WorldWideScience

Sample records for carpooling

  1. Intelligent Carpooling in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Møller, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Rural transportation is facing the challenges of the required mobility increasing and the public transportation parallel being limited to a deficient level. A new mobility application (app) based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), called Intelligent Carpooling, can be a significant contributor...... to mitigate these challenges. This system uses ITS to plan and coordinate carpooling. A study in two Danish rural areas found that a markedly part of residents are interesting in Intelligent Carpooling, but also that they require knowledge of whom they are driving with and as well as planning the carpooling...... carpooling work....

  2. A Traffic Restriction Scheme for Enhancing Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of alleviating traffic congestion, this paper proposes a scheme to encourage travelers to carpool by traffic restriction. By a variational inequity we describe travelers’ mode (solo driving and carpooling and route choice under user equilibrium principle in the context of fixed demand and detect the performance of a simple network with various restriction links, restriction proportions, and carpooling costs. Then the optimal traffic restriction scheme aiming at minimal total travel cost is designed through a bilevel program and applied to a Sioux Fall network example with genetic algorithm. According to various requirements, optimal restriction regions and proportions for restricted automobiles are captured. From the results it is found that traffic restriction scheme is possible to enhance carpooling and alleviate congestion. However, higher carpooling demand is not always helpful to the whole network. The topology of network, OD demand, and carpooling cost are included in the factors influencing the performance of the traffic system.

  3. A New Model for a Carpool Matching Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jizhe; Curtin, Kevin M; Li, Weihong; Zhao, Yonglong

    2015-01-01

    Carpooling is an effective means of reducing traffic. A carpool team shares a vehicle for their commute, which reduces the number of vehicles on the road during rush hour periods. Carpooling is officially sanctioned by most governments, and is supported by the construction of high-occupancy vehicle lanes. A number of carpooling services have been designed in order to match commuters into carpool teams, but it known that the determination of optimal carpool teams is a combinatorially complex problem, and therefore technological solutions are difficult to achieve. In this paper, a model for carpool matching services is proposed, and both optimal and heuristic approaches are tested to find solutions for that model. The results show that different solution approaches are preferred over different ranges of problem instances. Most importantly, it is demonstrated that a new formulation and associated solution procedures can permit the determination of optimal carpool teams and routes. An instantiation of the model is presented (using the street network of Guangzhou city, China) to demonstrate how carpool teams can be determined.

  4. A New Model for a Carpool Matching Service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhe Xia

    Full Text Available Carpooling is an effective means of reducing traffic. A carpool team shares a vehicle for their commute, which reduces the number of vehicles on the road during rush hour periods. Carpooling is officially sanctioned by most governments, and is supported by the construction of high-occupancy vehicle lanes. A number of carpooling services have been designed in order to match commuters into carpool teams, but it known that the determination of optimal carpool teams is a combinatorially complex problem, and therefore technological solutions are difficult to achieve. In this paper, a model for carpool matching services is proposed, and both optimal and heuristic approaches are tested to find solutions for that model. The results show that different solution approaches are preferred over different ranges of problem instances. Most importantly, it is demonstrated that a new formulation and associated solution procedures can permit the determination of optimal carpool teams and routes. An instantiation of the model is presented (using the street network of Guangzhou city, China to demonstrate how carpool teams can be determined.

  5. The Carpool: An Uninvestigated Setting for Early Childhood Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter; Adler, Patricia S.

    Numerous childhood activities and relationships have been studied within the context of socialization, but one form of interpersonal experience has not yet been investigated by social researchers: the carpool. This paper investigates the types of interaction which take place within the carpool setting, both between children and adults and among…

  6. The Carpool: A Socializing Adjunct to the Educational Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Particia A.; Adler, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Socializing effects that carpooling has on pre-school and elementary students were studied. The behavioral patterns and roles that emerge in this setting were examined and their impact on the developing child analyzed. Three carpool-generated relationships identified were intimate, combatant, and obligatory. Socialization occured concurrently…

  7. Neighborhood Carpooling Project in Changqing Community in Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the light of the increasingly severe traffic congestion in the city, the rising number of private cars on the road and the low occupancy rate of those cars, this paper explores the current legal obstacles to carpooling and proposes "neighborhood carpooling" as an innovative mobility project aimed at alleviating traffic pressure in the areas around residential districts and reducing the use of private cars. The paper begins by introducing the preparatory investigation, consultation and scheme design process, and then elaborates on the series of measures undertaken to ensure that the project runs smoothly, including the formulation and distribution of the proposal, establishment of carpooling stations, registration and management of carpooling information, signing of the voluntary undertakings, design of the carpooling stickers and encouragement of public participation through the media. The analysis of different data on the actual practice of carpooling and the results of the media survey shows that the "neighborhood carpooling" project can indeed reduce private car use and has achieved certain social benefits through media publicity. Finally, the paper points out that with the guarantee of the two-level management system involving the community administrative committee and the residents’ committees, effective community organization is the key to the successful operation of the project.

  8. Estimating the energy consumption impact of casual carpooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minett, P. [Trip Convergence Ltd, Epsom, Auckland (New Zealand); Pearce, J. [Trip Convergence Ltd, Remuera, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2011-07-01

    Some of the transportation energy consumed during peak commuter periods is wasted through slow running in congested traffic. Strategies to increase average vehicle occupancy (and reduce vehicle counts and congestion) could be expected to be at the forefront of energy conservation policies. Casual carpooling (also called 'slugging') is a system of carpooling without trip-by-trip pre-arrangement. It operates in three US cities, and has been suggested in New Zealand as a strategy for managing transportation challenges when oil prices rise. The objective of the paper is to find out if casual carpooling reduces energy consumption, and if so, how much. Energy consumption by single occupant vehicles; casual carpool vehicles; and a mix of buses and single occupant vehicles; are estimated and compared, and the impact on the rest of the traffic is calculated. The paper estimates that casual carpooling in San Francisco is conserving in the order of 1.7 to 3.5 million liters of gasoline per year, or 200-400 liters for each participant, much of which comes from the impact on the rest of the traffic. The paper concludes by calling for applied research to discover how to catalyze casual carpooling in other cities as a means of reducing transportation energy consumption. (authors)

  9. Dynamic Carpooling Using Wireless Ad-Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek V. Potnis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase in awareness about the conservation of natural resources in today’s world, has led to carpooling becoming a widely followed practice. Carpooling refers to sharing of a vehicle with other passengers, thus reducing the fuel costs endured by the passengers, had they traveled individually. Carpooling helps reduce fuel consumption, thereby helping conserve the natural resources. Conventional Carpooling Portals require the users to register themselves and input their desired departure and destination points. These portals maintain a database of the users and map them with the users, who have registered for their cars to be pooled. This paper proposes a decentralized method of dynamic carpooling using the Wireless Ad-hoc Network, instead of having the users to register on a Web Portal. The user’s device, requesting for the carpool service can directly talk to another user’s device, providing the pooled car, using the Wireless Ad-hoc Network, thereby eliminating the need for the user to connect to the internet to access the web portal.

  10. Estimating the Energy Consumption Impact of Casual Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Minett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the transportation energy consumed during peak commuter periods is wasted through slow running in congested traffic. Strategies to increase average vehicle occupancy (and reduce vehicle counts and congestion could be expected to be at the forefront of energy conservation policies. Casual carpooling (also called “slugging” is a system of carpooling without trip-by-trip pre-arrangement. It operates in three US cities, and has been suggested in New Zealand as a strategy for managing transportation challenges when oil prices rise. The objective of the paper is to find out if casual carpooling reduces energy consumption, and if so, how much. Energy consumption by single occupant vehicles; casual carpool vehicles; and a mix of buses and single occupant vehicles; are estimated and compared, and the impact on the rest of the traffic is calculated. The paper estimates that casual carpooling in San Francisco is conserving in the order of 1.7 to 3.5 million liters of gasoline per year, or 200-400 liters for each participant, much of which comes from the impact on the rest of the traffic. The paper concludes by calling for applied research to discover how to catalyze casual carpooling in other cities as a means of reducing transportation energy consumption.

  11. Research on Strategy Control of Taxi Carpooling Detour Route under Uncertain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of route choice in taxi carpooling detour, considering the uncertainty of traffic and the characteristic of passengers’ noncomplete rationality, an evolutionary game model of taxi carpooling detour route is built, in which prospect theory is introduced and revenue of strategy is replaced by prospect value. The model reflects more really decision-making psychology of passengers. Then the stable strategies of the model are studied, and the influences of detour distance and traffic congestion on detour carpooling success are analyzed, respectively. The results show that when at least one route of which prospect values for two passenger sides are both positive exists, carpooling route can reach an agreement. The route is stable strategy of evolutionary game, and the passengers requiring short travel time tend to select the nondetour route. With the increase of detour distance and traffic congestion rate, the possibility of reaching an agreement decreases gradually; that is, possibility of carpooling failure increases. So taxi carpooling detour is possible under the certain condition, but some measures must be carried out such as constraints of detour distance and mitigation of traffic congestion to improve carpooling success probability. These conclusions have a certain guiding significance to the formulation of taxi carpooling policy.

  12. Tour Planning and Ride Matching for an Urban Social Carpooling Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SocialCar is a research project aiming at integrating carpooling with existing transportation systems in urban and peri-urban environments. The system, that also takes benefit from social network interactions, is based on tour planning and ride matching algorithms to suggest the users the available alternatives for their trips. In this paper we overview some approaches to model general public transportation networks and carpooling services. A route planning algorithm, able to integrate different types of public transportation, bike rentals and carpooling services is finally presented.

  13. Ecolane DYNAMIC CarPool; Ecolane Kimppakyytikone K3 Vaihe III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, A. [Ecolane Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2006-12-19

    Ecolane Dynamic Carpool introduces a revolutionary new convenience level for daily commuting. Users simply register through a web-based service and use the system with a standard Java-enabled mobile phone. With Ecolane Dynamic Carpool it is possible to decide each morning or afternoon a commuting mode and time. In as little as 15 minutes in advance one can decide to be driver or if they need a ride. (orig.)

  14. Optimal Reverse Carpooling Over Wireless Networks - A Distributed Optimization Approach

    CERN Document Server

    ParandehGheibi, Ali; Effros, Michelle; Medard, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    We focus on a particular form of network coding, reverse carpooling, in a wireless network where the potentially coded transmitted messages are to be decoded immediately upon reception. The network is fixed and known, and the system performance is measured in terms of the number of wireless broadcasts required to meet multiple unicast demands. Motivated by the structure of the coding scheme, we formulate the problem as a linear program by introducing a flow variable for each triple of connected nodes. This allows us to have a formulation polynomial in the number of nodes. Using dual decomposition and projected subgradient method, we present a decentralized algorithm to obtain optimal routing schemes in presence of coding opportunities. We show that the primal sub-problem can be expressed as a shortest path problem on an \\emph{edge-graph}, and the proposed algorithm requires each node to exchange information only with its neighbors.

  15. Factor analysis for successful website carpool%网络拼车成功的因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭家美; 朱丽叶; 南香兰; 侯立文

    2013-01-01

    In consideration of the factors which influence Internet carpool,a carpool website is selected as data source,and regression analysis and Design of Experiment (DOE) are used to analyze the factors which influence carpooling behavior on the Internet and the impact strength of the factors influencing the actual carpool success and the number of carpool applicants.The results show that the number of carpool replies and clicks has positive impact on the success rate of carpooling.As for the carpool website,appropriate measures should be adopted to motivate the number of replies and clicks,thus to enhance the website activeness.From the perspective of society,higher involvement of carpool needs more government policy support.%针对影响互联网拼车的因素,选择某拼车网站为数据来源,采用回归分析和试验设计(Design of Experiment,DOE)方法,分析影响网上拼车行为的因素及其对实际拼车成功和拼车申请人数的影响强度.结果表明,拼车信息回复数和点击数对拼车成功率有正面影响;对于拼车网站而言,可以采取适当的鼓励措施提高点击数和回复数,从而增强网站活跃度;从社会整体而言,提高拼车参与率更需要有相关政策的支持.

  16. 城市出租车合乘技术研究%Research on the Technology of Carpool in City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超; 韩直; 乔晓青

    2014-01-01

    论文针对城市交通拥挤不堪和出租车空驶率高的现状,提出了出租车合乘能提高人们选择出租车出行的频次,减少道路拥堵,提高出行效率。论文对出租车合乘进行了概念定义和合乘模式划分,分析了出租车合乘的信息感知、信息传输与信息反馈,建立了出租车合乘信息服务中心。论文划分了合乘类型,并描述了静态和动态的合乘流程图,并建立了出租车数量模型,采用Floyd算法计算整个网络中任意两点间的最短路问题。依据合乘出租车上的乘客数确定不同的合乘状态,在体现收费公平的基础上建立了合乘计费模型,和解决了分级站点合乘组织及生活性合乘问题。%Facing the current situation of urban traffic congestion and high unloaded ratio of taxi,this article puts forward that carpool can improve the rate that people choose taxi,reduce road congestion and improve travel efficiency. This article works out the concept definition of carpool and differentiates the carpool modes,classifies the carpool, analyzes the information sense , information transmission and information feedback of carpool,establishes an information service center of carpool,divides carpool type and describes the static and dynamic carpool flow chart. This article sets up a taxi quantity model,uses the algorithm of Floyd to calculate the most short circuit between any two points in a whole network. The different carpool states was identified based on the number of passengers in a taxi,and a carpool charging model was established on the basis of fair charging. This article solves the problems of carpool organization of the hierarchical sites and carpool for facilitating the life.

  17. 40 CFR 52.263 - Priority treatment for buses and carpools-Los Angeles Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 52.263 Priority treatment for buses and carpools—Los Angeles Region. (a) Definitions: (1) “Carpool” means a vehicle containing three or more persons. (2) “Bus/carpool lane” means a lane on a street or... agencies to which legal authority has been delegated, shall establish the following system of...

  18. Trust-Based Cooperative Social System Applied to a Carpooling Platform for Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel; Martín-Fernández, Francisco; Loia, Vincenzo

    2017-01-27

    One of the worst traffic problems today is the existence of huge traffic jams in almost any big city, produced by the large number of commuters using private cars. This problem has led to an increase in research on the optimization of vehicle occupancy in urban areas as this would help to solve the problem that most cars are occupied by single passengers. The solution of sharing the available seats in cars, known as carpooling, is already available in major cities around the world. However, carpooling is still not considered a safe and reliable solution for many users. With the widespread use of mobile technology and social networks, it is possible to create a trust-based platform to promote carpooling through a convenient, fast and secure system. The main objective of this work is the design and implementation of a carpool system that improves some important aspects of previous systems, focusing on trust between users, and on the security of the system. The proposed system guarantees user privacy and measures trust levels through a new reputation algorithm. In addition to this, the proposal has been developed as a mobile application for devices using the Android Open Source Project.

  19. Trust-Based Cooperative Social System Applied to a Carpooling Platform for Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido Caballero-Gil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the worst traffic problems today is the existence of huge traffic jams in almost any big city, produced by the large number of commuters using private cars. This problem has led to an increase in research on the optimization of vehicle occupancy in urban areas as this would help to solve the problem that most cars are occupied by single passengers. The solution of sharing the available seats in cars, known as carpooling, is already available in major cities around the world. However, carpooling is still not considered a safe and reliable solution for many users. With the widespread use of mobile technology and social networks, it is possible to create a trust-based platform to promote carpooling through a convenient, fast and secure system. The main objective of this work is the design and implementation of a carpool system that improves some important aspects of previous systems, focusing on trust between users, and on the security of the system. The proposed system guarantees user privacy and measures trust levels through a new reputation algorithm. In addition to this, the proposal has been developed as a mobile application for devices using the Android Open Source Project.

  20. Trust-Based Cooperative Social System Applied to a Carpooling Platform for Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel; Martín-Fernández, Francisco; Loia, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    One of the worst traffic problems today is the existence of huge traffic jams in almost any big city, produced by the large number of commuters using private cars. This problem has led to an increase in research on the optimization of vehicle occupancy in urban areas as this would help to solve the problem that most cars are occupied by single passengers. The solution of sharing the available seats in cars, known as carpooling, is already available in major cities around the world. However, carpooling is still not considered a safe and reliable solution for many users. With the widespread use of mobile technology and social networks, it is possible to create a trust-based platform to promote carpooling through a convenient, fast and secure system. The main objective of this work is the design and implementation of a carpool system that improves some important aspects of previous systems, focusing on trust between users, and on the security of the system. The proposed system guarantees user privacy and measures trust levels through a new reputation algorithm. In addition to this, the proposal has been developed as a mobile application for devices using the Android Open Source Project. PMID:28134803

  1. Dynamic Carpooling in Urban Areas: Design and Experimentation with a Multi-Objective Route Matching Algorith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Mallus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on dynamic carpooling services in urban areas to address the needs of mobility in real-time by proposing a two-fold contribution: a solution with novel features with respect to the current state-of-the-art, which is named CLACSOON and is available on the market; the analysis of the carpooling services performance in the urban area of the city of Cagliari through emulations. Two new features characterize the proposed solution: partial ridesharing, according to which the riders can walk to reach the driver along his/her route when driving to the destination; the possibility to share the ride when the driver has already started the ride by modelling the mobility to reach the driver destination. To analyse which features of the population bring better performance to changing the characteristics of the users, we also conducted emulations. When compared with current solutions, CLACSOON allows for achieving a decrease in the waiting time of around 55% and an increase in the driver and passenger success rates of around 4% and 10%,respectively. Additionally, the proposed features allowed for having an increase in the reduction of the CO2 emission by more than 10% with respect to the traditional carpooling service.

  2. Stochastic Set-Based Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Local Exploration for Solving the Carpool Service Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Sheng-Kai; Jiau, Ming-Kai; Huang, Shih-Chia

    2016-08-01

    The growing ubiquity of vehicles has led to increased concerns about environmental issues. These concerns can be mitigated by implementing an effective carpool service. In an intelligent carpool system, an automated service process assists carpool participants in determining routes and matches. It is a discrete optimization problem that involves a system-wide condition as well as participants' expectations. In this paper, we solve the carpool service problem (CSP) to provide satisfactory ride matches. To this end, we developed a particle swarm carpool algorithm based on stochastic set-based particle swarm optimization (PSO). Our method introduces stochastic coding to augment traditional particles, and uses three terminologies to represent a particle: 1) particle position; 2) particle view; and 3) particle velocity. In this way, the set-based PSO (S-PSO) can be realized by local exploration. In the simulation and experiments, two kind of discrete PSOs-S-PSO and binary PSO (BPSO)-and a genetic algorithm (GA) are compared and examined using tested benchmarks that simulate a real-world metropolis. We observed that the S-PSO outperformed the BPSO and the GA thoroughly. Moreover, our method yielded the best result in a statistical test and successfully obtained numerical results for meeting the optimization objectives of the CSP.

  3. Strategies for Community Carpool Development in Xi'an%西安市社区拼车常态化发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璇; 朱菁; 董欣

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid increase of private car ownership and ever worsening urban traffic congestion in Xi'an, community carpool has become one of the effective ways to relieve traffic congestion. Based on do-mestic and abroad carpool development experience, this paper discusses the existing conditions and prob-lems in carpool development in Xi'an through questionnaire survey and interviews. Targeting existing problems, the paper proposes implementable strategies for community carpool promotion. Firstly, carpool agencies are suggested to be established in the community with service platforms, stations, and signs to manage carpool travel;Secondly, safety assurance measures such as real-name registration system, neigh-borhood carpool agreements, and additional types of insurance are proposed to endure safe carpool service;Thirdly, providing policy support to encourage carpool travel by prioritizing carpool vehicle roadway us-age, promoting legislative improvement, and offering parking promotion policies.%伴随西安市私人小汽车保有量迅速增长,城市交通拥堵状况不断加剧,社区拼车模式成为缓解交通拥堵的有效措施之一.通过分析总结国内外拼车发展经验,采用问卷调查、访谈等方法对西安市拼车现状和发展问题进行解析.针对现状问题,提出社区拼车的实施策略:第一,成立社区拼车机构,通过拼车服务平台、社区拼车站点和社区拼车标志等措施管理拼车出行;第二,提供安全保障措施,通过设立实名认证体系、签订社区拼车协议、增加险种等措施保障拼车安全;第三,寻求政策支持,建议通过赋予多人乘坐的拼车车辆道路优先使用权、完善相关法律法规使拼车合法化、提供停车优惠政策等措施鼓励市民拼车.

  4. Design and Implementation of Mobile Carpooling System Based on Web Service%基于Web服务移动拼车系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆贺; 韩勇; 张小垒; 陈戈

    2013-01-01

    This paper provided carpooling services which broke the previous single form. The real-time character of mobile applications and the extensiveness and convenience of web applications were used to develop system programs. This article introduced that how they provided services jointly in the carpooling system. The carpooling system was based on Web services. It has achieved the real-time sharing of carpooling data between Web clients and mobile clients which makes carpooling more convenient and also promotes the life philosophy of low-carbon, energy-saving and environmental-protecting.%介绍了一种利用手机应用程序的实时性和Web应用程序的广泛性、便利性开发系统程序,共同提供服务的拼车系统.该系统以Web服务为基础,实现了拼车数据在Web端和手机端的实时共享,使拼车更加便捷,提倡了低碳、环保、节能的生活理念.

  5. 基于Web的拼车系统的设计与实现%The Design and Realization of Carpool System Based on Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩庆亮

    2016-01-01

    随着因特网的普及和人们使用网络能力的提高,越来越多的人开始在网上为自己的出行寻找一个更加安全、便捷、省钱的途径。因此拼车的方式应运而生,而且受到了人们的普遍欢迎。那么一种能够提供及时、有效、真实拼车信息的系统是很有现实意义的。通过对人们需求的分析,设计了此拼车系统。系统主要作用是为用户提供一个查询拼车信息和发布拼车信息的平台,满足用户在实际出行中的拼车需要。%Along with the popularization of the Internet and the popularization of people's application of the network, more and more people are starting to find a way which is safe、convenient and more cheaper.So the carpool mode emerge as the times re-quire,and it is welcomed by the most of the people.So it is very practical to provide a timely, effective and real information sys-tem.Therefore, by understanding and Analysis on the needs of the people, the full investigation of the function of the existing carpool system and the design the carpool system. This system mainly provide a platform which people could query and publish carpool information.To satisfy the users need in the actual environment.

  6. Impact of Emission Charging to Carpooling in Urban Roads%城市道路中排放收费对合乘的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁冬; 帅斌; 祝进城

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the impacts of emission charging to carpooling in urban roads, a bi-level programming model is proposed. The lower level describes the travelers'selections of travel modes as well as route choices while the upper level aims to maximize social welfare. A heuristic algorithm for the computation of the optimizing value of link toll patterns, traffic demands, social welfare, travel costs and emission is designed and then applied to compute solutions to a numerical example. The results demonstrate that emission charging could increase social welfare and facilitate more people to carpool, and carpooling do not restrain traffic demands. Carpooling cost has limited impact on carpooling and the social welfare promotes with higher emission weight coefficient as well as system efficiency. It is not always beneficial for traffic system with higher fuel efficiency. Thus it is necessary to capture optimal toll on the basis of the topological structure of traffic network.%为研究城市道路中排放收费对合乘的影响,建立了双层规划模型.下层规划描述了出行者的出行方式选择及路径选择;上层规划以社会福利最大化为目标.设计了启发式求解算法并通过一个算例得到了路段最优收费费率、交通需求、社会福利、出行费用和排放量.算例结果表明,排放收费可提高社会福利,促进更多的出行者选择合乘,而合乘不会抑制交通需求;合乘成本对合乘的影响有限;排放权重系数越大,社会福利越高,系统效率也会提高;燃油效率越高对系统不一定越有利,应根据实际的路网结构进行建模分析,制定最优费率.

  7. 车辆合乘问题的两阶段分布式估计算法%Two-stage Estimation of Distribution Algorithm to Solve Multi-vehicle Carpooling Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志家; 王子; 汪扬; 闵明慧; 李中胜

    2016-01-01

    针对智慧交通中多车辆合乘问题,提出一种分布式并行计算环境下的合乘模型。利用合乘概率矩阵的先验知识,实现更高效的运算和求解。当合乘概率矩阵不是单位矩阵时,合乘模型被增广为车主合乘和乘客合乘两个阶段。两阶段分布式估计算法运用可行合乘解的合乘概率矩阵,作为一种随机优化方法求解最优值。根据可搭乘矩阵初始化合乘概率矩阵,并在优化过程中连续更新合乘概率矩阵。车主同乘客分离优化,减少了出行车辆,并实现了互相搭乘的合乘模型。通过合乘模型的优化迭代能够为乘客挖掘出高效可行的搭乘路线。实验结果表明,该合乘模型具有平均等待时间少、平均载客量大、人均行驶距离短的高效出行特点。%A multi-carpooling model is proposed for the multi-vehicle carpooling problem in a distributed parallel computing environment. The prior knowledge of the carpooling probabilistic matrix is used for more efficient computing and effective solutions. When the carpooling probabilistic matrix is not the identity matrix, the multi-carpooling model is augmented into two stages of drivers’ridesharing and passengers’ ridesharing. A two-stage estimation of distribution algorithm is proposed as a stochastic optimization method to solve the optimum with a carpooling probabilistic matrix of promising carpooling solutions. A ridable matrix initiates the carpooling probabilistic matrix, and the optimization consists of a series of incremental updates of the carpooling probabilistic matrix. The optimization process of drivers and passengers is separated; hence, the carpooling model implements the mutual ridesharing to decrease vehicles demanded. The carpooling model mines efficient and compromised ridesharing routes for shared riders by the optimization iterations. Experimental results indicate that the carpooling model has the characteristics of

  8. 预约机制下的共乘路径规划策略%Carpool path planning strategy under reservation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘潇; 李德敏; 张光林; 汤海涅

    2016-01-01

    For the reason that existing carpooling path algorithms focus only on the minimum of the total weight of path rather than the accuracy of arrival time, it proposes an optimal algorithm of carpooling path under the mechanism of appoint-ment. It collects the information of appointment ride, introduces the concept of classification to classify the passenger information in group. Then it utilizes the Bellman-Ford algorithm intragroup, and arriving time path algorithm intergroup, so that it comes up with Carpooling Path Planning Algorithm in Order(CPPAO), which takes into account both the accuracy of arriving time and consumption of travel cost.%现有的共乘路径算法只专注优化路径总权值而很少考虑到达时间准确性,针对这一现状提出一种预约机制下的共乘路径最优算法。采集乘客的预约搭乘信息,引入分类的概念对乘客信息进行团体分类,对团体内使用Bellman-Ford算法,团体间使用到达时间路径算法,得出了预约机制下的共乘路径最优算法CPPAO,使得该算法兼顾到达时间的准确和行驶代价的消耗。

  9. 基于模糊聚类和识别的出租车合乘算法研究%Algorithm Research of Taxi Carpooling Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Fuzzy Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖强; 何瑞春; 张薇; 马昌喜

    2014-01-01

    In some big cities,the effect and efficiency are both poor to the taxi carpooling. The taxi route clustering and carpooling identification of passenger and taxi are studied by fuzzy clustering and fuzzy recognition theory. Through randomly generated many groups of taxi and passengers data, it is pointed that taxi carpooling in particular conditions, taxi numbers will decided the passenger’s carpooling success rate, but it is found that unlimited increase taxi sample number will increase carpooling success rate to passengers in case of a fixed number of passengers, the taxi income will be stabilized, it will not increase with rising of taxi number. The results indicate that the algorithm is suitable for us take the carpooling problem of large numbers taxi and could be effective measurement for taxi carpooling.%针对目前部分大城市出租车合乘效果差,合乘效率低等现状,本文采用模糊聚类和模糊识别方法,研究出租车行驶路线模糊聚类,并利用行驶路线、行驶时间和合乘人数创建隶属函数,实现合乘乘客与出租车的合乘模糊识别。通过随机生成的多组出租车出行和合乘乘客样本数据,发现在假定的出租车合乘条件下,出租车样本数量决定了合乘的成功率,但同时也发现,在合乘人数固定的情况下,无限制的增加出租车样本数量会增加合乘乘客的搭载成功率,平均每辆合乘出租车的收入并不会随着样本数量的增大而增大,而是趋于稳定值。仿真结果说明,该算法适合于大样本的出租车合乘问题,是一种可以提高出租车合乘成功率的有效方法。

  10. 合乘模式下司机收入公平模型及仿真%Driver Income Equity Model and Simulation under Carpooling Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 何瑞春; 肖强; 马昌喜

    2015-01-01

    针对出租车合乘模式下司机的收入问题,建立了合乘模式下司机收入公平心理模型,采用公平理论分析了司机的心理及行为,通过仿真计算,分析了合乘模式下乘客总需求量及司机公平心理对司机收入的影响.研究结果表明,乘客总需求对合乘模式下司机总体的平均收入有较大的影响,合适的供需比下实施合乘才能提高司机收入;在供需比较大时,司机争抢乘客的行为会导致司机个体收入差距增大,部分司机收入降低的现象;为成功实施合乘模式,必须考虑当地出租车市场的供需比情况,并且建立合理的措施以防范司机争抢乘客的行为出现.所得结论对出租车合乘政策的制定与管理有一定的指导意义.%Considering taxi driver psychology for equity, driver income under taxi carpooling mode is researched. Equity psychology model of driver income under carpooling mode is established, and psychology and behavior of drivers are analyzed based on equity theory. Then the influence of total passenger demand and driver behavior on income is analyzed through simulation. The results show that, the influence of total passengers demand on driver average income is large, and the appropriate ratio of supply and demand is the key factor of increasing driver income; when the ratio is big, the driver behavior for passengers causes the gap between drivers income increasing and some drivers income lowing; in order to implement successfully carpooling, it is necessary to consider the ratio of supply and demand of local taxi market, and establish reasonable measures to prevent driver behavior for passengers. These conclusions have a certain guiding significance to formulating taxi policy.

  11. 基于位置云技术的智能拼车匹配系统设计%The design of an intelligent carpool-matching system based on LBS-Cloud service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯; 陆钧; 孙跃

    2013-01-01

    为了让人们便捷地找到合适的拼车伙伴,运用位置云平台的云存储与检索服务,结合Web服务器和数据库技术,设计并实现了智能拼车匹配系统,并开发了基于嵌入式平台的客户端装置.介绍了系统的架构,论述了位置云端存储与检索的实现方法,说明了客户端的硬件结构和主要功能模块的软件设计.测试表明,系统运行稳定,能够实现用户注册、登录管理、地图定位、拼车需求发布、智能匹配等功能,能够及时响应请求并匹配出合适的结果,具有一定的应用前景.%In order to make carpool travels more conveniently,an intelligent carpool-matching system was designed and developed based on the LBS-Cloud platform and combined with Web server and database technology.The client device was developed based on embedded platform.The architecture of this system and the implementation method of LBS-Cloud storage and retrieval were introduced.The test showed that the whole system worked well.The functions such as registration,login,auto locate,intelligent matching and so on,could be all realized successfully.The intelligent carpool system has limitless applications.

  12. 基于网格划分的城市出租车合乘研究%Study on Taxi Carpooling Based on City Gridding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘国强

    2013-01-01

    A brand-new and bus-like city taxi operation mode which is based on city gridding is presented after analyzing the drawbacks of the current situation of city taxies. With reference from city bus stops, the method of setting taxi stations is suggested. The factors that may affect the implementation of city carpooling is analyzed. By developing the objective function and relevant constraint conditions, the mathematical model for maximizing the benefits of taxi drivers and clients, and minimizing the taxi route is established. It will serve as theoretical references for cities to adopt new taxi operation modes.%  根据现行出租车运营方式的不足,提出了基于城市网格划分的出租车公交化运营模式。参照城市公交站点的设置方法,提出了网格化出租车站点的设置方法。分析了影响出租车合乘的因素,通过出租车合乘运营目标函数及约束条件的建立,提出了该模式下出租车司机、乘客利益最大化以及行车路线最短的数学模型,为城市新型出租车运营模式的推行提供理论上的参考。

  13. The Design and Implementation of Campus Carpool System Implemented on the Android System%基于Android的校园拼车系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙延维; 张红

    2016-01-01

    对于中国的大多数家庭来说,接送孩子上下学是一个麻烦的过程,且上下学时间正是上下班高峰,过多的私家车出行给交通增加不少压力,更不用说,很多上班族家长根本就没有时间去接送孩子.基于Android的校园拼车系统的产生正是为解决这些问题,学生能够通过它放心地坐上司机的车,系统平台上的司机均由学校学生家长或老师担当,并通了严格的实名制认证,保险齐全.系统中的司机团体是由学生家长或老师组成的,这一群体本身就很可靠,且系统的智能手机客户端能够实时定位孩子.系统能够为孩子提供一种智能,安全的上下学环境,保证学生的安全出行,解放家长,减缓交通压力.%For most Chinese families, to shuttle children to learn is a cumbersome process, and school time is rush so that many private cars travel to traffic and increase a lot of pressure, and even worse many office worker parents simply don't have time to pick up their children.The campus carpool system is to solve the previous problem: students can safely sit on the car with drivers from the system platform.They are all parents or teachers from the school and pass the rigorous real name system certification with perfect insurance.The driver groups are composed of students' parents or teachers which are very reliable.What's more, the system's smart phone client can also locate the child in real time.Therefore, the system can provide a smart, safe up and down learning environment, through it, students can safely travel, parents can be liberated, and traffic pressure is alleviated.

  14. 私家车共乘的发展历程、研究简述及在我国的实施困境%Study on the Development of Carpool and Discussion on the Implementation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱金; 朱晓峰

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of private cars in China has exerted pressure on urban transportation. Carpool and carsharing have proved to be effective measures to reduce car trips through individual behavior change in western countries, which can be regarded as Pareto Improvement. This paper sorts out the origin, development history and characteristics of carpool and carsharing in Europe and North America. The literature review mainly focuses on the beneifts, the characteristics of people who had participated in and the driving factors. Then we discuss the dififculty of the implementation in China from the view of different cultural concept, legal deifciencies, safety, insurance, etc. At last, some further discussion is summarized toward the end of the artide.%我国私家车数量的大幅增长及其对城市交通构成较大压力的客观现实不容忽视,交通治理从交通设施的大量供给视角转向需求的有效控制非常关键。私家车共乘行为这一微观个体的行为改变可以实现帕累托改进,并带来减少出行里程数等诸多益处,在国外已有较为成熟的发展经验。本文概述了欧洲和北美私家车共乘的缘起、发展历程和特征;对共乘行为带来的收益、参与成员的特征和驱动因素等方面的国内外相关文献进行了简要的梳理;进而从文化观念、法律、安全、保险等角度探讨了共乘行为在我国的实施难度并对我国进一步开展共乘实践进行了相关讨论。

  15. Research on current implementation situation and institutional measures of carpool with Harbin as an example%以哈尔滨为例谈顺风车的推行现状与制度化措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晋; 万婷

    2014-01-01

    介绍了顺风车作为一种新型出行方式的研究背景和对于缓解城市交通压力、节能减排的巨大作用,并以哈尔滨为例,对顺风车的推行现状进行分析,探讨了其在组织管理和安全保障方面的漏洞及信任问题,并提出了制度化的措施,最后阐述了顺风车在缓解城市居民出行困难、交通拥堵、城市环境及城市文明建设上的重大意义。%This paper introduces the research background of carpool as a new way of travel and enormous importance to ease the city traffic pres-sure and energy-saving and emission reduction. Taking Harbin as an example,paper analysis the status of implementation,discusses the vulnera-bility from the aspects of organization management,security and trust issues,and puts forward the institutional measures. Finally,paper elabo-rates the significance of easing city resident ride in travel difficulties,traffic jam,city environment and civilization construction.

  16. Design and implementation of intelligent carpooling system based on GPS data visualization%基于GPS数据可视化的智能拼车软件设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子; 周侗; 汪扬; 郝胜轩; 李冬; 张顺龙

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the traffic congestion and pollutant emissions,an intelligent carpooling system based on GPS data was pro-posed.The design and implementation of the aspects including the construction of urban traffic network,the access of GPS infor-mation,the matching method and the visualization of data were mainly discussed.The development of the system was based on the. NET platform and the processing platform.The system was verified to be feasible and practical by an experiment on about 500 routes.%为减缓交通拥挤,降低污染物排放,提出基于GPS数据可视化的拼车系统体系结构,讨论城市交通路网构建、用户路径信息获取、匹配方案查询、空间数据可视化的设计与实现方法。在此基础上,基于。 NET平台开发一套基础软件,基于Processing平台开发拼车信息数据可视化系统。对沈阳市500名真实用户的出行路线进行的分析测试验证了该智能拼车系统的可行性及实用性。

  17. On the Design and Implementation of the Terminal Intelligentized Taxi-carpool System%基于智能终端的出租车拼车系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门瑞; 郭涛; 曹建英

    2015-01-01

    设计构建一个基于智能终端的出租车拼车系统,该系统能够及时准确地获取乘客的当前位置、终点位置及随行人数;自动为发布出行信息的乘客检索系统中能够与其拼车的用户,并直接发送拼车请求到被检索方;乘客与乘客之间的联系解决了目前较为严重的出租车司机强制拼车问题。出租车司机可浏览系统中乘客和其他出租车的分布情况,实时掌握系统动态。从而为乘客及出租车司机等相关人群搭建一个信息交流平台,实现各方利益最大化,且能减少能源消耗,改善城市大气污染,具有积极的社会效益和经济效益。%This study aims at working the design and establishing a taxi carpool system that based on the intelli-gent terminal.This system not only gets accurate information about the passenger’s current position,target posi-tion and the number of the entourage ,but also retrieves other passengers who are likely taking a taxi with him au-tomatically and set messages to these persons directly.The driver of the taxi can look up the distribution of the passengers and other taxi driver and determine the traveling route .This system makes an information platform for passengers and taxi drivers,who can get profit maximization,reduce energy consumption and pollution.It can make positive social effect and economic effect .

  18. Neighborhood Carpool Practice:A Case Study on Community Carpool%邻里合乘——社区拼车常态化的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤黎明; 刘其华

    2010-01-01

    为了促进邻里合乘社区拼车模式不断完善以及有效推广实践、实现社区拼车常态化发展,在分析我国拼车发展现状与困境的基础上,探讨了邻里合乘社区拼车的创新理念,包括社区组织、法律支持、签订协议、社会参与四个方面.针对存在的拼车协议缺陷、拼车对象受限难推广的局限,提出邻里合乘的发展建议:扩大活动影响,寻求政策支持,从根本上突破法律等制度的困境;建立由政府支持的社区拼车试点计划,逐步将社区拼车模式推广,最终实现社区全民拼车的常态化.

  19. Final Environmental Assessment: Replacement Joint Force Headquarters Building, Hanscom Air Force Base Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    transit and bicycle); establish preferential parking for carpool /vanpool participants; start a carpool program and establish a database to identify/target...offer MassRIDES Emergency Ride Home Program for carpool /rideshare participants; sponsor promotional activities and establish a TDM coordinator, would be...transportation alternatives (ridesharing, transit and bicycle); establish preferential parking for carpool /vanpool participants; start a carpool program and

  20. Why is carpooling illegal%"拼车"何来非法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ 合法"拼车"并不难 有关部门列举"拼车"的困难非常可笑,认为机场、车站等客流量大的场所都有多条公交线路,乘客可以自己选择,不必再配置"拼车"服务.还认为,"拼车"会造成混乱,有时没有同一方向的乘客,有时却多得无法满足.

  1. "拼车"何以要被处罚?%Why Carpooling should be Penalized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕锋

    2009-01-01

    @@ 近期,网站上报道了了几个因"拼车"而被处罚的案例,其中有上海的、杭州的、长沙的、广州的,而客运主管部门的处罚理由就是私家车是非营运性质的车辆,"拼车"收取了费用,就是"营利",所以就要处罚.

  2. Analysis on profitability of carpool%卡普的经营性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷孟林

    2008-01-01

    准确界定卡普的经营性质,有利于加强道路运输管理,有利于汽车工业的可持续发展.从道路运输法的基本理论入手,运用定量分析和逻辑分析方法,对卡普的经营性质进行全面、深入分析.分析结果认为:绝大多数卡普为非经营性运输行为,不是非法经营行为;对卡普的划一化管理不符合现行法律规范;道路运输管理机构应加强对卡普的分类管理.

  3. 拼车的发展及其效应%The Evolution and Effects of Carpooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茂福

    2010-01-01

    作者较全面地呈现了国内外拼车的发展状况,比较性地分析了中外拼车的8个方面:拼车的合法化、拼车的组织体系、政府和民间对拼车的态度、对拼车的官方奖惩措施、互联网在拼车过程中的作用、对拼车的约束规范、拼车的类型及发展趋势,探讨了拼车出行所具有的积极效应:拼车人省钱,增进居民沟通,有助缓解交通拥堵,减少碳气体排放.

  4. Study on the problems brought by carpool%卡普若干问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷孟林

    2007-01-01

    对卡普的种类及其性质进行了分析,认为卡普是汽车共享的一种,"非合意拼的"不是卡普,法律应予禁止;经营性卡普在法律上具有适当性,政府应予鼓励.最后,对如何正确发展卡普提出了相应的措施.

  5. 78 FR 19745 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... established an internal system of records pertaining to carpool, parking, and other aspects of employee... submitted for parking permits, carpool and vanpool membership, ridesharing information, and fare...

  6. 26 CFR 1.6045-1 - Returns of information of brokers and barter exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... organization. Example 3. A, B, and C belong to a carpool in which they commute to and from work. Every third day, each member of the carpool provides transportation for the other two members. Because the carpool... carpool is not a barter exchange within the meaning of paragraph (a)(4). Example 4. X is an...

  7. Floyd Algorithm Based Carpool Information Service System%基于Floyd算法拼车信息服务系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文团; 高萍; 沈张果

    2011-01-01

    近年来随着城市化建设和汽车工业的迅速发展,城市道路通行与交通需求之间的矛质日益凸显,基于Floyd算法拼车信息检索服务系统的出现为城市发展的交通需求提供了可行性的解决方案.

  8. 邻里合乘的社区拼车实践%Neighborhood Carpool Practice in a Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 刘其华; 饶晋玲; 宋友芬

    2010-01-01

    针对城市交通日益拥堵、私人小汽车乘坐率低等问题,武汉市常青花园社区推出"邻里合乘"公益拼车活动.对拼车活动的运行、实施等情况进行阐述.在总结以往拼车过程中面临法律、政策等众多限制的经验基础上,活动组织管理采取了多种保障措施,如制定发放倡议书、设立合乘点、管理参与合乘的车主及乘客信息、签订承诺书、制作车贴和号召社会参与等,并制定了后续的实施方案.最后,评析了社区拼车实践的重要意义.

  9. Thoughts about Carpooling Legalization in China%我国"拼车"合法化的法律思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洁蓉

    2009-01-01

    "拼车"现象在全国悄然升温.但现有法律的模糊性一直让"拼车"处于一种尴尬的境地.拼车是一种合理但不合法的新事物,在目前的法律法规下,还很难对拼车的合法性给予界定,拼车者的权益更是难以,得到相关的法律保障.文章就"拼车"合法化的可行性进行了分析,并结合部分国家对"拼车"行为的相关规定,提出了在我国实行"拼车"合法化的法律保障和司法建议.

  10. 有关汽车合乘问题的研究%Research on Issue of Carpooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽娟

    2010-01-01

    城市道路上汽车低使用率问题和大城市汽车合乘现象的出现反映了汽车合乘存在和发展的必然性.从国内外合乘现状出发,在论述合乘含义的基础上,对合乘的类型划分、合乘途径、合乘实施的利弊以及合乘的实施保障等问题进行相关探讨,对于汽车合乘的后续研究有着重要意义.

  11. 对"顺风车"予以规制的探究%Research on Regulation of the Carpool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春普; 姜传明

    2008-01-01

    "顺风车"的出现和发展,给社会带来了相当大的利益,但是在其发展过程中也不可避免的存在一定问题.从"顺风车"出现的现实背景看,存在其合理性的法理基础,从行政规制的角度出发,应探究具体的规制措施,包括登记备案制度的建立、专门车道的设立、征税制度以及对网络等科技平台的管理,以期使"顺风车"健康发展.

  12. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... members may be able to help handle errands, carpools, and meals. Siblings should continue to attend school ... hobbies, and friendships. Depend on friends. Let them carpool siblings to soccer or theater practice. Let others — ...

  13. 78 FR 59085 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... 23 U.S.C. 139 (l)(1). The actions relate to a proposed Interstate 5 Bus/Carpool Lanes Project (Post... the following highway project in the State of California. The Interstate 5 Bus/Carpool Lanes Project... accomplished by adding bus/carpool lanes in the median the entire length of the project. The actions by...

  14. Final Environmental Assessment for the Transfer of the Mukilteo Tank Farm Property Snohomish County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    carpool , and locating staging areas near work sites. Fugitive dust emissions during construction would be reduced by incorporating measures, in...encouraging construction workers to carpool , and locating staging areas near work sites. Once construction activities are completed, proposed passenger...quality impacts such as watering unpaved surfaces, minimizing roadway congestion, limiting idling equipment, encouraging construction workers to carpool

  15. 23 CFR 656.5 - Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CARPOOL AND... the term carpool includes vanpool. (b) Projects shall not be approved under this regulation if they.... (4) Work necessary to designate existing highway lanes as preferential carpool lanes or bus...

  16. 23 CFR 810.104 - Applicability of other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are reserved exclusively for use by carpool and vanpool passengers and vehicles. (e) As required by... for a physical construction or resurfacing project having a carpool lane(s) within the project limits may not be granted unless the project allows the use of the carpool lane(s) by motorcycles or it...

  17. Final Environmental Assessment: For Joint Base Anacostia-Bolling Master Plan District of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Environmental Assessment pg. 62 Table 8: Travel Mode Splits 1853 1854 Travel Type Percentage Single-Occupant Vehicle 75% Carpool and Vanpool...place. Service provided on two routes. 4) Ridesharing ( Carpools and Vanpools) Agency subsidizes vanpools. Informal carpools encouraged. No

  18. 23 CFR 656.7 - Determination of an exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CARPOOL AND VANPOOL PROJECTS § 656.7 Determination of an exception. (a) The FHWA has determined under... on: (1) The nature of carpool projects to provide a variety of services to the public; (2) the fact that carpool projects are labor intensive and require professional and specialized technical skills;...

  19. 关于小客车合乘出行的研究%Research on Carpool Travel of Small Passenger Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文婧

    2015-01-01

    文章结合我国近几年来小客车合乘的发展历程,从小客车合乘涉嫌非法营运、合乘过程中存在的安全风险、权责认定困难三个方面分析了目前小客车合乘亟待解决的问题,并提出相应建议,为制定小客车合乘政策提供参考.

  20. 成都市拼车可行性分析及对策研究%Feasibility and Countermeasures of Carpooling in Chengdu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙耿杰; 袁振洲

    2014-01-01

    为缓解成都市道路交通拥堵,保证交通安全,对成都市拼车行为可行性进行研究.对拼车概念、国内外现状及措施进行介绍.对500位市民进行问卷调查,内容涉及市民出行方式分析、拼车需求与收入关系分析、市民拼车经历统计、拼车收费情况分析、拼车信息获取方式分析、拼车认可度及市民拼车出行态度分析等,通过分析,成都市目前有高达61%的公交车出行用户,且中低收入水平的市民中有高达80%的人群愿意拼车,为拼车奠定了群众基础.此外,拼车认可度及市民拼车出行态度分析中,大力支持与鼓励拼车的比例分别高达36%,37%,进一步表明拼车在成都是可行的.对拼车可能带来的问题进行了分析,并且针对问题提出了相应的五项对策.

  1. Carpool Priority Planning Methods in Central Area of Large Cities%大城市合乘优先的规划方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维礼

    2010-01-01

    针对我国大城市及中心区的交通特征,分析合乘优先规划的影响因素;借鉴世界发达国家实施合乘优先的经验,提出合乘优先的规划内容;以上海市中心区为试点,依据规划方法与相关交通调查,提出了上海市中心区合乘优先规划建议.

  2. “有偿网络拼车”的法律规制探研%The Research on Legal Regulation of Network Paid Carpool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉勉

    2016-01-01

    “有偿网络拼车”是互联网服务与人们出行深度融合所形成的一种新型交通运行模式,但对其法律规制存在适法性判定冲突、安全权利保障冲突以及归责原则的选择冲突,冲突的原因在于立法缺失下法律价值选择的矛盾.法律保障每个人在法律边界内的自由与完整,应确定“有偿网络拼车”的合法性,并从规范“有偿网络拼车”定价行为、引入“有偿网络拼车”征信机制、侧重“有偿网络拼车”安全权利保障等方面对其金习性规制.

  3. Problems and Solutions on Carpooling of Private Car%私家车拼车存在的问题及解决方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂良; 黄凯; 许琳; 陈雨亭

    2013-01-01

    目前我国城市交通拥挤问题突出,私家车空驶率高,通过私家车拼车可有效缓解交通压力,节省出行费用.鉴于此,介绍国内外私家车拼车现状,通过对比找出我国私家车拼车存在的问题,并提出相应的解决方法和措施.在解决方法中着重介绍了“基于定时、定线路的上下班拼车”的方法,该方法可有效解决上班族的拼车问题.

  4. Exploring the Regulations on Tort Involving Carpool%对与顺风车有关侵权行为规制的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春普; 孟睿

    2008-01-01

    目前,美国、德国、荷兰、瑞士等国家比较流行会员制共享租车“Car Sharing”,即顺风车。国内顺风车发生在熟人之间,陌生人通过上网加入顺风车俱乐部、在小区张贴搭车信息等方式,也能获得顺路搭车的便利。顺风车具有节能、缓解城市交通压力、节约出行成本、增进友谊等多赢的优势,使顺风车现象得以存在与发展起来。与此同时,对出租等运营业的竞争,特别是发生交通事故时,对主体责任的认定和赔偿问题,由于立法的缺失而造成的不确定性,成为当前争议的焦点。

  5. 无偿拼车的外部效应及制度建设%On the external effect and institution construction of non -charge carpooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茂福

    2011-01-01

    无偿拼车出行具有多方面的积极的外部效应:有助缓解交通拥堵,促进城市交通和谐;减少碳气体排放,促进人与环境的和谐;可以促进人际关系的和谐.无偿拼丰的制度化就是要加快无偿拼车立法,使之依法组建无偿拼车协会并建立拼车信息系统.当然,无偿拼车的发展离不开一个社会的集体理性及其拥有的社会资本.

  6. Design and realization of campus carpooling system%面向大学校园的包车系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏艳; 黄志兴; 曾永龙

    2015-01-01

    本文通过细化社会的拼车软件应用场景,着眼大学校园细化市场,提供了校园包车服务功能,打通用户和包车代理的桥梁;结合微信的高使用性,基于微信公众平台的开发模式,将车位信息查询、定位等功能嵌入微信应用,有效提高了包车服务访问的便捷性.

  7. 合乘出行信息检索的路径匹配算法%Path Matching Algorithm for Carpool Information Retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟泳; 杨金梁; 连剑; 樊铭渠

    2007-01-01

    研究合乘出行信息检索算法.低效率的信息交流方式制约了合乘出行方式的发展,针对现有合乘信息检索方式的不足,在区域-区域匹配算法的基础上,引入图的概念,提出了一个基于交通路网的路径匹配算法,并给出了算法复杂度分析.该算法利用交通路网中各结点间的距离关系,可以检索给定起迄点间及起迄点各自邻近结点群之间存在的出行信息,并能根据合乘出行路径特点对检索出的信息进行分析、评价和优选,以方便出行者进行合乘组织.最后用一个仿真实例表明算法的有效性.

  8. Design of Intelligent Carpooling System Based on Mobile Internet%基于移动互联网的智能拼车系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞立峰

    2015-01-01

    该系统旨在服务于乘客和出租车司机,以解决乘客高峰时段打车难,出租车座位利用率低等问题。系统主要采用C/S结构,客户端主要分为乘客与出租车两个用户角色。后台服务器主要实现定位、智能匹配、路径导航及费用计算等。%The system is designed to serve the passengers and taxi drivers,to solve the peak period passenger difficult to take a taxi,the taxi seat utilization rate is low.The system mainly uses the C/S structure,the client is mainly divided into passenger and taxi two user roles.The background server mainly realizes positioning,intelligent matching,path navigation and cost calculation.

  9. 出租车合乘路径演化博弈分析%Analysis of Evolutionary Game for Taxi Carpooling Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 何瑞春

    2015-01-01

    针对出租车随机合乘绕行路径选择问题,构建了出租车合乘路径选择演化博弈模型,研究了合乘路径的演化稳定策略,并分析了合乘演化稳定策略的影响因素.研究结果表明:合乘路径的选择会出现3种演化稳定策略,稳定策略受到乘客对出行的时间延误的心理系数、绕行距离、绕行支付比例等因素的影响,随着影响因素值的增加,稳定策略逐渐趋向演化为合乘协商失败.为了避免合乘绕行协商失败,必须限制绕行距离、并且给予绕行方一定的补偿.所得结论反映了出租车合乘路径选择演化的相关规律,对政策的制定有一定的指导意义.

  10. The analysis of taxis carpooling based on Nash equilibrium theory%论出租车拼车现象中的纳什均衡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付鑫宇

    2012-01-01

    本文结合博弈论中纳什均衡理论,从博弈论的角度研究了出租车司机擅自拼车并对多人收费这一不合理现象中乘客所能采取的策略以及所产生的结果,得出只有有关部门加强监管才是解决此问题有效方法的结论.

  11. 出租车合乘定价多目标优化研究%Research on Taxi Carpooling Pricing Multi-objective Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 何瑞春; 肖强; 马昌喜

    2015-01-01

    针对出租车合乘系统定价问题,综合考虑多种定价因素,构建了多目标优化模型,设计了基于改进小生境粒子群的出租车合乘定价多目标优化算法,提出了一种合乘定价优化方法,通过实例说明了定价优化方法的应用,并且分析了出租车与乘客供需比对优化结果的影响.研究结果表明,合乘支付比例同时影响司机收入、乘客支付及补贴管理费用,为了均衡各方利益,必须选取适当的支付比例;而且优化结果受到供需比的影响,随着乘客量的增加各目标逐渐优化,当供需比达到饱和时,系统目标达到极值.

  12. 私家车拼车的风险分析与控制%Analysis and Control on Private Carpooling Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂良; 黄凯; 毛丽娜; 许琳

    2015-01-01

    城市化进程中,私家车高保有量的背后却是私家车的高空载率,交通资源浪费巨大;私家车拼车是解决交通问题的一种有效途径,但拼车过程同时也存在诸多风险.鉴于此,首先阐述了私家车拼车风险的研究现状,然后对私家车拼车中可能存在的风险进行分析,最后创新性地提出诸多有效的风险控制措施.研究可为中国私家车拼车的安全、快速发展提供理论保障.

  13. Environmental Impact Statement Addressing Campus Development at Fort George Meade, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    preferential parking spaces are assigned to NSA employees who carpool /vanpool (two or more people riding together). The NSA also participates in the...Guaranteed Ride Home Program, administered by the BWI Business Partnership, for employees who carpool , vanpool, use public transportation, or ride a bike to...encourage carpool and vanpool, providing transit subsidies to the employees, extending the Guaranteed Ride Home program to Fort Meade employees, and

  14. Evaluation of Consideration and Incorporation of Green and Sustainable Remediation (GSR) Practices in Army Environmental Remediation. Volume 2. Pilot Project GSR Evaluation Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    trips for personnel Examples: - Encourage carpooling - Use telemetry systems and webcams to remotely transmit data directly to project offices to...much CWM or MEC to dispose of during this phase of the work). o Reducing the number of trips for personnel through carpooling . During the DGM task...represents effective carpooling . o Reducing trip lengths when feasible, such as using clean fill (gravel) from a local quarry and using a local

  15. Sustainability Assessment of a Military Installation: A Template for Developing a Mission Sustainability Framework, Goals, Metrics and Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    carpooling o Commute distance/time o Access to public transit 3.4 Encroachment threats, joint land use planning, and action plan o Currency of...a System of Reporting Final Report Submitted to SERDP 35 o Electric/hybrid/flex fuel vehicles o Mass transit/ carpooling 5.8 Threatened and...Percentage of commute in carpools , public transit, on foot and on bicycles (i.e., other than personal car) Actual % alternate transport utilization

  16. AAFES Gas Station at Creech Air Force Base Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Reservation station. Nor was there any mention of carpooling or busing to relieve the costs of the commute. Should the project be carried forward...Indian Springs, as well as the intermediate station at the Snow Mountain Piute (sic) Reservation station. Nor was there any mention of carpooling or...meet the purpose and need for this action. A sizable percentage already arrives at Creech by bus or carpool . The purpose of this action is not

  17. Independent Engineering Assessment of the Army’s Transportation Plan for BRAC Recommendation #133 Project Fort Belvoir - Mark Center, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    Rideshare ( Carpool /Vanpool/Slug) Trips Peak Hour Shuttle Bus & Truck Trips Total Number of Parking Spaces Percent % Total Number of...Year Employee Trip Modal Split Single Occupant Vehicle (SOV) Trips (Employee + Visitor) Rideshare ( Carpool /Vanpool/Slug) Trips Peak Hour...Transportation Management Plan (TMP) – Benham/SAIC, July 2010 9 90% 5,768 500 SOV – 57% Carpool – 5% Vanpool – 3% Slug – 3% Bus Transit – 5% Walk

  18. Planning Strategies for Transportation Fuel Consumption Reduction: An Evaluation of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative’s Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Cambridge Systematics 2009). Parking fees can be privately or publicly assessed and have demonstrated an ability to encourage carpooling , therefore...al 2010). Commuting strategies include those that encourage carpools , vanpools, or car- and bike-sharing programs (Cambridge Systematics 2009...From a typical traveler’s point of view, the most likely trip that can be achieved via a carpool or transit is the commute to and from work; as such

  19. Army LEED-Certified Projects, August 2008 - January 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    efficient vehicles and carpool vehicles. Additionally, the project provides secure locations for bicycles as well as showers and changing facilities...walkways, bicycle paths, and preferred parking for both fuel-efficient vehicles and carpools . 59% of the previously developed site has been restored with...for carpool parking which are clearly marked by signs. u.S. Army Engineer District, Los Angeles Architect: RQ Construction, Inc. Civil Engineer

  20. Sea-Based X-Band (SBX) Radar Vessel Maintenance and Repair. Draft Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    simultaneously. In addition to the staggered work times, the 2000 ROD also committed the Navy to encourage carpools and vanpools and subsidize...the 2000 ROD also committed the Navy to encourage carpools and vanpools and subsidize the use of public transportation by military personnel and...civilian workforce with a goal of increasing mass transit ridership and carpooling . The Navy will also continue to work with City of Coronado and

  1. Escape from the Delta: Preparation and Evacuation for Catastrophic Flooding in California Emergency Management Agency Region 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    carpooling becomes clear. The legend notation depicts the number of passengers per vehicle followed by the number of contraflow miles used...and percentage of people reaching 27 Figure 4.1: With no contraflow available to increase the rate that people depart, the importance of carpooling

  2. Environmental Assessment for the Construction and Operation of the Westside Shoppette/Gas Station at Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-08

    Encourage construction workers to carpool to the site. Operation Because the number of personnel assigned to Kirtland AFB would not be expected to...uate off-street parking or all construction workers to avoid increased congestion near roadsid s, as well as encourage onstruction workers to carpool to

  3. Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the 2011-2015 Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    will be used whenever feasible.  Worker trips will be minimized through carpooling . BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES-1 (BIO-1A). The following measures will be...construction and that will be implemented to adequately facilitate the movement of traffic; and  Project employees will be encouraged to carpool . Chapter 3

  4. 基于定时、定线路的上下班拼车方案设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Commuting Carpooling Based on Fixed Time and Fixed Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂良; 黄凯; 许琳; 毛丽娜

    2014-01-01

    现阶段我国私家车拼车存在信息不畅、费用不统一、违法犯罪时有发生和法律界定不明确等问题,阻碍了私家车拼车市场的形成与发展;设计了基于定时、定线路的上下班拼车方案,方案依托信息平台实现拼车的信息检索、信息配对、双方互选、双方互评功能,依靠拼车公司确保了拼车过程的安全和费用结算的统一;方案最终在江苏淮安部分区域进行了实际试运行,运行结果表明:该方案促进了私家车拼车市场的规范化,极大地提高了拼车过程的安全性和经济性;本次探索也为我国全面放开私家车拼车提供了实证,具有积极的借鉴意义.

  5. Construction of Carpool-taxi Technology Guarantee System and Implementation of Its Organization%出租车合乘制技术保障体系的构建与合乘组织的实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴芳; 傅忠宁; 孙文红

    2009-01-01

    出租车由于价格因素等原因存在着过多空驶和栽客较少的状态,占据了大量的道路资源,加剧了交通拥挤.合乘制的推行将有助于提高人们选择出租车出行的频次,这对于保障出租车司机的收入,减少道路拥堵与交通系统的能源消耗有着重要意义.对出租车合乘制的技术保障体系和组织措施所进行的分析和研究,对于出租车合乘制的推行具有一定的现实意义.

  6. 私家车拼车文献综述及车联网环境下拼车展望%Literature Review on Private Car Pooling and Prospect of Carpooling in the Internet of Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂良; 包天雯; 黄丽君; 陈婉莹; 毛丽娜

    2016-01-01

    私家车高保有量的背后却是私家车的高空载率,交通资源浪费巨大,私家车拼车成为节约交通资源的有效途径.文中在综述了私家车拼车行为影响因素、拼车推广可行性、拼车费用分配、鼓励拼车政策、拼车合法性、拼车系统开发和拼车具体数学模型构建等前期研究资料的基础上,结合智慧城市建设方向,创新性地提出将车联网技术和拼车系统进行融合,解决现有拼车过程中存在的安全性低、实时性差、多源多人合乘难实施和多车辆难协同等问题,实现不确定需求下多车辆实时协同多人动态随机拼车,破题车联网环境下私家车拼车问题,为拼车理论的研究提供了全新的独特视角.

  7. 车辆合乘匹配问题中服务需求分派算法研究%Research on service requirement distribution algorithms in carpooling problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵增珍; 王洪国; 刘弘; 孟春华; 张子鹏

    2013-01-01

    在目前交通拥塞及物流成本居高不下的情况下,通过车辆合乘的方式降低车辆空载率、降低物流成本具有重要意义.在多车辆环境下,如何恰当地将服务需求分派到合适的车辆上是需要首先解决的问题.该文对确定性多车辆合乘匹配问题展开研究,提出针对服务需求分派的启发式聚类算法.基于服务需求及车辆特征提出匹配度概念,并基于启发式算法将服务需求分派到具体某一车辆.实际算例验证:该算法在可接受时间范围内,可有效提高搭乘成功率,降低车辆运行成本.

  8. On the Validity of Paid Carpooling of Private Car for Non-profit Purpose%私家车非营利性有偿拼车的合法性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁

    2014-01-01

    随着居民生活水平的不断提高,家庭汽车保有量逐年增加,私家车已十分普及,但同时也带来了全国各大中城市交通拥堵问题的加重.私家车非营利性有偿拼车可以很好地缓解交通压力,节约出行成本,还能实现节能减排.借鉴国外私家车拼车支行经验,查找我国私家车拼车无法成行的问题,提出确认“私车有偿拼车”合法性的相关建议,是值得探讨的课题.

  9. 依法治国视域下出租车合乘侵权行为研究%Research on Infringement in Taxi Carpooling from the Perspective of the Rule of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思

    2016-01-01

    依法治国的核心是依宪治国,国家尊重和保障人权,出租车强行合乘从消费者权益法上是以损害乘客安全保障权、自主选择权、公平交易权为代价增加承运人经济收入的侵权行为,同时也是违反经营者保证消费者人身、财产安全义务的违法行为.出租车客运合同是有偿、诺成、双务合同.承运人和乘客之间达成运输的合意,合同即告成立.城市中运营的出租车通常采用“招手即停,上车即走”的运输方式,而不是采用定时定点的方式,这是与其他公共交通运输不同的显著特征之一.运输过程中是否增加乘客、货物应由乘客提出,不应当由承运人提出,承运人提出合乘的请求从合同法的角度上是变更合同内容.当消费者权益遭受侵害,进行维权时通常找不到与之相应的法律依据获得赔偿,造成出租车合乘侵权纠纷的主要原因是立法层面模糊指引造成的,依法治国的前提是有法可依,从立法的层面进行思考,应当对出租车行业管理规范进行调整,细化出租车行业管理相应法律法规,明确监管部门权责,对违法经营的从业人员进行严厉打击,从而促进对消费者权益的保护和城市出租车行业良性发展.

  10. Heuristic Optimization Algorithms of Multi-Carpooling Problem Based on Two-Stage Clustering%多车辆合乘问题的两阶段聚类启发式优化算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵增珍; 王洪国; 刘弘; 宋超超; 孟春华; 于洪玲

    2013-01-01

    车辆合乘问题研究在物流领域和交通领域意义重大,良好的合成策略不仅可以节省物流成本,降低交通拥塞,在减少噪声及提高环境等方面也是很有利的.针对确定性多车辆合乘匹配问题,提出了两阶段聚类的启发式匹配策略:第1阶段聚类过程提出匹配度的概念,用于指导将服务需求分配到某一具体车辆,从而将多车辆问题转化为单车辆问题;第2阶段聚类过程基于“先验聚类”插入思想,可降低单车辆匹配过程的插入试探次数,从而提高算法效率.为提高搭乘成功率并降低运营总成本,通过迁移对第1阶段聚类过程进行调整.实际算例结果表明,算法在可接受时间范围内不仅可提高搭乘成功率,还明显降低车辆的运行成本,表现出较强的实用性.

  11. Practical Analysis & Design of "Carpool" Shared-Taxi Mode%"顺风车"合乘模式相关问题的实用性分析和设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群峰

    2010-01-01

    在总结分析现有出租车合乘模式的基础上,提出了"顺风车"出租车合乘模式,对其相关问题进行了分析研究,并对其中关键技术问题如补偿系数、费用分摊比例等从实用性角度进行了算法设计,提出了实现该模式的配套设备及其功能.

  12. 基于几何概型的出租车合乘候车时间分析%Study of Waiting Time of Taxi Carpools based on Geometric Probability Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左忠义; 刘津; 汪磊

    2015-01-01

    出租车合乘平均候车时间是合乘效益评价的主要参数,随着合乘的逐渐兴起,对其求解模型进行研究具有重要的现实意义.经过等候合乘者的任一辆出租车仅存在合乘成功与合乘不成功两种情况,本文在此前提下建立模型,先根据出租车车流载客数分布及方向修正系数建立合乘成功率分布模型,再结合出租车到达时间分布运用几何分布原理建立出租车合乘候车时间计算模型.文中通过对大连市主干道黄河路与西安路商业中心的实地调查得到具体数据标定模型参数,并设计试验对模型的准确性进行了检验,检验结果表明模型能够准确地估算出租车合乘候车时间,相对误差在3%以内.

  13. Study on the Feasibility of Carpooling Based on the Travel Utility%基于出行效用的小汽车合乘可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕笑天; 何瑞春

    2015-01-01

    提高私人汽车利用率是缓解城市交通拥挤、减少能源消耗和环境污染的一个创新途径,车辆合乘是产生于民间的一种应对交通拥堵的新型方式.针对实际生活中居民对出行方式的选取,构建基于出行选择效用理论的函数模型,建立效用函数,通过类比选择更优的结果.综合考虑费用、时间、距离、机动车车速等指标作为参考点,考虑不同交通工具下效用值的大小,利用效用差值分析合乘的出行选择条件,通过算例验证了该方法的准确性.结果表明,由于出行距离长度的不同,合乘的效用值相比其他交通工具有所变化.根据出行距离可判断选择合适的交通工具,这对居民出行选择提供了现实依据.

  14. The Perfect System of Compensatory Carpool under Deregulation Background%管制放松背景下的私人拼车行为的制度完善探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天宇; 潘妍枬

    2014-01-01

    私人拼车行为的制度完善是指通过一系列切实可行的规范、政策或长效机制引导、规范和鼓励私人拼车行为的长期可持续发展.近年来私人拼车行为在迅速发展和日趋规范化的同时,也呈现出一系列问题,对私人拼车行为进行制度完善具备必要性和有效性.必须通过在全国范围内承认私人拼车行为的合法性,明确私人拼车行为的法律性质,优化私人拼车行为中存在的信息问题,从政府层面鼓励和提倡私人拼车行为的发展等四个路径对私人拼车行为进行制度完善.

  15. 40 CFR 52.1163 - Additional control measures for East Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., on or before October 15, 1975, establish a carpool program at Logan Airport, which shall include the... paragraph (b)(7) of § 52.1161 by fully cooperating with and participating in the Logan Airport...

  16. 23 CFR 810.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vehicles moving in the general stream of mixed highway traffic. Carpool lane(s)—is any high occupancy... interests in land. (3) High occupancy vehicle—a bus or other motorized passenger vehicle such as a...

  17. 定时、定线路上下班拼车方案实现与评价——以淮安为试点%Realization and Evaluation of Commuting Carpooling Program Based on Fixed Time and Route: a Case Study of Huai'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周桂良; 黄凯; 毛丽娜; 朱艳茹

    2014-01-01

    因信息不畅、费用不统一、违法犯罪时有发生和法律界定不明确等问题,导致私家车拼车市场发展缓慢.设计了以淮安为试点的定时、定线路上下班拼车方案,搭建了拼车信息平台,实现了拼车的信息检索、信息配对、双方互选、双方互评等功能,并利用时间费用阻抗评价模型和Vissim仿真对该实施后的方案进行评价,结果表明该方案可使时间费用阻抗减少65%~86%,拼车路网中平均车速提高17.83%、总停车延误时间减少34.84%、总行驶时间减少28.29%、总延误时间减少40.89%、平均延误时间减少29.23%.方案在淮安试点表明,该方案能较大地减少拼车过程中的出行时间和出行费用,改善拼车区域路网交通拥堵状况,提高拼车过程的安全性和经济性.

  18. 不法原因给付在中国的运用有偿顺风车纠纷引发的法律思考%The Application of Performance Based on Illegal Reasons in China: Thoughts over Carpool Disputes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓梅

    2007-01-01

    @@ 近年来,因石油价格的不断上涨,有些私家车主寻求同乘人贴补油费,以降低成本;有些上班族为免挤车之苦,也愿意有偿搭顺风车,双方均达到利益最大化.对社会而言,这种行为可缓解交通拥堵,节约社会资源.在网络上还出现了专业的顺风车网站和顺风车俱乐部,为搭乘者提供交流和联络渠道.但相关管理部门对此却一直持否定态度,一旦查证是有偿搭乘顺风车,即认定为非法营运,车主被罚的消息时常见诸报端,顺风车的孰是孰非也引发了激烈争论.一波未平,一波又起,在有偿顺风车是否合法尚无定论时,有偿搭乘顺风车又出现了新的纠纷.

  19. CORSA: An Open Solution for Social Oriented Real-time Ride Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonarrigo Simone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of the interest in environmental questions on one hand and the massive use of web based social networks on the other recently led to a revival of carpooling. In particular, the exploitation of social networks promotes the information spreading for an effective service (e.g. reducing the lack of confidence among users and endorses carpooling companies via viral marketing, finally acting as a basis for trust based users recommendation system In this work we outline CORSA, an open source solution for a real time ride sharing (RTRS carpooling service that endorses the role of social networks by using them as a conveying scenario for the virtual credits reward mechanism CORSA is based on.

  20. Discovery of convoys in trajectory databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeung, Hoyoung; Yiu, Man Lung; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2008-01-01

    of trucks and carpooling of vehicles. Although there has been extensive research on trajectories in the literature, none of this can be applied to retrieve correctly exact convoy result sets. Motivated by this, we develop three efficient algorithms for convoy discovery that adopt the well-known filter...

  1. A Chance to Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Susan; Brillhart, Lindsay; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    While parents with disabilities may face big challenges, with appropriate supports, many can be great parents. Just like other parents, they do not have to be responsible for every part of childrearing all by themselves. All parents rely on supports to help raise their children, such as day care, carpools, schools, babysitting co-ops, or advice…

  2. 23 CFR 656.3 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 656.3 Section 656.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CARPOOL AND VANPOOL PROJECTS § 656.3 Policy. Section 126(d) of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1978 declares...

  3. 23 CFR 656.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 656.1 Section 656.1 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CARPOOL AND VANPOOL PROJECTS § 656.1 Purpose. The purpose of this regulation is to prescribe policies and general procedures...

  4. The Mexican "Illegal Alien" Commute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Phil

    1986-01-01

    A photo report of the following three treks by illegal aliens across the border from Mexico to work in Arizona reveals the dangers and disappointments the migrants are exposed to: (1) a "carpool" from Southern Mexico; (2) a train ride from Sinaloa; and (3) a 40-mile hike through the Arizona desert. (PS)

  5. Some Things are Worth Saving...Like Energy. Driver Education Energy Packet, Transparency Masters, and Supplement II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Eric; Puckett, Kathy

    This resource guide and supplement contain class activities and discussion pieces for use in integrating energy education into driver education. Included are such activities as survey-taking, fuel consumption calculations, and extensive examination of transportation alternatives such as bicycling, carpooling, mass transit, and alternative means of…

  6. Understanding Air Force members' intentions to participate in pro-environmental behaviors: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudenslager, Mark S; Lofgren, Steven T; Holt, Daniel T

    2004-06-01

    At a single installation, a cross section of 307 active duty Air Force members completed questionnaires to assess whether the theory of planned behavior was useful in explaining the service members' intentions to participate in three environmentally protective behaviors-recycling, carpooling, and energy conservation. While the individual tenets of the theory of planned behavior, i.e., attitude toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived control, accounted for differing amounts of variance in intentions, the results indicated that the intentions of these Air Force members to recycle, conserve energy, and carpool were moderately explained by the tenets of the theory of planned behavior collectively when the results of a multiple regression were analyzed.

  7. Development of a community energy conservation program. Volume II. Energy saving techniques for use by local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-26

    This volume contains technical material related to community energy conservation programs, and supplements the organizational material in Volume I. It is in looseleaf format so that sections related to specific topics can be easily copied or transferred to individuals responsible for various sorts of conservation, such as carpooling programs, building improvements, and community outreach. Three technical chapters are included, discussing topics in the areas of: internal city and county operations; community powers and regulations, and outreach programs. In the first, the concern is with what the community can do to reduce energy use in its own operations, an effective first step in promoting comprehensive energy conservation. The second chapter analyzes ways that the police power and fiscal powers of the community can be used for energy conservation, through building codes, zoning, and similar measures. In the final chapter, ways to promote energy conservation in the community are discussed: programs include outreach to households and firms, carpool promotion, waste oil recycling, etc.

  8. PENGGUNAAN METODE ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS DALAM MENGANALISA FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI PEMILIHAN MODA KE KAMPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardi Teknomo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Limitation of parking spaces in Petra Christian University need to be solved by deterring private cars usage. However, the factors that affect students to choose their mode to campus are unknown. Determination of factors that influence mode choices may support alternatives and policy that could be proposed. Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to analyze the factors. Trips characteristics data of the students was collected by questionnaires interview. The results of the analysis show that the main factors that influence student to choose their mode to campus is security (49,3% and time (27,3%. Walking from student dormitory was the best alternative (33.2%, while carpool (16% is slightly lower than private cars usage (18%. Vanpool (12.4% is lower than carpool. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Lahan parkir di Universitas Kristen Petra yang terbatas, memerlukan solusi alternatif yang mengalihkan penggunaan kendaraan pribadi. Permasalahannya, faktor-faktor apa yang menyebabkan mahasiswa memilih menggunakan mobil pribadi daripada alternatif moda yang lain belum diketahui. Dengan menentukan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi pemilihan moda, serta besar pengaruhnya, berbagai alternatif dan kebijakan untuk menurunkan kebutuhan akan lahan parkir, dapat diusulkan dengan lebih efektif. Metoda Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP dapat dipergunakan untuk menentukan faktor-faktor pemilihan moda. Data karakteristik perjalanan dilakukan dengan wawancara berkuisioner kepada mahasiswa Universitas Kristen Petra yang mempunyai kemungkinan untuk melakukan pilihan terhadap alternatif-alternatif moda yang ada. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa faktor utama yang mempengaruhi pemilihan moda untuk berangkat kuliah adalah faktor keamanan (49,3% dan faktor waktu (27,3%. Ditinjau dari berbagai faktor, alternatif jalan kaki dari pondokan merupakan alternatif yang terbaik (33,2%, sedangkan carpool (16%, sedikit lebih rendah daripada penggunaan mobil pribadi (18%. Angkutan kampus (antar

  9. Car Pooling Boundary Based on Energy Consumption and Value of Travel Time%基于能耗与出行时间价值视角的汽车共乘边界分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文强; 孙启鹏; 吴群琪

    2012-01-01

    为了评估汽车共乘方式在中国推进的可行性,从能耗和出行时间价值视角建立汽车共乘边界模型,探索影响共乘方式推进因素,以西安小汽车出行为例,验证汽车共乘边界模型的科学性和准确性.结果显示,共乘方式油耗与增载旅客数呈强反相关关系,与旅客体重呈弱正相关关系,与旅客周转量增加率呈强正相关关系;西安市汽车共乘边界条件要满足增载旅客数大于1.37倍周转量增加率,旅客单位出行时间价值小于92.7元;按照10辆车增载1.37个乘客计,西安市一年可以节省燃油500万升,汽车共乘方式在西安具有很好的推进潜力.%The paper analyzes the feasibility of carpool in China, develops car pooling boundary model from the energy and time value and explores the impact of carpool promoting factors. Taking the panel data of Xi' an, China as an example, it verifies the car carpool boundary model. The results show that the fuel consumption of carpool has a strong anti-correlation with passenger number increase, and has a weak positive correlation with passenger weight. It also has a strong positive correlation with the increasing rate of passenger turnover volume. The pooling boundary of Xi' an should meet the condition that the increasing passenger volume is over 1.37 times than the increasing passenger turnover rate; the passenger unit of time value of less than 92. 7 yuan. If there is 1. 37 passenger number increase for every 10 vehicles, there will be 5 million liter' s fuel saving for Xi' an per year and the car carpool has good potential in Xi' an city.

  10. 最讨厌的乘客

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄雅婷

    2009-01-01

    老实讲,谁家的车还没捎带过几个同事和朋友啊,这就是所谓的"顺水人情"。媒体上每天都在宣传限行和环保,再加上如今油价飞涨得一天一个样,有车的上班族也开始琢磨着同楼或者同小区拼车了。这本来是件好事,没看见美国和欧洲专门有一条快车道叫"carpool"

  11. Eco-nomics. Despite a tough economy, many CIOs are incorporating eco-friendly initiatives into their strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Kate Huvane

    2009-07-01

    * Several health systems have adopted environmentally friendly practices like computer recycling programs, energy-efficient lighting, carpooling programs, and building design components that limit water usage. * Vendors are offering more energy-efficient products like virtualization software and switching equipment. * ClOs are reducing power usage and costs by consolidating servers, installing more efficient chilling systems, and implementing policies to power down desktops that aren't in use. * Green IT can be a difficult conceptto sell to CEOs and hospital boards unless it goes hand-in-hand with cost savings.

  12. Illinois Energy Conservation Plan: documentation of DOE-U535-O-A calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-06

    This report presents data compiled on the estimated energy conservation achieved by programs included in the Illinois Energy Conservation Plan. Summaries are given for the following areas: thermal and lighting standards; state and local procurement standards; carpooling, vanpooling, and public transit; right turn on red; energy data information system; Homeowner's Extension Program; agricultural resource applications; Farm Energy Conservation Program; Commercial Industrial Program; Public Utilities Program; School Energy Management Program; energy management assistance to local government; Administration of State Plan; energy conservation information; energy management for state buildings; solar energy; waste to energy and resource recovery; intergovernmental coordination; community technology assistance.

  13. A Mobile, Dynamic, and Privacy-Preserving Matching System for Car and Taxi Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yan Chiou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, rates of vehicle ownership have risen globally, exacerbating problems including air pollution, lack of parking, and traffic congestion. While many solutions to these problems have been proposed, carpooling remains one of the most effective approaches. Recently, several carpooling platforms have been built on cloud computing systems, with originators posting online list of departure/arrival points and schedules from which participants can search for rides that match their needs. However, it can be difficult to make matches quickly and the systems are subject to privacy concerns in that they may disclose private information such as names, registration data, and departure/arrival schedules. This paper proposes a dynamic matching method for car/taxi pools for use in mobile devices via ad hoc Wi-Fi networks. The proposed method also preserves user privacy including names and departure/arrival schedules. Moreover, the system does not require the user to register any personal data, so such data cannot be leaked. The system was implemented on the Android mobile platform, allowing users to immediately and securely access the system via their smart phones.

  14. Travel demand policies for saving oil during a supply emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noland, Robert B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Centre for Transport Studies, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.noland@imperial.ac.uk; Cowart, William A. [ICF Consulting, Ltd., Egmont House, 25-31 Tavistock Place, Bloomsbury, London, WC1H 9SU (United Kingdom); Fulton, Lewis M. [International Energy Agency, 9 Rue de la Federation, Paris 75015 (France)

    2006-11-15

    An area of growing concern is the future stability of oil producing regions and the ability to maintain stability in international petroleum markets. The transport sector, in particular, is extremely vulnerable to short-term supply disruptions with consequent implications on economic activities in most countries. This paper analyses potential transport demand restraint strategies that could potentially mitigate the impact of short-term supply disruptions. Our analysis includes estimates of the potential fuel savings from several policies. Specifically, we examine various work-based policies (telecommuting, flexible work schedules), the potential of carpooling, speed limit reductions, driving bans and restrictions, increased public transport usage, and providing information on the effect of maintaining optimal tire pressures. The analysis uses various assumptions based on existing knowledge about how travelers may respond under emergency conditions to develop estimates of potential fuel savings. Results suggest that the most restrictive policies, such as driving bans and mandatory carpooling are the most effective. Other policies provide small reductions with some, such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules, having the potential to be easily implemented. Those policies, focussed on encouraging public transport use, are less effective and potentially more costly to implement.

  15. Climate Science Service Learning: Learning In Deed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Many schools require community service yet students work at a food bank or stream clean-up without understanding causes or solutions for the issues they encounter. Since students learn best when they make connections between scientific concepts and real-world issues that interest them, integrated science service learning is an effective and engaging way to teach. My fifth grade students at National Presbyterian School in Washington, DC learned about climate change through a service learning project to help the environment on campus. The curriculum was aligned with science and climate literacy frameworks, "Benchmarks for Science Literacy," from the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and "The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences," from the U.S. Global Change Research Program / U.S. Climate Change Science Program, and was supported through partnership with NOAA's Climate Stewards Education Program. The service learning project was implemented according to seven best practices of service learning: the students initiated the project, researched the issue, developed a plan, worked with the community, shared their results, reflected on the project, and celebrated their accomplishment. My class of 28 fifth-graders researched and experimented with several environmental variables affecting our campus. They brainstormed service projects they could do to help the environment and decided to focus on reducing idling in the school carpool lane. Students researched how automobile exhaust contributes to climate change, causes acid rain, and harms human health. Students designed a system to measure and eventually minimize the exhaust released by cars idling in the carpool line. They crafted a tally sheet to record the number and size of cars and their idling times. They measured temperature and CO2 data, although they did not find that the number of idling cars affected these variables. Students concluded that over an average week with pleasant weather, 35 of

  16. Discovery of Convoys in Trajectory Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Jeung, Hoyoung; Zhou, Xiaofang; Jensen, Christian S; Shen, Heng Tao

    2010-01-01

    As mobile devices with positioning capabilities continue to proliferate, data management for so-called trajectory databases that capture the historical movements of populations of moving objects becomes important. This paper considers the querying of such databases for convoys, a convoy being a group of objects that have traveled together for some time. More specifically, this paper formalizes the concept of a convoy query using density-based notions, in order to capture groups of arbitrary extents and shapes. Convoy discovery is relevant for real-life applications in throughput planning of trucks and carpooling of vehicles. Although there has been extensive research on trajectories in the literature, none of this can be applied to retrieve correctly exact convoy result sets. Motivated by this, we develop three efficient algorithms for convoy discovery that adopt the well-known filter-refinement framework. In the filter step, we apply line-simplification techniques on the trajectories and establish distance b...

  17. State energy conservation plan for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The energy-savings and energy-management programs set up by state agencies in New Mexico are presented. Also the energy-savings and energy-management programs for public schools are presented. Plans and summaries are also given for the following program: solar water heaters for secondary schools; solar portable classroom demonstration; energy-savings and energy-management programs for county and municipal governments; energy-savings programs for commercial and residential sectors; weatherization; solar sustenance; energy-savings programs for hospitals and industrial buildings; carpools and vanpools; a program encouraging compliance with the national 55-mph speed limit; waste-oil recycling; utilitites; agriculture; procurement; modification; public information; and an administrative packet containing information on how to facilitate internal accounting procedures.

  18. Design of Taxi Sharing Billing System%出租车拼车计费系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭永杰; 廖建文; 吴熹

    2014-01-01

    出租车拼车计费系统硬件设计采用单片机PK10N512VLL10为主控芯片,TPC7062KW组态触摸屏为监控操作界面,显示部分为64*16点阵;在软件上将乘车状态划分为单乘状态和拼车状态,同时根据当地物价水平设定计费方案,计算出不同乘客的车费,车内车费的显示采用实时刷新的方法;该系统样机已经成型,经测试操作简单、稳定且成本较低。%Taxi bil ing system hardware carpooling design uses a single chip PK10N512VLL10 as the main control chip, TPC7062KW touch screen as the monitoring configuration interface,the display section for 64*16 lattice.ln software,the riding state by state and carpooling divided into a single state,according to the local price level set charging scheme,calculated the different passenger fares,display the car fare by using the method of real-time refresh.The system prototype has been formed,after the test has the advantages of simple operation,stable and low cost.

  19. 基于Android的出租车智能管理系统的研究与设计%Study and Design of Intelligent Management System of Taxi Based on Android

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾兴苇; 王丹志

    2016-01-01

    现代社会发展出租车智能管理系统能有效缓解有限的交通资源与日益增加的市民出行需求的矛盾.针对现有出租车打车软件存在的各种问题,本系统将电召软件与计价器、智能顶灯、监控终端、空车牌等硬件设备有机地结合在一起,以电召司机端软件作为重点,实现了普通运营、同一地点合乘、不同地点合乘等运营流程和订单记录查看、电子围栏设置等其他功能,达到了"界面简洁友好"、"操作简单直观"、"功能完整齐全"的要求.经过专业测试人员系统测试,本系统能准确方便地实现用户的需求,数据采集、统计准确率达到 98%及以上,车辆数据上传到后台服务器及时准确.已经在广州市白云区试运营,并取得了良好的效果.%Intelligent management system of taxi can effectively alleviate the contradiction between the growing demand for public travel and limited transportation resources.To solve the problems of existing taxi on-call software,this system combines on-call software and meter,intelligent dome,monitor terminal,empty plates and other hardware equipment together organically.Focusing on on-call software,the author accomplished regular operations,carpool at same place,and carpool at different places and check of record of orders,electronic enclosure and other functions.Thus this paper fulfilled requirements of 'simple and friendly interface','intuitive and easy operations',and 'complete functions'.After tested by professional testers,this system can accurately and easily achieve the needs of users.Data collection,statistical accuracy rate of 98 percent and above,the vehicle data is uploaded to the backend server timely and accurately.It has been in trial operation in Baiyun District of Guangzhou City,and achieved good results.

  20. Take part in the Commute-Another-Way Challenge!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Ring the changes on Thursday, 4 June by commuting another way! CERN has signed up for the 5th “challenge mobilité Rhône-Alpes”, the aim of which is to encourage people to use modes of transport other than their car to get to work. Are you up for the challenge?   Join in the challenge! Sign up using the dedicated CERN form. "Commute another way!" is an initiative launched by the Rhône-Alpes regional authorities and the French environment agency ADEME (l’Agence de l’environnement et de la maîtrise de l’énergie française) to promote alternative ways of travelling to work than the car (excluding carpooling), in private and public-sector organisations across the region. We love this idea and CERN has been signed up to a similar scheme - Bike to Work - for several years. That’s why we’ve decided that CERN should join the Commute-A...

  1. 在美国开电动汽车的利弊得失

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉衡隆

    2013-01-01

    家中有人在美国加州硅谷工作。她家离公司32.2km。并要经过繁忙的101号公路。加州政府规定,一个人可以驾驶电动汽车在“合乘通道”(Carpool Lane,通常必须有两个或两个以上乘坐的普通轿车才能行驶的道路,一般该道路比较通畅)上行驶。因此萌生了使用电动汽车的念头,但又不敢贸然买一辆。获悉当地有经销商办理出租电动汽车的业务,租期为三年,她决定尝试。

  2. FOUR-YEAR-OLD NAMSAN TUNNEL CONGESTION PRICING SCHEME IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsoo SON, Ph. D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the congestion pricing scheme at Namsan #1 and #3 tunnels in downtown Seoul four years after its implementation. The effectiveness of the scheme was measured by the changes of various traffic impacts. The traffic volume of the two tunnels was reduced by up to 25% for the first month. After that time, the traffic volume started to increase again and then exceeded the previous volume level. However, average travel speed of the two tunnel corridors improved by up to 74%. The overall traffic volume of the four alternative routes was increased; nevertheless, their average travel speed increased as well. The number of carpool vehicles occupied by 3 or more persons including the driver during the peak periods was remarkably increased. Before the congestion fee charging, toll-charged vehicles amounted to 68.5% of the total traffic volume of the two tunnels, and then the share dropped to 29% afterwards. The empirical analysis results for the effectiveness of the congestion pricing scheme are very promising.

  3. Modeling an Elastic-Demand Bimodal Transport Network with Park-and-Ride Trips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William H.K.Lam; LI Zhichun; S.C.Wong; ZHU Daoli

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a network equilibrium formulation for modeling commuters' travel choices in a bimodal transport system with park-and-ride (P&R) trips while the total demand is elastic to the congestion level of the network. A super-network approach is adopted in the proposed model. It is assumed that commuters' trips are categorized into two types, auto mode only and a combined mode with both auto and transit modes. The former is referred to as the pure mode trip and the latter as the P&R mode trip. The proposed model simultaneously considers the commuter's choice of the pure mode versus the P&R mode, the choice of parking location for the pure mode, the choice of transfer point for the P&R mode, as well as the route choice for each mode. The demand elasticity of transport system, the capacity constraints of transport facilities, and the congestion interaction throughout the super-network are also explicitly incorporated into the proposed model. The results of the numerical experiment show the following key findings: (i) traditional parking/P&R models may overestimate or underestimate travel demand distribution over network; (ii) parking/P&R, transit scheduling, and carpooling schemes bring significant impacts on commuters' travel behavior and network performance; and (iii) different transport policies may be to some extent mutually substituted.

  4. Opportunities for Network Coding: To Wait or Not to Wait

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Yu-Pin; Ramasamy, Solairaja; Gautam, Natarajan; Sprintson, Alex; Shakkottai, Srinivas

    2011-01-01

    It has been well established that reverse-carpooling based network coding can significantly improve the efficiency of multi-hop wireless networks. However, in a stochastic environment when there are no opportunities to code because of packets without coding pairs, should these packets wait for a future opportunity or should they be transmitted without coding? To help answer that question we formulate a stochastic dynamic program with the objective of minimizing the long-run average cost per unit time incurred due to transmissions and delays. In particular, we develop optimal control actions that would balance between costs of transmission against those of delays. In that process we seek to address a crucial question: what should be observed as the state of the system We analytically show that just the queue lengths is enough if it can be modeled as a Markov process. Subsequently we show that a stationary policy based on queue lengths is optimal and describe a procedure to find such a policy. We further substa...

  5. States may need aid to obtain aid for energy-conservation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The $50 million in aid for states' energy conservation, authorized by Congress in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (PL94-163), would more than fill the gap left by shrinkage of other Federal programs. But much of the $50 million will be difficult to get, even for states like Pennsylvania which has an energetic conservation program. To qualify for aid, governors must fight difficult political battles on state and local levels. The priorities that Congress imposes as funding criteria are mandatory lighting-efficiency standards for public buildings; programs to promote carpooling and public transport; legalization of right turns at red lights; establishment of energy efficiency as a governing consideration in the procurement procedures of states and their political subdivisions; and mandatory thermal-efficiency standards and insulation requirements for new and renovated buildings. Guidelines for meeting those criteria were recently promulgated by the Federal Energy Administration, but FEA has not yet published critical data projections and measurement methodologies. (MCW)

  6. Saving oil in a hurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    During 2004, oil prices reached levels unprecedented in recent years. Though world oil markets remain adequately supplied, high oil prices do reflect increasingly uncertain conditions. Many IEA member countries and non-member countries alike are looking for ways to improve their capability to handle market volatility and possible supply disruptions in the future. This book aims to provide assistance. It provides a new, quantitative assessment of the potential oil savings and costs of rapid oil demand restraint measures for transport. Some measures may make sense under any circumstances; others are primarily useful in emergency situations. All can be implemented on short notice ? if governments are prepared. The book examines potential approaches for rapid uptake of telecommuting, ?ecodriving?, and car-pooling, among other measures. It also provides methodologies and data that policymakers can use to decide which measures would be best adapted to their national circumstances. This ?tool box? may help countries to complement other measures for coping with supply disruptions, such as use of strategic oil stocks.

  7. REDUCING GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. SHAHEEN, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Fortunately, transportation technologies and strategies are emerging that can help to meet the climate challenge. These include automotive and fuel technologies, intelligent transportation systems (ITS, and mobility management strategies that can reduce the demand for private vehicles. While the climate change benefits of innovative engine and vehicle technologies are relatively well understood, there are fewer studies available on the energy and emission impacts of ITS and mobility management strategies. In the future, ITS and mobility management will likely play a greater role in reducing fuel consumption. Studies are often based on simulation models, scenario analysis, and limited deployment experience. Thus, more research is needed to quantify potential impacts. Of the nine ITS technologies examined, traffic signal control, electronic toll collection, bus rapid transit, and traveler information have been deployed more widely and demonstrated positive impacts (but often on a limited basis. Mobility management approaches that have established the greatest CO2 reduction potential, to date, include road pricing policies (congestion and cordon and carsharing (short-term auto access. Other approaches have also indicated CO2 reduction potential including: low-speed modes, integrated regional smart cards, park-and-ride facilities, parking cash out, smart growth, telecommuting, and carpooling.

  8. Usage of Smartphone Data to Derive an Indicator for Collaborative Mobility between Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Toader

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thepotentialofgeospatialbigdatahasbeendrawingattentionfor afewyears. Despitethe larger and larger market penetration of portable technologies (nomadic and wearable devices like smartphones and smartwatches, their opportunities for travel behavior analysis are still relatively unexplored. The main objective of our study is to extract the human mobility patterns from GPS tracesin order toderivean indicatorfor enhancing CollaborativeMobility (CM betweenindividuals. The first step, extracting activity duration and location, is done using state-of-the-art automated recognition tools. Sensors data are used to reconstruct individual’s activity location and duration across time. For constructing the indicator, in a second step, we defined different variables and methods for specific case studies. Smartphone sensor data are being collected from a limited number of individuals and for one week. These data are used to evaluate the proposed indicator. Based on the value of the indicator, we analyzed the potential for identifying CM among groups of users, such as sharing traveling resources (e.g., carpooling, ridesharing, parking sharing and time (rescheduling and reordering activities.

  9. Sustainable Mobility System – a Challenge for Kaunas University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaneta Stasiškienė

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays more and more universities include sustainability into their strategies and intergrate this concept into their activities. Kaunas University of Technology (KTU seeks to gain the status of a sustainable university, therefore, in addition to already common ranges of sustainable management of waste, efficient consumption of water and energy, the importance of the transport sector impact on sustainability is continuously increasing. Based on the mentioned above and analyzing good practices of other EU universities, an attempt to develop sustainable mobility system platform for KTU has been made.Evaluation is done on the KTU current situation, safety of traffic, pollution and noise from cars and other aspects. Also, there is a review of communication by public transport, bicycles and on foot. KTU sustainable mobility system, based on other sustainable universities good practices, is provided. The suggested KTU sustainable mobility system focuses on private cars reduction, public transport, car-pooling, car sharing, cycling and encouragement to walking.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.64.2.3155

  10. Not used to public transport any longer. A study about transport service based on needs and requirements in Siljansnaes; Man har vant sig av med kollektivtrafik. En studie om transportservice baserad paa behov och vanor i Siljansnaes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warsen, Lisa

    2000-05-01

    The goal of the transport policy is that every citizen shall have a transport service on a reasonable level. In sparsely populated areas the public transport service is on a low level and many groups without a private car will have small possibilities to travel to different activities. Siljansnaes, with nearly 2000 citizens, is a small region in the community Leksand in Dalarna where the transport problem have been more tangible. The aim of this project has been to create a transport system more based on the needs and requirements. Also the people who lives in Siljansnaes in their leisure times are a part in the project. They are almost as many as the permanent living ones. The result also has been built on the goal of a higher care of the environment. The transport solution contains; village-bus, car-pooling, changed price system for public transport, but also a partnership between the citizens, the community and the regional transport company (Dalatrafik). The project as a process has the goal that the people in Siljansnaes should take part of the solution and the responsibility for the operation of the system.

  11. Federal energy conservation programs pursuant to section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163). Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-21

    This report provides an overview of the activities and achievements of the executive branch of the Federal Government in implementing the energy conservation requirements and provisions of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975 (Public Law 94-163). The report describes Federal actions to develop procurement policies that promote energy conservation and efficiency, develop a Federal 10-Year Buildings Energy Conservation Plan, develop responsible public education and information programs, encourage energy conservation and energy efficiency, and promote vanpooling and carpooling arrangements. About half of the Nation's energy is used in our homes and automobiles. Another 48 percent is used by State and local governments, business and insutry, in providing needed goods and services. The Federal Government is the Nation's largest energy user, accouting for 2.2 percent of the total national energy used in 1977. This energy is used by nearly 6 million people in more than 400 thousand buildings and in the operation of more than 600 thousand vehicles. While energy conservation and energy efficiency measures alone cannot solve our immediate problems, they are an essential part of our transition to an era of scarce and expensive energy supplies.

  12. Choice of an Optimal Management Strategy of Transport Demand Using Multi-Criteria Analysis: City of Zagreb Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupko Šimunović

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After initial enthusiasm by motor vehicles, society is lately increasingly noticing their shortcomings. Traffic problems caused by excessive use of cars, still represent a very serious and widespread problem, particularly in cities. Public opinion expresses dissatisfaction with the quality of the environment and traffic conditions. As the most important demand, the demand for human health stands out in the first place, and, consequently, the demand for sustainable transport development. The fact that the EU is involved in solving traffic problems by means of various directives and scientific research projects, points out the seriousness of the problem. Two solutions which are mainly used for solving traffic problems in cities are the construction or extension of existing transport infrastructure and traffic demand management (TDM. Traffic demand management is a new paradigm, which aims at reducing or transforming of traffic demand through reduction of unnecessary drives by cars and improvement of more efficient, healthier and, above all, cleaner forms of public and non-motorized transport. There is a whole range of methods for traffic demand management, such as Park & Ride system, carpooling, carsharing, priority for the vehicles with specified number of passenger – HOV, teleworking, congestion charging, charging for use of road infrastructure, bicycling infrastructure improvement, etc. The topic of the work focuses on the choice of optimal traffic demand management strategies in the city of Zagreb using multi-criteria analysis.

  13. Oil demand reduction in an oil crisis. Evaluation of oil demand-reducing measures for the transportation sector; Brandstofvraagreductie bij oliecrisis. Evaluatie van vraagreducerende maatregelen voor de transportsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanschke, C.B.; Van Bree, B.; Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    Every IEA member state must have in place measures to reduce oil demand during oil supply emergencies. The transport sector offers significant opportunities to reduce oil demand with relatively limited impact on the overall economy. To determine which measures are useful in the Dutch situation, this report performs a quick scan of a number of demand restraint measures in the transport sector. The quick scan ranks measures by their effectiveness, feasibility, and efficiency. Based on the quick scan results, three measures have been selected for further research (Sunday driving ban, work-trip reduction, and carpooling). Additionally, the effects of price increases on oil demand have been examined. Five refineries and a large petrochemical industry sector are based in the Netherlands. Therefore, the shares of passenger road transport (20%) and freight road transport (12%) in the national oil demand are comparatively low. As a consequence an oil demand reduction in road transport of at least 20% to 30% is required to meet the national oil demand reduction target of 7% to 10% agreed within IEA. Price effects during an oil crisis are uncertain given limited research, and estimated to reduce oil demand from passenger road transport by 15% to 35% and oil demand from freight road transport by 10% to 25%. Given the uncertainty, this effect was halved to obtain a conservative estimate of 2% to 4% of national oil demand reduction as a result of price effects. A Sunday driving ban can lead to reductions of 50% to 80% of passenger travel on Sundays, leading to savings of 1% to 1.5% of national oil demand. Work-trip reduction policies can reduce worktrips by 10% and lead to reductions of 0.5% to 1% of total oil demand. Carpooling has the greatest potential, reducing work trips up to 30% and leading to 0% to 2.5% savings of national oil demand. The broad range of the latter estimate is due to the limited options available to influence motorists to share their vehicles with others

  14. Fuel demand reduction during oil crisis. Evaluation of demand reducing measures for the transportation sector; Brandstofvraagreductie bij oliecrisis. Evaluatie van vraagreducerende maatregelen voor de transportsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanschke, C.B.; Van Bree, B.; Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    Every IEA member state must have in place measures to reduce oil demand during oil supply emergencies. The transport sector offers significant opportunities to reduce oil demand with relatively limited impact on the overall economy. To determine which measures are useful in the Dutch situation, this report performs a quick scan of a number of demand restraint measures in the transport sector. The quick scan ranks measures by their effectiveness, feasibility, and efficiency. Based on the quick scan results, three measures have been selected for further research (Sunday driving ban, work-trip reduction, and carpooling). Additionally, the effects of price increases on oil demand have been examined. Five refineries and a large petrochemical industry sector are based in the Netherlands. Therefore, the shares of passenger road transport (20%) and freight road transport (12%) in the national oil demand are comparatively low. As a consequence an oil demand reduction in road transport of at least 20% to 30% is required to meet the national oil demand reduction target of 7% to 10% agreed within IEA. Price effects during an oil crisis are uncertain given limited research, and estimated to reduce oil demand from passenger road transport by 15% to 35% and oil demand from freight road transport by 10% to 25%. Given the uncertainty, this effect was halved to obtain a conservative estimate of 2% to 4% of national oil demand reduction as a result of price effects. A Sunday driving ban can lead to reductions of 50% to 80% of passenger travel on Sundays, leading to savings of 1% to 1.5% of national oil demand. Work-trip reduction policies can reduce worktrips by 10% and lead to reductions of 0.5% to 1% of total oil demand. Carpooling has the greatest potential, reducing work trips up to 30% and leading to 0% to 2.5% savings of national oil demand. The broad range of the latter estimate is due to the limited options available to influence motorists to share their vehicles with others

  15. Interactions of Transportation and Telecommunications Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, N.; Mundorf, N.; Dholakia, R. R.; Xiao, J. J.

    2002-05-01

    This project was designed as a social science complement to the engineering studies supported by the University of Rhode Island (URI) Transportation Center (URITC). The project developed a behavioral knowledge base about the actual and intended transport and telecommunications behaviors of transportation users, with a particular focus on southern Rhode Island. Background studies, drawing from literature on telecommuting and travel behavior, led to the development of a generalized framework to understand the transport-telecom interactions. In particular, we developed working papers dealing with transport aspects of e-retailing and distance education. In the empirical part of this project, two major field studies were completed. The first of these was a survey of URI students, probing their car travel, carpool, bus use, and Internet use behaviors. The students were surveyed first by telephone, selected randomly from a list obtained from the Register's office. A total of 220 students responded to the telephone survey. Characteristics of the telephone survey respondents are shown in Appendix B. This was supplemented by an in-class survey of 107 students conveniently selected from the courses taught by the research faculty. This supplementary questionnaire probed the students more deeply regarding their motivations for transportation and technology use issues. The second major field study was a mail survey of southern Rhode Island residents. In this survey, we not only investigated actual travel and transport behaviors but also measured attitudes towards the environment and alternative transport and telecommuting solutions. At the time of writing this report, about 850 individuals had responded to our mail questionnaire. Characteristics of the resident sample are described in Appendix B. The results have laid the groundwork for our second year project where we plan to study the impact of specific interventions on transportation and telecommuting attitudes and intentions.

  16. Using Dashboards to Improve Energy and Comfort in Federal Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Marini, Kyle; Ghatikar, Girish; Diamond, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Federal agencies are taking many steps to improve the sustainability of their operations, including improving the energy efficiency of their buildings, promoting recycling and reuse of materials, encouraging carpooling and alternative transit schemes, and installing low flow water fixture units are just a few of the common examples. However, an often overlooked means of energy savings is to provide feedback to building users about their energy use through information dashboards connected to a building?s energy information system. An Energy Information System (EIS), broadly defined, is a package of performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems that is used to collect, store, analyze, and display energy information. At a minimum, the EIS provides the whole-building energy-use information (Granderson 2009a). We define a ?dashboard? as a display and visualization tool that utilizes the EIS data and technology to provide critical information to users. This information can lead to actions resulting in energy savings, comfort improvements, efficient operations, and more. The tools to report analyzed information have existed in the information technology as business intelligence (Few 2006). The dashboard is distinguished from the EIS as a whole, which includes additional hardware and software components to collect and storage data, and analysis for resources and energy management (Granderson 2009b). EIS can be used for a variety of uses, including benchmarking, base-lining, anomaly detection, off-hours energy use evaluation, load shape optimization, energy rate analysis, retrofit and retro-commissioning savings (Granderson 2009a). The use of these EIS features depends on the specific users. For example, federal and other building managers may use anomaly detection to identify energy waste in a specific building, or to benchmark energy use in similar buildings to identify energy saving potential and reduce operational cost. There are

  17. Proceedings of the Clean Air Foundation's shifting mobility workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, E. [Clean Air Foundation, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This workshop brought together organizations with transportation-related initiatives underway across Ontario. The objective of the workshop was to identify strategic options for developing and implementing effective transportation-related public education and outreach initiatives, as well as to identify barriers and opportunities for public participation in sustainable transportation programs and create opportunities for collaboration to maximize the efficiency of existing initiatives. Attendees included representatives from federal, provincial, municipal and regional governments, non-government organizations and the private sector from across Ontario. Three themes were identified: (1) activities focused on encouraging the shift from traveling in single occupant vehicles to transit, autosharing, trains, bicycles and carpooling, (2) activities focused on encouraging consumers to choose more fuel efficient and lower emission vehicles and fuels, and (3) activities focused on encouraging the motoring public to change habits that will increase fuel efficiency and lower emissions, such as not idling their vehicle and monitoring tire pressure. Keynote and panel presentations showcased existing collaborative sustainable transportation initiatives, including integrated transportation systems in Germany. In addition, a summary of outcomes from Pollution Probe's Transportation, Air Issues and Human Health conference was presented in order to provide strategic options for the future and to highlight barriers and opportunities. Strategy sessions were held to allow participants the opportunity to identify specific areas of collaboration. The Smart Commute Initiative was discussed. Emerging automobile technologies were discussed by the Canadian Vehicle Manufacturer's Association. Issues concerning educational programs in schools and in the workplace were examined, as well as the challenges of achieving a system of integrated and sustainable urban transportation. tabs

  18. Personalized trajectory matching in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2013-07-31

    With the increasing availability of moving-object tracking data, trajectory search and matching is increasingly important. We propose and investigate a novel problem called personalized trajectory matching (PTM). In contrast to conventional trajectory similarity search by spatial distance only, PTM takes into account the significance of each sample point in a query trajectory. A PTM query takes a trajectory with user-specified weights for each sample point in the trajectory as its argument. It returns the trajectory in an argument data set with the highest similarity to the query trajectory. We believe that this type of query may bring significant benefits to users in many popular applications such as route planning, carpooling, friend recommendation, traffic analysis, urban computing, and location-based services in general. PTM query processing faces two challenges: how to prune the search space during the query processing and how to schedule multiple so-called expansion centers effectively. To address these challenges, a novel two-phase search algorithm is proposed that carefully selects a set of expansion centers from the query trajectory and exploits upper and lower bounds to prune the search space in the spatial and temporal domains. An efficiency study reveals that the algorithm explores the minimum search space in both domains. Second, a heuristic search strategy based on priority ranking is developed to schedule the multiple expansion centers, which can further prune the search space and enhance the query efficiency. The performance of the PTM query is studied in extensive experiments based on real and synthetic trajectory data sets. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. ON VANET-BASED ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR TAXI-CALLING SYSTEM%基于 VANET叫车系统的路由算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 宋飞; 张琳娟; 张宏科

    2015-01-01

    结合成熟的车载自组网技术和泛在的智能手持终端设备,提出一种去中心的动态叫车系统. 乘客可以通过该系统随时发布叫车请求,并由车载自组网完成该请求的路由及车辆的匹配. 同时,系统还提供了拼车功能,私家车也可通过该功能搭载顺路乘客. 针对信息传输特点,重点研究一种基于效用值转发的路由算法,它根据车辆匹配成功概率计算效用值,并采用基于二分法的有限副本扩散策略,有效地避免信息盲目转发、减少网络负担. 实验仿真结果表明,该系统的叫车成功率优于传统系统,基于效用的有限副本路由在网络开销、时延等方面均优于传统的传染路由和效用路由.%Combining mature VANET technology and ubiquitous smart handset terminal devices, we propose a decentralised dynamic taxi-calling system.Passengers can issue calling requests via this system at anytime, and the route and the taxi matching of the requests are accomplished by VANET.Meanwhile, the carpooling function is provided as well by the system thus the private cars are able to take the passengers on their way through the function.Aiming at the features of information transmission, we mainly focus on studying a utility forwarding-based routing algorithm.It calculates the utility value based on the probability of successful matching of taxis, and employs dichotomisation-based limited-copy diffusion strategy to effectively avoid the blind forwarding and relieve the burden of network.Results of experimental simulation show that our system can perform better than the conventional taxi-calling systems in success rates.The utility-based limited-copy routing algorithm is superior to the conventional epidemic routing and utility routing in terms of network overhead and latency.

  20. Research on the Design Method of HOV Lane Based on the Basic Section of Urban Arterial Road in China%我国城市快速路基本路段HOV车道设置方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓社军; 陈峻; 李春燕; 毕昕

    2013-01-01

      为了研究高占有率(HOV)车道在我国城市道路中的设置方案,本文以城市快速路基本路段为研究对象,并选择了南京市的两条典型路段进行道路条件与交通条件的调查与分析。选取路段平均速度、延误时间以及运送能力为指标,分别设计了7种车道数分配方案,并运用 VISSIM 仿真软件进行现状和仿真对比分析,研究设置HOV车道的方法。结果表明,在双向六车道的城市快速路基本路段中单独设置一条3+型HOV专用道或者一条3+型HOV专用道和一条公交专用道的组合时,能够最大化提高整个路段的运营效率;双向八车道条件下,当公交和货车比例都相对较低,而小汽车和中客车所占比例相对较高时,设置HOV车道时的利用率可能相对较低,而建立公交专用道则比较合理。%To find how to design the high occupance vechicle lanes (HOV) in the city of China, the traffic and road conditions of the two typical road basic sections of a urban arterial of Nanjing were surveyed. Seven combinations of different function lanes have been designed based on the indexes of section average velocity, time delay and transport capacity VISSIM software was used to simulate the seven projects. The result proved that it would be more efficiency when one 3+HOV lane or one 3+HOV lane combined with one bus-only lane is designed under the condition of bidirectional six traffic lanes in the basic section of urban arterial road.It would be more efficiency to set the bus-only lane than the HOV lane when the rate of the bus and van is lower compare with the car and carpool.

  1. Bounding the errors for convex dynamics on one or more polytopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresser, Charles

    2007-09-01

    We discuss the greedy algorithm for approximating a sequence of inputs in a family of polytopes lying in affine spaces by an output sequence made of vertices of the respective polytopes. More precisely, we consider here the case when the greed of the algorithm is dictated by the Euclidean norms of the successive cumulative errors. This algorithm can be interpreted as a time-dependent dynamical system in the vector space, where the errors live, or as a time-dependent dynamical system in an affine space containing copies of all the original polytopes. This affine space contains the inputs, as well as the inputs modified by adding the respective former errors; it is the evolution of these modified inputs that the dynamical system in affine space describes. Scheduling problems with many polytopes arise naturally, for instance, when the inputs are from a single polytope P, but one imposes the constraint that whenever the input belongs to a codimension n face, the output has to be in the same codimension n face (as when scheduling drivers among participants of a carpool). It has been previously shown that the error is bounded in the case of a single polytope by proving the existence of an arbitrary large convex invariant region for the dynamics in affine space: A region that is simultaneously invariant for several polytopes, each considered separately, was also constructed. It was then shown that there cannot be an invariant region in affine space in the general case of a family of polytopes. Here we prove the existence of an arbitrary large convex invariant set for the dynamics in the vector space in the case when the sizes of the polytopes in the family are bounded and the set of all the outgoing normals to all the faces of all the polytopes is finite. It was also previously known that starting from zero as the initial error set, the error set could not be saturated in finitely many steps in some cases with several polytopes: Contradicting a former conjecture, we show

  2. Four papers on transportation and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Kevin Daniel

    The main essay of this thesis, found in the first chapter, examines how two policies that are a priori equivalent, fuel economy standards and feebates, interact differently with complementary policies that also attempt to improve fuel economy. To examine these interactions I build a general equilibrium model of the automobile market that allows manufacturers to trade off horsepower, weight, and fuel economy of vehicles along a production possibility frontier (PPF). I also estimate household demand for vehicles and miles for a simulation model that includes the used car and scrappage markets. This model allows me to simulate the interaction of a research and development policy that increases the PPF of domestic firms, or a tax credit that increases demand for efficient vehicles, with either a CAFE standard or feebate. I find that vehicle emissions increase under all these interactions but the effects are muted under the feebate because it allows fuel economy to improve by 0.60% to 1.88%, while CAFE, by targeting an average fuel economy, will always offset these uncoordinated complementary policies. The second essay examines transportation systems with unpriced congestion where single-occupant low-emission vehicles are allowed into high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes to encourage their adoption exacerbates congestion costs for carpoolers. The resulting welfare effects of the policy are negative, with environmental benefits overwhelmingly dominated by the increased congestion costs. Exploiting the introduction of the Clean Air Vehicle Stickers policy in California with a regression discontinuity design, our results imply a best-case cost of 124 per ton of reductions in greenhouse gases, 606,000 dollars per ton of nitrogen oxides reduction, and $505,000 dollars per ton of hydrocarbon reduction, exceeding those of other options readily available to policymakers. The third essay examines the 'Energy Paradox.' From previous literature, it can be found that consumers tend

  3. 安全视角下我国校车集约运营模式探讨%Intensive Operation Mode of School Bus in China Based on Safety Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘立军; 刘喜梅

    2015-01-01

    School bus service is still in the stage of extensive operations in China, which has the prob⁃lems such as low operating efficiency, weak national finance investment, more security incidents, poor service satisfaction, and so on. Given this, based on the safety perspective, the transportation scale econo⁃my theory and the enterprise intensive management theory, the intensive operation mode of school bus was put forward, which held the advantages of low costs, high degree of service standardization, and which also will be conducive to government regulation, reduce traffic congestion around schools, cultivate the students′consciousness of fair, as well as environmental protection. And then, the five intensive oper⁃ation modes of school bus were presented, which included bus exclusive mode, urban public transport mode, the county, rural, village bus mode in rural, carpooling mode, and mixed mode. And the intensive methods of above five modes were elaborated. Finally, corresponding countermeasures were suggested on how to promote the intensive operation of school bus in China at the policy level and the technical level.%当前我国校车服务尚处于粗放式运营阶段,还存在运营效率低、国家财政投入缺口大、安全事故频出、服务满意度差等问题。鉴于此,基于安全的视角,借鉴运输规模经济理论与企业集约化经营理论,提出校车集约运营模式,与当前校车运营模式相比,其具有成本投入少、服务标准化程度高、政府易监管、有利于缓解学校周边交通拥堵、有利培养学生公平意识、绿色环保等优势。进而提出了校车集约运营的5类模式:校车专营模式,城市公交模式,农村县际、乡际、村际班车模式,拼车模式,混合模式,系统阐述了5类模式的集约方法,最后在政策层面、技术层面就如何在我国推广校车集约运营提出了相应的对策。

  4. 出租车合乘收益趋势影响模型研究%Research on the Benefit Tendency Model of Taxi-sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖强; 何瑞春; 俞建宁; 张薇

    2016-01-01

    In order to analyze the influence of taxi-sharing conditions on carpooling benefit,GPS trajectory data processing method is constructed and the taxi-sharing model is built by introducing variable data such as taking on & off distance and time.On the basis of the grey forecasting mod-el,the taxi-sharing benefit tendency is explored under the different influence conditions of sharing distance and spacing interval.The conclusion shows that taxi-sharing benefit is closely related to the distance of taking on point.The model is applied to Nanjing taxi GPS trajectory data.When the time interval of taking on point of the taxi-sharing is 20 minutes,the distance of the taxi-sha-ring increases to 1200 meters,the matching degree will increase quickly and the benefit will in-crease by 20.31%,and it indicates that the further the distance interval is,the more the income is.Otherwise,when the distance of taking on point of the taxi-sharing is 100 meters,the time in-terval of sharing increases to 35 minutes,the matching degree will increase slowly and the benefit will increase by 5.38%,and it indicates that the longer the time interval is,the less the income is.%为了分析出租车合乘条件对合乘收益趋势的影响,构建了 GPS 轨迹数据的处理方法,引入合乘下车点的距离、合乘上车点的距离和时间等参数,建立出租车合乘模型,并利用灰色预测模型,讨论了在合乘点距离和间隔时间不同的影响条件下,出租车的合乘收益趋势.研究结果表明:合乘的收益与合乘上车点间的距离密切相关.模型应用于南京市出租车 GPS 轨迹数据时,当合乘上车点的时间间隔固定为20 min,合乘上车点间的距离增大到1200 m 时,合乘的匹配数增加快,合乘的收益可以增加20.31%,且距离间隔越大,收益增长越快;当合乘上车间的距离固定在100 m 时,合乘上车点的时间间隔增加到35 min,合乘的匹配数增加

  5. Literacy in Action: A Carbon-Neutral Field Program at Cornell University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A.; Derry, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Cornell Earth and Environmental Systems (EES) Field Program is a semester-length undergraduate field program located on the island of Hawai`i. The Hawaiian Islands are the world’s most dynamic natural laboratory and the premier location for Earth systems research and education. While there are compelling reasons for students and faculty to travel from the US mainland to Hawai`i, the air and ground travel that comprises the program carries a large carbon footprint. This liability is also an extraordinary educational opportunity. For the past two years EES students have been challenged to make the program carbon-neutral. They are asked to devise a set of criteria for a credible and defensible zero-CO2 footprint and then to put their plan into action. The C-neutral project consists of three elements: (1) quantifying CO2 emissions, (2) reducing emissions wherever possible, and (3) offsetting emissions that cannot be eliminated. In quantifying emissions six areas are identified: air travel, ground travel, domestic electricity, natural gas, food, and waste. Emissions reductions include all of the standard “carpool--turn it down--turn it off “ conservation behaviors, with special emphasis on food and waste; eating local and organic, shopping at re-use centers, and compost and recycling of garbage. Our program facility utilizes solar hot water and is equipped with neither heat nor air conditioning, thus domestic energy use is low. Students tabulate all of our energy use and calculate the resulting CO2 emissions for all program participants for a period of four months. The CO2 offsetting strategy is conducted in collaboration with a native ecosystem restoration project. Students participate in all aspects of forest restoration, including seed collection, germination and outplanting of native plant species and removal of invasive pest species. The initial goal of this locally-supported project was to restore degraded pasture to native forest. The EES students have