-03-25

    Carrageenan is a traditional ingredient that has been widely used in the food industry. In the present study, we propose a hypothesis that carrageenan is a conditional inflammatory agent. When the intestinal tract is in an "unhealthy" state such as that during bacterial infection or acute inflammation, carrageenan can synergistically enhance the inflammatory response. BALB/C mice received κ-carrageenan via intragastric administration prior to the induction of oxazolone colitis. Weight changes, survival rate, histologic change, secretion of inflammatory cytokines, ratio of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in peripheral blood, and expression of genes and proteins involved in inflammation and cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa were examined. Intragastric administration of κ-carrageenan to BALB/c mice prior to the induction of oxazolone colitis resulted in an aggravation of body weight loss, a decrease in the survival ratio, aggravation of colonic inflammation, and decrease in the ratio of CD4 + CD25+/CD4+. The secretion of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) also significantly increased after κ-carrageenan administration. κ-Carrageenan, together with oxazolone, suppressed the expression of forkhead box p3 (FOXp3) and increased the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the colonic mucosa. These results were confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot analyses at the molecular and protein levels, respectively. κ-Carrageenan aggravated oxazolone-induced intestinal inflammation in BALB/c mice. This effect is associated with an activation of the TLR4-NF-κB pathway, a decreased ratio of Tregs, and the induction of Th2-dependent immune responses.

  18. Choline Deficiency Causes Colonic Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Loss and Alleviates Murine Colitis under Type I NKT Cell Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagami, Shintaro; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Shinji; Fujita, Akira; Niitsu, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Ryohei; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Hinoi, Takao; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of choline and its derivatives are lower in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in healthy individuals. However, the effect of choline deficiency on the severity of colitis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of choline deficiency in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet lowered the levels of type II natural killer T (NKT) cells in the colonic lamina propria, peritoneal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes, and increased the levels of type II NKT cells in the livers of wild-type B6 mice compared with that in mice fed a control (CTR) diet. The gene expression pattern of the chemokine receptor CXCR6, which promotes NKT cell accumulation, varied between colon and liver in a manner dependent on the changes in the type II NKT cell levels. To examine the role of type II NKT cells in colitis under choline-deficient conditions, we assessed the severity of DSS-induced colitis in type I NKT cell-deficient (Jα18-/-) or type I and type II NKT cell-deficient (CD1d-/-) mice fed the MCD or CTR diets. The MCD diet led to amelioration of inflammation, decreases in interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 secretion, and a decrease in the number of IFN-γ and IL-4-producing NKT cells in Jα18-/- mice but not in CD1d-/- mice. Finally, adaptive transfer of lymphocytes with type II NKT cells exacerbated DSS-induced colitis in Jα18-/- mice with MCD diet. These results suggest that choline deficiency causes proinflammatory type II NKT cell loss and alleviates DSS-induced colitis. Thus, inflammation in DSS-induced colitis under choline deficiency is caused by type II NKT cell-dependent mechanisms, including decreased type II NKT cell and proinflammatory cytokine levels.

  19. Iota-Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of rhinovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Christiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs are the predominant cause of common cold. In addition, HRVs are implicated in the worsening of COPD and asthma, as well as the loss of lung transplants. Despite significant efforts, no anti-viral agent is approved for the prevention or treatment of HRV-infection. Results In this study we demonstrate that Iota-Carrageenan, a sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweed, is a potent anti-rhinoviral substance in-vitro. Iota-Carrageenan reduces HRV growth and inhibits the virus induced cythopathic effect of infected HeLa cells. In addition, Iota-Carrageenan effectively prevents the replication of HRV1A, HRV2, HRV8, HRV14, HRV16, HRV83 and HRV84 in primary human nasal epithelial cells in culture. The data suggest that Iota-Carrageenan acts primarily by preventing the binding or the entry of virions into the cells. Conclusion Since HRV infections predominately occur in the nasal cavity and the upper respiratory tract, a targeted treatment with a product containing Iota-Carrageenan is conceivable. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether Iota-Carrageenan-based products are effective in the treatment or prophylaxis of HRV infections.

  20. CD3 immunohistochemical staining in diagnosis of lymphocytic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Engel, Ulla; Holck, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea. Traditionally, MC encompasses the 2 subgroups lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis, but recently, an additional subgroup, MC incomplete, has been introduced. Distinguishing between the subgroups relies exclusively...

  1. 21 CFR 172.620 - Carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.620 Carrageenan. The food additive carrageenan may be...

  2. Ischaemic colitis and lung infiltrates caused by extramedullary haematopoiesis in a patient with an acute erythroid leukaemia following polycythaemia vera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brada, SJL; de Wolf, JTM; Poppema, S; Vellenga, E

    A patient with 'spent' polycythaemia vera showed extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in non-haematopoietic tissue clinically resulting in an ischaemic colitis and respiratory symptoms due to lung infiltrates. On laboratory investigation, the EMH also included immature erythroblasts due to

  3. Antioxidant activity potential of gamma irradiated carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Racadio, Charles Darwin T.; Aranilla, Charito T.; De la Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of irradiated κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans were investigated using the hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay. The degree of oxidative inhibition increased with increasing concentration and dose. The type of carrageenan had also an influence on its antioxidant activity which followed the order of lambda< iota< kappa. Increase in oxidative property with radiation dose can be attributed mainly to the depolymerization of the carrageenans with corresponding increase in reducing sugar. The antioxidant properties of these carrageenan oligomers were lower than that of ascorbic acid and galactose sugar. - Highlights: • The antioxidant capacity of gamma irradiated κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans increased with increasing concentration and dose. • The type of carrageenan had an influence on its antioxidant activity which followed the order of lambda< iota< kappa. • Increase in oxidative property with radiation dose can be attributed mainly to the depolymerization of the carrageenans with corresponding increase in reducing sugar

  4. Entamoeba moshkovskii is associated with diarrhea in infants and causes diarrhea and colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Chikako; Kabir, Mamun; Taniuchi, Mami; Mondal, Dinesh; Kobayashi, Seiki; Ali, Ibne Karim M; Sobuz, Shihab U; Senba, Masachika; Houpt, Eric; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2012-09-01

    Entamoeba moshkovskii is prevalent in developing countries and morphologically indistinguishable from pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and nonpathogenic Entamoeba dispar. It is not known if E. moshkovskii is pathogenic. Mice were intracecally challenged with the trophozoites of each Entamoeba spp. to test the ability to cause diarrhea, and infants in Bangladesh were prospectively observed to see if newly acquired E. moshkovskii infection was associated with diarrhea. E. moshkovskii and E. histolytica caused diarrhea and weight loss in susceptible mice. E. dispar infected none of the mouse strains tested. In Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh, E. moshkovskii, E. histolytica, and E. dispar were identified in 42 (2.95%), 66 (4.63%), and 5 (0.35%), respectively, of 1426 diarrheal episodes in 385 children followed prospectively from birth to one year of age. Diarrhea occurred temporally with acquisition of a new E. moshkovskii infection: in the 2 months preceding E. moshkvskii-associated diarrhea, 86% (36 of 42) of monthly surveillance stool samples were negative for E. moshkovskii. E. moshkovskii was found to be pathogenic in mice. In children, the acquisition of E. moshkovskii infection was associated with diarrhea. These data are consistent with E. moshkovskii causing disease, indicating that it is important to reexamine its pathogenicity.

  5. Microscopic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münch, A; Aust, D; Bohr, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is an inflammatory bowel disease presenting with chronic, non-bloody watery diarrhoea and few or no endoscopic abnormalities. The histological examination reveals mainly two subtypes of MC, lymphocytic or collagenous colitis. Despite the fact that the incidence in MC has...... been rising over the last decades, research has been sparse and our knowledge about MC remains limited. Specialists in the field have initiated the European Microscopic Colitis Group (EMCG) with the primary goal to create awareness on MC. The EMCG is furthermore a forum with the intention to promote...

  6. Production of carrageenan from seaweed (Eucheuma cottoni) with KOH treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninghidayati, Suci; Arina Nurlaili, R.; Gunardi, Ignatius; Roesyadi, Achmad

    2017-05-01

    Eucheuma Cottoni is one type of seaweed that is widely used. This seaweed contains carrageenan in the range of 61.5-67.5 % on a dry weight basis. Carrageenan is a hydrocolloid compound that consists of ester potassium, sodium, magnesium and potassium sulphate with copolymer 3.6-anhydrogalactose. This research is aimed to study the effect of the concentration of alkaline solution (KOH), temperature, time and the concentration of salt solution (KCl) on the yield and gel strength of carrageenan generated in the extraction process. The best process conditions such as the concentration of KOH, temperature and time were found to obtain the best quality of carrageenan in terms of gel strength quality. The research procedure consisted of the preparation of raw materials, KOH treatment, and the extraction process with water. In the KOH treatment, process consists of several variables i.e. the KOH concentration in range of 4-10%, treatment temperature from 60 to 90 °C, and treatment time from 60 to 150 minutes. In the extraction process, KCl concentrations in the range of 0.2-0.5 N were used. Carrageenan yield is calculated and analyzed in terms gel strength. The results indicate that the increase of KOH concentration and treatment time caused an increase of yield and gel strength. The same result also indicate that the increase of treatment temperature caused the increase of yield. Meanwhile based on the gel strength test, the temperature in KOH treatment of 80 °C resulted in the higher value. The KCl concentration does not affect the yield and gel strength but affects the speed of penjendalan. In KOH treatment, the best process conditions to produce the best gel strength quality are 10% KOH aqueous solution, the treatment temperature of 80 °C, and the treatment time of 150 minutes.

  7. Addition of carrageenan at different stages of winemaking for white wine protein stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Matteo; Stockdale, Vanessa J; Munro, Peter; Trethewey, Timra; Schulkin, Alex; Holt, Helen E; Smith, Paul A

    2013-07-03

    Carrageenan added at different stages of winemaking was assessed for its protein removal and impact on wine heat stability and on the chemical and sensorial profile of the wines. Carrageenan was added to a Semillon during fermentation and after fermentation and to finished wines, and the effect of each addition was compared to that of bentonite fining at the same time point. Data on protein concentration, heat stability, and bentonite requirement indicate that when added at the correct dosage carrageenan was very effective in stabilizing wines at dosages at least three times lower than those of bentonite. In addition, carrageenan treatment did not cause an increase in lees volume relative to bentonite and resulted in very similar chemical parameters to the unfined and bentonite-treated wine. Sensorially, although carrageenan-treated wine was significantly different from the unfined wine, the magnitude of difference did not vary significantly when compared to bentonite treatment. The feasibility of carrageenan use in a winery production setting will need to be determined by individual wineries, as technical issues including frothing, slower filterability, and risk of overfining will need to be considered relative to the benefits, particularly when carrageenan is used before or during fermentation.

  8. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  9. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  10. Biological activities of radiation-degraded carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relleve, Lorna; Dela Rosa, Alumanda; ABAD, Lucille; Aranilla, Charito; Aliganga, Anne Kathrina; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu; Nagasawa, Naotsugu

    2001-01-01

    Carrageenans were irradiated in solid state to doses 50-1000 kGy in air at ambient temperature. Changes in their molecular weight and functional properties with respect to their FT-IR and UV spectra were evaluated. Irradiation of carrageenans resulted in a rapid decrease of molecular weight indicating main chain scission in their polymeric structures. Formations of some compounds were evident by new absorption peaks in their UV and FT-IR spectra and quantitative analyses of the FT-IR spectra which, in addition, support that there is a breakdown in the carrageenan structure. Irradiated carrageenans were investigated for their plant growth-promoting activity. Carrageenans were added to the nutrient solutions for rice seedlings under non-circulating hydroponics cultivation. Irradiated carrageenan induced weight gain in treated rice seedlings. Maximum weight gain was obtained with KC irradiated at 100 kGy while treatment with IC at 500 kGy. IC exhibited less growth promoting properties than KC. The growth of fungi on the roots disappeared with treatment of IC and KC irradiated at 500 kGy. Growth promotion of some leafy vegetables was also observed with application of degraded KC. The carrageenan molecule has been broken down to smaller molecule (s) or compound (s) that can be absorbed effectively as nourishment factors and anti-microbial agents by plants. (author)

  11. Radiation processing of carrageenan using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, L.V.; Aranilla, C.T.; Relleve, L.; Dela Rosa, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Electron beam accelerator has been widely employed in the modification of natural polymers for the development of materials used in biomedical and agricultural applications. The carrageenans are among these materials that show a vast potential for these types of applications. Previous studies at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute focused on the utilization of gamma radiation to modify the carrageenans. Radiation degradation of carrageenan found valuable use as plant growth promoter. Hydrogels for burn dressing using blends of carrageenan and synthetic polymers have also been made using gamma radiation. While previous studies have been focused on the use of gamma radiation to modify the carrageenans, recent studies expanded the technology to electron beam. Concretely, researches are along the following two areas: a) Degradation studies of aqueous carrageenan using the LEEB and b) Preparation of blend polysaccharide derivatives such as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) with kappa-carrageenan (KC) by EB radiation. These works were done at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE) by two PNRI colleagues under the nuclear researcher exchange program of the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The first area had already been reported and discussed in the last project meeting held in Malaysia. (author)

  12. Colitis ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Jess, Tine; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a prevalent inflammatory bowel disease of the colonic mucosa affecting approximately 20,000-25,000 Danes. Apart from subgroups with early onset, extensive and long-standing inflammation, or primary sclerosing cholangitis the risk of developing colorectal cancer is of th......Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a prevalent inflammatory bowel disease of the colonic mucosa affecting approximately 20,000-25,000 Danes. Apart from subgroups with early onset, extensive and long-standing inflammation, or primary sclerosing cholangitis the risk of developing colorectal cancer...

  13. Colitis ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Jess, Tine; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a prevalent inflammatory bowel disease of the colonic mucosa affecting approximately 20,000-25,000 Danes. Apart from subgroups with early onset, extensive and long-standing inflammation, or primary sclerosing cholangitis the risk of developing colorectal cancer...

  14. Stereomicroscopic and histologic changes in the colon of guinea pigs fed degraded carrageenan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1980-01-01

    A colitis-like state induced in Guinea Pigs fed degraded carrageenan orally. By means of a combined semimacroscopic and histologic technique the course of the disease was followed during 28 days. The changes were primarily seen and became most prominent in the caecum. The first lesions were...... observed following 24 hours of treatment as small rounded foci initially with degenerative changes and inflammation in the surface epithelium, later forming superficial focal ulcerations. Ulcerative changes gradually progressed during the experiment, forming linear and later large, geographical ulcerations...

  15. Radiolysis studies of aqueous kappa-carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V., E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.p [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Kudo, H. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Saiki, S. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nagasawa, N.; Tamada, M. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Fu, H.; Muroya, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Lin, M.; Katsumura, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Relleve, L.S.; Aranilla, C.T.; DeLaRosa, A.M. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2010-05-15

    The effects on N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} gas on the radiation degradation yield of aqueous kappa (kappa-) carrageenan were investigated. The G{sub d} of solution saturated with N{sub 2}O solution was expectedly much higher than in air (1.7 and 1.2 x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1}). On the other hand, a lower G{sub d} of 1.1 x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1} was obtained from kappa-carrageenan solution saturated with N{sub 2}. The rate constant of reaction of OH radicals with sonicated and irradiated kappa-carrageenan were determined using e-beam pulse radiolysis. The rate constant of OH{sup c}entre dot interaction with sonicated kappa-carrageenan decreased with decreasing molecular weight. On the other hand, the OH{sup c}entre dot interaction with irradiated kappa-carrageenan decreased but did not vary significantly with decreasing molecular weight. Metal ion (Na{sup +}) induced conformational transition into helical form decreased the rate constant of OH{sup c}entre dot reaction with kappa-carrageenan. Likewise, the G{sub d} in aqueous form was affected by the conformational state of kappa-carrageenan. The helical conformation gave a lower G{sub d} (7 x 10{sup -8} mol J{sup -1}) than the coiled conformation (G{sub d} = 1.2 x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1}).

  16. Pharmacological importance of sulphated polysaccharide carrageenan from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii in comparison with commercial carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Arumugampillai Manimehalai; Sanjivkumar, Muthusamy; Chandran, Manohar Navin; Palavesam, Arunachalam; Immanuel, Grasian

    2016-12-01

    Pharmacological properties of native carrageenan (κ) extracted from Kappaphycus alvarezii and commercial carrageenan (Sigma-Aldrich) were evaluated using in vitro antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic studies. Phytochemical analysis of native and commercial carrageenans showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, gums & mucilages and carbohydrate. Both native and commercial carrageenans exhibited better antioxidant activities such as total antioxidant capacity (87±0.47 and 82.6±0.47μg A.A/g), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (61.4±0.27 and 58.66±0.31μg/ml), nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (80.42±0.22 and 73.66±0.22μg/ml), DPPH radical scavenging activity (56.26±0.20 and 53.67±0.082μg/ml) and reducing power assay (46.57±0.32 and 42.54±0.27μg/ml) at the maximum concentration of 100μg/ml carrageenans. These results indicated that native carrageenan from K. alvarezii possessed better antioxidant potential in comparison with commercial carrageenan. Anticancer activities of both carrageenans showed excellent inhibition on the growth of breast, colon, liver and osteosarcoma cell lines at the maximum concentration of 150μg/ml. Native carrageenan exhibited an excellent anticancer activity on colon carcinoma cell lines (67.66±0.168%) with the IC 50 value of 73.87μg/ml and commercial carrageenan possessed a potent inhibition on the growth of breast cancer cell lines (67.33±0.077%) with the IC 50 value of 123.8μg/ml. These results clearly indicated the beneficial effect of native and commercial carrageenans as anticancer agents being a free radical scavenger. Anti-diabetic property of both carrageenans showed inhibition effect on α- glucosidase enzyme. The inhibitory effect depends on concentration of carrageenans and it was recorded that maximum (74.49±1.05 and 67.42±0.63) inhibitory effect of α- glucosidase enzyme at 500μg/ml concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and Biliary cirrhosis associated with Ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Ahmed Khan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary sclerosing cholangitis and Ulcerative colitis are caused by progressive inflammation of the bile duct and large intestine respectively. The existence of any plausible association between Primary sclerosing cholangitis and Ulcerative colitis remains highly elusive. Little is known about the incidence and prevalence of primary sclerosing cholangitis with concomitant Ulcerative colitis in the Indian subcontinent. We report a case of Primary sclerosing cholangitis with long standing Ulcerative colitis which later also developed Primary biliary cirrhosis.

  18. Microscopic colitis : an unfamiliar but treatable disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, E. J.; Karrenbeld, A.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Dijkstra, G.

    Chronic diarrhoea is a frequent complaint in clinical practice. Microscopic colitis is the cause of this symptom in 10% of these cases and the prevalence is rising. To exclude microscopic colitis a colonoscopy with multiple biopsies of different regions of the colon is mandatory. A sigmoidoscopy

  19. Interactions of different carrageenan isoforms and flour components in breadmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, A E; Ribotta, P D; Ausar, S F; Fernández, C; Lanada, C A; Beltramo, D M

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of carrageenans with different sulfate contents on bread volume and dough rheological properties. Results showed that only lambda carrageenan, the most sulfated isoform, produced a significant increase in bread volume. In contrast, the different carrageenans induced a negative effect on the cookie factor. Alveographic and farinographic analyses indicated that dough rheological properties were differentially modified depending on whether lambda carrageenan was added to flour and then hydrated or vice versa. Analysis of the interaction between lambda carrageenan and flour components by infrared spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE indicated that a pool of low molecular weight hydrophobic gluten proteins interact with carrageenan. This interaction drastically changes their physicochemical properties since carrageenan-gluten protein complexes show a hydrophilic behavior. In addition, the results indicate that carrageenan sulfate groups and probably the amino groups of glutamines present in the primary structure of gluten proteins are involved in the interaction.

  20. Fish Oil Attenuates Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Induced Dysbiosis and Infectious Colitis but Impairs LPS Dephosphorylation Activity Causing Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirsty; Rajendiran, Ethendhar; Estaki, Mehrbod; Dai, Chuanbin; Yip, Ashley; Gibson, Deanna L.

    2013-01-01

    Clinically, excessive ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and inadequate ω-3 PUFA have been associated with enhanced risks for developing ulcerative colitis. In rodent models, ω-3 PUFAs have been shown to either attenuate or exacerbate colitis in different studies. We hypothesized that a high ω-6: ω-3 PUFA ratio would increase colitis susceptibility through the microbe-immunity nexus. To address this, we fed post-weaned mice diets rich in ω-6 PUFA (corn oil) and diets supplemented with ω-3 PUFA (corn oil+fish oil) for 5 weeks. We evaluated the intestinal microbiota, induced colitis with Citrobacter rodentium and followed disease progression. We found that ω-6 PUFA enriched the microbiota with Enterobacteriaceae, Segmented Filamentous Bacteria and Clostridia spp., all known to induce inflammation. During infection-induced colitis, ω-6 PUFA fed mice had exacerbated intestinal damage, immune cell infiltration, prostaglandin E2 expression and C. rodentium translocation across the intestinal mucosae. Addition of ω-3 PUFA on a high ω-6 PUFA diet, reversed inflammatory-inducing microbial blooms and enriched beneficial microbes like Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria, reduced immune cell infiltration and impaired cytokine/chemokine induction during infection. While, ω-3 PUFA supplementation protected against severe colitis, these mice suffered greater mortality associated with sepsis-related serum factors such as LPS binding protein, IL-15 and TNF-α. These mice also demonstrated decreased expression of intestinal alkaline phosphatase and an inability to dephosphorylate LPS. Thus, the colonic microbiota is altered differentially through varying PUFA composition, conferring altered susceptibility to colitis. Overall, ω-6 PUFA enriches pro-inflammatory microbes and augments colitis; but prevents infection-induced systemic inflammation. In contrast, ω-3 PUFA supplementation reverses the effects of the ω-6 PUFA diet but impairs infection-induced responses

  1. Fish oil attenuates omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced dysbiosis and infectious colitis but impairs LPS dephosphorylation activity causing sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Ghosh

    Full Text Available Clinically, excessive ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA and inadequate ω-3 PUFA have been associated with enhanced risks for developing ulcerative colitis. In rodent models, ω-3 PUFAs have been shown to either attenuate or exacerbate colitis in different studies. We hypothesized that a high ω-6: ω-3 PUFA ratio would increase colitis susceptibility through the microbe-immunity nexus. To address this, we fed post-weaned mice diets rich in ω-6 PUFA (corn oil and diets supplemented with ω-3 PUFA (corn oil+fish oil for 5 weeks. We evaluated the intestinal microbiota, induced colitis with Citrobacter rodentium and followed disease progression. We found that ω-6 PUFA enriched the microbiota with Enterobacteriaceae, Segmented Filamentous Bacteria and Clostridia spp., all known to induce inflammation. During infection-induced colitis, ω-6 PUFA fed mice had exacerbated intestinal damage, immune cell infiltration, prostaglandin E2 expression and C. rodentium translocation across the intestinal mucosae. Addition of ω-3 PUFA on a high ω-6 PUFA diet, reversed inflammatory-inducing microbial blooms and enriched beneficial microbes like Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria, reduced immune cell infiltration and impaired cytokine/chemokine induction during infection. While, ω-3 PUFA supplementation protected against severe colitis, these mice suffered greater mortality associated with sepsis-related serum factors such as LPS binding protein, IL-15 and TNF-α. These mice also demonstrated decreased expression of intestinal alkaline phosphatase and an inability to dephosphorylate LPS. Thus, the colonic microbiota is altered differentially through varying PUFA composition, conferring altered susceptibility to colitis. Overall, ω-6 PUFA enriches pro-inflammatory microbes and augments colitis; but prevents infection-induced systemic inflammation. In contrast, ω-3 PUFA supplementation reverses the effects of the ω-6 PUFA diet but impairs infection

  2. Microscopic Colitis: Collagenous Colitis and Lymphocytic Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Diverticular Disease Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Dumping Syndrome ...

  3. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ying Lean

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF or intraperitoneal administration (DPF. Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could

  4. Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: Emotional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... think that IBD is caused by being “overly emotional.” It is very important to correct this common and erroneous impression. ARE CERTAIN PERSONALITY TYPES MORE PRONE TO DEVELOP ULCERATIVE COLITIS OR ...

  5. Non-clinical safety evaluation of intranasal iota-carrageenan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Hebar

    Full Text Available Carrageenan has been widely used as food additive for decades and therefore, an extended oral data set is available in the public domain. Less data are available for other routes of administration, especially intranasal administration. The current publication describes the non-clinical safety and toxicity of native (non-degraded iota-carrageenan when applied intranasally or via inhalation. Intranasally applied iota-carrageenan is a topically applied, locally acting compound with no need of systemic bioavailability for the drug's action. Animal experiments included repeated dose local tolerance and toxicity studies with intranasally applied 0.12% iota-carrageenan for 7 or 28 days in New Zealand White rabbits and nebulized 0.12% iota-carrageenan administered to F344 rats for 7 days. Permeation studies revealed no penetration of iota-carrageenan across nasal mucosa, demonstrating that iota-carrageenan does not reach the blood stream. Consistent with this, no relevant toxic or secondary pharmacological effects due to systemic exposure were observed in the rabbit or rat repeated dose toxicity studies. Data do not provide any evidence for local intolerance or toxicity, when carrageenan is applied intranasally or by inhalation. No signs for immunogenicity or immunotoxicity have been observed in the in vivo studies. This is substantiated by in vitro assays showing no stimulation of a panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines by iota-carrageenan. In conclusion, 0.12% iota-carrageenan is safe for clinical use via intranasal application.

  6. Colitis of Behcet's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, D.J.; Courtney, J.V.; Riddell, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Three patients with Behcet's syndrome and colitis are described. The radiologic and histologic appearances of the colitis are discussed. The similarities of Behcet's colitis to Crohn's disease are outlined. The cases demonstrate the necessity to consider Behcet's syndrome in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. (orig.) [de

  7. Acetylsalicylic acid-tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane reduces colon mucosal damage without causing gastric side effects in a rat model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Gabriella; Ugocsai, Melinda; Hartmann, Petra; Lajkó, Norbert; Molnár, Réka; Szűcs, Szilárd; Jász, Dávid Kurszán; Érces, Dániel; Ghyczy, Miklós; Tóth, Gábor; Boros, Mihály

    2018-02-01

    We have developed a novel compound from acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (Tris) precursors with ASA-like anti-inflammatory efficacy and reduced the mucosa-damaging side-effects. Our aim was to examine local and remote consequences of ASA-Tris administration in 2-,4-,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis as compared to ASA or mesalamine (5-aminosalicylate) treatment. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to five groups (n = 6, each), and TNBS enemas were performed. Group 1 was the negative control; group 2 was the untreated colitis group. 12 hour after colitis induction repeated doses of ASA, ASA-Tris (both 0.55 mmol/kg) and mesalamine (0.77 mmol/kg) were given 3 times daily for 3 days to groups 3-5. On day 3 of colitis, the in vivo histology of the colon and stomach was investigated. Tissue xanthine-oxidoreductase, myeloperoxidase, nitrite/nitrate changes, and circulating TNF-alpha levels were measured. In addition, liver mitochondria were examined with high-resolution respirometry to analyze alterations in the electron transport chain. TNBS enema significantly elevated inflammatory enzyme activities, NO production, TNF-alpha concentration, and induced morphological damage in the colon. ASA-treatment reduced the inflammatory marker levels and mucosal injury in the colon, but gastric tissue damage was present. ASA-Tris- and mesalamine-treatments significantly reduced the cytokine levels, inflammatory enzyme activities, and colonic mucosal damage without inducing gastric injury. Also, ASA significantly reduced the Complex IV-linked respiration of liver mitochondria, which was not observed after ASA-Tris-treatment. As compared to ASA, ASA-Tris conjugation provides significant protection against the colonic injury and cytokine-mediated progression of inflammatory events in experimental colitis without influencing the gastric epithelial structure.

  8. Complexation between carrageenan and methylene blue for sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2013-11-01

    Theoretical studies on the methylene blue (MB)-carrageenans complexation at solution and solid states have been carried out via ultraviolet spectrophotoscopy and reflectometry methods. The equilibrium constant (Ka) of the MBcarrageenans complexation follows the order of Iota > Lambda > Kappa carrageenans, which indicated Iota-carrageenan forms a stable complex. MB-carrageenan complexation reaction showed decrease in Ka value from 210.71 ppm-1 to 114.57 ppm-1 when the reaction temperature increased from 298 K to 323 K. Le Chatelier's principle and mass action law explained that the MB-carrageenan complexation was an exothermic reaction (ΔH=-18.54 kJmol-1) that release heat. Thus MB-carrageenan complex was less stable at high temperature and tend to dissociate into free MB and carrageenan molecules. It was also supported by the van't Hoff equation. The reaction is a spontaneous process (ΔG=-13.23 kJmol-1) where the randomness of the molecules reduced (ΔS=-17.83 Jmol-1K-1) due to complexation. Besides, linear regression of the concentration and absorption of the MB-carrageenan reaction obeys the Beer Lambert law, which elucidated that the complexation process was not affected by any concentration dependent factors such as aggregation and self-quenching. Moreover, linear Benesi Hilderbrend plot revealed that the interaction between MB and carrageenan was a reversible and stoichiometric reaction with 1:1 ratio. However, the molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) and molar adsorption coefficient (μa) of the MB-carrageenan complex were lower compared to free MB, described that the complex was less adsorptive. The sensor constructed based on these theoretical investigations showed response behavior that was similar with solution test as both have attraction for carrageenans in the sequence of Iota-, Lambda-, Kappa- carrageenans. Likewise, carrageenan sensor was more selective towards Iota-carrageenan than to Lambda- and Kappa-carrageenans, and no response observed when

  9. Microscopic colitis in patients with chronic diarrhea and normal colonoscopic findings in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hong-Xiang; Zhi, Fa-Chao; Huang, Ying; Li, Ai-Min; Bai, Yang; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Ya-Li

    2012-09-01

    Microscopic colitis includes lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The entity is considered as an important cause for unknown chronic diarrhea, but rarely reported in China before. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of microscopic colitis in patients with chronic diarrhea and normal colonoscopy findings in Southern China, and to reveal the clinical feature of microscopic colitis in these patients. Patients with chronic diarrhea and normal colonoscopic findings were enrolled from three hospitals in Southern China from January, 2009 to June, 2010. Multiple colorectal biopsies were obtained in these patients and histological examination was underwent with hematoxyin and eosin stain, Masson's trichrome stain and immunohistochemistry for tenascin to screen lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The clinical symptom and risk factor of microscopic colitis were assessed by comparing with controls. The diagnostic overlap between microscopic colitis and irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhea was also analyzed. Randomly mucosal biopsies were performed in 613 patients with chronic diarrhea and normal or near normal colonoscopic finding. Fifty-nine cases of lymphocytic colitis and 28 cases of collagenous colitis were found by histological examination. The rates of rheumatoid arthritis in lymphocytic colitis group (15.4 %) and collagenous colitis group (14.3 %) were significant higher than in control group (2.2 %). Rheumatoid arthritis was confirmed as the risk factor of microscopic colitis by logistic regression analysis. There was no difference on the symptoms among the controls, patients with lymphocytic colitis, and patients with collagenous colitis. There were 13.8 % (12/87) of patients with microscopic colitis fulfilled Rome III criteria of irritable bowel syndrome and 42.5 % (37/87) fulfilled the criteria of functional diarrhea. Microscopic colitis is not an uncommon disorder in Chinese population. Rheumatoid arthritis is the risk factor of

  10. Acute Ischaemic Colitis- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Basra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute ischaemic colitis (AIC is being increasingly recognised as an uncommon cause of abdominal pain associated with fresh bleeding per rectum. It is paramount to maintain a high index of suspicion and adopt appropriate management strategies to avoid complications and inappropriate interventions. In this paper, we describe a case of AIC and review literature pertinent to the management of this condition. Keywords: Ischaemic colitis, acute abdomen, management.

  11. Seasonal changes in Carrageenan and other biochemical constituents of Hypnea musciformis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Solimabi; Dass, B.; Kamat, S.Y.; DeSouza, L.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Carrageenan content was maximum in winter. Near inverse relationship was observed between the total carbohydrate and carrageenan. Protein levels were highest when the nitrogenous nutrients were high...

  12. Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of papillomavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Buck

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Certain sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV types are causally associated with the development of cervical cancer. Our recent development of high-titer HPV pseudoviruses has made it possible to perform high-throughput in vitro screens to identify HPV infection inhibitors. Comparison of a variety of compounds revealed that carrageenan, a type of sulfated polysaccharide extracted from red algae, is an extremely potent infection inhibitor for a broad range of sexually transmitted HPVs. Although carrageenan can inhibit herpes simplex viruses and some strains of HIV in vitro, genital HPVs are about a thousand-fold more susceptible, with 50% inhibitory doses in the low ng/ml range. Carrageenan acts primarily by preventing the binding of HPV virions to cells. This finding is consistent with the fact that carrageenan resembles heparan sulfate, an HPV cell-attachment factor. However, carrageenan is three orders of magnitude more potent than heparin, a form of cell-free heparan sulfate that has been regarded as a highly effective model HPV inhibitor. Carrageenan can also block HPV infection through a second, postattachment heparan sulfate-independent effect. Carrageenan is in widespread commercial use as a thickener in a variety of cosmetic and food products, ranging from sexual lubricants to infant feeding formulas. Some of these products block HPV infectivity in vitro, even when diluted a million-fold. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether carrageenan-based products are effective as topical microbicides against genital HPVs.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of Ruta graveolens Linn on carrageenan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema in wistar male rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Voveran. These extracts were given (ip) in a concentration of 20 and 50 mg/kg b.w. before carrageenan injection.

  14. Carrageenan: a natural seaweed polysaccharide and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Maheriya, Pankaj M; Jani, Girish K; Solanki, Himanshu K

    2014-05-25

    Polysaccharides have been gaining interesting and valuable applications in the food and pharmaceutical fields. As they are derived from the natural source, they are easily available, non-toxic, cheap, biodegradable and biocompatible. Carrageenan is one among them, which fulfills the criteria of polysaccharide; it is a natural carbohydrate (polysaccharide) obtained from edible red seaweeds. The name Carrageenan is derived from the Chondrus crispus species of seaweed (Rhodophyceace) known as Carrageen Moss or Irish Moss, and Carraigin. A demand based on its application has been widely increasing in food and pharmaceutical sectors. Carrageenan has gained wide applications in experimental medicine, pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetics, and food industries. Through keen references of the reported literature on carrageenan, in this review, we have described about carrageenan, its properties, extraction and refining, and its food and pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical exam lab tests endoscopies of the large intestine The health care provider may perform a series of medical tests to rule out other bowel disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome , Crohn's disease, or celiac disease , that may cause ...

  16. Loss of Dok-1 and Dok-2 in mice causes severe experimental colitis accompanied by reduced expression of IL-17A and IL-22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waseda, Masazumi; Arimura, Sumimasa; Shimura, Eri; Nakae, Susumu; Yamanashi, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate immune responses and mucosal barrier functions are required for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Defects in this defense system may lead to inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Downstream of tyrosine kinases 1 (Dok-1) and its closest homolog, Dok-2, are preferentially expressed in immune cells, and play essential roles in the negative regulation of multiple signaling pathways in both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the function of these proteins in intestinal homeostasis remained unclear. Here we show that Dok-1/-2 double knockout (DKO) mice were highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis compared with Dok-1 or Dok-2 single KO and wild type (WT) mice. Furthermore, DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice exhibited increased colonic tissue damage accompanied by reduced proliferation of the epithelial cells relative to WT controls, suggesting that Dok-1/-2 DKO mice have defects in the repair of intestinal epithelial lesions. In addition, the levels of the Th17 cytokines IL-17A and IL-22, which have protective roles in DSS-induced colitis, were reduced in DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice compared with WT mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Dok-1 and Dok-2 negatively regulate intestinal inflammation, apparently through the induction of IL-17A and IL-22 expression. - Highlights: • Dok-1 and Dok-2 play a cooperative role in protection against DSS-induced colitis. • Dok-1/-2 double KO (DKO) mice show extensive ulceration of the colon after DSS treatment. • Proliferation of colonic epithelium is inhibited in DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice. • Expression of IL-17A and IL-22 is reduced in the colon of DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice.

  17. Loss of Dok-1 and Dok-2 in mice causes severe experimental colitis accompanied by reduced expression of IL-17A and IL-22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waseda, Masazumi; Arimura, Sumimasa [Division of Genetics, Department of Cancer Biology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639 (Japan); Shimura, Eri [Laboratory of Systems Biology, Center for Experimental Medicine and Systems Biology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639 (Japan); Nakae, Susumu [Laboratory of Systems Biology, Center for Experimental Medicine and Systems Biology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639 (Japan); Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (PRESTO), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama, 332-0012 (Japan); Yamanashi, Yuji, E-mail: yyamanas@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Genetics, Department of Cancer Biology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639 (Japan)

    2016-09-09

    Appropriate immune responses and mucosal barrier functions are required for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Defects in this defense system may lead to inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Downstream of tyrosine kinases 1 (Dok-1) and its closest homolog, Dok-2, are preferentially expressed in immune cells, and play essential roles in the negative regulation of multiple signaling pathways in both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the function of these proteins in intestinal homeostasis remained unclear. Here we show that Dok-1/-2 double knockout (DKO) mice were highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis compared with Dok-1 or Dok-2 single KO and wild type (WT) mice. Furthermore, DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice exhibited increased colonic tissue damage accompanied by reduced proliferation of the epithelial cells relative to WT controls, suggesting that Dok-1/-2 DKO mice have defects in the repair of intestinal epithelial lesions. In addition, the levels of the Th17 cytokines IL-17A and IL-22, which have protective roles in DSS-induced colitis, were reduced in DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice compared with WT mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Dok-1 and Dok-2 negatively regulate intestinal inflammation, apparently through the induction of IL-17A and IL-22 expression. - Highlights: • Dok-1 and Dok-2 play a cooperative role in protection against DSS-induced colitis. • Dok-1/-2 double KO (DKO) mice show extensive ulceration of the colon after DSS treatment. • Proliferation of colonic epithelium is inhibited in DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice. • Expression of IL-17A and IL-22 is reduced in the colon of DSS-treated Dok-1/-2 DKO mice.

  18. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, D.A. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Radiological Institute, Columbus Children`s Hospital, OH (United States); Buonomo, C. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fishman, S.J. [Department of Surgery, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Furuta, G.; Nurko, S. [Department of Gastroenterology, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs.

  19. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, D.A.; Buonomo, C.; Fishman, S.J.; Furuta, G.; Nurko, S.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.)

  20. Microscopic colitis : prevalence and distribution throughout the colon in patients with chronic diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, WJ; van Baarlen, J; Kleibeuker, JH; Kolkman, JJ

    Background: Microscopic colitis presents with chronic diarrhoea with or without abdominal pain. Microscopic colitis is an important cause of chronic diarrhoea. It can be distributed throughout the colon, as well as limited to the right colon. Microscopic colitis is associated with coeliac disease.

  1. Towards the Synthesis of Carrageenan Oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnaert, Christine

    The plant cell walls represent almost 50% of the biomass found in plants and are therefore one of the main targets for biotechnological research. Many of their components already have important industrial applications in various fields, such as in the food and biomedical industry and in biofuel...... plants. Only very few reports are dealing with algae. However, land plants have algae ancestors and getting a better knowledge of algae cell walls could help understand the evolution of plant cell walls. Furthermore, some components specific to algae cell walls are very valuable in the industry. Indeed...... in the cell wall of red algae and serve as gelling, stabilizing and viscosity-enhancing agents in many sectors ranging from the food industry to pharmaceuticals. A modular approach was chosen to enable the synthesis of carrageenan oligosaccharides with different lengths. Different protecting group patterns...

  2. Amyloid Goiter Secondary to Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunyamin Aydin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse amyloid goiter (AG is an entity characterized by the deposition of amyloid in the thyroid gland. AG may be associated with either primary or secondary amyloidosis. Secondary amyloidosis is rarely caused by inflammatory bowel diseases. Secondary amyloidosis is relatively more common in the patients with Crohn’s disease, whereas it is highly rare in patients with ulcerative colitis. Diffuse amyloid goiter caused by ulcerative colitis is also a rare condition. In the presence of amyloid in the thyroid gland, medullary thyroid cancer should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis. Imaging techniques and biochemical tests are not very helpful in the diagnosis of secondary amyloid goiter and the definitive diagnosis is established based on the histopathologic analysis and histochemical staining techniques. In this report, we present a 35-year-old male patient with diffuse amyloid goiter caused by secondary amyloidosis associated with ulcerative colitis.

  3. Exposure to the common food additive carrageenan leads to glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and inhibition of insulin signalling in HepG2 cells and C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; O-Sullivan, I; Katyal, S; Unterman, T; Tobacman, J K

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the common food additive carrageenan (E407) on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin signalling in a mouse model and human hepatic cells, since carrageenan is known to cause inflammation through interaction with toll-like receptor (TLR)4, which is associated with inflammation in diabetes. Male C57BL/6J mice were given carrageenan (10 mg/l) in their drinking water, and underwent a glucose tolerance test (GTT), an insulin tolerance test (ITT) and an ante-mortem intraperitoneal insulin injection. HepG2 cells were exposed to carrageenan (1 mg/l × 24 h) and insulin. Levels of phospho(Ser473)-protein kinase B (Akt), phospho(Ser307)-IRS1, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity and phospho(Ser32)-inhibitor of κB (IκBα) were determined by western blotting and ELISA. Glucose tolerance was significantly impaired in carrageenan-treated 12-week-old mice compared with untreated controls at all time points (n = 12; p < 0.0001). Baseline insulin and insulin levels at 30 min after taking glucose during the GTT were significantly higher following carrageenan treatment. During the ITT, glucose levels declined by more than 80% in controls, but not in carrageenan-treated mice. Carrageenan exposure completely inhibited insulin-induced increases in phospho-(Ser473)-Akt and PI3K activity in vivo in mouse liver and in human HepG2 cells. Carrageenan increased phospho(Ser307)-IRS1 levels, and this was blocked when carrageenan-induced inflammation was inhibited. This is the first report of the impact of carrageenan on glucose tolerance and indicates that carrageenan impairs glucose tolerance, increases insulin resistance and inhibits insulin signalling in vivo in mouse liver and human HepG2 cells. These effects may result from carrageenan-induced inflammation. The results demonstrate extra-colonic manifestations of ingested carrageenan and suggest that carrageenan in the human diet may contribute to the

  4. 21 CFR 172.626 - Salts of carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.626 Salts of carrageenan. The food additive salts...

  5. 21 CFR 172.623 - Carrageenan with polysorbate 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.623 Carrageenan with polysorbate...

  6. Bioactive compounds in industrial red seaweed used in carrageenan production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naseri, Alireza; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The main seaweed species used in industrial scale for carrageenan production are Kappaphycus alvarezii, Eucheuma denticulatum, Chondrus crispus, Gigartina sp. and also Furcellaria lumbricalis as a source of furcellaran (Danish Agar) is also classified together with carrageenan. The chemical...... compositions of these five industrial red seaweeds were evaluated. Protein, lipid and total phenolic content, total amino acid and composition, fatty acid profile, tocopherol content and pigment composition were analyzed. The results demonstrate that there is potential possibility to develop a method...

  7. Characterization of Carrageenan Edible films Plasticized with Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arham Rusli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of base materials and plasticizers used in the formulation of edible film was believed to affect physical characteristics of the film. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of base material (carrageenan and plasticiser (glycerol concentrations on the characteristics of edible films produced and to determine the best concentrations of these two components based on the physical characteristics of the films. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized factorial design with triplicated. The treatments applied were the concentrations of carrageenan (1%, 2%, and 3% (w/v and glycerol (5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w. The results showed that carrageenan and glycerol concentrations used in the formulation of edible film affect the edible film characteristics. Film thickness and moisture content were significantly influenced by carrageenan and glycerol concentrations, while film elongation was only affected by carrageenan concentration. The best physical characteristic of the edible films was obtained when carrageenan and glycerol concentrations were 3% and 10% respectively.

  8. Stercoral colitis mimicking appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghafour Elkoundi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stercoral colitis is an inflammatory process involving the colonic wall related to fecal impaction. This rare condition is associated with high morbidity-mortality. Findings We report a case of a 78-year-old woman with a history of dementia under clozapine who presented a clinical and sonographic presentation of acute appendicitis. The worsening of her clinical condition prompted us to review our diagnosis and modify our approach using the CT scan which was consistent with stercoral colitis. This report concerns an atypical presentation of this condition. Conclusions The present case highlights the ability of severe forms of fecal impaction to precipitate very rare and life-threatening complications like stercoral colitis. It also points the importance of including stercoral colitis in the differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis in altered patients under anticholenergic drugs and the critical role of the CT scan as a crucial radiologic adjunct.

  9. A case of fulminating amebic colitis associated with toxic megacolon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kyung Sik; Lee, Joong Suk; Suh, Soo Jhi [Kyung Hee University Hospital. Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Amebic colitis was common disease in Korea as well as in the world especially frequent in tropical area such as Africa, India and South America. Clinicopathological forms of this condition were ulcerative rectocolitis (95%), typhloappendicitis (3%), ameboma (1.5%), and fulminating colitis with toxic megacolon (0.5%). The fulminating amebic colitis with toxic megacolon was very rare and dangerous condition which was reported by Wruble on 1966. Toxic megacolon was seen in the cases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, typhoid fever, cholera, and acute bacillary dysentery. Radiological findings of fulminating amebic colitis with toxic megacolon were megacolon, multiple polypoid filling defects, thumbprinting, and cobble stone appearance, which were resemble with ulcerative colitis. The cause of toxic megacolon was not well known, but it has been speculated that this results from transmural disease with destruction of muscle and the myenteric plexus with resultant loss of muscle tone. Authors experienced a case of fulminating amebic colitis with toxic megacolon which was resemble with ulcerative colitis by radiologically at Kyung Hee University Hospital and reported it with review of the literatures.

  10. Severe ischemic colitis following olanzapine use: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Raimundo Fernandes

    Full Text Available Ischemic colitis is the most common subtype of intestinal ischemia usually resulting from vasospasm, vessel occlusion or mesenteric hypoperfusion. Neuroleptics have seldom been linked to ischemic colitis by blocking peripheral anticholinergic and antiserotonergic receptors inducing severe gastrointestinal paresis. We report a young patient with severe ischemic colitis requiring surgery due to necrosis of the bowel. After exclusion of other potential causes, olanzapine was admitted as the cause of ischemia. Clinicians should be aware of how to recognize and treat the potentially life-threatening effects of neuroleptics.

  11. Development of Fibrosis in Acute and Longstanding Ulcerative Colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruyn, Jessica R.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Wildenberg, Manon E.; Bemelman, Willem A.; van den Brink, Gijs R.; D'Haens, Geert R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intestinal fibrosis is a process driven by chronic inflammation leading to increased presence of myofibroblasts and collagen deposition. Although strictures are rarely seen in ulcerative colitis [UC], longstanding disease is believed to cause fibrosis resulting in altered bowel function.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: ulcerative colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... colitis Orphanet: NON RARE IN EUROPE: Ulcerative colitis University of Maryland Medical Center ... Sources for This Page Anderson CA, Boucher G, Lees CW, Franke A, D'Amato M, Taylor KD, Lee JC, Goyette P, Imielinski M, Latiano ...

  13. Cancer risk in collagenous colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, J. L.; Tersmette, A. C.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Gruber, S. B.; Bayless, T. M.; Giardiello, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    Collagenous colitis is a recently described form of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Other inflammatory bowel disorders are associated with increased risk of colorectal and extracolonic malignancies, but this has not been evaluated in collagenous colitis. Colorectal and extracolonic malignancies

  14. Non-IBD and noninfectious colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Vainer, Ben; Rask-Madsen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    A wide range of etiologies and pathogenic mechanisms underlie colitis. This Review provides an overview of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, histopathology, and clinical characteristics of noninfectious and non-IBD forms of colitis: microscopic colitis, Behçet's syndrome, diversion colitis......, diverticular colitis, eosinophilic colitis, ischemic colitis, and radiation colitis. These more recently characterized and rare forms of colitis occur as either primary conditions or complications of other diseases. Most of these diseases are uncommon; therefore, epidemiologic data and data from controlled...... trials are not readily available. Practical guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of these more recently characterized and rarer forms of colitis are given where possible....

  15. Effect of ascophyllan from brown algae Padina tetrastromatica on inflammation and oxidative stress in carrageenan-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Sulaiman; Kurup, G Muraleedhara; Mahadevan, R

    2013-12-01

    Sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan was isolated from the brown algae Padina tetrastromatica and purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Anti-inflammatory effect of ascophyllan fraction against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats was studied. Paw edema in rats was induced by injecting 0.1 ml, 1 % carrageenan suspension in 0.9 % NaCl solution into the sub-plantar tissue of the right hind paw. Carrageenan caused a significant increase in the activity of inflammatory marker enzymes like lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenase in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and paw tissue and also increased the concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in paw tissue. When compared to the reference drug diclofenac, ascophyllan fraction-3 (AF3) treatment significantly reduced the activities of anti-inflammatory enzymes, concentration of PGE2 and MPO. AF3 treatment decreased the mRNA level expression of TNF-α and IL-6. Concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was decreased. Activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione level were increased on treatment with AF3. Histopathology of paw tissue showed decreased edema formation and cellular infiltration on supplementation with AF3. Thus the results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of ascophyllan fraction on carrageenan-treated rats.

  16. Carrageenan as a dry strength additive for papermaking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Liu

    Full Text Available Carrageenans are commercially important sulfated gums found in various species of red seaweeds (Rhodophyta, wherein they serve a structural function similar to that of pectins in land plants. In this study, carrageenan was used independently or in combination with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM and/or Al2(SO43 to explore its application as a dry strength additive in papermaking. Strength index determination, ash content detection, FTIR characterization and SEM observation were performed on prepared handsheets. The results showed that with 0.6% Al2(SO43 and 0.2% carrageenan as additives, the tensile index increased by 13.53% and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC retention increased by 57.06%. With 0.6% Al2(SO43, 0.2% carrageenan and 0.03% CPAM as additives, PCC retention increased by 121% while the tensile index did not fall compared to handsheets without additives, indicating that carrageenan could enhance the strength of handsheets and be used as an anionic dry strength agent.

  17. Carrageenan Extracted from Eucheuma cottonii Through Variant of Drying Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pralisa Putri Novy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan is a derivative product of seaweed that used in various fields such as pharmacy, food and cosmetics. One of the most widely used carrageenan from seaweed was Eucheuma cottonii sp. The research was conduct to determine the effect of post-harvest seaweed pre-treatment on yields of Carrageenan. The first pre-treatment done by using the fresh seaweed that has been washed clean then directly dried. The second pre-treatment, washed seaweed soaked with clean water for seven days and then dried with a dryer. Drying time for the first and second pre-treatments is varied, then dried seaweed extracted with water to produce carrageenan. The analyses performed were moisture content of seaweed and yields of Carrageenan. The results of the research found that the initial moisture content of seaweed on the second pre-treatment was greater than the first pre-treatment. The variation of drying time on the first pre-treatment did not affect significantly on the yields, but in the second pre-treatment, yield of carageenan increased with accumulation drying time.

  18. Europium ion as a probe for binding sites to carrageenans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ana P.; Goncalves, Rogeria R.; Serra, Osvaldo A.; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D.; Wong, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Carrageenans, sulfated polysaccharides extracted from red algae, present a coil-helix transition and helix aggregation dependence on the type and concentration of counterions. In this study, we focus attention on a mixed valence counterion system: Eu 3+ /Na + or K + with different gel-forming carrageenans: kappa, iota, and kappa-2. Results of stationary and time-dependent luminescence showed to be a suitable tool to probe ion binding to both the negatively charged sulfate group and the hydroxyl groups present in the biopolymer. For lower europium ion concentrations, a single longer decay emission lifetime was detected, which was attributed to the binding of europium ion to the carrageenan sulfate groups. An additional decay ascribed to europium binding to hydroxyl groups was observed above a threshold concentration, and this decay was dependent on the carrageenan charge density. Symmetry of the europium ion microenvironment was estimated by the ratio between the intensities of its emission bands, which has been shown to depend on the concentration of europium ions and on the specificity of the monovalent counterion bound to the carrageenan

  19. Usefulness of colonoscopy in ischemic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Maya, M; Ponferrada-Díaz, A; González-Asanza, C; Nogales-Rincón, O; Senent-Sánchez, C; Pérez-de-Ayala, V; Jiménez-Aleixandre, P; Cos-Arregui, E; Menchén-Fernández-Pacheco, P

    2010-07-01

    the ischemic colitis is intestinal the most frequent cause of ischemia. With this work we determine the demographic and clinical characteristics, and the usefulness of the colonoscopy in the patients with ischemic colitis diagnosed in our centre in relation to a change of therapeutic attitude. retrospective study in which were selected 112 patients diagnosed with ischemic colitis by colonoscopy and biopsy, in a period of five years. It was analyzed: age, sex, reason for examination, factors of cardiovascular risk, endoscopic degree of ischemia, change in the therapeutic attitude, treatment and outcome. the average age was of 73.64 + or - 12.10 years with an equal incidence in women (50.9%) and the men (49.1%). The associated factors were the HTA (61.1%), tobacco (37.2%) and antecedents of cardiovascular episode (52.2%). The most frequent reason for colonoscopy was rectorrhagia (53.6%) followed of the abdominal pain (30.4%), being urgent the 65.3%. Colonoscopy allowed a change in the therapeutic attitude in the 50 increasing in the urgent one to the 65.75%. Global mortality was of 27.67%. The serious ischemic colitis (25%) was more frequent in men (64.3%) in urgent indication (85.71%) and attends with high mortality (53.57%). Surgical treatment in the 57.14% was made with a good evolution in the 50%, whereas the patients with mild or moderate ischemic colitis had a better prognosis (favourable evolution in 80.95%) with smaller requirement of the surgical treatment (4.76%), p change of attitude according to the result of the same one. The evidence of a serious colitis supposed an increase of the necessity of surgery and worse prognosis.

  20. Follistatin Alleviates Synovitis and Articular Cartilage Degeneration Induced by Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yamada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activins are proinflammatory cytokines which belong to the TGFβ superfamily. Follistatin is an extracellular decoy receptor for activins. Since both activins and follistatin are expressed in articular cartilage, we hypothesized that activin-follistatin signaling participates in the process of joint inflammation and cartilage degeneration. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of follistatin in a carrageenan-induced mouse arthritis model. Synovitis induced by intra-articular injection of carrageenan was significantly alleviated by preinjection with follistatin. Macrophage infiltration into the synovial membrane was significantly reduced in the presence of follistatin. In addition, follistatin inhibited proteoglycan erosion induced by carrageenan in articular cartilage. These data indicate that activin-follistatin signaling is involved in joint inflammation and cartilage homeostasis. Our data suggest that follistatin can be a new therapeutic target for inflammation-induced articular cartilage degeneration.

  1. [Inhibitory effect of kappa/beta-carrageenan from red alga Tichocarpus crinitus on the development of a potato virus X infection in leaves of Datura stramonium L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagorskaia, V P; Reunov, A V; Lapshina, L A; Ermak, I M; Barabanova, A O

    2010-01-01

    The effect of kappa/beta-carrageenan from red alda Tichocarpus crinitus on the development of a potato virus X (PVX) infection in the leaves of Datura stramonium L. has been studied. The treatment of leaves with carrageenan stimulates a protein synthesis in the cells, causing an increase in the size of nucleoli and in the number of mitochondria and membranes of the granular endoplasmic reticulum. At the same time, such treatment slightly stimulates lytic processes, causing an increase in the number of agranular endoplasmic reticulum cisterns, dictyosomes, and cytoplasmic vacuoles and the formation of cytoplasmic zones, transparent to electron microscopy. The carrageenan-induced stimulation of lytic processes results in the destruction of viral particles and can be considered as one of the defense mechanisms, preventing the intracellular accumulation of viruses. The carrageenan-stimulated formation of PVX-specific laminar structures, able to bind viral particles and, therefore, prevent their intracellular translocation and reproduction, represents another carrageenan-induced mechanism of the antiviral defense in plant cells.

  2. Eosinophilic colitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Horowska-Ziaja, Sabina; Kajor, Maciej; Więcek, Sabina; Chlebowczyk, Wojciech; Woś, Halina

    2017-02-01

    Eosinophilic colitis, which is a rare form of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, occurs as primary and secondary allergic eosinophilic colitis of the gastrointestinal tract infection, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and vasculitis. The diagnosis is based on a significant amount of eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate of the colon wall. To analyze the clinical picture taking into account comorbidities and endoscopic picture in children with eosinophilic colitis. The test group consisted of 43 children, the average age - 12.1 years diagnosed with eosinophilic colitis (according to the Whitington scale) hospitalized in the Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Pediatrics of the Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. Testing for food allergies, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, gastrointestinal diseases and parasitic diseases was performed in the group of children and the analysis concerned the intensity of eosinophilic infiltration of the colon mucosa with the severity of clinical symptoms, endoscopic picture, the presence of inflammatory bowel disease, and food allergy. Half of the tested children suffered from isolated eosinophilic colitis but the rest of them had eosinophilic infiltrate with inflammatory bowel disease more often, however, the Crohn's disease. The endoscopic image was uncharacteristic, and grade III in the Whitington scale was predominant in the histopathological examination, in most cases located in the entire large intestine. The higher level of total IgE was found in less than half of the patients and it did not correlate with the severity of eosinophilic infiltration. It was shown that the severity of eosinophilic infiltration correlated with exacerbation of clinical symptoms, endoscopic image, and the presence of inflammatory bowel disease. The higher level of antibodies of ASCA and ANCA was found in approximately 20% of the children with isolated eosinophilic colitis and 63% of children with Crohn's disease

  3. The temporal evolution of histological abnormalities in microscopic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Julie; Heiberg Engel, Peter Johan; Wildt, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Microscopic colitis (MC) is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhoea but long-term follow-up data are sparse. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of health records and all pathology reports in a regional cohort of patients with MC to describe the change in pre......- and post-diagnostic colon biopsies. Results: MC was diagnosed in 468 patients with collagenous colitis (CC), 361 with lymphocytic colitis (LC) and 226 with incomplete MC (MCi). The 2014 incidence of CC, LC and MCi was 14.5, 14.9 and 5 per 105. Biopsies from both right and left colon were obtained in 237...

  4. Radiolysis studies of kappa carrageenan for bio based materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.

    2010-01-01

    Kappa (κ-) carrageenan oligomers are known to have several biological activities such as anti-HIV, anti-herpes, anti tumor and antioxidant properties. Recent progress in the development of radiation modified κ-carrageenan has resulted in new applications such as plant growth promoter, radiation dose indicator and hydrogels for wound dressing. This study would investigate on the changes in chemical structure, gelation and conformational transition behavior and molecular size of κ-carrageenan at doses from 0 to 200 kGy and would be correlated to these functions for the development of bio-based materials. Pulse radiolysis studies on κ-carrageenan was carried out to determine what transient species directly affects the degradation rate of κ-carrageenan in aqueous solution. The results reveal that there is no seeming reaction of the hydrated electron with κ-carrageenan. OH reacts with κ-carrageenan at a fast rate of approximately 1.2 x 10 9 M-1a-1. This value was influenced by conformational change from helix to coil by the addition of the metal ion Na +, reduction of molecular weight by the hydrolysis reaction and reduction of reactive sites by seasonally or irradiation. Most applications from the radiation degradation of polysaccharides started with the use of the ''hit and miss'' process where polysaccharides were irradiated at a certain dose range and finding out which dose is suitable for a specific function. Measurement of the radiation degradation yield (G d ) at different conditions can give an approximation of the Mw at an absorbed dose. This will allow the production of oligomers with a specified Mw. With the use of the G d both in solid and in aqueous solution, one can also make a rough calculation whether it is more economical to irradiateκ-carrageenan in solid r in aqueous solution. Results of this experiment reveal that the radiation yields (G d ) of κ-carrageenan in solid and in aqueous (1%) were as follows: 2.5, 1.7 and 1.2 x 10-7 mol J-1 for

  5. Comparison of the effects of crocin, safranal and diclofenac on local inflammation and inflammatory pain responses induced by carrageenan in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir-Abbas; Eghdami, Karim; Samadi, Farzad; Erfanparast, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Crocin and safranal are the active substances of saffron and have many biological properties. In the present study, we compared the effects of crocin, safranal and diclofenac on local inflammation and its induced pain in rats. Local inflammation was induced by intraplantar (ipl) injection of carrageenan (100 μl, 2%). Paw thickness was measured before and after carrageenan injection. Inflammatory pain responses including cold allodynia, mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia were assessed using acetone spray and von Frey filament tests, respectively. The number of neutrophils in inflammatory zone was counted 6.5 h after injection of carrageenan. Carrageenan produced edema, cold allodynia, mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia and caused neutrophil infiltration in paw tissues. Crocin at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, safranal at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg and diclofenac (as a reference drug) at a dose of 10 mg/kg attenuated edema, suppressed inflammatory pain responses and decreased the number of neutrophils. The present study showed anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities for crocin, safranal and diclofenac in carrageenan model of local inflammation and inflammatory pain.

  6. Novel drug delivery carrier from alginate-carrageenan and glycerol as plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmokoesoemo, Handoko; Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Rahmatullah, Bagus; Kusuma, Heri Septya

    Drug delivery carriers are materials that can be used to administer drugs into the human body. Alginate and carrageenan are natural polymers that have potential as drug delivery material. Therefore in this study conducted a new innovation using carrageenan and alginates from extract of red seaweed and brown seaweed as base materials of capsule. This is expected to improve the quality of the used materials so it's easier to obtain the capsule with base material from carrageenan-alginate that has good quality as drug delivery carrier. Moreover, in the manufacture of capsules from carrageenan and alginates also added plasticizers in order to maintain the elasticity and the swelling degree of the capsules are made so that the capsules are not brittle. In addition, in this study used glycerol because it is a useful plasticizer to increase the plasticity of a material by filling the cavities between monomers. The capsules were prepared with four variations of glycerol concentration are A, B, C and D. In these capsule was analyzed of surface morphology with SEM, test of swelling degree and test of dissolution kinetics for some acidity level. Analysis of surface morphology with SEM shows that the capsule shell has very small pores. The average of swelling degree for capsules A, B, C and D are 452.4%, 599.0%, 730.66% and 731.25%, respectively. FTIR analysis shows that the presence of glycerol can increase the number of hydrogen bonds that are formed. The acidity level affects the dissolution profile of each capsules. In general with an increasingly alkaline environment causes all the capsules will be easier to release. This is because the increasing of acidic groups in the copolymer causes the capsule to be more easily occur neutralization reaction in a more alkaline environment so that the disintegration of capsules can occur more quickly. In addition from this study also can be seen that the increasing concentration of glycerol can cause the rate of capsule dissolution

  7. Inciting and etiologic agents of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J; Fekety, R; Werk, C; Ebright, J; Cudmore, M; Batts, D; Syrjamaki, C; Lukens, J

    1984-01-01

    Since 1979, 3,115 stool samples were tested for detection of Clostridium difficile and its cytotoxin; these were obtained from patients who had drug-related diarrhea. Presumed or proven colitis due to C. difficile was diagnosed in 130 patients. Drugs implicated most commonly as causing or associated with the onset of enterocolitis due to C. difficile were ampicillin (38 episodes), cephalosporins (71), clindamycin (36), and the aminoglycosides (45). The hamster model of colitis was employed to explore the role of other inducing agents. Altering the usual diet of hamsters to one with a higher protein content decreased the time to death due to C. difficile cecitis following the administration of cefazolin (10 mg). Several cathartics also were studied for their effect on the lethality of antibiotic-induced cecitis. Daily administrations of castor oil (0.5 ml per day) and vegetable oil (1.0 ml per day) improved survival against lethal doses of clindamycin. Milk of magnesia or mineral oil provided no protection. Four patients with C. difficile colitis induced by therapy with cytotoxic drugs also were identified. Methotrexate induced cecitis when administered orally and daily to hamsters, and C. difficile and its cytotoxin were identified in the hamsters' stools. Death due to methotrexate-induced cecitis was prevented by daily administration of folinic acid or vancomycin. These data demonstrate that a variety of antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, cathartics, and diet changes can induce C. difficile colitis in humans and hamsters.

  8. Trichilia monadelpha Bark Extracts Inhibit Carrageenan-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous (TWE), alcoholic (TAE) and petroleum ether extract (TPEE) of T. ... The reference anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and dexamethasone) inhibited the chick-carrageenan-induced footpad oedema, with maximal inhibitions of ...

  9. Towards the Synthesis of Diverse Types of Carrageenan Oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnaert, Christine; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    Carrageenans are a family of linear sulfated polysaccharides that are extracted from red seaweeds.They play important roles in the biology of algae and furthermore they have many important industrial applications, such as gelling agent in the food industry. The idealized structures of the 10 known...

  10. Rheological properties of agar and carrageenan from Ghanaian red seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Red seaweeds contain unique galactose-rich hydrocolloids, carrageenans and agar, which find use as gelling agents in high value applications. This study examined the chemical and rheological properties of hydrocolloids from selected wild red seaweed species collected in Ghana: Hypnea musciformis ...

  11. Kinetics of Oxidative Depolymerization of κ-carrageenan by Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization kinetics of κ-carrageenan by ozone treatment has been studied at various pHs and times. The purified κ-carrageenan with the initial molecular weight of 271 kDa was dispersed in water to form (1 % w/v solution. Ozone with 80±2 ppm concentration and constant flow rate of 3 L.min-1 was bubbled into the κ-carrageenan solution. The experiments were conducted at pH of 3, 7, and 10 at     different times (5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes of ozonation. The viscosity of the solution was measured   using Ubbelohde capillary viscometer, which was then used to find the number-average molecular weight by Mark-Houwink equation. The number-average molecular weight data was treated using zero, first, and the second-order reaction kinetics model, to obtain the kinetics of κ-carrageenan depolymerization. The depolymerization is assumed to occur by random scission. The results show that the kinetics rate constant of κ-carrageenan depolymerization is higher at lower pHs. The second-order model is more suitable for describing the kinetics of depolymerization of κ-carrageenan by ozonation process. The rate constants for the second-order kinetics model are 5.45×10-4 min-1, 1.27×10-4 min-1, and 7.21×10-5 min-1 for pH 3, 7, and 10, respectively. The actual values of reaction order under acid and    alkali conditions are ranging from 1.88 to 1.90. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved. Received: 21st November 2016; Revised: 27th January 2017; Accepted: 18th February 2017 How to Cite: Prasetyaningrum, A., Ratnawati, R., Jos, B. (2017. Kinetics of Oxidative Depolymerization of κ-carrageenan by Ozone. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 235-242 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.805.235-242 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.805.235-242

  12. The behavior of different carrageenans in pelletization by extrusion/spheronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thommes, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2008-01-01

    kappa-Carrageenan is known as a novel pelletization aid in manufacturing of pellets by extrusion/spheronization. The implentation of kappa-carrageenan as a pelletization aid can overcome several disadvantages of commonly used microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) such as lacking disintegration and adsorption of several actives. The aim of this study was to compare different types of carrageenans from different suppliers: one iota-, five kappa-, and one lambda-carrageenan. The kappa-carrageenans had the best pelletization behavior. Four of the five tested kappa-carrageenans resulted in pellets with acceptable shapes, sizes, and size distributions using a high drug load of 80% hydrochlorothiazide. These pellets have similar properties over a wide range of water contents ranging from 90 to 105%. The filler, dicalcium phosphate, affected the pelletization process and the pellet properties of all investigated kappa-carrageenans.

  13. Application of iota and kappa carrageenans to traditional several food using modified cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Baarri, A. N.; Legowo, A. M.; Rizqiati, H.; Widayat; Septianingrum, A.; Sabrina, H. N.; Arganis, L. M.; Saraswati, R. O.; Mochtar, Rr C. P. R.

    2018-01-01

    Carrageenan has been known well as hydrocolloids that forming viscous dispersions and gels when dispersed in water. The carrageenan has not been widely applied to traditional foods. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the effect of kappa and iota carrageenans in traditional food models using modified cassava flour, sugar, and coconut milk. The textural properties, i.e. hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and adhesiveness have been measured using texture analyzer. The study indicated that traditional food models added kappa carrageenan at 2% generated remarkably higher in the hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness than those added iota carrageenan. On the other hand, the reserve result were found in the adhesiveness parameter. As conclusion, kappa carrageenan scan be potentially used for producing traditional foods based on the hard-texture-oriented foods whereas iota carrageenan can be used for the traditional foods with better adhesiveness.

  14. On the employment of lambda carrageenan in a matrix system. III. Optimization of a lambda carrageenan-HPMC hydrophilic matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonferoni, MC; Rossi, S; Ferrari, F; Bertoni, M; Bolhuis, GK; Caramella, C

    1998-01-01

    The lambda carrageenan/HPMC ratio in matrix tablets has been optimized in order to obtain pH-independent release profiles of chlorpheniramine maleate, a freely soluble drug. Release profiles in acidic (pH 1.2) and neutral (pH 6.8) media were fitted according to the Weibull and the power law models.

  15. Ulcerative colitis flair induced by mesalamine suppositories hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Liu, Xiao-Chang; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Jing

    2014-04-07

    Mesalamine suppositories have been used widely for the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis and considered to be safer than systemic administration for its limited systemic absorption. However, previous studies have shown that mesalamine suppository occasionally causes severe hypersensitivity reactions including fever, rashes, colitis exacerbation and acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Here we present a 25-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis with bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever which were aggravated after introduction of mesalamine suppositories. In light of symptom exacerbation of ulcerative colitis, increased inflammatory injury of colon mucosa shown by colonoscopy and elevated peripheral eosinophil count after mesalamine suppositories administration, and the Naranjo algorithm score of 10, the possibility of hypersensitivity reaction to mesalamine suppositories should be considered, warning us to be aware of this potential reaction after administration of mesalamine formulations even if it is the suppositories.

  16. SANS contrast in iota-carrageenan gels and solutions in D2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Denef, B.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    SANS of Na+-iota-carrageenan in D2O/saline solutions was measured as a function of concentration, temperature and type of counterions (K+ or Na+). High and low scattering-contrasted gels and solutions were detected. High contrast is caused by aggregation of low-hydrated chains at high concentration...... of carrageenan in the presence of gel-promoting counterions. The aggregates do not disappear at 60 degrees C, although at this temperature the molecules should partially lose their ordered conformation. The network formation, observed by SANS, does not happen in high-contrast system immediately after cooling...... and takes a few hours to be completed at 12 degrees C. The minimum concentration sufficient for the high-contrast regime in 0.1 M KCl lies between 15 and 25 mg/ml....

  17. Diet in the Aetiology of Ulcerative Colitis: A European Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Andrew R; Luben, Robert; Olsen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims: The causes of ulcerative colitis are unknown, although it is plausible that dietary factors are involved. Case-control studies of diet and ulcerative colitis are subject to recall biases. The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between the intake...... was supplied and the subjects were followed up for the development of ulcerative colitis. Each incident case was matched with four controls and dietary variables were divided into quartiles. Results: A total of 139 subjects with incident ulcerative colitis were identified. No dietary associations were detected...

  18. Histological evaluation in ulcerative colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRoche, Tom C.; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Xiuli

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes diagnostic problems, challenges and advances in ulcerative colitis (UC). It emphasizes that, although histopathological examination plays a major role in the diagnosis and management of UC, it should always be interpreted in the context of clinical, endoscopic, and radiological findings. Accurate diagnosis requires knowledge of the classic morphological features of UC, as well as a number of atypical pathological presentations that may cause mis-classification of the disease process, either in resection or biopsy specimens. These atypical pathological presentations include rectal sparing and patchiness of disease at initial presentation of UC in pediatric patients or in the setting of medically treated UC, cecal or ascending colon inflammation in left-sided UC, and backwash ileitis in patients with severe ulcerative pancolitis. Loosely formed microgranulomas, with pale foamy histiocytes adjacent to a damaged crypt or eroded surface, should not be interpreted as evidence of Crohn’s disease. Indeterminate colitis should only be used in colectomy specimens as a provisional pathological diagnosis. Patients with UC are at risk for the development of dysplasia and carcinoma; optimal outcomes in UC surveillance programs require familiarity with the diagnostic criteria and challenges relating to UC-associated dysplasia and malignancy. Colon biopsy from UC patients should always be evaluated for dysplasia based on cytological and architectural abnormalities. Accurate interpretation and classification of dysplasia in colon biopsy from UC patients as sporadic adenoma or UC-related dysplasia [flat, adenoma-like, or dysplasia-associated lesion or mass (DALM)] requires clinical and endoscopic correlation. Isolated polypoid dysplastic lesions are considered to be sporadic adenoma if occurring outside areas of histologically proven colitis, or adenoma-like dysplasia if occurring in the diseased segment. Recent data suggest that such lesions may be treated

  19. Microangiopathy triggers, and inducible nitric oxide synthase exacerbates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Hiroki; Tatsumi, Norifumi; Arihiro, Seiji; Kato, Tomohiro; Okabe, Masataka; Tajiri, Hisao; Hashimoto, Hisashi

    2015-07-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a representative clinical manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease that causes chronic gastrointestinal tract inflammation. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice have been used to investigate UC pathogenesis, and in this UC model, disturbance and impairment of the mucosal epithelium have been reported to cause colitis. However, how DSS sporadically breaks down the epithelium remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the colonic microcirculation and myenteric neurons of DSS-induced colitis. Moreover, we examined the potential of myenteric neurons as a target to prevent exacerbation of colitis. Fluorescent angiographic and histopathological studies revealed that DSS administration elicited blood vessel disruption before epithelial disorders appeared. Ischemic conditions in the lamina propria induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in myenteric neurons as colitis aggravated. When neuronal activity was inhibited with butylscopolamine, neuronal iNOS expression decreased, and the exacerbation of colitis was prevented. These results suggested that DSS-induced colitis was triggered by microcirculatory disturbance in the mucosa, and that excessive neuronal excitation aggravated colitis. During remission periods of human UC, endoscopic inspection of the colonic microcirculation may enable the early detection of disease recurrence, and inhibition of neuronal iNOS expression may prevent the disease from worsening.

  20. Radiation Processed Materials from Carrageenan for Agricultural Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Aranilla, Charito T.; De la Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2010-01-01

    The radiation degradation yield (Gd) of κ- carrageenan was determined at different conditions. The computed Gd were as follows: 2.5, 1.7 and 1.2 for solid in atmosphere, solid in vacuum and at 1% aqueous solution, respectively. Chemical structure of irradiated κ-carrageenan at different doses (1% aqueous and solid in air and in vacuum) was investigated using several methods (UV-Vis / FT-IR / NMR spectroscopy / reducing sugar analysis / sulfate and carboxylic acid analysis). The chemical and spectral analyses of the radiolytic products indicated increasing reducing sugars, carbonyl, carboxylic acids, and sulfates with increasing doses which reach a maximum level at a certain dose depending on the irradiation condition. NMR data also revealed an intact structure of the oligomer irradiated at 100 kGy in the specific fraction that contains an Mw = (3-10) kDa. (author)

  1. Diagnosis and management of microscopic colitis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohr J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Johan Bohr,1,3 Anna Wickbom,1,3 Agnes Hegedus,2 Nils Nyhlin,1,3 Elisabeth Hultgren Hörnquist,3 Curt Tysk1,3 1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine/Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, 3School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden Abstract: Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis, together constituting microscopic colitis, are common causes of chronic diarrhea. They are characterized clinically by chronic nonbloody diarrhea and a macroscopically normal colonic mucosa where characteristic histopathological findings are seen. Previously considered rare, they now have emerged as common disorders that need to be considered in the investigation of the patient with chronic diarrhea. The annual incidence of each disorder is five to ten per 100,000 inhabitants, with a peak incidence in 60- to 70-year-old individuals and a predominance of female patients in collagenous colitis. The etiology and pathophysiology are not well understood, and the current view suggests an uncontrolled mucosal immune reaction to various luminal agents in predisposed individuals. Clinical symptoms comprise chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and fecal incontinence that may impair the patient's health-related quality of life. An association is reported with other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, thyroid disorders, diabetes mellitus, and arthritis. The best-documented treatment, both short-term and long-term, is budesonide, which induces clinical remission in up to 80% of patients after 8 weeks' treatment. However, after successful budesonide therapy is ended, recurrence of clinical symptoms is common, and the best possible long-term management deserves further study. The long-term prognosis is good, and the risk of complications, including colonic cancer, is low. We present an update of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of

  2. Segmental Colitis Complicating Diverticular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ma Van Rosendaal

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of idiopathic colitis affecting the sigmoid colon in elderly patients with underlying diverticulosis are presented. Segmental resection has permitted close review of the histopathology in this syndrome which demonstrates considerable similarity to changes seen in idiopathic ulcerative colitis. The reported experience with this syndrome and its clinical features are reviewed.

  3. Appendectomy protects against ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgeerts, P.; D'Haens, G.; Hiele, M.; Geboes, K.; Vantrappen, G.

    1994-01-01

    Defining risk factors for ulcerative colitis (UC) is important to better understand the pathogenesis of this idiopathic disease. One factor modulating the disease is smoking. A pilot study showed the absence of appendectomy in the medical history of patients with ulcerative colitis. The aim of the

  4. Carrageenan and agaran structures from the red seaweed Gymnogongrus tenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Recalde, Mercedes; Canelón, Dilsia J; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Matulewicz, María C; Cerezo, Alberto S; Ciancia, Marina

    2016-01-20

    The galactan system biosynthesized by the red seaweed Gymnogongrus tenuis (Phyllophoraceae) is constituted by major amounts of κ/ι-carrageenans, with predominance of ι-structures, which were isolated by extraction with hot water in high yield (∼ 45%). A small amount of non-cyclized carrageenans mostly of the ν-type was also obtained. Besides, 12% of these galactans are agaran structures, which were present in major quantities in the room temperature water extracts, but they were also found in the hot water extract. They are constituted by 3-linked β-D-galactose units partially substituted on C-6 with sulfate or single stubs of β-D-xylose and 4-linked residues that comprise α-L-galactose units partially sulfated or methoxylated on C-3 or sulfated on C-3 and C-6 and 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactose. Related structural patterns were previously found for agarans synthesized by other carrageenophytes. Results presented here show that these agarans are low molecular weight molecules independent of the carrageenan structures, with strong interactions between them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Formation of carrageenan-CaCO{sub 3} bioactive membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Lucas F.B.; Maniglia, Bianca C.; Pereira, Lourivaldo S.; Tapia-Blácido, Delia R.; Ramos, Ana P., E-mail: anapr@ffclrp.usp.br

    2016-01-01

    The high biocompatibility and resorbability of polymeric membranes have encouraged their use to manufacture medical devices. Here, we report on the preparation of membranes consisting of carrageenan, a naturally occurring sulfated polysaccharide that forms helical structures in the presence of calcium ions. We incorporated CaCO{sub 3} particles into the membranes to enhance their bioactivity and mechanical properties. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction data confirmed CaCO{sub 3} incorporation into the polymeric matrix. We tested the bioactivity of the samples by immersing them in a solution that mimics the ionic composition and pH of the human body fluid. The hybrid membranes generated hydroxyapatite, as attested by X-ray diffraction data. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopies aided investigation of membrane topography before and after CaCO{sub 3} deposition. The wettability and surface free energy, evaluated by contact angle measures, increased in the presence of CaCO{sub 3} particles. These parameters are important for membrane implantation in the body. Moreover, membrane stiffness was up to 110% higher in the presence of the inorganic particles, as revealed by Young's modulus. - Highlights: • Hybrid kappa and iota carrageenan-CaCO{sub 3} membranes were formed. • The hybrid membrane's origin hydroxyapatite after exposure to simulated body fluid • The carrageenan's specificity to bind Ca{sup 2+} ions tailors the surface properties.

  6. Isolated naratriptan-associated ischemic colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, George; Chaudhry, Priyanka; Rangasamy, Priya; Mudrovich, Steven

    2016-01-01

    We report a 41-year-old woman who developed histology- and colonoscopy-proven ischemic colitis with the use of naratriptan not exceeding the maximum 2 doses a day and 3 days per week and without a known medical or cardiovascular history. By exclusion of other causes of colonic ischemia, naratriptan was considered the sole causal agent. Discontinuation of naratriptan resulted in a complete clinical recovery. To date, our patient is the youngest known patient to develop ischemic colitis on isolated naratriptan in the setting of no known medical risk factors or predisposing medical condition. Even though triptans are commonly used for the abortive treatment of migraine headaches, such a reported side effect is rare; however, careful assessment and individual patient-based treatment is advised. PMID:27695179

  7. Formulation and characterization of novel composite semi-refined iota carrageenan-based edible film incorporating palmitic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, Danar; Giovani, Sarah; Manuhara, Godras Jati; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji

    2017-09-01

    Novel composite films based on semi-refined iota-carrageenan (SRIC) incorporating palmitic acid (PA) were prepared by an emulsification method. Palmitic acid (PA) as hydrophobic material was incorporated into semi-refined iota-carrageenan edible films in order to improve water vapor barrier properties. Composite SRIC-based films with varying concentrations of PA (10%, 20%, and 30% w/w) were obtained by a solvent casting method. Their mechanical and barrier properties were investigated. Results showed that the incorporation of PA in films caused a significant increase (p films improved the tensile strength (TS). Interestingly, the TS value increased to a peak at 20% w/w PA. However, the TS value showed a decrease when PA were added at 30% w/w. Elongation-at-break (EAB) were significantly (p films increased (from 10% to 30% w/w). Furthermore, the incorporation of PA also affected the water vapor barrier properties of the films. Water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the composite semi-refined iota-carrageenan-based edible film decreased significantly (p edible film incorporating 30% w/w of PA presented better water vapor barrier properties as compared to other films with 10% and 20% w/w PA incorporation. Thus, formulation containing 30% w/w palmitic acid promoted films with a highly beneficial to improve water vapor barrier properties and it has the potential for food packaging applications.

  8. Thymoma and Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Gholam Reza Mortazavi Moghaddam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymoma commonly associated with various paraneoplastic syndromes. Here is a 62-year-old non-smoker man with history of ulcerative colitis tree years ago. Recurrent attacks of respiratory symptoms make repeated visit of the patient by physician afterward. Chest radiographic findings were compatible with thymoma. The condition was followed by hypoimmunoglubolinemia and pure red cell aplasia. Anemia was refractory to thymectomy. Cyclosporine and prednisolone was started but led to pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis in patients who had already suffered from hypoimmunoglubolinemia.

  9. Potential of sago starch/carrageenan mixture as gelatin alternative for hard capsule material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana Dewi; Pranoto, Yudi; Anggraheni, Frida Dwi; Marseno, Djagal Wiseso

    2017-03-01

    In order to replace gelatin in capsule shell production, blends of sago starch and carrageenan were developed. Films and capsules were prepared with 10% (w/v) of sago starch, 25% (w/w starch) of glycerol and various carrageenan concentration (1, 2, 3% w/w starch) in two different kappa/iota-carrageenan ratio (1:3 and 3:1). The resulted films and capsules were characterized by mechanical property, water vapor and oxygen permeability. In addition, moisture absorption and solubility of capsule in acid solution were investigated. The results reveal that addition of carrageenan makes the films stronger and less permeable. Higher kappa-carrageenan content improved tensile strength and barrier properties of the films, whereas higher iota-carrageenan content produced films with higher elongation, moisture absorption and capsule solubility in acid solution. Capsule with 2% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa-/iota-ratio 3:1 had the lowest moisture absorption, whereas capsule with 3% (w/w starch) of carrageenan at kappa/iota ratio 1:3 had the highest solubility. It is illustrated that sago starch/carrageenan blends can be used as hard capsule material.

  10. Fulminant Amebic Colitis after Corticosteroid Therapy: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie-Ann Shirley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Amebic colitis, caused by intestinal infection with the parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, is a common cause of diarrhea worldwide. Fulminant amebic colitis is the most devastating complication of this infection, associated with both high mortality and morbidity. We conducted a review of the English literature to describe cases of fulminant amebic colitis associated with exposure to corticosteroid medications in order to identify the risk factors for poor outcome and determine difficulties in diagnosis and treatment.Articles reporting severe and fulminant forms of amebic colitis between 1991 and 2016 were collected. 525 records were screened to identify 24 cases for qualitative analysis associated with corticosteroid use. Cases arose from areas of high endemicity or travel to such areas. Most cases (14 of 24, 58% were given corticosteroids for initially misdiagnosed colitis, mainly inflammatory bowel, resulting in rapid progression of disease. Nearly half of all cases underwent surgical intervention, and 25% of cases died, despite all patients eventually receiving treatment with metronidazole. The odds of death did not differ significantly by prior misdiagnosis, co-morbidities, bowel perforation or need for surgery.Infection with E. histolytica should be considered prior to the administration of corticosteroids, in particular for patients residing in endemic areas or those with appropriate travel history, especially prior to the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. The development of preventative and treatment interventions are needed to improve outcomes of fulminant disease.

  11. Aspidosperma pyrifolium Has Anti-Inflammatory Properties: An Experimental Study in Mice with Peritonitis Induced by Tityus serrulatus Venom or Carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Lima, Maíra Conceição Jerônimo de; Oliveira Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica; Furtado, Allanny Alves; Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Siqueira, Emerson Michell da Silva; Oliveira, Ruth Medeiros; Oliveira Rocha, Hugo Alexandre; Ferreira Rocha, Keyla Borges; Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio da; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas

    2017-11-11

    Scorpions of the genus Tityus are responsible for the majority of envenomation in Brazil, the Tityus serrulatus species being the most common and dangerous in South America. In this approach, we have investigated the ability of the aqueous extract from the leaves of Aspidosperma pyrifolium in reducing carrageenan-induced inflammation and the inflammation induced by T. serrulatus envenomation in mice. We also evaluated the cytotoxic effects of this extract, using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) assay and the results revealed that the extract is safe. Analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry with Diode Array Detection (LC-DAD-MS) showed one major chemical component, the flavonoid rutin and phenolics compounds. For in vivo studies in carrageenan-induced peritonitis model, mice received extracts, dexamethasone, rutin or saline, before administration of carrageenan. For venom-induced inflammation model, animals received T. serrulatus venom and were, simultaneously, treated with extracts, antivenom, rutin or saline. The extract and rutin showed a reduction in the cell migration into the peritoneal cavity, and in the same way the envenomated animals also showed reduction of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration and vasodilation in lungs. This is an original study revealing the potential action of A. pyrifolium against inflammation caused by Tityus serrulatus venom and carrageenan, revealing that this extract and its bioactive molecules, specifically rutin, may present potential anti-inflammatory application.

  12. SHORT-TERM PERORAL TOXICITY OF UNDEGRADED CARRAGEENAN IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, E.

    1973-01-01

    or organ weights. The treatment resulted, however, in changes in the intestinal flora: the total counts of aerobic bacteria were decreased in the colon and rectum and the number of Lactobacilli was reduced in the rectum. No ulcerative colitis or erosions of the mucous membrane of caecum and colon were...

  13. Infliximab for ipilimumab-induced colitis: A series of 13 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillock, Nadine T; Heard, Sharryn; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; Hill, Catherine L; Andrews, Jane

    2017-10-01

    To review the outcomes of metastatic melanoma patients treated with infliximab for severe steroid-refractory colitis secondary to ipilimumab therapy. Immune-related colitis is a known potential adverse effect of ipilimumab, that causes significant morbidity and extended hospital stays. There are limited outcome data for patients treated with infliximab for ipilimumab-induced colitis refractory to corticosteroids. Management guidelines have been developed based on case study evidence only. A retrospective review of all patients administered infliximab for ipilimumab-induced colitis at South Australian public hospitals between October 2011 and April 2015. Resolution of colitis/diarrhea, duration of hospital stay, dosage regimen of infliximab used (single dose vs multiple dose) and surgical intervention if required. Between October 2011 and April 2015, 106 patients were dispensed ipilimumab from South Australian public hospitals for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Thirteen were administered infliximab for severe, steroid-refractory colitis secondary to ipilimumab. Sixty-two percent received a single dose of infliximab only. Four patients achieved resolution of colitis symptoms at 1 month postinfliximab. Thirty-three percent required surgical intervention despite treatment with infliximab. One patient declined surgery and subsequently died due to bowel perforation. The average number of overnight bed days due to colitis was 27. This series of patients with severe ipilimumab-induced colitis suggests that despite treatment with infliximab a high proportion of patients do not achieve resolution of symptoms. Review of these cases has highlighted the absence of evidence-based guidelines to treat severe, steroid refractory colitis secondary to ipilimumab. Further prospective studies may clarify the role of infliximab for the treatment of ipilimumab-induced colitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. The Effects of plasticizers and palmitic acid toward the properties of the carrageenan Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heru Wibowo, Atmanto; Listiyawati, Oktaviana; Purnawan, Candra

    2016-02-01

    Varied plasticizers and palmitic acid additive have been added in the carrageenan film. The film was made by mixing of the carrageenan and plasticizers (glycerol, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol) with composition of 92:3, 90:6, 87:9, 84:12, 81:15(%w/w) and in the presence of palmitic acid as additive with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% of total weight. Casting method was used for the film molding and drying at 60oC with the oven for 12 hours. To investigate the effects of plasticizers and additive, some mechanical tests on film were performed. The test result concludes that plasticizers in the film decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation break of the carrageenan film. The additive of palmitic acid decreased the tensile strength of the carrageenan film and also decreased the-the water absorbance of the film. The highest tensile strength of films made was with the formulation of carrageenan: PEG with composition of 92:3 (% w/w). The highest elongation break of the film was for carrageenan:PVA with the composition of 81: 15 (%w/w) and carrageenan:palmitic acid:PEG with the composition of 92: 3: 1 (%w/w). The lowest water absorption of the film was achieved for carrageenan:PVA:palmitic acid with the composition of 87: 3: 5 (%w/w).

  15. Characterisation and Radiation Modification of Carrageenan in the Solid State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulrez, S.; Al-Assaf, S.; Phillips, G.O.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the modification of kappa-carrageenan in the solid state using gamma radiation (in the dose range of 1-25kGy) in the presence of unsaturated alkyne gas. The results showed maximum production of hydrogel at 5kGy with nearly 80% of starting material being converted to hydrogel form in the absence of a gellin agent. Higher irradiation doses at 25kGy resulted in reducing the hydrogel proportion to ~40% due to degradation. The molecular weight and distribution was determined by GPC-MALLS and the results showed a decrease in the mass recovery and molecular weight of the soluble fraction at 60C. The molecular weight results were in agreement with hydrogel data determined from the filtration method. There was an optimum increase in the viscosity, elasticity and mechanical strength at 5kGy which was followed by a decrease in the gel strength at higher doses (25kGy). Our study demonstrates the potential production of novel hydrogel based carrageenan obtained by irradiation in the absence of metal ions with possible new applications. A mechanism for the radiation induced cross-linking to produce superhelical aggregates in the absence of a gelling agent is proposed. (author)

  16. Multi-step carboxymethylation of kappa-Carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranilla, Charito Tranquilan; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Bayquen, Aristea V.

    2008-01-01

    Many polysaccharide derivatives have been prepared by carboxymethylation reactions in order to increase the range of potential applications of these natural polymers in the chemical, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Carboxymethylation of kappa-carrageenan was attempted for the first time to synthesize derivatives with various degree of substitution. A multistep carboxymethylation was performed under heterogeneous reaction conditions, in isopropyl alcohol/water slurry medium, with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution for activation, and monochloroacetic acid for etherification. The derivatives obtained had average degree of substitutions from 1.20 to 1.92 as determined by potentiometric back-titration. Chemical and structural characterization were accomplished by Gel Permeation Chromatography, Elemental analysis, FT-IR Spectroscopy, 1 H N and 13 C NMR Spectroscopy. The relative reactivity of the hydroxyl groups in κ-carrageenan dimer unit proceeded in the order O-C2 G4S > O-C6 G4S >O-C2 AG at a ratio of 1:0.6:O.4. (author)

  17. Sclerosing cholangitis with ulcerative colitis in a Nigerian woman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) is a relatively rare cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. It presents as chronic cholestasis associated with jaundice and pruritus. We report a middle aged Nigerian woman who presented with cholestatic jaundice and diagnosed with PSC with concurrent ulcerative colitis based on ...

  18. Galectin-3 Modulates Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Elisabeth; Stieber-Gunckel, Manuela; Dunger, Nadja; Falk, Werner; Obermeier, Florian; Kunst, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified galectin-3 (gal-3) as a new and strong fibroblast activator produced by colonic epithelial cells. Very little is known about the influence of gal-3 in inflammatory bowel disease. We, therefore, investigated the impact of gal-3 on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in a mouse model. Colonic lamina propria fibroblasts of healthy controls were used for co-incubation studies of gal-3 with gal-1, TGF-β1, IFNγ, IL-4 and IL-10. Acute and chronic DSS colitis was induced by 3% DSS in drinking water in female Balb/c mice weighing 20-22 g. Recombinant gal-3 was expressed by the pET vector system and used for a 5-day treatment in different concentrations intraperitoneally. The distal third of the colon was used for histologic analysis. Colonic cytokine expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. In vitro, gal-3 induced IL-8 secretion was significantly reduced by co-incubation with IL-10 (5 ng/ml) and IL-4 (10 ng/ml). Acute DSS-induced colitis was ameliorated by gal-3 treatment as indicated by increased colonic length and reduced weight loss compared to that of controls. In acute and chronic colitis, gal-3 treatment resulted in a significant suppression of colonic IL-6. Gal-3 significantly reduces inflammation in acute and chronic DSS colitis in mice indicating a potential role in intestinal inflammation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiki, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Masataka; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yuko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Imoto, Ichiro; Adachi, Yukihiko

    2002-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42±19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  20. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiki, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Masataka; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yuko [Saint Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Imoto, Ichiro [National Mie Chuo Hospital, Hisai (Japan); Adachi, Yukihiko [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42{+-}19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  1. Prevention of Colitis and Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer by a Novel Polypharmacological Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tzu-Tang; Lin, Yi-Ting; Tseng, Ruo-Yu; Shun, Chia-Tung; Lin, Yu-Chin; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Fang, Jim-Min; Chen, Ching-Chow

    2016-08-15

    Colorectal cancer is a worldwide cancer with rising annual incidence. Inflammation is a well-known cause of colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. Metabolic inflammation (metaflammation) and altered gut microbiota (dysbiosis) have contributed to colorectal cancer. Chemoprevention is an important strategy to reduce cancer-related mortality. Recently, various polypharmacologic molecules that dually inhibit histone deacetylases (HDAC) and other therapeutic targets have been developed. Prevention for colitis was examined by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse models. Prevention for colorectal cancer was examined by azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) mouse models. Immunohistochemical staining was utilized to analyze the infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils and COX-II expression in mouse tissue specimens. The endotoxin activity was evaluated by Endotoxin Activity Assay Kit. We synthesized a statin hydroxamate that simultaneously inhibited HDAC and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR). Its preventive effect on colitis and colitis-associated colorectal cancer in mouse models was examined. Oral administration of this statin hydroxamate could prevent acute inflammation in the DSS-induced colitis and AOM/DSS-induced colorectal cancer with superior activity than the combination of lovastatin and SAHA. It also reduced proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, expression of COX-II, and cyclin D1 in inflammation and tumor tissues, as well as decreasing the infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils in tumor-surrounding regions. Stemness of colorectal cancer and the release of endotoxin in AOM/DSS mouse models were also attenuated by this small molecule. This study demonstrates that the polypharmacological HDAC inhibitor has promising effect on the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer, and serum endotoxin level might serve as a potential biomarker for its chemoprevention. Clin Cancer Res; 22(16); 4158-69. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for

  2. NMR analysis of fractionated irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan oligomers as plant growth promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L.V., E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Saiki, S.; Nagasawa, N. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kudo, H.; Katsumura, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); De La Rosa, A.M. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2011-09-15

    The optimum plant growth promoting effect in irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan is known to be of Mw<10,000. This is obtained by irradiating {kappa}-carrageenan at a dose of 100 kGy in solid and at 2 kGy in 1% aqueous solution. Kappa carrageenan irradiated at these doses was fractionated at different Mw ranges. The isolated fraction with a Mw of 3-10 kDa was analyzed by NMR. The chemical shifts of {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H spectra indicated that the basic functional structure of {kappa}-carrageenan (alternating D-galactose-4-sulfate and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose dimer) remains intact at a Mw of 3-10 kDa. No radiolytic products were detected at this range. - Highlights: > Irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan fractions with Mw<3 kDa contained higher carbonyl bonds. > {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C spectra of irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan were similar to references. > {kappa}-Carrageenan oligomers with Mw of 3-10 kDa may be suitable as plant growth promoter.

  3. Brachyspira murdochii colitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, A. S.; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochete Brachyspira murdochii is considered a normal intestinal commensal. In the present study, however, a field case of B murdochii–associated catarrhal colitis was identified in a pig, as characterized by extensive spirochetal colonization of the surface...... epithelium. Experimentally, 8 weaned pigs were challenged with the B murdochii isolate, reproducing catarrhal colitis in 2 animals. By applying fluorescent in situ hybridization using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA, B murdochii organisms were found in high numbers and were...... closely associated with the surface epithelium in the pigs with catarrhal colitis. The results indicate that, when present in high numbers, B murdochii is low pathogenic for pigs....

  4. [Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović-Calić, Nada

    2003-01-01

    There is an enigma of inflammatory bowel diseases, despite significant advantages during last 10 years in medicamentous and surgical treatment. Ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease are chronic with remissions and recidives. Crohns disease involves any part of digestive tube. Histological changes in ulcerative colitis are: inflammation of mucosa and submucosal tissue, crypt abscesses and ulcerations, pseudopolpys, bowel shortening and toxic megacolon in severe inflammation. In Crohns disease, transmural inflammation, "jumping lesions", deeper ulcerations, coble-stone mucosa, progressive fibrosis, granuloma with gigantic epithelial cells. ulcerative colitis: mesalazine, rectal 5-ASA and hydrocortisone enemas, surgery. Crohns disease: mesalazine and prednisolone. For terminal ilcitis, corticosteroid budesonid could be applied. Severe symptomatic disease: hospitalization, parenteral nutrition, antibiotics, prednisone, surgery in partial bowel obstruction, fistulas, abscessus, perforation.

  5. Pathogenesis of Colitis in Germ-Free Mice Infected With EHEC O157:H7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, K. A.; Fontaine, C.; Friedman, D. I.; Conti, N.; Alteri, C. J.

    2017-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are strains of E. coli that express Shiga toxins (Stx) and cause hemorrhagic colitis. In some cases, disease can progress to hemolytic uremic syndrome, a potentially fatal form of kidney disease. Both enteric and renal disease are associated with the expression of stx genes, which are often carried on lysogenic phage. Toxin is expressed following induction and conversion of the phage to lytic growth. The authors previously used a germ-free mouse model to demonstrate that toxin gene expression is enhanced during growth in vivo and that renal disease is dependent on both prophage induction and expression of Stx2. In the current study, the authors document and quantify necrotizing colitis, examine the progression of enteric and renal disease, and determine the role of Stx2, phage genes, and the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) in bacterial colonization and colitis and systemic disease. By 1 day after inoculation, EHEC-monocolonized mice developed colitis, which decreased in severity thereafter. Systemic disease developed subsequently. Infection with EHEC mutant strains revealed that renal failure and splenic necrosis were absolutely dependent on the expression of Stx2 but that T3SS function and prophage excision were not necessary for systemic disease. In contrast, colitis was only partly dependent on Stx2. This study demonstrates that in germ-free mice, like in human patients, EHEC causes early colitis followed by renal failure and that systemic disease but not colitis is Stx2 dependent. PMID:28178427

  6. SANS study of surfactant ordering in kappa-carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evmenenko, G.; Theunissen, E.; Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering using contrast variation by H2O/D2O has been applied for the structural investigation of kappa -carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) complexes. interaction of kappa -carrageenan with an ionic surfactant involves self-assembly of the surfactant molecules...... in conjunction with the carrageenan molecules and the formation of an ordered structure. Contrast matching conditions for the polysaccharide (70% H2O/30% D2O) allowed to obtain the small-angle scattering pattern from the surfactant part of the complexes. The SANS curves reveal that the observed scattering...

  7. Perforation in a patient with stercoral colitis and diverticulosis: who did it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya R. Bhatt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stercoral colitis with perforation of the colon is an uncommon, yet life-threatening cause of the acute abdomen. No one defining symptom exists for stercoral colitis; it may present asymptomatically or with vague symptoms. Diagnostic delay may result in perforation of the colon resulting in complications, even death. Moreover, stercoral perforation of the colon can also present with localized left lower quadrant abdominal pain masquerading as diverticulitis. Diverticular diseases and stercoral colitis share similar pathophysiology; furthermore, they may coexist, further complicating the diagnostic dilemma. The ability to decide the cause of perforation in a patient with both stercoral colitis and diverticulosis has not been discussed. We, therefore, report this case of stercoral perforation in a patient with diverticulosis and include a discussion of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and a review of helpful diagnostic clues for a rapid differentiation to allow for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity of Carrageenan from Hypnea musciformis Wulfen

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Solimabi; Das, B.

    Pharmacological studies on K-carrageenan extracted from Hypnea musciformis have shown that it antagonizes histamine-induced spasm in guineapig ielum and possesses anti-inflammatory activity against rat hind paw oedema induced by commercial...

  9. Semi-commercial scale production of carrageenan plant growth promoter by E-beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Dean, Giuseppe Filam O.; Magsino, Gil L.; Dela Cruz, Rafael Miguel M.; Tecson, Mariel G.; Abella, Matt Ezekiel S.; Hizon, Mark Gil S.

    2018-02-01

    The plant growth promoter (PGP) effect of different formulations of gamma-irradiated carrageenan solutions were tested on rice by foliar spraying. The best formulation was produced in large quantity for field application. Multilocation trials of around 1600 ha rice field in different regions of the Philippines indicated increase in yield of an average of around 20%. Increased resistance to tungro virus was also noted. Likewise, there was extensive root growth, increase in number of tillers, and development of sturdy stems that prevented lodging of rice plant. E-beam irradiation of carrageenan PGP was also studied to increase its throughput of production. Degradation of carrageenan by e-beam irradiation is inhibited by the formation of crosslinks. Optimisation by addition of hydrogen peroxide to improve degradation is discussed. A continuous flow liquid handling system has been fabricated to increase throughput of the carrageenan PGP. Using the optimized parameters, the system can produce a volume of approximately 1700 L/h.

  10. A review on synthesis, properties and applications of natural polymer based carrageenan blends and composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Tabasum, Shazia; Nasif, Muhammad; Sultan, Neelam; Aslam, Nosheen; Noreen, Aqdas; Zuber, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    Carrageenan is a natural polysaccharide extracted from edible red seaweeds of Rhodophycea class. It has been used as a viscosity increasing or gelling agent for prolonged and controlled drug release, food, pharmaceuticals and other industries. However, in spite of wide range of applications, carrageenan has some drawbacks and adverse effects on the biological systems, so its modifications with natural and synthetic polymers are carried out. This review article presents different sources and properties of carrageenans with special emphasis on natural polymer based carrageenan blends and composites and their applications in controlled drug delivery system, wound dressing and tissue engineering because of their biodegradability and biocompatibility, food industry as thickening/gelling materials, cosmeceuticals and making polyelectrolyte complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Kolorektal cancerudvikling ved colitis ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Jane; Langholz, E.; Frisch, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is believed to carry a predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. International clinical guidelines suggest that UC patients should have a colonoscopy performed every year or up to every third year from approximately eight years after diagnosis for early...

  12. Mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a colonic inflammatory condition with a substantial impact on the quality of life of affected persons. The disease carries a cumulative risk of need of colectomy of 20-30% and an estimated cumulative risk of colorectal cancer of 18% after 30 years of disease duration...

  13. Management of pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Dan; Levine, Arie; Escher, Johanna C

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) shares many features with adult-onset disease but there are some unique considerations; therefore, therapeutic approaches have to be adapted to these particular needs. We aimed to formulate guidelines for managing UC in children based on a systematic review (SR) ...

  14. NKT cells mediate the recruitment of neutrophils by stimulating epithelial chemokine secretion during colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Enyu; Liu, Ronghua; Lu, Zhou; Liu, Jiajing; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Dan; Chu, Yiwei

    2016-05-27

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a kind of inflammatory bowel diseases characterized by chronic inflammation and ulcer in colon, and UC patients have increased risk of getting colorectal cancer. NKT cells are cells that express both NK cell markers and semi-invariant CD1d-restricted TCRs, can regulate immune responses via secreting a variety of cytokines upon activation. In our research, we found that the NKT cell-deficient CD1d(-/-) mice had relieved colitis in the DSS-induced colitis model. Further investigations revealed that the colon of CD1d(-/-) mice expressed less neutrophil-attracting chemokine CXCL 1, 2 and 3, and had decreased neutrophil infiltration. Infiltrated neutrophils also produced less reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TNF-α, indicating they may cause less epithelial damage. In addition, colitis-associated colorectal cancer was also relieved in CD1d(-/-) mice. During colitis, NKT cells strongly expressed TNF-α, which could stimulate CXCL 1, 2, 3 expressions by the epithelium. In conclusion, NKT cells can regulate colitis via the NKT cell-epithelium-neutrophil axis. Targeting this mechanism may help to improve the therapy of UC and prevent colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Carrageenan Dietary Fiber Suplementation in Feed to Improving Blood Lipid Parameters of Hypercholesterolemic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernawati Hernawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan is example of food with high content of fiber. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of carrageenan supplementations on blood lipid parameters of hypercholesterolemic male mice. The experiment were done at animal cages Departemen of Biology Education, Indonesia University of Education and Fisiology Laboratory Faculty of Veteriner Medicine, Bogor Agricultural Institute on August 2011 until March 2012. The experimental mice were assigned into a completely randomized design with 5 treatments i.e., negative control group; normocholesterolemic mice fed with a standard diet, positive control group; hypercholesterolemic mice fed with a standard diet without carrageenan supplementation, treatments group; hypercholesterolemic mice feds with supplemented with 15%, 30%, and 46% carrageenan. The nonsoluble content of dietary fiber in the experimental treatments were 6.92, 8.75, 10.48, 12.27, and 14.05%, respectively. The parameters measured were body weight, cholesterol levels of blood serum, liver and feces, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and glucose levels. Supplementation of carrageenan as a source of dietary fiber increased serum HDL concentrations, and decreased body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL concentrations of hypercholesterolemic male mice without a significant effect on serum glucose consentrations. Hypercholesterolemic mice fed with a supplemented with 46% carrageenan decreased body weight by 7.99%, total serum cholesterol by 18.78%, triglyceride by 17.53%, LDL by 71.33%, and increased HDL by 15.59−20.47%. Carrageenan supplementation reduce liver cholesterol levels by 38.46% and increased cholesterol excretion through feces by 57.07%. Supplementation of 46% carrageenan in hipercholesterolemic fed is effective in improving blood lipid parameters of hypercholesterolemic male mice.

  16. Tracheitis – A Rare Extra-Intestinal Manifestation of Ulcerative Colitis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Isabel Serra; Abreu, Marlene; Corujeira, Susana; Oliveira, Juliana; Tavares, Marta; Rocha, Cristina; Lopes, Joanne; Carneiro, Fátima; Dias, Jorge Amil; Trindade, Eunice

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammatory bowel disease may cause both intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations. Respiratory symptoms in ulcerative colitis are rare and tracheal involvement is exceedingly rare in children. Case 1: Sixteen year-old female with a 4-week-complaint of abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, fever and cough. The investigation was consistent with the diagnosis of concomitant ulcerative colitis/coinfection to Escherichia coli. On day 4 respiratory signs persisted so azithromycin ...

  17. Population studies and carrageenan properties in eight Gigartinales (Rhodophyta) from Western Coast of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leonel

    2013-01-01

    Eight carrageenophytes, representing seven genera and three families of Gigartinales (Florideophyceae), were studied for 15 months. The reproductive status, dry weight, and carrageenan content have been followed by a monthly random sampling. The highest carrageenan yields were found in Chondracanthus acicularis (61.1%), Gigartina pistillata (59.7%), and Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (58.0%). Species of Cystocloniaceae family produces predominantly iota-carrageenans; Gigartinaceae family produces hybrid kappa-iota carrageenans (gametophytic plants) and lambda-family carrageenans (sporophytic plants); Phyllophoraceae family produces kappa-iota-hybrid carrageenans. Quadrate destructive sampling method was used to determine the biomass and line transect. Quadrate nondestructive sampling method, applied along a perpendicular transect to the shoreline, was used to calculate the carrageenophytes cover in two periods: autumn/winter and spring/summer. The highest cover and biomass were found in Chondrus crispus (3.75%-570 g/m(2)), Chondracanthus acicularis (3.45%-99 g/m(2)), Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (2.45%-207.5 g/m(2)), and Mastocarpus stellatus (2.02%-520 g/m(2)).

  18. Population Studies and Carrageenan Properties in Eight Gigartinales (Rhodophyta from Western Coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight carrageenophytes, representing seven genera and three families of Gigartinales (Florideophyceae, were studied for 15 months. The reproductive status, dry weight, and carrageenan content have been followed by a monthly random sampling. The highest carrageenan yields were found in Chondracanthus acicularis (61.1%, Gigartina pistillata (59.7%, and Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (58.0%. Species of Cystocloniaceae family produces predominantly iota-carrageenans; Gigartinaceae family produces hybrid kappa-iota carrageenans (gametophytic plants and lambda-family carrageenans (sporophytic plants; Phyllophoraceae family produces kappa-iota-hybrid carrageenans. Quadrate destructive sampling method was used to determine the biomass and line transect. Quadrate nondestructive sampling method, applied along a perpendicular transect to the shoreline, was used to calculate the carrageenophytes cover in two periods: autumn/winter and spring/summer. The highest cover and biomass were found in Chondrus crispus (3.75%–570 g/m2, Chondracanthus acicularis (3.45%–99 g/m2, Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (2.45%–207.5 g/m2, and Mastocarpus stellatus (2.02%–520 g/m2.

  19. Optimization of the extraction of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Webber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to optimize an alternative method of extraction of carrageenan without previous alkaline treatment and ethanol precipitation using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. In order to introduce an innovation in the isolation step, atomization drying was used reducing the time for obtaining dry carrageenan powder. The effects of extraction time and temperature on yield, gel strength, and viscosity were evaluated. Furthermore, the extracted material was submitted to structural analysis, by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR, and chemical composition analysis. Results showed that the generated regression models adequately explained the data variation. Carrageenan yield and gel viscosity were influenced only by the extraction temperature. However, gel strength was influenced by both, extraction time and extraction temperature. Optimal extraction conditions were 74 ºC and 4 hours. In these conditions, the carrageenan extract properties determined by the polynomial model were 31.17%, 158.27 g.cm-2, and 29.5 cP for yield, gel strength, and viscosity, respectively, while under the experimental conditions they were 35.8 ± 4.68%, 112.50 ± 4.96 g.cm-2, and 16.01 ± 1.03 cP, respectively. The chemical composition, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy analyses showed that the crude carrageenan extracted is composed mainly of κ-carrageenan.

  20. Oral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Barbara; Colleoni, Mariapia; Conti, Silvia; Parolaro, Daniela; Franke, Chiara; Trovato, Anna Elisa; Giagnoni, Gabriella

    2004-03-01

    Cannabidiol, the major non-psychoactive component of marijuana, has various pharmacological actions of clinical interest. It is reportedly effective as an anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. The present study examined the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects of cannabidiol, administered orally (5-40 mg/kg) once a day for 3 days after the onset of acute inflammation induced by intraplantar injection of 0.1 ml carrageenan (1% w/v in saline) in the rat. At the end of the treatment prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was assayed in the plasma, and cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, production of nitric oxide (NO; nitrite/nitrate content), and of other oxygen-derived free radicals (malondialdehyde) in inflamed paw tissues. All these markers were significantly increased following carrageenan. Thermal hyperalgesia, induced by carrageenan and assessed by the plantar test, lasted 7 h. Cannabidiol had a time- and dose-dependent anti-hyperalgesic effect after a single injection. Edema following carrageenan peaked at 3 h and lasted 72 h; a single dose of cannabidiol reduced edema in a dose-dependent fashion and subsequent daily doses caused further time- and dose-related reductions. There were decreases in PGE2 plasma levels, tissue COX activity, production of oxygen-derived free radicals, and NO after three doses of cannabidiol. The effect on NO seemed to depend on a lower expression of the endothelial isoform of NO synthase. In conclusion, oral cannabidiol has a beneficial action on two symptoms of established inflammation: edema and hyperalgesia.

  1. Development of edible films and coatings from alginates and carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli-Kafrani, Elham; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Masoudpour-Behabadi, Mahdieh

    2016-02-10

    The use of renewable resources, which can reduce waste disposal problems, is being explored to produce biopolymer films and coatings. Renewability, degradability, and edibility make such films particularly suitable for food and nonfood packaging applications. Edible films and coatings play an important role in the quality, safety, transportation, storage, and display of a wide range of fresh and processed foods. They can diminish main alteration by avoiding moisture losses and decreasing adverse chemical reaction rates. Also, they can prevent spoilage and microbial contamination of foods. Additionally, nanomaterials and food additives, such as flavors, antimicrobials, antioxidants, and colors, can be incorporated into edible films and coatings in order to extend their applications. Water-soluble hydrocolloids like polysaccharides usually impart better mechanical properties to edible films and coatings than do hydrophobic substances. They also are excellent barriers to oxygen and carbon dioxide. Recently, there has been much attention on carrageenan and alginate as sources of film-forming materials. Thus, this review highlights production and characteristics of these films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Release of Tenofovir from Carrageenan-Based Vaginal Suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toral Zaveri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbicides are an active area of research for HIV prevention, being developed as a woman-initiated method of prevention during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have produced microbicide prototypes in the form of semisoft vaginal suppositories prepared from carrageenan and conducted both qualitative and quantitative studies using these prototypes to determine the physical properties that drive acceptability and possibly adherence. In order to ensure that the suppositories function as effective drug delivery vehicles, we have conducted in vitro dissolution studies in water, vaginal simulant fluid (VSF and semen simulant fluid (SSF with suppositories loaded with the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir (TFV. TFV was released via diffusion and matrix erosion in water or by diffusion out of the matrix in VSF and SSF. Diffusion studies were conducted in two different volumes of VSF and SSF. The volume of VSF/SSF into which TFV diffused and the size of the suppositories determined the rate of diffusion from the suppositories. About 45%–50% of the encapsulated TFV diffused out of the suppositories within the first two hours, irrespective of suppository size, diffusion medium (VSF/SSF and the volume of medium. Prior work indicates that a short waiting period between insertion and coitus is highly desired by women; present data suggest our microbicide prototypes have rapid initial release followed by a slow release curve over the first 24 h.

  3. Characterization of in vitro dengue virus resistance to carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Laura B; Damonte, Elsa B

    2016-07-01

    The λ-carrageenan (λ-car) is a potent and selective inhibitor of dengue virus (DENV) infection targeted to virus adsorption and internalization, due to the structural similarities with the mammalian cell receptor heparan sulfate. To further characterize the antiviral activity of λ-car, the selection and the phenotypic and genomic features of λ-car resistant DENV-2 variants are studied here in comparison to control virus. Resistant variants were rapidly selected in Vero cells after three passages in presence of the drug. No difference was detected in the growth profiles in Vero and C6/36 cells between resistant and control viruses. By contrast, the kinetics of adsorption and internalization of resistant variants in Vero cells was significantly diminished whereas entry to C6/36 cells was unaffected. By plaque purification and sequence analysis of the population, two types of resistant clones were found: some clones presented two mutations in E protein, K126E, and F422L; but other equally λ-car resistant clones had no mutations in E. Furthermore, no mutations were found in other viral proteins like prM, C, or NS1. The genomic disparity in E protein was also associated to differences in phenotype stability. The stable genomic resistance here described provides information about determinants in E protein involved in receptor binding and membrane fusion for uncoating. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Synthesis and electrical properties of polyaniline/iota-carrageenan biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Rios, Alejandro; Olmedo-Martínez, Jorge L; Farías-Mancilla, Bárbara; Hernández-Escobar, Claudia A; Zaragoza-Contreras, E Armando

    2014-09-22

    Polyaniline/iota-carrageenan (ι-CGN) biocomposites were synthesized via in situ methodology using ammonium persulfate as the oxidizing agent. Both ionic (band at 1131 cm(-1)) and hydrogen bond (bands at 2500 and 3500 cm(-1)) interactions between polyaniline and ι-CGN were determined by infrared spectroscopy. Such intermolecular interactions provided the biocomposites with a cross-linked structure that provided the materials with hydrogel behavior. Biocomposite electro-conductivity, determined by the 4-probe technique, was in the range of semiconductors (10(-3) to 10(-2) S cm(-1)); whereas electro-activity, assessed by cyclic voltammetry, showed the oxidation-reduction transitions typical of polyaniline. Based on the properties of polyaniline and ι-CGN, some applications for the new materials in the field of biosensor design, electrochemical capacitors, or tissue engineering scaffolds are possible. It is worth saying that both electro-conductive and electro-active properties of polyaniline/ι-CGN biocomposites are reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lymphocytic colitis: a distinct clinical entity? A clinicopathological confrontation of lymphocytic and collagenous colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, F.; Wouters, K.; D'Haens, G.; Hoang, P.; Naegels, S.; D'Heygere, F.; Holvoet, J.; Louis, E.; Devos, M.; Geboes, K.

    1999-01-01

    It is not known whether lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis represent different clinical entities or constitute part of a spectrum of disease. Detailed clinical features and histological findings were compared in a large series of patients with confirmed lymphocytic and collagenous colitis.

  6. Macrophage expression in acute radiation colitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadami, Tokuma; Shichijo, Kazuko; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Niino, Daisuke; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is important in the treatment of tumors in pelvic and abdominal region, it may cause radiation injury as a side effect. But there is no effective way of preventing or curing the damages. The mechanism of acute radiation colitis has not been elucidated yet. Our previous reports have revealed that X-ray irradiation induce apoptosis of epithelial stem cells in colon. Then a hypothesis of the radiation colitis can be put forward, DNA damage by irradiation, apoptosis of mucosal epithelial stem cells and degeneration of epithelial gland structure, macrophages phagocyte the debris, being activated and secreting various inflammatory cytokines, infiltration of inflammatory cells. Several recent reports show that macrophages may play an important role in the process of inflammatory bowel diseases such ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. We studied radiation colitis using rat animal models. Male Wister rats were irradiated by a single fraction dose of 22.5 Gy X-ray at laparotomy, shielding except for an approximately 2.5 cm length of rectum. Histological changes and macrophage accumulation in the rectum mucosa were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot method with the specimens which were taken on the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 14th day after irradiation. Severe macrophage accumulation in the lamina propria of the rectum was observed on the 5th day. At the same time, severe destruction of mucosal structure and inflammatory cells infiltration were also observed. Based on the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine producing effects of macrophage in rat and the increased expression in inflammatory bowel disease patients, speculate that intervention in the macrophage-cytokine network could form a future target for the treatment of acute radiation colitis. (author)

  7. Cyclooxygenase-2 immunoreactivity in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Rumessen, Jüri J; Csillag, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown aetiology and pathogenesis. In ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, prostaglandins may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation, and increased expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been detected. The purpose...... with samples from eight normal controls, and samples from eight patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Specimens from patients with CC expressed COX-2 protein in increased amounts compared with controls, but similar to patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. COX-2 expression...

  8. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-02-03

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  9. Exosomes from Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Suppress Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivoraitė, Ugnė; Jarmalavičiūtė, Akvilė; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Ramanauskaitė, Giedrė; Vaitkuvienė, Aida; Kašėta, Vytautas; Biziulevičienė, Genė; Venalis, Algirdas; Pivoriūnas, Augustas

    2015-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the effects of human dental pulp stem cell-derived exosomes on the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice. Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation from the supernatants of stem cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) cultivated in serum-free medium. At 1 h post-carrageenan injection, exosomes derived from supernatants of 2 × 10(6) SHEDs were administered by intraplantar injection to BALB/c mice; 30 mg/kg of prednisolone and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Edema was measured at 6, 24, and 48 h after carrageenan injection. For the in vivo imaging experiments, AngioSPARK750, Cat B 750 FAST, and MMPSense 750 FAST were administered into the mouse tail vein 2 h post-carrageenan injection. Fluorescence images were acquired at 6, 24, and 48 h after edema induction by IVIS Spectrum in vivo imaging system. Exosomes significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced edema at all the time points studied (by 39.5, 41.6, and 25.6% at 6, 24, and 48 h after injection, respectively), to similar levels seen with the positive control (prednisolone). In vivo imaging experiments revealed that, both exosomes and prednisolone suppress activities of cathepsin B and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) at the site of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation, showing more prominent effects of prednisolone at the early stages, while exosomes exerted their suppressive effects gradually and at later time points. Our study demonstrates for the first time that exosomes derived from human dental pulp stem cells suppress carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice.

  10. Quantification of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornshøj, Bettina Høj; Kobbelgaard, Sara; Blakemore, William R; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Bixler, Harris J; Klinger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the European Commission placed a limit on the amount of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed (PES) of 5 mg kg(-1). Formaldehyde is not used in carrageenan and PES processing and accordingly one would not expect free formaldehyde to be present in carrageenan and PES. However, surprisingly high levels up to 10 mg kg(-1) have been found using the generally accepted AOAC and Hach tests. These findings are, per proposed reaction pathways, likely due to the formation of formaldehyde when sulphated galactose, the backbone of carrageenan, is hydrolysed with the strong acid used in these conventional tests. In order to minimise the risk of false-positives, which may lead to regulatory non-compliance, a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed. Initially, carrageenan or PES is extracted with 2-propanol and subsequently reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form the chromophore formaldehyde-DNPH, which is finally quantified by reversed-phase HPLC with ultraviolet light detection at 355 nm. This method has been found to have a limit of detection of 0.05 mg kg(-1) and a limit of quantification of 0.2 mg kg(-1). Recoveries from samples spiked with known quantities of formaldehyde were 95-107%. Using this more specific technique, 20 samples of carrageenan and PES were tested for formaldehyde. Only one sample had a detectable content of formaldehyde (0.40 mg kg(-1)), thus demonstrating that the formaldehyde content of commercial carrageenan and PES products are well below the European Commission maximum limit of 5 mg kg(-1).

  11. Kolorektal cancerudvikling ved colitis ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Jane; Langholz, E.; Frisch, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is believed to carry a predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. International clinical guidelines suggest that UC patients should have a colonoscopy performed every year or up to every third year from approximately eight years after diagnosis for early...... detection of CRC/dysplasia. However, according to the Danish epidemiological data available, such recommendations are dubious. The present mini review focuses on this matter for the UC population in Denmark...

  12. The effects of sucrose on the mechanical properties of acid milk proteins-kappa-carrageenan gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sabadini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties have been widely correlated with textural characteristics to determine the interactions during the process formation of dairy gel. These interactions are strongly affected by process conditions and system composition. In the present study, the rheological of acid-induced protein dairy gels with (2(7-3 and without (2(6-2 sucrose and subjected to small and large deformations were studied using an experimental design. The independent variables were the sodium caseinate, whey protein concentrate (WPC, carrageenan and sucrose concentrations as well as stirring speed and heat treatment time and temperature. Mechanical deformation tests were performed at 0.1, 1, 5, and 9 mm/s up to 80% of initial height. A heavy dependence of rupture stress on increasing crosshead speed and the formation of harder gels with the addition of sucrose were observed. Moreover the elastic and viscous moduli, obtained by fitting the Maxwell model to stress relaxation data, increased with increasing addition of sucrose. These results can be explained by preferential hydration of the casein with sucrose, causing an induction of casein-polysaccharide and casein-casein interactions.

  13. Pythium insidiosum colitis in a dog: treatment and clinical outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimori, Mahyumi; Lopes, Erika Rondon; Lima, Samara Rosolem; Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus de; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Pescador, Caroline Argenta; Néspoli, Pedro Eduardo Brandini; Nakazato, Luciano; Dutra, Valéria; Souza, Roberto Lopes de; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this report is to describe the clinical, pathological and imaging findings and treatment of colitis caused by Pythium insidiosum in a canine presenting haematochezia and progressive weight loss. Through imaging, a thickening of the transverse and descending colon was observed. Histopathological analysis of the large intestine fragment revealed the presence of hyphae, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR as P. insidiosum. Antifungal treatment with itraconazole impleme...

  14. Dietary Salt Exacerbates Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Alan L; Liu, Bo; Rogers, Troy D; Sartor, R Balfour; Miao, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    The Western diet is characterized by high protein, sugar, fat, and low fiber intake, and is widely believed to contribute to the incidence and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, high sodium chloride salt content, a defining feature of processed foods, has not been considered as a possible environmental factor that might drive IBD. We set out to bridge this gap. We examined murine models of colitis on either a high salt diet (HSD) or a low salt diet. We demonstrate that an HSD exacerbates inflammatory pathology in the IL-10-deficient murine model of colitis relative to mice fed a low salt diet. This was correlated with enhanced expression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, sodium accumulated in the colons of mice on an HSD, suggesting a direct effect of salt within the colon. Similar to the IL-10-deficient model, an HSD also enhanced cytokine expression during infection by Salmonella typhimurium This occurred in the first 3 d of infection, suggesting that an HSD potentiates an innate immune response. Indeed, in cultured dendritic cells we found that high salt media potentiates cytokine expression downstream of TLR4 activation via p38 MAPK and SGK1. A third common colitis model, administration of dextran sodium sulfate, was hopelessly confounded by the high sodium content of the dextran sodium sulfate. Our results raise the possibility that high dietary salt is an environmental factor that drives increased inflammation in IBD. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of modified κ-carrageenan for enhanced proton conductivity as polymer electrolyte membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Wei Yi Liew

    Full Text Available Polymer electrolyte membranes based on the natural polymer κ-carrageenan were modified and characterized for application in electrochemical devices. In general, pure κ-carrageenan membranes show a low ionic conductivity. New membranes were developed by chemically modifying κ-carrageenan via phosphorylation to produce O-methylene phosphonic κ-carrageenan (OMPC, which showed enhanced membrane conductivity. The membranes were prepared by a solution casting method. The chemical structure of OMPC samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR spectroscopy. The conductivity properties of the membranes were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The characterization demonstrated that the membranes had been successfully produced. The ionic conductivity of κ-carrageenan and OMPC were 2.79 × 10-6 S cm-1 and 1.54 × 10-5 S cm-1, respectively. The hydrated membranes showed a two orders of magnitude higher ionic conductivity than the dried membranes.

  16. Optimum carrageenan concentration improved the physical properties of cabinet-dried yoghurt powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Y.; Abduh, S. B. M.; Legowo, A. M.; Pramono, Y. B.; Albaarri, AN

    2018-01-01

    Carrageenan is a hydrocolloid which able to improve the characteristic of dried powder. The purpose of this study was to produce and evaluate the characteristics of yoghurt powder which incorporated carrageenan as stabilizer and dried in a cabinet dryer. Carrageenan of 1 %, 2 % and 3 % (w/v) concentration were added to yoghurt prior to cabinet drying process. Physical properties of the yoghurt powder and the reconstituted one were evaluated. The best result was shown in carrageenan concentration of 2 % where it showed the highest bulk density (0.62 g/ml), and best particle size distribution (65.49 % in the range of 250-500 μm). Moisture and water activity (aw) were 8.02% and 0.37, respectively. The value is lower than what spoilage microorganisms require to grow (aw > 0.6) thus ensuring its long shelf life when combined with proper packaging. Reconstitution at 50°C showed that 2 % carrageenan resulted in a stable yoghurt product with no visible syneresis even after 3 hours. The proposed method shows promising application in the production of long shelf-life yoghurt powder production.

  17. Evaluation of polyethylenimine/carrageenan multi-layer for antibacterial activity of pathogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briones, Annabelle V.; Bigol, Urcila G.; Sato, Toshinori

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of multi-layer of polyethylenimine (PEI) and carrageenan (κ,ι, λ) for potential use as coating on biomaterial surface. The multi-layer of PEI/carrageenan was formed using the layer-by-layer assembly absorption technique and was monitored by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and bio molecular interaction analysis. All samples were prepared in phosphate buffer solution and applied to mica disk alternately. The micrographs showed the formation of bi-layer of polyethylenimine and carrageenan (κ, ι, λ) as observed in the change of height of the layer and surface morphology. The bimolecular binding of carrageenan with polyethylenimine was also investigated using a biosensor. The sensorgram showed that PEI interacted molecularly with carrageenan. Results were: 1,916.08 pg/nm 2 for kappa type; 1,844.1 pg/nm 2 for iota type and 6,074.24 pg/nm 2 for lambda type. The multi-layer showed antibacterial activity against Enterobacter cloaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcal strains (Enterococcus faecalis (EF) 29212 and 29505). (author)

  18. Synthesis and characterization of modified κ-carrageenan for enhanced proton conductivity as polymer electrolyte membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Joy Wei Yi; Loh, Kee Shyuan; Ahmad, Azizan; Lim, Kean Long; Wan Daud, Wan Ramli

    2017-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes based on the natural polymer κ-carrageenan were modified and characterized for application in electrochemical devices. In general, pure κ-carrageenan membranes show a low ionic conductivity. New membranes were developed by chemically modifying κ-carrageenan via phosphorylation to produce O-methylene phosphonic κ-carrageenan (OMPC), which showed enhanced membrane conductivity. The membranes were prepared by a solution casting method. The chemical structure of OMPC samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy. The conductivity properties of the membranes were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The characterization demonstrated that the membranes had been successfully produced. The ionic conductivity of κ-carrageenan and OMPC were 2.79 × 10-6 S cm-1 and 1.54 × 10-5 S cm-1, respectively. The hydrated membranes showed a two orders of magnitude higher ionic conductivity than the dried membranes.

  19. The effect of temperature and time of extraction on the quality of Semi Refined Carrageenan (SRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriyanto Heri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Euchema cottonii is a good source of kappa-carrageenan and can be found cultivated in the Indonesia coastal areas in which one of them is in Banten Province. Carrageenans have many applications and are utilized in human food and pet-food industry. Carrageenans are also utilized in non-food industry such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, printing and textile formulations. Hence, the present study features on the cooking process cooking time and cooking temperature. The effects of these parameters on carrageenan quality such as gel viscosity and gel strength were studied. The process of extraction of carrageenan was conducted with variations temperature: 60, 70, and 80 °C and the variation of time: 1, 2, and 3 hours. Alkaline substance used was KOH with 8% concentration and the ratio of solvent to dry seaweed 8:1. From the present investigation, it was observed that SRC extraction reached the best condition at temperature 70 °C for 2 hours with the value of yield 30.20%, 5.90% moisture content, 18.34% ash content, sulfate content of 6.94%, viscosity of 190 cP, and the gel strength 714.45 g / cm2. The treatment of temperature and extraction time significantly affected the quality of the SRC yield parameter, viscosity and gel strength.

  20. Increased susceptibility of IDH2-deficient mice to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanvit Cha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a group of chronic, relapsing, immunological, inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract including ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's disease (CD. It has been reported that UC, which is studied using a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis model, is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the apoptosis of intestine epithelial cells (IEC. Mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2 has been reported as an essential enzyme in the mitochondrial antioxidant system via generation of NADPH. Therefore, we evaluated the role of IDH2 in DSS-induced colitis using IDH2-deficient (IDH2-/- mice. We observed that DSS-induced colitis in IDH2-/- mice was more severe than that in wild-type IDH2+/+ mice. Our results also suggest that IDH2 deficiency exacerbates PUMA-mediated apoptosis, resulting from NF-κB activation regulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC activity. In addition, DSS-induced colitis is ameliorated by an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC through attenuation of oxidative stress, resulting from deficiency of the IDH2 gene. In conclusion, deficiency of IDH2 leads to increased mitochondrial ROS levels, which inhibits HDAC activity, and the activation of NF-κB via acetylation is enhanced by attenuated HDAC activity, which causes PUMA-mediated apoptosis of IEC in DSS-induced colitis. The present study supported the rationale for targeting IDH2 as an important cancer chemoprevention strategy, particularly in the prevention of colorectal cancer.

  1. Colitis susceptibility in p47(phox-/-) mice is mediated by the microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, E Liana; Abusleme, Loreto; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Lionakis, Michail S; Ding, Li; Hsu, Amy P; Zelazny, Adrian M; Moutsopoulos, Niki M; Kuhns, Douglas B; Deming, Clay; Quiñones, Mariam; Segre, Julia A; Bryant, Clare E; Holland, Steven M

    2016-04-05

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is caused by defects in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2) complex subunits (gp91(phox) (a.k.a. Nox2), p47(phox), p67(phox), p22(phox), p40(phox)) leading to reduced phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species production. Almost half of patients with CGD develop inflammatory bowel disease, and the involvement of the intestinal microbiome in relation to this predisposing immunodeficiency has not been explored. Although CGD mice do not spontaneously develop colitis, we demonstrate that p47(phox-/-) mice have increased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate colitis in association with a distinct colonic transcript and microbiome signature. Neither restoring NOX2 reactive oxygen species production nor normalizing the microbiome using cohoused adult p47(phox-/-) with B6Tac (wild type) mice reversed this phenotype. However, breeding p47(phox+/-) mice and standardizing the microflora between littermate p47(phox-/-) and B6Tac mice from birth significantly reduced dextran sodium sulfate colitis susceptibility in p47(phox-/-) mice. We found similarly decreased colitis susceptibility in littermate p47(phox-/-) and B6Tac mice treated with Citrobacter rodentium. Our findings suggest that the microbiome signature established at birth may play a bigger role than phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species in mediating colitis susceptibility in CGD mice. These data further support bacteria-related disease in CGD colitis.

  2. Looking for the best anti-colitis medicine: A comparative analysis of current and prospective compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumanevich, Anastasiya A; Chaparala, Anusha; Witalison, Erin E; Tashkandi, Hossam; Hofseth, Anne B; Lane, Corey; Pena, Edsel; Liu, Piaomu; Pittman, Doug L; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Hofseth, Lorne J; Chumanevich, Alexander A

    2017-01-03

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic lifelong inflammatory disorder of the colon, which, while untreated, has a relapsing and remitting course with increasing risk of progression toward colorectal cancer. Current medical treatment strategies of UC mostly focus on inhibition of the signs and symptoms of UC to induce remission and prevent relapse of disease activity, minimizing the impact on quality of life, but not affecting the cause of disease. To date, however, there is no single reliable treatment agent and/or strategy capable of effectively controlling colitis progression throughout the patient's life without side effects, remission, or resistance. Taking into consideration an urgent need for the new colitis treatment strategies, targets and/or modulators of inflammation, we have tested current and prospective compounds for colitis treatment and directly compared their anti-colitis potency using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of colitis. We have introduced a composite score - a multi-parameters comparison tool - to assess biological potency of different compounds.

  3. Atypical disease phenotypes in pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Arie; de Bie, Charlotte I; Turner, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) may be particularly challenging since isolated colitis with overlapping features is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), while atypical phenotypes of UC are not uncommon. The Paris classification allows more accurate phenotyping of at...

  4. Biomimetic and cell-mediated mineralization of hydroxyapatite by carrageenan functionalized graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Cheng, Ju; Chen, Fengjuan; Hou, Fengping; Bai, Decheng; Xi, Pinxian; Zeng, Zhengzhi

    2014-03-12

    In bone tissue engineering, it is imperative to design multifunctional biomaterials that can induce and assemble bonelike apatite that is close to natural bone. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) was functionalized by carrageenan. The resulting GO-carrageenan (GO-Car) composite was further used as a substrate for biomimetic and cell-mediated mineralization of hydroxyapatite (HA). It was confirmed that carrageenan on the GO surface facilitated the nucleation of HA. The observation of the effect of the GO-Car on the adhesion, morphology, and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was investigated. In vitro studies clearly show the effectiveness of GO-Car in promoting HA mineralization and cell differentiation. The results of this study suggested that the GO-Car hybrid will be a promising material for bone regeneration and implantation.

  5. Status report on the collaborative project on the sans of K-carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calix, V.S.

    2006-01-01

    In the 2001 Beijing workshop, the Philippines proposed studies on the SANS of a natural biopolymer carrageenan. Several studies were submitted which were reviewed and evaluated by the Japanese scientist (1). On the basis of the economic importance and support of the Philippine government, in addition to it satisfying the requirement of FNCA, the proposal was accepted to be conducted in collaboration with the Prof. M. Shibayama of ISSP-Tokyo University. Two studies were proposed by the Philippines: 1. Structural investigation of γ-irradiated K-carrageenan. 2. Structural investigation of K-carrageenan/PVP blend cross linked by γ-irradiation. The report discusses the progress of the different activities related to the proposed studies done in the Philippines and the one currently being undertaken under the MEXT Exchange Program at JAERI, Tokai by a researcher who joined the group of Prof. M. Shibayama. (author)

  6. Nitric oxide and chronic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Grisham

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is thought to play an important role in modulating the inflammatory response by virtue of its ability to affect bloodflow, leukocyte function and cell viability. The objective of this study was to assess the role that NO may play in mediating the mucosal injury and inflammation in a model of chronic granulomatous colitis using two pharmacologically different inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Chronic granulomatous colitis with liver and spleen inflammation was induced in female Lewis rats via the subserosal (intramural injection of peptidoglycan/polysaccharide (PG/PS derived from group A streptococci. Chronic NOS inhibition by oral administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (15 µmol/kg/day or amino-guanidine (AG (15 µmol/ kg/day was found to attenuate the PG/PS-induced increases in macroscopic colonic inflammation scores and colonic myeloperoxidase activity. Only AG -- not L-NAME – attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in colon dry weight. Both L-NAME and AG significantly attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in spleen weight whereas neither was effective at significantly attenuating the PG/PS-induced increases in liver weight. Although both L-NAME and AG inhibited NO production in vivo, as measured by decreases in plasma nitrite and nitrate levels, only AG produced significantly lower values (38±3 versus 83±8 µM, respectively, P<0.05. Finally, L-NAME, but not AG, administration significantly increased mean arterial pressure from 83 mmHg in colitic animals to 105 mmHg in the PG/PS+ L-NAME-treated animals (P<0.05. It is concluded that NO may play an important role in mediating some of the pathophysiology associated with this model of chronic granulomatous colitis.

  7. Tetraspanin CD9 Limits Mucosal Healing in Experimental Colitis

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    María Laura Saiz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanins are a family of proteins with four transmembrane domains that associate between themselves and cluster with other partner proteins, conforming a distinct class of membrane domains, the tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs. These TEMs constitute macromolecular signaling platforms that regulate key processes in several cellular settings controlling signaling thresholds and avidity of receptors. In this study, we investigated the role of CD9, a tetraspanin that regulates major biological processes such as cell migration and immunological responses, in two mouse models of colitis that have been used to study the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Previous in vitro studies revealed an important role in the interaction of leukocytes with inflamed endothelium, but in vivo evidence of the involvement of CD9 in inflammatory diseases is scarce. Here, we studied the role of CD9 in the pathogenesis of colitis in vivo. Colitis was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, a chemical colitogen that causes epithelial disruption and intestinal inflammation. CD9−/− mice showed less severe colitis than wild-type counterparts upon exposure to DSS (2% solution and enhanced survival in response to a lethal DSS dose (4%. Decreased neutrophil and macrophage cell infiltration was observed in colonic tissue from CD9−/− animals, in accordance with their lower serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and other proinflammatory cytokines in the colon. The specific role of CD9 in IBD was further dissected by transfer of CD4+ CD45RBhi naive T cells into the Rag1−/− mouse colitis model. However, no significant differences were observed in these settings between both groups, ruling out a role for CD9 in IBD in the lymphoid compartment. Experiments with bone marrow chimeras revealed that CD9 in the non-hematopoietic compartment is involved in colon injury and limits the proliferation of epithelial cells. Our data indicate that CD9

  8. Sulphasalazine-Induced Pseudomembranous Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old female with ankylosing spondylitis developed fever, abdominal pain and diarrhea on two occasions after starting sulphasalazine therapy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed pseudomembranous colitis; fecal cultures were positive for Clostridium difficile; and C difficile toxin assay was positive. Despite the frequent use of sulphasalazine in the management of inflammatory bowel disease, this complication has been apparently rare. Clinicians should be wary of the onset of diarrhea in patients receiving sulphasalazine, whether for inflammatory bowel disease or other conditions.

  9. Radiation effects on agar, alginates and carrageenan to be used as food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliste, A. J. A. J.; Vieira, F. F. F. F.; Del Mastro, N. L. N. L.

    2000-03-01

    Agar, alginates and carrageenan are hydrocolloids that induce stabilization of physical properties of the food product during shelf life and prevention of undesirable changes such as moisture migration, gas cell coalescence or textural profile changes. In this work, agar, alginates and carrageenan was irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10 kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of these irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods.

  10. Facial synthesis of carrageenan/reduced graphene oxide/Ag composite as efficient SERS platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yuhong; Wang, Zhong; Fu, Li; Peng, Feng, E-mail: yuhongzhengcas@gmail.com [Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China); Wang, Aiwu [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong (Hong Kong)

    2017-01-15

    In this paper, we reported the preparation of carrageenan/reduced graphene oxide/Ag composite (CA-RGO-Ag) by a wet chemical method at room temperature using carrageenan, graphene oxide and silver nitrate as starting materials. As-prepared composite was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. Results showed that the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and silver nitrate was achieved simultaneously by addition of NaBH{sub 4} . Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study showed that the obtained composite give an intensive and enhanced Raman scattering when Rhodamine B was used as a probing molecule. (author)

  11. Lessons learned from a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study with a iota-carrageenan nasal spray as medical device in children with acute symptoms of common cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazekas Tamas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common cold is caused by a variety of respiratory viruses. The prevalence in children is high, and it potentially contributes to significant morbidity. Iota-carragenan, a polymer derived from red seaweed, has reduced viral load in nasal secretions and alleviated symptoms in adults with common cold. Methods We have assessed the antiviral and therapeutic activity of a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan in children with acute symptoms of common cold. A cohort of 153 children between 1–18 years (mean age 5 years, displaying acute symptoms of common cold were randomly assigned to treatment with a nasal spray containing iota-carrageenan (0.12% as verum or 0.9% sodium chloride solution as placebo for seven days. Symptoms of common cold were recorded and the viral load of respiratory viruses in nasal secretions was determined at two consecutive visits. Results The results of the present study showed no significant difference between the iota carrageenan and the placebo group on the mean of TSS between study days 2–7. Secondary endpoints, such as reduced time to clearance of disease (7.6 vs 9.4 days; p = 0.038, reduction of viral load (p = 0.026, and lower incidence of secondary infections with other respiratory viruses (p = 0.046 indicated beneficial effects of iota-carrageenan in this population. The treatment was safe and well tolerated, with less side effects observed in the verum group compared to placebo. Conclusion In this study iota-carrageenan did not alleviate symptoms in children with acute symptoms of common cold, but significantly reduced viral load in nasal secretions that may have important implications for future studies. Trial registration ISRCTN52519535, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN52519535/

  12. COMPARISON OF SELECTIVE AND NON SELECTIVE CYCLO-OXYGENASE 2 INHIBITORS IN EXPERIMENTAL COLITIS EXACERBATION: role of leukotriene B4 and superoxide dismutase

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    José Wander BREGANÓ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are considered one of the most important causes of reactivation of inflammatory bowel disease. With regard to selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors, the results are controversial in experimental colitis as well as in human studies. Objectives The aim this study is to compare nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs effects, selective and non selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors, in experimental colitis and contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs provoke colitis exacerbation. Methods Six groups of rats: without colitis, with colitis, and colitis treated with celecoxib, ketoprofen, indometacin or diclofenac. Survival rates, hemoglobin, plasmatic albumin, colonic tissue of interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, prostaglandin E2, catalase, superoxide dismutase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, chemiluminescence induced by tert-butil hydroperoxides, and tissue and plasmatic leukotriene B4 were determined. Results The groups treated with diclofenac or indometacin presented lower survival rates, hemoglobin and albumin, higher tissue and plasmatic leukotriene B4 and tissue superoxide dismutase than the group treated with celecoxib. Ketoprofen presented an intermediary behavior between diclofenac/indometacin and celecoxib, concerning to survival rate and albumin. The groups without colitis, with colitis and with colitis treated with celecoxib showed leukotriene B4 and superoxide dismutase lower levels than the groups treated with nonselective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors. Conclusions Diclofenac and indometacin presented the highest degree of induced colitis exacerbation with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, celecoxib did not show colitis exacerbation, and ketoprofen presented an intermediary behavior between diclofenac/indometacin and celecoxib. These results suggest that leukotriene B4 and superoxide dismutase can be

  13. Takayasu arteritis and ulcerative colitis; coexistence or misdiagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azak, A; Huddam, B; Koçak, G; Kiliç, F; Koçak, E; Duranay, M

    2012-03-01

    Takayasu arteritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects large arteries such as the aorta and its proximal branches. The association between Takayasu arteritis and ulcerative colitis is an extremely rare condition. Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease, clinical presentation is not specific and may mimic Crohn's disease, radiation colitis, ischemic colitis, a variety of infectious processes, and colitis related to medications. Herein we report a case of Takayasu arteritis who had been misdiagnosed and treated as ulcera-

  14. Turner Syndrome with Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Hiromi; Tomita, Yuichiro; Hirai, Kohta; Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Ueno, Shigeru; Ishiguro, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disease frequently associated with autoimmune disorders including diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although the etiology of IBD has not been fully elucidated, genetic analysis has recently revealed several susceptibility genes. Recently, cases with Turner syndrome associated with IBD have been reported. We report here a 13-yr-old girl with Turner syndrome associated with ulcerative colitis. The patient was undergoing growth hormone treatment and presented with abdominal discomfort and bloody diarrhea. Her karyotype pattern was 46,X,i(Xq). Barium enema revealed punctate collections of barium suggesting microulcerations in the descending and sigmoid colon with loss of haustra. Flexible sigmoidoscopy showed that the mucosa was erythematous and friable upon touch and that the wall had frank hemorrhage and inflammatory polyp formation from the anal verge through the splenic flexure. Histologically, mucosal and submucosal inflammation was prominent, suggesting cryptitis and crypt abscess formation. Based on these findings, she was diagnosed as having ulcerative colitis, and 5-aminosalicylic acid, prednisolone and dietary therapy were initiated. Our observations in this patient suggest that X chromosome abnormality may influence the development of IBD and that screening for gastrointestinal disease in patients with Turner syndrome may help lengthen life expectancy in these patients. PMID:23926368

  15. Protective effect of Laminaria japonica with probiotics on murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seok-Jae; Bu, Youngmin; Bae, Jinhyun; Bang, Yu-mi; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Hyejung; Beom-Joon, Lee; Hyun, Yoo Hye; Park, Jae-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ) is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE) at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN- γ , IL-1 β , IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40), IL-12 (P70), IL-17, and TNF- α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1 β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1 β , IL-6, and IL-12 (P40) but not IFN- γ , IL-10, and IL-12 (P70). In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics.

  16. Biomarkers and Microscopic Colitis: An Unmet Need in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Francesca Pisani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common causes of chronic diarrhea is ascribed to microscopic colitis (MC. MC is classified in subtypes: collagenous colitis (CC and lymphocytic colitis (LC. Patients with MC report watery, non-bloody diarrhea of chronic course, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue that may impair patient’s health-related quality of life. A greater awareness, and concomitantly an increasing number of diagnoses over the last years, has demonstrated that the incidence and prevalence of MC are on the rise. To date, colonoscopy with histological analysis on multiple biopsies collected along the colon represents the unique accepted procedure used to assess the diagnosis of active MC and to evaluate the response to medical therapy. Therefore, the emerging need for less-invasive procedures that are also rapid, convenient, standardized, and reproducible, has encouraged scientists to turn their attention to the identification of inflammatory markers and other molecules in blood or feces and within the colonic tissue that can confirm a MC diagnosis. This review gives an update on the biomarkers that are potentially available for the identification of inflammatory activity, related to CC and LC.

  17. Protective Effect of Laminaria japonica with Probiotics on Murine Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jae Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40, IL-12 (P70, IL-17, and TNF-α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 (P40 but not IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-12 (P70. In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics.

  18. Chemical investigation of carrageenan from the red alga Sarconema filiforme (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) of Indian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Mehta, Gaurav K; Prasad, Kamalesh; Meena, Ramavtar; Siddhanta, Arup K

    2011-09-01

    Sulphated galactan (SF(A)) containing alpha (alpha), iota (i) and pyruvated alpha-carrageenans (17.6:18.8:25.3 mol %) was extracted and characterized from Sarconema filiforme of Indian waters. The SF(A) and its alkali modified derivative (SF(AM)) were composed of D-galactose, 3, 6-anhydro-D-galactose, 6-O-methylated-D-galactose (64.5:23.0:9.8 and 59.6:29.8:7.6 mol %) respectively. The linkage analysis, physicochemical analysis, infra red and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of SFA along with linkage analysis of the desulphated derivative (SF(D)) of SFA, reveals that it was a hybrid/combination of alpha/iota carrageenan as well as 3-linked 4',6'-O-(1-carboxyethylidene)-galactose (pyruvated alpha carrageenan) and 6-O-methylated alpha-carrageenan. The flow behavior of SF(A) obtained from rheological measurements suggested strong network formation in presence of 1% aqueous KCl and CaCl2 solutions.

  19. Prevention of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice by anti-CD30 ligand monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Di Marco, Roberto; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2004-01-01

    CD30 ligand (CD30L) and its receptor CD30 are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor superfamilies that play a major role in inflammation and immune regulation. To gain insight into the in vivo role of CD30L/CD30 in inflammatory diseases, we have used carrageenan (CAR...

  20. PROTEOLYTIC DEGRADATION OF POLY (ADP-RIBOSE POLYMERASE IN RATS WITH CARRAGEENAN-INDUCED GASTROENTEROCOLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the activity of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase in small intestinal homogenate of rats with chronic carrageenan-induced gastroenterocolitis, as well as mechanisms of regulation of the enzyme in this pathology. Twenty Wistar Albino Glaxo rats were divided into two groups. Animals of group 1 (n = 10 consumed 1 % carrageenan solution for 28 days, which resulted in the development of gastroenterocolitis confirmed morphologically. The control group consisted of intact animals (n = 10. The activity of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in the homogenate of small intestine, as well as caspase-3, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 serum levels were determined. Obtained data were statistically processed using the Mann-Whitney U test and calculating median and interquartile range (Me, 25th–75th percentile with the help of the GraphPad Prism 5 application. The development of carrageenan-induced gastroenterocolitis was accompanied by an increase in caspase-3, MMP-2, MMP-9 concentrations in blood serum and a decrease in the activity of PARP in small intestinal homogenates. The reduced activity of PARP in chronic carrageenan-induced gastroenterocolitis may be due to the proteolysis of this enzyme under the action of caspase-3, MMP-2, and MMP-9.

  1. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat

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    Heni Rachmawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW. Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Characterization of radiation modified κ-carrageenan oligomers for bio-based materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Aranilla, Charito T.; Racadio, Darwin T.; Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.

    2011-01-01

    κ-carrageenan oligomers are known to have several biological activities such as anti-HIV, anti-herpes, antitumor and antioxidant properties. Recent progress in the development of radiation modified κ-carrageenan has resulted in new applications such as plant growth promoter, radiation dose indicator and hydrogels for wound dressing. This presentation would touch on the changes in chemical structure, gelation and conformational transition behavior and molecular size of κ-carrageenan at doses from 0 to 200 kGy and would be correlated to these functions for the development of bio-based materials. Chemical and spectral analyses were carried out using UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, reducing sugar analysis, free sulfate and carboxylic acid analysis. The chemical and spectral analyses of the radiolytic products indicated increasing reducing sugars, carbonyl, carboxylic acids, and sulfates with increasing doses which reached a maximum level at a certain dose depending on the irradiation condition. Values were very much lower in solid irradiation (in vacuum and in air) as compared to aqueous irradiation. NMR data also revealed an intact structure of the oligomer irradiated at 100 kGy in the specific fraction that contains an Mw = (3-10) kDa. κ-carrageenan oligomers exhibited antioxidant properties as determined by hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay. The degree of oxidative inhibition increased with increasing dose which can be attributed to higher reducing sugar. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments showed that a dose of up to 50 kGy, sol-gelation transition was still observed. Beyond 50 kGy, no gelation took place, instead appearance of fast relax-carrageenan mode in characteristic decay time function was observed at doses of (75-150) kGy. Optimum peak intensity was found at 100 kGy (mol wt. 5-10 kDa) which coincides with the optimum plant growth promoter effect in κ-carrageenan

  3. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Carrageenan at Different Temperatures, Isolated from Hypnea musciformis from Karachi Coast Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid Mahmood, Syed; Bi, Fatima; Taj, Noor; Seema; Farhan, M.; Shahid, M.; Azmat, Rafia; Uddin, Fahim

    This study describe the basic tools like viscosity measurements and thermodynamic parameters of the polysaccharide isolated from Hypnea musciformis (red algae) of Karachi Coast (Pakistan) showed characteristics of κ-carrageenan. An IR spectrum showed a fairly sharp band at 1210, 1225 cm-1 corresponding to sulphate ester and is in accordance with the high sulphate content of κ-carrageenan. Viscosity measurements revealed a linear relationship with increase in concentration and decreased with the rise in temperature of aqueous solutions of κ-carrageenan. Thermodynamic parameters were determined by the change in viscosity data as a function of temperature and concentration. The free energy change of activation (Î'Gη) increased regularly as the concentration of aqueous κ-carrageenan increased, as well as rises in temperature. Higher values of free energy change of activation, (Î'Gη) showed the higher association of κ-carrageenan with water at given temperature. The values of entropy change of activation (Î'Sη) of viscous flow also increased with the increase in concentration and temperature of aqueous κ-carrageenan solution. The high negative values of entropy change of activation (Î'Sη) showed that the solution of κ-carrageenan was more ordered in initial state than the activated one.

  4. A Limited Role of p53 on the Ability of a Hexane Fraction of American Ginseng to Suppress Mouse Colitis

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    Deepak Poudyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is debilitating and carries a high colon cancer risk. Apoptosis of inflammatory cells is a key mechanism regulating UC. We have recently shown that American ginseng (AG, and to a greater extent, a Hexane fraction of AG (HAG can cause apoptosis and suppress mouse colitis through a p53-mediated mechanism. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HAG suppresses colitis through a p53 mechanism. We found only a limited impact of p53 in the ability of HAG to induce inflammatory cell apoptosis and suppress mouse colitis in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we asked whether HAG could cause cell cycle arrest of HCT116 colon cancer cells in vitro. Interestingly, HAG caused a G1 arrest of such cells independent of p53 status. Findings are significant because HAG suppresses colitis and associated colon cancer, and mutation in p53 is observed in most colitis-driven colon cancers. Therefore, HAG might be very effective in targeting the inflammatory cells and cancer cells since it induces apoptosis of inflammatory cells and cell cycle arrest in both p53−/− and WT p53 colon cancer cells.

  5. A Versatile New Model of Chemically Induced Chronic Colitis Using an Outbred Murine Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Barone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Murine colitis models are crucial tools for understanding intestinal homeostasis and inflammation. However, most current models utilize a highly inbred strain of mice, and often only one sex is employed to limit bias. This targeted approach, which in itself is biased, means that murine genetic diversity and sex-related differences are ignored, making it even more difficult to extend findings to humans, who are highly heterogeneous. Furthermore, most models do not examine the chronic form of colitis, an important fact taking into account the chronic nature of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. Here, we attempted to create a more realistic murine colitis model by addressing these three issues. Using chemically induced chronic colon inflammation in an outbred strain of mice (RjOrl:SWISS [CD-1], we (i mimicked the relapsing nature of the disease, (ii better represented normal genetic variability, and (iii employed both female and male mice. Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS. After a recovery period and 3 days before the mice were euthanized, colitis was reactivated by a second administration of DNBS. Protocol length was 24 days. Colitis severity was assessed using body mass, macroscopic scores, and histological scores. Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, cytokine levels, and lymphocyte populations were also characterized. Our results show that the intrarectal administration of DNBS effectively causes colitis in both female and male CD-1 mice in a dose-dependent manner, as reflected by loss of body mass, macroscopic scores and histological scores. Furthermore, colon cytokine levels and mesenteric lymph node characteristics indicate that this model involves immune system activation. Although some variables were sex-specific, most of the results support including both females and males in the model. Our ultimate goal is to make this model available to researchers for testing candidate anti

  6. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Contemporary Management of Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanga, Rohini; Long, Millie D

    2018-03-27

    We discuss the newest evidence-based data on management of ulcerative colitis (UC). We emphasize risk-stratification, optimizing medical therapies, and surgical outcomes of UC. Recent medical advances include introduction of novel agents for UC. Vedolizumab, an anti-adhesion molecule, has demonstrated efficacy in moderate to severe UC. Tofacitinib, a small molecule, has also demonstrated efficacy. Data on optimization of infliximab show the superiority of combination therapy with azathioprine over monotherapy with infliximab or azathioprine alone. Data on anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF) therapeutic drug monitoring also hold promise, as do preliminary data on the dose escalation of infliximab in severe hospitalized UC. Surgical outcome data are reassuring, with new fertility data showing the effectiveness of in vitro fertilization. UC management is multi-disciplinary and changing. While novel therapies hold promise, better optimization of our current arsenal will also improve outcomes.

  8. The economics of adalimumab for ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation in the colon. Adalimumab, as a TNF-α blocker, offers a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis and refractory or intolerant to conventional medications; however, its cost-effectiveness profile has not yet been well established. Future economic evaluations should choose appropriate comparators in the context of target-reimbursement decision making and focus on cost-effectiveness over a long time horizon.

  9. Assessment of the influence of the inflammatory process on the activation of blood platelets and morphological parameters in patients with ulcerative colitis (colitis ulcerosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Polińska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (colitis ulcerosa is a non-specific inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Thesymptoms which are observed in the course of ulcerative colitis are: an increase in the number of leukocytes andblood platelets, an increase in the concentration of IL-6 and anemia. Blood platelets are the key element, linkingthe processes of hemostasis, inflammation and the repair of damaged tissues. Activation of blood platelets is connectedwith changes in their shape and the occurrence of the reaction of release. P-selectin appears on the surfacesof activated blood platelets and the concentration level of soluble P-selectin increases in the blood plasma. The aimof this study was to define whether the increased number of blood platelets in patients with ulcerative colitisaccompanies changes in their activation and morphology. A total of 16 subjects with ulcerative colitis and 32healthy subjects were studied. Mean platelet count, morphological parameters of platelets and MPC were measuredusing an ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. Concentrations of sP-selectin and IL-6 in serum were marked byimmunoassay (ELISA. MPC, concentration of sP-selectin and IL-6 were significantly higher in subjects with ulcerativecolitis compared to those in the healthy group. There was a decrease of MPV in patients with ulcerativecolitis, which is statistically significant. Chronic inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis causes an increase inthe number of blood platelets, a change in their morphology and activation. Decreased MPV value reflects activationand the role blood platelets play in the inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of the colon. A highconcentration of sP-selectin, which is a marker of blood platelet activation, demonstrates their part in the inflammatoryprocess. The increase in the concentration of sP-selectin correlated positively with the increase in concentrationof IL-6. This is why it may be a useful marker of the activity of

  10. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Effects of the Organic Extract of the Red Sea Marine Sponge Xestospongia testudinaria against Carrageenan Induced Rat Paw Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagla A El-Shitany

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are found to be a rich source of bioactive compounds which show a wide range of biological activities including antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulator effects of the methanolic extract of the Red Sea marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria. The chemical composition of the Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract was determined using Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS analysis. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl was measured to assess the antioxidant activity of the sponge extract. Carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema was adopted in this study. Six groups of rats were used: group1: Control, group 2: Carrageenan, group 3: indomethacin (10 mg/kg, group 4-6: Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity was performed by both calculating the percentage increase in paw weight and hisopathologically. Assessment of the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity was performed. GC-MS analysis revealed that there were 41 different compounds present in the methanolic extract. Sponge extract exhibited antioxidant activity against DPPH free radicals. Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract (100 mg/kg significantly decreased % increase in paw weight measured at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after carrageenan injection. Histopathologically, the extract caused a marked decrease in the capillary congestion and inflammatory cells infiltrate. The extract decreased paw malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO and increased the reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT activity. It also decreased the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1 β(IL-1β and IL-6. The results of this study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of the methanolic extract of the Red

  11. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Effects of the Organic Extract of the Red Sea Marine Sponge Xestospongia testudinaria against Carrageenan Induced Rat Paw Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shitany, Nagla A; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Abbas, Aymn T; Abdel-Dayem, Umama A; Azhar, Esam I; Ali, Soad S; van Soest, Rob W M; Youssef, Diaa T A

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are found to be a rich source of bioactive compounds which show a wide range of biological activities including antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulator effects of the methanolic extract of the Red Sea marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria. The chemical composition of the Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract was determined using Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) was measured to assess the antioxidant activity of the sponge extract. Carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema was adopted in this study. Six groups of rats were used: group1: Control, group 2: Carrageenan, group 3: indomethacin (10 mg/kg), group 4-6: Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg). Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity was performed by both calculating the percentage increase in paw weight and hisopathologically. Assessment of the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity was performed. GC-MS analysis revealed that there were 41 different compounds present in the methanolic extract. Sponge extract exhibited antioxidant activity against DPPH free radicals. Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract (100 mg/kg) significantly decreased % increase in paw weight measured at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after carrageenan injection. Histopathologically, the extract caused a marked decrease in the capillary congestion and inflammatory cells infiltrate. The extract decreased paw malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) and increased the reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activity. It also decreased the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 β(IL-1β) and IL-6. The results of this study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of the methanolic extract of the Red Sea sponge

  12. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Effects of the Organic Extract of the Red Sea Marine Sponge Xestospongia testudinaria against Carrageenan Induced Rat Paw Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shitany, Nagla A.; Abbas, Aymn T.; Abdel-dayem, Umama A.; Azhar, Esam I.; Ali, Soad S.; van Soest, Rob W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are found to be a rich source of bioactive compounds which show a wide range of biological activities including antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulator effects of the methanolic extract of the Red Sea marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria. The chemical composition of the Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract was determined using Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) was measured to assess the antioxidant activity of the sponge extract. Carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema was adopted in this study. Six groups of rats were used: group1: Control, group 2: Carrageenan, group 3: indomethacin (10 mg/kg), group 4–6: Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg). Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity was performed by both calculating the percentage increase in paw weight and hisopathologically. Assessment of the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity was performed. GC-MS analysis revealed that there were 41 different compounds present in the methanolic extract. Sponge extract exhibited antioxidant activity against DPPH free radicals. Xestospongia testudinaria methanolic extract (100 mg/kg) significantly decreased % increase in paw weight measured at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after carrageenan injection. Histopathologically, the extract caused a marked decrease in the capillary congestion and inflammatory cells infiltrate. The extract decreased paw malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) and increased the reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activity. It also decreased the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 β(IL-1β) and IL-6. The results of this study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of the methanolic extract of the Red Sea

  13. [A case of collagenous colitis with watery diarrhea due to lansoprazole use in an elderly woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Hidetaka; Honda, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Akishita, Masahiro; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a 75-year-old woman with urgent watery diarrhea, occurring 5 to 8 times per day, which began after starting lansoprazole (30 mg/day) for erosive gastritis. Her chronic watery diarrhea persisted for over 2 years with mild weight loss. Colonoscopy was performed and biopsies showed collagenous colitis in her transverse colon. We therefore replaced lansoprazole with famotidine (20 mg/day). Within 3 days after the discontinuation of lansoprazole, her watery diarrhea resolved and she recovered, and reported normal feces. Increasing age and female gender are major risk factors for collagenous colitis. The differential diagnosis of collagenous colitis should include: 1) an appropriate clinical history, excluding other etiologies, 2) normal or near-normal endoscopic and/or radiographic findings, and 3) colonoscopic biopsy histopathologic findings consistent with collagenous colitis. The histopathologic findings of colonoscopic biopsy are important for diagnosis. However, because of the colonoscopic burden in elderly patients, we first recommend the discontinuation of medications suspected to cause collagenous colitis.

  14. Lessons in IBD Pathogenesis from New Animal Models of Spontaneous Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Balfour Sartor

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent explosion of transgenic and targeted gene deleted (knockout [KO] rodents has yielded a number of new animal models of spontaneous, chronic intestinal inflammation that have provided novel insights into the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Spontaneous colitis resulting from deletion of genes encoding key immunoregulatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-10 and transforming growth factor [TGF]-beta and T cell receptors (TCRs demonstrates that an intact mucosal immune response prevents colitis. The TCR KO model incriminates B lymphocytes in spontaneous colonic inflammation – TCR KO with intact B cells causes colitis, but simultaneous deletion of T and B cells does not. This model and induction of colitis in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice by constitution with one T cell subset (CD45RHhi, but prevention by addition of the CD45RBlo subset, strongly suggest that T cell subsets down-regulate inflammation in the normal, immunocompetent host. An essential role for normal luminal bacteria in induction and perpetuation of enterocolitis is provided by the absence of chronic intestinal inflammation in germ-free (sterile IL-2 KO mice and human leukocyte antigen (HLA-B27 transgenic rats, and attenuated inflammation in IL-2 and IL-10 KO mice raised under specific pathogen-free conditions. The fundamental role of host genetic susceptibility in chronic intestinal inflammation and systemic manifestations is established by development of spontaneous colitis and perianal inflammation in C3H/HeJ Bir substrain mice and HLA-B27 transgenic rats.

  15. Positive correlation between disease activity index and matrix metalloproteinases activity in a rat model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo de; Cunha, André Luiz da; Duarte, Amaury Caiafa; Castañon, Maria Christina Marques Nogueira; Chebli, Júlio Maria Fonseca; Aguiar, Jair Adriano Kopke de

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, comprising a broad spectrum of diseases those have in common chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, histological alterations and an increased activity levels of certain enzymes, such as, metalloproteinases. Evaluate a possible correlation of disease activity index with the severity of colonic mucosal damage and increased activity of metalloproteinases in a model of ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium. Colitis was induced by oral administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium for seven days in this group (n=10), whereas control group (n=16) received water. Effects were analyzed daily by disease activity index. In the seventh day, animals were euthanized and hematological measurements, histological changes (hematoxylin and eosin and Alcian Blue staining), myeloperoxidase and metalloproteinase activities (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were determined. Dextran sulfate sodium group showed elevated disease activity index and reduced hematological parameters. Induction of colitis caused tissue injury with loss of mucin and increased myeloperoxidase (Pcorrelation with the degree of histopathological changes after induction of colitis, and this result may be related mainly to the increased activity of MMP-9 and mieloperoxidase.

  16. Effect of probiotic preparation in preventing antibiotic associated diarrhea and colitis: a Clinical trial

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    Nader Zarinfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clostridium Difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic- associated diarrhea (AAD and antibiotic associated colitis (AAC in the hospital setting. In this Study, the preventive effect of Lactobacillus coagulance probiotic preparation was investigated on AAD and AAC. Material and Methods: In this double blind randomized clinical trial study, 300 patients under antibiotics treatment according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled to the study and randomly divided into two groups, case (tab probiotic, 100mg/day and control group (placebo from initial antibiotic administration till one week after termination of antibiotic consumption. All patients were trained about the signs of diarrhea and colitis. Colitis signs, incidence of diarrhea and its culture findings for the presence of the toxin of Clostridium difficile were recorded and compared between groups. Data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests and using version 16 of SPSS statistical software. Results: Antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD was seen in 10 (6.6% and 16 (%10.6 patients of case and control group respectively. There was no significant difference between groups in AAD incidence and positive stool exam regarding the presence of Clostridium difficile toxin. Colitis syndrome were develop in 34 (22.8% and 86 (57% patients of the probiotic and placebo group respectively that was significantly low in case group (p<0.001. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference between probiotic group and placebo group in reducing AAD. But, consumption of Lactobacillus coagulance probiotic can reduce the incidence of antibiotic associated colitis.

  17. Colonic production of nitric oxide gas in ulcerative colitis, collagenous colitis and uninflamed bowel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Anders; Lassen, Inge Nordgaard; Matzen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    with ulcerative colitis, 10 patients with collagenous colitis and 20 controls with uninflamed mucosa. METHODS: The tip of a Teflon tube was placed in the caecum during colonoscopy. Subsequently, argon was infused at a constant rate for 70-180 min. Argon and NO in gas sampled from the rectum were measured...

  18. Melatonin improves experimental colitis with sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Sook; Chung, Sook-Hee; Lee, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Ja-Hyun; Kim, Jun-Bong; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Shin; Baik, Haing-Woon

    2015-04-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is an epidemic phenomenon in modern countries, and its harmful effects are well known. SD acts as an aggravating factor in inflammatory bowel disease. Melatonin is a sleep-related neurohormone, also known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the effects of melatonin on colitis have been poorly characterized. Thus, in this study, we assessed the measurable effects of SD on experimental colitis and the protective effects of melatonin. For this purpose, male imprinting control region (ICR) mice (n = 24) were used; the mice were divided into 4 experimental groups as follows: the control, colitis, colitis with SD and colitis with SD and melatonin groups. Colitis was induced by the administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water for 6 days. The mice were sleep-deprived for 3 days. Changes in body weight, histological analyses of colon tissues and the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes were evaluated. SD aggravated inflammation and these effects were reversed by melatonin in the mice with colitis. In addition, weight loss in the mice with colitis with SD was significantly reduced by the injection of melatonin. Treatment with melatonin led to high survival rates in the mice, in spite of colitis with SD. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the serum of mice were significantly increased by SD and reduced by melatonin treatment. The melatonin-treated group showed a histological improvement of inflammation. Upon gene analysis, the expression of the inflammatory genes, protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) and calmodulin 3 (CALM3), was increased by SD, and the levels decreased following treatment with melatonin. The expression levels of the apoptosis-related inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5A (Wnt5a) genes was

  19. Usefulness of colonoscopy in ischemic colitis Utilidad de la colonoscopia en la colitis isquémica

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    M. Lozano Maya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: the ischemic colitis is intestinal the most frequent cause of ischemia. With this work we determine the demographic and clinical characteristics, and the usefulness of the colonoscopy in the patients with ischemic colitis diagnosed in our centre in relation to a change of therapeutic attitude. Method: retrospective study in which were selected 112 patients diagnosed with ischemic colitis by colonoscopy and biopsy, in a period of five years. It was analyzed: age, sex, reason for examination, factors of cardiovascular risk, endoscopic degree of ischemia, change in the therapeutic attitude, treatment and outcome. Results: the average age was of 73.64 ± 12.10 years with an equal incidence in women (50.9% and the men (49.1%. The associated factors were the HTA (61.1%, tobacco (37.2% and antecedents of cardiovascular episode (52.2%. The most frequent reason for colonoscopy was rectorrhagia (53.6% followed of the abdominal pain (30.4%, being urgent the 65.3%. Colonoscopy allowed a change in the therapeutic attitude in the 50 increasing in the urgent one to the 65.75%. Global mortality was of 27.67%. The serious ischemic colitis (25% was more frequent in men (64.3% in urgent indication (85.71% and attends with high mortality (53.57%. Surgical treatment in the 57.14% was made with a good evolution in the 50%, whereas the patients with mild or moderate ischemic colitis had a better prognosis (favourable evolution in 80.95% with smaller requirement of the surgical treatment (4.76%, p Introducción: la colitis isquémica es la causa más frecuente de isquemia intestinal. Realizamos un estudio con el objetivo de analizar las características demográficas, clínicas y la utilidad de la colonoscopia en los pacientes diagnosticados de colitis isquémica en nuestro centro en relación a un cambio de actitud terapéutica. Método: estudio retrospectivo en el que se seleccionaron 112 pacientes diagnosticados de colitis isquémica mediante

  20. Chemical colitis due to peracetic acid: A case report and review of literature

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    Angelo Zullo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reprocessing of both endoscopic instruments and reusable disposals is mandatory to prevent infection transmission. However, toxic colitis due to endoscope contamination by different disinfectants following an imperfect washing has been reported. We present a case of peracetic acid-induced colitis and reviewed the literature. Overall, five cases of peracetic acid toxic colitis have been reported. All cases presented with "snow white sign" immediately appearing during endoscopy, two patients complaint of mild abdominal pain (one of whom had also fever and rectal bleeding, whilst the others remained totally asymptomatic. Only one patient received a 1-week metronidazole treatment. No immediate complications were observed, and no sequels occurred at clinical-endoscopic follow-up. The identified cause of disinfectant contamination was a defective either manual or automated rinsing of the colonoscope following the reprocessing procedure.

  1. Recurrent Pseudomembranous Colitis in an Ovarian Cancer Patient Undergoing Carboplatin Chemotherapy

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    Valerie A. Allen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diarrhea is a common problem in ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and Clostridium difficile infection has been identified as a cause. The proper diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea are critical to patient care, especially to prevent the serious complications from a severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI. Case. We present a heavily pretreated ovarian cancer patient who developed recurrent pseudomembranous colitis while receiving carboplatin chemotherapy. Despite treatment with oral metronidazole for fourteen days, the patient’s diarrhea relapsed and colonoscopy revealed extensive pseudomembranous colitis. The infection eventually resolved with the combination of oral vancomycin and metronidazole. Conclusions. Diarrhea is a common problem in patients undergoing chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. Management requires obtaining the proper diagnosis. Clostridium difficile associated pseudomembranous colitis must be part of the differential diagnosis. Treatment must be sufficient to prevent relapses of the Clostridium difficile infection to prevent serious consequences in an already vulnerable patient population.

  2. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Ultrasound-Assisted Depolymerization of κ-Carrageenan

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    Ratnawati Ratnawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted depolymerization of κ-carrageenan has been studied at various temperatures and times. The κ-carrageenan with initial molecular weight of 545 kDa was dispersed in water to form a 5 g/L solution, which was then depolymerized in an ultrasound device at various temperatures and times. The viscosity of the solution was measured using Brookfield viscometer, which was then used to find the number-average molecular weight by Mark-Houwink equation. To obtain the kinetics of κ-carrageenan depolymerization, the number-average molecular weight data was treated using midpoint-chain scission kinetics model. The pre-exponential factor and activation energies for the reaction are 2.683×10-7 mol g-1 min-1 and 6.43 kJ mol-1, respectively. The limiting molecular weight varies from 160 kDa to 240 kDa, and it is linearly correlated to temperature. The results are compared to the result of thermal depolymerization by calculating the half life. It is revealed that ultrasound assisted depolymerization of κ-carrageenan is faster than thermal depolymerization at temperatures below 72.2°C. Compared to thermal depolymerization, the ultrasound-assisted process has lower values of Ea, ΔG‡, ΔH‡, and ΔS‡, which can be attributed to the ultrasonically induced breakage of non-covalent bonds in κ-carrageenan molecules. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 18th January 2016; Accepted: 19th January 2016 How to Cite: Ratnawati, R., Prasetyaningrum, A., Wardhani, D.H. (2016. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Ultrasound-Assisted Depolymerization of κ-Carrageenan. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11(1: 48-58. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.415.48-58 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.415.48-58

  3. Influence of lambda-carrageenan on the release of systematic series of volatile flavor compounds from viscous food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylaite, Egle; Ilgunaite, Z.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2004-01-01

    The effect of lambda-carrageenan addition level (0.1, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5% w/w) and viscosity on the release of systematic series of aroma compounds (aldehydes, esters, ketones, and alcohols) was studied in thickened viscous solutions containing lambda-carrageenan and 10 wt % of sucrose. Air...... range was assessed by dynamic headspace gas chromatography. K(37degreesC) increased as the carbon chain increased within each homologous series. Esters exhibited the highest volatility, followed by aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols. Under equilibrium, no overall effect of lambda-carrageenan was found......, except with the most hydrophobic compounds. Analysis of flavor release under nonequilibrium conditions revealed a suppressing effect of lambda-carrageenan on the release rates of aroma compounds, and the extent of decrease in release rates was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the aroma...

  4. Infliximab and complications after colectomy in patients with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Infliximab treatment may increase the risk of subsequent postoperative complications in patients with ulcerative colitis. The main purpose of the present study therefore was to assess postoperative complications in patients who have undergone colectomy for ulcerative colitis with and without...

  5. Vedolizumab as induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feagan, Brian G; Rutgeerts, Paul; Sands, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    Gut-selective blockade of lymphocyte trafficking by vedolizumab may constitute effective treatment for ulcerative colitis.......Gut-selective blockade of lymphocyte trafficking by vedolizumab may constitute effective treatment for ulcerative colitis....

  6. Cardiac arrest due to lymphocytic colitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groth Kristian A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of cardiac arrest due to hypokalemia caused by lymphocytic colitis. Case presentation A 69-year-old Caucasian man presented four months prior to a cardiac arrest with watery diarrhea and was diagnosed with lymphocytic colitis. Our patient experienced a witnessed cardiac arrest at his general practitioner's surgery. Two physicians and the emergency medical services resuscitated our patient for one hour and four minutes before arriving at our university hospital. Our patient was defibrillated 16 times due to the recurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. An arterial blood sample revealed a potassium level of 2.0 mmol/L (reference range: 3.5 to 4.6 mmol/L and pH 6.86 (reference range: pH 7.37 to 7.45. As the potassium level was corrected, the propensity for ventricular tachyarrhythmias ceased. Our patient recovered from his cardiac arrest without any neurological deficit. Further tests and examinations revealed no other reason for the cardiac arrest. Conclusion Diarrhea can cause life-threatening situations due to the excretion of potassium, ultimately causing cardiac arrest due to hypokalemia. Physicians treating patients with severe diarrhea should consider monitoring their electrolyte levels.

  7. Exposure to Common Food Additive Carrageenan Alone Leads to Fasting Hyperglycemia and in Combination with High Fat Diet Exacerbates Glucose Intolerance and Hyperlipidemia without Effect on Weight

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    Sumit Bhattacharyya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared. Results. Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state. Conclusions. Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

  8. Exposure to common food additive carrageenan alone leads to fasting hyperglycemia and in combination with high fat diet exacerbates glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia without effect on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Feferman, Leo; Unterman, Terry; Tobacman, Joanne K

    2015-01-01

    Major aims were to determine whether exposure to the commonly used food additive carrageenan could induce fasting hyperglycemia and could increase the effects of a high fat diet on glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to either carrageenan, high fat diet, or the combination of high fat diet and carrageenan, or untreated, for one year. Effects on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid parameters, weight, glycogen stores, and inflammation were compared. Exposure to carrageenan led to glucose intolerance by six days and produced elevated fasting blood glucose by 23 weeks. Effects of carrageenan on glucose tolerance were more severe than from high fat alone. Carrageenan in combination with high fat produced earlier onset of fasting hyperglycemia and higher glucose levels in glucose tolerance tests and exacerbated dyslipidemia. In contrast to high fat, carrageenan did not lead to weight gain. In hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp studies, the carrageenan-exposed mice had higher early glucose levels and lower glucose infusion rate and longer interval to achieve the steady-state. Carrageenan in the Western diet may contribute to the development of diabetes and the effects of high fat consumption. Carrageenan may be useful as a nonobese model of diabetes in the mouse.

  9. Carrageenan-Induced Colonic Inflammation Is Reduced in Bcl10 Null Mice and Increased in IL-10-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Bhattacharyya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The common food additive carrageenan is a known activator of inflammation in mammalian tissues and stimulates both the canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-κB activation. Exposure to low concentrations of carrageenan (10 μg/mL in the water supply has produced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin signaling in C57BL/6 mice. B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 10 (Bcl10 is a mediator of inflammatory signals from Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 in myeloid and epithelial cells. Since the TLR4 signaling pathway is activated in diabetes and by carrageenan, we addressed systemic and intestinal inflammatory responses following carrageenan exposure in Bcl10 wild type, heterozygous, and null mice. Fecal calprotectin and circulating keratinocyte chemokine (KC, nuclear RelA and RelB, phospho(Thr559-NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK, and phospho(Ser36-IκBα in the colonic epithelial cells were significantly less (P<0.001 in the carrageenan-treated Bcl10 null mice than in controls. IL-10-deficient mice exposed to carrageenan in a germ-free environment showed an increase in activation of the canonical pathway of NF-κB (RelA activation, but without increase in RelB or phospho-Bcl10, and exogenous IL-10 inhibited only the canonical pathway of NF-κB activation in cultured colonic cells. These findings demonstrate a Bcl10 requirement for maximum development of carrageenan-induced inflammation and lack of complete suppression by IL-10 of carrageenan-induced inflammation.

  10. Evaluation of the swelling behaviour of iota-carrageenan in monolithic matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, András; Buchholcz, Gyula; Sovány, Tamás; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2015-08-10

    The swelling properties of monolithic matrix tablets containing iota-carrageenan were studied at different pH values, with measurements of the swelling force and characterization of the profile of the swelling curve. The swelling force meter was linked to a PC by an RS232 cable and the measured data were evaluated with self-developed software. The monitor displayed the swelling force vs. time curve with the important parameters, which could be fitted with an Analysis menu. In the case of iota-carrageenan matrix tablets, it was concluded that the pH and the pressure did not influence the swelling process, and the first section of the swelling curve could be fitted by the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-assembled gelatin-ι-carrageenan encapsulation structures for intestinal-targeted release applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mascaraque, Laura G; Llavata-Cabrero, Beatriz; Martínez-Sanz, Marta; Fabra, María José; López-Rubio, Amparo

    2018-02-01

    In this work, natural biopolymeric encapsulation structures were developed through the self-assembly of gelatin and ι-carrageenan in aqueous solutions. The interactions of this binary system and of a ternary system containing a polyphenol-rich extract were deeply explored for the development of intestinal delivery systems. The processing of the structures (extrusion vs. freeze-drying) greatly influenced release properties, explained by the specific interactions between gelatin and polyphenols, thus allowing for tuning the processing conditions depending on the desired target application. Release was further controlled by incorporating a divalent salt, giving raise to extract-loaded ι-carrageenan/gelatin capsules with adequate release profiles for intestinal targeted delivery. These results demonstrate the potential of exploiting biopolymer interactions for designing bioactive delivery systems using environmentally friendly processes which do not involve the use of toxic or harsh solvents or cross-linkers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanical and solubility properties of bio-nanocomposite film of semi refined kappa carrageenan/ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputri, Apriliana Eka; Praseptiangga, Danar; Rochima, Emma; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this present work is to develop semi refined kappa carrageenan based bio-nanocomposite film as an alternative to synthetic petroleum based food packaging materials. Among natural polymers, carrageenan is one of the most promising material, since it is a renewable bioresource. The ZnO nanoparticles (0.5%; 1.0%; 1.5% w/w carrageenan) was incorporated into carrageenan polymer to prepare bio-nanocomposite films, where ZnO acts as reinforcement for carrageenan matrix. The mechanical and solubility properties of the prepared films were investigated as a function of ZnO concentration. The results indicated that the addition of ZnO exhibits greater solubility compared to the neat film. The elongation at break is insignificantly different on the films with and without addition ZnO. The tensile strength of the film was highest for the sample with 0.5% ZnO. These mechanical and solubility properties suggest that bio-nanocomposite film of semi refined kappa carrageenan and nanoparticle ZnO can be effectively used as food packaging material.

  13. A Novel Zebrafish Model to Provide Mechanistic Insights into the Inflammatory Events in Carrageenan-Induced Abdominal Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-Ying; Feng, Chien-Wei; Hung, Han-Chun; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Chen, Chun-Hong; Chen, Wu-Fu; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Wang, Hui-Min David; Sung, Chun-Sung; Sun, Yu-Min; Wu, Chang-Yi; Liu, Wangta; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A suitable small animal model may help in the screening and evaluation of new drugs, especially those from natural products, which can be administered at lower dosages, fulfilling an urgent worldwide need. In this study, we explore whether zebrafish could be a model organism for carrageenan-induced abdominal edema. The research results showed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 1.5% λ-carrageenan in a volume of 20 µL significantly increased abdominal edema in adult zebrafish. Levels of the proinflammatory proteins tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were increased in carrageenan-injected adult zebrafish during the development of abdominal edema. An associated enhancement was also observed in the leukocyte marker, myeloperoxidase (MPO). To support these results, we further observed that i.p. methylprednisolone (MP; 1 µg), a positive control, significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation 24 h after carrageenan administration. Furthermore, i.p. pretreatment with either an anti-TNF-α antibody (1∶5 dilution in a volume of 20 µL) or the iNOS-selective inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG; 1 µg) inhibited carrageenan-induced abdominal edema in adult zebrafish. This new animal model is uncomplicated, easy to develop, and involves a straightforward inducement of inflammatory edema for the evaluation of small volumes of drugs or test compounds. PMID:25141004

  14. Golimumab in unresponsive ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippert E

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Elisabeth Lippert, Martina Müller, Claudia Ott University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg, Germany Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammation mainly affecting the colon mucosa. It predominantly occurs in younger patients. Until recently, the main goals in the treatment of UC were to temper the symptoms, such as diarrhea, pain, and weight loss, by using mesalazine and steroids. With newer medications, such as immunomodulators (thiopurines and the biologics providing blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, the goals of the therapy in UC have changed to long-term remission and mucosal healing. The first available anti-TNF therapy in UC included infusion therapy with infliximab every few weeks. In 2012, subcutaneously administered adalimumab gained approval for the treatment of UC in Germany. In patients with a mild disease, therapy with mesalazine, orally or topically, can be sufficient. In patients with moderate to severe disease, therapy with azathioprine or anti-TNF is often required to reach disease control; however, this is only efficient in about two-thirds of patients. Some patients either show no response or a lost response while on treatment. So, further medical options are warranted in the treatment of UC. With golimumab, a new approach in the treatment of mild to moderate UC recently became available in Germany and is a promising new option in the therapy regimen for patients with UC. Keywords: anti-TNF, biological therapy, inflammatory bowel disease

  15. Effect of policosanol on foam-cell formation in carrageenan-induced granulomas in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, M; de la Rosa, M C; Más, R

    1996-03-01

    Policosanol is a new cholesterol-lowering drug isolated and purified from sugar-cane wax, which prevents the development of lipofundin-induced lesions and foam-cell formation in New Zealand rabbits and Wistar rats. This study was conducted to examine the effects of policosanol on foam-cell formation in carrageenan-induced granulomas in rats. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly distributed in three experimental groups which received orally for 20 days Tween 20 H2O as vehicle (control group) or policosanol at 2.5 or 25 mg kg-1. At the 11th day, lipofundin was injected intraperitoneally for 8 days to induce formation of foam cells in the granuloma. At day 13, carrageenan was injected subcutaneously for granuloma induction and seven days later animals were killed. A significant reduction of the foam-cell formation in granulomas of policosanol-treated rats was observed. It is concluded that policosanol prevents the development of foam cells in carrageenan-induced granulomas (extravascular medium) in rats.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Lactobacillus on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Amdekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus were used to assess the anti-inflammatory properties in carrageenan induced acute inflammatory model. Materials and Methods. Diclofenac sodium was used as standard drug at concentration of 150 mg/kg of body weight. Culture of Lactobacillus  2×107 CFU/ml was given orally. Edema was induced with 1% carrageenan to all the groups after one hour of the oral treatments. Paw thickness was checked at =1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 24 hours. Stair climbing score and motility score were assessed at =24 hours. Cytokines assay for IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α was performed on serum samples. Results. Lactobacillus showed a statistically significant decrease in paw thickness at <0.001. L. acidophilus and L. casei decreased by 32% and 28% in paw thickness. They both significantly increased the stair climbing and motility score. Lactobacillus treatment significantly downregulated IL-6 and TNF-α while upregulated IL-10 at <0.0001. Conclusion. L. casei and L. acidophilus significantly decreased the inflammatory reactions induced by carrageenan. This study has also proposed that Lactobacillus ameliorated the inflammatory reaction by downregulating the proinflammatory cytokines pathway.

  17. The addition of nanochitosan suspension as filler in carrageenan-tapioca biocomposite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochima, Emma; Fiyanih, Elisah; Afrianto, Eddy; Subhan, Ujang; Praseptiangga, Danar; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    This research aimed to investigate the effect of nanochitosan (CSNPs) suspension by beads milling method as filler in carrageenan-tapioca biocomposite film. In addition, the antibacterial activity of CSNPs as filler with two food pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and then influence of nano fillers for appearance of films were observed. The incorporation of CSNPs suspension with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 (%v/v) in carrageenan-tapioca film exhibited antibacterial activity againts both bacteria. CSNPs had slightly higher antimicrobial activity against E. coli aureus compared to S. aureus at all concentrations due to different mechanisms. Therefore, the best antimicrobial activity was obtained from 1 wt%. Furthermore the best antimicrobial activity was characterized by means of the thickness and transparency. The result showed that the thickness of film was 0.059 mm and the transparency was 87.88. It was concluded that the incorporation of CSNPs suspension 1 wt% in carrageenan-tapioca composite film is suitable for developing active packaging.

  18. Real-life treatment paradigms show infliximab is cost-effective for management of ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Victoria; Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Wong, Karen; Kroeker, Karen I; Lee, Thomas; Wang, Haili; Ohinmaa, Arto; Jacobs, Philip; Fedorak, Richard N

    2014-11-01

    Infliximab is effective for induction and maintenance of response in patients with moderate to moderately severe ulcerative colitis. Previous cost analyses of infliximab treatment for ulcerative colitis used models of colectomy vs infliximab and response rates derived from early clinical trials. In real life, therapeutic options are more complex; patients frequently choose to remain in an unwell state rather than undergo colectomy, and rates of response to infliximab are generally higher than those reported from clinical trials. We evaluate the real-life cost-effectiveness of infliximab for treatment of ulcerative colitis where infliximab was readily available compared with not available, causing patients to remain in unwell states. We constructed a Markov model to simulate disease progression of patients with moderate or moderately severe ulcerative colitis who depended on corticosteroids and/or did not respond to thiopurine therapy. Utility scores and transition probabilities between health states were determined by using data from randomized controlled trials and real-life rates published by expert inflammatory bowel disease centers. Health care costs were obtained from the Ontario Case Costing Initiative and the Alberta Health Schedule of Medical Benefits documents. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for infliximab treatment of ulcerative colitis were $79,000 and $64,000 per quality-adjusted life year, compared with ongoing medical therapy, at 5-year and 10-year treatment time horizons, respectively. By using real-life response rates and patients' preference to avoid colectomy, infliximab therapy is a cost-effective strategy at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000 for treatment of ulcerative colitis. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomarkers for colitis-associated colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru; Lai, Lisa A; Brentnall, Teresa A; Pan, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with extensive ulcerative colitis (UC) of more than eight years duration have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Molecular biomarkers for dysplasia and cancer could have a great clinical value in managing cancer risk in these UC patients. Using a wide range of molecular techniques - including cutting-edge OMICS technologies - recent studies have identified clinically relevant biomarker candidates from a variety of biosamples, including colonic biopsies, blood, stool, and urine. While the challenge remains to validate these candidate biomarkers in multi-center studies and with larger patient cohorts, it is certain that accurate biomarkers of colitis-associated neoplasia would improve clinical management of neoplastic risk in UC patients. This review highlights the ongoing avenues of research in biomarker development for colitis-associated colorectal cancer. PMID:27672285

  20. Outcome after ileoanal anastomosis in pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durno, C; Sherman, P; Harris, K; Smith, C; Dupuis, A; Shandling, B; Wesson, D; Filler, R; Superina, R; Griffiths, A

    1998-11-01

    To review the outcome after restorative proctocolectomy among children and adolescents with ulcerative colitis at a pediatric inflammatory bowel disease center. The records of all patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing colectomy and ileoanal anastomosis at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, were reviewed. Questionnaires concerning functional results were sent to patients with restored transanal defecation. Seventy three patients (mean age, 13.2 years; range, 2.6-18.8 years) underwent ileoanal anastomosis (19 straight ileoanal anastomosis, 41 J pouch, 13 S pouch) between January 1980 and June 1995 and were observed 5.8+/-3.3 years. The ileoanal anastomosis is nonfunctional in 19 (26%) patients. Excision rates according to type of restorative procedure were J pouch, 7% (3 of 41); S pouch, 32% (4 of 13); and straight ileoanal anastomosis, 32% (6 of 19). Failure was usually attributable to intractable diarrhea among patients with straight ileoanal anastomosis but was caused by anastomotic leak or pelvic-perianal sepsis among patients with pouch procedures. Failure rates did not vary with age at ileoanal anastomosis. Among patients retaining ileoanal continuity, continence problems reported in the questionnaire were frequent and tended to be more extreme among younger patients. Overall, 90% of respondents reported satisfaction with the functional outcome of the restorative operation. The success rate of the ileoanal anastomosis/J-pouch procedure is comparable to that in adult series. The ileoanal anastomosis/J-pouch procedure is the operation of choice for children and adolescents who want ileoanal continuity restored after colectomy for ulcerative colitis.

  1. Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Shao

    Full Text Available The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry. Carrageenan, an extractive of red algae, has been proven to inhibit infection and multiplication of various enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of κ-carrageenan to inhibit swine pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to gain an understanding of antiviral ability of κ-carrageenan. It was here demonstrated that κ-carrageenan had no cytotoxicity at concentrations below 1000 μg/ml. Hemagglutination, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 and cytopathic effect (CPE inhibition assays showed that κ-carrageenan inhibited A/Swine/Shandong/731/2009 H1N1 (SW731 and A/California/04/2009 H1N1 (CA04 replication in a dose-dependent fashion. Mechanism studies show that the inhibition of SW731 multiplication and mRNA expression was maximized when κ-carrageenan was added before or during adsorption. The result of Hemagglutination inhibition assay indicate that κ-carrageenan specifically targeted HA of SW731 and CA04, both of which are pandemic H1N/2009 viruses, without effect on A/Pureto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8, A/WSN/1933 H1N1 (WSN, A/Swine/Beijing/26/2008 H1N1 (SW26, A/Chicken/Shandong/LY/2008 H9N2 (LY08, and A/Chicken/Shandong/ZB/2007 H9N2 (ZB07 viruses. Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot showed that κ-carrageenan also inhibited SW731 protein expression after its internalization into cells. These results suggest that κ-carrageenan can significantly inhibit SW731 replication by interfering with a few replication steps in the SW731 life cycles, including adsorption, transcription, and viral protein expression, especially interactions between HA and cells. In this way, κ-carrageenan might be a suitable alternative approach to therapy meant to address anti-IAV, which contains an HA homologous to that of SW731.

  2. Seasonal Variation in Content and Quality of Kappa-Carrageenan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    partly caused by a relatively slower growth rate of the kappa carrageenophyte K. alvarezii as compared to the iota .... rinsed three times with 300 ml of isopropanol, squeezed to remove the excess, oven-dried to constant ... short rains (Table 2) and temperature (see some positive correlation with temperature, nitrogen and.

  3. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestin......OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small...

  4. Quality evaluation of probiotic capsule prepared from alginate, carrageenan and tofu waste flour based on bacterial activity and organoleptic test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhardina, V.; Ermaya, D.; Aisyah, Y.; Haryani, S.

    2018-02-01

    Probiotic capsule is an innovation in functional food sector. It is used to preserve the living cells of probiotic bacteria during processing and storage. In this research, the improvement of probiotic viability is studied by using two kinds of encapsulating biomaterials and different concentration of tofu waste flour. Extrusion is selected method for encapsulation process. The purpose of this study is to examine the quality of probiotic capsule by evaluating the lactic acid bacteria performance and its physical characteristic. The article provides the data of probiotic bacteria activity related to their living cells present in capsule, activity in fermentation media compare to uncapsulated bacteria, and panelists’ preferences of capsule’s physical properties. The data is analyzed statistically by using ANOVA. The result shows that variables in this study affect the number of bacteria, their metabolic activity in producing acid during fermentation, and physical appearance of the capsule. Combination of alginate and tofu waste flour allows the multiplication of bacteria to a high number, and forms elastic, yellow and cloudy capsule, while with carrageenan, it causes the growth of a few numbers of bacteria which affects to a moderate pH and produces elastic, creamy and transparent capsule.

  5. Ipilimumab-Induced Enteritis without Colitis: A New Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Messmer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ipilimumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA4, approved to treat metastatic melanoma. It was the first therapy shown to prolong survival in a large, randomized clinical trial. However, immune-related adverse events are common and can be severe. Enterocolitis is a common adverse event with ipilimumab, but enteritis without colitis has not been previously described. Case Report: An 83-year-old man presented to our hospital with grade 3 diarrhea for 5 days. One month prior, he had started treatment with ipilimumab for metastatic melanoma. On presentation, he was found to have severe electrolyte disturbances, including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and acute kidney injury. Causes of infectious diarrhea were excluded, and he was treated with corticosteroids for presumed ipilimumab-associated enterocolitis. However, colonoscopy revealed normal mucosa, both grossly and on pathology of random biopsies. Steroids were weaned but his symptoms recurred. He then underwent upper endoscopy with enteroscopy. Biopsy of the duodenum was notable for acute inflammation, villous blunting, and other changes consistent with ipilimumab-associated injury. He was restarted on high-dose steroids and his symptoms resolved. Discussion: Ipilimumab-induced enteritis is a serious and potentially life-threatening immune related adverse event that warrants prompt recognition and aggressive management. As in cases of ipilimumab-associated enterocolitis, steroids are an effective therapy. Enteritis without colitis should be suspected in patients on ipilimumab who present with severe diarrhea but have a normal colonoscopy.

  6. Future targets for immune therapy in colitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Claesson, M H

    2008-01-01

    cells to the inflamed bowel of IBD patients, making the chemokine/receptor system appealing as new therapeutic targets to sustain remission in these patients. In the severe combined immunodeficiency transfer model of colitis, which histopathologically resembles human IBD, low numbers of CD4+CD25- T...

  7. Golimumab for the treatment of ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwenberg, Mark; de Boer, Nanne K. H.; Hoentjen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor (TNF) had a major impact on the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Infliximab and adalimumab are powerful agents that are used for remission induction and maintenance therapy in UC and have an acceptable safety profile.

  8. Golimumab for moderate to severe ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, Anne S.; Berends, Sophie E.; Mathôt, Ron A.; D'Haens, Geert R.; Löwenberg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Golimumab (GLM) is a subcutaneously administered human anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agent that has been approved by the regulatory authorities for the treatment of moderate to severe ulcerative colitis (UC) in 2013. Areas covered: Maintained clinical remission rates up to 50% have been shown in

  9. Vaccin-therapie bij colitis ulcerosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lups, Sibrand

    1934-01-01

    In de Mayo Clinic te Rochester werden in de jaren 1925 tot 1931 een groot aantal patienten, lijdende aan colitis ulcerosa chronica, door Bargen met veel succes behandeld. Hij isoleerde n.l. uit de darmulcera dezer patienten een diplo-coccus, welken hij, op grond van dierexperimenten, als den

  10. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestinal biopsies...

  11. Selenoprotein P in colitis-associated carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Sarah P.; Whitten-Barrett, Caitlyn; Williams, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are often deficient in micronutrients such as selenium and have an increased risk of colon cancer. We tested whether the selenium transport protein, selenoprotein P, could modify colitis-associated cancer. Our results indicate that global SEPP1 haploinsufficiency augments tumorigenesis and mediates oxidative damage in the intestine. PMID:27314080

  12. Colitis ulcerosa idiopática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sánchez Herrera

    1944-07-01

    IV El prof. Manson-Bahr ratifica plenamente el concepto de los autores de que el enfermo Fideligno Suárez murió de una Colitis Ulcerosa Idiopática con claros signos de neumonía lobar posiblemente neumocóccica.

  13. Cytomegalovirus-colitis hos immunkompetent ung mand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva; Grønbaek, Karin; Linnemann, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    A healthy young man was hospitalized due to fever, malaise and bloody stools for three weeks. The patient had a primary CMV infection based on biochemical, serological and ultrasonic results, and a colonoscopy was consistent with left-sided CMV colitis. He recovered spontaneously, though haematoc...

  14. Ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Artamonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a case of inflammatory bowel disease in a patient aged 2 years 7 months. The differential diagnosis between ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease is discussed on the basis of clinical, instrumental, and histological findings.

  15. THE CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF AMOEBIC COLITIS*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-02-27

    Feb 27, 1971 ... Emetine-bismuth-iodide, Diodoquin and cWoroquine were added to his therapy and he made an uneventful recovery. TABLE I. CLASSIFICATION OF AMOEBIC COLITIS. Rare. Salazopyrin. Rectal ste- Rare roids. Debility, protein loss. Systemic and rectal ste- Rare. anaemIa. Perforation. roids. Salazopyrin.

  16. Ischemic Colitis in an Endurance Runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    she continued during her training period. She denied any recent tobacco , alcohol, or illicit drug use and her family history was noncontributory. Her...is concern for acute arterial mesenteric infarction [10]. In mild-to-moderate cases of ischemic colitis supportive care with intravenous fluids, bowel

  17. Infliximab for the treatment of ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, Emma J.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Stokkers, Pieter C. F.

    2009-01-01

    Infliximab (IFX), an anti-TNF biologic agent, has been demonstrated to offer benefits for the treatment of autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. Several trials have also investigated the efficacy of IFX for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). IFX was found to

  18. A model of Salmonella colitis with features of diarrhea in SLC11A1 wild-type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heungjeong Woo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mice do not get diarrhea when orally infected with S. enterica, but pre-treatment with oral aminoglycosides makes them susceptible to Salmonella colitis. However, genetically susceptible ItyS mice (Nramp1(G169D allele die from systemic infection before they develop diarrhea, so a new model is needed to study the pathogenesis of diarrhea. We pretreated ItyR mice (Nramp1(G169 with oral kanamycin prior to infecting them with virulent S. Typhimurium strain 14028s in order to study Salmonella-induced diarrhea. We used both a visual scoring system and the measurement of fecal water content to measure diarrhea. BALB/c.D2(Nramp1 congenic started losing weight 5 days post-infection and they began to die from colitis 10-14 days after infection. A SPI-1 (invA mutant caused cecal, but not colonic inflammation and did not cause diarrhea. A phoP- mutant did not cause manifestations of diarrhea in either normal or NADPH-deficient (gp91(phox mice. However, strain 14028s caused severe colitis and diarrhea in gp91(phox-deficient mice on an ItyR background. pmr A and F mutants, which are less virulent in orally infected BALB/c mice, were fully virulent in this model of colitis. CONCLUSIONS: S. enterica must be able to invade the colonic epithelium and to persist in the colon in order to cause colitis with manifestations of diarrhea. The NADPH oxidase is not required for diarrhea in Salmonella colitis. Furthermore, a Salmonella phoP mutant can be cleared from the colon by non-oxidative host defenses.

  19. Characterization of low molecular weight fragments from gamma irradiated κ-carrageenan used as plant growth promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Lucille V.; Aurigue, Fernando B.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Montefalcon, Djowel Recto V.; Lopez, Girlie Eunice P.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation degraded κ-carrageenan (1% solution at absorbed doses of 20 kGy and 30 kGy) were tested for its plant growth promoter (PGP) effect on pechay plants under hydroponics condition. Results revealed that higher PGP effects were found in κ-carrageenan irradiated at an absorbed dose of 30 kGy. Mw of irradiated κ-carrageenan as measured by GPC were determined to be 7362 Da and 6762 Da for 20 kGy and 30 kGy, respectively. Fractionation of the irradiated κ-carrageenan (30 kGy) was done to separate different Mw fractions using Mw cut-off filters of 1 kDa, 3 kDa, and 5 kDa. The PGP effect of the different retentates showed that biological activity in plants followed the order of 5 kDa>3 kDa>1 kDa using hydroponics condition but the reverse was observed in the order of 1 kDa>3 kDa>5 kDa when absorbed in plants by foliar spraying. GPC chromatogram indicated at least three (3) low molecular weight (LMW) fragments from radiation modified κ-carrageenan solution with an Mw<2000 Da. A fragment has also been identified with an Mw of as low as 160 Da which was produced under acidic (un-neutralized) condition. This may be attributed to the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF).

  20. A case of lanthanum carbonate ingestion thought to be phlebosclerotic colitis on CT imaging and abdominal radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, K.; Balcam, S.

    2017-01-01

    A male admitted in the early hours of the morning, complained of a four week, right sided, non-radiating, dull and intermittent abdominal pain. Imaging suggested a diagnosis of phlebosclerotic colitis which was later discounted when the patients' history of lanthanum carbonate ingestion was examined. Phlebosclerotic colitis mostly affects the Asian population, and its cause is still not known, but can be associated with specific radiographic features. Collections of lanthanum may confuse a diagnosis of phlebosclerotic colitis as well as other factors such as voxel errors, photon starvation and movement. - Highlights: • PC can be non-specific, its cause unknown, diagnosis is often delayed. • PC depends on specific radiographic features. • Lanthanum Carbonate can collect within the lumen and confuses diagnosis. • Voxel errors, photon starvation and patient movement can displace densities.

  1. Microscopic colitis in children with chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Das, Prasenjit; Jain, A K; Mathan, Minnie; Mathur, Meera; Bhat, Abdus Sami; Varma, Sharat; Chaturvedi, Mona K; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Bhatnagar, Shinjini

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to study microscopic colitis (MC) in children with special reference to its role in chronic diarrhea and changes in mucosal biopsies. A total of 100 consecutive children ages 3 to 12 years, with nonbloody diarrhea (passage of ≥3 loose stools per day) of >12 weeks' duration were screened and 26 were enrolled in the study in which no specific etiology could be found and colonoscopy did not reveal any mucosal abnormality. Colonic biopsies were evaluated for the presence of lymphocytic colitis or collagenous colitis and those with the characteristic changes were defined to have MC (group A). Colonic biopsies from patients with MC were compared with biopsies from patients with chronic diarrhea but no evidence of MC (group B). One hundred children ages 3 to 12 years with bleeding per rectum were screened and colonic biopsies from 45 patients (group C) who had colonic mucosal changes but no vascular or polyp lesion were compared with patients with MC. Of the 26 patients with chronic diarrhea, MC was found in 5 (3 lymphocytic colitis and 2 collagenous colitis). Significantly higher polymorphonuclear infiltration was seen in group A as compared with group B (13.8 [5.4-20.6] vs 7.2 [0-19.6]; P = 0.03) or group C (13.8 [5.4-20.6] vs 4 [0-13.4]; P = 0.007). Intraepithelial lymphocytes (12 [4-32] vs 4 [0-24]; P = 0.008) and basement membrane thickening (3.5 [2.9-10.6] vs 2.5 [1.6-5.86]; P = 0.008) were also significantly higher in group A as compared with group C. MC was found to be present in children with nonbloody chronic diarrhea in children. Further multicentric studies may provide adequate data on its prevalence.

  2. Anti-ulcer, anti-protozoan and anti-cancer activities of irradiated κ-carrageenan: some biological effects of irradiated food grade-carrageenan on various gastrointestinal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deocaris, Custer C.; Cruz, Angela C; Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.; De Guzman, Roche Ray C.; Abilo, Rhea Mae L.; Gutierrez, Ana Kamila O.; Deocaris, Chester C.

    2001-01-01

    κ carrageenan and its radiolytic products are both shown to strongly inhibit pepsin activity based on our in vitro peptic ulcer model. Generated Lineweaver-Burke (LB) plots resemble the trend for competitive inhibition except that the changes in the slopes are too large rendering Km to approach a negative value. Our observations corroborate with the published dual behavior of carrageenan in inhibiting peptic ulcers, that is, by exerting simultaneously both enzyme (E) competitive inhibition and substrate (S) occlusion. Irradiated-carrageenan does not display anti-protozoan activity against Tetrahymena and pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica, and anti-tumor potential based on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) nauplus tests and the MTT assay with human MCF7 breast carcinoma cell line. (Author)

  3. Nicotine Inhibits Clostridium difficile Toxin A-Induced Colitis but Not Ileitis in Rats

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    Steven R. Vigna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine is protective in ulcerative colitis but not Crohn’s disease of the small intestine, but little is known about the effects of nicotine on Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis. Isolated ileal or colonic segments in anesthetized rats were pretreated with nicotine bitartrate or other pharmacological agents before intraluminal injection of toxin A. After 3 hours, the treated segments were removed and inflammation was assessed. Nicotine biphasically inhibited toxin A colitis but not ileitis. Pretreatment with the nicotinic receptor antagonist, hexamethonium, blocked the effects of nicotine. Pretreating the colonic segments with hexamethonium before toxin A administration resulted in more inflammation than seen with toxin A alone, suggesting that a tonic nicotinic anti-inflammatory condition exists in the colon. Nicotine also inhibited toxin A-induced increased colonic concentrations of the TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 agonist, leukotriene B4 (LTB4, and release of the proinflammatory neuropeptide, substance P. Pretreatment with nicotine did not protect against direct TRPV1-mediated colitis caused by intraluminal capsaicin. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors tonically protect the colon against inflammation and nicotine inhibits toxin A colitis but not toxin A ileitis in rats in part by inhibition of toxin A-induced activation of TRPV1 by endogenous TRPV1 agonists such as LTB4.

  4. Sex Differences in the Effect of Resveratrol on DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice

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    Alexandra Wagnerova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol studied for its possible protective properties in inflammatory bowel diseases. Moreover, it has been shown to interact with estrogen receptors. In the present study, we aimed to investigate possible diverse effects of resveratrol on female and male mice in DSS-induced colitis. Thirty-seven C57BL/6 mice (21 female and 16 male were divided into three groups for each sex. The first group received pure water (CTRL. The other two groups received 1.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS to induce colitis from which one group was treated with resveratrol (DSS + RSV. Intake of 1.5% DSS caused weight loss in all DSS groups compared to control mice. Weight loss, stool consistency, and discomfort did not show any protective effect of resveratrol in males and showed even adverse effects in females. In females, the activity of myeloperoxidase was lower compared to that in males. However, colon length and spleen weight showed no sex differences, which can indicate the induction of only mild colitis in mice. Resveratrol did not have any effect on TNF-alpha levels. Taken together, these results for the first time propose possible diverse effects of resveratrol in DSS-induced colitis model depending on the sex of the animal. However, this conclusion must be confirmed by further analyses.

  5. Dietary uptake of Wedelia chinensis extract attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available SCOPE: Traditional medicinal herbs are increasingly used as alternative therapies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Here we evaluated the effect of Wedelia chinensis, a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia, on the prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced acute colitis in mice. General safety and the effect of different extraction methods on the bioactivity of W. chinensis were also explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were administrated hot water extract of fresh W. chinensis (WCHF orally for one week followed by drinking water containing 2% DSS for nine days. WCHF significantly attenuated the symptoms of colitis including diarrhea, rectal bleeding and loss of body weight; it also reduced the shortening of colon length and histopathological damage caused by colonic inflammation. Among four W. chinensis extracts prepared using different extraction techniques, WCHF showed the highest anti-colitis efficacy. Analyses of specific T-cell regulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-12 revealed that WCHF treatment can suppress the Th1 and Th17, but not Th2, responses in colon tissues and dendritic cells of DSS-induced colitis mice. A 28-day subacute toxicity study showed that daily oral administration of WCHF (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight was not toxic to mice. CONCLUSION: Together, our findings suggest that specific extracts of W. chinensis have nutritional potential for future development into nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Physico-mechanical analysis data in support of compatibility of chitosan/κ-carrageenan polyelectrolyte films achieved by ascorbic acid, and the thermal degradation theory of κ-carrageenan influencing the properties of its blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiyar Shahbazi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the complementary data regarding compatibilization of chitosan/κ-carrageenan polyelectrolyte complex for synthesizing of a soft film using ascorbic acid. It includes the thermal-theory for estimating the degradation of κ-carrageenan, as reflected in alteration of the structural properties of the blend. The data has been provided to demonstrate that the blend solution based on chitosan, a polycation, and κ-carrageenan, a polyanion polymer, produces an incompatible polyelectrolyte composite, susceptible to coaservative phase separation. We present further data on water resistance, water barrier property, mechanical parameters, scanning electron micrograph, as well as contact angle image dataset of the chitosan/κ-carrageenan film. The physical data were collected by water solubility and water permeability assays, with a view to elucidate the role of ascorbic acid in the compatibility of polyelectrolyte blends. The mechanical data is obtained from a stress–strain curve for evaluation of tensile strength and elongation at break point of the chitosan/κ-carrageenan film. The microstructure observations were performed using scanning electron micrograph. These dataset confirm fabrication of a soft film in the presence of ascorbic acid, with reduced heterogeneities in the polyelectrolyte film structure. The κ-carrageenan was also treated by a thermal process, prior to inclusion into the chitosan solution, to investigate the impact of this on the mechanical and structural features of the resulting blend. We present the required data and the theoretical analysis supporting the thermal chain degradation of a polymer and its effects on behavior of the film. Additional information, characterizing the hydrophobicity of the surface of the blend layers is obtained by measuring water contact angles using a contact anglemeter.

  7. Prevention of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice by anti-CD30 ligand monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Di Marco, Roberto; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2004-01-01

    CD30 ligand (CD30L) and its receptor CD30 are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor superfamilies that play a major role in inflammation and immune regulation. To gain insight into the in vivo role of CD30L/CD30 in inflammatory diseases, we have used carrageenan (CAR......)-induced pleurisy in mice, a preclinical model of airway inflammation where type 1 proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and TNF-alpha play a key pathogenic role. The data show that prophylactic treatment with anti-CD30L mAb markedly reduces both laboratory and histological signs of CAR...

  8. Conducting composite materials from the biopolymer kappa-carrageenan and carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aldalbahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conducting composite films containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs were prepared by using the biopolymer kappa-carrageenan (KC as a dispersant. Rheological studies indicated that 0.5% w/v was the appropriate KC concentration for dispersing CNTs. Our results showed that multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs required less sonic energy than single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs for the dispersion process to be complete. Films prepared by vacuum filtration exhibited higher conductivity and improved mechanical characteristics compared to those prepared by evaporative casting. All composite films displayed sensitivity to water vapour, but MWNT films were more sensitive than SWNT films.

  9. Tumor necrosis factor α inhibits expression of the iron regulating hormone hepcidin in murine models of innate colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Kumar N Shanmugam

    Full Text Available Abnormal expression of the liver peptide hormone hepcidin, a key regulator of iron homeostasis, contributes to the pathogenesis of anemia in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Since little is known about the mechanisms that control hepcidin expression during states of intestinal inflammation, we sought to shed light on this issue using mouse models.Hepcidin expression was evaluated in two types of intestinal inflammation caused by innate immune activation-dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in wild-type mice and the spontaneous colitis occurring in T-bet/Rag2-deficient (TRUC mice. The role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF α was investigated by in vivo neutralization, and by treatment of a hepatocyte cell line, as well as mice, with the recombinant cytokine. Expression and activation of Smad1, a positive regulator of hepcidin transcription, were assessed during colitis and following administration or neutralization of TNFα. Hepcidin expression progressively decreased with time during DSS colitis, correlating with changes in systemic iron distribution. TNFα inhibited hepcidin expression in cultured hepatocytes and non-colitic mice, while TNFα neutralization during DSS colitis increased it. Similar results were obtained in TRUC mice. These effects involved a TNFα-dependent decrease in Smad1 protein but not mRNA.TNFα inhibits hepcidin expression in two distinct types of innate colitis, with down-regulation of Smad1 protein playing an important role in this process. This inhibitory effect of TNFα may be superseded by other factors in the context of T cell-mediated colitis given that in the latter form of intestinal inflammation hepcidin is usually up-regulated.

  10. Inhibition of miR-142-5P ameliorates disease in mouse models of experimental colitis.

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    Nicolette W Duijvis

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are epigenetically involved in regulating gene expression. They may be of importance in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of this study was to determine the role of miRNAs by their specific blocking in the CD4+CB45RBhi T-cell transfer model of chronic experimental colitis.Colitis caused by transfer of WT CD4+CD45RBhi T cells in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice shares many features with human IBD. Colonic miRNA expression levels were measured at three time points in colitic mice, where a time-dependent upregulation of multiple miRNAs was seen. To inhibit these miRNAs, specific locked-nucleic-acid-modified (LNA oligonucleotides were administered in further experiments at the moment the mice demonstrated the first signs of colitis. As controls, PBS and a scrambled sequence of anti-miRNA were used. Genome-wide expression analyses were also performed in order to detect candidate target genes of miR-142-5p, of which inhibition resulted in most effective amelioration of colitis.Anti-miR-142-5p reduced colitis and related wasting disease when administered in the T-cell transfer model, reflected in reduced weight loss and a lower disease activity index (DAI. In further validation experiments we also observed a higher survival rate and less colonic histological inflammation in the antagomir-treated mice. Moreover, by genome-wide expression analyses, we found downstream activation of the anti-inflammatory IL10RA pathway, including three genes also found in the top-20 candidate target genes of miR-142-5p.In conclusion, CD4+CD45RBhi-transfer colitis induces miR-142-5p. Blocking miR-142-5p reduced colitis and prevented wasting disease, possibly by activation of the IL10RA pathway.

  11. Management of ulcerative colitis: a clinical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vieira Teixeira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the consensus of expert societies and published guidelines on the management of ulcerative colitis, and to compare with the experience of the authors, in order to standardize procedures that would help the reasoning and decision-making process of the physician. A search was performed in scientific literature, specifically in electronic databases: Medline/Pubmed, SciELO, EMBASE and Cochrane, and the following descriptors were used: ulcerative colitis, acute colitis, clinical treatment, surgery and randomized trial. It can be concluded that the goals of therapy in ulcerative colitis are clinical and endoscopic remission, deep, sustained remission without corticosteroids, prevention of hospitalizations and surgeries, and improved quality of life. The surgical indications are reserved for selected cases, ranging from medical intractability, complications (severe refractory acute colitis, toxic megacolon, perforation and hemorrhage and malignancy. Information in this review article must be submitted to evaluation and criticism of the specialist responsible for the conduct to be followed, in the face of his/her reality and the clinical status of each patient.The degree of recommendation and strength of evidence were based using the GRADE system (The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation described below:1. A: Experimental or observational studies of higher consistency.2. B: Experimental or observational studies of lower consistency.3. C: Case reports (non-controlled studies.4. D: Opinion without critical evaluation, based on consensus, physiological studies or animal models. Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os consensos de sociedades de especialistas e guidelines publicados sobre o manejo da retocolite ulcerativa, e confrontar com a experiência dos autores, a fim de padronizar condutas que auxiliem o raciocínio e a tomada de decisão do médico. Foi realizada busca

  12. Chemical analysis and biorefinery of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii for efficient production of glucose from residue of carrageenan extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarin, Fernando; Cedeno, Fernando Roberto Paz; Chavez, Eddyn Gabriel Solorzano; de Oliveira, Levi Ezequiel; Gelli, Valéria Cress; Monti, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    Biorefineries serve to efficiently utilize biomass and their by-products. Algal biorefineries are designed to generate bioproducts for commercial use. Due to the high carbohydrate content of algal biomass, biorefinery to generate biofuels, such as bioethanol, is of great interest. Carrageenan is a predominant polysaccharide hydrocolloid found in red macroalgae and is widely used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, we report the biorefinery of carrageenan derived from processing of experimental strains of the red macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii. Specifically, the chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of the residue produced from carrageenan extraction were evaluated to determine the conditions for efficient generation of carbohydrate bioproducts. The productivity and growth rates of K. alvarezii strains were assessed along with the chemical composition (total carbohydrates, ash, sulfate groups, proteins, insoluble aromatics, galacturonic acid, and lipids) of each strain. Two strains, brown and red, were selected based on their high growth rates and productivity and were treated with 6 % KOH for extraction of carrageenan. The yields of biomass from treatment with 6 % KOH solution of the brown and red strains were 89.3 and 89.5 %, respectively. The yields of carrageenan and its residue were 63.5 and 23 %, respectively, for the brown strain and 60 and 27.8 %, respectively, for the red strain. The residues from the brown and red strains were assessed to detect any potential bioproducts. The galactan, ash, protein, insoluble aromatics, and sulfate groups of the residue were reduced to comparable extents for the two strains. However, KOH treatment did not reduce the content of glucan in the residue from either strain. Glucose was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis for 72 h using both strains. The glucan conversion was 100 % for both strains, and the concentrations of glucose from the brown and red strains were 13.7 and 11.5 g L(-1

  13. Lack of Histamine H4-Receptor Expression Aggravates TNBS-Induced Acute Colitis Symptoms in Mice

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    Eva J. Wunschel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are a growing health problem worldwide, severely affecting patients’ life qualities and life expectancies. Therapeutic options, which are rare and focus on symptoms associated with the disease, suffer from increasing numbers of patients refractory to the established strategies. Thus, in order to generate new therapeutic regimens, the detailed understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms causing IBD is necessary. Histamine is an inflammatory mediator associated with IBD. Four histamine receptors are currently known of which the histamine H4-receptor (H4R has been shown to possess a pro-inflammatory function in several experimental models of inflammatory diseases, including dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis in mice. No single model reflects the complexity of human IBD, but each model provides valuable information on specific aspects of IBD pathogenesis. While DSS-induced colitis mostly relies on innate immune mechanisms, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS-induced colitis rather reflects T-cell mechanisms. Consequently, an observation made in a single model has to be verified in at least one other model. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effect of genetic blockade of H4R-signaling in mice subjected to the model of TNBS-induced acute colitis. We analyzed severity and progression of clinical signs of colitis, as well as histopathologic alterations in the colon and local cytokine production. Genetic ablation of H4R expression worsened clinical signs of acute colitis and histological appearance of colon inflammation after TNBS application. Moreover, TNBS instillation enhanced local synthesis of inflammatory mediators associated with a neutrophilic response, i.e., CXCL1, CXCL2, and interleukin-6. Lastly, also myeloperoxidase concentration, indicative for the presence of neutrophils, was elevated in cola of TNBS-treated mice due to the absence of H4R expression. Our results indicate an anti

  14. Mechanical and water barrier properties of agar/κ-carrageenan/konjac glucomannan ternary blend biohydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Wang, Long-Feng

    2013-07-01

    Multicomponent hydrogel films composed of agar, κ-carrageenan, konjac glucomannan powder, and nanoclay (Cloisite(®) 30B) were prepared and their mechanical and water barrier properties such as water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water solubility (WS), water uptake ratio (WUR), water vapor uptake ratio (WVUR) were determined. Mechanical, water vapor barrier, and water resistance properties of the ternary blend film exhibited middle range of individual component films, however, they increased significantly after formation of nanocomposite with the clay. Especially, the water holding capacity of the ternary blend biopolymer films increased tremendously, from 800% to 1681% of WUR for agar and κ-carrageenan films up to 5118% and 5488% of WUR for the ternary blend and ternary blend nanocomposite films, respectively. Water vapor adsorption behavior of films was also tested by water vapor adsorption kinetics and water vapor adsorption isotherms test. Preliminary test result for fresh spinach packaging revealed that the ternary blend biohydrogel films had a high potential for the use as an antifogging film for packaging highly respiring agricultural produce. In addition, the ternary blend nanocomposite film showed an antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PVP/PEG/Carrageenan/Silver acetate hydrogels by {gamma}-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Youn Mook; Youn, Young; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    In recent day, there is much interest in the biocidal activity of silver since silver is known to be safe and effective as disinifectant and biocidal material against coliforms and viruses. In this study, hydrogels containing silver acetate as antibacterial agent have been prepared using gamma rays irradiation. The hydrogels are composed of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), carrageenan and silver acetate. The concentration of solution was 9 wt%. The ratio of PVP: PEG: carrageenan was 6:1:2. The concentration of the silver acetate were 0,0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07% and Gamma irradiation dose was 25 kGy. The Gamma irradiation dose in hydrogels with 0.01% silver acetate were 20 kGy, 35 kGy, 50 kGy, 65 kGy, and 80 kGy. The results showed that 0.01% silver acetate concentration of hydrogels by 25 kGy irradiation dose showed the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, antibacterial activity of various Gamma irradiation dose in hydrogels treated 0.01% silver acetate showed highest 35 kGy irradiation dose against Staphylococcus aureus.

  16. Three-Dimensional Supermacroporous Carrageenan-Gelatin Cryogel Matrix for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A tissue-engineered polymeric scaffold should provide suitable macroporous structure similar to that of extracellular matrix which can induce cellular activities and guide tissue regeneration. Cryogelation is a technique in which appropriate monomers or polymeric precursors frozen at sub-zero temperature leads to the formation of supermacroporous cryogel matrices. In this study carrageenan-gelatin (natural polymers cryogels were synthesized by using glutaraldehyde and 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC-NHS as crosslinking agent at optimum concentrations. Matrices showed large and interconnected pores which were in the range of 60–100 μm diameter. Unconfined compression analysis showed elasticity and physical integrity of all cryogels, as these matrices regained their original length after 90% compressing from the original size. Moreover Young’s modulus was found to be in the range of 4–11 kPa for the dry cryogel sections. These cryogels also exhibited good in vitro degradation capacity at 37 °C within 4 weeks of incubation. Supermacroporous carrageenan-gelatin cryogels showed efficient cell adherence and proliferation of Cos-7 cells which was examined by SEM. PI nuclear stain was used to observe cell-matrix interaction. Cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was checked by MTT assay which showed that cryogels are biocompatible and act as a potential material for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  17. Genetic update on inflammatory factors in ulcerative colitis: Review of the current literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlos, Patricia; Kovesdi, Erzsebet; Magyari, Lili; Banfai, Zsolt; Szabo, Andras; Javorhazy, Andras; Melegh, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the main types of inflammatory bowel disease, which is caused by dysregulated immune responses in genetically predisposed individuals. Several genetic factors, including interleukin and interleukin receptor gene polymorphisms and other inflammation-related genes play central role in mediating and modulating the inflammation in the human body, thereby these can be the main cause of development of the disease. It is clear these data are very important for understanding the base of the disease, especially in terms of clinical utility and validity, but summarized literature is exiguous for challenge health specialist that can used in the clinical practice nowadays. This review summarizes the current literature on inflammation-related genetic polymorphisms which are associated with UC. We performed an electronic search of Pubmed Database among publications of the last 10 years, using the following medical subject heading terms: UC, ulcerative colitis, inflammation, genes, polymorphisms, and susceptibility. PMID:25133031

  18. Ulcerative colitis in a Nigerian girl: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senbanjo Idowu O

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ulcerative colitis (UC is uncommon in the tropics and sub-tropics. We report a case of UC in a 7 year old girl whose parents were both Nigerians. This report is to alert healthcare professionals in sub-Saharan Africa that UC is not a rare health problem, especially in children. Case presentation The patient presented with frequent passage of blood stained stool, abdominal pain and significant weight loss. The diagnosis was entertained after she was investigated for common causes of chronic diarrhea in our setting and the findings were negative. The patient symptoms abated after she was commenced on steroid therapy. Conclusion Under-diagnosis and misdiagnosis may account for a dearth of information on UC in African children.

  19. Chronic Colitis in Biopsy Samples: Is It Inflammatory Bowel Disease or Something Else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young Karen; Appelman, Henry D

    2017-12-01

    Chronic colitis, regardless of type, is defined histologically by chronic inflammation, mainly plasmacytosis, in the lamina propria. Specific diagnosis of chronic colitides in biopsies can be challenging for practicing pathologists. This article focuses on discussing specific histologic features in biopsies of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including ulcerative colitis, Crohn colitis, and colitis of indeterminate type. It also offers suggestions as to how to separate the IBDs from other chronic colitides, such as lymphocytic colitis, collagenous colitis, diverticular disease-associated colitis, diversion colitis, and chronic colitides that are due to drugs. Normal histology in colon biopsies is also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Future targets for immune therapy in colitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Claesson, M H

    2008-01-01

    the commensal intestinal bacterial flora, and that the CD4+ T cells dominate the adaptive immune response. Chemokines are small proteins involved in the guidance of migration of immune cells during normal homeostasis and inflammation. Chemokines have been shown to play a central role in recruiting inflammatory......Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis, collectively termed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the bowel. It is generally accepted that the pathology associated with IBD is characterized by a hyper-reactive immune response in the gut wall directed against...... cells to the inflamed bowel of IBD patients, making the chemokine/receptor system appealing as new therapeutic targets to sustain remission in these patients. In the severe combined immunodeficiency transfer model of colitis, which histopathologically resembles human IBD, low numbers of CD4+CD25- T...

  1. Melatonin modulates adiponectin expression on murine colitis with sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyun; Park, Young Sook; Baik, Haing-Woon; Jun, Jin Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Sull, Jae Woong; Sung, Ho Joong; Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Sook Hee; Gye, Myung Chan; Lim, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jun Bong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-09-07

    To determine adiponectin expression in colonic tissue of murine colitis and systemic cytokine expression after melatonin treatments and sleep deprivation. The following five groups of C57BL/6 mice were used in this study: (1) group I, control; (2) group II, 2% DSS induced colitis for 7 d; (3) group III, 2% DSS induced colitis and melatonin treatment; (4) group IV, 2% DSS induced colitis with sleep deprivation (SD) using specially designed and modified multiple platform water baths; and (5) group V, 2% DSS induced colitis with SD and melatonin treatment. Melatonin (10 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally injected daily to mice for 4 d. The body weight was monitored daily. The degree of colitis was evaluated histologically after sacrificing the mice. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis was performed using anti-adiponectin antibody. After sampling by intracardiac punctures, levels of serum cytokines were measured by ELISA. Sleep deprivation in water bath exacerbated DSS induced colitis and worsened weight loss. Melatonin injection not only alleviated the severity of mucosal injury, but also helped survival during stressful condition. The expression level of adiponectin in mucosa was decreased in colitis, with the lowest level observed in colitis combined with sleep deprivation. Melatonin injection significantly (P sleep deprivation.

  2. Necrotizing colitis associated with carcinoma of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Seong Ku; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Soon Yong; Ahn, Chi Yul

    1982-01-01

    Necrotizing colitis associated with carcinoma of the colon, known also as obstructive colitis, is a disorder characterized by anulceration and inflammation of the colon proximal to an obstructive lesion, especially carcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon, and in rare instance, leads to acute gangrene of the colon. The authors analyzed radiologic findings in four cases of necrotizing colitis associated with carcinoma of the colon. Barium enema disclosed mucosal edema, nodular filling defects, irregularity of the colonic contour and typical thumbprinting appearance of involved colon proximal to an obstructing carcinoma of the colon. The mechanism of necrotizing colitis was briefly reviewed

  3. Association of oral manifestations with ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Elahi, Maryam; Telkabadi, Mohamad; Samadi, Vahid; Vakili, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Aim The study aims to document the oral lesions in patients with UC. Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is comprised of two chronic, tissue-destructive and clinical entities including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), both of which are immunologically based. Patients and methods The population of the study includes fifty patients with UC, as the experimental group, and fifty patients without gastrointestinal disease as the control group. All patients had an oral exami...

  4. Ischemic colitis in a patient with Crohn's disease taking an oral contraceptive and an ergotamine alkaloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgeerts, L; Ghillebert, G; Drognee, W; Tanghe, W; Vuylsteke, P; Decoster, M

    1993-01-01

    A 22-year-old woman developed transient left-sided ischemic colitis with submucosal oedema and bleeding, six weeks after an uneventful right hemicolectomy for Crohn's disease. The thrombogenic properties of the contraceptive pill and the concomitant use of an ergotamine alkaloid were thought to be the cause of this complication in a patient at risk. An increase of procoagulant activity and underlying vascular injury has been described in Crohn's disease.

  5. Mechanism of diarrhea in microscopic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protic, Marijana; Jojic, Njegica; Bojic, Daniela; Milutinovic, Svetlana; Necic, Dusanka; Bojic, Bozidar; Svorcan, Petar; Krstic, Miodrag; Popovic, Obren

    2005-09-21

    To search the pathophysiological mechanism of diarrhea based on daily stool weights, fecal electrolytes, osmotic gap and pH. Seventy-six patients were included: 51 with microscopic colitis (MC) (40 with lymphocytic colitis (LC); 11 with collagenous colitis (CC)); 7 with MC without diarrhea and 18 as a control group (CG). They collected stool for 3 d. Sodium and potassium concentration were determined by flame photometry and chloride concentration by titration method of Schales. Fecal osmotic gap was calculated from the difference of osmolarity of fecal fluid and double sum of sodium and potassium concentration. Fecal fluid sodium concentration was significantly increased in LC 58.11+/-5.38 mmol/L (Pdiarrhea compared to fecal osmotic gap. Seven (13.3%) patients had osmotic diarrhea. Diarrhea in MC mostly belongs to the secretory type. The major pathophysiological mechanism in LC could be explained by a decrease of active sodium absorption. In CC, decreased Cl/HCO3 exchange rate and increased chloride secretion are coexistent pathways.

  6. The Association Between CMV Viremia or Endoscopic Features and Histopathological Characteristics of CMV Colitis in Patients with Underlying Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Zhou, Weixun; Lv, Hong; Wu, Dongsheng; Feng, Yunlu; Shu, Huijun; Jin, Meng; Hu, Lingling; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Dong; Chen, Jie; Qian, Jiaming

    2017-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been shown to be related to severe or steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) flare-ups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic and pathological characteristics of CMV colitis in patients with UC and to assess the predictive value of the endoscopic and pathological features of CMV colitis. A total of 50 consecutive UC patients with CMV infection who were admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2010 to 2015 were enrolled in this study. Twenty-five UC patients with CMV infection (50.0%) had concurrent CMV colitis. When the cutoff value was set at 1150 copies, the sensitivity and specificity of blood CMV DNAq polymerase chain reaction for predicting CMV colitis were 44.4% and 78.9%, respectively. A higher proportion of endoscopic punched-out ulcers, irregular ulcers, and cobblestone-like appearance were observed among the patients in the CMV colitis group than those in the non-CMV colitis group (52.0% versus 20.0%, 60.0% versus 16.0%, and 20.0% versus 0%, respectively, P colitis group than in the control group (68.0% versus 44.0%). Characteristic endoscopic features with punch-out ulcers and high CMV viremia load may be useful for predicting the presence of CMV colitis in histology. Punch-out ulcers were found to be associated with a higher number of inclusion bodies on histology, suggesting a role of targeted biopsy for endoscopist.

  7. Kappa-Carrageenan : a study on its physico-chemical properties, sol-gel transition and interaction with milk proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeren, T.H.M.

    1976-01-01

    In this thesis a characterization of the milkreactive polysaccharide κ-carrageenan by means of light scattering, viscosimetry and sedimentation experiments is presented. The disorder/order transitions occurring at the gelpoint of these substances are discussed in terms of a coil/double

  8. Effect of carrageenan on properties of biodegradable thermoplastic cassava starch/low-density polyethylene composites reinforced by cotton fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prachayawarakorn, Jutarat; Pomdage, Wanida

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We prepared the TPCS/LDPE composites modified by carrageenan and/or cotton fibers. • The IR O–H stretching peak of the modified composites shifts to lower wavenumber. • Stress and Young’s modulus of the modified composites increase significantly. • The modified composites degrade faster than the non-modified composite. - Abstract: Applications of biodegradable thermoplastic starch (TPS) have been restricted due to its poor mechanical properties, limited processability and high water uptake. In order to improve properties and processability, thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS) was compounded with low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The TPCS/LDPE blend was, then, modified by a natural gelling agent, i.e. carrageenan and natural fibers, i.e. cotton fibers. All composites were compounded and processed using an internal mixer and an injection molding machine, respectively. It was found that stress at maximum load and Young’s modulus of the TPCS/LDPE composites significantly increased by the addition of the carrageenan and/or the cotton fibers. The highest mechanical properties were obtained from the TPCS/LDPE composites modified by both the carrageenan and the cotton fibers. Percentage water absorption of all of the TPCS/LDPE composites was found to be similar. All modified composites were also degraded easier than the non-modified one. Furthermore, all the composites were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  9. Conductive nanostructured materials based on poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and starch/κ-carrageenan for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Sequeira, Roy; Ardao, Inés; Starbird, Ricardo; García-González, Carlos A

    2018-06-01

    Smart electroactive biomaterials are sought to allow the direct delivery of electrical, electrochemical and electromechanical signals to biological tissues. Specifically, poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is a polymer of special interest attending to its biocompatibility, tuneable electrical conductivity and processing versatility. In this work, nanostructured PEDOT was synthesized using starch/κ-carrageenan aerogels as templates. κ-carrageenan biopolymer acted as doping agent of the conductive polymer to enhance the biocompatibility and the electrical response. The physicochemical, morphological, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanostructured PEDOT and templates were characterized. The incorporation of κ-carrageenan to the nanostructured materials resulted in an increase in the compressive strength of ca. 40% and a decrease in the electrical impedance of one order-of-magnitude. The synergistic combination of the inherent electrical properties of the PEDOT, the advantageous features of κ-carrageenan as doping agent and the porous morphology of the aerogel template resulted in electroactive PEDOT nanostructures with relevant properties for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of lambda-carrageenan on the release of systematic series of volatile flavor compounds from viscous food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylaite, Egle; Ilgunaite, Z.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2004-01-01

    , except with the most hydrophobic compounds. Analysis of flavor release under nonequilibrium conditions revealed a suppressing effect of lambda-carrageenan on the release rates of aroma compounds, and the extent of decrease in release rates was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the aroma...

  11. Heparin-Functionalized chitosan/ κ-carrageenan complexes as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dofeliz, Joni L.; Rojas, Nina Rosario L.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based approaches to tissue regeneration are playing an increasingly important role in bone and cartilage repair. This is made possible through the use of growth factors, which are signaling molecules that induce a number of effects such as cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. But problems arise as these growth factors tend to be expensive, short-lived and slow moving through the extracellular matrix, making them very inefficient in their current form of introduction. One such growth factor is basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The general objective of this study is to construct heparin-functionalized chitosan/κ-carrageenan scaffolds, which when bound to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), may be used in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells for differentiation into cartilage. In this study, gels of semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPN) of chitosan and κ-carrageenan (2:4:1 blend ration) were prepared using calcium chloride as a cross-linker. The gels were then functionalized with heparin, which is known for its growth factor binding ability, using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) as cross-linker. The functionalized gels were then reshaped into scaffold on the wells of 48-well plates through freeze-dry method. The scaffolds were found to be realatively porous with pore sizes larger than 100 μm which satisfies the requirements for cell culture. Subsequent thermogravimetric analysis shows that the scaffolds were relatively stable with a degradation temperature of 277°C. Additionally, there was no observable separation of the individual degradation temperatures of chitosan and κ-carrageenan, confirming that a single miscible phase in the form of a semi-IPN structure was created. Results of scanning electron microscopy also showed that the scaffolds were stable under 2 hours of UV sterilization. The FTIR spectra of the heparinized PEC showed characteristic absorption bands (S=O asymetric stretch) in the area of 1160

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOME TEXTURE PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF CARRAGEENAN GELS AS A RESULT OF ITS DEFINED DIVERSIFIED FREEZING AND THAWING TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozłowicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Model samples of carrageenan gels based on water, milk and juice were air-blast frozen and frozen by immersion in glycol and in liquid nitrogen. The gel freezing rate was determined on the basis of the kinetics of freezing. Carrageenan gel samples were characterized by evaluation of its thawing drip loss and hardness determined with compression and penetration tests. Freezing in liquid nitrogen ensured the highest freezing rates. Thawing drip loss of gels significantly depended on the carrageenan content, pH of the solution, freezing method and freezing rate. The resulting relationships are linear functions with high determination coefficients. The results of compression and penetration tests prove the significant effect of the carrageenan content and pH on gel hardness. The higher carrageenan content in a sample, the higher compression force and penetration of the gel. Gel freezing resulted in lower hardness. Freezing conditions had a significant effect on the properties tested. The correlation between compression forces and penetration depending on the carrageenan content and the freezing method was described using regression equations with high determination coefficients. Gels based on milk and juice with 2.2% carrageenan content are recommended for immersion freezing at rates above 5.0 cm·h-1.

  13. Fasitibant chloride, a kinin B2 receptor antagonist, and dexamethasone interact to inhibit carrageenan-induced inflammatory arthritis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Claudio; Giuliani, Sandro; Cialdai, Cecilia; Tramontana, Manuela; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Bradykinin, through the kinin B2 receptor, is involved in inflammatory processes related to arthropathies. B2 receptor antagonists inhibited carrageenan-induced arthritis in rats in synergy with anti-inflammatory steroids. The mechanism(s) underlying this drug interaction was investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Drugs inhibiting inflammatory mediators released by carrageenan were injected, alone or in combination, into the knee joint of pentobarbital anaesthetized rats 30 min before intra-articular administration of carrageenan. Their effects on the carrageenan-induced inflammatory responses (joint pain, oedema and neutrophil recruitment) and release of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, IL-1β, IL-6 and the chemokine GRO/CINC-1), were assessed after 6 h. KEY RESULTS The combination of fasitibant chloride (MEN16132) and dexamethasone was more effective than each drug administered alone in inhibiting knee joint inflammation and release of inflammatory mediators. Fasitibant chloride, MK571, atenolol, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin (B2 receptor, leukotriene, catecholamine and B1 receptor antagonists, respectively) and dexketoprofen (COX inhibitor), reduced joint pain and, except for the latter, also diminished joint oedema. A combination of drugs inhibiting joint pain (fasitibant chloride, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin, dexketoprofen, MK571 and atenolol) and oedema (fasitibant chloride, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin, MK571 and atenolol) abolished the respective inflammatory response, producing inhibition comparable with that achieved with the combination of fasitibant chloride and dexamethasone. MK571 alone was able to block neutrophil recruitment. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Bradykinin-mediated inflammatory responses to intra-articular carrageenan were not controlled by steroids, which were not capable of preventing bradykinin effects either by direct activation of the B2 receptor, or through the indirect effects mediated by release of eicosanoids

  14. Development of Fibrosis in Acute and Longstanding Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Jessica R; Meijer, Sybren L; Wildenberg, Manon E; Bemelman, Willem A; van den Brink, Gijs R; D'Haens, Geert R

    2015-11-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is a process driven by chronic inflammation leading to increased presence of myofibroblasts and collagen deposition. Although strictures are rarely seen in ulcerative colitis [UC], longstanding disease is believed to cause fibrosis resulting in altered bowel function. The presence of fibrosis was studied in colectomy specimens from patients with recent-onset UC refractory to medical treatment [n = 13] and longstanding UC [n = 16], and colon cancer patients without UC [n = 7] as controls. Severity of inflammation was scored according to the Geboes score on haematoxylin and eosin stainings. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin and collagen I and III. Colectomy specimens from patients with acute UC showed significantly more inflammation than those with longstanding disease [19 vs 9 points, p = 0.01]. Both acute and longstanding UC showed a thicker muscularis mucosa than controls [0.10 vs 0.10 vs 0.05 mm, respectively, p = 0.019]. An increase in collagen I and III deposition in the mucosa was observed in UC compared with controls (40% [30-75] vs 25% [10-25], p = 0.033), but this did not differ significantly among acute and longstanding UC patients. Collagen deposition is enhanced in UC compared with controls. However, UC collagen deposition does not increase significantly over time and does not seem to aggravate the entire fibrotic process. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The role of aminosalicylates in the treatment of ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Assche, Gert; Baert, Filip; de Reuck, Marc; de Vos, Martine; de Wit, Olivier; Hoang, Pierre; Louis, Edouard; Mana, Fazia; Pelckmans, Paul; Rutgeerts, Paul; van Gossum, Andre; D'Haens, Geert

    2002-01-01

    Aminosalicylates (5-ASA, sulfasalazine and mesalazine) play a central role in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). For acute treatment of mild to moderate flares and in maintenance treatment, their efficacy has been established. Since ulcerative colitis is limited to the distal colon in two

  16. Sonographic and Endoscopic Findings in Cocaine-Induced Ischemic Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Thomas; Wilkens, Rune; Bonderup, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine-induced ischemic colitis is a recognized entity. The diagnosis is based on clinical and endoscopic findings. However, diagnostic imaging is helpful in the evaluation of abdominal symptoms and prior studies have suggested specific sonographic findings in ischemic colitis. We report...

  17. Long-Term Natural History and Complications of Collagenous Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic forms of colitis have been described, including collagenous colitis, a possibly heterogeneous disorder. Collagenous colitis most often appears to have an entirely benign clinical course that usually responds to limited treatment. Sometimes significant extracolonic disorders, especially arthritis, spondylitis, thyroiditis and skin disorders, such as pyoderma gangrenosum, dominate the clinical course and influence the treatment strategy. However, rare fatalities have been reported and several complications, some severe, have been attributed directly to the colitis. Toxic colitis and toxic megacolon may develop. Concomitant gastric and small intestinal inflammatory disorders have been described including celiac disease and more extensive collagenous inflammatory disease. Colonic ulceration has been associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, while other forms of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, may evolve directly from collagenous colitis. Submucosal ‘dissection’, colonic fractures, or mucosal tears and perforation, possibly from air insufflation during colonoscopy, have been reported. Similar changes may result from increased intraluminal pressures that may occur during radiological imaging of the colon. Neoplastic disorders of the colon may also occur during the course of collagenous colitis, including colon carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumours (ie, carcinoids. Finally, lymphoproliferative disease has been reported.

  18. Development of chronic colitis is dependent on the cytokine MIF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Y. P.; Abadia-Molina, A. C.; Satoskar, A. R.; Clarke, K.; Rietdijk, S. T.; Faubion, W. A.; Mizoguchi, E.; Metz, C. N.; Alsahli, M.; ten Hove, T.; Keates, A. C.; Lubetsky, J. B.; Farrell, R. J.; Michetti, P.; van Deventer, S. J.; Lolis, E.; David, J. R.; Bhan, A. K.; Terhorst, C.; Sahli, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The cytokine macrophage-migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is secreted by a number of cell types upon induction by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Because colitis is dependent on interplay between the mucosal immune system and intestinal bacteria, we investigated the role of MIF in experimental colitis.

  19. Samtidig debut af kollagen colitis og mb. Crohn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Nielsen, Preben Løvgreen; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2002-01-01

    A case report of a 69-year-old man with synchronous onset and diagnosis of collagenous colitis and Crohn's disease is discussed.......A case report of a 69-year-old man with synchronous onset and diagnosis of collagenous colitis and Crohn's disease is discussed....

  20. Metabolic and inflammatory faecal markers in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Nordgaard-Lassen, Inge; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the excretion of the inflammatory and metabolic faecal markers calprotectin, lactoferrin, and short-chain fatty acids in symptomatic and quiescent collagenous colitis.......To evaluate the excretion of the inflammatory and metabolic faecal markers calprotectin, lactoferrin, and short-chain fatty acids in symptomatic and quiescent collagenous colitis....

  1. Ulcerative colitis in a Nigerian child: case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... tic facilities. Key word: Ulcerative Colitis,. Diagnostic difficulties, Nigerian child. Introduction. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic re-occuring inflam- matory condition of ... accretion during adolescence, as well as differing psy- chosocial ... old female child in south-west Nigeria.11 We report a confirmed case of ...

  2. A case of Reiter's disease complicated by fulminating colitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hickling, P; Martin, M F; Brooks, S

    1982-01-01

    We describe a patient who, 6 months after the onset of Reiter's disease associated with a destructive peripheral arthritis and keratodermia blenorrhagica, developed fulminating colitis. The possible relationship between Reiter's disease and ulcerative colitis is discussed, and the need for further family studies to assess its validity is stressed.

  3. Current misunderstandings in the management of ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochsenkühn, Thomas; D'Haens, Geert

    2011-01-01

    Past and ongoing therapeutic concepts for ulcerative colitis have only been moderately successful. A significant proportion of patients with ulcerative colitis will still have to undergo colectomy and overall half of the patients do not achieve sustained remission, leading to impairment of physical

  4. Colonic production of nitric oxide gas in ulcerative colitis, collagenous colitis and uninflamed bowel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nordgaard, I; Matzen, P

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced in excess by the inflamed human colon is generally considered a pathway of mucosal damage. In an attempt to quantify colonic mucosal production of NO in various forms of colitis we performed 'steady-state' gas perfusion of whole colon in 11 patients with ulcerative...

  5. Transforming growth factor-beta messenger RNA and protein in murine colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiting, C V; Williams, A M; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2001-01-01

    Using a CD4+ T-cell-transplanted SCID mouse model of colitis, we have analyzed TGF-beta transcription and translation in advanced disease. By in situ hybridization, the epithelium of both control and inflamed tissues transcribed TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 mRNAs, but both were expressed significantly...... TGF-beta. By ELISA, very low levels (0-69 pg/mg) of soluble total or active TGF-beta were detected in hypotonic tissue lysates. TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 are produced by SCID mouse colon and transcription is increased in the colitis caused by transplantation of CD4+ T-cells, but this does not result...

  6. Acute ischemic colitis during scuba diving: Report of a unique case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumas, Konstantinos; Poulou, Androniki; Tyrmpas, Ioannis; Dandakis, Dimitrios; Bartzokis, Stavros; Tsamouri, Magdalini; Barbati, Kalipso; Soutos, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of clinical symptoms due to decompression during diving, varies significantly, as mainly minor disturbances for the gastrointestinal tract in particular have been reported. The following case debates whether diving can cause severe symptoms from the gastrointestinal system. We describe a clinical case of ischemic colitis presented in a 27-year-old male, who manifested abdominal pain while in the process of scuba diving 20 meters undersea, followed by bloody diarrhoea as soon as he ascended to sea level. Taking into account his past medical history, the thorough, impeccable clinical and laboratory examinations and presence of no other factors predisposing to ischemia of the colon, we assume that a possible relationship between diving conditions and the pathogenesis of ischemic colitis may exist. This unusual case might represent a hematologic manifestation of decompression sickness, due to increased coagulability and/or transient air emboli, occurring during a routine scuba diving ascent to sea level. PMID:18506937

  7. Characterization of thermostable cellulase produced by Bacillus strains isolated from solid waste of carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listyaningrum, N. P.; Sutrisno, A.; Wardani, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Cellulase-producing bacteria was isolated from solid waste of carrageenan and identified as Bacillus licheniformis C55 by 16S rRNA sequencing. The optimum condition for cellulase production was obtained at pH and temperature of 8.0 and 50°C, respectively in a medium containing glucose as carbon source and 1.0% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to stimulate the cellulase production. Most remarkably, the enzyme retained its relative activity over 50% after incubation at 50°C for 90 minutes. Substrate specificity suggested that the enzyme is an endoglucanase. The molecular mass of Bacillus licheniformis C55 crude cellulase was found about 18 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis. This thermostable enzyme would facilitate development of more efficient and cost-effective forms of the process to convert lignocellulosic biomass into high-value products.

  8. Activity of some Mexican medicinal plant extracts on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, M; David-Rivera, A D; Nava-Aguilar, V; Jimenez, A

    2004-07-01

    The extracts obtained from 14 plants of the Mexican medicinal flora were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The i.p. administration of the extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg produced a high reduction of edema with 70% of the plant extracts. Oenothera rosea methanol extract, Sphaeralcea angustifolia chloroform extract, Acaciafarnesiana, Larrea tridentata and Rubus coriifolius methanol extracts as well as the aqueous extract of Chamaedora tepejilote were demonstrated to be particularly active against the induced hind-paw edema. Moderate inhibition of edema formation was also demonstrated with the methanol extracts of Astianthus viminalis, Brickellia paniculata, C. tepejilote and Justicia spicigera.

  9. Pathogenesis and biomarkers of carcinogenesis in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Gudjonsson, Thorkell; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2011-01-01

    One of the most serious complications of ulcerative colitis is the development of colorectal cancer. Screening patients with ulcerative colitis by standard histological examination of random intestinal biopsy samples might be inefficient as a method of cancer surveillance. This Review focuses...... on the current understanding of the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer and how this knowledge can be transferred into patient management to assist clinicians and pathologists in identifying patients with ulcerative colitis who have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Inflammation....... Although progress has been made in the understanding of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis, markers based on these findings possess insufficient sensitivity or specificity to be usable as reliable biomarkers for risk of colorectal cancer development in patients with ulcerative colitis. However, screening...

  10. High Performances of Artificial Nacre-Like Graphene Oxide-Carrageenan Bio-Nanocomposite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkun Zhu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was inspired by the unique multi-scale and multi-level ‘brick-and-mortar’ (B&M structure of nacre layers. We prepared the B&M, environmentally-friendly graphene oxide-carrageenan (GO-Car nanocomposite films using the following steps. A natural polyhydroxy polymer, carrageenan, was absorbed on the surface of monolayer GO nanosheets through hydrogen-bond interactions. Following this, a GO-Car hybridized film was produced through a natural drying process. We conducted structural characterization in addition to analyzing mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the films. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses showed that the nanocomposite films had a similar morphology and structure to nacre. Furthermore, the results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Thermogravimetric (TG/DTG were used to explain the GO-Car interaction. Analysis from static mechanical testers showed that GO-Car had enhanced Young’s modulus, maximum tensile strength and breaking elongation compared to pure GO. The GO-Car nanocomposite films, containing 5% wt. of Car, was able to reach a tensile strength of 117 MPa. The biocompatibility was demonstrated using a RAW264.7 cell test, with no significant alteration found in cellular morphology and cytotoxicity. The preparation process for GO-Car films is simple and requires little time, with GO-Car films also having favorable biocompatibility and mechanical properties. These advantages make GO-Car nanocomposite films promising materials in replacing traditional petroleum-based plastics and tissue engineering-oriented support materials.

  11. Metabolic pathway of 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose in carrageenan-degrading microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Bok; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lim, Hyun Seung

    2016-05-01

    Complete hydrolysis of κ-carrageenan produces two sugars, D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose (D-AnG). At present, however, we do not know how carrageenan-degrading microorganisms metabolize D-AnG. In this study, we investigated the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation by comparative genomic analysis of Cellulophaga lytica LIM-21, Pseudoalteromonas atlantica T6c, and Epulopiscium sp. N.t. morphotype B, which represent the classes Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Clostridia, respectively. In this bioinformatic analysis, we found candidate common genes that were believed to be involved in D-AnG metabolism. We then experimentally confirmed the enzymatic function of each gene product in the D-AnG cluster. In all three microorganisms, D-AnG metabolizing genes were clustered and organized in operon-like arrangements, which we named as the dan operon (3,6-d-anhydro-galactose). Combining bioinformatic analysis and experimental data, we showed that D-AnG is metabolized to pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate via four enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the following route: 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose → 3,6-anhydro-D-galactonate → 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-galactonate (D-KDGal) → 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-galactonate → pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The pathway of D-AnG degradation is composed of two parts: transformation of D-AnG to D-KDGal using two D-AnG specific enzymes and breakdown of D-KDGal to two glycolysis intermediates using two DeLey-Doudoroff pathway enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation.

  12. Kinetic properties of growth of intestinal sulphate-reducing bacteria isolated from healthy mice and mice with ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kushkevych

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease including ulcerative colitis are complex multifactorial diseases of unknown aetiology. Sulphate-reducing bacteria are often associated with the occurrence of the disease. The physiological properties of intestinal sulphate-reducing bacteria including kinetic characteristic of their growth have never been reported. The aim of this research was to evaluate the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria isolated from the intestines of mice, study their growth, calculate and compare the kinetic growth properties on the model of dextran sulphate sodium induced ulcerative colitis in the mice. The number of viable intestinal sulphate-reducing bacteria from the bowel lumen of mice with ulcerative colitis was higher (P > 0.05 by 22% at 12 h of cultivation compared with cultures of sulphate-reducing bacteria from the bowel lumen of healthy mice. The sulphate-reducing bacteria from mice with colitis also had a slightly higher generation time (14.29 h and exponential growth phase (22.24 h compared with cultures from healthy mice. The time of lag-phase was 2 × shorter (P > 0.01 in the cultures of sulphate-reducing bacteria from mice with ulcerative colitis. The described research is new and important for the prediction of the sulphate-reducing bacteria number in the gut and their rate of dissimilatory sulphate reduction. The kinetic characteristic of their growth is important for further clarification of the mechanisms of sulphate reduction and accumulation of hydrogen sulphide, which is toxic for epithelial cells of the intestine and can cause bowel diseases both in humans and animals, in particular ulcerative colitis.

  13. Anaerobic bacteria, the colon and colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, W E

    1980-02-01

    Anaerobic bacteria constitute more than 90% of the bacteria in the colon. An anaerobic environment is needed to maintain their growth and the production of short-chain fatty acids by these bacteria from carbohydrates. Short-chain fatty acids are rapidly absorbed and essential for metabolic as well as functional welfare of the colonic mucosa. The importance of these acids in water absorption and in the patogenesis of colitis is discussed in relation to the concept of "energy deficiency diseases" of the colonic mucosa.

  14. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Mimicking Ischemic Colitis

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    Yuusuke Mitsuka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is extremely poor with a mean survival time of 12 months. The initial symptoms are poor and atypical. Because of its rare entity and little knowledge of its treatments, there are few reports of long-term survival. We encountered a very unique case with strong impression on radiological findings of malignant peritoneal methothelioma. We had misdiagnosed it because of the findings and because the time course was similar to that of ischemic colitis. The radiological findings on CT and enema disappeared within one week after antibiotic therapy.

  15. Golimumab for the treatment of ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löwenberg M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mark Löwenberg,1 Nanne KH de Boer,2 Frank Hoentjen3 1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Abstract: The introduction of therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor (TNF had a major impact on the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC. Infliximab and adalimumab are powerful agents that are used for remission induction and maintenance therapy in UC and have an acceptable safety profile. However, a proportion of UC patients for whom therapy with anti-TNF agents is indicated fail or become intolerant to treatment with infliximab or adalimumab. Hence, there remains an unmet need for novel anti-TNF agents. Golimumab (Simponi®, a human anti-TNF antibody that is administered by monthly subcutaneous injections, is the most recently introduced TNF blocker for the treatment of UC. Here, we will discuss recent literature on clinical efficacy and safety of golimumab induction and maintenance treatment in patients with UC. Furthermore, we will discuss the positioning of golimumab for UC in current treatment algorithms. Keywords: ulcerative colitis, UC, antitumor necrosis factor, TNF, antibodies, golimumab

  16. Colitis ulcerativa idiopática

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    Alina Torreblanca Xiques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La colitis ulcerativa es una enfermedad crónica, inflamatoria y ulcerosa, que se origina en la mucosa del colon y se caracteriza por la inflamación crónica del tracto gastrointestinal, casi siempre por una diarrea, que puede ser profusa y sanguinolenta. Se trata de un paciente masculino, de 35 años de edad, de raza blanca, con antecedentes de salud previa, que acude al médico por presentar desde hace cuatro meses diarreas con sangre, moco y pus, acompañado de dolor abdominal, astenia, anorexia y pérdida de peso, y en ocasiones de fiebre de 39 grados centígrados. Se realizaron estudios hematológicos, radiológicos y endoscópicos. Se confirmó el diagnóstico por anatomía patológica de colitis ulcerativa idiopática. Se aplicó terapéutica actualizada con el uso de mesalazina. El paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente

  17. Chemical colitis from a hydrogen peroxide enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Yagnesh; Orledge, Jeffery

    2010-11-01

    Constipation is a common complaint seen in the emergency department for which patients will try many different remedies. This case report discusses the outcome of a patient who developed a chemical colitis after using a hydrogen peroxide enema to relieve his constipation. A 43-year-old male with a history of chronic constipation presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with complaints of abdominal pain and hematochezia after self-administering a commercial sodium phosphate/sodium biphosphate enema mixed with hydrogen peroxide. The patient began to have left-sided abdominal cramping pain afterwards. He also began to have bowel movements mixed with bright red blood every 30 minutes. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed moderate to severe bowel wall thickening consistent with colitis involving the rectum extending to the distal one-third of the transverse colon. The patient was admitted to the internal medicine service for further monitoring. Gastroenterology was consulted for further management. The abdominal pain and hematochezia resolved and the patient was discharged the next day without complications.

  18. Management and treatment of distal ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Calafiore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory condition that is confined to the colonic mucosa. Its main symptoms include diarrhea, rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. Approximately two-thirds of UC patients have disease confined distal to the splenic flexure, which can be treated effectively with topical therapy. This means the active drug can be delivered directly to the site of inflammation, limiting the systemic absorption and potential side effects. Topical treatment with aminosalicylates is the most effective approach in the treatment of these forms, provided that the formulation reaches the upper margin of the disease. Given this, the suppository formulation is the treatment of choice for proctitis and distal sigmoiditis. Thanks to their proximal spread, enemas, foams and gels represent the treatment of choice for proctosigmoiditis and for distal ulcerative colitis. Oral aminosalicylates are less effective than topical therapies in patients with active disease, while the combination of topical and oral treatment is more effective in patients refractory to topical or oral mono-therapy. Topically administered aminosalicylates play an important role in the maintenance of remission, but the long-term adhesion to therapy is poor. For this reason, the oral formulation is the first-line therapy in the maintenance of remission. Refractory patients can be treated with topical steroids or systemic steroids and TNF-alpha inhibitors in severe forms.

  19. Inverse Association Between Helicobacter pylori Gastritis and Microscopic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon; Genta, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is known to be inversely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that a similar inverse association also applied to microscopic colitis. The associations between microscopic colitis and presence of H. pylori-positive chronic active gastritis (CAG), H. pylori-negative CAG, intestinal metaplasia, or gastric atrophy were expressed as odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to adjust these associations for sex, age, percentage residents per ZIP code with white, black, Hispanic, or Asian ethnicity, percentage with college education, average housing values, annual income, and population size of individual ZIP codes. H. pylori-positive CAG was less common among patients with than without microscopic colitis (odds ratio = 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.70). Intestinal metaplasia also occurred less frequently among patients with than without microscopic colitis (0.75, 0.65-0.86). These inverse associations remained unaffected by adjustments for parameters of ethnicity and socioeconomic status. In contradistinction with H. pylori-positive CAG, H. pylori-negative CAG was more common in patients with than without microscopic colitis (1.54, 1.17-1.97). H. pylori infection and microscopic colitis are inversely associated. This observation is consistent with similar inverse associations found between H. pylori and inflammatory bowel disease. These relationships may provide clues about the yet unknown etiology of microscopic colitis.

  20. Diagnostic Yield of Microscopic Colitis in Open Access Endoscopy Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Derek; Miick, Ronald; Chang, Faye; Hillard, Robert; Choudhary, Abhishek; Ashraf, Imran; Bechtold, Matthew; Diaz-Arias, Alberto

    2011-08-01

    The diagnostic yield in open access endoscopy has been evaluated which generally support the effectiveness and efficiency of open access endoscopy. With a few exceptions, diagnostic yield studies have not been performed in open access endoscopy for more specific conditions. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the efficiency of open access endoscopy in the detection of microscopic colitis as compared to traditional referral via a gastroenterologist. A retrospective search of the pathology database at the University of Missouri for specimens from a local open access endoscopy center was conducted via SNOMED code using the terms: "microscopic", "lymphocytic", "collagenous", "spirochetosis", "focal active colitis", "melanosis coli" and "histopathologic" in the diagnosis line for the time period between January 1, 2004 and May 25, 2006. Specimens and colonoscopy reports were reviewed by a single pathologist. Of 266 consecutive patients with chronic diarrhea and normal colonoscopies, the number of patients with microscopic disease are as follows: Lymphocytic colitis (n = 12, 4.5%), collagenous colitis (n = 17, 6.4%), focal active colitis (n = 15, 5.6%), and spirochetosis (n = 2, 0.4%). The diagnostic yield of microscopic colitis in this study of an open access endoscopy center does not differ significantly from that seen in major medical centers. In terms of diagnostic yield, open access endoscopy appears to be as effective in diagnosing microscopic colitis.

  1. Physicochemical data on aqueous polymeric systems of methyl cellulose and lambda- and kappa-carrageenan: SAXS, rheological, densitometry, and sound velocity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Cerar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available General as well as more specific physicochemical data obtained by studying the structure and various dynamical properties of aqueous polymer systems of methyl cellulose, λ−carrageenan, and κ−carrageenan are presented in graphical and numeric tabular form. The data provide basic polymer characterization info as also a specific structural and dynamical info for aqueous solutions of three industrially very important polymers (food additives that are available commercially. The commercial availability has much bigger impact to applications, research and connected advances, when the basic substances are well characterized – a feature that is still missing for many commercially available polymers unfortunately. Keywords: Food-grade polymers, Basic polymer characterization, Methyl cellulose, kappa-Carrageenan, lambda-Carrageenan

  2. Cytomegalovirus colitis after systemic chemotherapy in a patient with recurrent colon cancer: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teraishi Fuminori

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The occurrence of cytomegalovirus colitis is well known in immunosuppressed patients, such as neoplastic patients following chemotherapy, although its exact etiology remains unclear. Case presentation We present a case of cytomegalovirus colitis occurring in a 77-year-old man with vomiting and diarrhea 2 weeks after initial systemic chemotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and irinotecan for a recurrent colorectal cancer. Initial colonoscopy revealed multiple punched-out ulcers in the transverse colon and the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus was based on positive cytomegalovirus antigen detected by indirect enzyme antibody method, although immunohistological examination of tissues biopsied at colonoscopy was negative. The symptoms ceased under ganciclovir and octreotide treatment, and the patient recovered gradually. Conclusion The most probable cause of the cytomegalovirus colitis in this case was impaired immunity following chemotherapy. Cytomegalovirus infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease in colorectal cancer patients after chemotherapy and, when suspected, the clinician should pursue appropriate diagnostic interventions including colonoscopy.

  3. Ulcerative colitis and neurofibromatosis type 1 with bilateral psoas muscle neurofibromas: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tavakkoli

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • The most common gastrointestinal involvement in  eurofibromatosis is due to tumoral lesions which may  resent with gastrointestinal bleeding or obstruction. We report a case of concurrent ulcerative colitis and  eurofibromatosis.A 39 year-old woman, known case of neurofibromatosis, was admitted to our department with complaint of chronic bloody diarrhea. After thorough clinical examination and paraclinical assessments,  ncluding colonoscopy and biopsy, ulcerative colitis was confirmed as the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Another rare finding in this patient was bilateral neurofibroma in psoas muscle that was detected on abdominal spiral Computer Tomography scan.
    • KEYWORDS: Ulcerative Colitis, Neurofibromatosis, Von Recklinghausen’s Disease, Mast Cells, Bilateral   urofibroma, Psoas Muscle.

  4. Fidaxomicin in the treatment of colitis due to Clostridium difficile: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cortese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI and Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea (CDAD is increasing in Canada, USA, and Europe and represents a considerable clinical problem. Both naïve and hypervirulent strains can be considered as opportunistic bacteria affecting immunocompromised, antibiotic-treated, critical, or subcritical patients with a microbiota disruption. CDI arising is strictly related to antibiotic, single or combined, and/or proton pump inhibitor treatment. CDI can cause a syndrome with systemic involvement and complex treatment, sometimes requiring surgical interventions (e.g. colectomy in fulminant colitis. Antibiotic treatment with metronidazole by mouth is the first choice and generally vancomycin is administered in case of lack of effectiveness. Fidaxomicin is a new macrocyclic antibiotic for C. difficile with microflora-sparing properties. This paper reports our initial experience in 11 patients with non-responder or relapsing CDIs. Fidaxomicin was effective in 10 cases (91%. Only one patient with an active ulcerative colitis did not respond and was treated with fecal-microbiota transplantation. In two patients diarrhea persisted, but just the ulcerative colitis one was C. difficile-related. No adverse events were experienced.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/cmi.v8i1s.956

  5. Efficacy Study of Carrageenan as an Alternative Infused Material (Filler in Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate Porous 3D Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Syamimi Che Johari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric porous 3D scaffold plays an important role in culturing mammalian cells as ex vivo model. However, the scaffold used is ineffective due to its structural and cell acceptability weaknesses. Therefore, this research attempts to overcome the weaknesses by using carrageenan from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii as an alternative infused material (filler of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV porous 3D scaffold. The 3D scaffold was conventionally fabricated using the solvent-casting particulate-leaching (SCPL method. Carrageenan was later infused into 3D porous scaffolds under vacuum pressure and freeze-drying process. Five carrageenan concentrations were prepared and its physicochemical properties such as pH and viscosity were carried out on each concentration to determine the best solutions to produce a new composite 3D structure. The preliminary result shows that carrageenan concentrations of 2, 4, and 6% (w/v were considered the best solutions for the infusion process due to its stable rheology properties. The pH and viscosity profiles of three selected carrageenan solutions were exhibited in the range of 9.00–9.20 and 0.047–1.144 Pa·s, respectively. Moreover, the incorporated carrageenan gel fraction was in the range of 4.30% to 14.95% (w/w which was determined by gravimetric analysis and dye staining method (visual assessment. The well-infused carrageenan 3D scaffold was further characterized based on its internal morphology and degradability study. The vertical cross-sections of the scaffolds revealed homogeneous accumulation of dried gelatinous carrageenan which was covered throughout its pores wall. The degradation rate (K of the carrageenan infused 3D scaffold was between 0.01±1.66 (mg/day and 0.03±3.23 (mg/day. The higher the carrageenan concentration used, the faster the degradation rate occurring (p2 weeks. In conclusion, the usage of carrageenan as a composite material exhibits its great potential to be

  6. Pouch Volvulus in Patients Having Undergone Restorative Proctocolectomy for Ulcerative Colitis: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landisch, Rachel M; Knechtges, Paul M; Otterson, Mary F; Ludwig, Kirk A; Ridolfi, Timothy J

    2018-04-16

    Restorative proctocolectomy with IPAA improves quality of life in patients with medically refractory ulcerative colitis. Although bowel obstruction is common, pouch volvulus is rare and described only in case reports. Diagnosis can be challenging, resulting in delayed care and heightened morbidity. The purpose of this study was to delineate the symptoms and successful management strategies used in patients with IPAA volvulus that result in pouch salvage. This study was a case series. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral center for ulcerative colitis in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Patients included those with volvulus of the IPAA. Over the study period (2010-2015), 6 patients were diagnosed with IPAA volvulus. The primary outcomes were symptom manifestation, diagnostic practices, and treatment of pouch volvulus. Six patients with ulcerative colitis were identified with pouch volvulus. The majority (n = 4) underwent a laparoscopic pouch creation and had early symptom manifestation after surgery. Complications preceding volvulus included pouch ulceration (n = 5) and pouchitis (n = 4). The most common presenting symptoms of volvulus were abdominal pain (n = 4) and obstipation (n = 4). Multiple imaging modalities were used, but volvulus was most frequently identified by CT scan. Management was primarily operative (n = 5), composed of excision of the pouch (n = 3), pouch-pexy (n = 1), and detorsion with defect closure (n = 1). Both operative and nonoperative treatment with endoscopic detorsion resulted in low morbidity and improved patient symptoms. This single-institution study is limited by its retrospective design and small number of patients. IPAA volvulus is a rare and challenging cause of bowel obstruction in ulcerative colitis. Heralding signs and symptoms, such as pouch ulceration and acute obstipation, should initiate a workup for a twisting pouch. Diagnosis, which is multimodal, must occur early to avert necrosis and allow for preservation of a well

  7. Microbiome-mediated neutrophil recruitment via CXCR2 and protection from amebic colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Watanabe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The disease severity of Entamoeba histolytica infection ranges from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Recent human and animal data implicate the gut microbiome as a modifier of E. histolytica virulence. Here we have explored the association of the microbiome with susceptibility to amebiasis in infants and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Dysbiosis occurred symptomatic E. histolytica infection in children, as evidenced by a lower Shannon diversity index of the gut microbiota. To test if dysbiosis was a cause of susceptibility, wild type C57BL/6 mice (which are innately resistant to E. histiolytica infection were treated with antibiotics prior to cecal challenge with E. histolytica. Compared with untreated mice, antibiotic pre-treated mice had more severe colitis and delayed clearance of E. histolytica. Gut IL-25 and mucus protein Muc2, both shown to provide innate immunity in the mouse model of amebic colitis, were lower in antibiotic pre-treated mice. Moreover, dysbiotic mice had fewer cecal neutrophils and myeloperoxidase activity. Paradoxically, the neutrophil chemoattractant chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, as well as IL-1β, were higher in the colon of mice with antibiotic-induced dysbiosis. Neutrophils from antibiotic pre-treated mice had diminished surface expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR2, potentially explaining their inability to migrate to the site of infection. Blockade of CXCR2 increased susceptibility of control non-antibiotic treated mice to amebiasis. In conclusion, dysbiosis increased the severity of amebic colitis due to decreased neutrophil recruitment to the gut, which was due in part to decreased surface expression on neutrophils of CXCR2.

  8. Medicinal lavender modulates the enteric microbiota to protect against Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J; Brown, K; Rajendiran, E; Yip, A; DeCoffe, D; Dai, C; Molcan, E; Chittick, S A; Ghosh, S; Mahmoud, S; Gibson, D L

    2012-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease, inclusive of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, consists of immunologically mediated disorders involving the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract. Lavender oil is a traditional medicine used to relieve many gastrointestinal disorders. The goal of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of the essential oil obtained from a novel lavender cultivar, Lavandula×intermedia cultivar Okanagan lavender (OLEO), in a mouse model of acute colitis caused by Citrobacter rodentium. In colitic mice, oral gavage with OLEO resulted in less severe disease, including decreased morbidity and mortality, reduced intestinal tissue damage, and decreased infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, with reduced levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-22, macrophage inflammatory protein-2α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. This was associated with increased levels of regulatory T cell populations compared with untreated colitic mice. Recently, we demonstrated that the composition of the enteric microbiota affects susceptibility to C. rodentium-induced colitis. Here, we found that oral administration of OLEO induced microbiota enriched with members of the phylum Firmicutes, including segmented filamentous bacteria, which are known to protect against the damaging effects of C. rodentium. Additionally, during infection, OLEO treatment promoted the maintenance of microbiota loads, with specific increases in Firmicutes bacteria and decreases in γ-Proteobacteria. We observed that Firmicutes bacteria were intimately associated with the apical region of the intestinal epithelial cells during infection, suggesting that their protective effect was through contact with the gut wall. Finally, we show that OLEO inhibited C. rodentium growth and adherence to Caco-2 cells, primarily through the activities of 1,8-cineole and borneol. These results indicate that while OLEO promoted Firmicutes populations, it also controlled pathogen load through

  9. Maintenance treatment with azathioprine in ulcerative colitis: outcome and predictive factors after drug withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinotti, Andrea; Actis, Giovanni C; Duca, Piergiorgio; Massari, Alessandro; Colombo, Elisabetta; Gai, Elisa; Annese, Vito; D'Albasio, Giuseppe; Manes, Gianpiero; Travis, Simon; Porro, Gabriele Bianchi; Ardizzone, Sandro

    2009-11-01

    Whether the duration of maintenance treatment with azathioprine (AZA) affects the outcome of ulcerative colitis (UC) is unclear. We investigated clinical outcomes and any predictive factors after withdrawal of AZA in UC. In this multicenter observational retrospective study, 127 Italian UC patients, who were in steroid-free remission at the time of withdrawal of AZA, were followed-up for a median of 55 months or until relapse. The frequency of clinical relapse or colectomy after AZA withdrawal was analyzed according to demographic, clinical, and endoscopic variables. After drug withdrawal, a third of the patients relapsed within 12 months, half within 2 years and two-thirds within 5 years. After multivariable analysis, predictors of relapse after drug withdrawal were lack of sustained remission during AZA maintenance (hazard ratio, HR 2.350, confidence interval, CI 95% 1.434-3.852; P=0.001), extensive colitis (HR 1.793, CI 95% 1.064-3.023, P=0.028 vs. left-sided colitis; HR 2.024, CI 95% 1.103-3.717, P=0.023 vs. distal colitis), and treatment duration, with short treatments (3-6 months) more disadvantaged than >48-month treatments (HR 2.783, CI 95% 1.267-6.114, P=0.008). Concomitant aminosalicylates were the only predictors of sustained remission during AZA therapy (P=0.009). The overall colectomy rate was 10%. Predictors of colectomy were drug-related toxicity as the cause of AZA withdrawal (P=0.041), no post-AZA drug therapy (P=0.031), and treatment duration (P<0.0005). Discontinuation of AZA while UC is in remission is associated with a high relapse rate. Disease extent, lack of sustained remission during AZA, and discontinuation due to toxicity could stratify relapse risk. Concomitant aminosalicylates were advantageous. Prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm whether treatment duration is inversely associated with outcome.

  10. Impact of probiotics on colonic microflora in patients with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, B. S.; Ahmed, J.; Macfie, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Probiotics colonise the gut and may exert beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to assess if probiotics change the spectrum of colonic microflora in patients with colitis when taken daily for a period of one month Methods: This is a prospective double blind randomised crossover...... of study. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (T-RFLP) and principal component analysis (PCA) on the bacterial community were used to study the faecal mircoflora. Results: Sixteen patients completed the study, 8 had Crohn’s disease and 8 had ulcerative colitis. Median age was 62...... in patients with colitis. This observation might have clinical implications....

  11. Budesonide-Related Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome in Microscopic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Kartikeya; Dunzendorfer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Budesonide is the treatment of choice for microscopic colitis because of its excellent risk to benefit ratio. It is a potent, well-absorbed corticosteroid, but because of a high rate of first-pass metabolism in the liver, its systemic bioavailability is low. It has fewer corticosteroid-related adverse effects than prednisone, and adrenal suppression is considered to be rare. We present a middle-aged woman with lymphocytic colitis whose symptoms responded to budesonide but developed budesonide-related iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. Withdrawal of budesonide led to restoration of normal pituitary-adrenal responsiveness but at the price of recurrent diarrhea due to re-emergence of lymphocytic colitis.

  12. Gamma radiation effects on the viscosity of carrageenan, agarans and alginates to be used as food additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    1999-01-01

    Carrageenan, agarans and alginates are phycocolloids, which change the consistence of the foodstuff and prevent undesirable changes such as moisture migration or textural profile changes. These phycocolloids are additives used in large scale for all kind of food products. They are not absorbed for the human organism and do not introduce extra calories in the diet. The process of irradiation, is an alternative method of great potential, because do not increase the temperature and it is highly in the decontamination of food ingredients. In this work, agar alginates and carrageenan were irradiated as powder with different doses (0-10kGy) of Co-60 and the rheological functional performance of water solutions of the irradiated additives was studied. The results are analyzed taking in account the future applications of those additives in irradiated foods. The viscosity of these hydrocolloids shows a decrease when submitted to an irradiation with doses until 10 kGy. (author)

  13. Use of antioxidants substances to protect the hydrocolloids carrageenan, agaran and alginates used in food industry when exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliste, Antonio Joao

    2006-01-01

    Carrageenan, agaran e alginates are hydrocolloids largely employed in every kind of food products as stabilizing agent and viscosity builder. The human body does not absorb them, so they do not introduce extra calories in the diet. Irradiation is presented as an important alternative method in food preservation because do not induce temperature increase being of good efficiency in cold food ingredients decontamination. In this work aqueous solutions of carrageenan, agar e sodium alginate were gamma irradiated (0-10 kGy) in presence of ascorbic acid, roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract and soy isoflavone. Edible polysaccharide solutions showed to be suitable systems for the evaluation of ionizing radiation effects as they presented a singular radiosensitivity through viscosity changes. The results obtained showed that in general the antioxidants employed had a radioprotective action that can be of importance in the future commercial applications of food irradiation. (author)

  14. Cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist ameliorates colitis in IL-10{sup −/−} mice by attenuating the activation of T cells and promoting their apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Udai P.; Singh, Narendra P. [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Singh, Balwan [National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta GA 30329 (United States); Price, Robert L. [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Nagarkatti, Mitzi [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Nagarkatti, Prakash S., E-mail: Prakash.Nagarkatti@uscmed.sc.edu [Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammation caused by hyperactivated effector immune cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have shown that the cannabinoid system may play a critical role in mediating protection against intestinal inflammation. However, the effect of cannabinoid receptor induction after chronic colitis progression has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the effect of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonist, JWH-133, after chronic colitis in IL-10{sup −/−} mice. JWH-133 effectively attenuated the overall clinical score, and reversed colitis-associated pathogenesis and decrease in body weight in IL-10{sup −/−} mice. After JWH-133 treatment, the percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells, neutrophils, mast cells, natural killer (NK1.1) cells, and activated T cells declined in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of mice with chronic colitis. JWH-133 was also effective in ameliorating dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. In this model, JWH-133 reduced the number and percentage of macrophages and IFN-γ expressing cells that were induced during colitis progression. Treatment with aminoalkylindole 6-iodo-pravadoline (AM630), a CB2 receptor antagonist, reversed the colitis protection provided by JWH-133 treatment. Also, activated T cells were found to undergo apoptosis following JWH-133 treatment both in-vivo and in-vitro. These findings suggest that JWH-133 mediates its effect through CB2 receptors, and ameliorates chronic colitis by inducing apoptosis in activated T cells, reducing the numbers of activated T cells, and suppressing induction of mast cells, NK cells, and neutrophils at sites of inflammation in the LP. These results support the idea that the CB2 receptor agonists may serve as a therapeutic modality against IBD. -- Highlights: ► JWH-133, a cannnabinoid receptor-2 agonist ameliorates experimental colitis. ► JWH-133 suppressed inflammation and

  15. Leclercia adecarboxylata Bacteremia in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Kashani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD are a high risk population for bacteremia. Derangement in the mucosal architecture of the gastrointestinal (GI tract and frequent endoscopic interventions in immunocompromised individuals are considered primary causes. Isolation of opportunistic microorganisms from the bloodstream of IBD patients has been increasingly reported in recent years. Leclercia adecarboxylata is a ubiquitous, aerobic, motile, gram-negative bacillus. The human GI tract is known to harbor this rarely pathogenic microorganism. There are only a few case reports of bacteremia with this microorganism; the majority are either polymicrobial or associated with immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of monomicrobial L. adecarboxylata bacteremia in a 43-year-old female who presented with bloody diarrhea. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse colonic mucosal inflammation with numerous ulcers, and histopathology revealed crypt abscesses. Following an episode of rectal bleeding, two sets of blood cultures grew L. adecarboxylata, which was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone. After a complicated hospital course, she was eventually diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and enteropathic arthritis, treated with intravenous methylprednisolone, mesalamine, and infliximab which resulted in resolution of her symptoms. In our previously immunocompetent patient, derangement of the gut mucosal barrier was the likely cause of bacteremia, yet performing endoscopic intervention may have contributed to bacterial translocation.

  16. Leclercia adecarboxylata Bacteremia in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsazan, Morteza; Che, Kendrick; Garrison, Roger C.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are a high risk population for bacteremia. Derangement in the mucosal architecture of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and frequent endoscopic interventions in immunocompromised individuals are considered primary causes. Isolation of opportunistic microorganisms from the bloodstream of IBD patients has been increasingly reported in recent years. Leclercia adecarboxylata is a ubiquitous, aerobic, motile, gram-negative bacillus. The human GI tract is known to harbor this rarely pathogenic microorganism. There are only a few case reports of bacteremia with this microorganism; the majority are either polymicrobial or associated with immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of monomicrobial L. adecarboxylata bacteremia in a 43-year-old female who presented with bloody diarrhea. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse colonic mucosal inflammation with numerous ulcers, and histopathology revealed crypt abscesses. Following an episode of rectal bleeding, two sets of blood cultures grew L. adecarboxylata, which was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone. After a complicated hospital course, she was eventually diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and enteropathic arthritis, treated with intravenous methylprednisolone, mesalamine, and infliximab which resulted in resolution of her symptoms. In our previously immunocompetent patient, derangement of the gut mucosal barrier was the likely cause of bacteremia, yet performing endoscopic intervention may have contributed to bacterial translocation. PMID:25405041

  17. Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia) or Wine Phytochemicals Reduce Intestinal Inflammation in Mice with Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiqi; Kim, Min-Hyun; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gao, Chi; Gu, Liwei

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemical extracts from muscadine grapes or wine on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and to investigate cellular mechanisms. Two groups of C57BL/6J mice were gavaged with muscadine grape phytochemicals (MGP) or muscadine wine phytochemicals (MWP), respectively, for 14 days. Acute colitis was induced by 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. An additional two groups of mice served as healthy and disease controls. Results indicated that MGP or MWP significantly prevented weight loss, reduced disease activity index, and preserved colonic length compared to the colitis group (p ≤ 0.05). MGP or MWP significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity as well as the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in colon (p ≤ 0.05). MGP or MWP caused down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that phytochemicals from muscadine grape or wine mitigate ulcerative colitis via attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and modulation of the NF-κB pathway.

  18. Fecal Transplant for Treatment of Toxic Megacolon Associated With Clostridium Difficile Colitis in a Patient With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shipeng; Abdelkarim, Ahmed; Nawras, Ali; Hinch, Bryan Thomas; Mbaso, Chimaka; Valavoor, Shahul; Safi, Fadi; Hammersley, Jeffrey; Tang, Jianlin; Assaly, Ragheb

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile (C diff) colitis infection is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea and the prevalence is increasing worldwide. Toxic megacolon is a severe complication of C diff colitis associated with high mortality. Gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidity and impaired smooth muscle contraction are risk factors for the development of C diff-associated toxic megacolon. We present a case of fulminant C diff colitis with toxic megacolon in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in the intensive care unit. C diff colitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation and positive C diff DNA amplification test (polymerase chain reaction). The impairment of GI tract due to DMD predisposes these patients to severe C diff infection and toxic megacolon, as observed in this case report. For the same reason, the recovery of GI function in these patients can be prolonged. While surgery was conducted for relieving the pressure from toxic megacolon, fecal microbiota transplantation through colonoscopy resulted in successful resolution of the C diff symptoms, although the recovery is prolonged due to DMD.

  19. The Mutyh base excision repair gene influences the inflammatory response in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis.

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    Ida Casorelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mutyh DNA glycosylase is involved in the repair of oxidized DNA bases. Mutations in the human MUTYH gene are responsible for colorectal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis. Since defective DNA repair genes might contribute to the increased cancer risk associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, we compared the inflammatory response of wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice to oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The severity of colitis, changes in expression of genes involved in DNA repair and inflammation, DNA 8-oxoguanine levels and microsatellite instability were analysed in colon of mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS. The Mutyh(-/- phenotype was associated with a significant accumulation of 8-oxoguanine in colon DNA of treated mice. A single DSS cycle induced severe acute ulcerative colitis in wild-type mice, whereas lesions were modest in Mutyh(-/- mice, and this was associated with moderate variations in the expression of several cytokines. Eight DSS cycles caused chronic colitis in both wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice. Lymphoid hyperplasia and a significant reduction in Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells were observed only in Mutyh(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that, in this model of ulcerative colitis, Mutyh plays a major role in maintaining intestinal integrity by affecting the inflammatory response.

  20. Drug Release Kinetics and Front Movement in Matrix Tablets Containing Diltiazem or Metoprolol/λ-Carrageenan Complexes

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    Ruggero Bettini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the moving boundaries and the associated drug release kinetics in matrix tablets prepared with two complexes between λ-carrageenan and two soluble model drugs, namely, diltiazem HCl and metoprolol tartrate aiming at clarifying the role played by drug/polymer interaction on the water uptake, swelling, drug dissolution, and drug release performance of the matrix. The two studied complexes released the drug with different mechanism indicating two different drug/polymer interaction strengths. The comparison between the drug release behaviour of the complexes and the relevant physical mixtures indicates that diltiazem gave rise to a less soluble and more stable complex with carrageenan than metoprolol. The less stable metoprolol complex afforded an erodible matrix, whereas the stronger interaction between diltiazem and carrageenan resulted in a poorly soluble, slowly dissolving matrix. It was concluded that the different stability of the studied complexes affords two distinct drug delivery systems: in the case of MTP, the dissociation of the complex, as a consequence of the interaction with water, affords a classical soluble matrix type delivery system; in the case of DTZ, the dissolving/diffusing species is the complex itself because of the very strong interaction between the drug and the polymer.

  1. The effect of combination of sugar palm fruit, carrageenan, and citric acid on mechanical properties of biodegradable film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinanda, S. A.; Nastabiq, M.; Raharjo, S. H.; Hayati, S. K.; Yaqin, M. A.; Ratnawati

    2017-11-01

    Biodegradable film is a type of plastic material that can be degraded naturally and is usually made of organic material. The material commonly used is polysaccharides. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of the combination of sugar palm fruit, carrageenan, and citric acid (CA) on the mechanical properties of the biodegradable films, such as tensile strength, elongation and film thickness. The experiment begins with dissolving the sugar palm fruit porridge and carrageenan with ratios of 1:0, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1 in water. The mixture was heated using a heater and magnetic stirrer at 80° C for 10 minutes. Glycerol and citric acid (CA) were added to the solution and stirred for 5 minutes. Each film solution was printed on a modified acrylic and, dried for 18 hours in an oven at 55° C. The formed film layer was then removed from the acrylic mold and inserted in a desiccatorsat 23° C for 1 hour. Then the film analyzed for its tensile strength, elongation using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA), and thickness. The optimum result shown by sugar palm fruit and carrageenan ratio of 1:1 with 1% citric acid (CA).

  2. Stabilization of k-carrageenan gel with polymeric amines: use of immobilized cells as biocatalysts at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, K.C.; Haugen, M.M.; Royer, G.P.

    1986-09-01

    Spherical beads of kappa-carrageenan containing entrapped cells were prepared in a two-step process. First, the beads were formed by dispersing a warm carrageenan cell suspension into stirring oil. After cooling (gelation) the beads were cured by treatment with amines. Ten amines of various sizes and structures were tested. The mechanical strength and the applicability of amine-treated gels as immobilization matrices was evaluated. The results of critical compression tests indicate that linear and branched polyethylenimines (PEI) are both good curing agents. PEI-treated carrageenan beds also exhibited superior resistance to heat and abrasion. Furthermore, PEI polymers were demonstrated to be effective in stabilizing the lactase activity of the free and immobilized Bacillus stearothermophilus cells. The immobilized cell preparations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, B. stearothermophilus, and Flavobacterium sp. were treated with branched PEI and evaluated for the activity of invertase (EC 3.2.1.26), lactase (EC 3.2.1.23), and glucose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.18), respectively, in a packed bed reactor at 60 degrees C. The apparent half-lives were 108, 39, and 64 days, respectively.

  3. Cytomegalovirus colitis in hospitalized inflammatory bowel disease patients in Taiwan: a referral center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Meng-Tzu; Tung, Chien-Chih; Lee, Yi-Shuan; Leong, Yew-Loong; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Shun, Chia-Tung; Wang, Cheng-Yi; Wong, Jau-Min; Wei, Shu-Chen

    2017-02-13

    Colitis is exacerbated in patients with concurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We assessed the prevalence and clinical features of CMV colitis in hospitalized IBD patients. A retrospective study reviewed the data from January 1, 1998 through December 31, 2013 compiled at the National Taiwan University Hospital. The CMV colitis patients' demographic data, clinical information, treatment regimens, pathologic findings, and outcome were analyzed. A total of 673 IBD patients were hospitalized during the study period. There were 312 patients diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD) and 361 with ulcerative colitis (UC). CMV colitis was diagnosed as having positive inclusion bodies in colonic tissue. Six of the 312 CD patients (1.9%) and five of the 361 UC patients (1.4%) were diagnosed with CMV colitis. Compared to CD patients without CMV colitis, patients with CMV colitis were more often older (p colitis flare-ups after the index admission. The prevalence of CMV colitis in hospitalized IBD inpatients was 1.6% in Taiwan. Two associated factors for CMV colitis in hospitalized IBD patients were that they were elderly in CD and were on higher doses of steroids. Routine histopathology studies and/or PCR for refractory colitis patients are suggested to diagnose CMV colitis. Once the diagnosis is made, antiviral treatment is recommended to decrease the colitis relapse rate.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Carbonyl Lesions in Ulcerative Colitis and Associated Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has long been known as a pathogenic factor of ulcerative colitis (UC and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC, but the effects of secondary carbonyl lesions receive less emphasis. In inflammatory conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS, such as superoxide anion free radical (O2∙-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and hydroxyl radical (HO∙, are produced at high levels and accumulated to cause oxidative stress (OS. In oxidative status, accumulated ROS can cause protein dysfunction and DNA damage, leading to gene mutations and cell death. Accumulated ROS could also act as chemical messengers to activate signaling pathways, such as NF-κB and p38 MAPK, to affect cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. More importantly, electrophilic carbonyl compounds produced by lipid peroxidation may function as secondary pathogenic factors, causing further protein and membrane lesions. This may in turn exaggerate oxidative stress, forming a vicious cycle. Electrophilic carbonyls could also cause DNA mutations and breaks, driving malignant progression of UC. The secondary lesions caused by carbonyl compounds may be exceptionally important in the case of host carbonyl defensive system deficit, such as aldo-keto reductase 1B10 deficiency. This review article updates the current understanding of oxidative stress and carbonyl lesions in the development and progression of UC and CAC.

  5. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma complicating ulcerative colitis with primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, J A; Kelly, P; Chapman, R W; Jewell, D P

    1989-01-01

    This case report describes the previously undocumented association between fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma and ulcerative colitis complicated by primary sclerosing cholangitis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:2539311

  6. Dipeptidyl peptidase expression during experimental colitis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazbeck, Roger; Sulda, Melanie L; Howarth, Gordon S

    2010-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase (DP) activity partially attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in mice. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms of this protection....

  7. Extraintestinal manifestations in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isene, Rune; Bernklev, Tomm; Høie, Ole

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]), symptoms from outside the gastrointestinal tract are frequently seen, and the joints, skin, eyes, and hepatobiliary area are the most usually affected sites (called extraintestinal...

  8. Clostridium difficile Infection Worsens the Prognosis of Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Negrón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of Clostridium difficile infections among ulcerative colitis (UC patients is well characterized. However, there is little knowledge regarding the association between C difficile infections and postoperative complications among UC patients.

  9. Budesonide for ulcerative colitis Budesonida en el tratamiento de la colitis ulcerosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Marín-Jiménez

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we examined studies published on oral and topical formulations of budesonide (Entocort® and Budenofalk®, in Spain: Entocord® and Intestifalk® for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. This glycocorticosteroid has a potent local action and an important first-pass liver metabolism. It has proven successful over the last years as a controlled-release formulation. It obtained results similar to prednisolone, without the latter's significant suppression of plasma cortisol. Many publications exist on the effects of oral budesonide for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD. These have led to the registration of this drug for the treatment of CD. Studies on oral formulations of budesonide for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC are scarce. After reviewing published evidence, we suggest the conduction of controlled trials for the treatment of UC to obtain evidence-based efficacy and safety results in order to benefit patients with this form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD.En esta revisión repasamos los estudios publicados hasta la fecha con las formulaciones orales y las preparaciones tópicas rectales de budesonida (Entocort® y Budenofalk®, en España Entocord® e Intestifalk® para el tratamiento de la colitis ulcerosa. Este glucocorticosteroide de una elevada acción tópica y un importante metabolismo de primer paso hepático se ha utilizado en los últimos años como una formulación de liberación controlada, proporcionando resultados similares a la prednisolona pero sin suprimir de forma apreciable los niveles de cortisol plasmático. Aunque se han publicado muchos estudios sobre los efectos de la budesonida oral para el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Crohn, los estudios sobre esta misma forma galénica de administración de budesonida para el tratamiento de los pacientes con colitis ulcerosa son escasos. Después de revisar los trabajos publicados al respecto, se sugiere la necesidad de realizar un estudio controlado

  10. Protein-Losing Enteropathy in Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Ungaro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE is a debilitating potential complication of ulcerative colitis (UC. We report a case of PLE in a 26-year-old male patient with UC. The patient lost 50 pounds in the setting of a UC flare and was found to have an albumin level of 1.2 g/dl. Although the patient’s UC was clinically controlled with steroids, the weight loss and hypoalbuminemia persisted with the patient’s course complicated by development of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The diagnosis of PLE was confirmed with measurement of stool alpha-1-antitrypsin clearance. The patient’s condition significantly improved following procto-colectomy.

  11. Xanthogranulomatous Colitis masquerading as carcinoma of colon

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    Akhil Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogranulomatous inflammation (XGI is an uncommon pathological diagnosis involving various organ systems, the most common being the gall bladder and kidney. It can masquerade as a malignant mass thus, requiring a clinical suspicion for accurate and timely diagnosis. A 65-year-old woman presented with acute onset of obstipation and vomiting suggesting acute obstruction. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen revealed a solid irregular mass in the ascending colon with large necrotic areas and surrounding enlarged nodes suggestive of malignancy arising from right colon. Right hemi-colectomy was performed. Histopathology of the surgical specimen showed florid inflammatory infiltrate with collection of histiocytes, lymphocytes and polymorphs. Further immunohistochemistry was conducted, and CD68 and CD45 were found to be positive and pan-cytokeratin was negative. A clinico-pathological diagnosis was thus established to be xanthogranulomatous colitis.

  12. Air drying modelling of Mastocarpus stellatus seaweed a source of hybrid carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arufe, Santiago; Torres, Maria D.; Chenlo, Francisco; Moreira, Ramon

    2018-01-01

    Water sorption isotherms from 5 up to 65 °C and air drying kinetics at 35, 45 and 55 °C of Mastocarpus stellatus seaweed were determined. Experimental sorption data were modelled using BET and Oswin models. A four-parameter model, based on Oswin model, was proposed to estimate equilibrium moisture content as function of water activity and temperature simultaneously. Drying experiments showed that water removal rate increased significantly with temperature from 35 to 45 °C, but at higher temperatures drying rate remained constant. Some chemical modifications of the hybrid carrageenans present in the seaweed can be responsible of this unexpected thermal trend. Experimental drying data were modelled using two-parameter Page model (n, k). Page parameter n was constant (1.31 ± 0.10) at tested temperatures, but k varied significantly with drying temperature (from 18.5 ± 0.2 10-3 min-n at 35 °C up to 28.4 ± 0.8 10-3 min-n at 45 and 55 °C). Drying experiments allowed the determination of the critical moisture content of seaweed (0.87 ± 0.06 kg water (kg d.b.)-1). A diffusional model considering slab geometry was employed to determine the effective diffusion coefficient of water during the falling rate period at different temperatures.

  13. Producing novel edible films from semi refined carrageenan (SRC) and ulvan polysaccharides for potential food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Abirami R; Shanmugam, M; Bhat, Rajeev

    2018-02-15

    Edible films were developed from seaweed polysaccharides (Kappaphycus alvarezii and Ulva fasciata). The total extracted yield of semi refined carrageenan (SRC) and ulvan polysaccharide was 31.55%, and 28.86%, with total carbohydrate being 78.08% and 82.43% in SRC and ulvan polysaccharides. Results of viscometric studies revealed molecular weight to be 210 kDa and 72 kDa for SRC and ulvan polysaccharides. Proton NMR studies showed presence of anhydro-d-galactopyranose and glucosidic linkages in SRC, while ulvan polysaccharide had rhamnose-3-sulfate, glucosyl and β-d-glucuronic acid. Three different films developed from SRC and ulvan polysaccharides [SRC, ulvan polysaccharide and combination of SRC and ulvan polysaccharide films] with glycerol. FT-IR spectra confirmed functional group of all the edible films which corresponds with NMR results. Water vapor permeability of films indicated a range of 7.82 to 9.96 × 10-8 gm -1  s -1  Pa -1 with high tensile strength varying between 36.78 and 49.12 MPa. Results on antioxidant activity indicated a strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity detected in ulvan polysaccharide based film, while metal ion chelating activity was higher in films with a combination of SRC and ulvan polysaccharides. Further, low molecular weight films had better antioxidant activity, while high molecular weight films possessed good mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Controlled drug release from cross-linked κ-carrageenan/hyaluronic acid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aassar, M R; El Fawal, G F; Kamoun, Elbadawy A; Fouda, Moustafa M G

    2015-01-01

    In this work, hydrogel membrane composed of; kappa carrageenan (κC) and hyaluronic acid (HA) crosslinked with epichlorohydrine is produced. The optimum condition has been established based on their water absorption properties. Tensile strength (TS) and elongation (E%) for the formed films are evaluated. The obtained films were characterized by FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal analysis. All membranes were loaded with l-carnosine as a drug model. The swelling properties and kinetics of the release of the model drug from the crosslinked hydrogel membrane were monitored in buffer medium at 37°C. The equilibrium swelling of films showed fair dependency on the high presence of HA in the hydrogel. Moreover, the cumulative release profile increased significantly and ranged from 28% to 93%, as HA increases. SEM explored that, the porosity increased by increasing HA content; consequently, drug release into the pores and channels of the membranes is facilitated. In addition, water uptake % increased as well. A slight change in TS occurred by increasing the HA% to κC, while the highest value of strain for κC membrane was 498.38% by using 3% HA. The thermal stability of the κC/HA was higher than that of HA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sodium Valproate on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Rat

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    mj Khoshnood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABESTRACT: Introduction & objective: Inflammation is a body defensive response to the endogenous and exogenous stimulators such as chemical, radiation, trauma and invasive microorganism, which result pain and tissue necrosis. There are many natural and synthetic drugs for treatment of inflammation and lot of them are under investigation. Sodium valporate is an antiepileptic drug used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizure notably absence, myocolonic seizure, acute manic phase of bipolar disorder and prophylaxis of migraine. The previous observations showed sodium valporate increases level of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the central and peripheral nervous system. In acute inflammation, GABA showed a significant attenuation of paw edema and nociception. The aim of this study was evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of sodium valporate. Materials & Methods: In order to evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiexudative of sodium valporate doses of 200,400 and 600 mg/kg were investigated on rat paw edema that induced by carrageenan. In addition, the plasma leakage in the inflamed tissue was evaluated by application of trypan blue as intravenous injection. Dexamethason was used as positive control. Results: Results showed sodium valporate doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg decreased inflammatory and exudative effect as compared to control group. Conclusion: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of this drug were not evident but we can say sodium valporate in addition to already proved effects has anti-inflammatory effect.

  16. Gelam Honey Attenuates Carrageenan-Induced Rat Paw Inflammation via NF-κB Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Saba Zuhair; Mohd Yusoff, Kamaruddin; Makpol, Suzana; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum

    2013-01-01

    The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Gelam honey in inflammation induced rats via NF-κB signalling pathway. Rats paw edema was induced by subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the right hind paw. Rats were pre-treated with Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o.) and NSAID Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.), in two time points (1 and 7 days). Our results showed that Gelam honey at both concentrations suppressed the gene expressions of NF-κB (p65 & p50) and IκBα in inflamed rats paw tissues. In addition, Gelam honey inhibited the nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB and decreased the cytosolic degradation of IκBα dose dependently in inflamed rats paw tissues. The immunohistochemical expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were also decreased in inflamed rats paw tissues when treated with Gelam honey. The results of our findings suggest that Gelam honey exhibits its inhibitory effects by attenuating NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and inhibiting IκBα degradation, with subsequent decrease of inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α. PMID:24015236

  17. k-Carrageenan/poly vinyl pyrollidone/polyethylene glycol/silver nanoparticles film for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Moustafa M G; El-Aassar, M R; El Fawal, G F; Hafez, Elsayed E; Masry, Saad Hamdy Daif; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Biopolymer composite film containing k-carrageenan (KC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was formulated by dissolving KC and PVP in water containing PEG. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), was produced by Honeybee and added to solution. Finally, all solutions were poured onto dishes and dried overnight at 40°C to form the final films. Tensile strength (TS) and elongation (E %) is evaluated. The water contact angle is inspected. Thermal properties (TGA) and swelling behavior for water were considered. Fungal activity is also examined. Morphology of all films was also explored using scanning electron microscope. AgNPs induced significant hydrophilicity to KC-PVP-PEG film with contact angle of 41.6 and 34.7 for KC-PVP-PEG-AgNPs. Films with AgNPs exhibited higher thermal stability and strength properties than other films without. Films with AgNPs explore lower swelling behavior than other films without. Both SEM and EDX proved the deposition of AgNPs on the surface of films. Films with AgNPs showed higher activity against pathogenic fungi compared with the chemical fungicide; fluconazole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. κ-Carrageenan Enhances the Biomineralization and Osteogenic Differentiation of Electrospun Polyhydroxybutyrate and Polyhydroxybutyrate Valerate Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonoo, Nowsheen; Khanbabaee, Behnam; Steuber, Marc; Bhaw-Luximon, Archana; Jonas, Ulrich; Pietsch, Ullrich; Jhurry, Dhanjay; Schönherr, Holger

    2017-05-08

    Novel electrospun materials for bone tissue engineering were obtained by blending biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) or polyhydroxybutyrate valerate (PHBV) with the anionic sulfated polysaccharide κ-carrageenan (κ-CG) in varying ratios. In both systems, the two components phase separated as shown by FTIR, DSC and TGA. According to the contact angle data, κ-CG was localized preferentially at the fiber surface in PHBV/κ-CG blends in contrast to PHB/κ-CG, where the biopolymer was mostly found within the fiber. In contrast to the neat polyester fibers, the blends led to the formation of much smaller apatite crystals (800 nm vs 7 μm). According to the MTT assay, NIH3T3 cells grew in higher density on the blend mats in comparison to neat polyester mats. The osteogenic differentiation potential of the fibers was determined by SaOS-2 cell culture for 2 weeks. Alizarin red-S staining suggested an improved mineralization on the blend fibers. Thus, PHBV/κ-CG fibers resulted in more pronounced bioactive and osteogenic properties, including fast apatite-forming ability and deposition of nanosized apatite crystals.

  19. Synthesis of a biocopolymer carrageenan-g-poly(AAm-co-IA/ montmorilonite superabsorbent hydrogel composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadeghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on kappa-carrageenan (κC has been prepared via graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm and itaconic acid (IA monomers in the presence of montmorolonite clay powder, methylenebisacrylamide (MBA as the crosslinking agent and ammonium persulfate (APS as initiator. Evidence of grafting and montmorolonite interaction was obtained by comparison of FTIR and TGA spectra of the initial substrates and the superabsorbent composite. A new absorption band at 1722 cm-1 in the composite spectrum confirmed montmorolonite-organic polymer linkages. Moreover, the morphology of the samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The swelling of the superabsorbing hydrogels was also examined in solutions with pH values ranging between 1.0 and 13.0. Finally, the swelling behavior of these composite polymers was investigated in various salt solutions. Results indicated that the swelling capacity decreased with an increase in the ionic strength of the swelling medium. This behavior can be attributed to the charge screening effect of monovalent cations, as well as ionic crosslinking for multivalent cations.

  20. Impact of cultivation of Mastocarpus stellatus in IMTA on the seaweeds chemistry and hybrid carrageenan properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Gabriela; Domingues, Bernardo; Abreu, Helena; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Feio, Gabriel; Hilliou, Loic

    2015-02-13

    The biomass yield potential of Mastocarpus stellatus, a commercially attractive carrageenophyte for foods and pharmaceutics, was investigated by cultivating the seaweeds in the nutrient-rich outflow of a commercial fish farm. Results from two consecutive 4 weeks experiments indicate that the cultivation of this seaweed produces a mean biomass of 21 to 40.6 gDW m(-2) day(-1) depending on the time of the experiment. DRIFT and CP-MAS NMR analyses of seaweeds indicate that cultivation during May affected quantitatively the seaweeds chemistry, and thus the chemical and gelling properties of native extracts of kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenan (KI). Overall, algal growth leads to the production of more sulphated KI, the percentage increase varying between 27% and 44% for the two experiments. However, alkali treatment of seaweeds before extraction reduces the variations in gelling properties of KI induced by the algal growth. This study demonstrates the capacity of growing M. stellatus in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system for the sustainable production of high value polysaccharides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocytes by carrageenan-activated macrophage-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, Y.P.; Cudkowicz, G.

    1978-01-01

    In the presence of 100 μg/ml of carrageenans (CAR), B6D2F 1 responder spleen cells failed to generate antiparent or anti-allogeneic cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro, but instead generated suppressor cells. Cultured CAR-treated cells added to mixtures of B6D2F 1 anti-B6 or B6D2F 1 anti-C3H cytotoxic effectors (induced in vitro) and the appropriate 51 Cr-labeled lymphoma targets reduced or abolished cytolysis (measured as 51 Cr release) depending on the ratio of suppressor to effector cells. Cultured spleen cells not exposed to CAR failed to inhibit both types of cytotoxicity. Presuppressor cells were associated with a splenic subpopulation independent of the thymus (i.e., present in spleens of athymic nude mice), were moderately adherent to Sephadex G-10 columns, but were not phagocytic or ''sticky'' to carbonyl iron particles. Activation of such cells by CAR was not prevented by in vitro exposure to 2000 rads of γ-rays before culture, nor facilitated by antigenic stimulation. The matured suppressor cells remained radioresistant and became strongly adherent to Sephadex G-10. The suppressors lacked surface Thy-1 alloantigen detectable by antibody and rabbit complement. Suppressor cell activity was not restricted by the immunologic specificity and major histocompatibility type of effectors

  2. Review for carrageenan-based pharmaceutical biomaterials: favourable physical features versus adverse biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhan, Xiudan; Wan, Jianbo; Wang, Yitao; Wang, Chunming

    2015-05-05

    Carrageenan (CRG) is a family of natural polysaccharides derived from seaweeds and has widely been used as food additives. In the past decade, owing to its attractive physicochemical properties, CRG has been developed into versatile biomaterials vehicles for drug delivery. Nevertheless, studies also emerged to reveal its adverse effects on the biological system. In this review, we critically appraise the latest literature (two thirds since 2008) on the development of CRG-based pharmaceutical vehicles and the perspective of using CRG for broader biomedical applications. We focus on how current strategies exploit the unique gelling mechanisms, strong water absorption and abundant functional groups of the three major CRG varieties. Notably, CRG-based matrices are demonstrated to increase drug loading and drug solubility, enabling release of orally administrated drugs in zero-order or in a significantly prolonged period. Other amazing features, such as pH-sensitivity and adhesive property, of CRG-based formulations are also introduced. Finally, we discuss the adverse influence of CRG on the human body and then suggest some future directions for the development of CRG-based biomaterials for broader applications in biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of Allium hookeri on carrageenan-induced air pouch mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Eun; Park, Kyung-Mok; Lee, Soon-Young; Seo, Ji-Hye; Yoon, In-Soo; Bae, Chun-Sik; Yoo, Jin-Cheol; Bang, Mi-Ae; Cho, Seung-Sik; Park, Dae-Hun

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is a commonly observed immune reaction, and rheumatoid arthritis is a particularly severe inflammatory disease. In this study, we used an air pouch mouse model to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of Allium hookeri, which has both been used as a culinary material and a traditional medicine in south-eastern Asia for many years. Allium hookeri suppressed typical symptoms of inflammation, such as condensation of the air pouch membrane, and inhibited the expression of several inducible proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-13, and TNF-α. In order to determine the molecules modulating the inflammatory effect of carrageenan treatment, the components in Allium hookeri were analyzed by GC-MS, and linoleic acid, which have anti-inflammatory effect, was detected. From the results, we concluded that the anti-inflammatory effect of Allium hookeri might be attributed to linoleic acid, which could be promising candidates for anti-inflammatory drugs that have no adverse effects.

  4. Desulfovibrio bacterial species are increased in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Debate persists regarding the role of Desulfovibrio subspecies in ulcerative colitis. Combined microscopic and molecular techniques enable this issue to be investigated by allowing precise enumeration of specific bacterial species within the colonic mucous gel. The aim of this study was to combine laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine Desulfovibrio copy number in crypt-associated mucous gel in health and in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies were harvested from healthy controls (n = 19) and patients with acute (n = 10) or chronic (n = 10) ulcerative colitis. Crypt-associated mucous gel was obtained by laser capture microdissection throughout the colon. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA and Desulfovibrio copy number\\/mm were obtained by polymerase chain reaction at each locus. Bacterial copy numbers were interrogated for correlation with location and disease activity. Data were evaluated using a combination of ordinary linear methods and linear mixed-effects models to cater for multiple interactions. RESULTS: Desulfovibrio positivity was significantly increased in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis at multiple levels within the colon, and after normalization with total bacterial signal, the relative Desulfovibrio load was increased in acute colitis compared with controls. Desulfovibrio counts did not significantly correlate with age, disease duration, or disease activity but interlevel correlations were found in adjacent colonic segments in the healthy control and chronic ulcerative colitis groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of Desulfovibrio subspecies is increased in ulcerative colitis and the data presented suggest that these bacteria represent an increased percentage of the colonic microbiome in acute ulcerative colitis.

  5. Reactive arthritis induced by recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Marr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile colitis is a common infection that can be difficult to resolve and may result in recurrent infections. Reactive arthritis is a rare presentation of this disease and its treatment is not well differentiated in the literature. We describe a case of reactive arthritis occurring in a patient with a history of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis while currently receiving a taper of oral vancomycin. His arthritis symptoms resolved with corticosteroids and continued treatment with anticlostridial antibiotics.

  6. A case of cytomegalovirus colitis in an immunocompetent host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P P Binny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a common pathogen worldwide. Clinically significant CMV infection is mostly seen in the context of immunosuppression, whether congenital, acquired, or iatrogenic. In the recent past, however, in both adults and children, an increasing number of moderate-to-severe cases of colitis have been described among immunocompetent patients. We describe a rare case of severe CMV colitis in an immunocompetent patient which resolved spontaneously.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of Κ-Carrageenan-chitosan hollow capsules for the encapsulation and controlled release of 5-flourouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Karla Marie C.; Acaso, Glenn Christian P.; Chakraborty, Soma

    2015-01-01

    Polymer multilayer capsules are made by generating a template, coating it with alternating layers of different polymers and removing the template to make it hollow. It is considered a good drug delivery system as the capsules are very versatile and can be adjusted according to the kind of drug delivery system as the capsules are very versatile and can be adjusted according to the kind of drug being encapsulated by just changing the polymers and template used. Κ-Carrageenan and chitosan are polyelectrolytic biocompatible polymers which are widely studied and used for a variety of biomedical applications. Polymer multilayer capsule can be made with these polymers using the layer-by-layer deposition (LbL) method. The strong electrostatic attraction between these two oppositely charged polymers which males the capsules stable and their biocompatibility makes them excellent candidates for drug delivery applications. The drug to be encapsulated in this study is fluorouracil, a widely used drug for the treatment of cancerous tumors with a large variety of side effects which requires controlled and targeted delivery in the patient. The objectives of this study are the following: to synthesize κ-carrageenan-chitosan hollow capsules with 1 layer κ-carrageenan, and 5, 10, and 11 alternating layers of κ-carrageenan and chitosan, to obtain the fluorescence images and microscopy images of the hollow capsules, and to determine the encapsulation and release profile of fluorouracil as a function of time. Hollow capsules with 5 layers of alternating chitosan and κ-carrageenan have been synthesized with polystyrene as the core template, and the polystyrene removed after depositing the polymer layers by washing it with THF. The capsules were then subjected to gamma irradiation at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). It was determined from the UV-Vis spectroscopy of the THF washings that five washings are needed to completely remove the polystyrene core template from

  8. Hypersensitive prostaglandin and thromboxane response to hormones in rabbit colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipser, R.D.; Patterson, J.B.; Kao, H.W.; Hauser, C.J.; Locke, R.

    1985-10-01

    Inflammation of the colon is associated with increased production of prostaglandins (PG) and thromboxanes (Tx), and these eicosanoids may contribute to the inflammatory, secretory, and motility dysfunctions in colitis. To evaluate the potential role of peptide hormones in the enhanced eicosanoid release, colitis was established in rabbits by a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to dinitrochlorobenzene and by an immune-complex-mediated reaction. PG and Tx were identified in the venous effluent of isolated perfused colons by radiochromatography after ( UC)arachidonic acid prelabeling, as well as by bioassay, and then quantitated by immunoassay. The two colitis models were morphologically similar. Basal release of PGE2, PGI2, and TxA2 was two- to threefold greater from colitis tissue than from control tissue. Bradykinin (BK) and angiotensin II (ANG II) increased release of UC-labeled eicosanoids, whereas several gastrointestinal hormones had no effect. In control colons, BK and ANG II increased PGE2 and PGI2 release (by about 2-fold) but did not alter TxA2. In contrast, BK and ANG II markedly exaggerated the release of eicosanoids in colitis. Since BK and possibly ANG II are increased at sites of inflammation, the hypersensitive eicosanoid response to these peptides may augment the eicosanoid-mediated manifestations of colitis.

  9. Enzymatically synthesized glycogen inhibits colitis through decreasing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Takakazu; Yoshioka, Yasukiyo; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Yamashita, Yoko; Shirai, Yasuhito; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2017-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are a group of chronic inflammation conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of the mucosal immune response causes accumulation of oxidative stress, resulting in the induction of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG), which is produced from starch, on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice. Oral administration of ESG suppressed DSS- and TNBS-induced shortening of large intestine in female mice and significant decreased DSS-induced oxidative stress and TNBS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the large intestine. ESG increase in the expression levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor for HO-1 expressed in the large intestine. Furthermore, ESG-induced HO-1 and Nrf2 were expressed mainly in intestinal macrophages. ESG is considered to be metabolized to resistant glycogen (RG) during digestion with α-amylase in vivo. In mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells, RG, but not ESG decreased 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Knockdown of Nrf2 inhibited RG-induced HO-1 expression and negated the decrease in AAPH-induced ROS brought about by RG. RG up-regulated the protein stability of Nrf2 to decrease the formation of Nrf2-Keap1 complexes. RG-induced phosphorylation of Nrf2 at Ser40 was suppressed by ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors. Our data indicate that ESG, digested with α-amylase to RG, suppresses DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis by increasing the expression of HO-1 in the large intestine of mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that RG induces HO-1 expression by promoting phosphorylation of Nrf2 at Ser40 through activation of the ERK1/2 and JNK cascade in macrophages. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Biologics in the management of ulcerative colitis – comparative safety and efficacy of TNF-α antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausel R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Fausel,1 Anita Afzali1,2 1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Inflammatory Bowel Disease Program, UW Medicine – Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Ulcerative colitis can cause debilitating symptoms and complications such as colonic strictures, colonic dysplasia, colorectal cancer, and toxic megacolon or perforation. Goals of treatment in ulcerative colitis include resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms, healing of colonic mucosa, and prevention of disease complications. Our treatment armamentarium has expanded dramatically over the past 10 years, and we now have multiple biologic agents approved for the treatment of moderate-severe disease, in addition to conventional therapies such as 5-aminosalicylates, thiopurines, and corticosteroids. In this review, we will provide a detailed discussion of the three tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α inhibitors currently approved for treatment of ulcerative colitis: infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab. All three agents are effective for inducing and maintaining clinical response and remission in patients with ulcerative colitis, and they have comparable safety profiles. There are no head-to-head trials comparing their efficacy, and the choice of agent is most often based on insurance coverage, route of administration, and patient preference. Combination therapy with an immunomodulator is proven to be more effective than anti-TNF monotherapy, and patients who lose response to an anti-TNF agent should undergo dose intensification in order to regain clinical response. Despite therapeutic optimization, a significant percentage of patients will not achieve clinical remission with anti-TNF agents, and so newer therapies are on the horizon. Keywords: ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab

  11. Food intolerance prevalence in active ulcerative colitis in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinling; Chen, Yuke; Huang, Fangyan; Luo, Qianying; Lv, Hui; Long, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Food intolerance is believed to be a source of frequent medical problems in ulcerative colitis (UC), which closely correlate with patients' dietary pattern. Living in an underdeveloped area of China, residents in southwestern region have diverse dietary habits. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of food intolerance in the UC patients in this area and to discuss some of the possible risk factors leading to the condition. Food antibodies in serum of 80 patients with active UC were determined by standard enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). This study examined the risk factors contributing to high titers of food antibodies and the dietary patterns correlating with food intolerance in these demographics. 83.8% of patients (67/80) were found to be seropositive for food intolerance. Patients of female, aged between 20 to 40 and the one who tended to have a high fat diet were tested to be highly seropositive (pintolerance (p>0.05). Active UC patients in southwestern region of China have showed to be high seropositive in food intolerance, particularly in female and young patients. Dietary patterns with high in fat intake seem to have caused high prevalence of seropositivity in food intolerance. Although rice has been taken as staple food and the spicy food has been popular among citizen in this region, these foods have indicated to no effect on food intolerance in this study.

  12. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli induce attaching and effacing lesions and hemorrhagic colitis in human and bovine intestinal xenograft models

    OpenAIRE

    Golan, Lilach; Gonen, Erez; Yagel, Simcha; Rosenshine, Ilan; Shpigel, Nahum Y.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is an important cause of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans worldwide. The two major virulence determinants of EHEC are the Shiga toxins (Stx) and the type III secretion system (T3SS), including the injected effectors. Lack of a good model system hinders the study of EHEC virulence. Here, we investigated whether bovine and human intestinal xenografts in SCID mice can be useful for studying EHEC and...

  13. Diagnostic evaluation of appendiceal orifice inflammation in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Da Qin; Chen, Xing; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Dan Yu; Zhang, Shu Jing; Wang, Zhi Feng; Ma, Rui Jun; Hou, Bo

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic significance of appendiceal orifice inflammation (AOI) in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. We retrospectively examined data from patients with colitis from May 2010 to January 2014 and assigned them to two groups: UC cases and specific colitis cases. First, we clarified the difference in the AOI+ rate between the two groups. Thereafter, imaging findings of all the patients with colitis were re-examined. Features of AOI alone or in combination with proctitis (referred to as "combination features") were considered as the two separate diagnostic criteria for diagnosing UC. By comparing the current diagnoses with the previous diagnoses, evaluation indexes were obtained. A total of 3582 colitis cases (UC cases: 427; specific colitis cases: 3155) were examined. The mean AOI+ rates in UC and specific colitis cases were 26.2% and 0.7%, respectively; a Chi-squared test indicated that the difference between these rates was statistically significant (x2=6.81; pUC, the sensitivity was 26.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 22.3%-30.6%], agreement rate was 90.6%, and specificity was 99.3% (95% CI, 98.9%-99.5%). When the combination features were used to diagnose UC, the sensitivity was 26.2% (95% CI, 22.3%-30.6%), agreement rate was 91.1%, and specificity was 99.9% (95% CI, 99.7%-100%). Combining AOI features and proctitis may lead to a more effective UC diagnosis and enable physicians to identify this condition more promptly among miscellaneous diseases.

  14. Mesalazine-probiotics beads for acetic acid experimental colitis: formulation and characterization of a promising new therapeutic strategy for ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Neelam; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Pandey, Vikas; Dubey, Nazneen; Bansal, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid ulcerative colitis (UC) is an experimental condition created due to intra-rectal administration of acetic acid which causes inflammation and ulceration in the lining of colon and rectum. In such condition, the colon cannot absorb liquid from the stools, resulting in larger volume of watery stools. Mesalazine is mainly used for the treatment of UC but suffers from the drawback of having poor bioavailability. UC is also characterized by alteration in colonic microflora. The present work was focused on delivering mesalazine along with probiotic, which would facilitate to refurbish customary growth of microflora. Mesalazine and probiotic were encapsulated in pectin beads with an aim to protect the drug from gastric environment and target to colonic region. Pectin beads were prepared, formulation process was optimized for polymer concentration, drug concentration, cross-linking agent concentration. Formulation was characterized for surface morphology, in vitro drug release studies, determination of viable cell count, in vivo ulcer protective studies and stability studies. Average particle diameter of beads was ∼1.44-1.72 mm. Drug entrapment efficiency was found to be optimal (78-79%). A sustained release of drug was observed for 5 h; nearly 60% of drug was released at the end of 10 h. Microbiological studies of probiotic showed best cell viability. In acetic acid induced UC model, Mesalazine-probiotic beads-treated group showed significant (p probiotic loaded beads may serve as a useful colon specific drug delivery system for treatment of colitis.

  15. Loss of n-6 fatty acid induced pediatric obesity protects against acute murine colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary influences may affect microbiome composition and host immune responses, thereby modulating propensity toward inflammatory bowel diseases: Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Dietary n-6 fatty acids have been associated with ulcetative colitis in prospective studies. However, the critical d...

  16. Preparation and characterization of semi-refined kappa carrageenan-based edible film for nano coating application on minimally processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, Godras Jati; Praseptiangga, Danar; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji; Maimuni, Bawani Hindami

    2016-02-01

    Shorter and easier processing of semi-refined kappa carrageenan extracted from Euchema cottonii red seaweed result in cheaper price of the polysaccharide. In this study, edible film was prepared from the semi-refined carrageenan without any salt addition. The effect of the carrageenan concentration (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% w/v) on physical and mechanical properties of the edible film was studied. Edible film thickness and tensile strength increased but elongation at break and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) decreased as the concentration increased. Based on the characteristic of the edible film, formulation using 2% carrageenan was recommended. The edible film demonstrated the characteristic as follow: 0.054 mm thickness, 21.14 MPa tensile strength, 12.36% elongation at break, and 9.56 g/m2.hour WVTR. It was also noted the carrageenan-based edible film indicated potential physical and mechanical characteristics for nano coating applications on minimally processed food.

  17. Evaluation of the protective effect of pentoxifylline on carrageenan-induced chronic non-bacterial prostatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajighorbani, Mahboobeh; Ahmadi-Hamedani, Mahmood; Shahab, Elaheh; Hayati, Farzad; Kafshdoozan, Khatereh; Keramati, Keivan; Amini, Amin Hossein

    2017-06-01

    Chronic non-bacterial prostatitis (CNP) is the most common type of prostatitis and oxidative stress (OS) was shown to be highly elevated in prostatitis patients. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on CNP induced by carrageenan in rats. Male adult Wistar rats (n = 30) were divided into control, CNP and three treatment groups (n = 6) including CNP + cernilton and CNP + PTX groups. CNP was induced by single intraprostatic injection of 1% carrageenan (100 µl). Rats in treatment groups received orally cernilton 100 mg/kg and PTX at 50 and 100 mg/kg 1 week after CNP induction for 21 days. Prostatic index (PI), prostatic specific antigen (PSA), tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), serum lipid peroxidation (MDA), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and histopathological changes were compared between groups. There were significant increase of PI, serum levels of PSA, TNF-α and MDA in CNP group at 29 day. In treatment groups, significant reduction in PI, serum levels of PSA, TNF-α, MDA and creatinine was observed especially in rats treated with dose of 50 mg/kg of PTX. In CNP group, histopathological changes of the prostate such as leucocyte infiltration, large involutions and projection into the lumen and reducing the volume of the lumen were observed as well. Whereas PTX, especially at dose of 50 mg/kg, could improve the above-mentioned changes remarkably in CNP treated rats. For the first time, our findings indicated that PTX improved CNP induced by carrageenan in rats.

  18. Initial experience with golimumab in clinical practice for ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Castro-Laria

    Full Text Available Background: Golimumab is a TNF-blocking agent indicated as a second-line therapy in ulcerative colitis. Purpose: To research the effectiveness and safety of golimumab in patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical practice. Methods: Retrospective study of the effectiveness and safety of golimumab in patients with ulcerative colitis. All patients received golimumab 200 mg subcutaneously at week 0, and golimumab 100 mg subcutaneously at week 2. After the induction treatment, each patient received 50 mg sc. every 4 weeks in patients with body weight less than 80 kg, and 100 mg every 4 weeks in patients with body weight greater than or equal to 80 kg. Results: Study of a group of 23 ulcerative colitis patients, 7 of whom were naive to any anti-TNF therapy, and 16 patients who had previously been treated with an anti-TNF agent other than golimumab (non-naive patients. The average treatment time with golimumab was 14.3 weeks. Globally, withdrawal of corticosteroids was observed in 74% of cases. Clinical response was observed in 85.5% of patients who had not received biological treatment previously, and in patients who had previously received biological treatment the response rate was 75%. Conclusions: In this short study, golimumab seems to be an alternative treatment in naive and non-naive anti-TNF ulcerative colitis patients. It is also a safe therapy, given that there were no adverse effects in the patients studied.

  19. Computed tomography of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, H.M.; Wein, B.; Adam, G.; Ruppert, D.; Guenther, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    We analysed the CT examinations of 109 patients with 197 involved bowel locations. 81 patients suffered from Crohn's disease, 28 from ulcerative colitis. Diagnosis was based on the combination of clinical, endoscopic and histopathologic findings. Three radiologists evaluated the CT series concerning the presence of morphologic changes analogous to conventional radiographic findings. In Crohn's disease, we found irregular outer contours in 26% of cases. The bowel wall was thickened in 82%. In acute phases, the bowel wall was thickened in 100%. Abscess and fistula as complications of inflammatory disease were present in 26 and 14% respectively. In ulcerative colitis, a target sign of the bowel wall was present in 40%, whereas in Crohn's disease a homogeneous wall density was present in all but two cases. Reduced attenuation due to submucosal fat deposits was found in 16% and mucosal tunneling in 27% of cases with ulcerative colitis. Even if severe mucosal destructions were found, the outer contour of the gut was smooth and regular in 95% of the ulcerative colitis cases. CT can provide additional information on acuity, extent and complications in inflammatory bowel disease. In combination with conventional radiographic findings a three-step classification for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (early changes, acute and chronic phase) can be proposed. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Pseudomembranous colitis: CT findings in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blickman, J.G.; Boland, G.W.L.; Cleveland, R.H.; Bramson, R.T.; Lee, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrum of nodular haustral thickening and an 'accordion' pattern have been reported as specific features of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) in adults. A retrospective review of nine patients with PMC was performed to assess whether this spectrum of CT findings also occurred in children. In four girls and five boys, CT scans were performed within 3 days of a positive stool toxin assay for Clostridium difficile. Documented CT abnormalities included nodular haustral thickening, the 'accordion' pattern, colonic wall thickening, ascites, and pericolonic edema. These results were then correlated as to their impact on the clinical outcome. Circumferential colon wall thickening was identified in 7/9 (78%) patients (mean thickening 14.5 mm). Nodular haustral thickening was identified in 4/9 (44%) and the 'accordion' pattern in 2/9 (22%). Other findings included pericolonic edema in 3/9 (33%) and ascites in 1/9 (11%). Wall thickening was confined to the left colon and rectum in 2/9 (22%), to the right colon in 2/9 (22%), and involved the whole colon in 3/9 (33%). Although CT findings associated with PMC in children may be suggestive for this diagnosis, CT is less specific than laboratory and clinical findings. (orig.)

  1. Pseudomembranous colitis: CT findings in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Boland, G.W.L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Cleveland, R.H. [The Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bramson, R.T. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Lee, M.J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A spectrum of nodular haustral thickening and an `accordion` pattern have been reported as specific features of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) in adults. A retrospective review of nine patients with PMC was performed to assess whether this spectrum of CT findings also occurred in children. In four girls and five boys, CT scans were performed within 3 days of a positive stool toxin assay for Clostridium difficile. Documented CT abnormalities included nodular haustral thickening, the `accordion` pattern, colonic wall thickening, ascites, and pericolonic edema. These results were then correlated as to their impact on the clinical outcome. Circumferential colon wall thickening was identified in 7/9 (78%) patients (mean thickening 14.5 mm). Nodular haustral thickening was identified in 4/9 (44%) and the `accordion` pattern in 2/9 (22%). Other findings included pericolonic edema in 3/9 (33%) and ascites in 1/9 (11%). Wall thickening was confined to the left colon and rectum in 2/9 (22%), to the right colon in 2/9 (22%), and involved the whole colon in 3/9 (33%). Although CT findings associated with PMC in children may be suggestive for this diagnosis, CT is less specific than laboratory and clinical findings. (orig.)

  2. Ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    The association between ulcerative colitis (UC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been acknowledged. One of the most serious and life threatening consequences of UC is the development of CRC (UC-CRC). UC-CRC patients are younger, more frequently have multiple cancerous lesions, and histologically show mucinous or signet ring cell carcinomas. The risk of CRC begins to increase 8 or 10 years after the diagnosis of UC. Risk factors for CRC with UC patients include young age at diagnosis, longer duration, greater anatomical extent of colonic involvement, the degree of inflammation, family history of CRC, and presence of primary sclerosing cholangitis. CRC on the ground of UC develop from non-dysplastic mucosa to indefinite dysplasia, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia and finally to invasive adenocarcinoma. Colonoscopy surveillance programs are recommended to reduce the risk of CRC and mortality in UC. Genetic alterations might play a role in the development of UC-CRC. 5-aminosalicylates might represent a favorable therapeutic option for chemoprevention of CRC. PMID:25469007

  3. Fecal microbiota in pouchitis and ulcerative colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai-Yu; Wang, Jian-Lin; Wei, Jiang-Peng; Gao, Sen-Yang; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Li-Tian; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the changes in microbiota in feces of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and pouchitis using genomic technology. METHODS Fecal samples were obtained from UC patients with or without an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) procedure, as well as healthy controls. The touchdown polymerase chain reaction technique was used to amplify the whole V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, which was transcribed from DNA extracted from fecal samples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to separate the amplicons. The band profiles and similarity indices were analyzed digitally. The predominant microbiota in different groups was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. RESULTS Microbial biodiversity in the healthy controls was significantly higher compared with the UC groups (P UC patients in remission and those in the mildly active stage, the predominant species in patients with moderately and severely active UC changed obviously. In addition, the proportion of the dominant microbiota, which was negatively correlated with the disease activity of UC (r = -6.591, P UC. Patients with pouchitis had an altered microbiota composition compared with UC patients. The microbiota from pouchitis patients was less diverse than that from severely active UC patients. Sequencing results showed that similar microbiota, such as Clostridium perfringens, were shared in both UC and pouchitis. CONCLUSION Less diverse fecal microbiota was present in patients with UC and pouchitis. Increased C. perfringens in feces suggest its role in the exacerbation of UC and pouchitis. PMID:27833384

  4. Lactobacillus GG prevents recurrence of colitis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats after antibiotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, L. A.; Goerres, M. S.; Arends, A.; Sprengers, D.; Torrice, C.; Hoentjen, F.; Grenther, W. B.; Sartor, R. B.

    2003-01-01

    Bacteroides vulgatus induces colitis in gnotobiotic HLA-B27 transgenic (TG) rats while broad spectrum antibiotics prevent and treat colitis in specific pathogen free (SPF) TG rats although disease recurs after treatment ends. Lactobacilli treat human pouchitis and experimental colitis. We

  5. Observer variability in the histopathologic diagnosis of microscopic colitis and subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Bjørnbak, Camilla; Warnecke, Mads

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of microscopic colitis (MC) is based on histologic findings and includes collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC). Incomplete MC (MCi) denotes patients with chronic diarrhea and a normal endoscopy and morphological changes that do not completely meet the histologic...

  6. Improvement of mechanical properties of hydrogel by irradiation of polymers in aqueous solution with κ-carrageenan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, K.; Yoshii, F.; Zhai, M.

    2000-01-01

    Predominate radiation reaction of κ-carrageenan (KC) hydrogel is the main chain scission of KC. The gel strength of KC hydrogel decreased with increasing irradiation dose. However, KC was found to enhances the radiation crosslinking of synthetic water-soluble polymer (SWSP) such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(N-vinylpyrolidone) (PVP) in aqueous solution. The gel strength of SWSP hydrogel increased with increasing dose when KC was blended. Probably the radiation degraded KC radicals are recombined with radicals of PVP and PEO. The hydrogel thus prepared absorbs huge amounts of water due to the presence of strong hydrophilic -OSO 3 - groups in KC. (author)

  7. Carrageenan type effect on soybean oil/soy protein isolate emulsion employed as fat replacer in panela-type cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Nery, E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to modify the fatty acid profile of panela-type cheese (a Mexican fresh cheese, emulsified soybean oil with soy protein isolate and different carrageenan (iota, kappa or lambda was employed as fat replacer. The replacement of milk fat in panela-type cheese resulted in higher cheese yield values and moisture content, besides a concomitant lower fat phase and higher protein content, due to a soy protein isolate in emulsified soybean oil. Fat replacement resulted in a harder but less cohesive, spring and resilient texture, where differences in texture could be attributed to the specific carrageenan-casein interactions within the rennet coagulated cheese matrix. The FTIR analysis showed that the milk fat replacement changed the fatty acid profile, also in function of the type of carrageenan employed. Lambda carrageenan containing emulsions improved moisture retention and maintained the textural properties of panela-type cheese.Para modificar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los quesos tipo panela (queso fresco popular en México, se utilizó aceite de soja emulsionado con aislado de proteína de soja y diferentes carrageninas (iota, kappa o lambda como sustituto de la grasa. Reemplazar la grasa de la leche en el queso tipo panela resultó en mayor rendimiento quesero y mayor contenido de humedad, además de una concomitante menor fase grasa y mayor contenido de proteína, debido al aislado de proteína de soja en el aceite de soja emulsionado. La sustitución de la grasa dio como resultado una textura más dura, pero menos cohesiva, elástica y resiliente, donde estas diferencias podrían ser atribuidas a la interacción especifica entre carrageninas-caseinas en la matriz coagulada del queso. El análisis de FTIR muestra que reemplazar la grasa de la leche cambia el perfil de ácidos grasos, también en función del tipo de carragenina empleado. Las emulsiones con lambda carrageninas mejoraron la retención de humedad y mantuvieron las

  8. Surgical outcomes of Korean ulcerative colitis patients with and without colitis-associated cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yong Sik; Cho, Yong Beom; Park, Kyu Joo; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Yoon, Sang Nam; Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Lee, Kil Yeon; Kim, Hungdai; Lee, Ryung-Ah; Yu, Chang Sik

    2015-03-28

    To determine the clinicopathologic characteristics of surgically treated ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and to compare the characteristics of UC patients with colitis-associated cancer (CAC) to those without CAC. Clinical data on UC patients who underwent abdominal surgery from 1980 to 2013 were collected from 11 medical institutions. Data were analyzed to compare the clinical features of patients with CAC and those of patients without CAC. Among 415 UC patients, 383 (92.2%) underwent total proctocolectomy, and of these, 342 (89%) were subjected to ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. CAC was found in 47 patients (11.3%). Adenocarcinoma was found in 45 patients, and the others had either neuroendocrine carcinoma or lymphoma. Comparing the UC patients with and without CAC, the UC patients with CAC were characteristically older at the time of diagnosis, had longer disease duration, underwent frequent laparoscopic surgery, and were infrequently given preoperative steroid therapy (P UC patients experience early disease exacerbation or complications. Approximately 10% of UC patients had CAC, and UC patients with CAC had a later diagnosis, a longer disease duration, and less steroid treatment than UC patients without CAC.

  9. Challenges in the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis with concomitant bacterial infections and chronic infectious colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Chen-Wang; Chen, Ming-Jen; Chu, Cheng-Hsin; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Hsu, Tzu-Chi; Wang, Horng-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammation of the large bowel characterized by diarrhea and a negative stool culture. However, several enteropathogens have been implicated as causative agents in UC. The differentiation between chronic infectious colitis (IC) and UC with concurrent infection is difficult owing to their similar clinical presentations. The study aimed to explore the presentations and diagnostic clues that enable differentiation between UC with concomitant infections and chronic IC. The study included 17 UC patients with a bacterial infection and 46 with chronic IC. The UC patients (47 ± 19 years) were younger than the chronic IC patients (58 ± 20 years) (P = 0.022). Bloody diarrhea was more common in UC than in chronic IC (58.8% vs 10.9%, P UC patients had lower antibiotic response rates than chronic IC patients (60.0% vs 87.2%, P = 0.026). Aeromonas species and Clostridium difficile were common in both groups. Histological features of cryptitis and crypt abscess were useful in the diagnosis of UC (P = 0.052 and P = 0.016, respectively). Bloody diarrhea in a young adult, decreased response to antibiotic treatment, and results of endoscopy with biopsy are important features in the diagnosis of UC with bacterial infection.

  10. Level of Fecal Calprotectin Correlates With Endoscopic and Histologic Inflammation and Identifies Patients With Mucosal Healing in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theede, Klaus; Holck, Susanne; Ibsen, Per

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), mucosal healing is an important goal of treatment. However, mucosal healing is difficult to determine on the basis of clinical evaluation alone, and endoscopy is uncomfortable and can cause complications. Fecal calprotectin (FC...... or inactive UC who underwent sigmoidoscopy at Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre from September 2012 through 2014. Endoscopic inflammation was evaluated by using the Mayo Endoscopic Score (MES) and Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS) and histologic inflammatory activity by a slightly......) is a marker of inflammation, and its levels have been associated with disease activity. We investigated the association between level of FC and mucosal healing and clinical disease activity in patients with UC. METHODS: We performed an observational cross-sectional study of 120 patients with active...

  11. Characteristic endoscopic findings and risk factors for cytomegalovirus-associated colitis in patients with active ulcerative colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Yutaka; Ando, Takafumi; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Watanabe, Osamu; Miyahara, Ryoji; Nakamura, Masanao; Yamamura, Takeshi; Goto, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify characteristic endoscopic findings and risk factors for cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated colitis in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: A total of 149 UC patients admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology, Nagoya University Hospital, from January 2004 to December 2013 with exacerbation of UC symptoms were enrolled in this retrospective study. All medical records, including colonoscopy results, were reviewed. CMV infection was determined by the presence of CMV antigen, CMV inclusion bodies in biopsy specimens, or positive specific immunohistochemical staining for CMV. Multivariate analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for CMV colitis. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis indicated independent associations with the extent of disease (pancolitis) and use of > 400 mg corticosteroids for the previous 4 wk. In contrast, no association was seen with sex, age at UC diagnosis, immunomodulator use, or infliximab use. Punched-out ulceration was also significantly associated with CMV infection in patients with active UC (odds ratio = 12.672, 95%CI: 4.210-38.143). CONCLUSION: Identification of a total corticosteroid dose > 400 mg for 4 wk, extensive colitis and a specific endoscopic finding of punched-out ulcer might facilitate the more rapid diagnosis and timely initiation of antiviral therapy for CMV-associated colitis in patients with active UC. PMID:27014426

  12. Spinal injection of docosahexaenoic acid attenuates carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain through inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Zhao, L-X; Cao, D-L; Gao, Y-J

    2013-06-25

    Neuroinflammation in the spinal cord plays a critical role in the processing of inflammatory pain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a predominant omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the central nervous system, is known to modulate inflammatory responses in various neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated whether DHA could reduce inflammatory pain and inhibit neuroinflammation in the spinal cord following carrageenan injection in mice. Intrathecal (i.t.) injection of DHA at 15min before carrageenan injection blocked carrageenan-induced pain hypersensitivity for more than 6h. In addition, i.t. injection of DHA at 3h after carrageenan transiently reversed carrageenan-induced heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, DHA treatment reduced carrageenan-induced activation of microglia, phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosisfactor-α - TNF-α and interleukin-1β - IL-1β) in the L4-5 spinal cord. In cultured microglial cells, DHA dose-dependently reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced phosphorylation of p38, production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL10). p38 inhibitor SB203580 inhibited LPS-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results provide evidence that DHA has antinociceptive effect in inflammatory pain, which may be attributed to, at least partially, suppressing a microglia-mediated inflammatory response through inhibition of p38 MAPK activation. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties of semi refined iota carrageenan packaging film incorporated with ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoirunnisa, Assifa Rahma; Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, Camellia; Rochima, Emma; Praseptiangga, Danar

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to develop film for food packaging application with high UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties. Semi refined iota carrageenan (SRiC) nanocomposite films prepared by addition of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as nanofiller using solution casting method. The effect of nanofiller with different concentration (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% w/w carrageenan) on UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties of films were tested. The water barrier properties of the films were studied by measuring water vapor permeability (WVP) and the optical properties of the films were studied by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 280 nm for UV-screening test and at 660 nm for transparency test. WVP value of carrageenan films with addition of ZnO is low compared to a control carrageenan film and the lowest WVP value was found for the film with addition of 1.5% of ZnO. These result indicate that the addition of ZnO had a positive effect on the water barrier properties of the carrageenan matrix. Increase in the concentration of nanofiller leads to an increase in the UV-screening properties. Among all the films, carrageenan film with 1.5% ZnO has the highest UV-screening. The result showed that adding 0.5% and 1.0% of ZnO was insignificantly affect transparency of the films, however the transparency decreased sligthly when 1.5% ZnO was added. In conclusion, incorporating no more than 1.0% of ZnO to the films can obtain films with high UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties and suitable for food packaging application.

  14. Characterization of Growth Hormone Resistance in Experimental and Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soendergaard, Christoffer; Kvist, Peter Helding; Thygesen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) resistance may develop as a consequence of inflammation during conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, encompassing ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the specific role of the GH-insulin growth factor (IGF)-1-axis and/or the functional consequences of GH resistance...... in this condition are unclear. In situ hybridization targeting the GH receptor (GHR) and relevant transcriptional analyses were performed in patients with UC and in IL-10 knock-out mice with piroxicam accelerated colitis (PAC). Using cultured primary epithelial cells, the effects of inflammation on the molecular...... mechanisms governing GH resistance was verified. Also, the therapeutic potential of GH on mucosal healing was tested in the PAC model. Inflammation induced intestinal GH resistance in UC and experimental colitis by down-regulating GHR expression and up-regulating suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS...

  15. Proximal disease extension in patients with limited ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Ungaro, Ryan; Vind, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Disease extent in ulcerative colitis [UC] is dynamic and can progress over time. Little is known about risk factors for UC extension in the era of biologics. We investigated the risk of UC extension and subsequent risk of surgery in a Danish population-based cohort. Methods......: All incident UC cases in a strictly defined Copenhagen area between 2003 and 2004 were followed prospectively through 2011. Disease extension was defined as patients with limited UC [E1 or E2] at diagnosis having progressed from the initial extent by colonoscopy or surgery to E2 or extensive colitis...... experienced disease extension. Only extent at diagnosis was a clinical predictor for disease extension. The risk of colectomy was increased in former smokers and patients who progressed to extensive colitis. This highlights the need to prevent disease progression in patients with limited UC, and to identify...

  16. Synchronous cytomegalovirus infection in a newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yu Chieng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old Punjabi female patient presented with six months history of mild abdominal discomfort with bloody diarrhea. She did not have underlying chronic medical illness; she neither took steroid nor immunosuppressant. She was found anemic, thrombocytosis, and elevated C-reactive protein. Colonoscopy showed moderate left sided colitis, with histopathology evidence of ulcerative colitis (UC with cytomegalovirus (CMV infection. Her serum anti-CMV IgM antibody was detected. She was treated with intravenous ganciclovir, together with 5-ASA and tapering dose of steroid. Anemia was corrected. Subsequent clinic reviews and follow up endoscopies showed dramatically improvement. CMV colitis should be considered for the patients presenting with moderate to severe UC. Early prescription of antiviral would be beneficial in the treatment of flare of UC.

  17. Inherited determinants of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleynen, Isabelle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Jostins, Luke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease; treatment strategies have historically been determined by this binary categorisation. Genetic studies have identified 163 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease, mostly shared...... between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. We undertook the largest genotype association study, to date, in widely used clinical subphenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease with the goal of further understanding the biological relations between diseases. METHODS: This study included patients from 49...... centres in 16 countries in Europe, North America, and Australasia. We applied the Montreal classification system of inflammatory bowel disease subphenotypes to 34,819 patients (19,713 with Crohn's disease, 14,683 with ulcerative colitis) genotyped on the Immunochip array. We tested for genotype...

  18. The colitis-associated transcriptional profile of commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron enhances adaptive immune responses to a bacterial antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Hansen

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD may be caused in part by aberrant immune responses to commensal intestinal microbes including the well-characterized anaerobic gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B. theta. Healthy, germ-free HLA-B27 transgenic (Tg rats develop chronic colitis when colonized with complex gut commensal bacteria whereas non-transgenic (nTg rats remain disease-free. However, the role of B. theta in causing disease in Tg rats is unknown nor is much known about how gut microbes respond to host inflammation.Tg and nTg rats were monoassociated with a human isolate of B. theta. Colonic inflammation was assessed by histologic scoring and tissue pro-inflammatory cytokine measurement. Whole genome transcriptional profiling of B. theta recovered from ceca was performed using custom GeneChips and data analyzed using dChip, Significance Analysis of Microarrays, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA software. Western Blots were used to determine adaptive immune responses to a differentially expressed B. theta gene.B. theta monoassociated Tg rats, but not nTg or germ-free controls, developed chronic colitis. Transcriptional profiles of cecal B. theta were significantly different in Tg vs. nTg rats. GSEA revealed that genes in KEGG canonical pathways involved in bacterial growth and metabolism were downregulated in B. theta from Tg rats with colitis though luminal bacterial concentrations were unaffected. Bacterial genes in the Gene Ontology molecular function "receptor activity", most of which encode nutrient binding proteins, were significantly upregulated in B. theta from Tg rats and include a SusC homolog that induces adaptive immune responses in Tg rats.B. theta induces colitis in HLA-B27 Tg rats, which is associated with regulation of bacterial genes in metabolic and nutrient binding pathways that may affect host immune responses. These studies of the host-microbial dialogue may lead to the identification of novel microbial targets

  19. IL-9 antibody injection suppresses the inflammation in colitis mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Aping [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås (Norway); Research Group of Gastrointestinal Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan (China); Yang, Hang; Qi, Haili; Cui, Jing; Hua, Wei; Li, Can; Pang, Zhigang; Zheng, Wei [Research Group of Gastrointestinal Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan (China); Cui, Guanglin, E-mail: guanglin.cui@yahoo.com [Research Group of Gastrointestinal Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan (China); Faculty of Health, Nord University at Levanger (Norway)

    2015-12-25

    Diverse T help (Th) cells play a crucial role in the processing and maintaining of chronic inflammation as seen in ulcerative colitis (UC). Th9, a novel subset of Th cells that primarily produces interleukin (IL)-9, has recently been associated with the development of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells in inflamed tissues of human and experimental mouse UC, and examined the therapeutic efficiency of anti Th9 cytokine IL-9 in the experimental mouse UC. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells labelled by transcriptional factor PU.1 in both human and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced mouse colitis biopsies. The results showed that increased PU.1 positive Th9 cells were mainly located in the lamina propria in relative with the controls, intraepithelial Th9 cells can also be observed but at low density. Double IHCs revealed that most of PU.1 positive cells were CD3 positive lymphocytes in human UC specimens. Anti-IL-9 antibody injection for 2 weeks reduced the severity of inflammation in DSS induced colitis mice. Our results suggest that The Th9/IL-9 is involved in the pathogenesis of UC. - Highlights: • The density of novel PU.1 positive Th9 cells is significantly increased in both human and mouse colitis tissues. • PU.1 positive Th9 cells are predominately located in the inflamed lamina propria in both human and mouse colitis tissues. • Blocking of Th9 cytokine IL-9 by antibody injection suppresses the severity of inflammation in the bowel in colitis mice. • Novel Th9 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of UC.

  20. Release-Active Dilutions of Diclofenac Enhance Anti-inflammatory Effect of Diclofenac in Carrageenan-Induced Rat Paw Edema Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sakat, Sachin S.; Mani, Kamaraj; Demidchenko, Yulia O.; Gorbunov, Evgeniy A.; Tarasov, Sergey A.; Mathur, Archna; Epstein, Oleg I.

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the effect of technologically treated diclofenac (release-active dilutions of diclofenac (RAD of diclofenac)) on anti-inflammatory activity of diclofenac in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. Ninety male Wistar albino rats (6–8 weeks) divided into nine groups (n = 10) were used. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.1 ml of a 1 % solution in normal saline). Diclofenac alone was studi...

  1. Review article: colitis-associated cancer -- time for new strategies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a feared and potentially life-threatening complication of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn\\'s colitis. Currently, the main preventive strategy is a secondary one, i.e. surveillance colonoscopy usually after 8 years of disease duration, when the risk for neoplasia begins to increase. Despite its widespread acceptance, dysplasia and cancer surveillance is unproven in terms of reducing mortality or morbidity and there is a remarkable lack of uniformity in the manner in which it is practised. In this review article, the pitfalls of dysplasia surveillance are summarized and the need for novel chemopreventive and perhaps pharmabiotic approaches for prevention are highlighted.

  2. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-12-14

    To investigate the preventive effect of kefir on colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into four groups: normal control, kefir-control, colitis, and kefir-colitis groups. Rats in the normal and kefir-control groups were administered tap water as drinking water for 14 d. Rats in the colitis and kefir-colitis groups were administered a 3% DSS solution as drinking water for 8-14 d to induce colitis. Rats in the kefir-control and kefir-colitis groups were administered 5 mL kefir once a day for 14 d while rats in the normal control and colitis group were administered an identical volume of the placebo (skim milk) using an orogastric feeding tube. Clinical colitis was evaluated with reference to the disease activity index (DAI), based on daily weight loss, stool consistency, and presence of bleeding in feces. Rats were sacrificed on the 15(th) day, blood specimens were collected, and colon tissues were rapidly removed. Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured in colon tissue. The DAI was lower in the kefir-colitis group than in the colitis group (on the 3(rd) and 5(th) days of colitis induction; P kefir-control groups. The DAI was statistically higher only on the 6(th) day in the kefir-colitis group when compared to that in the normal control groups. Increased colon weight and decreased colon length were observed in colitis-induced rats. Mean colon length in the colitis group was significantly shorter than that of the kefir-control group. Kefir treatment significantly decreased histologic colitis scores (P kefir-control group (P Kefir treatment significantly reduced the DSS colitis-induced TNF-α increase (P kefir-colitis groups (P Kefir reduces the clinical DAI and histologic colitis scores in a DSS-induced colitis model, possibly via reduction of MPO, TNF-α, and iNOS levels.

  3. Two for One: Coexisting Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant I Chen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of coexisting ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are presented. In the first case, the patient had a long-standing history of ulcerative proctitis before developing Crohn’s colitis. In the two remaining cases, the patients presented initially with Crohn’s disease of the ileum and, subsequent to resection, developed ulcerative colitis. Well-documented cases of patients diagnosed with both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are rare. The literature on such cases is reviewed, and the controversy over whether ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are two distinct diseases is explored.

  4. Chitosan and Kappa-Carrageenan Vaginal Acyclovir Formulations for Prevention of Genital Herpes. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Pilar Sánchez-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations have been developed for the controlled release of acyclovir, which may prevent the sexual transmission of the herpes simplex virus. Drug release studies were carried out in two media: simulated vaginal fluid and simulated vaginal fluid/simulated seminal fluid mixture. The bioadhesive capacity and permanence time of the bioadhesion, the prepared compacts, and compacted granules were determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate. Swelling processes were quantified to confirm the release data. Biocompatibility was evaluated through in vitro cellular toxicity assays, and the results showed that acyclovir and the rest of the materials had no cytotoxicity at the maximum concentration tested. The mixture of hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose with chitosan- or kappa-carrageenan-originated mucoadhesive systems that presented a complete and sustained release of acyclovir for a period of 8–9 days in both media. Swelling data revealed the formation of optimal mixed chitosan/hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose gels which could be appropriated for the prevention of sexual transmission of HSV.

  5. Preliminary study of semi-refined carrageenan (SRC) as secondary gelling agent in natural rubber (NR) latex foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhazariah, S.; Azura, A. R.; Azahari, B.; Sivakumar, R.

    2017-12-01

    Semi-refined carrageenan (SRC) product is considerably cheaper and easier to produce as a natural polysaccharide, which was utilized in food and other product application. However, the application in latex is limited. The aim of this work is to evaluate the SRC produced from low industrial grade seaweed (LIGS) in the latex foam application. The FTIR spectra showed the SRC produced as kappa type carrageenan with lower sulfur content compared to native LIGS. NR latex foam is produced by using the Dunlop method with some modifications. The effect of SRC loading as a secondary gelling agent in NR latex foam is investigated. The density and morphology of the NR latex foam with the addition of the SRC are analyzed. NR latex foam density increased with SRC loading and peaked at 1.8 phr SRC. The addition of SRC has induced the bigger cell size compared to the cell size of the control NR latex foam, as shown in the optical micrograph. It can be concluded that SRC LIGS could be acted as secondary gelling agent in NR latex foam.

  6. Chitosan and Kappa-Carrageenan Vaginal Acyclovir Formulations for Prevention of Genital Herpes. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, María-Pilar; Martín-Illana, Araceli; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Bermejo, Paulina; Abad, María-José; Carro, Rubén; Bedoya, Luis-Miguel; Tamayo, Aitana; Rubio, Juan; Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; Otero-Espinar, Francisco; Veiga, María-Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and carrageenan, which have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, are now included in vaginal delivery systems. Marine polymer-based vaginal mucoadhesive solid formulations have been developed for the controlled release of acyclovir, which may prevent the sexual transmission of the herpes simplex virus. Drug release studies were carried out in two media: simulated vaginal fluid and simulated vaginal fluid/simulated seminal fluid mixture. The bioadhesive capacity and permanence time of the bioadhesion, the prepared compacts, and compacted granules were determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate. Swelling processes were quantified to confirm the release data. Biocompatibility was evaluated through in vitro cellular toxicity assays, and the results showed that acyclovir and the rest of the materials had no cytotoxicity at the maximum concentration tested. The mixture of hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose with chitosan- or kappa-carrageenan-originated mucoadhesive systems that presented a complete and sustained release of acyclovir for a period of 8–9 days in both media. Swelling data revealed the formation of optimal mixed chitosan/hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose gels which could be appropriated for the prevention of sexual transmission of HSV. PMID:26393621

  7. Biofilm-like Lactobacillus rhamnosus probiotics encapsulated in alginate and carrageenan microcapsules exhibiting enhanced thermotolerance and freeze-drying resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2013-09-09

    Microcapsules containing high-density biofilm-like Lactobacillus rhamnosus probiotics, in place of planktonic cells, are developed in order to enhance the cell viability upon exposures to stresses commonly encountered during food lifecycle (i.e., heating, freeze-drying, refrigerated storage, and acid). The high-density (HD) capsules are prepared by in situ cultivation of the planktonic cells in the confined space of polysaccharide-based capsules (i.e., chitosan-coated alginate and carrageenan capsules). Compared to their planktonic counterparts, the HD capsules exhibit higher freeze-drying resistance (~40×) and higher thermotolerance upon prolonged wet heat exposures at 60 and 70 °C (~12-8000×), but not at higher temperatures even for short exposures (i.e., 80 and 100 °C). The enhanced viability of the HD capsules, however, is not observed during the refrigerated storage and exposure to the simulated gastric juice. The alginate capsules are superior to carrageenan owed to their better cell release profile in the simulated intestinal juice and storage viability.

  8. Corrosion inhibition of iota-carrageenan natural polymer on aluminum in presence of zwitterion mediator in HCl media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, Mohammad M.; Maayta, A.K.; Al-Mustafa, Jamil A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Inhibition of Al by ι-carrageenan in the presence of zwitterion mediator was investigated. ► Considerable improvement in inhibition efficiency observed in the presence of zwitterion mediator. ► Coherent physical adsorption layer was evidenced by kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. ► Small but consistent fractured island layers observed after acid exposure as revealed by SEM images. - Abstract: ι-Carrageenan a natural polymer has been used as corrosion inhibitor of aluminum in presence of pefloxacin mesylate, acting as zwitterionic mediator, in acidic medium. Considerable improvement in inhibition efficiency occurred in the presence of the mediator. Activation energy of corrosion and other thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy, standard enthalpy, and standard entropy of the adsorption process revealed better and well-ordered physical adsorption layers in presence of pefloxacin. Adsorption isotherms in absence or presence of pefloxacin mediator appropriately fit in the Langmuir isotherms. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images demonstrated smooth, glossy, and relatively coherent adsorption layers of the inhibitor on the metal surface in aqueous solution. After the exposure to 2.0 M HCl for 2 h, a smaller but consistent regular shaped fractured layer is obtained.

  9. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of kappa-Carrageenan Beads Containing Silver Nanoparticles with Dye Adsorption and Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we used a simple and totally green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles using kappa-carrageenan as reducing and stabilizing agent. The beads were prepared in aqueous medium by microwave heating, and then followed by cross-linking with K+ cations without using any additional toxic and expensive chemical agents. The preparation method of the carrageenan-based beads is easy, fast, simple, effective, and safe. The synthesized beads loaded with were characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra, transmition electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. The as-prepared beads were evaluated to remove cationic crystal violet dye from aqueous solutions. The thermodynamic parameters shown that the sorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. The kinetics and isotherm of crystal violet adsorption were found to well fit to pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the obtained beads was examined using the nutrient agar disc diffusion method.

  10. Risk of osteoporosis in microscopic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, Signe; Munck, Lars K; Becker, Sabine; Brockstedt, Helle; Bonderup, Ole K; Hitz, Mette F

    2018-04-01

    Patients with microscopic colitis (MC) have several risk factors for osteoporosis. The prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in MC is unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate bone mineral status in MC. Patients with MC and disease activity within the last 2 years were included. Bone turnover markers were analyzed and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at inclusion and after one year. Medical history, demographics, risk factors for osteoporosis, disease activity and treatment with cumulative budesonide dosage at least 3 years before inclusion was registered. Adrenal function was tested by adrenocortico-tropic hormone (ACTH) and an ACTH stimulation test at inclusion. Results were compared with age and sex-matched controls. Fifty MC patients (44 women) were included. Median age 67 (range 45-93); median disease duration 28 month (range 2-163); median cumulative budesonide dosage 702 mg (range 0-5400). No difference in number of patients with osteoporosis or osteopenia and BMD was detected between groups. The bone mineral formation marker specific alkaline phosphatase was lower in MC than controls 12 (5-69) µg/l versus 16 (10-35) µg/l (p <   0.005). Patients more often smoked (34% versus 10%, p = 0.001). Disease duration and cumulative budesonide dose was associated with lower BMD and T-score in hip (Spearman's rho; p < 0.05) with a cut of point of 2500 mg budesonide predicting osteopenia. Budesonide treatment did not affect adrenal gland function. The risk of osteoporosis in patients with MC is not increased. However, DXA scan is recommended in MC patients with known risk factors or active disease requiring longstanding budesonide treatment. Supplementation of calcium and vitamin-D in patients treated with budesonide is recommended.

  11. Paradoxical regulation of ChAT and nNOS expression in animal models of Crohn's colitis and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, John H; Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K

    2013-08-15

    Morphological and functional changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS) have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease. We examined the effects of inflammation on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nNOS in the muscularis externae of two models of colonic inflammation, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, which models Crohn's disease-like inflammation, and DSS-induced colitis, which models ulcerative Colitis-like inflammation. In TNBS colitis, we observed significant decline in ChAT, nNOS, and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 protein and mRNA levels. In DSS colitis, ChAT and PGP9.5 were significantly upregulated while nNOS levels did not change. The nNOS dimer-to-monomer ratio decreased significantly in DSS- but not in TNBS-induced colitis. No differences were observed in the percentage of either ChAT (31 vs. 33%)- or nNOS (37 vs. 41%)-immunopositive neurons per ganglia or the mean number of neurons per ganglia (55 ± 5 vs. 59 ± 5, P > 0.05). Incubation of the distal colon muscularis externae in vitro with different types of inflammatory mediators showed that cytokines decreased ChAT and nNOS expression, whereas H₂O₂, a component of oxidative stress, increased their expression. NF-κB inhibitor MG-132 did not prevent the IL-1β-induced decline in either ChAT or nNOS expression. These findings showed that TNBS- and DSS-induced inflammation differentially regulates the expression of two critical proteins expressed in the colonic myenteric neurons. These differences are likely due to the exposure of the myenteric plexus neurons to different combinations of Th1-type inflammatory mediators and H₂O₂ in each model.

  12. Increased plasma levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) as a marker for oxidative stress in patients with active ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagozlu, Hakan; Gorgul, Ahmet; Bilgihan, Ayse; Tuncer, Candan; Unal, Selahattin

    2013-02-01

    After NADPH oxidase mediated radical formation, hypochloric acid (HOCl) is formed when Cl is used as a substrate by the myeloperoxidase enzyme. Myeloperoxidase is secreted from H2O2 activated leukocytes with polymorphic nuclei. The generation of HOCl also causes the formation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) through damage to normal tissue and protein oxidation. AOPP has been identified as a marker of inflammation in many diseases. However, AOPP has not been investigated in ulcerative colitis. As a result of mucosal inflammation in ulcerative colitis, oxidative stress can occur. We aimed to determine whether plasma AOPP and oxidative stress markers are detectable in active ulcerative colitis. The patient group consisted of 59 patients who were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis in the clinic by histology and endoscopy. The patients were hospitalised and treated in the Gastroenterology Department of Gazi University Medical Facility. The 59 patients were separated into active and inactive groups according to the endoscopic activation index (EAI). Group I consisted of 33 active ulcerative colitis patients, Group II consisted of 26 inactive ulcerative colitis patients and Group III consisted of healthy control subjects. The disease activity of these patients were measured using the Rachmilewitz EAI based on rectosigmoidoscopic or colonoscopic findings. Patients with EAI scores greater than 4 were scored as having active disease (Group I). Patients with EAI0.05). The EAI value was 8.84±0.31 in Group I and 2.76±0.08 in Group II. There were statistically significant differences for EAI between groups (P<0.05). The correlation between AOPP and EAI in all patients with ulcerative colitis were statistically significant (P<0.05, r=0.61). The regression model in this correlation was statistically significant (y=49.68+10.75x, P<0.05). Based on our results, we suggest that AOPP could be used as a non invasive activation marker for ulcerative colitis patients

  13. Sulfate-reducing bacteria colonize pouches formed for ulcerative colitis but not for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis remains the "gold standard" in surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Pouchitis occurs mainly in patients with a background of ulcerative colitis, although the reasons for this are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize differences in pouch bacterial populations between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous pouches. METHODS: After ethical approval was obtained, fresh stool samples were collected from patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (n = 10), familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 7) pouches, and ulcerative colitis ileostomies (n = 8). Quantitative measurements of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were performed. RESULTS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from 80 percent (n = 8) of ulcerative colitis pouches. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were absent from familial adenomatous polyposis pouches and also from ulcerative colitis ileostomy effluent. Pouch Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, and Clostridium perfringens counts were increased relative to ileostomy counts in patients with ulcerative colitis. Total pouch enterococci and coliform counts were also increased relative to ileostomy levels. There were no significant quantitative or qualitative differences between pouch types when these bacteria were evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria are exclusive to patients with a background of ulcerative colitis. Not all ulcerative colitis pouches harbor sulfate-reducing bacteria because two ulcerative colitis pouches in this study were free of the latter. They are not present in familial adenomatous polyposis pouches or in ileostomy effluent collected from patients with ulcerative colitis. Total bacterial counts increase in ulcerative colitis pouches after stoma closure. Levels of Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci, and coliforms were similar in both pouch groups. Because sulfate-reducing bacteria are

  14. Swimming attenuates inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in a rat model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced chronic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ling; Yao, Zhi-Qiang; Chang, Qi; Zhao, Ya-Li; Liu, Ning-Ning; Zhu, Xiao-Shan; Liu, Qin-Qin; Wang, Li-Feng; Yang, An-Gang; Gao, Chun-Fang; Li, Jun-Tang

    2017-01-31

    Increasing evidence suggests that regular physical exercise suppresses chronic inflammation. However, the potential inhibitory effects of swimming on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis, and its underlying mechanisms, remain unclear. In this study, rats were orally administered DSS to induce chronic colitis, and subsequently treated with or without swimming exercise. A 7-week swimming program (1 or 1.5 hours per day, 5 days per week) ameliorated DSS-caused colon shortening, colon barrier disruption, spleen enlargement, serum LDH release, and reduction of body weight gain. Swimming for 1.5 hours per day afforded greater protection than 1 hour per day. Swimming ameliorated DSS-induced decrease in crypt depth, and increases in myeloperoxidase activity, infiltration of Ly6G+ neutrophils and TNF-α- and IFN-γ-expressing CD3+ T cells, as well as fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin. Swimming inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production and decreased the protein expression of phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB p65 and cyclooxygenase 2, whereas it elevated interleukin-10 levels. Swimming impeded the generation of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide; however, it boosted glutathione levels, total antioxidant capacity, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Additionally, swimming decreased caspase-3 activity and expression of apoptosis-inducing factor, cytochrome c, Bax, and cleaved-caspase-3, but increased Bcl-2 levels. Overall, these results suggest that swimming exerts beneficial effects on DSS-induced chronic colitis by modulating inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.

  15. Local and systemic immune mechanisms underlying the anti-colitis effects of the dairy bacterium Lactobacillus delbrueckii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Santos Rocha

    Full Text Available Several probiotic bacteria have been proposed for treatment or prevention of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, showing a protective effect in animal models of experimental colitis and for some of them also in human clinical trials. While most of these probiotic bacteria are isolated from the digestive tract, we recently reported that a Lactobacillus strain isolated from cheese, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CNRZ327 (Lb CNRZ327, also possesses anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating that common dairy bacteria may be useful in the treatment or prevention of IBD. Here, we studied the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of Lb CNRZ327 in vivo, in a mouse dextran sodium sulfate (DSS colitis model. During colitis, Lb CNRZ327 modulated the production of TGF-β, IL-6, and IL-12 in colonic tissue and of TGF-β and IL-6 in the spleen, and caused an expansion of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the cecal lymph nodes. Moreover, a strong tendency to CD4+Foxp3+ expansion was also observed in the spleen. The results of this study for the first time show that orally administered dairy lactobacilli can not only modulate mucosal but also systemic immune responses and constitute an effective treatment of IBD.

  16. Host lysozyme-mediated lysis of Lactococcus lactis facilitates delivery of colitis-attenuating superoxide dismutase to inflamed colons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Sonia A.; Veiga, Patrick; Fenn, Kathrin; Michaud, Monia; Kim, Jason H.; Gallini, Carey Ann; Glickman, Jonathan N.; Quéré, Gaëlle; Garault, Peggy; Béal, Chloé; Derrien, Muriel; Courtin, Pascal; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Garrett, Wendy S.

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microbes that target molecules and pathways, such as oxidative stress, which can negatively affect both host and microbiota, may hold promise as an inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Prior work showed that a five-strain fermented milk product (FMP) improved colitis in T-bet−/− Rag2−/− mice. By varying the number of strains used in the FMP, we found that Lactococcus lactis I-1631 was sufficient to ameliorate colitis. Using comparative genomic analyses, we identified genes unique to L. lactis I-1631 involved in oxygen respiration. Respiration of oxygen results in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Also, ROS are produced at high levels during intestinal inflammation and cause tissue damage. L. lactis I-1631 possesses genes encoding enzymes that detoxify ROS, such as superoxide dismutase (SodA). Thus, we hypothesized that lactococcal SodA played a role in attenuating colitis. Inactivation of the sodA gene abolished L. lactis I-1631’s beneficial effect in the T-bet−/− Rag2−/− model. Similar effects were obtained in two additional colonic inflammation models, Il10−/− mice and dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice. Efforts to understand how a lipophobic superoxide anion (O2−) can be detoxified by cytoplasmic lactoccocal SodA led to the finding that host antimicrobial-mediated lysis is a prerequisite for SodA release and SodA’s extracytoplasmic O2− scavenging. L. lactis I-1631 may represent a promising vehicle to deliver antioxidant, colitis-attenuating SodA to the inflamed intestinal mucosa, and host antimicrobials may play a critical role in mediating SodA’s bioaccessibility. PMID:26056274

  17. Development of Colon Cancer After Liver Transplantation for Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Associated with Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Hidefumi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Marsh, J. Wallis; Tzakis, Andreas; Kakizoe, Saburo; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Between February 26, 1981, and July 30, 1987, 36 patients underwent orthotopic liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis associated with ulcerative colitis. Three of the 36 recipients died within 3 mo because of graft nonfunction or surgical complications. The other 33 (92%) lived for at least 1 yr. Two of the 33 died after 12 and 14 mo, respectively, of recurrent cholangiocarcinoma that was not diagnosed before transplantation. Four other patients died of recurrent liver failure (three cases) or immunoblastic sarcoma (one case) after 14, 21, 36 and 44 mo. Twenty-seven (75%) of the patients are still alive 23 to 81 mo after transplantation. Two patients have been diagnosed as having colorectal cancer 11 and 21 mo respectively, after transplantation, for an overall incidence of 5.6% (2 of 36) and a corrected incidence of 6.5% (2 of 31) if the three early deaths and two later deaths caused by cholangio-carcinomas are excluded. It is not known whether colorectal malignancies were present but undetected at the time of transplantation or whether they developed afterward. It is clear that patients who undergo liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis associated with ulcerative colitis should have careful follow-up of the colon, including colonoscopy and multiple biopsies of the colorectal mucosa. Whether proctocolectomy should be considered prophylactically after liver transplantation is an unresolved issue. PMID:2312061

  18. Isolation of Clostridium difficile from the environment and contacts of patients with antibiotic-associated colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.H.; Fekety, R.; Batts, D.H.; Brown, D.; Cudmore, M.; Silva, J. Jr.; Waters, D.

    1981-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most important cause of antibiotic-associated colitis, but its epidemiology remains unknown. Using a selective medium for the isolation of C. difficile, cultures were obtained from the environment and contacts of hospitalized patients carrying C. difficile in their stools. In areas where carriers had diarrhea, 85 (9.3%) of 910 cultures of floors and other surfaces, especially those subject to fecal contamination, were positive. In areas where there were no known carriers, only 13 (2.6%) of 497 cultures of similar sites were positive (P less than 0.005). C difficile was isolated from hands and stools of asymptomatic hospital personnel, from sewage and soil, and from the home of a patient. Environmental isolates were toxigenic. C. difficile inoculated onto a floor persisted there for five months. Further studies are needed to document how often floor persisted there for five months. Further studies are needed to document how often C. difficile shed by patients with antibiotic-associated colitis is acquired by other persons and whether isolation precautions are capable of limiting the organism's spread.

  19. Advances in biologic therapy for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Haens, Geert; Daperno, Marco

    2006-01-01

    The medical management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has changed considerably since the advent of biologic treatments. In this review we offer a critical evaluation of controlled studies with biologic agents for the management of both Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Biologics

  20. An update on anti-TNF agents in ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samaan, Mark A.; Bagi, Preet; Vande Casteele, Niels; D'Haens, Geert R.; Levesque, Barrett G.

    2014-01-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agents are key therapeutic options for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Their efficacy and safety have been shown in large randomized controlled trials. The key evidence gained from these trials of infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab is reviewed along with their

  1. Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis; Update | Gadour | Sudan Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ulcerative Colitis [UC] is a chronic debilitating inflammatory process that is usually confined to the mucosa and on occasions submucosa of the large bowel. It affects all age groups but is more common at 15-30 years and spares no sex. Typically the disease has relapsing-remitting course. Bloody diarrhea forms the cardinal ...

  2. Scintigraphic evaluation of pouch function in patients with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend

    scintigraphic intestinal transit time, scintigraphic defecography and any association with QoL, and pouch function. Method A cross-sectional study including 20 patients with ulcerative colitis and an IPAA. Scintigraphic transit time was determined after oral administration of a Tc-99m-labelled omelette...

  3. Ulcerative Colitis Prone to Delayed Diagnosis in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Inflammatory bowel disease is an emerging disease burden in the developing world. In Nigeria there is a persisting perception among physicians that it is a very rare disease, and publications on it are sparse. Early manifestations of ulcerative colitis (UC) are therefore likely to be missed at many health institutions.

  4. REGULATION OF INDUCIBLE NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE IN COLLAGENOUS COLITIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    ulcerøs colitis, der er karakteriseret ved en kronisk recidiverende, sårdannende inflammation af kolorektalslimhinden. I nærværende sammenlignende studie er ekspressionen af iNOS og aktiviteten af enzymets transkriptionsfaktor, nukleær faktor-kappa B (NF-B), i slimhindebiopsier fra colonslimhinden hos...

  5. IL-33 is upregulated in colonocytes of ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Coskun, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    , airway inflammation and arthritis in animal models. We now report IL-33 to be produced by colonic epithelial cells in humans and it is highly upregulated in ulcerative colitis (UC). Little mRNA expression was found in control subjects (N=9), whereas patients with UC in remission (N=7) and active UC (N=9...

  6. Ischemic Colitis of the Left Colon in a Diabetic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios J. Karayiannakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus may affect the gastrointestinal tract possibly as a result of autonomic neuropathy. Here we present a 68-year-old male with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who presented with prolonged watery diarrhea and in whom imaging studies demonstrated ischemic colitis of the left colon. Resection of the affected colon resulted in sustained disappearance of symptoms.

  7. HLA-DR expression and disease activity in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L O; Elling, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1986-01-01

    In 12 patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) the rectal epithelial cells were analyzed for HLA-DR antigens by an immunohistochemical technique. The clinical, rectoscopic, and histologic stages were also determined. The investigations were carried out at the beginning of the study and 2 weeks...

  8. IL-10 gene therapy prevents TNBS-induced colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsay, J.; van Montfrans, C.; Brennan, F.; van Deventer, S.; Drillenburg, P.; Hodgson, H.; te Velde, Anje; Sol Rodriguez Pena, M.

    2002-01-01

    The transfer of genes encoding immunomodulatory proteins to the intestinal mucosa is a promising new approach to the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). This study investigates the therapeutic efficacy of an adenoviral vector encoding IL-10 (AdvmuIL-10) in experimental colitis. BALB/c mice were

  9. Automated image analysis in the study of collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Kristensson, Martin; Engel, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop an automated image analysis software to measure the thickness of the subepithelial collagenous band in colon biopsies with collagenous colitis (CC) and incomplete CC (CCi). The software measures the thickness of the collagenous band on microscopic...

  10. AOM/DSS Model of Colitis-Associated Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, Bobak; Barrett, Caitlyn W; Williams, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of colitis-associated carcinoma (CAC) has benefited substantially from mouse models that faithfully recapitulate human CAC. Chemical models, in particular, have enabled fast and efficient analysis of genetic and environmental modulators of CAC without the added requirement of time-intensive genetic crossings. Here we describe the Azoxymethane (AOM)/Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) mouse model of inflammatory colorectal cancer.

  11. Faecal Bacterial Communities in Healthy Controls and Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Wilcks, Andrea; Brynskov, Jørn

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. The aetiology of IBD is not well understood, however the commensal intestinal microbiota is thought to play an important pathogenetic role. Hence...

  12. Characterization of Growth Hormone Resistance in Experimental and Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soendergaard, Christoffer; Kvist, Peter Helding; Thygesen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    in this condition are unclear. In situ hybridization targeting the GH receptor (GHR) and relevant transcriptional analyses were performed in patients with UC and in IL-10 knock-out mice with piroxicam accelerated colitis (PAC). Using cultured primary epithelial cells, the effects of inflammation on the molecular...

  13. The application of molecular topology for ulcerative colitis drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellera, Carolina L; Di Ianni, Mauricio E; Talevi, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Although the therapeutic arsenal against ulcerative colitis has greatly expanded (including the revolutionary advent of biologics), there remain patients who are refractory to current medications while the safety of the available therapeutics could also be improved. Molecular topology provides a theoretic framework for the discovery of new therapeutic agents in a very efficient manner, and its applications in the field of ulcerative colitis have slowly begun to flourish. Areas covered: After discussing the basics of molecular topology, the authors review QSAR models focusing on validated targets for the treatment of ulcerative colitis, entirely or partially based on topological descriptors. Expert opinion: The application of molecular topology to ulcerative colitis drug discovery is still very limited, and many of the existing reports seem to be strictly theoretic, with no experimental validation or practical applications. Interestingly, mechanism-independent models based on phenotypic responses have recently been reported. Such models are in agreement with the recent interest raised by network pharmacology as a potential solution for complex disorders. These and other similar studies applying molecular topology suggest that some therapeutic categories may present a 'topological pattern' that goes beyond a specific mechanism of action.

  14. Manipulation of the Endocannabinoid System in Colitis: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinwand, Kristina L; Gerich, Mark E; Hoffenberg, Edward J; Collins, Colm B

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a lifelong disease of the gastrointestinal tract whose annual incidence and prevalence is on the rise. Current immunosuppressive therapies available for treatment of IBD offer limited benefits and lose effectiveness, exposing a significant need for the development of novel therapies. In the clinical setting, cannabis has been shown to provide patients with IBD symptomatic relief, although the underlying mechanisms of their anti-inflammatory effects remain unclear. This review reflects our current understanding of how targeting the endocannabinoid system, including cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, endogenous cannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, atypical cannabinoids, and degrading enzymes including fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase, impacts murine colitis. In addition, the impact of cannabinoids on the human immune system is summarized. Cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, endogenous cannabinoids, and atypical cannabinoids are upregulated in inflammation, and their presence and stimulation attenuate murine colitis, whereas cannabinoid receptor antagonism and cannabinoid receptor deficient models reverse these anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation through monoacylglycerol lipase and fatty acid amide hydrolase blockade can also attenuate colitis development, and is closely linked to cannabinoid receptor expression. Although manipulation of the endocannabinoid system in murine colitis has proven to be largely beneficial in attenuating inflammation, there is a paucity of human study data. Further research is essential to clearly elucidate the specific mechanisms driving this anti-inflammatory effect for the development of therapeutics to target inflammatory disease such as IBD.

  15. Ischemic colitis complicating reconstruction of the abdominal aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T V; Christoffersen, J K; Andersen, J

    1985-01-01

    A review of 23 patients with ischemic colitis after surgical treatment of the abdominal aorta disclosed a pathogenetic heterogeneous finding. Ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery, abolished collateral blood supply or nonocclusive low flow state, or both, was a common feature. An incidence...

  16. Radiologic and endoscopic diagnosis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pausch, J.; Holstege, A.; Brambs, J.

    1986-01-01

    The indication for radiologic or endoscopic examinations in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease depends on the stage of the disease. Advantages of the colonoscopy are the possibility of observation of colour and the avoidance of X-rays in the management of young patients. Radiology is superior to endoscopy in estimating shortening of the bowel, stenoses and fistulas. (orig.) [de

  17. Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease: Implications for College Health Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelphi, A. P.

    1977-01-01

    The author reviews clinical patterns of inflammatory bowel disorders, establishes a perspective for recognizing ulcerative colitis, ulcerative proctitis, and Crohn's disease in relation to other bowel inflammations, and suggests some epidemiologic strategies for studying etiology, pathogenesis, and natural history of the diseases. (MJB)

  18. Ulcerative colitis in a Nigerian child: case report | Ekanem | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic re-occuring inflammatory disease affecting mainly the colon. It is more prevalent in the United Kingdom, North America Scandinavia and less common in southern Europe, Asia and Africa. Commonly, UC is suspected in patients presenting with bloody diarrhoea, tenesmus, abdominal pain, ...

  19. Low prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in active ulcerative colitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, N. G.; Bart, A.; Verhaar, N.; van Nood, E.; Kootte, R.; de Groot, P. F.; D'Haens, G. R.; Ponsioen, C. Y.; van Gool, T.

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is thought to originate from a disbalance in the interplay between the gut microbiota and the innate and adaptive immune system. Apart from the bacterial microbiota, there might be other organisms, such as parasites or viruses, that could play a role in the aetiology of UC.

  20. Fuzzy Clustering-Based Modeling of Surface Interactions and Emulsions of Selected Whey Protein Concentrate Combined to i-Carrageenan and Gum Arabic Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gums and proteins are valuable ingredients with a wide spectrum of applications. Surface properties (surface tension, interfacial tension, emulsion activity index “EAI” and emulsion stability index “ESI”) of 4% whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a combination with '- carrageenan (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.5...

  1. Optimization of formulation of cmc-na, xanthan gum and carrageenan affecting the physicochemical properties of papaya-wolfberry beverage using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geo, J.Z.H.; Zong, G.L.P.

    2013-01-01

    CMC-Na, xanthan gum and carrageenan are widely employed in food industry. They were used for its thickening properties of aqueous solutions or emulsifying abilities. The present work aims to optimize the formula of the three stabilizers in the process of papaya-wolfberry beverage by response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the models were significantly (p<0.05) fitted for describing the viscosity and cloudiness of papaya-wolfberry beverage. The results also indicated that the linear terms of CMC-Na and xanthan gum were the most significant (p<0.05) variables affecting the viscosity, while xanthan gum and carrageenan were the most significant (p<0.05) variable affecting the cloudiness. The interaction of CMC-Na and xanthan gum behaved extremely significant for viscosity. From the optimization procedure, the best formula for viscosity was obtained at the combined level of 0.0652% (w/w) CMC-Na, 0.1070% (w/w) xanthan gum and 0.1485% (w/w) carrageenan, and the other group of 0.0623% (w/w) CMC-Na, 0.1375% (w/w) xanthan gum and 0.1461% (w/w) carrageenan for cloudiness. The results of our study would be used to improve the quality of papaya-wolfberry beverage and increase its economic efficiency. (author)

  2. MEKANISME PROSES TAHAP EKSTRAKSI KARAGENAN DARI Eucheuma cottonii MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT ALKALI (The Mechanism of Carrageenan Extraction from Eucheuma cottonii Using Alkaline Solvent

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    Sperisa Distantina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan recovery process was developed for Eucheuma cottonii by investigating the effects of distilled water, KOH (0.1-0.5 N and NaOH (0.1-1.0 N as the solvent on carrageenan yield and gel properties. Extraction process was carried out with a constant ratio of seaweed weight to solvent volume (1: 50; g/mL at 80oC.  A certain amount of the liquid sample was withdrawn at regular interval time for analysis. Filtrate was separated from residue by pouring ethanol. The precipitated carrageenans were collected and oven dried at 50-60oC to a constant weight. The extraction product was found to have virtually identical infrared spectra to the reference samples of kappa-carrageenan. Distilled water was the most efficient solvent with regard to yield but certainly not gel strength. Increasing KOH concentration led to carrageenan containing less sulfate content. In extraction process using alkali, the ion exchange occurred between cation from alkali solution and anion from sulphate in the seaweed. Compared with cation of sodium, the cation of potassium was able to form helixes aggregation indicated by the higher gel strength value. Alkali concentrations affected the gel strength of the extracted carrageenan significantly. Keywords: Eucheuma cottonii, KOH, NaOH, carrageenan, sulfate   ABSTRAK   Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan proses ekstraksi karagenan dari rumput laut Eucheuma cottonii dengan mempelajari pengaruh jenis pelarut pada tahap ekstraksi, yaitu air suling, KOH, dan NaOH terhadap rendemen dan sifat gel karagenan.  Ekstraksi dilakukan dengan perbandingan bobot rumput laut – volume pelarut dijaga tetap yaitu 1:50 g/mL pada 80oC. Cuplikan diambil setiap interval waktu tertentu untuk dianalisis. Karagenan dalam filtrat diendapkan dengan etanol dan serat yang dihasilkan dikeringkan sampai bobot konstan. Spektrum infra merah menunjukkan bahwa karagenan yang dihasilkan identik dengan jenis kappa. Air suling merupakan pelarut yang efisien

  3. Misdiagnosed amoebic colitis leading to severe dysentery and necrotizing colitis--report of a case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Trine H; Christiansen, Jens J; Eivindson, Martin V; Larsen, Carsten S; Tøttrup, Anders

    2014-03-01

    We present a case of amoebic colitis, misdiagnosed as inflammatory bowel disease and treated with corticosteroids, leading to severe necrotizing enterocolitis. We review the literature on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of amoebic dysentery, with special emphasis on the association between immunosuppressive treatment and the development of severe invasive amoebiasis.

  4. Juiciness improvement of frozen battered shrimp burger using modified tapioca starch, sodium alginate, and iota-carrageenan

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    Kongkarn Kijroongrojana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A battered shrimp burger, as a new value-added shrimp product, was developed by increasing the juiciness of a frozen battered shrimp burger using a mixture of hydrocolloids. The formulations of hydrocolloid mixtures containing modified tapioca starch (MTS, sodium alginate (AL, and iota-carrageenan (CA were optimized. Juiciness measurements were defined and analyzed by 13 trained panelists. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA as well as moisture and fat contents of the products were analyzed. The mixture of MTS and AL had an impact on moisture content and juiciness scores, while CA influenced the hardness. The product made using the optimized formulation (0.3% MTS + 0.7% AL had a higher moisture content andjuiciness scores (p0.05. However, higher springiness and gumminess were found in the control burger (p0.05.

  5. Models of Inflammation: Carrageenan- or Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-Induced Edema and Hypersensitivity in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarson, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    Animal models of inflammation are used to assess the production of inflammatory mediators at sites of inflammation, the processing of pain sensation at CNS sites, the anti-inflammatory properties of agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and the efficacy of putative analgesic compounds in reversing cutaneous hypersensitivity. Detailed in this unit are methods to elicit and measure carrageenan- and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced cutaneous inflammation. Due to possible differences between the dorsal root sensory system and the trigeminal sensory system, injections into either the footpad or vibrissal pad are described. In this manner, cutaneous inflammation can be assessed in tissue innervated by the lumbar dorsal root ganglion neurons (footpad) or by the trigeminal ganglion neurons (vibrissal pad). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. [Investigations on the acute, carrageenan-induced inflammatory reaction and pharmacology of orally administered sodium salicylate in turkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Kerstin; Schmidt, Volker; Richter, Andreas; Fuhrmann, Herbert; Abraham, Getu; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The complex mechanisms of acute inflammation have been subject to veterinary investigations since a long time. However, knowledge on the role of specific inflammatory mediators, as well as pharmacokinetics (PK) and -dynamics (PD) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in birds is limited. The objective of this work therefore was to establish a modified tissue cage-model to investigate the acute, carrageenan-mediated inflammatory response, as well as plasma and exudate-kinetics and the antiphlogistic effect of orally administered sodium salicylate on the elicited inflammatory reaction in turkeys. Within the class Aves, comparable studies have so far only been published in chicken. Following bilateral subcutaneous implantation of carrageenan-treated synthetic sponges in the lateral thoracic region, sodium salicylate was administered orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight (BW; therapy group) twice daily on three consecutive days, while a control group received drinking water as a placebo (n = 24 per group). Combined PK and PD of sodium salicylate were evaluated on the basis of salicylate- and prostaglandin (PG) E2-plasma- and -exudate-concentrations, exudate volumes, as well as leukocyte exudate counts. Sodium salicylate was readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and accumulated in the inflammatory exudate. At 4, 6, and 10 h after first application, sodium salicylate significantly reduced PG E2-concentrations in the inflammatory exudate when compared to the control group, whereas leukocyte exudate counts increased over time in both study groups, unaffected by sodium salicylate The described modified tissue cage-model can be beneficial for further research on the pathophysiology of avian inflammatory processes and the investigation of the combined pharmacodynamics and -kinetics of drugs in birds of adequate size.

  7. Methyl Violet Dye Absorption from Aqueous Solutions by Nanomagnetic Hydrogels Based on κ-Carrageenan and Acrylic Acid

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    Hossein Ghasemzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanomagnetic hydrogels, based on κ-carrageenan and acrylic acid, were prepared for removal of methyl violet from aqueous solutions. κ-Carrageenan/acrylic acid-based hydrogels were prepared in aqueous solution in the presence of methylene bisacrylamide (MBA and ammonium persulfate (APS, the former as a crosslinking agent and the latter as an initiator. The nanomagnetic hydrogels were obtained by co-precipitation of Fe (II and Fe (III ions in presence of ammonia solution. The effects of different variables such as contact time, temperature, amount of adsorbent, and pH were examined in relation to the sorption behavior of the methyl violet. The structure of the nanomagnetic hydrogels were studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy(SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the magnetic nanoparticles in the hydrogel matrix were dispersed satisfactorily with approximate size of 5-15 nm. The maximum amount of adsorption reached approximately 86% under optimum conditions of 60 min, pH 8 and initial dye concentration of 10 ppm. The adsorption capacity increased with temperature and pH. This study showed that the obtained nanomagnetic hydrogels with high removal efficiency and low reaction time could be used as effective adsorbents of methyl violet dyes from aqueous solution and for simple separation by a magnetic field. The equilibrium process of removing metal ions by nanomagnetic hydrogels could be evaluated efficiently using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models.

  8. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of carboxymethylated κ-carrageenan aluminum hydrogel microbeads for prolonged release of mefenamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beron, Pia Maria G.; Cruzado, Shervin T.; Dela Cruz, Sharmaine F.; Estanislao, Fides Mae L.; Evangelista, Charina Joy; Mandocdoc, Larra Minnellie W.; Salas, Sharlaine B.; Tiu, Mark Brian C.; Carigma, Andrea Q.; Bayquen, Aristea V.

    2012-01-01

    Polymers that swell in an aqueous medium have been widely used to formulate controlled-release dosage forms. This study aims to prepare carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan (CMKC) microbeads and evaluate its potential for controlled release of mefenamic acid in comparison to the positive control, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) microbeads. The powdered κ-carrageenan was carboxymethylated and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the carboxy methylation. Aqueous solutions of CMC (3% w/v) and CMKC (3%, 4%, 5% w/v) were prepared as microbeads using ionotropic gelation technique. Microbeads were loaded with mefenamic acid by suspending it in the aqueous solution (0.5% w/v) of the drug for 72 hours. Particle size and surface morphology were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to determine a significant difference between the release activity of the drug-loaded CMKC and CMC microbeads. Differential Scanning Calorimetry was performed on the drug, drug- free, and drug-loaded microbeads of CMC and CMKC. Two-way ANOVARM showed significant interaction in % drug release of the three groups being analyzed in respect to time effect (p≤0.001) and group effect (p≤0.001). Post Hoc Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that 3% CMC and 4% CMKC has equal average % drug release values and is significantly higher compared to the commercial mefenamic acid. Also, one way ANOVA showed that 3% CMC was able to release the drug with no significant difference in time (p = 0.159), while 4% CMKC (p < 0.001) and the commercial mefenamic acid (p≤0.001) were able to release the drug with significant difference in time (author)

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Salvadora persica L. against Carrageenan Induced Paw Oedema in Rat Relevant to Inflammatory Cytokines

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    Abeer Y. IBRAHIM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous alcoholic crude extract and ethyl acetate extract of miswak sticks (Salvadora persica L. was investigated in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema in respect to immunological parameters. Adult male sapargue dawely rats were classified into four groups, group I received the vehicle (0.25% gum acacia solution, group II received crude aqueous alcoholic extract orally at 100 mg/kg, group III received ethyl acetate extract (100 mg/kg orally and group IV received indomethacin (20 mg/kg orally, and served as standard reference. The oedema was quantified by measuring the hind paw thickness immediately before subplantar injection, and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. Blood samples were withdrawn after the 4th hour of carrageenan induction, centrifuged and sera were used for analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Administration of aqueous alcoholic extract and ethyl acetate extract (100 mg/ml significantly reduced the oedema thickness in a time dependent manner, the inhibition percentage of inflammation was 17% for crude extract and 27% for ethyl acetate extract. Also the two extracts reduced secretion of inflammatory mediators, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor nercrosis factor-α (TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in serum. The ethyl acetate extract shows potent activity to be nearly the same of indomethacin activity on all determined parameters at the last hour of following up. These results may be due to the presence of flavonoids in ethyl acetate extract. Three major flavonoids were isolated from ethyl acetate extract and identified as apigenin rhamnoglucoside, luteolin glucoside and rutin. The experimental study revealed that Salvadora persica extracts display remarkable anti-inflammatory activity.

  10. Preventive Effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on Thrombosis in κ-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model.

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    Ning Ma

    Full Text Available Based on the prodrug principle, aspirin eugenol ester (AEE was synthesized, which can reduce the side effects of aspirin and eugenol. As a good candidate for new antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory medicine, it is essential to evaluate its preventive effect on thrombosis. Preventive effect of AEE was investigated in κ-carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombosis model. AEE suspension liquids were prepared in 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na. AEE was administrated at the dosage of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg. Aspirin (20 mg/kg, eugenol (18 mg/kg and 0.5% CMC-Na (30 mg/kg were used as control drug. In order to compare the effects between AEE and its precursor, integration of aspirin and eugenol group (molar ratio 1:1 was also designed in the experiment. After drugs were administrated intragastrically for seven days, each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg BW κ-carrageen dissolved in physiological saline to induce thrombosis. The length of tail-thrombosis was measured at 24 and 48 hours. The blank group just was given physiological saline for seven days without κ-carrageenan administrated. The results indicated that AEE significantly not only reduced the average length of thrombus, PT values and FIB concentration, but also reduced the red blood cell (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB, hematocrit (HCT and platelet (PLT. The effects of AEE on platelet aggregation and anticoagulant in vitro showed that AEE could inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP-induced platelet aggregation as dose-dependence but no notable effect on blood clotting. From these results, it was concluded that AEE possessed positive effect on thrombosis prevention in vivo through the reduction of FIB, PLT, inhibition of platelet aggregation and the change of TT and PT values.

  11. B cell activation in the cecal patches during the development of an experimental colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Taro; Nagaishi, Takashi; Tsugawa, Naoya; Kojima, Yudai; Jose, Nisha; Hosoya, Akinori; Onizawa, Michio; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Oshima, Shigeru; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Karasuyama, Hajime; Adachi, Takahiro; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2018-02-05

    Although previous studies have suggested that appendix seems to be involved in the colitis, the role of this in the pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the importance of appendiceal lymphoid follicles, specifically the cecal patches (CP) in mice, using an experimental colitis model. Treatment with oxazolone resulted in ulcerations particularly at CP with follicular expansion as well as colitis. The colitis was attenuated by either appendectomy or the absence of mature B cells. We therefore established an intravital imaging system accompanied by the fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology to analyze the dynamic immune response of CP B cells. Our observation revealed frequent Ca 2+ signaling in CP B cells during the early phase of colitis development. These findings suggested that the CP B cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of colitis including inflammatory bowel diseases in humans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Age can be a Problem: Clostridium difficile and Cytomegalovirus Colitis Coinfection in an Immunocompetent 90-year-old Patient

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    Po-Hsun Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile colitis and cytomegalovirus colitis coinfection has been documented in immunocompromised patients. However, this kind of coinfection has rarely been reported in immunocompetent patients. We present a 90-year-old, critically ill, immunocompetent patient, who had a C. difficile and cytomegalovirus colitis coinfection. Although the common risk factors of both types of colitis are well known, clinical physicians still need to be alert to this coinfection because severe complications of CMV colitis have been reported previously. Physicians should be more aggressive in the management of elderly immunocompetent patients with refractory symptoms of colitis.

  13. Differentiating Clostridium difficile Colitis from Clostridium difficile Colonization in Ulcerative Colitis: A Role for Procalcitonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinink, Andrew R; Limsrivilai, Julajak; Reutemann, Bethany A; Feierabend, Tristan; Briggs, Emily; Rao, Krishna; Higgins, Peter D R

    2017-10-14

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) frequently complicates ulcerative colitis (UC) and can mimic disease flare. Differentiating UC flare from CDI remains a clinical challenge, particularly due to C. difficile colonization. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a serum biomarker for bacterial infections. We hypothesized that PCT would differentiate acute CDI from UC flare and C. difficile colonization. A single-center prospective cohort study was conducted from 2013 to 2016. All UC patients with a stool sample for C. difficile testing were eligible. A total of 117 patients were enrolled, while 20 were excluded. Chart review was performed. Among 27 patients with CDI, median PCT was 60.7 (range 26-560.6) pg/mL, while among 90 patients without CDI, median PCT was 56.7 (range 25.1-2,252) pg/mL (p = 0.9). It was found that 14 patients with CDI responded completely to C. difficile treatment (CDI-R), while 8 patients did not and were diagnosed with UC flare (CDI-NR). For CDI-R, median PCT was 104.5 (range 26.3-560.6), compared to 40.3 (range 26.0-116.3) for CDI-NR (p = 0.036). In UC patients presenting with diarrhea, serum PCT was not significantly higher in UC patients with positive C. difficile testing. However, PCT was significantly elevated in CDI-R versus CDI-NR, suggesting that PCT may have utility in making this discrimination. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The Role of Enteropathogenic E.coli in the Development and Progression of Chronic Non-Ulcerative Colitis

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    L.I. Sydorchuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The analysis of the literature has shown that in patients with chronic non-ulcerative colitis, there were isolated E.coli that cause dysentery-like, cholera-like diseases and escherichioses. Thus, the aim of our study was to establish the level of persistence of enteropathogenic Escherichia in the colon of patients with chronic non-ulcerative colitis and their importance in the ecological system «macroorganism — microbiota». Material and methods. During 2000–2015, there has been conducted a bacteriological examination of the colon content in patients with chronic non-ulcerative colitis aged 27–41 years (average age 37.74 ± 3.62 years. The resulting cultures were examined in the indicative agglutination tests with OKA polyvalent serum. Positive cultures were tested with polyvalent serum of narrow spectrum ОКВ, ОКС, ОКD and ОКЕ. Results. In patients, in colon cavity of which E.coli O18ac:K77; O26:K60; O55:K59; O128ab:K67 were detected, the disease occurs by nosology of colienteritis. In those patients, in whom O25:K11; O144:K; O124:K72 serotypes have been identified, disease occurred as bacterial dysentery, and O25:K11 and O128:K67 — in chole­ra-like form. Discussion. In 94.50 % of patients, common E.coli were detected, but in 55 (35.03 % of them enteropathogenic Escherichia persist, in 41 (26.11 % — E.coli Hly+, in 37 (23.57 % — E.coli Lac–, in 18 (11.46 % — enterotoxigenic E.coli, in 14 (8.42 % — enteroinvasive, and in 11 (7.01 % — enterohemorragic Escherichia. Conclusions. It was determined that the main serotypes of opportunistic Escherichia, which colonize and persist in the colon cavity of patients with chronic non-ulcerative colitis, were O114:K90; O25:K11; O124:K72; O128:K67; O18ac:K77, the persistence of which affects clinical manifestation from colitis to dysentery-like or cholera-like disease.

  15. Berberine ameliorates chronic relapsing dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice by suppressing Th17 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Xiao, Hai-Tao; Hu, Dong-Dong; Fatima, Sarwat; Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Mu, Huai-Xue; Lee, Nikki P; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an increasingly common condition particularly in developed countries. The lack of satisfactory treatment has fueled the search for alternative therapeutic strategies. In recent studies, berberine, a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, has shown beneficial effects against animal models of acute UC. However, UC usually presents as a chronic condition with frequent relapse in patients. How berberine will act on chronic UC remains unclear. In the present study, we adopted dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic relapsing colitis model to assess the ameliorating activity of berberine. Colitis was induced by two cycles of 2.0% DSS for five days followed by 14days of drinking water plus a third cycle consisting of DSS only for five days. The colitis mice were orally administered 20mg/kg berberine from day 13 onward for 30days and monitored daily. The body weight, stool consistency, and stool bleeding were recorded for determination of the disease activity index (DAI). At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed and samples were collected and subjected to histological, RT-qPCR, Western blot, and LC-MS analyses. Lymphocytes were isolated from spleens and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and cultured for flow cytometry analysis of IL-17 secretion from CD4(+) cells and the Th17 cell differentiation. Results showed that berberine significantly ameliorated the DAI, colon shortening, colon tissue injury, and reduction of colonic expression of tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-1 and occludin of colitis mice. Notably, berberine treatment pronouncedly reduced DSS-upregulated Th17-related cytokine (IL-17 and ROR-γt) mRNAs in the colon. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-23, and the phosphorylation of STAT3 in colon tissues from DSS-treated mice were pronouncedly inhibited by berberine. Moreover, the up-regulation of IL-17 secretion from CD4(+) cells of spleens and MLNs caused by DSS were significantly

  16. Tenosynovitis of the ankles as onset of sarcoidosis in a patient with ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    F. Cozzi; M. Podswiadek; A. Furlan; S. Todesco

    2011-01-01

    Arthritis and tenosynovitis are frequently reported as complications of inflammatory bowel diseases. About 10% of patients with ulcerative colitis presents articular inflammation, usually in the phases of activity of intestinal disease. Tenosynovitis is also a frequent complication of ulcerative colitis. We describe here a case of tenosynovitis of both ankles occurring in a patient affected by ulcerative colitis not in active phase. Chest X-ray and TC showed hilar lymphonode enlargement and t...

  17. Influence of Microbiota on Intestinal Immune System in Ulcerative Colitis and Its Intervention

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    Sai-Long Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD with chronic and recurrent characteristics caused by multiple reasons. Although the pathogenic factors have not been clarified yet, recent studies have demonstrated that intestinal microbiota plays a major role in UC, especially in the immune system. This review focuses on the description of several major microbiota communities that affect UC and their interactions with the host. In this review, eight kinds of microbiota that are highly related to IBD, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa, Bacteroides, Roseburia species, Eubacterium rectale, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium, and Candida albicans are demonstrated on the changes in amount and roles in the onset and progression of IBD. In addition, potential therapeutic targets for UC involved in the regulation of microbiota, including NLRPs, vitamin D receptor as well as secreted proteins, are discussed in this review.

  18. Ischemic colitis associated with use of a bitter orange-containing dietary weight-loss supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Shahnaz; Spector, Jeremy; Mitchell, Robert M

    2006-12-01

    Since the US Food and Drug Administration banned the use of dietary supplements containing ephedra in February 2004, numerous "ephedra-free" weight-loss products have appeared on the market. Many of these supplements contain compounds such as bitter orange that are similar in structure and action to ephedra. We describe a patient in whom ischemic colitis developed 1 week after initiation of a bitter orange-containing weight-loss supplement. The patient had no other predisposing factors, and discontinuation of the supplement led to immediate improvement and ultimate resolution of her symptoms. Both consumers and health care professionals should be aware of the potential harm that bitter orange-containing dietary supplements can cause and report such adverse events to the US Food and Drug Administration.

  19. Treatment tactics in patient with rectal cancer complicating ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Barsukov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A successful treatment of a young patient with a 15-year anamnesis of ulcerative colitis, who has been diagnosed with rectal cancer, is presented in this case report. A non-standard surgical intervention has been performed following all principles of oncologic surgery. A subtotal colectomy has been performed with ultra-low anterior resection of rectum. Ascendoanal anastomosis has been performed forming the neo-rectum. There were no complications in postoperative period. Considering disease stage (T3N1M0 adjuvant XELOX was administered for 6 months along with 2 cycles of prophylactic treatment with 5-aminosalycilic acid. During 2-years follow-up there are no signs of rectal cancer and ulcerative colitis progression. After pelvic electrostimulation defecation frequency decreased to 3–4 times per day, a patient has complete social rehabilitation.

  20. Acute spontaneously recovering ulcerating colitis (ARUC). Report of 6 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, S; Hervoir, P; Girodet, J; Le Quintrec, Y; Bader, J P; Gastard, J

    1977-05-01

    Six patients each with an extensive ulcerating colitis are reported. Common features were a febrile nonbloody diarrhea; radiological involvement of the whole colon with superficial ulcerations and preservation of haustra, and integrity of the terminal ileum and rectum; the absence of any specific pathological finding; and, most important, the spontaneous recovery of the lesions in the absence of any treatment except sympatomatic measures. The present follow up after recovery range from 18 months to 5 years. Four cases were young women taking oral contraceptives and two patients were older. These patients with colitis could represent a new entity or could be a particular form of Crohn's disease of the colon, with delayed diagnostic pathological features.

  1. Ischemic Colitis Secondary to Ergotamine Use: A Case Study

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    Regina E. Rodman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman with a history of chronic migraines, initially admitted for inpatient management of intractable migraine headaches, developed new onset abdominal pain, hypotension, and diarrhea on hospital day number ten. In our institution’s headache unit, patients are treated by a multidisciplinary approach, including individualized drug therapy based on diagnosis and previous response to therapy. Given the patient’s hypotension and clinical appearance, she was transferred to the intensive care unit and treated for septic shock and metabolic acidosis. A bedside colonscopy revealed diffuse ischemic colitis. Final pathology after colon resection showed widespread, transmural necrosis of the colonic wall. We review the pathophysiology of ergotamine use and its potential association with ischemic colitis.

  2. Ischemic colitis or melanosis coli: a case report

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    Nadeem Mohammed

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanosis Coli is described as black or brown discolouration of the mucosa of the colon. Its a benign condition, which arises from anthraquinone laxative abuse and has no symptoms of its own. The main importance of diagnosing Melanosis Coli correctly lies in the fact that if its extensive, there may be difficulty in differentiating it from ischemic colitis. Case presentation We present a case of extensive Melanosis Coli involving the whole of large bowel that appeared gangrenous. A sub total colectomy was performed on presumed diagnosis of ischemic bowel. Conclusion This report reminds the clinicians that extensive Melanosis Coli may mimic ischemic colitis and thus must be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  3. Managing Ulcerative Colitis – The Guidelines and Beyond

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    Mitchell RKL Lie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Management guidelines offer clinicians clear, evidence-based and often succinct treatment advice. For ulcerative colitis these guidelines describe the use of 5-ASA, corticosteroids, thiopurines, cyclosporine, and anti-TNFα therapies. However, guidelines do have some drawbacks, mainly a lack of concrete advice concerning patients resistant to these aforementioned therapies. This review gives a short overview of current guidelines and addresses treatment alternatives for conventional therapies.

  4. INTEGRATED APPLICATION OF OPTICAL DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN ULCERATIVE COLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Velikanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Our results suggest that the combined use of optical coherent tomography (OCT and fluorescence diagnosis helps to refine the nature and boundaries of the pathological process in the tissue of the colon in ulcerative colitis. Studies have shown that an integrated optical diagnostics allows us to differentiate lesions respectively to histology and to decide on the need for biopsy and venue. This method is most appropriate in cases difficult for diagnosis. 

  5. Restorative Proctocolectomy for Ulcerative Colitis in 1985-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helavirta, I; Huhtala, H; Hyöty, M; Collin, P; Aitola, P

    2016-06-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy is the most common operation in patients with ulcerative colitis. The aim was to evaluate long-term changes in our operative treatment and early and late complications related to restorative proctocolectomy. The study comprised 352 (149 females) patients over 18 years of age with ulcerative colitis who underwent restorative proctocolectomy in 1985-2009 median follow-up time of 5 years. The indication for surgery was active chronic colitis in 168 (47.7%), acute colitis in 159 (45.2%), and cancer or dysplasia in 25 (7.1%) patients. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis was performed using hand-sewn anastomosis with mucosectomy in 283 patients and stapled anastomosis in 69. A shift from hand-sewn to stapler ileal pouch-anal anastomosis took place in 2005. Covering ileostomy was carried out in 133 (37.8%) patients. There were 82 (23.3%) J-pouch-related complications. The operative mortality was 0.3%. There were significantly fewer leakages and early re-operations when covering ileostomy was used than when it was omitted: 6.0% versus 16.4% (p = 0.004), 4.5% versus 11.9% (p = 0.02), respectively. There were more strictures in hand-sewn than in stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomoses (17.6% vs. 0%, p = 0.001). Pouchitis occurred at least once in 134 (38.1%) patients. The ileal pouch-anal anastomosis technique used in restorative proctocolectomy had changed over the past years from hand-sewn to stapled anastomosis. Covering ileostomy seemed to protect against major complications. Pouchitis was the most common late complication. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2015.

  6. Butyrate absorption and lactate secretion in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, H; Holtug, K; Jeppesen, P B

    1995-01-01

    .12. Despite normal butyrate absorption, sodium absorption was compromised in active ulcerative colitis (11.5 +/- 1.4 mumol/cm2/h) compared with quiescent (15.4 +/- 1.0 mumol/cm2/h) and controls (18.7 +/- 0.8 mumol/cm2/h) (P = 0.0006). Mucosal secretion of L-lactate was minimal in both healthy controls...

  7. Opposing roles of prostaglandin D2 receptors in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Eva M; Radnai, Balazs; Jandl, Katharina; Stančić, Angela; Parzmair, Gerald P; Högenauer, Christoph; Kump, Patrizia; Wenzl, Heimo; Petritsch, Wolfgang; Pieber, Thomas R; Schuligoi, Rufina; Marsche, Gunther; Ferreirós, Nerea; Heinemann, Akos; Schicho, Rudolf

    2014-07-15

    Proresolution functions were reported for PGD2 in colitis, but the role of its two receptors, D-type prostanoid (DP) and, in particular, chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2), is less well defined. We investigated DP and CRTH2 expression and function during human and murine ulcerative colitis (UC). Expression of receptors was measured by flow cytometry on peripheral blood leukocytes and by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting in colon biopsies of patients with active UC and healthy individuals. Receptor involvement in UC was evaluated in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium colitis. DP and CRTH2 expression changed in leukocytes of patients with active UC in a differential manner. In UC patients, DP showed higher expression in neutrophils but lower in monocytes as compared with control subjects. In contrast, CRTH2 was decreased in eosinophils, NK, and CD3(+) T cells but not in monocytes and CD3(+)/CD4(+) T cells. The decrease of CRTH2 on blood eosinophils clearly correlated with disease activity. DP correlated positively with disease activity in eosinophils but inversely in neutrophils. CRTH2 internalized upon treatment with PGD2 and 11-dehydro TXB2 in eosinophils of controls. Biopsies of UC patients revealed an increase of CRTH2-positive cells in the colonic mucosa and high CRTH2 protein content. The CRTH2 antagonist CAY10595 improved, whereas the DP antagonist MK0524 worsened inflammation in murine colitis. DP and CRTH2 play differential roles in UC. Although expression of CRTH2 on blood leukocytes is downregulated in UC, CRTH2 is present in colon tissue, where it may contribute to inflammation, whereas DP most likely promotes anti-inflammatory actions. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. MicroRNA214 Is Associated With Progression of Ulcerative Colitis, and Inhibition Reduces Development of Colitis and Colitis-Associated Cancer in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polytarchou, Christos; Hommes, Daniel W; Palumbo, Tiziana; Hatziapostolou, Maria; Koutsioumpa, Marina; Koukos, Georgios; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Oikonomopoulos, Angelos; van Deen, Welmoed K; Vorvis, Christina; Serebrennikova, Oksana B; Birli, Eleni; Choi, Jennifer; Chang, Lin; Anton, Peter A; Tsichlis, Philip N; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Verspaget, Hein W; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-10-01

    Persistent activation of the inflammatory response contributes to the development of inflammatory bowel diseases, which increase the risk of colorectal cancer. We aimed to identify microRNAs that regulate inflammation during the development of ulcerative colitis (UC) and progression to colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). We performed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to measure microRNAs in 401 colon specimens from patients with UC, Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, sporadic colorectal cancer, or CAC, as well as subjects without these disorders (controls); levels were correlated with clinical features and disease activity of patients. Colitis was induced in mice by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), and carcinogenesis was induced by addition of azoxymethane; some mice also were given an inhibitor of microRNA214 (miR214). A high-throughput functional screen of the human microRNAome found that miR214 regulated the activity of nuclear factor-κB. Higher levels of miR214 were detected in colon tissues from patients with active UC or CAC than from patients with other disorders or controls and correlated with disease progression. Bioinformatic and genome-wide profile analyses showed that miR214 activates an inflammatory response and is amplified through a feedback loop circuit mediated by phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and PDZ and LIM domain 2 (PDLIM2). Interleukin-6 induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-mediated transcription of miR214. A miR214 chemical inhibitor blocked this circuit and reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice, as well as the number and size of tumors that formed in mice given azoxymethane and DSS. In fresh colonic biopsy specimens from patients with active UC, the miR214 inhibitor reduced inflammation by increasing levels of PDLIM2 and PTEN. Interleukin-6 up-regulates STAT3-mediated transcription of miR214 in colon tissues, which reduces levels of PDLIM2 and PTEN

  9. Noninvasive Imaging of Colitis Using Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutiani, Neal; Grizzle, William E; Galandiuk, Susan; Otali, Denis; Dryden, Gerald W; Egilmez, Nejat K; McNally, Lacey R

    2017-06-01

    Currently, several noninvasive modalities, including MRI and PET, are being investigated to identify early intestinal inflammation, longitudinally monitor disease status, or detect dysplastic changes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we assess the applicability and utility of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) in evaluating the presence and severity of colitis. Methods: C57B/6 mice were untreated or treated with Bacteroides fragilis and antibiotic-mediated depletion of intestinal flora to initiate colitis. Mice were imaged using MSOT to detect intestinal inflammation. Intestinal inflammation identified with MSOT was also confirmed using both colonoscopy and histology. Results: Mice with bacterial colitis demonstrated a temporally associated increase in mesenteric and colonic vascularity with an increase in mean signal intensity of oxygenated hemoglobin ( P = 0.004) by MSOT 2 d after inoculation. These findings were significantly more prominent 7 d after inoculation, with increased mean signal intensity of oxygenated hemoglobin ( P = 0.0002) and the development of punctate vascular lesions on the colonic surface, which corresponded to changes observed on colonoscopy as well as histology. Conclusion: With improvements in depth of tissue penetration, MSOT may hold potential as a sensitive, accurate, noninvasive imaging tool in the evaluation of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  10. Protective effect of carvacrol on acetic acid-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana Souza, Marilia Trindade; Teixeira, Daiane Franco; de Oliveira, Janaíne Prata; Oliveira, Alan Santos; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Correa, Cristiane Bani; Camargo, Enilton Aparecido

    2017-12-01

    The pharmacological therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases continues to be problematic, and requires new alternative options. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that carvacrol (CAR), a phenolic monoterpene with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, can treat experimental colitis in mice. C57BL/6 mice (n=8/group) were subjected to intrarectal administration of acetic acid (5%) to induce colitis. Mice were pretreated with CAR (25, 50 or 100mg/kg, p.o.) every 12h for three days prior to the induction. Abdominal hyperalgesia, macroscopic and microscopic colon damage, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated. Pretreatment with all doses of CAR significantly decreased abdominal hyperalgesia and colon MPO activity and TNF-α and IL-1β levels. A reduction in macroscopic and microscopic damage (p<0.05) was observed at doses of 50 and 100mg/kg CAR. Pretreatment with CAR significantly reduced lipid peroxidation (for all doses) and increased sulfhydryl groups (at 100mg/kg). This effect was accompanied by a significant increase in catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities. These findings indicate that CAR protected mice from acetic acid-induced colitis by reducing inflammatory, nociceptive, and oxidative damages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Vedolizumab as a Treatment for Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Christina; Kornbluth, Asher

    2014-12-01

    The management of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis has become increasingly complex. With the current utilization of immunosuppressive therapies earlier in the disease course for patients presenting with moderate to severe disease, there is a great need for additional biologic agents targeting inflammatory mediators other than anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF) agents. Although anti-TNF agents have positively impacted the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, many patients can lose their response or develop intolerance to these agents over time through the formation of antidrug antibodies. Furthermore, a sizeable percentage of patients are primary nonresponders to anti-TNF drugs. Vedolizumab (Entyvio, Takeda Pharmaceuticals), a monoclonal antibody to the α4β7 integrin, inhibits gut lymphocyte trafficking and has been demonstrated to be an effective and safe agent for the treatment of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. This article reviews the clinical trial evidence and rationale for the use of vedolizumab in moderate to severe Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

  12. IL-9 antibody injection suppresses the inflammation in colitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Aping; Yang, Hang; Qi, Haili; Cui, Jing; Hua, Wei; Li, Can; Pang, Zhigang; Zheng, Wei; Cui, Guanglin

    2015-12-25

    Diverse T help (Th) cells play a crucial role in the processing and maintaining of chronic inflammation as seen in ulcerative colitis (UC). Th9, a novel subset of Th cells that primarily produces interleukin (IL)-9, has recently been associated with the development of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells in inflamed tissues of human and experimental mouse UC, and examined the therapeutic efficiency of anti Th9 cytokine IL-9 in the experimental mouse UC. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells labelled by transcriptional factor PU.1 in both human and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced mouse colitis biopsies. The results showed that increased PU.1 positive Th9 cells were mainly located in the lamina propria in relative with the controls, intraepithelial Th9 cells can also be observed but at low density. Double IHCs revealed that most of PU.1 positive cells were CD3 positive lymphocytes in human UC specimens. Anti-IL-9 antibody injection for 2 weeks reduced the severity of inflammation in DSS induced colitis mice. Our results suggest that The Th9/IL-9 is involved in the pathogenesis of UC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Concomitant herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis in a man with ulcerative colitis: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Varun K; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J; Quigley, Brian C; Farris, Alton B; Norvell, J P

    2016-10-01

    Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease. A 43-year-old man with ulcerative colitis, previously controlled with an oral 5-aminosalicylic agent, developed symptoms of a colitis flare that did not respond to treatment with systemic corticosteroid therapy. One week later he developed orolabial ulcers and progressive hepatic dysfunction, with markedly elevated transaminases and coagulopathy. He underwent emergent total colectomy when imaging suggested bowel micro-perforation. Pathology from both the colon and liver was consistent with herpes simplex virus infection, and a viral culture of his orolabial lesions and a serum polymerase chain reaction assay also identified herpes simplex virus. He was treated with systemic antiviral therapy and made a complete recovery. Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection with concomitant involvement of the colon and liver has been reported only 3 times in the published literature, and to our knowledge this is the first such case in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of invasive herpes simplex virus infections increases with some, but not all immunomodulatory therapies. Optimal management of herpes simplex virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease includes targeted prophylactic therapy for patients with evidence of latent infection, and timely initiation of antiviral therapy for those patients suspected to have invasive disease.

  14. Oligoclonal T-cell Receptor Repertoire in Colonic Biopsies of Patients with Microscopic Colitis and Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaltay, Sezin; Repsilber, Dirk; Helenius, Gisela; Nyhlin, Nils; Bohr, Johan; Hultgren, Olof; Hultgren Hörnquist, Elisabeth

    2017-06-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC), comprising collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC), is a type of variation of inflammatory bowel diseases. Local T-cell infiltration in the mucosa plays a major role in MC immunopathology. To understand diversity and clonality of infiltrating T cells, we analyzed the T-cell receptor beta (TCRβ) chains in colonic biopsies of MC, ulcerative colitis (UC), and their remission counterparts (CC/LC-HR [histological remission] or UC-R [remission]) compared with patients with noninflamed colons using next-generation sequencing. Compared with controls and patients with CC, patients with LC had significantly lower diversity with significantly lower evenness and richness in TCRVβ-Jβ gene segments. Similarly, patients with LC-HR had lower diversity because of significantly lower TCRVβ-Jβ clone richness. Patients with UC and UC-R showed significantly higher diversity and richness. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify TCRVβ-Jβ gene segments differentiating disease types from controls or their remission counterparts. Patients with LC were discriminated from controls by 12 clones and from patients with CC by 8 clones. Neither univariate nor multivariate analyses showed significance for patients with CC or CC-HR compared with controls. Patients with UC and UC-R had 16 and 14 discriminating clones, respectively, compared with controls. Altogether, patients with MC and UC showed an oligoclonal TCRβ distribution. TCRVβ-Jβ clone types and their diversity were distinctive between patients with CC and LC, as well as for patients with UC, suggesting different pathophysiological mechanisms according to disease type and stage. This study suggests that CC and LC are different entities because of differences in immunoregulatory responses, as mirrored by their T-cell repertoire.

  15. Bacteria penetrate the normally impenetrable inner colon mucus layer in both murine colitis models and patients with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Malin E V; Gustafsson, Jenny K; Holmén-Larsson, Jessica; Jabbar, Karolina S; Xia, Lijun; Xu, Hua; Ghishan, Fayez K; Carvalho, Frederic A; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Sjövall, Henrik; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2014-02-01

    The inner mucus layer in mouse colon normally separates bacteria from the epithelium. Do humans have a similar inner mucus layer and are defects in this mucus layer a common denominator for spontaneous colitis in mice models and ulcerative colitis (UC)? The colon mucus layer from mice deficient in Muc2 mucin, Core 1 O-glycans, Tlr5, interleukin 10 (IL-10) and Slc9a3 (Nhe3) together with that from dextran sodium sulfate-treated mice was immunostained for Muc2, and bacterial localisation in the mucus was analysed. All murine colitis models revealed bacteria in contact with the epithelium. Additional analysis of the less inflamed IL-10(-/-) mice revealed a thicker mucus layer than wild-type, but the properties were different, as the inner mucus layer could be penetrated both by bacteria in vivo and by fluorescent beads the size of bacteria ex vivo. Clear separation between bacteria or fluorescent beads and the epithelium mediated by the inner mucus layer was also evident in normal human sigmoid colon biopsy samples. In contrast, mucus on colon biopsy specimens from patients with UC with acute inflammation was highly penetrable. Most patients with UC in remission had an impenetrable mucus layer similar to that of controls. Normal human sigmoid colon has an inner mucus layer that is impenetrable to bacteria. The colon mucus in animal models that spontaneously develop colitis and in patients with active UC allows bacteria to penetrate and reach the epithelium. Thus colon mucus properties can be modulated, and this suggests a novel model of UC pathophysiology.

  16. Transcriptional analysis of left-sided colitis, pancolitis, and ulcerative colitis-associated dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum, Jacob T; Nielsen, Ole H; Riis, Lene B; Pittet, Valerie; Mueller, Christoph; Rogler, Gerhard; Olsen, Jørgen

    2014-12-01

    It is unknown why patients with extensive ulcerative colitis (UC) have a higher risk of colorectal cancer compared with patients with left-sided UC. This study characterizes the inflammatory processes in left-sided UC, pancolitis, and UC-associated dysplasia at the transcriptional level to identify potential biomarkers and transcripts of importance for the carcinogenic behavior of chronic inflammation. The Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 was applied on colonic biopsies from UC patients with left-sided UC, pancolitis, dysplasia, and controls. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were performed for validating selected transcripts in the initial cohort and in 2 independent cohorts of patients with UC. Microarray data were analyzed by principal component analysis, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry data by the Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. The principal component analysis results revealed separate clusters for left-sided UC, pancolitis, dysplasia, and controls. Close clustering of dysplastic and pancolitic samples indicated similarities in gene expression. Indeed, 101 and 656 parallel upregulated and downregulated transcripts, respectively, were identified in specimens from dysplasia and pancolitis. Validation of selected transcripts hereof identified insulin receptor alpha (INSRA) and MAP kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 (MKNK2) with an enhanced expression in dysplasia compared with left-sided UC and controls, whereas laminin γ2 (LAMC2) was found with a lower expression in dysplasia compared with the remaining 3 groups. This study demonstrates pancolitis and left-sided UC as distinct inflammatory processes at the transcriptional level, and identifies INSRA, MKNK2, and LAMC2 as potential critical transcripts in the inflammation-driven preneoplastic process of UC.

  17. Data on characterization of nano- and micro-structures resulting from glycine betaine surfactant/kappa-carrageenan interactions by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Gaillard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data on the Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM images related to multi-scaled self-assemblies resulting from ‘green’ cationic glycine betaine surfactant/anionic kappa-carrageenan interactions. These data gave clear evidence of the evolution of the micron-, nano-sized structures obtained at two surfactant/polymer molar ratios (3.5 and 0.8 and after the dilution of the aqueous dispersions with factors of 5 and 10 times. This data article is related to the research article entitled, “Monitoring the architecture of anionic ĸ-carrageenan/cationic glycine betaine amide surfactant assemblies by dilution: A multiscale approach” (Gaillard et al., 2017 [1].

  18. Sclareol exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and the λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guan-Jhong; Pan, Chun-Hsu; Wu, Chieh-Hsi

    2012-01-27

    Sclareol (1) is a natural fragrance compound used widely in the cosmetic and food industries. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the λ-carrageenan-induced edema mouse paw model were applied to examine the anti-inflammatory potential of 1 and its possible molecular mechanisms. The experimental results obtained demonstrated that this compound inhibited cell growth, nitric oxide (NO) production, and the expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Compound 1 also reduced paw edema, the tissue content of NO, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA), iNOS and COX-2 protein expression, and neutrophil infiltration within the tissues after λ-carrageenan stimulation. The present study suggests that the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of 1 might be related to a decrease of inflammatory cytokines and an increase of antioxidant enzyme activity.

  19. Data on characterization of nano- and micro-structures resulting from glycine betaine surfactant/kappa-carrageenan interactions by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Cédric; Wang, Yunhui; Covis, Rudy; Vives, Thomas; Benoit, Maud; Benvegnu, Thierry

    2016-12-01

    This article contains data on the Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images related to multi-scaled self-assemblies resulting from 'green' cationic glycine betaine surfactant/anionic kappa-carrageenan interactions. These data gave clear evidence of the evolution of the micron-, nano-sized structures obtained at two surfactant/polymer molar ratios (3.5 and 0.8) and after the dilution of the aqueous dispersions with factors of 5 and 10 times. This data article is related to the research article entitled, "Monitoring the architecture of anionic ĸ-carrageenan/cationic glycine betaine amide surfactant assemblies by dilution: A multiscale approach" (Gaillard et al., 2017) [1].

  20. The Effect of Multidentate Biopolymer Based on Polyacrylamide Grafted onto Kappa-Carrageenan on the Spectrofluorometric Properties of Water-Soluble CdS Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rezanejade Bardajee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fluorescent composite based on CdS quantum dots immobilized on the multidentate biopolymer matrix is prepared through the graft copolymerization of the acrylamide onto kappa-Carrageenan. A variety of techniques like thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was used to confirm the structure of the obtained samples. To investigate the spectrofluorometric properties, fluorescence spectroscopy of the obtained quantum dots was studied.

  1. Optical transparency and mechanical properties of semi-refined iota carrageenan film reinforced with SiO2 as food packaging material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, Afifah Iswara; Praseptiangga, Danar; Rochima, Emma; Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, Camellia

    2018-02-01

    Food packaging is important for protecting food from environmental influences such as heat, light, water vapor, oxygen, dirt, dust particles, gas emissions and so on, which leads to decrease the quality of food. The most widely used type of packaging in the food industry is plastic which is made from synthetic polymers and takes hundreds of years to biodegrade. Recently, food packaging with high bio-degradability is being developed using biopolymer combined with nanoparticles as reinforcing agent (filler) to improve its properties. In this study, semi-refined iota carrageenan films were prepared by incorporating SiO2 nanoparticles as filler at different concentrations (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% w/w carrageenan) using solution casting method. The optical transparency and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation at break) of the films were analyzed. The results showed that incorporation of SiO2 nanoparticles to carrageenan matrix on optical transparency of the films. For the mechanical properties, the highest tensile strength was found for incorporation of 0.5% SiO2, while the elongation at break of the films improved with increasing SiO2 concentration.

  2. THE EFFECT OF HYDROGEL DRESSING COPOLYMER POLI(VINYLPIRROLIDONE (PVP - k- CARRAGEENAN PREPARED BY RADIATION AND HEALING TIMES ON THE RADIUS REDUCTIONS BURN INJURIED OF WISTAR WHITE RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erizal Erizal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pre-clinical study of poly (vinyl pirrolidone (PVP-k- carrageenan hydrogel has been carried out. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of hydrogel for healing burn injuried in the rats. The hydrogels were prepared by g-irradiation of aqueous solutions of 15 wt.-% PVP and 2 wt.-% k- carrageenan at a sterilization dose of 25 kGy. The physico-chemical properties of hydrogels were investigated. The results showed that the hydrogels suitable as candidate for wound dressing with gel fraction of 90 ± 5 (%, the water absorption was 4500 ± 55 (w/w, the water content was 83 ± 2 (%, tensile strength was 1,5 ± 0,1 kg/cm2 and adhesiveness was 0. The effect of the hydrogel as wound dressing was evaluated by attaching to a burn of the back skin of rats as a function of time observation. Advantages of the hydrogel were slightly faster rate of reducing radius diameter of injured burn skin, easy removal without damage to renewed skin.   Keywords: hydrogel, irradiation, copolymer, PVP, k carrageenan, diameter

  3. IL-33 promotes GATA-3 polarization of gut-derived T cells in experimental and ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Kvist, Peter Helding

    2015-01-01

    of the immune response in experimental colitis (piroxicam-accelerated colitis (PAC) in IL-10 -/- mice, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model) and UC.METHODS: Colonic IL-33 expression was determined in UC (8 active UC, 8 quiescent UC, and 7 controls) and experimental colitis. Mesenteric lymph node (MesLN) T cells...

  4. Fungal Colitis by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Galeazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PBM is an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus called Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It occurs in Latin America, with incidence of 1 to 3 per 100,000 inhabitants in endemic areas. The digestive tract is usually not affected, but when it occurs, it may lead to events similar to colorectal neoplasm and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is a case report of a 68-year-old female patient, with diarrhea without blood or mucus for 6 months, weight loss of 8 kg over the period. Abdominal ultrasonography showed some mass in the right colon, suggestive of cancer and liver perihilar lymph node. Colonoscopy showed lesions suggestive of Crohn's disease. Biopsy showed chronic granulomatous colitis of fungal etiology: Paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient did not tolerate oral treatment with itraconazole and subsequently sulfadiazine, requiring hospital admission for the treatment with amphotericin B. The presence of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the digestive tract may be associated with bloody diarrhea, mucus, rectal hemorrhage, abdominal pain, malabsorption syndrome. Histopathological studies show the fungus and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate and granulation tissue. The differential diagnoses are tuberculosis, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. The treatment is oral antifungal (itraconazole, sulfadiazine or intravenous (amphotericin B based. The case has caused diagnostic confusion between colon cancer (clinical and US and Crohn's disease (colonoscopy.Paracoccidioidomicose (PBM é uma infecção causada por um fungo dimórfico: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Ocorre na América Latina, com incidência de 1 a 3 por 100.000 habitantes em áreas endêmicas. O acometimento do trato digestivo é infrequente, sendo que pode levar a manifestações semelhantes à neoplasia colorretal e doença inflamatória intestinal (DII. Relatamos o caso da paciente feminina, 68 anos, com diarreia sem sangue ou muco há seis meses, com

  5. Stress activates pronociceptive endogenous opioid signalling in DRG neurons during chronic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Alba, Raquel; Valdez-Morales, Eduardo E; Jimenez-Vargas, Nestor N; Lopez-Lopez, Cintya; Jaramillo-Polanco, Josue; Okamoto, Takanobu; Nasser, Yasmin; Bunnett, Nigel W; Lomax, Alan E; Vanner, Stephen J

    2017-12-01

    Psychological stress accompanies chronic inflammatory diseases such as IBD, and stress hormones can exacerbate pain signalling. In contrast, the endogenous opioid system has an important analgesic action during chronic inflammation. This study examined the interaction of these pathways. Mouse nociceptive dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons were incubated with supernatants from segments of inflamed colon collected from patients with chronic UC and mice with dextran sodium sulfate (cDSS)-induced chronic colitis. Stress effects were studied by adding stress hormones (epinephrine and corticosterone) to dissociated neurons or by exposing cDSS mice to water avoidance stress. Changes in excitability of colonic DRG nociceptors were measured using patch clamp and Ca 2+ imaging techniques. Supernatants from patients with chronic UC and from colons of mice with chronic colitis caused a naloxone-sensitive inhibition of neuronal excitability and capsaicin-evoked Ca 2+ responses. Stress hormones decreased signalling induced by human and mouse supernatants. This effect resulted from stress hormones signalling directly to DRG neurons and indirectly through signalling to the immune system, leading to decreased opioid levels and increased acute inflammation. The net effect of stress was a change endogenous opioid signalling in DRG neurons from an inhibitory to an excitatory effect. This switch was associated with a change in G protein-coupled receptor excitatory signalling to a pathway sensitive to inhibitors of protein kinase A-protein, phospholipase C-protein and G protein βϒ subunits. Stress hormones block the inhibitory actions of endogenous opioids and can change the effect of opioid signalling in DRG neurons to excitation. Targeting these pathways may prevent heavy opioid use in IBD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Differential Acute Effects of Selenomethionine and Sodium Selenite on the Severity of Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Hiller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The European population is only suboptimally supplied with the essential trace element selenium. Such a selenium status is supposed to worsen colitis while colitis-suppressive effects were observed with adequate or supplemented amounts of both organic selenomethionine (SeMet and inorganic sodium selenite. In order to better understand the effect of these selenocompounds on colitis development we examined colonic phenotypes of mice fed supplemented diets before the onset of colitis or during the acute phase. Colitis was induced by treating mice with 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS for seven days. The selenium-enriched diets were either provided directly after weaning (long-term or were given to mice with a suboptimal selenium status after DSS withdrawal (short-term. While long-term selenium supplementation had no effect on colitis development, short-term selenite supplementation, however, resulted in a more severe colitis. Colonic selenoprotein expression was maximized in all selenium-supplemented groups independent of the selenocompound or intervention time. This indicates that the short-term selenite effect appears to be independent from colonic selenoprotein expression. In conclusion, a selenite supplementation during acute colitis has no health benefits but may even aggravate the course of disease.

  7. Medium-term follow-up of ulcerative colitis in Cape Town | O'Keefe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 114 patients with ulcerative colitis diagnosed in Greater Cape Town between 1970 and 1979 were followed up 11 years later. Ninety per cent of those contacted were in remission or had mild symptoms only. Eleven patients had died; 3 deaths (in total colitis patients) were disease-related but the overall mortality rate in ...

  8. Patchy cecal inflammation associated with distal ulcerative colitis: a prospective endoscopic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Haens, G.; Geboes, K.; Peeters, M.; Baert, F.; Ectors, N.; Rutgeerts, P.

    1997-01-01

    It is generally believed that the mucosal inflammation in ulcerative colitis is characterized by a diffuse, continuous involvement starting from the rectum without "skip areas." It was the aim of this study to examine 20 patients with established "left-sided ulcerative colitis" prospectively by

  9. Long-term outcome of treatment with intravenous cyclosporin in patients with severe ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Joris; D'Haens, Geert; Zeegers, Miranda; van Assche, Gert; Hiele, Martin; D'Hoore, André; Penninckx, Freddy; Vermeire, Severine; Rutgeerts, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Iv cyclosporin A (CSA) is an effective therapy in patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC). It remains unclear if this treatment affects the course of the disease in the long run. We investigated the long-term efficacy and safety in 86 patients with ulcerative colitis treated with i.v. CSA at

  10. Primary sclerosing cholangitis in patients with ulcerative colitis: two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Se Hwan; Lee, Dong Ho; Choi, Dong Sik; Ko, Young Tae [Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis, a chronic cholestatic liver disease, is uncommon and is characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts. It frequently occurs in association with ulcerative colitis. We describe two cases of primary sclerosing cholangitis in patients with ulcerative colitis.

  11. Efficacy of Adalimumab as a long term maintenance therapy in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Edel

    2013-03-01

    Adalimumab is a recombinant human IgG1 monoclonal antibody to TNF-alpha. There are limited data with regard to its efficacy in ulcerative colitis. We report experience of adalimumab in ulcerative colitis in a single centre with a focus on the ability of this agent to maintain response and avoid colectomy in the medium to long-term.

  12. Combined portal, splenic and mesenteric venous thrombosis in inactive ulcerative colitis with heterozygous mutation in MTHFR gene: A rare case of thrombophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Gürsoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombophilia is a rare but potentially catastrophic phenomenon occurring in patients having tendency of thrombosis. It may lead to serious complications. The etiology of thrombophilia is thought to be multifactorial and related to both acquired and inherited factors. Inflammatory bowel disease is an acquired cause of thrombophilia. Thromboembolic events are seen during inflammatory bowel disease, especially during the active period of the disease. In inflammatory bowel disease, thrombus formation in portal, splenic and mesenteric veins are not common. Besides, the association of genetic disorders related to metabolism of homocysteine with inflammatory bowel disease has been evidenced, especially in Crohn disease and rarely in ulcerative colitis. We present a rare case of ulcerative colitis in association with combined portal, splenic and mesenteric vein thrombosis. The patient was recently diagnosed with the disease which was in the inactive period. Interestingly, our patient was also heterozygous for the mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene.

  13. Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Marrubium vulgare L. Methanol Extract on Carrageenan- Induced Paw Inflammation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fathiazad, Maryam Rameshrad, Samira Asghari, Sanaz Hamedeyazdan, Alireza Garjani, Nasrin Maleki-Dizaji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The upward desire in using traditional medicine as a remedy for treatment of different diseases has led the scientists to be thoughtful on plants as alternative sources of conventional drugs. Methods: Herein, anti-inflammatory effects of Marrubium vulgare methanolic extract was evaluated in carrageenan- induced paw edema in rats through examining paw thickness, histological studies and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO. The antioxidant activity of M. vulgare extract and its phenolic and flavonoids content were evaluated by folin-Ciocalteau, and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay, separately. Results: The results showed that M. vulgare alleviated paw inflammation as indexed by reduction paw thickness (p<0.001 as well as MPO activity (p<0.001, which was associated with a marked decrease in tissue edema. Moreover, the extract RC50 value for DPPH and nitric oxide antioxidant activity was 177 µg/mL and 370.5 µg/ml, besides, the total phenolic and flavonoids were as 625 mg gallic acid equivalent and 1.62 g quercetin equivalent per 100 g of dried plant material. Conclusion: In the main, the observed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of M. vulgare could be attributed to the high amounts of phenolic and flavonoid content identified in the extract.

  14. Synthesis and application of polypyrrole/carrageenan nano-bio composite as a cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Chakavak; Ghasemi, Mostafa; Heng, Lee Yook; Hassan, Sedky H A; Abdi, Mahnaz M; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Ilbeygi, Hamid; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi

    2014-12-19

    A novel nano-bio composite polypyrrole (PPy)/kappa-carrageenan(KC) was fabricated and characterized for application as a cathode catalyst in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). High resolution SEM and TEM verified the bud-like shape and uniform distribution of the PPy in the KC matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has approved the amorphous structure of the PPy/KC as well. The PPy/KC nano-bio composites were then studied as an electrode material, due to their oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) ability as the cathode catalyst in the MFC and the results were compared with platinum (Pt) as the most common cathode catalyst. The produced power density of the PPy/KC was 72.1 mW/m(2) while it was 46.8 mW/m(2) and 28.8 mW/m(2) for KC and PPy individually. The efficiency of the PPy/KC electrode system is slightly lower than a Pt electrode (79.9 mW/m(2)) but due to the high cost of Pt electrodes, the PPy/KC electrode system has potential to be an alternative electrode system for MFCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemostatic granules and dressing prepared from formulations of carboxymethyl cellulose, kappa-carrageenan and polyethylene oxide crosslinked by gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Bin Jeremiah D.; Aranilla, Charito T.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Cruz, Veriza Rita C.; Vista, Jeanina Richelle; Abad, Lucille V.

    2018-03-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage remains a persistent problem especially in anatomical areas where compression and tourniquet cannot be applied. Hemostatic agents are materials which can achieve control of bleeding in acute, life-threatening traumatic coagulopathy. In this study, we prepared biocompatible hydrogel-based hemostat crosslinked by ionizing radiation. Granules made from carboxymethyl cellulose and dressing from kappa carrageenan and polyethylene oxide were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, and gel analysis. Gamma radiation with a dose of 25 kGy was used for sterilization process. Stability studies indicate that the products remain effective with a shelf life of up to 18 months based on accelerated aging. Both hemostatic agents were demonstrated to be effective in vitro blood clotting assays showing a low blood clotting index, high platelet adhesion capacity and accelerated clotting time. Hemostat granules and dressing were also used in a femoral artery rat bleeding model where hemorrhage control was achieved in 90 s without compression and resulted in 100% survival rate after a 7 and 14-day observation.

  16. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of products from Croton celtidifolius Bailon on carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, G M; Siqueira Junior, J M; Delle Monache, F; Pizzolatti, M G; Ckless, K; Ribeiro-do-Valle, R M

    2007-02-01

    Croton celtidifolius Bailon, commonly known as Sangue-de-Adáve or Pau-Andrade, is a tree found in the Atlantic forest of southern Brazil. It has been popularly used for the treatment of inflammatory and ulcerative disorders. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in an ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from C. celtidifolius Bailon. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of EAF and its sub-fractions (35 and 63, catechin) on inflammatory (cell migration and plasma extravasation) and oxidative (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and superoxide anion production) parameters in carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats. NO production was also measured by nitrite/nitrate levels. EAF and sub-fraction 63 (63SF) showed anti-inflammatory activity, as indicated by a reduction in plasma extravasation and cell migration (mainly polymorphonuclear leukocytes) to the pleural cavity. Furthermore, EAF treatment decreased the production of superoxide radical anion by cells isolated from the pleural cavity, while it did not affect the nitrite/nitrate levels in exudates. The results show that C. celtidifolius contains substances with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that, at least in part, act by a modulation of oxidative stress by phenolic compounds.

  17. Successful treatment of ulcerative colitis with leukocytapheresis using non-woven polyester filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Hiromi; Kawamura, Naoyuki; Horie, Takashi; Ohizumi, Hiroko; Tamaki, Tohru; Kukita, Kazutaka; Meguro, Jun-ichi; Yonekawa, Motoki; Saitoh, Masao; Kawamura, Akio

    2003-12-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the rectum and colon. Although the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis is not fully elucidated, cell-mediated immunity plays an important role in disease pathogenesis. Leukocytapheresis is a newly emerging therapy to eliminate activated leukocyte from systemic circulation. We have studied the effects of leukocytapheresis on patients with ulcerative colitis who had failed to respond to conventional therapy. A total of 51 patients with ulcerative colitis were treated with apheresis using a non-woven polyester fiber filter (Finecell, Asahi Medical Co.,Tokyo, Japan) originally developed as a microcoagulation elimination filter for massive transfusion. Of the 51 patients, 33 (64.7%) achieved clinical remission manifested by clinical activity and colonoscopic findings without any adverse effects. This result suggested that leukocytapheresis using Finecell might serve as an alternative therapy for ulcerative colitis as other leukocytapheresis using centrifugation or column.

  18. Relationship between Mast Cells and the Colitis with Relapse Induced by Trinitrobenzesulphonic Acid in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Luchini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the role of mast cells in colitis with relapse induced in Wistar rats by trinitrobenzenosulphonic acid. Colitis induction increased the histamine concentration in the colon, which peaked on day 26. The number of mast cells, probably immature, was ten times higher on day 8. Different from animals infected with intestinal parasites, after colitis remission, mast cells do not migrate to the spleen, showing that mast cell proliferation presents different characteristics depending on the inflammation stimuli. Treatment with sulfasalazine, doxantrazole, quercetin, or nedocromil did not increase the histamine concentration or the mast cell number in the colon on day 26, thereby showing absence of degranulation of these cells. In conclusion, although mast cell proliferation is associated with colitis, these cells and their mediators appear to play no clear role in the colitis with relapses.

  19. Altered Brain Excitability and Increased Anxiety in Mice With Experimental Colitis: Consideration of Hyperalgesia and Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewir D. Nyuyki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC are incurable lifelong inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD with a rising worldwide incidence. IBD is characterized by diarrhea, rectal bleeding, severe cramping and weight loss. However, there is a growing evidence that IBD is also associated with anxiety- and depression-related disorders, which further increase the societal burden of these diseases. Given the limited knowledge of central nervous system (CNS changes in IBD, we investigated CNS-related comorbidities in a mouse model of experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS administration in drinking water for 5 days. In male and female C57BL6J mice, DSS treatment caused increased brain excitability, revealed by a decrease in seizure onset times after intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid. Moreover, both sexes showed increased anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM and open field (OF paradigms. We assessed somatic pain levels, because they may influence behavioral responses. Only male mice were hyperalgesic when tested with calibrated von Frey hairs and on the hotplate for mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity respectively. Administration of diazepam (DZP; ip, 1 mg/kg 30 min before EPM rescued the anxious phenotype and improved locomotion, even though it significantly increased thermal sensitivity in both sexes. This indicates that the altered behavioral response is unlikely attributable to an interference with movement due to somatic pain in females. We show that experimental colitis increases CNS excitability in response to administration of kainic acid, and increases anxiety-related behavior as revealed using the EPM and OF tests.

  20. SOCS2 and SOCS3 expression in ulcerative colitis and their correlation with inflammatory response and immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Huang1

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of SOCS2 and SOCS3 expression in ulcerative colitis tissue with inflammatory response and immune response. Methods: Ulcerative colitis lesions and normal mucosa from colonoscopic biopsy in Central Hospital of Zibo Mining Refco Group Ltd between May 2014 and July 2016 were selected and enrolled in UC group and control group respectively. RNA was extracted to determine mRNA expression of SOCS2 and SOCS3 as well as inflammatory response JAKs/STATs pathway molecules; protein was extracted to determine the contents of immune response cytokines. Results: SOCS2 mRNA expression in intestinal mucosa of UC group was not significantly different from that of control group, and SOCS3 mRNA expression was significantly lower than that of control group; JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5 mRNA expression as well as IFN-γ and IL-17 protein contents in intestinal mucosa of UC group were significantly higher than those of control group while IL-4 and IL-10 protein contents were significantly lower than those of control group; JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5 mRNA expression as well as IFN-γ and IL-17 protein contents in UC group of intestinal mucosa with low SOCS3 expression were significantly higher than those of intestinal mucosa with high SOCS3 expression while IL-4 and IL-10 protein contents were significantly lower than those of intestinal mucosa with high SOCS3 expression. Conclusion: Low expression of SOCS3 in ulcerative colitis can aggravate the inflammatory reaction and cause the imbalance of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg immune response.

  1. Increased lymphocyte apoptosis in mouse models of colitis upon ABT-737 treatment is dependent upon BIM expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, C; Mozaffari, M; Tosevski, V; Caj, M; Cippà, P; McRae, B L; Graff, C L; Rogler, G; Fried, M; Hausmann, M

    2015-08-01

    Exaggerated activation of lymphocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Medical therapies are linked to the BCL-2 family-mediated apoptosis. Imbalance in BCL-2 family proteins may cause failure in therapeutic responses. We investigated the role of BCL-2 inhibitor ABT-737 for lymphocyte apoptosis in mice under inflammatory conditions. B.6129P2-interleukin (IL)-10(tm1Cgn) /J (IL-10(-/-) ) weighing 25-30 g with ongoing colitis were used. Fifty mg/kg/day ABT-737 was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.). Haematological analyses were performed with an ADVIA 2120 flow cytometer and mass cytometry with a CyTOF 2. Following i.p. administration, ABT-737 was detected in both spontaneous and acute colitis in peripheral blood (PBL) and colon tissue. Treatment led to lymphopenia. CD4(+) CD44(+) CD62L(+) central memory and CD8(+) , CD44(+) CD62L(-) central memory T cells were decreased in PBL upon ABT-737 compared to vehicle-receiving controls. Increased apoptosis upon ABT-737 was determined in blood lymphocytes, splenocytes and Peyer's patches and was accompanied by a decrease in TNF and IL-1B. ABT-737 positively altered the colonic mucosa and ameliorated inflammation, as shown by colonoscopy, histology and colon length. A decreased BIM/BCL-2 ratio or absence of BIM in both Bim(-) (/) (-) and Il10(-) (/) (-) × Bim(-) (/) (-) impeded the protective effect of ABT-737. The BIM/BCL-2 ratio decreased with age and during the course of treatment. Thus, long-term treatment resulted in adapted TNF levels and macroscopic mucosal damage. ABT-737 was efficacious in diminishing lymphocytes and ameliorating colitis in a BIM-dependent manner. Regulation of inappropriate survival of lymphocytes by ABT-737 may provide a therapeutic strategy in IBD. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  2. Hemidesmosome integrity protects the colon against colitis and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Arcangelis, Adèle; Hamade, Hussein; Alpy, Fabien; Normand, Sylvain; Bruyère, Emilie; Lefebvre, Olivier; Méchine-Neuville, Agnès; Siebert, Stéphanie; Pfister, Véronique; Lepage, Patricia; Laquerriere, Patrice; Dembele, Doulaye; Delanoye-Crespin, Anne; Rodius, Sophie; Robine, Sylvie; Kedinger, Michèle; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Simon-Assmann, Patricia; Chamaillard, Mathias; Labouesse, Michel; Georges-Labouesse, Elisabeth

    2017-10-01

    Epidemiological and clinical data indicate that patients suffering from IBD with long-standing colitis display a higher risk to develop colorectal high-grade dysplasia. Whereas carcinoma invasion and metastasis rely on basement membrane (BM) disruption, experimental evidence is lacking regarding the potential contribution of epithelial cell/BM anchorage on inflammation onset and subsequent neoplastic transformation of inflammatory lesions. Herein, we analyse the role of the α6β4 integrin receptor found in hemidesmosomes that attach intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to the laminin-containing BM. We developed new mouse models inducing IEC-specific ablation of α6 integrin either during development (α6 ΔIEC ) or in adults (α6 ΔIEC-TAM ). Strikingly, all α6 ΔIEC mutant mice spontaneously developed long-standing colitis, which degenerated overtime into infiltrating adenocarcinoma. The sequence of events leading to disease onset entails hemidesmosome disruption, BM detachment, IL-18 overproduction by IECs, hyperplasia and enhanced intestinal permeability. Likewise, IEC-specific ablation of α6 integrin induced in adult mice (α6 ΔIEC-TAM ) resulted in fully penetrant colitis and tumour progression. Whereas broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment lowered tissue pathology and IL-1β secretion from infiltrating myeloid cells, it failed to reduce Th1 and Th17 response. Interestingly, while the initial intestinal inflammation occurred independently of the adaptive immune system, tumourigenesis required B and T lymphocyte activation. We provide for the first time evidence that loss of IECs/BM interactions triggered by hemidesmosome disruption initiates the development of inflammatory lesions that progress into high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma. Colorectal neoplasia in our mouse models resemble that seen in patients with IBD, making them highly attractive for discovering more efficient therapies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  3. The role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4-mediated colitis-associated neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Lory A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously found that TLR4-deficient (TLR4-/- mice demonstrate decreased expression of mucosal PGE 2 and are protected against colitis-associated neoplasia. However, it is still unclear whether PGE 2 is the central factor downstream of TLR4 signaling that promotes intestinal tumorigenesis. To further elucidate critical downstream pathways involving TLR4-mediated intestinal tumorigenesis, we examined the effects of exogenously administered PGE 2 in TLR4-/- mice to see if PGE 2 bypasses the protection from colitis-associated tumorigenesis. Method Mouse colitis-associated neoplasia was induced by azoxymethane (AOM injection followed by two cycles of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS treatment. Two different doses of PGE 2 (high dose group, 200 μg, n = 8; and low dose group, 100 μg, n = 6 were administered daily during recovery period of colitis by gavage feeding. Another group was given PGE 2 during DSS treatment (200 μg, n = 5. Inflammation and dysplasia were assessed histologically. Mucosal Cox-2 and amphiregulin (AR expression, prostanoid synthesis, and EGFR activation were analyzed. Results In control mice treated with PBS, the average number of tumors was greater in WT mice (n = 13 than in TLR4-/- mice (n = 7. High dose but not low dose PGE 2 treatment caused an increase in epithelial proliferation. 28.6% of PBS-treated TLR4-/- mice developed dysplasia (tumors/animal: 0.4 ± 0.2. By contrast, 75.0% (tumors/animal: 1.5 ± 1.2, P 2 treatment. Endogenous prostanoid synthesis was differentially affected by PGE 2 treatment during acute and recovery phases of colitis. Exogenous administration of PGE 2 increased colitis-associated tumorigenesis but this only occurred during the recovery phase. Lastly, PGE 2 treatment increased mucosal expression of AR and Cox-2, thus inducing EGFR activation and forming a positive feedback mechanism to amplify mucosal Cox-2. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of PGE 2 as a

  4. Rationale for Using of Bifidobacterium Probiotic Strains-Fermented Milk Against Colitis Based on Animal Experiments and Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Akemi; Umesaki, Yoshinori

    2009-06-01

    Probiotic foods such as probiotic strain-fermented milk or supplements proposing various health claims are now available. The beneficial effects of these probiotic foods on the digestive system are expected for not only healthy persons but also patients with diseases of the alimentary tract. This review focused on the rationale of using our Bifidobacterium strains-fermented milk as an adjunct for the prevention of recurrence or exacerbation of colitis. Animal experiments using gnotobiotic colitis or spontaneously colitis models and also human clinical trials of ulcerative colitis patients showed the potential of Bifidobacterium strains-fermented milk as a beneficial anti-colitis adjunct.

  5. Pathogenesis and biomarkers of carcinogenesis in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Gudjonsson, Thorkell; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2011-01-01

    -driven mechanisms of DNA damage, including the generation and effects of reactive oxygen species, microsatellite instability, telomere shortening and chromosomal instability, are reviewed, as are the molecular responses to genomic stress. We also discuss how these mechanisms can be translated into usable biomarkers....... Although progress has been made in the understanding of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis, markers based on these findings possess insufficient sensitivity or specificity to be usable as reliable biomarkers for risk of colorectal cancer development in patients with ulcerative colitis. However, screening...

  6. Ischaemic colitis associated with carcinoma of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeders, J.W.A.; Rosenbusch, B.; Tytgat, G.N.J.

    1982-01-01

    In a retrospective study of one hundred and seventy patients with ischaemic colitis, we found eight patients with partially obstructive carcinoma of the colon located distally, seven located in the sigmoid and one in the splenic flexure. The frequency of this association (1-4.7% in the literature and 5.3% in our series) requires careful examination by radiologist and surgeon. The radiologist should be alert to the association of ischaemic damage proximal to an obstructive colorectal cancer. The surgeon must examine any colonic segment removed for carcinoma in order to exclude an ischaemic process in the area of the anastomosis and prevent leakage at the anastomosis or stricture formation. (orig.)

  7. Processed coffee alleviates DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd L. Fiebich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and it has been demonstrated that it has important therapeutic activities not only because of its caffeine content but also owing to the presence of other biologically active small molecules such as chlorogenic acid, trigonelline and cyclopentadiones. However, chlorogenic acid is degraded into catechol, pyrogallol and hydroxyhydroquinone, which are thought to induce irritation of the gastric mucosa. To reduce the content of irritant compounds processing methods have been developed prior to roasting the coffee beans.Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective effects of processed coffee (Idee-Kaffee on in LPS-treated human primary monocytes and in a murine model of colon inflammation (IBD model.Results: In this study we have analyzed the effects on inflammatory events in cultured cells and in mice drinking a commercially available processed coffee. The processed coffee inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, IL-6 and IL-8, and other inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin (PGE2 and 8-isoprostane in cultured human primary monocytes. Oral administration of dissolved processed coffee, i.e., in its usual beverage form, improved greatly the adverse macroscopic and histological features of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Processed coffee not only largely prevented DSS-induced colitis but also dramatically suppressed in vivo NF-B and STAT3 activities through inhibition of IB and STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, this solubleFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(5:133-145coffee bean extract reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-11, and IL-6 and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in colonic tissues.Conclusions: This work identified

  8. Mesalazine-induced myopericarditis in a patient with ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Asadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old male with a background of ulcerative colitis presented with a two-week history of central chest pain. His ECG on presentation showed global T wave inversion with a peak troponin I of 165 ng/mL. Clinical diagnosis of myopericarditis/myocarditis was made. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (MR confirmed the diagnosis. On detailed assessment of his medication history, mesalazine was suspected as an etiological factor, with discontinuation resulting in an improvement in symptoms, inflammatory markers and cardiac enzymes. This is a unique case of mesalazine-induced myopericarditis on a background of inflammatory bowel disease.

  9. HLA-DR expression and disease activity in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L O; Elling, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1986-01-01

    In 12 patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) the rectal epithelial cells were analyzed for HLA-DR antigens by an immunohistochemical technique. The clinical, rectoscopic, and histologic stages were also determined. The investigations were carried out at the beginning of the study and 2 weeks......-DR antigens on rectal epithelial cells of patients with UC could not be predicted from the clinical, rectoscopic, or histologic findings. HLA-DR expression is normally restricted to immunocompetent cells. The presence of HLA-DR antigens on epithelial cells may be a consequence of immunological reactions...

  10. Peculiarities of the course of ulcerative colitis in children at the present stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Denisova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. As to severity of the course, the incidence of complications and mortality rate, ulcerative colitis hold a position within the top of the gastrointestinal system diseases in children. Goal of research — to study peculiarities of the course of ulcerative colitis at the present stage. Materials and methods. The retrospective analysis was conducted of 184 clinical records of the children, who were on examination and treatment at the Department of the diseases of gastrointestinal system of the State Institution “Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine” between 2004 and 2014. Results and discussion. Ulcerative colitis is common in the children of all ages, among which the preschool children and teenagers are at greater risk than others. The risk factors include both the antenatal and the postnatal ones: gestational toxicosis and miscarriage threat, weight deficit at birth, artificial feeding, intestinal infections. Ulcerative colitis is characterized by chronic relapse, slow progression of the disease, and the typical clinical symptoms are: diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, abdominal pain syndrome, toxic syndrome, late physical development. In terms of localization, the inflammation process most often affects the entire large bowel (59.6 %, left-sided colitis (28.5 %, and proctosigmoiditis (accounts for 11.9 % are less common. The informative criteria of ulcerative colitis activity are the Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI, fecal calprotectin level, a number of complete blood count values (hemoglobin, leucocytes, platelets, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and biochemical studies (C-reactive protein, alpha-2 globulins. The modern combined baseline therapy is efficient in 22 % of patients suffering from total colitis, in 42–58 % — from left-sided colitis according to the follow-up study results. Monotherapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid medications was

  11. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus GG alleviated DSS-induced colitis in mice and activated epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoyo Yoda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was assessed for its ability to alleviate DSS-induced colitis in mice and activate epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. In this study mice were treated with DSS to induce colitis and they were given Lactobacillus GG fermented milk to assess the effect of probiotic on colitis. Lactobacillus GG fermented milk significantly reduced the colitis associated changes suggesting a protective effect against DSS induced colitis.

  12. Inactivation of JNK2 as carcinogenic factor in colitis-associated and sporadic colorectal carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessel, Wiebke; Silver, Andrew; Jechorek, Doerthe; Guenther, Thomas; Roehl, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Kalinski, Thomas; Roessner, Albert; Poehlmann-Nitsche, Angela

    2017-05-01

    We recently reported that dysregulated c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) activity causes defective cell cycle checkpoint control, inducing neoplastic transformation in a cellular ulcerative colitis (UC) model. In the quiescent chronic phase of UC, p-p54 JNK was down-regulated and p-p46 JNK was up-regulated. Both were up-regulated in the acute phase. Consequently, increased p21WAF1 and γ-H2AX, two JNK-regulated proteins, induced cell cycle arrest. Their down-regulation led to checkpoint override, causing increased proliferation and undetected DNA damage in quiescent chronic phase, all characteristics of tumorigenesis. We investigated expression of p-JNK2, p-JNK1-3, p21WAF1, γ-H2AX and Ki67 by immunohistochemistry in cases of quiescent UC (QUC), active UC (AUC), UC-dysplasia and UC-related colorectal carcinoma (UC-CRC). Comparison was made to normal healthy colorectal mucosa, sporadic adenoma and colorectal carcinoma (CRC), diverticulitis and Crohns disease (CD). We found p-JNK2 up-regulation in AUC and its early down-regulation in UC-CRC and CRC carcinogenesis. With down-regulated p-JNK2, p21WAF1 was also decreased. Ki67 was inversely expressed, showing increased proliferation early in UC-CRC and CRC carcinogenesis. p-JNK1-3 was increased in AUC and QUC. Less increased γ-H2AX in UC-CRC compared to CRC gave evidence that colitis-triggered inflammation masks DNA damage, thus contributing to neoplastic transformation. We hypothesize that JNK-dependent cell cycle arrest is important in AUC, while chronic inflammation causes dysregulated JNK activity in quiescent phase that may contribute to checkpoint override, promoting UC carcinogenesis. We suggest restoring p-JNK2 expression as a novel therapeutic strategy to early prevent the development of UC-related cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Cytokine networks in animal models of colitis-associated cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Efstathios; Margonis, Georgios Antonios; Angelou, Anastasios; Zografos, George C; Pikoulis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    It is well-known that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) poses an increased, yet not definitely estimated, risk of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC), which is considered a more aggressive and distinct in both genetic and molecular levels clinical entity compared to sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). The present review discusses the cytokine networks involved in CAC-based translational findings from suitable animal models of the disease. Moreover, we summarize the most prominent data concerning the role of Th1, Th2, Th17 and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of CAC. Last, we briefly address the controversies between basic science findings in IBD and CAC and suggest further directions regarding research on cytokines. This review should serve as a primer for clinicians and surgeons to understand the rapidly evolving field of cytokines in the context of CAC. The MEDLINE database was thoroughly searched using the keywords: cytokines, colitis-associated cancer, animal models, carcinogenesis. Additional articles were gathered and evaluated. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Optimal management of steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis

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    Khan HMW

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hafiz M Waqas Khan,1 Faisal Mehmood,1 Nabeel Khan2 1Department of Medicine, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Section of Gastroenterology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia VA Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory condition that is variable in both extent and severity of disease as well as response to therapy. Corticosteroids (CSs were the first drugs used in the management of UC and are still used for induction of remission. However, because of their extensive side-effect profile, they are not utilized for maintenance of remission. In view of this, CS-free remission has become an important end point while evaluating therapeutic agents used in the management of UC. This review highlights the results of various studies conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different medications to attain CS-free remission in the setting of active UC. The drugs reviewed include established agents such as thiopurines, methotrexate, infliximab, adalimumab, vedolizumab, golimumab, and newer experimental agents, and if all else fails, colectomy will be performed. The efficacy of these drugs is evaluated individually. Our aim is to provide a synopsis of the work done in this field to date. Keywords: ulcerative colitis, steroid dependent, thiopurines, MTX, adalimumab, infliximab

  15. Eosinophilic Colitis: University of Minnesota Experience and Literature Review

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    Wolfgang B. Gaertner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic colitis is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease that is poorly understood. Neonates and young adults are more frequently affected. Clinical presentation is highly variable depending on the depth of inflammatory response (mucosal, transmural, or serosal. The pathophysiology of eosinophilic colitis is unclear but is suspected to be related to a hypersensitivity reaction given its correlation with other atopic disorders and clinical response to corticosteroid therapy. Diagnosis is that of exclusion and differential diagnoses are many because colonic tissue eosinophilia may occur with other colitides (parasitic, drug-induced, inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders. Similar to other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, steroid-based therapy and diet modification achieve very good and durable responses. In this paper, we present our experience with this rare pathology. Five patients (3 pediatric and 2 adults presented with diarrhea and hematochezia. Mean age at presentation was 26 years. Mean duration of symptoms before pathologic diagnosis was 8 months. Mean eosinophil count per patient was 31 per high-power field. The pediatric patients responded very well to dietary modifications, with no recurrences. The adult patients were treated with steroids and did not respond. Overall mean followup was 22 (range, 2–48 months.

  16. Hemorrhagic colitis as a presenting feature of Wegener granulomatosis.

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    Qian, Qi; Cornell, Lynn; Chandan, Vishal; Hartman, Robert; Caples, Sean

    2010-12-01

    Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is an idiopathic small vessel vasculitis involving primarily airway and kidneys. Intestinal involvement of WG is rare and usually occurs after several years of WG and its treatment. We report a case of WG, presented initially as rapid-onset hemorrhagic pancolitis without any preexisting or concurrent illness or any medication use. A 79-year-old previously healthy woman presented with 2-day duration of bloody diarrhea. Colonoscopy showed pancolitis with numerous ulcers; the biopsy showed foci of inflammation, ulceration and hemorrhage in the lamina propria, without features of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Her stool studies were negative for infection. She subsequently developed pulmonary hemorrhage and kidney dysfunction. Kidney biopsy showed pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis. She responded to a combination therapy of steroids, cyclophosphamide and plasmapheresis with resolution of intestinal and pulmonary symptoms and improvement of kidney function. This case represents the first known example of colitis as an initial presentation of WG without confounding etiologic factors. Hemorrhagic colitis, although uncommon, may be the major presenting feature of WG.

  17. Infrared spectroscopy as a screening technique for colitis

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    Titus, Jitto; Ghimire, Hemendra; Viennois, Emilie; Merlin, Didier; Perera, A. G. Unil

    2017-05-01

    There remains a great need for diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), for which the current technique, colonoscopy, is not cost-effective and presents a non-negligible risk for complications. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a new screening technique to evaluate colitis. Comparing infrared spectra of sera to study the differences between them can prove challenging due to the complexity of its biological constituents giving rise to a plethora of vibrational modes. Overcoming these inherent infrared spectral analysis difficulties involving highly overlapping absorbance peaks and the analysis of the data by curve fitting to improve the resolution is discussed. The proposed technique uses colitic and normal wild type mice dried serum to obtain ATR/FTIR spectra to effectively differentiate colitic mice from normal mice. Using this method, Amide I group frequency (specifically, alpha helix to beta sheet ratio of the protein secondary structure) was identified as disease associated spectral signature in addition to the previously reported glucose and mannose signatures in sera of chronic and acute mice models of colitis. Hence, this technique will be able to identify changes in the sera due to various diseases.

  18. Cellulose Supplementation Early in Life Ameliorates Colitis in Adult Mice

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    Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Hollister, Emily B.; Luna, Ruth Ann; Szigeti, Reka; Tatevian, Nina; Smith, C. Wayne; Versalovic, James; Kellermayer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]) where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001]), and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]). Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation. PMID:23437211

  19. Ulcerative colitis in northern Portugal and Galicia in Spain.

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    Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Magro, Fernando; Carpio, Daniel; Lago, Paula; Echarri, Ana; Cotter, José; Pereira, Santos; Gonçalves, Raquel; Lorenzo, Aurelio; Carvalho, Laura; Castro, Javier; Barros, Luisa; Dias, Jorge Amil; Rodrigues, Susana; Portela, Francisco; Dias, Camila; da Costa-Pereira, Altamiro

    2010-07-01

    Clinical and therapeutic patterns of ulcerative colitis (UC) are variable in different world regions. The purpose of this study was to examine two close independent southern European UC populations from 2 bordering countries and observe how demographic and clinical characteristics of patients can influence the severity of UC. A cross-sectional study was conducted during a 15-month period (September 2005 to December 2006) based on data of 2 Web registries of UC patients. Patients were stratified according to the Montreal Classification and disease severity was defined by the type of treatment taken. A total of 1549 UC patients were included, 1008 (65%) from northern Portugal and 541 (35%) from Galicia (northwest Spain). A female predominance (57%) was observed in Portuguese patients (P Galicia (odds ratio [OR] 2.737, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.846-4.058; OR 5.799, 95% CI: 3.433-9.795, respectively) and biologic treatment in Galicia (OR 6.329, 95% CI: 2.641-15.166). Younger patients presented a severe course at onset with more frequent use of immunosuppressors in both countries. In a large population of UC patients from two independent southern European countries, most patients did not require aggressive therapy, but extensive colitis was a clear risk factor for more severe disease.

  20. Appendiceal Mucocele Detected under Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

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    Rohta Noaki

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old female patient with ulcerative colitis was referred to our outpatient clinic in January 2008 with right lower abdominal pain without bloody diarrhea. Colonoscopy found mild proctosigmoiditis and a submucoal tumor with a maximal diameter of 5 cm in the cecum. Computed tomography revealed a large, hypodense, cystic cylindrical structure extending to the pelvic space. For severe pain, she underwent partial resection of the cecum including the tumor in March 2008. Intraoperatively, the vermiform appendix was swollen like a sausage and compressing the cecum, which accounted for what appeared to be a submucosal tumor like a volcano by endoscopy. Lymphadenectomy was not performed because malignancy was not suspected. In the surgical specimen, the vermiform appendix was spindle-shaped and contained a large quantity of viscous liquid. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was mucinous cystadenoma, and no cancer cells were present in the viscous liquid within the vermiform appendix. The patient left the hospital 7 days postoperatively, and her colitis remains in remission without any complications.