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Sample records for carpocapsa pomonella

  1. Occurrence and Prevalence of Insect Pathogens in Populations of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.: A Long-Term Diagnostic Survey

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    Regina G. Kleespies

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available About 20,550 larvae, pupae and adults of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., were diagnosed for pathogens during long-term investigations (1955–2012 at the Institute for Biological Control in Darmstadt, Germany. The prevailing entomopathogens diagnosed in these studies were insect pathogenic fungi, especially Beauveria bassiana and Isaria farinosa, the microsporidium, Nosema carpocapsae, the Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV, as well as mostly undetermined bacteria. While the CpGV was observed exclusively in larvae and pupae from laboratory colonies or from field experiments with this virus, entomopathogenic fungi were most frequently diagnosed in last instars in autumn and in diapausing larvae and pupae in spring. B. bassiana was identified as the major fungal pathogen, causing larval prevalences of 0.9% to 100% (mean, about 32%. During prognostic long-term studies in larvae and adults of C. pomonella, N. carpocapsae was diagnosed in codling moth populations from various locations in Germany. The mean prevalence generally ranged between 20% and 50%. Experiments revealed that the fecundity and fertility of microsporidia-infected female adults were significantly reduced compared to healthy ones. The results underpin the importance of naturally occurring microbial antagonists and represent a base for further ecological studies on developing new or additional biological and integrated control strategies.

  2. Occurrence and Prevalence of Insect Pathogens in Populations of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.: A Long-Term Diagnostic Survey.

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    Zimmermann, Gisbert; Huger, Alois M; Kleespies, Regina G

    2013-08-02

    About 20,550 larvae, pupae and adults of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., were diagnosed for pathogens during long-term investigations (1955-2012) at the Institute for Biological Control in Darmstadt, Germany. The prevailing entomopathogens diagnosed in these studies were insect pathogenic fungi, especially Beauveria bassiana and Isaria farinosa, the microsporidium, Nosema carpocapsae, the Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV), as well as mostly undetermined bacteria. While the CpGV was observed exclusively in larvae and pupae from laboratory colonies or from field experiments with this virus, entomopathogenic fungi were most frequently diagnosed in last instars in autumn and in diapausing larvae and pupae in spring. B. bassiana was identified as the major fungal pathogen, causing larval prevalences of 0.9% to 100% (mean, about 32%). During prognostic long-term studies in larvae and adults of C. pomonella, N. carpocapsae was diagnosed in codling moth populations from various locations in Germany. The mean prevalence generally ranged between 20% and 50%. Experiments revealed that the fecundity and fertility of microsporidia-infected female adults were significantly reduced compared to healthy ones. The results underpin the importance of naturally occurring microbial antagonists and represent a base for further ecological studies on developing new or additional biological and integrated control strategies.

  3. EVALUATION OF VIRULENCE OF STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE TO EUROPEAN MOLE CRICKET GRYLLOTALPA GRYLOTALPA L.

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    Stefanovska, T; Pisdlisnyuk, V

    2014-01-01

    Common European mole cricket (CEML) Grillotalpa grillotalpa L causes damage to field, vegetable crops, and small fruits growing at commercial plantations and nurseries. Chemical control if insecticides are used in poison bates, soil application or seedling/bulbs treatment is not environmentally friendly. Inundative and innoculative release of CTVL biocontrol agents, in particularly, Entomopathogenic nematode is a reliable alternative to chemical control. At the laboratory study the comparison of the ability of commercial strain (Nemastar) and local Ukrainian isolate of Steinernema carpocapsae in various concentrations to parasite in last instar nymph and adults of G. grillotalpa was investigated. Grillotalpa grillotalpa was found as a susceptible host for both commercial and local strains of S. carpocapsae. The life cycle of S. carpocapsae both strains in the adults of G. grillotapla with concentration 50 IJs per larva has been completed 12-15 days at t=25 C. Two generations of S. carpocapsae were able to develop in mole cricket for both strains. Two strains of S. carpocapsae nematode species tested were pathogenic to adults of G. grillotalpa. The mortalities of G. grillotapla last last instars' larva caused by S. carpocapsae were recorded in every concentration tested at least 20 to 150 IJs per larva. Mean larval mortality ranged from 48% to 95% depending upon nematode strain and rate of application. Larval mortality generally increased with increasing of nematode rates. It was significant for both S. carpocapsae strains (Ukr. Isolate F = 26 > 2,86) and commercial strain (Nemastar F = 102,95 > 2,86). Ukrainian local isolate caused a greater percentage of mortality of G. grillotapla adult than commercial strain of S. carpocapsae tested but interactions between nematode strains, application rates were not significant. This study presents new data on effect of S. carpocapsae isolated for Ukraine to key agricultural polyphagous pest G. grillotalpa susceptibility

  4. Ultrastructure changes in the haemocytes of Galleria mellonella larvae treated with gamma irradiated Steinernema carpocapsae BA2

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    Hedayat-allah M. Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure studies on the haemolymph of 5th larval instar of Galleria mellonella showed five types of haemocytes; Prohaemocytes, Plasmatocytes, Granulocytes, Oenocytoids and Spherulocytes. After treatment with Steinernema carpocapsae BA2, the haemocytes underwent considerable structural changes. More destructive effects were observed in the haemocytes of G. mellonella treated with gamma irradiated S. carpocapsae.

  5. European earwig (Forficula auricularia) as a novel host for the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

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    Hodson, A K; Friedman, M L; Wu, L N; Lewis, E E

    2011-05-01

    The natural history of many entomopathogenic nematode species remains unknown, despite their wide commercial availability as biological control agents. The ambushing entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae, and the introduced European earwig, Forficula auricularia, forage on the soil surface. Since they likely encounter one another in nature, we hypothesized that earwigs are susceptible to nematode infection. In the laboratory, the LC(50) for F. auricularia was 226 S. carpocapsae/earwig and the reproductive potential was 123.5 infective juvenile nematodes/mg tissue. This susceptibility depended on host body size with significantly higher mortality rates seen in larger earwigs. In a study of host recognition behavior, S. carpocapsae infective juveniles responded to earwig cuticle as strongly as they did to Galleria mellonella cuticle. We also found that earwigs exposed to S. carpocapsae cleaned and scratched their front, middle and back legs significantly more than controls. Coupled with previous field data, these findings lead us to suggest that F. auricularia may be a potential host for S. carpocapsae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard D. Holmes; Floyd L. Inman III; Sivanadane Mandjiny; Rinu Kooliyottil; Devang Upadhyay

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process s...

  7. Biological control of rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée Larvae (Lepidoptera :Pyralidae by Nematode Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser (Rhabditidae : Steinemenatidae

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    Pholpunthin, C.

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser as biological agent for control of larvae of rice leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée, was tested in the laboratory and field conditions during May 1995 - August 1997. Under laboratory conditions it was found that the values of LC50 of S. carpocapsae on larvae of C medinalits on filter paper and on rice growing in pots were 190.55 and 794.33 individuals per ml, respectively. Under field conditions S. carpocapsae was less efficient than carbosulfan insecticide (P S. carpocapsae (P>0.05.

  8. Ultrastructure changes in the haemocytes of galleria mellonella larvae treated with gamma irradiated steinerrnma carpocapsae BA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, H. M.; Sayed, R. M.; Hussein, M. A.; Hafez, S. E.; Hussein, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Five types of haemocytes were recognized in the haem lymph of 5 th larval in star of G. mellonella; prohaemocytes, plasmatocytes, Granulocytes, Oenocytoids and Spherulocytes. Structural changes were observed in the haemocytes after Steinernema carpoapsae BA2 treatment. More destructive effects were observed in the haemocytes of G. mellonella treated with gamma irradiated S. carpocapsa . (Author)

  9. Virulence comparisons of high-temperature-adapted Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema feltiae and S. carpocapsae

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    Susurluk I. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are environmentally safe alternative control agents. Nematodes in the Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae families are widely used in biological control frameworks, especially for soil-inhabiting insect pests. In this experiment, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar, 1976, Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev, 1934 and S. carpocapsae (Weiser, 1955 adapted at high temperature were assessed in order to detect differences in virulence between adapted and non-adapted populations. All species were exposed to 38 °C for 2 h. After this treatment, live infective juveniles (IJs were used to infect to last instar Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758. larvae at the following doses: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 IJs/larva. The LD50 and LD90 were obtained for these species. Non-adapted populations of the nematode species were used as controls for this experiment. The results indicated that differences in S. feltiae and S. carpocapsae virulence between the adapted and non-adapted populations were significant; no significant difference was observed between the adapted and non-adapted H. bacteriophora populations.

  10. The genome, transcriptome, and proteome of the nematode Steinernema carpocapsae: evolutionary signatures of a pathogenic lifestyle.

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    Rougon-Cardoso, Alejandra; Flores-Ponce, Mitzi; Ramos-Aboites, Hilda Eréndira; Martínez-Guerrero, Christian Eduardo; Hao, You-Jin; Cunha, Luis; Rodríguez-Martínez, Jonathan Alejandro; Ovando-Vázquez, Cesaré; Bermúdez-Barrientos, José Roberto; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Chavarría-Hernández, Norberto; Simões, Nelson; Montiel, Rafael

    2016-11-23

    The entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae has been widely used for the biological control of insect pests. It shares a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, and is emerging as a genetic model to study symbiosis and pathogenesis. We obtained a high-quality draft of the nematode's genome comprising 84,613,633 bp in 347 scaffolds, with an N50 of 1.24 Mb. To improve annotation, we sequenced both short and long RNA and conducted shotgun proteomic analyses. S. carpocapsae shares orthologous genes with other parasitic nematodes that are absent in the free-living nematode C. elegans, it has ncRNA families that are enriched in parasites, and expresses proteins putatively associated with parasitism and pathogenesis, suggesting an active role for the nematode during the pathogenic process. Host and parasites might engage in a co-evolutionary arms-race dynamic with genes participating in their interaction showing signatures of positive selection. Our analyses indicate that the consequence of this arms race is better characterized by positive selection altering specific functions instead of just increasing the number of positively selected genes, adding a new perspective to these co-evolutionary theories. We identified a protein, ATAD-3, that suggests a relevant role for mitochondrial function in the evolution and mechanisms of nematode parasitism.

  11. A neuropeptide modulates sensory perception in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

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    Robert Morris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs employ a sophisticated chemosensory apparatus to detect potential hosts. Understanding the molecular basis of relevant host-finding behaviours could facilitate improved EPN biocontrol approaches, and could lend insight to similar behaviours in economically important mammalian parasites. FMRFamide-like peptides are enriched and conserved across the Phylum Nematoda, and have been linked with motor and sensory function, including dispersal and aggregating behaviours in the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The RNA interference (RNAi pathway of Steinernema carpocapsae was characterised in silico, and employed to knockdown the expression of the FMRFamide-like peptide 21 (GLGPRPLRFamide gene (flp-21 in S. carpocapsae infective juveniles; a first instance of RNAi in this genus, and a first in an infective juvenile of any EPN species. Our data show that 5 mg/ml dsRNA and 50 mM serotonin triggers statistically significant flp-21 knockdown (-84%*** over a 48 h timecourse, which inhibits host-finding (chemosensory, dispersal, hyperactive nictation and jumping behaviours. However, whilst 1 mg/ml dsRNA and 50 mM serotonin also triggers statistically significant flp-21 knockdown (-51%** over a 48 h timecourse, it does not trigger the null sensory phenotypes; statistically significant target knockdown can still lead to false negative results, necessitating appropriate experimental design. SPME GC-MS volatile profiles of two EPN hosts, Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor reveal an array of shared and unique compounds; these differences had no impact on null flp-21 RNAi phenotypes for the behaviours assayed. Localisation of flp-21 / FLP-21 to paired anterior neurons by whole mount in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry corroborates the RNAi data, further suggesting a role in sensory modulation. These data can underpin efforts to study these behaviours in other economically important parasites, and could

  12. [Affecting factors on capture efficacy of sex pheromone traps for Cydia pomonella L].

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    Zhai, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Wan-Xue; Zhang, Gui-Fen; Wan, Fang-Hao; Xu, Hong-Fu; Pu, Chong-Jian

    2010-03-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Olethreutidae) is the most serious pest of orchards, and one of the most important quarantine pests in China. This paper studied the effects of the color, shape, placement location, lure color, and lure number of sex pheromone traps on the capture efficacy for C. pomonella L. male moth. It was found that the capture efficacy of white and green traps was two times higher than that of blue trap (P pomonella by using its sex pheromones.

  13. Cydia pomonella (L.) behavior and responses to host volatiles

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    Casado González, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Es van mostrejar volàtils de pomera i noguer emesos per branques intactes en camp, rodejadesper bosses de plàstic, al matí i al crepuscle en diferents moments de la campanya. Aquestes mostres esvan analitzar per cromatografia de gasos-espectrometria de masses (GC-MS) i cromatografia de gasoselectroantenodetecció(GC-EAD) fent servir antenes de mascles de Cydia pomonella. Es van detectar 44compostos en pomera i 90 en noguer per mitjà de la GC-MS. Les emissions d'ambdues espècies vanvariar clara...

  14. Genetic analysis of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations with different levels of sensitivity towards the Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV).

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    Gund, Nadine A; Wagner, Annette; Timm, Alicia E; Schulze-Bopp, Stefanie; Jehle, Johannes A; Johannesen, Jes; Reineke, Annette

    2012-06-01

    Microsatellite (simple sequence repeats, SSR) and mitochondrial DNA markers were used to assess the structure of European codling moth populations showing different levels of susceptibility towards one of the most important biocontrol agents used in apple production, the Cydia pomonella granulovirus CpGV-M. In 638 C. pomonella individuals from 33 different populations a total of 92 different alleles were scored using six SSR loci. The global estimate of genetic differentiation for all 33 populations was not significantly different from zero, thus indicating a lack of genetic differentiation. AMOVA analysis revealed a very weak but significant variance among C. pomonella populations from different geographic regions, however, no significant variation was evident between CpGV-M resistant or susceptible C. pomonella populations. Sequence analysis of a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 in eight C. pomonella populations resulted in 27 haplotypes, which were grouped in two distinct clusters. Again, no genetic differentiation between CpGV-M resistant and susceptible codling moth populations was detectable. In addition, Structure analysis using microsatellites and association tests with mtDNA haplotypes found neither population-level nor individual correlations associated with CpGV-M resistance. Accordingly, this lack of population structure does not allow discriminating between one or several, separate origins of CpGV-M resistance.

  15. The Toxicology and Biochemical Characterization of Cantharidin on Cydia pomonella.

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    Wu, Zheng-Wei; Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Cantharidin, a natural toxin produced by beetles in the families Meloidae and Oedemeridae, reported to be toxic to some pests, is being developed as a biopesticide in China. This study evaluates the toxicity and biochemical characterization of cantharidin on the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an economically important fruit pest, under both laboratory and field conditions. Laboratory dose response bioassays showed that the LC50 value of cantharidin against neonate larvae was 0.057 mg ml(-1). Exposure of the larvae to 0.024 and 0.057 mg ml(-1) of cantharidin resulted in significant reduction in larval body weight. Neonate larvae exposed to LC10 of cantharidin showed increased glutathione S-transferase activity and significantly reduced the carboxylesterase and cytochrome P450-dependent mixed-function oxidase activities. Results also showed 16 and 25% ovicidal activity at concentrations of 0.057 and 0.14 mg ml(-1) of cantharidin, respectively. Field trials demonstrated cantharidin has a significant effect on both the first and second generations of C. pomonella larvae, but it exhibits a lower control efficiency than the chemical reference emamectin benzoate. Cantharidin may be considered a valuable tool for the control of codling moth. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Essais de parasitisme de Neoaplectana carpocapsae (Nematoda - Rhabditida) sur la fourmi-manioc : Acromyrmex octospinosus Reich (Formicidae, Attini)

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    Kermarrec, Alain; Mauléon, Hervé

    1990-01-01

    L'action parasitaire de Neoaplectana carpocapsae sur la fourmi-manioc de Guadeloupe Acromyrmex octospinosus, décroît en fonction de l'âge de l'hôte. La pénétration et le développement du nématode sont analysés selon les stades du couvain jusqu'à l'imago. La mortalité des ouvrières adultes est nettement accrue en présence des stades infestants du nématode qui restent toutefois concentrés dans la poche infra-buccale. L'inoculation massive d'un nid artificiel montre l'existence de mécanismes per...

  17. Analysis of biological parameters of Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 exposed to entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae Santa Rosa and All strains (Steinernema: Rhabditida

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    Gláucia Marques Freitas-Ribeiro

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Engorged and partially engorged females of Boophilus microplus were exposed to 600; 3,000; 6,000 and 30,000 infective juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, 1955 Santa Rosa and All strains per dish, under lab conditions. Eggs weight, pre-laying period, laying period, survival period, reproductive efficiency rate, percentage of larval eclosion and lethal concentrations of 50% and 90% (CL50 and CL90 were calculated for engorged females. In the case of partially engorged females, only egg weight, survival period and CL50 and CL90 were calculated. All biological parameters of engorged or partially engorged females were altered by exposition of S. carpocapsae infective juveniles (IJs, Santa Rosa and All strains (pFêmeas ingurgitadas e parcialmente ingurgitadas de B. microplus foram expostas a 600, 3000, 6000 e 30000 juvenis infectivos de Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, 1955 linhagens Santa Rosa e ALL por placa, sob condições de laboratório. Foram investigados para fêmeas ingurgitadas: peso da massa de ovos, período pré-postura, período de postura, tempo de sobrevivência, índice de eficiência reprodutiva, percentual de aclosão de larvas e concentrações letais 50% e 90% (CL50 e CL90. Para fêmeas parcialmente ingurgitadas somente foram observados peso da massa de ovos, tempo de sobrevivência, CL50 e CL90. Todos os parâmetros biológicos de fêmeas ingurgitadas foram e parcialmente ingurgitadas foram alterados pela exposição a juvenis infectivos de S. carpocapsae linhagens Santa Rosa e ALL (P<0,05. O aumento das resposta foi diretamente proporcional ao aumento das concentrações de juvenis infectivos por placa (P<0,05. Os resultados sugerem que nematóides entomopatogênicos podem ter papel primissor no controle de carrapatos dos bovinos.

  18. Redescripción de Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoide introducido en la Argentina para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Redescription of Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoid introduced for the control of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in Argentina

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    Javier Torréns

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe el agente de biocontrol introducido en la Argentina, Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, para el control de Cydia pomonella (L. y se aportan nuevos caracteres para su identificación.The bio-control agent introduced in Argentina Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae for the control of Cydia pomonella (L. is redescribed, providing new characters for the species.

  19. Costs of insecticide resistance in Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

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    Konopka, Joanna K; Scott, Ian M; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2012-06-01

    The obvious benefits associated with insecticide resistance for pest species may come at a cost to other life-history traits. In this study, we compared the larval and pupal developmental times, pupal mass wing surface area and wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in insecticide resistant and control strains of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), collected from apple (Malus spp.) orchards in central Canada. Resistant strains had significantly longer larval developmental times and lower pupal masses compared with the susceptible strain. Although the forewings of resistant moths were smaller in resistant than control strain, no difference in wing FA was detected. Longer developmental times could increase exposure time to natural enemies, and reduced adult size could affect longevity and total reproductive output.

  20. [Research advances in the effects of host plant volatiles on Cydia pomonella behaviors and the application of the volatiles in pest control].

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    Zhou, Wen; Liu, Wan-xue; Wan, Fang-hao; Shen, Jian-ru

    2010-09-01

    Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a worldwide pest of stone fruit trees, and an important quarantine target in China. Its occurrence, damage, and potential expansion in this country should be seriously concerned. Host plant volatiles, the species-specific attractants of C. pomonella, have attracted extensive attention. This paper reviewed the researches on the interactions between host plant source volatiles and C. pomonella, with the focus on the effects of the volatiles on the behaviors of C. pomonella, e.g., host orientation, courting and mating, and spawning, etc., the changes of the volatile components released by the host plants after fed by C. pomonella larvae, and the impacts of the volatiles on the sex pheromone of C. pomonella. The research progress and field application of plant source pear ester were also introduced, aimed to provide a reference for the prevention and control of C. pomonella in China.

  1. Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae

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    Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

  2. Adding microencapsulated pear ester to insecticides for control of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple.

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    Knight, Alan L; Light, Douglas M

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of improving the efficacy of various insecticides for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), by the addition of a microencapsulated formulation of pear ester, ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE-MEC, 5% AI), was evaluated in field trials in apple from 2005 to 2009. The addition of PE-MEC (pomonella should be further investigated. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Effects of Different Fungicides on the Viability of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev, S. carpocapsae Weiser, and Heterorhabditis downesi Stock, Griffin & Burnell (Nematoda: Rhabditida under Laboratory Conditions Efecto de Diferentes Fungicidas en la Viabilidad de Nemátodos Entomopatógenos Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev, S. carpocapsae Weiser, and Heterorhabditis downesi Stock, Griffin & Burnell (Nematoda: Rhabditida bajo Condiciones de Laboratorio

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    Žiga Laznik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To increase our knowledge on the susceptibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN species to agrochemicals, the compatibility of the infective juveniles (IJ of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis downesi with 15 chemical fungicides was investigated under laboratory conditions. The effect of direct IJ exposure to fungicides for 24 h was tested in a petri dish at 15, 20, and 25 °C. The results showed that the compatibility of S. feltiae with azoxystrobin was high, and similar findings were obtained for S. carpocapsae (strain C67 and all of the tested fungicides, except for tebuconazole + spiroxamine + triadimenol, maneb, dinocap, and copper (II hydroxide + metalaxil-M. Nematode H. downesi (strain 3173 suffered the highest mortality rate when infective juveniles were mixed with tebuconazole + spiroxamine + triadimenol. The integration of the aforementioned agents into a pest management program is also discussed.Para aumentar nuestro conocimiento sobre la susceptibilidad de especies de nematodos entomopatogénicos (EPN, se estudió la compatibilidad de los juveniles infectivos (IJ de los EPN Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, y Heterorhabditis downesi con 15 fungicidas químicos bajo condiciones de laboratorio. El efecto de exposición directa de IJ a fungicidas por 24 h se evaluó en una placa Petri a 15, 20 y 25 °C. Los resultados mostraron que la compatibilidad de S. feltiae con azoxystrobin fue alta, y hallazgos similares se obtuvieron para S. carpocapsae (cepa C67 y todos los fungicidas probados, excepto para tebuconazole + spiroxamina + triadimenol, maneb, dinocap, y cobre (II hidróxido + metalaxil-M. El nematodo H. downesi (cepa 3173 presentó la mayor tasa de mortalidad cuando los IJ fueron tratados con tebuconazole + spiroxamina + triadimenol. También se discute la integración de los agentes antes mencionados en un programa de manejo integral de plagas.

  4. Evaluación de técnicas de aplicación de Steinernema carpocapsae

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    Ayala Luz Dary

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El barrenador gigante de la palma recientemente ha adquirido importancia económica en los Llanos Orientales colombianos. Para su control se utiliza el nematodo entomoparásito S. carpocapsae, usando una regadera de jardín. Este método se considera eficaz, pero el tiempo para la liberación en campo es considerable, elevando los costos de aplicación. Consecuentemente, se evaluaron cuatro técnicas de aplicación usando los equipos Jacto Súper 600®, Maruyama MS256®, Royal Cóndor® y la regadera de jardín, para establecer la mortalidad de S. carpocapsae en diferentes partes de estos equipos: tanque de mezcla (TM, salida de bomba (SB, antes de boquilla (AB y después de ésta, y a la salida del equipo (SE. Se utilizó un diseño de parcelas divididas (parcela principal: equipos; subparcelas: sitios de muestreo. La menor mortalidad del nematodo ocurrió con la regadera (19%, seguida de las encontradas con los equipos Maruyama® (44% y Royal Cóndor® (58%. Por su parte, con el equipo Jacto® se produjo el mayor daño (68%. No obstante, las mayores variaciones al comparar la cantidad de S. carpocapsae

  5. Assessment of control strategies against Cydia pomonella (L. in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraqui Salma El

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L., is the key pest of apple production worldwide. In Morocco, there is a sustainable presence of codling moth causing considerable damage in apple orchards despite frequent applications of broad spectrum insecticides. For 12 years, sexual trapping and chemical control were performed and the development of the codling moth population was analysed in an orchard which was in the region of Azrou. The efficacy of some insecticides (azinphos-methyl, chlorpyriphos-ethyl, diflubenzuron, thiacloprid, methoxyfenozide, spinosad, and deltamethrin was also evaluated on neonate larvae and compared with a laboratory sensitive strain. This procedure was done to assess an eventual resistance in Moroccan populations. The action threshold was usually exceeded, leading to an intensive chemical control, with an average frequency of 9 to 13 days. The chemical control was done according to the action persistence time of the insecticides and the trap captures. However, those two parameters are compromised in Moroccan conditions because of the high summer temperatures which disrupt the action of insecticides and exacerbate populations. The pheromone traps may become ineffective and useless. Neonate larvae were resistant to five insecticides out of seven. Such results suggest the presence of a cross resistance in local strains. Overall, the insect resistance, the functioning of the sexual traps, and some insecticides properties (persistence action, pre-harvest interval are the key factors that could explain the failure to control these moths under Moroccan conditions.

  6. Electrophilic derivatives antagonise pheromone attraction in Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, Albert; Gago, Rafael; Mingot, Ares; García, Wanda; Bosch, Dolors; Coll, Josep; Rosell, Gloria; Bosch, M Pilar; Riba, Magí; Guerrero, Angel

    2013-11-01

    Pheromone antagonists are good disruptants of the pheromone communication in insects and, as such, have been used in mating disruption experiments. In this study, new non-fluorinated electrophilic keto derivatives structurally related to the pheromone of Cydia pomonella (codlemone) have been synthesised and tested as putative pheromone antagonists. Codlemone (1) was prepared in excellent stereoselectivity in a new, iterative approach involving two Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reactions. Methyl ketone (2), keto ester (3) and diketone (4) were obtained from codlemone in straightforward approaches in good overall yields and excellent stereochemical purity (≥98% E,E). In electrophysiology, only compound 2 displayed inhibition of the antennal response to the pheromone after presaturation of the antennal receptors. Compounds 2 to 4 did not inhibit the pheromone-degrading enzyme responsible for codlemone metabolism, but mixtures of ketone 2 and diketone 4 with codlemone elicited erratic flights on males in a wind tunnel. In the field, blends of either compound (2 or 4) with the pheromone caught significantly fewer males than codlemone alone. Codlemone and the potential antagonists 2 to 4 have been synthesised in good yields and excellent stereoselectivity. These chemicals behave as pheromone antagonists of the codling moth both in the laboratory and in the field. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Sterilization of Carpocapsa pomonella and evaluation of the sterile male technique. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of the sterile male technique in control of lepidopterous insects attacking fruit and forest trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landa, V.

    1975-01-01

    Juvenoids affected all developmental stages studied. Some compounds appear more promising for orchard application. None of the tested compounds proved superior to conventional insecticides. Infestation of fruit could not be prevented in cage experiments carried out in orchards but was reduced compared with controls. The use of juvenile hormone analogues still appears promising provided more effective and selective compounds can be developed

  8. Interaction of the koinobiont parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, with two entomopathogenic rhabditids, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwa, Atwa A; Hegazi, Esmat M; Khafagi, Wedad E; El-Aziz, Gehan M Abd

    2013-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are generally considered beneficial organisms. However, they can affect beneficial insects such as parasitoids. The interaction between the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, and the parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kokujev (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated in the laboratory. In non-parasitized hosts, Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae exposed to H. bacteriophora showed a higher percent mortality than those exposed to S. carpocapsae. Both nematodes were able to invade and propagate in non-parasitized S. littoralis larvae and those parasitized by M. rufiventris. Both nematode species reproduced in Microplitis-parasitized hosts, but there was a higher number of nematodes in non-parasitized larvae. S. carpocapsae yielded higher numbers of infective juveniles than H. bacteriophora. Generally, the number of nematodes harvested increased as their host's size increased. The interaction between the nematodes and parasitoid favored the nematodes when the nematodes were inoculated during the parasitoid egg stage or the young parasitoid larvae, thus giving the nematodes a better chance to grow and reproduce, resulting in the death of the parasitoid larvae. Conversely, when the nematodes were inoculated during the late larval instar of the parasitoid, the competition partially favored the wasp, thus giving approximately 50% of the wasps a better chance to develop, emerge, and reproduce, providing evidence that both nematodes and wasps could reproduce in the same host. Egg maturation of female wasps derived from nematode-infected hosts was not significantly different than those from control hosts. The combined application of nematodes and parasitoids may be beneficial if the detrimental effects of the nematodes on the parasitoid could be avoided by precisely timing the application strategies. It is clear that

  9. Overwintering strategy and mechanisms of cold tolerance in the codling moth (Cydia pomonella)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozsypal, Jan; Košťál, Vladimír; Zahradníčková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2013), e61745 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12103 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cydia pomonella Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0061745

  10. Factors affecting the field performance of an attracticide against the codling moth Cydia pomonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lösel, P.M.; Potting, R.P.J.; Ebbinghaus, D.; Scherkenbeck, J.

    2002-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficacy of an attracticide strategy for the control of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were investigated using laboratory and field experiments. The sex-pheromone-based insect-control strategy utilises 100-?l droplets of a sticky, paste-like

  11. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella – expression in larvae and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide key pest of apple and pear. Behavior-modifying semiochemicals are successfully used and are being further developed for environmentally safe control of codling moth. The chemical senses, olfaction and gustation, play critically important role...

  12. Intraspecific variation in female sex pheromone of the codling moth Cydia pomonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duménil, C.; Judd, G.J.R.; Bosch, D.; Baldessari, M.; Gemeno, C.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the

  13. Cold hardiness and supercooling capacity in the overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Abbas; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2010-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a worldwide apple pest, is classified as a freeze-intolerant organism and one of the most cold-tolerant pests. The objectives of this study were to examine the supercooling point of overwintering and non-diapausing larvae of C. pomonella as an index of its cold hardiness, and to assess larval mortality following 24 h exposure to extreme low temperatures ranging from -5 to -25 degrees C. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for feeding larvae (third through fifth instars) was -12.4 +/- 1.1 degrees C. The mean supercooling point for cocooned, non-diapausing larvae (i.e., non-feeding stages) decreased as the days that the arvae were cocooned increased and changed between -15.1 +/- 1.2 degrees C for one to two day cocooned arvae and -19.2 +/- 1.8 degrees C for less than five day cocooned larvae. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for other non-feeding stages containing pupae and overwintering larvae were -19.9 +/- 1.0 degrees C and -20.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C, respectively. Mean supercooling points of C. pomonella larvae were significantly lower during the winter months than the summer months, and sex had no effect on the supercooling point of C. pomonella larvae. The mortality of larvae increased significantly after individuals were exposed to temperatures below the mean supercooling point of the population. The supercooling point was a good predictor of cold hardiness.

  14. Rapid thermal responses and thermal tolerance in adult codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Terblanche, John S

    2011-01-01

    In order to preserve key activities or improve survival, insects facing variable and unfavourable thermal environments may employ physiological adjustments on a daily basis. Here, we investigate the survival of laboratory-reared adult Cydia pomonella at high or low temperatures and their responses to pre-treatments at sub-lethal temperatures over short time-scales. We also determined critical thermal limits (CTLs) of activity of C. pomonella and the effect of different rates of cooling or heating on CTLs to complement the survival assays. Temperature and duration of exposure significantly affected adult C. pomonella survival with more extreme temperatures and/or longer durations proving to be more lethal. Lethal temperatures, explored between -20 °C to -5 °C and 32 °C to 47 °C over 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4h exposures, for 50% of the population of adult C. pomonella were -12 °C for 2h and 44 °C for 2h. Investigation of rapid thermal responses (i.e. hardening) found limited low temperature responses but more pronounced high temperature responses. For example, C. pomonella pre-treated for 2h at 5 °C improved survival at -9 °C for 2h from 50% to 90% (ppomonella, but limited acute low temperature responses. We discuss these results in the context of local agroecosystem microclimate recordings. These responses are significant to pest control programmes presently underway and have implications for understanding the evolution of thermal tolerance in these and other insects. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Abundance of Apple Maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, Across Different Areas in Central Washington, with Special Reference to Black-Fruited Hawthorns

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Wee L.; Klaus, Michael W.; Cha, Dong H.; Linn, Charles E.; Goughnour, Robert B.; Feder, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple o...

  16. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  17. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis D(delta)-endotoxins against codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncheva, R.; Dukiandjiev, S.; Minkov, I.; Maagd, de R.A.; Naimov, S.

    2006-01-01

    Solubilized protoxins of nine Cry1 and one hybrid Cry1 ¿-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis were tested for their activity against larvae of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L). Cry1Da was the most toxic, followed by Cry1Ab, Cry1Ba, and Cry1Ac, while Cry1Aa, Cry1Fa, Cry1Ia, and SN19 were still

  18. Host range extension of Cydia pomonella granulovirus: adaptation to Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta

    OpenAIRE

    Graillot, Benoit; Blachere, Christine; Besse, Samantha; Siegwart, Myriam; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Among various Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) isolates, the Mexican isolate (CpGV-M) has demonstrated a significant ability to reduce damage induced by the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (=Cydia molesta) in peach crops. To obtain a more efficient virus for G. molesta control, an experimental virus population was constructed by mixing various CpGV isolates. This mixture was then selected for replication in a G. molesta laboratory colony. After 12 successive passages on thi...

  19. CpSAT-1, a transcribed satellite sequence from the codling moth, Cydia pomonella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Věchtová, Pavlína; Dalíková, Martina; Sýkorová, Miroslava; Žurovcová, Martina; Füssy, Zoltán; Zrzavá, Magda

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 4 (2016), s. 385-395 ISSN 0016-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/2106; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22765S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cydia pomonella * satellite DNA * holokinetic chromosomes * sex chromosomes * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2016

  20. BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF CODLING MOTH (CYDIA POMONELLA L. IN LOCAL CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF HUNEDOARA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora GHEBAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the most important pest in apple orchards is the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the biology and ecology of the codling moth in the local climatic conditions of Hunedoara County, in order to be able to identify the best treatments and optimal moments to apply them. Between 2011-2012, the flight curve of the Cydia pomonella L. adults was observed in the apple orchards of the Hunedoara Phytosanitary Unit, using AtraPOM synthesis sex pheromone traps. In these conditions of ecosystem, the biological life cycle of the Cydia pomonella L. presented two generations/year, in 2011 (year with thermal conditions close to the multiannual values, a complete first generation and an incomplete second generation, while in 2012 (year with thermal conditions significantly higher than the multiannual values both generations were complete. During the two years of study, the codling moth registered three, respectively four flight curves during the vegetative season (two for the first generation and one, respectively two for the second generation.

  1. Morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla of two tortricid moths, Cydia pomonella and C. succedana (Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hyun Sik; Park, Kye Chung; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2016-11-01

    Morphology of antennal sensilla and their distributions were investigated in male and female adults of two tortricid moths, Cydia pomonella and C. succedana using scanning electron microscopy. The antennae of both sexes of the two species were filiform, and the overall lengths of the antennae and the number of consisting segments were greater in males than in females. Six types of sensilla (s.) were identified from the antennae of both sexes in the two species: s. trichodea, s. basiconica, s. coeloconica, s. auricillica, s. chaetica, and s. styloconica, in varying numbers and distribution along the antennae. Among them, surface of four sensilla types (s. trichodea, s. basiconica, s. coeloconica, s. auricillica) were multiporous in the two species, indicating that the primary function of these sensilla is olfactory. The s. trichodea were the most numerous on the antennae in both sexes of the two species. Male C. pomonella has a greater number of s. trichodea than the female. The four sensilla types were further divided into different subtypes in the two species; s. trichodea into three subtypes, s. basiconica into two subtypes, s. coeloconica into two subtypes in C. pomonella and one subtype in C. succedana, and s. auricillica into two subtypes. Sexual dimorphism was observed in the subtypes of s. trichodea. The long subtype of s. trichodea occurs only on male antennae, whereas the short subtypes mainly on female antennae. These findings would be helpful for further studies on detailed chemo-receptive functions of each subtype of the antennal sensilla. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in tejocote (Crataegus mexicana) orchard soils and their pathogenicity against Rhagoletis pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz-Reyes, E; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Sánchez-Escudero, J; Nieto-Angel, R

    2014-11-01

    To determine the abundance and diversity of entomopathogenic fungi in tejocote orchard soils and evaluate their ability to infect Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh., the main pest of tejocote. Surveys were made in two locations in Mexico state and two in Puebla state. Soil from selected locations was baited for entomopathogenic fungi with Galleria mellonella (L.). All isolates were identified morphologically to genus level and to species level using Bloc and elongation factor 1-α gene sequence information, respectively; Beauveria bassiana ((Bals.-Criv.) Vuill.), B. pseudobassiana (S.A. Rehner & Humber) and Metarhizium robertsii (J.F. Bisch., Rehner & Humber) were found, with B. bassiana being the most abundant and widely distributed. Pathogenicity of five selected B. bassiana isolates and three M. robertsii isolates was evaluated against larvae and pupae of R. pomonella. All isolates infected larvae resulting in an average mortality of 35%. Pupae were not susceptible; however, adults emerging from inoculated pupae did die due to infection. At least three species of entomopathogenic fungi are present in the soil from tejocote orchards, with B. bassiana being the most abundant and widely distributed. Rhagoletis pomonella larvae were more susceptible to infection than pupae. Our study has produced new information about the distribution of entomopathogenic fungi in cultivated soils from this region of North America, contributing to a better understanding of their natural occurrence and underpinning the development of biological control approaches. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., with piggyBac EGFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Holly J; Neven, Lisa G; Thibault, Stephen T; Mohammed, Ahmed; Fraser, Malcolm

    2011-02-01

    Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, was accomplished through embryo microinjection with a plasmid-based piggyBac vector containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. Sequencing of the flanking regions around the inserted construct resulted in identification of insect genomic sequences, not plasmid sequences, thus providing evidence that the piggyBac EGFP cassette had integrated into the codling moth genome. EGFP-positive moths were confirmed in the 28th and earlier generations post injection through PCR and Southern blot analyses, indicating heritability of the transgene.

  4. Mapping of single-copy genes by TSA-FISH in th codling moth, Cydia pomonella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z.; Nguyen, Petr; Šíchová, Jindra; Marec, František

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, Supplement 2 (2014), S15 ISSN 1471-2156 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22765S; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-35819P; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 052/2013/P; IAEA, Vienna(AT) 15838 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cydia pomonella Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.397, year: 2014 http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2156-15-S2-S15.pdf

  5. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) fertility and reproductive behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2002-01-01

    Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to examine the effects of gamma radiation on fertility and reproductive behaviour. Data accumulated during these studies showed that egg production and hatch decreased with increasing radiation dose. Females were more sensitive to radiation treatment than were males. A dose of 150 Gy caused 100% sterility in females and significantly reduced fecundity, and a dose of 350 Gy reduced male fertility to less than 1%. Radiation dosages up to 400 Gy had no adverse effect on male longevity or competitiveness in cages using laboratory reared moths. However, males exposed to a dose of 350 or 400 Gy mated fewer times than unirradiated males. (author)

  6. Detection of an apple-infesting popoulation of Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) 1867 (Tephritidae), is an economically important pest of apples (Malus domesica Borkh.) (Rosaceae) throughout much of the United States. The fly is endemic to the eastern U.S., where its primary host plants are several species of native hawthorns (C...

  7. Abundances of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, across different areas in central Washington, with special reference to black-fruited hawthorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), has infested native black-fruited hawthorn (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington since at least 2003, but little is known about the fly’s ecology in hawthorns there. The main objective here was to determine adult and larval abu...

  8. The geographic distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the western United States: Introduced species or native population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...

  9. Behavioral evidence for fruit odor discrimination and sympatric host races of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent shift of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) from its native host downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica, in the eastern U.S. is a model for sympatric host race formation. However, the fly is also present in the western U.S. where it ma...

  10. Field validation of a three chemical controlled release dispenser to attract codling moth (Cydia pomonella) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella, were shown to be attracted to three chemical kairoonomal lure comprised of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A novel controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractivness ...

  11. A test of fruit varieties on entry rate and development by neonate larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rate of entry by neonate larvae of the frugivorous codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), into fruit material was investigated. Larval entry was assayed across several host plant species and several genetic varieties within a host species (apple). Effects of apple varieties on adult moth size, larv...

  12. Field Experiment of a Three-Chemical Controlled-Release Dispensers to Attract Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Benjamin D; Landolt, Peter J

    2018-03-13

    Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were shown to be attracted to a three-chemical kairomonal lure consisting of pear ester, acetic acid, and n-butyl sulfide. A controlled-release device based on sachets was developed in the laboratory and field tested to optimize the attractiveness of C. pomonella to this combination of attractants, and to decrease material costs associated with the controlled-release of these chemicals. The lure was most effective when pear ester was released from a separate dispenser than when combined acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide. We found that acetic acid and n-butyl sulfide can be combined into one device without decreasing C. pomonella trap catches and that there is minimal pear release rate before trap catch is negatively affected. A sachet-based controlled-release system of pear ester, acetic acid, n-butyl sulfide is a cost-effective alternative to a vial and septa controlled-release system and allows for easier quantification of ideal release rates. A reduction in material costs associated with management are important in promoting the adoption of attract-and-kill and mass-trapping paradigms for C. pomonella management. These findings also have important consequences in interpreting studies that use different loads of pear ester, and emphasize the need to better understand the release rates of attractants.

  13. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  14. Climate change impact on development rates of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in the Wielkopolska region, Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juszczak, R.; Kuchar, L.; Leśny, J.; Olejnik, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2012), s. 31-44 ISSN 0020-7128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : climate change * degree days * codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) * weather generator * WGENK Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.590, year: 2012

  15. Redescripción de Mastrus ridibundus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, parasitoide introducido en la Argentina para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier TORRÉNS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe el agente de biocontrol introducido en la Argentina, Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, para el control de Cydia pomonella (L. y se aportan nuevos caracteres para su identificación.

  16. Mass release of Trichogramma evanescens and T. cacoeciae can reduce damage by the apple codling moth Cydia pomonella in organic orchards under pheromone disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Herz, Annette; Korsgaard, Maren

    2017-01-01

    Cydia pomonella is a major pest in apples in Denmark. Trichogramma spp. are known biocontrol agents of C. pomonella eggs and two naturally occurring species in Denmark, which are also both commercially available, were chosen for mass-release trials. Trichogramma evanescens, T. cacoeciae or a mix...... of the two species were evaluated for mass-release to control C. pomonella in two commercial organic apple orchards, one in 2012 and one in 2013, using a complete randomized block design. Pheromone disruption was used in both orchards, making the study one of the first to evaluate Trichogramma release under...... a mating disruption regime. Trichogramma activity was assessed using bait cards with Sitotroga cerealella eggs. The percent C. pomonella damaged fruit was recorded and the fruit yield was estimated. In 2012 cool and wet weather conditions resulted in low Trichogramma activity (

  17. Structural insights into Cydia pomonella pheromone binding protein 2 mediated prediction of potentially active semiochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Liu, Jiyuan; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-03-01

    Given the advantages of behavioral disruption application in pest control and the damage of Cydia pomonella, due progresses have not been made in searching active semiochemicals for codling moth. In this research, 31 candidate semiochemicals were ranked for their binding potential to Cydia pomonella pheromone binding protein 2 (CpomPBP2) by simulated docking, and this sorted result was confirmed by competitive binding assay. This high predicting accuracy of virtual screening led to the construction of a rapid and viable method for semiochemicals searching. By reference to binding mode analyses, hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction were suggested to be two key factors in determining ligand affinity, so is the length of molecule chain. So it is concluded that semiochemicals of appropriate chain length with hydroxyl group or carbonyl group at one head tended to be favored by CpomPBP2. Residues involved in binding with each ligand were pointed out as well, which were verified by computational alanine scanning mutagenesis. Progress made in the present study helps establish an efficient method for predicting potentially active compounds and prepares for the application of high-throughput virtual screening in searching semiochemicals by taking insights into binding mode analyses.

  18. Attachment ability of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. to rough substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bitar, Loris; Voigt, Dagmar; Zebitz, Claus P W; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2010-12-01

    Host plant surfaces of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), vary in microtopography, which can affect its attachment, locomotion, and oviposition behaviour. This study was performed to investigate the effect of surface roughness on the attachment ability of adult insects. Using a centrifugal force device, friction forces of both sexes were assessed on six epoxy resin substrates differing only in the dimensions of their surface asperities, ranging from 0 μm to 12 μm. Surface topography significantly affected friction forces. Maximal force was measured on the smooth substrate whereas minimal force was assessed on microrough substrates with 0.3 μm and 1.0 μm size of asperities. On the remaining rough substrates, friction forces were significantly higher but still lower than on the smooth substrate. Both sexes generated similar forces on the same substrate, in spite of the considerable difference in their body mass. Thus, it is expected that both sexes can attach effectively to differently structured plant substrates in their habitat. However, since smooth surfaces have been reported previously to be the most favorable substrates for ovipositing females of C. pomonella, it is possible that they use their attachment system to sense the substrate texture and prefer those substrates to which their arolia attach the best. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of biotransformation enzymes in the antennae of codling moth Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinglong; Liu, Lu; Su, Xiaoji; Feng, Jinian

    2016-04-10

    Biotransformation enzymes are found in insect antennae and play a critical role in degrading xenobiotics and odorants. In Cydia pomonella, we identified 26 biotransformation enzymes. Among these enzymes, twelve carboxylesterases (CXEs), two aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) and six alcohol dehydrogenases (ADs) were predominantly expressed in antennae. Each of the CpomCXEs presents a conserved catalytic triad "Ser-His-Glu", which is the structural characteristic of known insect CXEs. CpomAOXs present two redox centers, a FAD-binding domain and a molybdenum cofactor/substrate-binding domain. The antennal CpomADs are from two protein families, short-chain dehydrogenases/reducetases (SDRs) and medium-chain dehydrogenases/reducetases (MDRs). Putative catalytic active domain and cofactor binding domain were found in these CpomADs. Potential functions of these enzymes were determined by phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that these enzymes share close relationship with odorant degrading enzymes (ODEs) and resistance-associated enzymes of other insect species. Because of commonly observed roles of insect antennal biotransformation enzymes, we suggest antennal biotransformation enzymes presented here are candidate that involved in degradation of odorants and xenobiotics within antennae of C. pomonella. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Putative chemosensory receptors of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, identified by antennal transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Jonas M; Trona, Federica; Montagné, Nicolas; Anfora, Gianfranco; Ignell, Rickard; Witzgall, Peter; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is an important fruit pest worldwide. As nocturnal animals, adults depend to a large extent on olfactory cues for detection of food and mates, and, for females, oviposition sites. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim was to identify chemosensory receptors in the codling moth as a means to uncover new targets for behavioral interference. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we identified a total of 43 candidate ORs, one gustatory receptor and 15 IRs in the antennal transcriptome. Through Blast and sequence similarity analyses we annotated the insect obligatory co-receptor ORco, five genes clustering in a conserved clade containing sex pheromone receptors, one homolog of the Bombyx mori female-enriched receptor BmorOR30 (but no homologs of the other B. mori female-enriched receptors) and one gene clustering in the sugar receptor family. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a, and one homolog of an IR involved in phenylethyl amine detection in Drosophila. Our results open for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of C. pomonella, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals for control of this pest insect.

  1. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) caused by early block of virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asser-Kaiser, Sabine; Radtke, Pit; El-Salamouny, Said; Winstanley, Doreen; Jehle, Johannes A

    2011-02-20

    An up to 10,000-fold resistance against the biocontrol agent Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) was observed in field populations of codling moth, C. pomonella, in Europe. Following different experimental approaches, a modified peritrophic membrane, a modified midgut receptor, or a change of the innate immune response could be excluded as possible resistance mechanisms. When CpGV replication was traced by quantitative PCR in different tissues of susceptible and resistant insects after oral and intra-hemocoelic infection, no virus replication could be detected in any of the tissues of resistant insects, suggesting a systemic block prior to viral DNA replication. This conclusion was corroborated by fluorescence microscopy using a modified CpGV (bacCpGV(hsp-eGFP)) carrying enhanced green fluorescent gene (eGFP), which showed that infection in resistant insects did not spread. In conclusion, the different lines of evidence indicate that CpGV can enter but not replicate in the cells of resistant codling moth larvae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CpSAT-1, a transcribed satellite sequence from the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Věchtová, Pavlína; Dalíková, Martina; Sýkorová, Miroslava; Žurovcová, Martina; Füssy, Zoltán; Zrzavá, Magda

    2016-08-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a non-coding component of eukaryotic genomes, located mainly in heterochromatic regions. Relevance of satDNA began to emerge with accumulating evidence of its potential yet hardly comprehensible role that it can play in the genome of many organisms. We isolated the first satDNA of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Tortricidae, Lepidoptera), a species with holokinetic chromosomes and a single large heterochromatic element, the W chromosome in females. The satDNA, called CpSAT-1, is located on all chromosomes of the complement, although in different amounts. Surprisingly, the satellite is almost missing in the heterochromatic W chromosome. Additionally, we isolated mRNA from all developmental stages (1st-5th instar larva, pupa, adult), both sexes (adult male and female) and several tissues (Malpighian tubules, gut, heart, testes, and ovaries) of the codling moth and showed the CpSAT-1 sequence was transcribed in all tested samples. Using CpSAT-1 specific primers we amplified, cloned and sequenced 40 monomers from cDNA and gDNA, respectively. The sequence analysis revealed a high mutation rate and the presence of potentially functional motifs, mainly in non-conserved regions of the monomers. Both the chromosomal distribution and the sequence analysis suggest that CPSAT-1 has no function in the C. pomonella genome.

  3. Putative chemosensory receptors of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, identified by antennal transcriptome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas M Bengtsson

    Full Text Available The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is an important fruit pest worldwide. As nocturnal animals, adults depend to a large extent on olfactory cues for detection of food and mates, and, for females, oviposition sites. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs and ionotropic receptors (IRs, which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim was to identify chemosensory receptors in the codling moth as a means to uncover new targets for behavioral interference. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we identified a total of 43 candidate ORs, one gustatory receptor and 15 IRs in the antennal transcriptome. Through Blast and sequence similarity analyses we annotated the insect obligatory co-receptor ORco, five genes clustering in a conserved clade containing sex pheromone receptors, one homolog of the Bombyx mori female-enriched receptor BmorOR30 (but no homologs of the other B. mori female-enriched receptors and one gene clustering in the sugar receptor family. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a, and one homolog of an IR involved in phenylethyl amine detection in Drosophila. Our results open for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of C. pomonella, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals for control of this pest insect.

  4. Research on the application possibilities of the mass trapping methods against codling moth [Cydia pomonella L.) (Lep.:Tortricidae)] in the Black Sea region.

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, M.; Avcı, Ü.; Kahveci, Y.; Erdem, B.

    2008-01-01

    Apple production is important in the Black Sea Region especially in Amasya, Tokat, Kastamonu and Samsun provinces. Many studies have been done on Cydia pomonella which is the main pest of the apple orchards. The results of the studies provided reduction of pesticide use and encourage economic pest management. It is recommended that no pesticide use against C.pomonella after this study. There are plenty of promising developments on this subject in the world. These result would allow more...

  5. Research on the application possibilities of the mass trapping methods against codling moth [Cydia pomonella L.) (Lep.:Tortricidae)] in the Black Sea region.

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, M.; Avcı, Ü.; Kahveci, Y.; Erdem, B.

    2008-01-01

    Apple production is important in the Black Sea Region especially in Amasya, Tokat, Kastamonu and Samsun provinces. Many studies have been done on Cydia pomonella which is the main pest of the apple orchards. The results of the studies provided reduction of pesticide use and encourage economic pest management. It is recommended that no pesticide use against C.pomonella after this study. There are plenty of promising developments on this subject in the world. These result would allow more...

  6. Effect of ionizing radiation on reducing the several inhibitors in codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    The medium for Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L) was sterilized using ionizing radiation (0, 5, 15 and 25 KGy) or heat (cooking for 40 minutes.). inhibitors were also added either on the top of the diet or by mixing it with the diet. The results showed that all Codling moth larvae in the ionizing radiation sterilized diet died before reaching the 4th larval instar. Results of using both radiation and cooking for sterilizing the diet gave variable results; those treated with 15 KGy gave significantly more moths with higher weight and more fecundity. The results also showed that increasing the amount of microbial inhibitors in diet negatively affected the number of produced moth and their biological characteristics. Consequently irradiation could be a mean for reducing the amount of chemical inhibitors added to the diet. (author)

  7. Structure-based discovery of potentially active semiochemicals for Cydia pomonella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiyuan; Tian, Zhen; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-10-06

    The development of physiologically active semiochemicals is largely limited by the labor-consuming searching process. How to screen active semiochemicals efficiently is of significance to the extension of behavior regulation in pest control. Here pharmacophore modeling and shape-based virtual screening were combined to predict candidate ligands for Cydia pomonella pheromone binding protein 1 (CpomPBP1). Out of the predicted compounds, ETrME displayed the highest affinity to CpomPBP1. Further studies on the interaction between CpomPBP1 and ETrME, not only depicted the binding mode, but also revealed residues providing negative and positive contributions to the ETrME binding. Moreover, key residues involved in interacting with ETrME of CpomPBP1 were determined as well. These findings were significant to providing insights for the future searching and optimization of active semiochemicals.

  8. Effects of Gamma Radiation on Field Performance of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), Males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.

    2007-01-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), males 12-24 h. old were exposed to two gamma radiation doses (250 and 350 Gy) and released, in shade, in a 20x20 m square in the middle of an apple orchard (about 40 ha) and this experiment was repeated 3 times. The ability of irradiated males to disperse in the field and their response to the female sex pheromone were examined using pheromone taps placed in all four main directions of the release square for 300 m at 50 m intervals. The traps were examined daily for two weeks, caught males were counted, removed, their number was recorded and % of caught males to the total released ones was calculated. Results showed that irradiation negatively affected field dispersion of irradiated males and their response to the female sex pheromone. This calls for reducing the irradiation dose needed to sterilize released males as much as possible, provided that the given dose guarantees female sterility.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bao-Cai; Liu, Wei; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was determined. The genome is 15,253 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. All genes are arranged in their conserved positions compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects except for trnM, which was translocated to the upstream of the transfer RNA cluster trnI-trnQ as in all previously reported lepidopteran mitochondiral genomes. Seven portein-coding genes use ATG start codon and five use ATT. However, the cox1 gene uses the CGA start codon as it is found in all previous reported mitochondrial genomes of Lepidoptera. Nine protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA. Four protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. The A+T region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 331 bp.

  10. Effects of chlorpyrifos on enzymatic systems of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Morales, Laura Beatriz; Alzogaray, Raúl Adolfo; Cichón, Liliana; Garrido, Silvina; Soleño, Jimena; Montagna, Cristina Mónica

    2017-06-01

    The control program of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in the Río Negro and Neuquén Valley is intended to neonate larvae. However, adults may be subjected to sublethal pesticide concentrations generating stress which might enhance both mutation rates and activity of the detoxification system. This study assessed the exposure effects of chlorpyrifos on target enzyme and, both detoxifying and antioxidant systems of surviving adults from both a laboratory susceptible strain (LSS) and a field population (FP). The results showed that the FP was as susceptible to chlorpyrifos as the LSS and, both exhibited a similar chlorpyrifos-inhibitory concentration 50 (IC 50 ) of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The FP displayed higher carboxylesterase (CarE) and 7-ethoxycoumarine O-deethylase (ECOD) activities than LSS. Both LSS and FP showed an increase on CarE activity after the exposure to low-chlorpyrifos concentrations, followed by enzyme inhibition at higher concentrations. There were no significant differences neither in the activities of glutathione S-transferases (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) nor in the reduced glutathione (GSH) content between LSS and FP. Moreover, these enzymes were unaffected by chlorpyrifos. In conclusion, control adults from the FP exhibited higher CarE and ECOD activities than control adults from the LSS. AChE and CarE activities were the most affected by chlorpyrifos. Control strategies used for C. pomonella, such as rotations of insecticides with different modes of action, will probably delay the evolution of insecticide resistance in FPs from the study area. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Charakterizace molekulárního složení genomu obaleče jablečného, Cydia pomonella, s využitím reasociační kinetiky

    OpenAIRE

    BLAŽKOVÁ, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the reassociation kinetics of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) was performed in order to characterize the molecular composition of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) genome and to isolate highly repetitive and unique DNA components. The effectivity of distinct repetitive DNA fractions as a specific competitor in fluerescence in situ hybridization was tested.

  12. Frequency distribution of larval codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., aggregations on trees in Unmanaged apple orchards of the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumean, Zaid; Wood, Charlene; Gries, Gerhard

    2009-10-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key pest of pome fruits in North America. After locating a pupation site, larvae spin a cocoon from which aggregation pheromone disseminates that attracts conspecific larvae. In two unmanaged apple orchards in Wenatchee and Yakima, Washington State, we systematically surveyed cracks and crevices of tree trunks for cocooning C. pomonella larvae. Aggregates of larvae were found significantly more often than solitary larvae. The number of cocooning larvae in aggregates (=group size) was inversely correlated with the frequency occurrence of that group size. Group size ranged between 2 and 20 cocoons. Height above ground had no effect on location of aggregates. In orchard 1, the cardinal direction of the tree trunk had no effect on location of aggregations, but in orchard 2, aggregations were located significantly most often on the south side of trunks. The mean ratio of males and females in aggregations was 1.08:1 and 1.04:1 in orchards 1 and 2, respectively. Moreover, the number of males in aggregates did not significantly differ from that of females. Our data support the conclusion that larvae seek pupation sites not by chance but in large part in response to pheromone signal and microhabitat cues. The probability of aggregates forming is likely proportional to the population density of C. pomonella.

  13. Characterization of a lambda-cyhalothrin metabolizing glutathione S-transferase CpGSTd1 from Cydia pomonella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiyuan; Yang, Xueqing; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-11-01

    In insects, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are enzymes involved in detoxification of insecticides. However, few data are available for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). In this study, we cloned a delta class GST gene CpGSTd1 from C. pomonella. Real-time quantitative PCR shows that CpGSTd1 was up-regulated with aging, and the mRNA level of CpGSTd1 was higher in the fat body and silk glands than in other tissues. The expression level of CpGSTd1 exposure to insecticide suggests that CpGSTd1 is up-regulated after chlorpyrifos-methyl and lambda-cyhalothrin treatments. Both lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl altered GST activity in vivo. The purified CpGSTd1 protein exhibits a high catalytic efficiency with CDNB and was inhibited by lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl in vitro. Metabolism assays indicate that lambda-cyhalothrin was significantly metabolized while chlorpyrifos-methyl was not metabolized by CpGSTd1. Binding free energy analysis suggests that CpGSTd1 binding is tighter with lambda-cyhalothrin than with chlorpyrifos-methyl. Our study suggests that CpGSTd1 plays a key role in the metabolism of insecticides in C. pomonella.

  14. Insecticide resistance may enhance the response to a host-plant volatile kairomone for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauphanor, Benoît; Franck, Pierre; Lasnier, Thérèse; Toubon, Jean-François; Beslay, Dominique; Boivin, Thomas; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Renou, Michel

    2007-06-01

    The behavioral and electroantennographic responses of Cydia pomonella (L.) to the ripe pear volatile ethyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate (Et- E, Z-DD), were compared in insecticide-susceptible and -resistant populations originating from southern France. A dose-response relationship to this kairomonal attractant was established for antennal activity and did not reveal differences between susceptible and resistant strains. Conversely, males of the laboratory strains expressing metabolic [cytochrome P450-dependent mixed-function oxidases (mfo)] or physiological (kdr-type mutation of the sodium-channel gene) resistance mechanisms exhibited a significantly higher response to Et- E, Z-DD than those of the susceptible strain in a wind tunnel experiment. No response of the females to this kairomone could be obtained in our wind-tunnel conditions. In apple orchards, mfo-resistant male moths were captured at significantly higher rates in kairomone-baited traps than in traps baited with the sex pheromone of C. pomonella. Such a differential phenomenon was not verified for the kdr-resistant insects, which exhibited a similar response to both the sex pheromone and the kairomonal attractant in apple orchards. Considering the widespread distribution of metabolic resistance in European populations of C. pomonella and the enhanced behavioral response to Et- E, Z-DD in resistant moths, the development of control measures based on this kairomonal compound would be of great interest for the management of insecticide resistance in this species.

  15. Characterization of Multiple Heat-Shock Protein Transcripts from Cydia pomonella: Their Response to Extreme Temperature and Insecticide Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Dong, Hui; Gao, Ping; Jia, Ling-Yi

    2016-06-01

    The economically important fruit pest Cydia pomonella (L.) exhibits a strong adaptability and stress tolerance to environmental stresses. Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) play key roles in insects in coping with environmental stresses. However, little is known about the spatiotemporal expression patterns of HSPs and their response to stresses in C. pomonella. In this study, a thermal treatment-recovery test was performed, and the expression profiles of a novel isolated HSP, named CpHSP40, and six CpHSPs were determined. Third-instar larvae were able to recover from cold shock (0 °C) and heat shock (40 °C). Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells harboring recombinant pET-28a (+)-CpHSP40 plasmid showed significant temperature tolerance. CpHSPs were developmentally and tissue-specifically expressed. The responses of CpHSPs to 0 and 40 °C (with or without recovery) and insecticide exposure were varied. All of these indicated that the expression of HSPs plays a role in the development and in environmental adaptation in C. pomonella.

  16. Age-based mating success in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P; Wiman, Nik G

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the passage of spermatophores was examined between 1-day-old males mated in no-choice situations with females 0, 2, 4, or 6 days old and the converse for both the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris). For C. pomonella, female age had no effect on the passage of spermatophores from males, and only 6-day-old female C. rosaceana had reduced spermatophore number. The ages of moths at the time of mating had a greater effect on males, with C. pomonella males older than 2 days showing significant reductions in the ability to successfully pass a spermatophore to 1-day-old females. For C. rosaceana, 2- and 6-day-old males were significantly less likely to pass a spermatophore, but reduced transfer from 4-day-old males did not reach statistical significance. Wind-tunnel assays were used to evaluate the ability of 1- or 4-day-old males to fly upwind and successfully contact a young calling female. Four-day-old males were more likely to initiate flight upwind, but were less efficient at finding and contacting the females than younger males. This study suggests that evaluation of multiple components of the mating process are required to understand the effect of age at the time of mating on population dynamics of these moths.

  17. Foliar application of microdoses of sucrose to reduce codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage to apple trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Ingrid; Lombarkia, Nadia; Joy-Ondet, Sophie; Romet, Lionel; Brahim, Imene; Meradi, Rahma; Nasri, Ardjouna; Auger, Jacques; Derridj, Sylvie

    2016-10-01

    The effects of foliar applications of microdoses of sucrose to reduce the damage by the codling moth have been reported from nine trials carried in France and Algeria from 2009 to 2014. The activity of sucrose alone was assessed by comparison with an untreated control and some treatments with the Cydia pomonella granulovirus or a chemical insecticide. The addition of sucrose to these different treatments was also investigated. The application of sucrose at 0.01% reduced the means of infested fruits with a value of Abbott's efficacy of 41.0 ± 10.0%. This involved the induction of resistance by antixenosis to insect egg laying. Indeed, it seems that acceptance of egg laying on leaves treated with sucrose was reduced. The addition of sucrose to thiacloprid improved its efficacy (59.5% ± 12.8) by 18.4%. However, the sucrose had no added value when associated with C. pomonella granulovirus treatments. Foliar applications of microdoses of sucrose every 20 days in commercial orchards can partially protect against the codling moth. Its addition to thiacloprid increases the efficacy in integrated control strategies, contrary to C. pomonella granulovirus treatments. This work opens a route for the development of new biocontrol strategies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Tarsal morphology and attachment ability of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) to smooth surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bitar, Loris; Voigt, Dagmar; Zebitz, Claus P W; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2009-11-01

    Despite several studies on the attachment ability of different insect taxa, little is known about this phenomenon in adult Lepidoptera. In this study we combined morphological and experimental analyses of tarsal adhesive devices and the attachment ability of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) to smooth surfaces. Pretarsi of C. pomonella attach to smooth substrates by means of their smooth, flexible and well developed arolia. Using the centrifugal force measurement technique, friction forces of males and females were assessed on hydrophobic and hydrophilic glass surfaces. Adults of both sexes generated similar forces in spite of the noticeable difference in their body masses. That is why males showed significantly higher safety factors (attachment force divided by body weight) compared to those of females. Hydrophobicity of the substrate had no considerable effect on friction forces. For females, friction forces (sliding parallel to the substrate plane) were compared with adhesive forces (pulling off perpendicularly from the substrate plane) measured on Plexiglas surfaces. It can be concluded that the attachment system of C. pomonella is rather robust against physico-chemical properties of the substrate and is able to achieve a very good attachment on vertical and horizontal substrata.

  19. Comparative Responses of Rhagoletis zephyria and Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Commercial and Experimental Sticky Traps and Odors in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E; Cha, Dong H

    2017-12-08

    Rhagoletis zephyria Snow and Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are morphologically similar flies that attack white-colored snowberry fruit (Symphoricarpos spp.) and yellow/red or dark-colored apple/hawthorn fruit (Malus/Crataegus spp.), respectively. The two flies are caught together on traps in R. pomonella surveys in the western United States, increasing labor needed to process catches. Comparing responses of the two species with different traps could help identify best practices for reducing R. zephyria captures in these surveys and could contribute to understanding population divergence in Rhagoletis flies. In Washington State, United States, we found that R. zephyria responded most to yellow rectangles and more to white than red spheres (RSs) baited with ammonium carbonate (AC), whereas R. pomonella responded most to RSs with AC. Yellow plastic rectangles with AC were more effective in capturing R. zephyria than cardboard rectangles, as has been found for R. pomonella. R. zephyria did not respond to apple fruit volatiles associated with RSs that were attractive to R. pomonella. In contrast, R. zephyria responded more to yellow rectangles with snowberry than apple volatiles. Both species responded to AC. Our results suggest that RSs are better than yellow rectangles for surveying R. pomonella when snowberries are abundant. However, if discrimination from R. zephyria is paramount, RSs with apple volatiles should be used. Differences in the species' responses to traps appear related to odor/color cues of the flies' host fruit, while commonalties appear related to visual/olfactory stimuli associated with protein feeding, for which AC is a general attractant. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Phenotypic screen for RNAi effects in the codling moth Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinda; Gu, Liuqi; Ireland, Stephen; Garczynski, Stephen F; Knipple, Douglas C

    2015-11-10

    RNAi-based technologies have the potential to augment, or replace existing pest management strategies. However, some insect taxa are less susceptible to the induction of the post-transcriptional gene silencing effect than others, such as the Lepidoptera. Here we describe experiments to investigate the induction of RNAi in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, a major lepidopteran pest of apple, pear, and walnut. Prior to a knockdown screen, fluorescently labeled small interfering RNA (siRNA) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) derived from green fluorescent protein (GFP) coding sequence were delivered to the surface of artificial diet to which neonate larvae were introduced and subsequently examined for the distribution of fluorescence in their tissues. Fluorescence was highly concentrated in the midgut but its presence in other tissues was equivocal. Next, dsRNAs were made for C. pomonella genes orthologous to those that have well defined deleterious phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster. A screen was conducted using dsRNAs encoding cullin-1 (Cpcul1), maleless (Cpmle), musashi (Cpmsi), a homeobox gene (CpHbx), and pumilio (Cppum). The dsRNAs designed from these target genes were administered to neonate larvae by delivery to the surface of the growth medium. None of the dsRNA treatments affected larval viability, however Cpcul1-dsRNA had a significant effect on larval growth, with the average length of larvae about 3mm, compared to about 4mm in the control groups. Measurement of Cpcul1 transcript levels by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed a dose-dependent RNAi effect in response to increasing amount of Cpcul1-dsRNA. Despite their reduced size, Cpcul1-dsRNA-treated larvae molted normally and matured to adulthood in a manner similar to controls. In an additional experiment, Cpcul1-siRNA was found to induce similar stunting effect as that induced by Cpcul1-dsRNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Submerged monoxenic culture of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae in an internal-loop airlift bioreactor using two configurations of the inner tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría-Hernández, Norberto; Sanjuan-Galindo, René; Rodríguez-Pastrana, Blanca-Rosa; Medina-Torres, Luis; Rodríguez-Hernández, Adriana-Inés

    2007-09-01

    This article reports the submerged culture of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae and its symbiotic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, within an internal-loop airlift bioreactor. Two configurations of the inner cylinder were tested: a standard draft tube (SDT) and a static mixer (SM), as well as two production media: MP1 (500 mL/L whey, among other ingredients) and MP2 (82 mL/L agave-juice from Agave spp., among other ingredients). Three fermentations were carried out: F1 --> SDT-MP1, F2 --> SM-MP1 and F3 --> SM-MP2. The operating conditions were expressed on the basis of dimensionless Reynolds number (Re) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), both of them determined on riser and downcomer sections within the bioreactor. The experiments began with fewer than 1,000 infective juvenile nematode stages (IJ) per mL and at t = 20 d, they achieved (nematodes/mL-%IJ) 222,000-87%, 62,200-23% and 114,600-80%, within F1, F2 and F3 experiments, respectively. Nonetheless, the achieved maximum nematode biomass concentrations (g/L) were F1 --> 408, F2 --> 557 and F3 --> 613, and occurred at t = 16, 10 and 12 d, respectively. The fermentation operating conditions involved 0.042 (-) < Re < 647 (-) and 2.8 x 10(-4) s(-1) < k(L)a < 0.0447 s(-1), as functions of 0.004 m/s < superficial gas velocity (within the riser) < 0.079 m/s, 0.001 m/s < mean downcomer velocity < 0.014 m/s, and culture broth rheological properties which evolved from nearly the Newtonian behaviour to the pseudoplastic one. The maximum IJ concentration was achieved within F1 experiment (193,406 IJ/mL). Also, fermentation conditions involving higher riser-Re and lower downcomer-Re as well as higher nutriment concentrations in culture medium, promote higher nematode biomass concentrations but lower %IJ, maybe as a result of better conditions for the nematode population development.

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F

    2005-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs in different stages of development was studied. Eggs ranging in age from 1-24 to 97-120 h were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation doses ranging from 10 to 350 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation and adult emergence was examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of codling moth eggs decreased with increasing age. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 20 Gy dose and at 60 Gy dose, egg hatch decreased to about 1%. At the age of 25-48 h, however, egg hatch at 60 Gy dose was about 10%, and egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; 60 Gy dose had no significant effect on egg hatch. Eggs irradiated few hours before hatch (at the blackhead stage), were the most resistant ones; 100 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 350 Gy dose over 56% of the eggs hatched. When adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effect of gamma radiation was very sever. A dose of 60 Gy completely prevented adult emergence and at 100 Gy dose all resulted larvae died before pupation. (Author)

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.

    2004-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs in different stages of development was studied. Eggs ranging in age from 1-24 to 97-120 h were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation doses ranging from 10 to 350 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation and adult emergence was examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of codling moth eggs decreased with increasing age. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 20 Gy dose and at 60 Gy dose, egg hatch decreased to about 1%. At the age of 25-48 h, however, egg hatch at 60 Gy dose was about 10%, and egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; 60 Gy dose had no significant effect on egg hatch. Eggs irradiated few hours before hatch (at the blackhead stage), were the most resistant ones; 100 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 350 Gy dose over 56% of the eggs hatched. When adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effect of gamma radiation was very sever. A dose of 60 Gy completely prevented adult emergence and at 100 Gy dose all resulted larvae died before pupation

  4. Optimizing Aerosol Dispensers for Mating Disruption of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Peter S; Miller, James R; Thomson, Donald R; Gut, Larry J

    2016-07-01

    Experiments were conducted in commercial apple orchards to determine if improved efficiencies in pheromone delivery may be realized by using aerosol pheromone dispensers for codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., mating disruption. Specifically, we tested how reducing: pheromone concentration, period of dispenser operation, and frequency of pheromone emission from aerosol dispensers affected orientational disruption of male CM to pheromone-baited monitoring traps. Isomate® CM MIST formulated with 50 % less codlemone (3.5 mg/ emission) provided orientation disruption equal to the standard commercial formulation (7 mg / emission). Decreased periods of dispenser operation (3 and 6 h) and frequency of pheromone emission (30 and 60 min) provided a level of orientational disruption similar to the current standard protocol of releasing pheromone over a 12 h period on a 15 min cycle, respectively. These three modifications provide a means of substantially reducing the amount of pheromone necessary for CM disruption. The savings accompanying pheromone conservation could lead to increased adoption of CM mating disruption and, moreover, provide an opportunity for achieving higher levels of disruption by increasing dispenser densities.

  5. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of pheromone binding protein 1 from Cydia pomonella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Z; Zhang, Y

    2016-12-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding Cydia pomonella pheromone binding protein 1 (CpomPBP1) was cloned and characterized. CpomPBP1, possessing the typical characteristics of lepidopteran odorant binding proteins, was detected to be specifically expressed in the antennae of male and female moths at the mRNA and protein level. Soluble recombinant CpomPBP1 was subjected to in vitro binding to analyse its binding properties and to search for potentially active semiochemicals. A competitive binding assay showed that three 12-carbon ligands, codlemone, 1-dodecanol and E,E-2,4-dodecadienal, were able to bind to CpomPBP1 in decreasing order of affinity. Moreover, unlike the wild-type CpomPBP1, the C-terminus truncated CpomPBP1 exhibited high affinity to ligands even in an acidic environment, suggesting that the C-terminus plays a role in preventing ligands from binding to CpomPBP1 in a lower pH environment. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  6. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  7. Attractants from Bartlett pear for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alan L.; Light, Douglas M.

    2001-08-01

    The alkyl ethyl and methyl esters of (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoic acid found in head-space samples of ripe Bartlett pear ( Pyrus communis L.) stimulated a response from neonate larvae of the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), in both static-air Petri-plate and in upwind Y-tube and straight-tube olfactometer bioassays. In comparison with the known CM neonate attractant, ( E,E)-α-farnesene, ethyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate was attractive at 10-fold and 1,000-fold lower threshold dosages in the Petri-plate and in the Y-tube bioassays, respectively. Methyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate was attractive to CM neonates in these bioassays at much higher doses than ethyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate. Other principal head-space volatiles from ripe pear fruit and pear leaves, including butyl acetate, hexyl acetate, ( Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and ( E)-β-ocimene, were not attractive to CM neonates. The potential uses of these pear kairomones for monitoring and control of CM in walnuts and apple are discussed.

  8. A female-specific attractant for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, from apple fruit volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hern, Alan; Dorn, Silvia

    Host plant-derived esters were investigated as potential female-specific attractants for the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), a key pest of apples worldwide. The behavioural effects of single and combined volatile compounds and of a natural odour blend were examined using olfactometry and wind-tunnel bioassays. The apple-derived volatile butyl hexanoate attracted mated females while it was behaviourally ineffective for males over a dosage range of more than three orders of magnitude in olfactometer assays. Female CM preferred this kairomone to the headspace volatiles from ripe apples. Both no-choice and choice trials in the wind-tunnel suggested that female moths might be effectively trapped by means of this compound. In contrast, headspace volatiles collected from ripe apple fruits as well as a blend containing the six dominant esters from ripe apples were behaviourally ineffective. A female-specific repellency was found for the component hexyl acetate in the olfactometer, but this ester had no significant effect in the wind-tunnel. Butyl hexanoate with its sex-specific attraction should be further evaluated for monitoring and controlling CM females in orchards.

  9. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duménil, Claire; Judd, Gary J R; Bosch, Dolors; Baldessari, Mario; Gemeno, César; Groot, Astrid T

    2014-09-26

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

  10. The effect of environmental conditions on viability of irradiated codling moth Cydia Pomonella (L.) adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F.; Mansour, M.

    2001-12-01

    Cooled (4 ± 2 Centigrade) codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) males exposed to dose of 350 Gy were released in apple orchards starting at 6:00 o'clock in the morning until 4:00 in the afternoon at 2 h. intervals. Moths were released in shade (under trees) or in the sun (between trees), the number of dead moths after 20 minutes of release were recorded, percentage mortality was calculated and compared with unirradiated controls. The effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on moth survival and activity was evaluated by counting the number of caught males by pheromone traps. Results showed that percentage mortality increased with increase in temperature and decrease in relative humidity and reached to 82% at 30 Centigrade and 40% Rh., when irradiated moths were released under direct sun shine. However, when moths were released in the shade under the same conditions, survival rate was as high as 91%. Results also showed that percentage survival in irradiated males was less than in the control when moths were released under direct sunshine. Results of monitoring moth activity also showed that pheromone trap continued to catch males for up to 8 days which may suggests that released males lived under field conditions for no less than one week. (author)

  11. The effect of environmental conditions on viability of irradiated codling moth Cydia Pomonella (L.) adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F.; Mansour, M.

    2002-01-01

    Cooled (4±2 Centigrade) codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) males exposed to dose of 350 Gy were released in apple orchards starting at 6:00 o'clock in the morning until 4:00 in the afternoon at 2 h. intervals. Moths were released in shade (under trees) or in the sun (between trees), the number of dead moths after 20 minutes of release were recorded, percentage mortality was calculated and compared with unirradiated controls. The effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on moth survival and activity was evaluated by counting the number of caught males by pheromone traps. Results showed that percentage mortality increased with increase in temperature and decrease in relative humidity and reached to 82% at 30 Centigrade and 40% Rh., when irradiated moths were released under direct sun shine. However, when moths were released in the shade under the same conditions, survival rate was as high as 91%. Results also showed that percentage survival in irradiated males was less than in the control when moths were released under direct sunshine. Results of monitoring moth activity also showed that pheromone trap continued to catch males for up to 8 days which may suggests that released males lived under field conditions for no less than one week. (author)

  12. A predicted sex pheromone receptor of codling moth Cydia pomonella detects the plant volatile pear ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas M Bengtsson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles mediate host discrimination and host finding in phytophagous insects. Understanding how insects recognize these signals is a current challenge in chemical ecology research. Pear ester, ethyl (E,Z-2,4-decadienoate, is a powerful, bisexual attractant of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae and strongly synergizes the male response to female-produced sex pheromone. We show here that the codling moth odorant receptor (OR CpomOR3 is dedicated to detecting this plant volatile. Heterologous expression of CpomOR3 in Drosophila T1 trichoid and ab3A basiconic sensilla, followed by a screening with codling moth pheromone compounds and known plant volatile attractants, confirms that CpomOR3 binds to pear ester. Although CpomOR3 does not respond to any of the pheromone components tested, a phylogenetic analysis of lepidopteran chemosensory receptor genes reveals a close relationship of CpomOR3 with pheromone receptors (PRs in moths. This corroborates the interaction of ecological and social chemosensory cues during premating communication. The finding that a plant volatile compound, pear ester, is a specific ligand for a PR-like lepidopteran receptor adds to our understanding of insect-plant interactions and emphasizes the interaction of natural and sexual selection during the phylogenetic divergence of insect herbivores.

  13. Candidate pheromone receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella respond to pheromones and kairomones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Alberto Maria; Gonzalez, Francisco; Bengtsson, Jonas M; Corey, Elizabeth A; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Montagné, Nicolas; Salvagnin, Umberto; Walker, William B; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco; Bobkov, Yuriy V

    2017-01-24

    Olfaction plays a dominant role in the mate-finding and host selection behaviours of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella), an important pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. Antennal transcriptome analysis revealed a number of abundantly expressed genes related to the moth olfactory system, including those encoding the olfactory receptors (ORs) CpomOR1, CpomOR3 and CpomOR6a, which belong to the pheromone receptor (PR) lineage, and the co-receptor (CpomOrco). Using heterologous expression, in both Drosophila olfactory sensory neurones and in human embryonic kidney cells, together with electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging, we characterize the basic physiological and pharmacological properties of these receptors and demonstrate that they form functional ionotropic receptor channels. Both the homomeric CpomOrco and heteromeric CpomOrco + OR complexes can be activated by the common Orco agonists VUAA1 and VUAA3, as well as inhibited by the common Orco antagonists amiloride derivatives. CpomOR3 responds to the plant volatile compound pear ester ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, while CpomOR6a responds to the strong pheromone antagonist codlemone acetate (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate. These findings represent important breakthroughs in the deorphanization of codling moth pheromone receptors, as well as more broadly into insect ecology and evolution and, consequently, for the development of sustainable pest control strategies based on manipulating chemosensory communication.

  14. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Duménil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

  15. How the oligophage codling moth Cydia pomonella survives on walnut despite its secondary metabolite juglone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorski, Rafal; Dorn, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Besides apple, its primary host, the codling moth Cydia pomonella uses walnut as a secondary host. Abundance of toxic naphthoquinones, among which juglone prevails, does not restrain this economically important pest insect from infesting walnut, but processes underlying the suitability of this host were yet unknown. Larvae feeding on an artificial diet supplemented with juglone at naturally occurring concentrations survived to adulthood at a similarly high proportion as those in the juglone-devoid control. However, their development time was prolonged, their weight gain was reduced, and adult sex ratio was distorted. Results from the natural system with walnut and apple fruits were in line with data gained on artificial diet. Remarkably, a twofold increase of the maximal juglone content reported from the walnut husk was lethal to the larvae. Chemical analyses showed that larvae feeding on the artificial diet supplemented with juglone concentrations present in walnut contained 1,4,5-trihydroxynaphthalene and excreted it in their frass, whereas the hemolymph contained neither detectable amounts of juglone nor the product of its reduction. Hence, effective metabolism of juglone in the intestinal system of the larvae underlies their survival on host plants containing this defensive compound. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F

    2004-12-01

    The radiosensitivity of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs in different stages of development was studied. Eggs ranging in age from 1-24 to 97-120 h were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation doses ranging from 10 to 350 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation and adult emergence was examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of codling moth eggs decreased with increasing age. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 20 Gy dose and at 60 Gy dose, egg hatch decreased to about 1%. At the age of 25-48 h, however, egg hatch at 60 Gy dose was about 10%, and egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; 60 Gy dose had no significant effect on egg hatch. Eggs irradiated few hours before hatch (at the blackhead stage), were the most resistant ones; 100 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 350 Gy dose over 56% of the eggs hatched. When adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effect of gamma radiation was very sever. A dose of 60 Gy completely prevented adult emergence and at 100 Gy dose all resulted larvae died before pupation.

  17. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella-expression in larvae and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William B; Gonzalez, Francisco; Garczynski, Stephen F; Witzgall, Peter

    2016-03-23

    Olfaction and gustation play critical roles in the life history of insects, mediating vital behaviors such as food, mate and host seeking. Chemosensory receptor proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) function to interface the insect with its chemical environment. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide pest of apple, pear and walnut, and behavior-modifying semiochemicals are used for environmentally safe control. We produced an Illumina-based transcriptome from antennae of males and females as well as neonate head tissue, affording a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the codling moth chemosensory receptor repertoire. We identified 58 ORs, 20 GRs and 21 IRs, and provide a revised nomenclature that is consistent with homologous sequences in related species. Importantly, we have identified several OR transcripts displaying sex-biased expression in adults, as well as larval-enriched transcripts. Our analyses have expanded annotations of the chemosensory receptor gene families, and provide first-time transcript abundance estimates for codling moth. The results presented here provide a strong foundation for future work on codling moth behavioral physiology and ecology at the molecular level, and may lead to the development of more precise biorational control strategies.

  18. The Effect of Environmental Conditions on Viability of Irradiated Codling Moth Cydia Pomonella (L.) Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F.A.; Mansour, M.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Cooled (4±2 degree) codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) males exposed to a gamma dose of 350 Gy were released in apple orchards starting at 6:00 o'clock in the morning until 4:00 in the afternoon at 2 h. intervals. Moths were released in shade (under trees) or in the sun (between trees), the number of dead moths after 20 minuets of release were recorded, percentage mortality was calculated and compared with unirradiated controls. The effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on moth survival and activity was evaluated by counting the number of caught males by pheromone traps. Results showed that the percentage mortality increased with the increase in temperature and the decreased in relative humidity to reach 82% at 30 degree and 40% Rh., when irradiated moths were released under direct sun shine. However, when moths were released in the shade under the same conditions, survival rate was as high as 91%. Results also showed that the percentage survival in irradiated males was less than that in the control when moths were released under direct sunshine. Results of monitoring moth activity also showed that pheromone trap continued to catch males for up to 8 days which may suggest that released males lived under field conditions for not less than one week

  19. Mating behaviors of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) as influenced by sex pheromone in electrostatic powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Stelinski, L L; Gut, L J

    2010-12-01

    Entostat is an electrostatically charged wax powder that can adhere strongly to insect cuticle, making it an ideal carrier to deliver pheromone for pheromone-based confusion techniques. We investigated the attractiveness of Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males treated with pheromone-laden Entostat powder to naive conspecifics as well as mating behaviors of males after such treatment in a laboratory flight tunnel. Male moths exposed to Entostat containing 1% E,E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) acquired and retained the largest amount of the powder and became more attractive as point sources to naive moths compared with those treated with powder containing 5 or 10% codlemone. All Entostat-exposed males remained as attractive as a 0.1-mg codlemone lure for up to 24 h in flight tunnel investigations. Male moth orientation to normally attractive sources of codlemone was completely disrupted directly after treatment with Entostat powder. Males' ability to orient to 0.1-mg lures recovered progressively over a 6-d postexposure interval; however, their responses never reached the levels observed with untreated control moths. Entostat-exposed moths retained detectable amounts of codlemone up to 4 d. Our laboratory flight tunnel results suggest that the mode of action of Entostat powder as an autodissemination control tactic may be due to creating both attractive false point sources after exposure to the powder as well as directly inhibiting contaminated males' capability to orient to pheromone.

  20. Abundance of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, across different areas in central Washington, with special reference to black-fruited hawthorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Klaus, Michael W; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple orchards. The fly was first detected on traps in Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties in 1981, 1995, and 1997, respectively. From 1981-2010 in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, only 0 to 4.7% of traps on apple, crabapple, and hawthorn trees were positive for flies, whereas in Klickitat County, located farther from commercial apple orchards, 0 to 41.9% of traps were positive. In 2008, in Yakima County and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 7.8% of black-fruited hawthorn trees were infested, with 0 to 0.00054 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in Kittitas and Yakima Counties and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 25.0% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.00042 to 0.00248 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in a remote forested area of Klickitat County far from commercial apple orchards, 94.7% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.20813 larvae per fruit. Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards.

  1. Cydia pomonella granulovirus Genotypes Overcome Virus Resistance in the Codling Moth and Improve Virus Efficiency by Selection against Resistant Hosts▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berling, Marie; Blachere-Lopez, Christine; Soubabere, Olivier; Lery, Xavier; Bonhomme, Antoine; Sauphanor, Benoît; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) has been used for 15 years as a bioinsecticide in codling moth (Cydia pomonella) control. In 2004, some insect populations with low susceptibility to the virus were detected for the first time in southeast France. RGV, a laboratory colony of codling moths resistant to the CpGV-M isolate used in the field, was established with collection of resistant insects in the field followed by an introgression of the resistant trait into a susceptible colony (Sv). The resistance level (based on the 50% lethal concentrations [LC50s]) of the RGV colony to the CpGV-M isolate, the active ingredient in all commercial virus formulations in Europe, appeared to be over 60,000-fold compared to the Sv colony. The efficiency of CpGV isolates from various other regions was tested on RGV. Among them, two isolates (I12 and NPP-R1) presented an increased pathogenicity on RGV. I12 had already been identified as effective against a resistant C. pomonella colony in Germany and was observed to partially overcome the resistance in the RGV colony. The recently identified isolate NPP-R1 showed an even higher pathogenicity on RGV than other isolates, with an LC50 of 166 occlusion bodies (OBs)/μl, compared to 1.36 × 106 OBs/μl for CpGV-M. Genetic characterization showed that NPP-R1 is a mixture of at least two genotypes, one of which is similar to CpGV-M. The 2016-r4 isolate obtained from four successive passages of NPP-R1 in RGV larvae had a sharply reduced proportion of the CpGV-M-like genotype and an increased pathogenicity against insects from the RGV colony. PMID:19114533

  2. Cydia pomonella granulovirus genotypes overcome virus resistance in the codling moth and improve virus efficiency by selection against resistant hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berling, Marie; Blachere-Lopez, Christine; Soubabere, Olivier; Lery, Xavier; Bonhomme, Antoine; Sauphanor, Benoît; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel

    2009-02-01

    Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) has been used for 15 years as a bioinsecticide in codling moth (Cydia pomonella) control. In 2004, some insect populations with low susceptibility to the virus were detected for the first time in southeast France. RGV, a laboratory colony of codling moths resistant to the CpGV-M isolate used in the field, was established with collection of resistant insects in the field followed by an introgression of the resistant trait into a susceptible colony (Sv). The resistance level (based on the 50% lethal concentrations [LC(50)s]) of the RGV colony to the CpGV-M isolate, the active ingredient in all commercial virus formulations in Europe, appeared to be over 60,000-fold compared to the Sv colony. The efficiency of CpGV isolates from various other regions was tested on RGV. Among them, two isolates (I12 and NPP-R1) presented an increased pathogenicity on RGV. I12 had already been identified as effective against a resistant C. pomonella colony in Germany and was observed to partially overcome the resistance in the RGV colony. The recently identified isolate NPP-R1 showed an even higher pathogenicity on RGV than other isolates, with an LC(50) of 166 occlusion bodies (OBs)/microl, compared to 1.36 x 10(6) OBs/microl for CpGV-M. Genetic characterization showed that NPP-R1 is a mixture of at least two genotypes, one of which is similar to CpGV-M. The 2016-r4 isolate obtained from four successive passages of NPP-R1 in RGV larvae had a sharply reduced proportion of the CpGV-M-like genotype and an increased pathogenicity against insects from the RGV colony.

  3. Effects of ionizing radiation on codling moth Cydia pomonella (L) female's ability to attract males in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.

    2010-01-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. males and females were exposed to three levels of gamma radiation (0, 250 and 350 Gy). Females were used in pheromone traps (instead of pheromone capsules) inside wire cages at a rate of one female / trap. Males were released in a 2 * 2 m square in the middle of the orchard and the number of caught males (wild and released ) in female baited traps was recorded. Results showed an inverse relationship between radiation dose and the ability of females to attract males (wild and released). Contrary to that, result showed that the higher the dose, the lower was the number of males caught in female baited traps. (author)

  4. THE ACTION SPECTRUM FOR BREAKING DIAPAUSE IN THE CODLING MOTH, Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), AND THE OAK SILKWORM, Antheraea pernyi GUER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, K H; Howell, F; Hayes, D K; Adler, V E; Sullivan, W N; Schechter, M S

    1969-08-01

    The action spectrum for breaking diapause in the oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi Guer., and the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), was determined from 400 to 700 nm with a wedge-interference spectrograph. Insects were exposed to ten hours of white light, followed by six hours of spectral light each day for 45 days. The portion of the spectrum between 400 and 500 nm was found to be the most effective in terminating diapause. Diapause was broken for both insects with energy levels as low as 0.02 muw/cm(2).

  5. Development of Rhagoletis pomonella and Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae)in mango and other tropical and temperate fruit in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperate fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) have narrow host ranges relative to those of tropical fruit flies, suggesting they will not attack or are incapable of developing in most novel fruit. Here we tested the hypothesis that apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Wals...

  6. Mass Release of Trichogramma evanescens and T. cacoeciae Can Reduce Damage by the Apple Codling Moth Cydia pomonella in Organic Orchards under Pheromone Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Herz, Annette; Korsgaard, Maren; Wührer, Bernd

    2017-04-04

    Cydia pomonella is a major pest in apples in Denmark. Trichogramma spp. are known biocontrol agents of C. pomonella eggs and two naturally occurring species in Denmark, which are also both commercially available, were chosen for mass-release trials. Trichogramma evanescens , T. cacoeciae or a mix of the two species were evaluated for mass-release to control C. pomonella in two commercial organic apple orchards, one in 2012 and one in 2013, using a complete randomized block design. Pheromone disruption was used in both orchards, making the study one of the first to evaluate Trichogramma release under a mating disruption regime. Trichogramma activity was assessed using bait cards with Sitotroga cerealella eggs. The percent C. pomonella damaged fruit was recorded and the fruit yield was estimated. In 2012 cool and wet weather conditions resulted in low Trichogramma activity (10 times more frequently found in bait cards than T. cacoeciae . There was a significant effect of the treatment and year ( p = 0.009) and of the sampling period ( p = 0.0008) on Trichogramma activity (proportion bait cards parasitized), with no significant difference between treatments in 2012. In 2013 the highest activity was found in T. evanescens and mixed treatments, in July reaching 69% and 47% bait cards parasitized, respectively. Fruit damage was highest in the control plots (7.1%) compared with Trichogramma treatments ( T. evanescens 2.8%, T. cacoeciae 3.8%, mixed 3.3%) ( p = 0.028). Yield did not differ significantly between treatments. In conclusion, Trichogramma mass release is a promising biocontrol method for use in the Danish climate, but further studies are needed regarding the performance of the two Trichogramma species (and potential other Trichogramma species) towards C. pomonella eggs in the field to identify the best biocontrol candidate.

  7. Mass Release of Trichogramma evanescens and T. cacoeciae Can Reduce Damage by the Apple Codling Moth Cydia pomonella in Organic Orchards under Pheromone Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Sigsgaard

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cydia pomonella is a major pest in apples in Denmark. Trichogramma spp. are known biocontrol agents of C. pomonella eggs and two naturally occurring species in Denmark, which are also both commercially available, were chosen for mass-release trials. Trichogramma evanescens, T. cacoeciae or a mix of the two species were evaluated for mass-release to control C. pomonella in two commercial organic apple orchards, one in 2012 and one in 2013, using a complete randomized block design. Pheromone disruption was used in both orchards, making the study one of the first to evaluate Trichogramma release under a mating disruption regime. Trichogramma activity was assessed using bait cards with Sitotroga cerealella eggs. The percent C. pomonella damaged fruit was recorded and the fruit yield was estimated. In 2012 cool and wet weather conditions resulted in low Trichogramma activity (<16% bait cards parasitized and only T. evanescens was recovered from bait cards. The conditions in 2013 were warmer but T. evanescens was still >10 times more frequently found in bait cards than T. cacoeciae. There was a significant effect of the treatment and year (p = 0.009 and of the sampling period (p = 0.0008 on Trichogramma activity (proportion bait cards parasitized, with no significant difference between treatments in 2012. In 2013 the highest activity was found in T. evanescens and mixed treatments, in July reaching 69% and 47% bait cards parasitized, respectively. Fruit damage was highest in the control plots (7.1% compared with Trichogramma treatments (T. evanescens 2.8%, T. cacoeciae 3.8%, mixed 3.3% (p = 0.028. Yield did not differ significantly between treatments. In conclusion, Trichogramma mass release is a promising biocontrol method for use in the Danish climate, but further studies are needed regarding the performance of the two Trichogramma species (and potential other Trichogramma species towards C. pomonella eggs in the field to identify the best

  8. Toxicity of emamectin benzoate to Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): laboratory and field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Anfora, Gianfranco; Angeli, Gino; Civolani, Stefano; Schmidt, Silvia; Pasqualini, Edison

    2009-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate is a novel macrocyclic lactone insecticide derived from naturally occurring avermectin molecules isolated by fermentation from the soil microorganism Streptomyces avermitilis Kim & Goodfellow. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of emamectin benzoate to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, C. molesta (Busck), under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Dose response bioassays showed that emamectin benzoate had a high level of intrinsic toxicity to early-stage larvae of both species, and that contact activity might contribute significantly to mortality. In the semi-field trials, residual toxicity lasted for more than 1 week. Ovicidal activity was recorded only for C. pomonella (approximately 30%), irrespective of the concentrations tested. Field trials confirmed the efficacy of emamectin benzoate on codling moth when applied at 7 day intervals. Fruit damage, both from the first and second generations, was comparable with that on treatment with chlorpyrifos-ethyl, used as a chemical reference. Emamectin benzoate may be considered a valuable tool for the control of codling moth as a component of an IPM programme. Its collective advantages are: high efficacy, lack of cross-resistance with currently used products, control of secondary pests such as oriental fruit moth and selective toxicity that spares beneficials. 2008 Society of Chemical Industry

  9. Body size phenotypes are heritable and mediate fecundity but not fitness in the lepidopteran frugivore Cydia pomonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Landolt, Peter J.

    2012-06-01

    The inheritance and functional roles of quantitative traits are central concerns of evolutionary ecology. We report two sets of experiments that investigated the heritability and reproductive consequences of body size phenotypes in a globally distributed lepidopteran frugivore, Cydia pomonella (L.). In our first set of experiments, we tested the hypotheses that (1) body size is heritable and (2) parental body size mediates egg production and offspring survival. Midparent-offspring regression analyses revealed that body mass is highly heritable for females and moderately heritable for males. The contribution of fathers to estimates of additive genetic variance was slightly greater than for mothers. Egg production increased with mean parental size, but offspring survival rates were equivalent. Based on this result, we tested two additional hypotheses in a second set of experiments: (3) male size moderates female egg production and egg fertility and (4) egg production, egg fertility, and offspring survival rate are influenced by female mating opportunities. Females paired with large males produced more eggs and a higher proportion of fertile eggs than females paired with small males. Females with multiple mating opportunities produced more fertile eggs than females paired with a single male. However, egg production and offspring survival rates were unaffected by the number of mating opportunities. Our experiments demonstrate that body mass is heritable in C. pomonella and that size phenotypes may mediate fecundity but not fitness. We conclude that male size can influence egg production and fertility, but female mate choice also plays a role in determining egg fertility.

  10. Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents on fruit-infesting behavior of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszczolkowski, Maciej A; Durden, Kevin; Sellars, Samantha; Cowell, Brian; Brown, John J

    2011-10-26

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of apple, potentially causing severe damage to the fruit. Currently used methods of combating this insect do not warrant full success or are harmful to the environment. The use of plant-derived semiochemicals for manipulation with fruit-infesting behavior is one of the new avenues for controlling this pest. Here, we explore the potential of Ginkgo biloba and its synthetic metabolites for preventing apple feeding and infestation by neonate larvae of C. pomonella. Experiments with crude extracts indicated that deterrent constituents of ginkgo are present among alkylphenols, terpene trilactones, and flavonol glycosides. Further experiments with ginkgo synthetic metabolites of medical importance, ginkgolic acids, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, ginkgolides, and bilobalide, indicated that three out of these chemicals have feeding deterrent properties. Ginkgolic acid 15:0 prevented fruit infestation at concentrations as low as 1 mg/mL, bilobalide had deterrent effects at 0.1 mg/mL and higher concentrations, and ginkgolide B at 10 mg/mL. On the other hand, kaempferol and quercetin promoted fruit infestation by codling moth neonates. Ginkgolic acids 13:0, 15:1, and 17:1, isorhamnetin, and ginkgolides A and C had no effects on fruit infestation-related behavior. Our research is the first report showing that ginkgo constituents influence fruit infestation behavior and have potential applications in fruit protection.

  11. Overwintering strategy and mechanisms of cold tolerance in the codling moth (Cydia pomonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rozsypal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The codling moth (Cydia pomonella is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately -15.3 °C during summer to -26.3 °C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to -15 °C, even in partially frozen state. CONCLUSION: Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer.

  12. Mapping of single-copy genes by TSA-FISH in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z; Nguyen, Petr; Síchová, Jindra; Marec, František

    2014-01-01

    We work on the development of transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae), which would enable to produce male-only progeny for the population control of this pest using sterile insect technique (SIT). To facilitate this research, we have developed a number of cytogenetic and molecular tools, including a physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome using BAC-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes). However, chromosomal localization of unique, single-copy sequences such as a transgene cassette by conventional FISH remains challenging. In this study, we adapted a FISH protocol with tyramide signal amplification (TSA-FISH) for detection of single-copy genes in Lepidoptera. We tested the protocol with probes prepared from partial sequences of Z-linked genes in the codling moth. Using a modified TSA-FISH protocol we successfully mapped a partial sequence of the Acetylcholinesterase 1 (Ace-1) gene to the Z chromosome and confirmed thus its Z-linkage. A subsequent combination of BAC-FISH with BAC probes containing anticipated neighbouring Z-linked genes and TSA-FISH with the Ace-1 probe allowed the integration of Ace-1 in the physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome. We also developed a two-colour TSA-FISH protocol which enabled us simultaneous localization of two Z-linked genes, Ace-1 and Notch, to the expected regions of the Z chromosome. We showed that TSA-FISH represents a reliable technique for physical mapping of genes on chromosomes of moths and butterflies. Our results suggest that this technique can be combined with BAC-FISH and in the future used for physical localization of transgene cassettes on chromosomes of transgenic lines in the codling moth or other lepidopteran species. Furthermore, the developed protocol for two-colour TSA-FISH might become a powerful tool for synteny mapping in non-model organisms.

  13. Investigation of insecticide-resistance status of Cydia pomonella in Chinese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-Q; Zhang, Y-L

    2015-06-01

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) is an economically important fruit pest and it has been directly targeted by insecticides worldwide. Serious resistance to insecticides has been reported in many countries. As one of the most serious invasive pest, the codling moth has populated several areas in China. However, resistance to insecticides has not been reported in China. We investigated the insecticide-resistance status of four field populations from Northwestern China by applying bioassays, enzyme activities, and mutation detections. Diagnostic concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos-ethyl, carbaryl, and imidacloprid were determined and used in bioassays. Field populations were less susceptible to chlorpyrifos-ethyl and carbaryl than laboratory strain. Insensitive populations displayed an elevated glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) activity. Reduced carboxylesterase (CarE) activity was observed in some insecticide insensitive populations and reduced acetylcholinesterase activity was observed only in the Wuw population. The cytochrome P450 polysubstrate monooxygenases activities in four field populations were not found to be different from susceptible strains. Neither the known-resistance mutation F399V in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene, ace1, nor mutations in CarE gene CpCE-1 were found in adult individuals from our field populations. Native-PAGE revealed that various CarE isozymes and AChE insensitivity were occurring among Chinese populations. Our results indicate that codling moth populations from Northwestern China were insensitivity to chlorpyrifos-ethyl and carbaryl. Increased GST activity was responsible for insecticides insensitivity. Decreased CarE activity, as well as the presence of CarE and AChE polymorphisms might also be involved in insecticides insensitivity. New management strategies for managing this pest are discussed.

  14. Overwintering strategy and mechanisms of cold tolerance in the codling moth (Cydia pomonella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Zahradníčková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately -15.3 °C during summer to -26.3 °C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to -15 °C, even in partially frozen state. Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer).

  15. Deciphering Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Evolutionary Trends in Isolates of the Cydia pomonella granulovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennmann, Jörg T; Radtke, Pit; Eberle, Karolin E; Gueli Alletti, Gianpiero; Jehle, Johannes A

    2017-08-18

    Six complete genome sequences of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) isolates from Mexico (CpGV-M and CpGV-M1), England (CpGV-E2), Iran (CpGV-I07 and CpGV-I12), and Canada (CpGV-S) were aligned and analyzed for genetic diversity and evolutionary processes. The selected CpGV isolates represented recently identified phylogenetic lineages of CpGV, namely, the genome groups A to E. The genomes ranged from 120,816 bp to 124,269 bp. Several common differences between CpGV-M, -E2, -I07, -I12 and -S to CpGV-M1, the first sequenced and published CpGV isolate, were highlighted. Phylogenetic analysis based on the aligned genome sequences grouped CpGV-M and CpGV-I12 as the most derived lineages, followed by CpGV-E2, CpGV-S and CpGV-I07, which represent the most basal lineages. All of the genomes shared a high degree of co-linearity, with a common setup of 137 (CpGV-I07) to 142 (CpGV-M and -I12) open reading frames with no translocations. An overall trend of increasing genome size and a decrease in GC content was observed, from the most basal lineage (CpGV-I07) to the most derived (CpGV-I12). A total number of 788 positions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined and used to create a genome-wide SNP map of CpGV. Of the total amount of SNPs, 534 positions were specific for exactly one of either isolate CpGV-M, -E2, -I07, -I12 or -S, which allowed the SNP-based detection and identification of all known CpGV isolates.

  16. Feeding and oviposition deterrent activities of microencapsulated cardamom oleoresin and eucalyptol against Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Baris Kovanci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral manipulation of codling moth with spice-based deterrents may provide an alternative control strategy. Microencapsulation technology could lead to more effective use of spice essential oils and oleoresins in the field by extending their residual activity. The feeding and oviposition deterrent potential of the microencapsulated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum [L.] Maton oleoresin (MEC-C and eucalyptol (MEC-E were evaluated against codling moth, Cydia pomonella Linnaeus, 1758. MEC-C capsules contained both 1,8-cineole and a-terpinyl acetate, whereas MEC-E capsules contained only 1,8-cineole. In larval feeding bioassays, MEC-E exhibited the lowest feeding deterrent activity (33% while MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 had the highest (91%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity against gravid females was also shown by MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 with 84% effective repellency. In 2010 and 2011, two apple orchards were divided into four 1 ha blocks and sprayed with the following treatments in ultra-low volume sprays: (a MEC-E at 100 g L-1, (b MEC-C at 50 g L-1, (c MEC-C at 100 g L-1, and (d MEC-pyrethrin at 15 mL L-1. Water-treated abandoned orchards were used as negative controls. Moth catches were monitored weekly using Ajar traps baited with the combination of codlemone, pear ester, and terpinyl acetate. Based on pooled data, mean cumulative moth catch per trap per week was significantly higher in the MEC-E blocks (26.3 male and 13.5 female moths than those in other treatments except the abandoned blocks. At mid-season and pre-harvest damage assessment, the percentage of infested fruits with live larvae in the high dose MEC-C-treated blocks was reduced to 1.9% and 2.3% in 2010 and to 1.1% and 1.8% in 2011, respectively. Since fruit damage exceeded the economic damage threshold of 1%, high-dose MEC-C treatment may only offer supplementary protection against codling moth in integrated pest management programs.

  17. Synergistic effects of Cydia pomonella granulovirus GP37 on the infectivity of nucleopolyhedroviruses and the lethality of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyang; Ma, Xiaohe; Lei, Chengfeng; Xiao, Yuzhou; Zhang, Zhongxin; Sun, Xiulian

    2011-10-01

    To initiate an efficient primary infection, it is important for baculovirus virions to penetrate through the peritrophic membrane (PM) of the host insect. It is frequently reported that enhancins of baculoviruses significantly enhance viral infection by degrading the various protein components of PMs. However, not all baculoviruses encode enhancins. GP37s of baculoviruses share high amino acid identity with fusolins, synergistic factors found in entomopoxviruses. In this study, a truncated Cydia pomonella granulovirus GP37 was expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed GP37 effectively bound to chitin, and binding occurred predominantly within 3 h. GP37 altered the protein profiles of Spodoptera exigua PMs, from which a 50-kDa protein was dissociated. Droplet-feeding bioassays indicated that GP37 significantly enhanced the infectivity of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) and the lethality of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in S. exigua larvae. This is the first demonstration of the enhancement of NPVs and Bt infection by a baculovirus GP37.

  18. Longevity of the Adult Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella, and the Obliquebanded Leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana, in Washington Apple Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P.; Wiman, Nik G.

    2008-01-01

    The longevity of adult codling moth (Cydia pomonella (L.) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and obliquebanded leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) held in shaded vials in the tree canopy was measured during the normal flight periods during 2004 and 2005. In both years all codling moths were dead by 130 degree-days (DD) (21 d) in the spring and 121 DD (8 d) in the summer. On a degree-day basis, data were similar across sex, generation, and year, and a common curve adequately predicted the survival distribution. For the obliquebanded leafroller, there were longevity differences between the sexes, but not between generations or years. Use of empirical quantile-quantile plots showed that the female obliquebanded leafroller lived an average of 32% longer than males. Maximum longevity observed in these studies for obliquebanded leafrollers was 117 DD (11 d) across both generations. The implications of these data for population biology studies and quarantine requirements are discussed. PMID:20337564

  19. Effects of ionizing radiation on codling moth cydia pomonella (L) female's ability to attract males in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F.; Mansour, M.

    2009-06-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. males and females were exposed to three levels of gamma radiation (0, 250 and 350 Gy). Females were used in pheromone traps (instead of pheromone capsules) inside wire cages at a rate of one female / trap. Males were released in a 2 x 2 m square in the middle of the orchard and the number of caught males (wild and released ) in female baited traps was recorded. Results showed an inverse relationship between radiation dose and the ability of females to attract males (wild and released). Contrary to that, result showed that the higher the dose, the lower was the number of males caught in female baited traps. (author)

  20. Coding and interaction of sex pheromone and plant volatile signals in the antennal lobe of the codling moth Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trona, Federica; Anfora, Gianfranco; Bengtsson, Marie; Witzgall, Peter; Ignell, Rickard

    2010-12-15

    In the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) plant volatiles attract males and females by upwind flight and synergise the male response to the female-produced sex pheromone, indicating a close relationship between the perception of social and environmental olfactory signals. We have studied the anatomical and functional organisation of the antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory centre, of C. pomonella with respect to the integration of sex pheromone and host-plant volatile information. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the glomerular structure of the AL revealed 50±2 and 49±2 glomeruli in males and females, respectively. These glomeruli are functional units involved in the coding of odour quality. The glomerular map of the AL was then integrated with electrophysiological recordings of the response of individual neurons in the AL of males and females to sex pheromone components and behaviourally active plant volatiles. By means of intracellular recordings and stainings, we physiologically characterised ca. 50 neurons in each sex, revealing complex patterns of activation and a wide variation in response dynamics to these test compounds. Stimulation with single chemicals and their two-component blends produced both synergistic and inhibitory interactions in projection neurons innervating ordinary glomeruli and the macroglomerular complex. Our results show that the sex pheromone and plant odours are processed in an across-fibre coding pattern. The lack of a clear segregation between the pheromone and general odour subsystems in the AL of the codling moth suggests a level of interaction that has not been reported from other insects.

  1. High stability and no fitness costs of the resistance of codling moth to Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV-M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undorf-Spahn, Karin; Fritsch, Eva; Huber, Jürg; Kienzle, Jutta; Zebitz, Claus P W; Jehle, Johannes A

    2012-10-01

    Resistance against the biocontrol agent Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV-M) was previously observed in field populations of codling moth (CM, C. pomonella) in South-West Germany. Incidental observations in a laboratory reared field colony (CpR) indicated that this resistance is rather stable, even in genetically heterogeneous CM colonies consisting of both susceptible and resistant individuals. To test this hypothesis, the resistance level of CpR that was 1000times less susceptible to CpGV-M was followed for more than 60 generations of rearing. Even without virus selection pressure, the high level of resistance, expressed as median lethal concentration, remained stable for more than 30 generations and declined only by a factor of 10 after 60 generations. When cohorts of the F32 and F56 generations of the same colony were selected to CpGV-M for five and two generations, respectively, the resistance level increased to factor of >1,000,000 compared to a susceptible control colony. Laboratory reared colonies of CpR, did not exhibit any measurable fitness costs under laboratory conditions in terms of fecundity and fertility. Resistance testing of seven selected codling moth field populations collected between 2003 and 2008 in commercial orchards in Germany that were repeatedly sprayed with CpGV products gave evidence of different levels of resistance and a more than 20-fold increase of the resistance in 1-3 years when selection by CpGV-M was continued. A maximum 1,000,000-fold level of resistance to CpGV-M that could be induced in the laboratory under virus pressure had been also observed in one field population. The high stability of resistance observed in the genetically heterogenous colony CpR indicates that resistance to CpGV-M is not very costly. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Sex pheromone monitoring as a versatile tool for determining presence and abundance of Cydia pomonella (Lep.: Tortricidae) in German apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Czyrt, T; Schmid, S; Leithold, G; Vilcinskas, A

    2012-01-01

    Cydia pomonella (Lep.: Tortricidae), the codling moth, is an apple, pear, quince and walnut pest with considerable impact on horticultural production systems in many parts of the world. In commercial apple production, it is responsible for a yearly damage level of 40 billion dollars. In response to the need of tight codling moth control there are several options for intervention by pest managers in commercially operated orchards. Spray and count methods have been used for decades with success, but at considerable external costs for the integrity of ecological cycles. Also, problems with pesticide residues and with resistant strains are an issue of concern. For environmental reasons, toxicological means are discounted here. Instead, flight curves based on sex pheromone trapping and monitoring are preferred means towards determining the optimal timing of interventions by biotechnical and biological control methods. Finally, ecological reasons are discussed for vastly different population levels of C. pomonella developing in closely neighboring field sections which operated under different environmental management.

  3. Dissipation of chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb?insecticides used to control codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae) in apples for production of baby food

    OpenAIRE

    Szpyrka, Ewa; Matyaszek, Aneta; S?owik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Dissipations of three insecticides: chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb in apples were studied following their foliar application on apples intended for production of baby food. The apples were sprayed with formulations for control of codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae). Six experiments were conducted; each insecticide was applied individually on dessert apples. A validated gas chromatography-based method with simultaneous electron capture and n...

  4. Gene expression analysis and enzyme assay reveal a potential role of the carboxylesterase gene CpCE-1 from Cydia pomonella in detoxification of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Qing

    2016-05-01

    Carboxylesterases (CarEs) are responsible for metabolism of xenobiotics including insecticides in insects. Understanding the expression patterns of a such detoxifying gene and effect of insecticides on its enzyme activity are important to clarify the function of this gene relevant to insecticides-detoxifying process, but little information is available in the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.). In this study, we investigated the expression profiles of CarE gene CpCE-1 at different developmental stages and in different tissues of C. pomonella, as well as the larvae exposed to chlorpyrifos-ethyl and lambda-cyhalothrin by using absolute real-time quantitative PCR (absolute RT-qPCR). Results indicated that CpCE-1 expression was significantly altered during C. pomonella development stages, and this expression differed between sexes, with a higher transcript in females than males. Meanwhile, CpCE-1 is overexpressed in cuticle, midgut and head than silk gland, fat body and Malpighian tubules. Exposure of third instar larvae to a non-lethal dosage of chlorpyrifos-ethyl and lambda-cyhalothrin resulted in induction of CpCE-1 transcript. The total carboxylesterase enzyme activity was inhibited by chlorpyrifos-ethyl in vivo; in contrast, the activity of Escherichia coli produced recombinant CpCE-1 was significantly inhibited by both lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos-ethyl in vitro. These results suggested that CpCE-1 in C. pomonella is potentially involved in the development and in detoxification of chlorpyrifos-ethyl and lambda-cyhalothrin.

  5. Primera cita de la especie Goniozus legneri (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae en el Alto Valle de Río Negro, Patagonia Argentina

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    Silvina GARRIDO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez para la zona del Alto Valle de Río Negro, a Goniozus legneri Gordh, parasitando naturalmente larvas de Cydia pomonella (L, "carpocapsa", en montes comerciales de manzanos y nogales. Se comentan brevemente su hallazgo, características morfológicas, distribución, biología e influencia en las poblaciones de "carpocapsa".

  6. Molecular phylogeny and population structure of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in Central Europe: II. AFLP analysis reflects human-aided local adaptation of a global pest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, R; Brandstätter, A; Meraner, A; Chabicovski, M; Parson, W; Zelger, R; Dalla Via, J; Dallinger, R

    2008-09-01

    Originally resident in southeastern Europe, the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) (Tortricidae) has achieved a nearly global distribution, being one of the most successful pest insect species known today. As shown in our accompanying study, mitochondrial genetic markers suggest a Pleistocenic splitting of Cydia pomonella into two refugial clades which came into secondary contact after de-glaciation. The actual distribution pattern shows, however, that Central European codling moths have experienced a geographic splitting into many strains and locally adapted populations, which is not reflected by their mitochondrial haplotype distribution. We therefore have applied, in addition to mitochondrial markers, an approach with a higher resolution potential at the population level, based on the analysis of amplification fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). As shown in the present study, AFLP markers elucidate the genetic structure of codling moth strains and populations from different Central European apple orchard sites. While individual genetic diversity within codling moth strains and populations was small, a high degree of genetic differentiation was observed between the analyzed strains and populations, even at a small geographic scale. One of the main factors contributing to local differentiation may be limited gene flow among adjacent codling moth populations. In addition, microclimatic, ecological, and geographic constraints also may favour the splitting of Cydia pomonella into many local populations. Lastly, codling moths in Central European fruit orchards may experience considerable selective pressure due to pest control activities. As a consequence of all these selective forces, today in Central Europe we see a patchy distribution of many locally adapted codling moth populations, each of them having its own genetic fingerprint. Because of the complete absence of any correlation between insecticide resistance and geographic or genetic distances among

  7. A Third Type of Resistance to Cydia pomonella Granulovirus in Codling Moths Shows a Mixed Z-Linked and Autosomal Inheritance Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, A J; Schulze-Bopp, S; Fritsch, E; Undorf-Spahn, K; Jehle, J A

    2017-09-01

    Different isolates of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) are used worldwide to control codling moth larvae ( Cydia pomonella ) in pome fruit production. Two types of dominantly inherited field resistance of C. pomonella to CpGV have been recently identified: Z-chromosomal type I resistance and autosomal type II resistance. In the present study, a CpGV-resistant C. pomonella field population (termed SA-GO) from northeastern Germany was investigated. SA-GO individuals showed cross-resistance to CpGV isolates of genome group A (CpGV-M) and genome group E (CpGV-S), whereas genome group B (CpGV-E2) was still infective. Crossing experiments between individuals of SA-GO and the susceptible C. pomonella strain CpS indicated the presence of a dominant autosomal inheritance factor. By single-pair inbreeding of SA-GO individuals for two generations, the genetically more homogenous strain CpRGO was generated. Resistance testing of CpRGO neonates with different CpGV isolates revealed that isolate CpGV-E2 and isolates CpGV-I07 and -I12 were resistance breaking. When progeny of hybrid crosses and backcrosses between individuals of resistant strain CpRGO and susceptible strain CpS were infected with CpGV-M and CpGV-S, resistance to CpGV-S appeared to be autosomal and dominant for larval survivorship but recessive when success of pupation of the hybrids was considered. Inheritance of resistance to CpGV-M, however, is proposed to be both autosomal and Z linked, since Z linkage of resistance was needed for pupation. Hence, we propose a further type III resistance to CpGV in C. pomonella , which differs from type I and type II resistance in its mode of inheritance and response to CpGV isolates from different genome groups. IMPORTANCE The baculovirus Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is registered and applied as a biocontrol agent in nearly all pome fruit-growing countries worldwide to control codling moth caterpillars in an environmentally friendly manner. It is therefore the most

  8. Primera cita de la especie Goniozus legneri (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae en el Alto Valle de Río Negro, Patagonia Argentina First record of the species Goniozus legneri Gordh in the Alto Valle de Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Garrido

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez para la zona del Alto Valle de Río Negro, a Goniozus legneri Gordh, parasitando naturalmente larvas de Cydia pomonella (L, "carpocapsa", en montes comerciales de manzanos y nogales. Se comentan brevemente su hallazgo, características morfológicas, distribución, biología e influencia en las poblaciones de "carpocapsa".First record of Goniozus legneri Gordh, parasitizing larva of Cydia pomonella (L, "codlingh moth", in apple and walnut orchard from the Alto Valle de Río Negro. Discover, morphology, distribution, biology, and influence on the "codling moth" population are briefly commented.

  9. Evaluation of cytochrome P450 activity in field populations of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) resistant to azinphosmethyl, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichón, L B; Soleño, J; Anguiano, O L; Garrido, S A S; Montagna, C M

    2013-04-01

    The Río Negro and Neuquén Valley is the most important apple and pear growing region in Argentina. Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), the main fruit-tree pest is being controlled by azinphosmethyl (AzMe), acetamiprid (Acet), and thiacloprid (Thia) among other insecticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of neonate larvae of codling moth to these three insecticides and on the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in their toxicity. All field populations presented significantly lower mortality to a discriminating concentration (DC) of Acet and AzMe. In addition, 13 of the 14 populations showed significantly lower mortality to DC of Thia. Most of the field populations (71%) showed significantly higher 7-ethoxycoumarine O-deethylase activity compared with the laboratory-susceptible strain. While positive significant correlation (gamma = 0.59) was found between Thia and AzMe mortalities at the DC level, no significant correlations were detected between Acet and Thia (gamma = 0.35) or Acet and AzMe (gamma = 0.12). However, Acet and Thia mortalities were significantly correlated to the percentage of individuals exhibiting 7-ethoxy-coumarine O-deethylase activity activities higher than the mean upper 95% confidence limit of the susceptible strain (gamma = -0.52 and gamma = -0.63, respectively).

  10. Apple and sugar feeding in adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella: effects on longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenninger, Erik J; Landolt, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Attraction of adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to sweet baits has been well documented. However, beneficial effects of sugar feeding on moth fitness have not been demonstrated. Longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility were examined for female/male pairs of moths maintained with the following food regimens: water, sucrose water, honey water, apple juice, apple flesh, or starved, i.e., no food or water provided. Longevity and total fecundity were enhanced in all treatments relative to the starved treatment moths. Sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice treatments yielded the highest longevity, but total fecundity was highest for moths maintained on honey water or apple juice. Total egg fertility did not differ among treatments. However, egg fertility declined more gradually over the female lifespan for the three aqueous solution diets of sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice. Similarly, fecundity per day declined more gradually over time for honey water and apple juice treatments. Performance of moths maintained with apple flesh was generally intermediate between that of moths with water and the three aqueous solution treatments. This suggests that moths benefit from feeding on ripe apple flesh, although apple may be more difficult to ingest or its nutrients less concentrated compared to aqueous solutions. The results presented here may explain attraction of adult moths to sweet baits as well as to odors from ripe fruit, which may be a natural source of food in the fall.

  11. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of 12 Insecticides to a Laboratory Population of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Newly Established in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Shang, Su-Qin

    2015-06-01

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) is an economically important fruit pest that has spread rapidly from its original site in Xinjiang to other northwestern regions of China. Insecticides are widely used to control this pest but its invasion has never been completely stopped. The aim of this study was to establish a laboratory population of the codling moth occurring in China, to investigate the effectiveness of 12 conventional insecticides to this laboratory population, and to recommend the discriminating doses for use in resistance monitoring. The laboratory population was generally similar to other laboratory strains although parameters such as survival rate and larval duration were low when compared with field populations. Toxicity varied among the insecticides tested with LC50 values ranging from 0.016 mg/l for emamectin benzoate to 55.77 mg/l for chlorbenzuron. Discriminating dose levels were determined from dose-mortality reference curves for the detection of resistance in field populations. Effectiveness of 12 insecticides to a laboratory population of codling moth in China was evaluated for the first time. This can be integrated into resistance management strategies, especially in orchards with a history of frequent insecticides applications, in order to monitor or decrease insecticide resistance in the future. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Expression of a Sensory Neuron Membrane Protein SNMP2 in Olfactory Sensilla of Codling Moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinglong; Liu, Lu; Fang, Yiqing; Feng, Jinian

    2016-08-01

    In insects, sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) are critical peripheral olfactory proteins and highly promote the sensitivity of pheromone detection. In this study, we cloned an SNMP transcript (CpomSNMP2, GenBank KU302714) from the antennae of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) Its open reading frame is 1,575 bp and it encodes a protein with 524 amino acids. CpomSNMP2 contains two putative transmembrane domains and has a large extracellular loop. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CpomSNMP2 is clustered into the group of previously characterized lepidopteron SNMP2s. Expression levels of CpomSNMP2 were significantly higher in antennae of both males and females than in tissues from the thoraxes, abdomens, legs, and wings. CpomSNMP2 was distributed in sensilla trichodea of both males and females, but only in sensilla chaetica of males. This study provides evidence for olfactory roles of CpomSNMP2 in this moth. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Monitoring resistance of Cydia pomonella (L.) Spanish field populations to new chemical insecticides and the mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Dolors; Rodríguez, Marcela A; Avilla, Jesús

    2018-04-01

    Widespread resistance of Cydia pomonella to organophosphates was demonstrated in populations from the Spanish Ebro Valley area which showed high levels of enzymatic detoxification. To determine the efficacy of new insecticides, neonate larval bioassays were carried out on 20 field codling moth populations collected from three different Spanish apple production areas. Synergist bioassays were performed to determine the enzymatic mechanisms involved. The least active ingredients were methoxyfenozide, with 100% of the populations showing significantly lower mortality than the susceptible strain, and lambda-cyhalothrin, with very high resistance ratios (872.0 for the most resistant field population). Approximately 50% of the populations were resistant or tolerant to thiacloprid. By contrast, tebufenozide was very effective in all the field populations, as was chlorpyrifos-ethyl despite its widespread use during the last few years. Indoxacarb, spinosad and chlorantraniliprole also provided high efficacy, as did emamectin and spinetoram, which are not yet registered in Spain. The resistant Spanish codling moth populations can be controlled using new reduced-risk insecticides. The use of synergists showed the importance of the concentration applied and the difficulty of interpreting results in field populations that show multiple resistance to different active ingredients. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Predicting codling moth (Cydia pomonella) phenology in North Carolina on the basis of temperature and improved generation turnover estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Thomas M; Kennedy, George G; Walgenbach, James F

    2015-10-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major worldwide pest of apples, pears and walnuts. A temperature-driven phenological model of codling moth, developed in Michigan, has been utilized in North Carolina and other states for decades. Systematic inaccuracy of this model in predicting moth emergence in North Carolina suggests that the relationship between emergence and temperature differs between the American midwest and southeast, or that additional factors may influence the system. A method was developed to optimize the estimation of generation turnover intervals. Emergence was modeled as a function of heat unit accumulation. Significant differences between emergence predictions based on the resultant model and the existing model developed in Michigan were found. A new model of codling moth emergence, incorporating improved estimates for generation turnover for North Carolina, offers predictive improvement with practical importance to management. Differences between the emergence of susceptible and resistant moth populations were also investigated, leading to the suggestion that resistance to insecticides should be considered in future studies of emergence phenology. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Predicting the emergence of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on a degree-day scale in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P; Hilton, Richard; Brunner, Jay F; Bentley, Walt J; Alston, Diane G; Barrett, Bruce; Van Steenwyk, Robert A; Hull, Larry A; Walgenbach, James F; Coates, William W; Smith, Timothy J

    2013-12-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut production in North America. Management programs are based on preventing larval entry into the fruit or nut and are typically timed by heat-driven models that are synchronized to field populations by first capture of overwintering moths in pheromone traps. Unfortunately, trap capture is affected by a range of environmental parameters as well as by the use of mating disruption, which makes detecting first flight difficult, thus complicating implementation of management programs. The present goal was to evaluate data collected from a broad range of locations across North America to see whether average first spring emergence times could be predicted. Average emergence time on a degree-day scale from 1 January was predictable using latitude and elevation. Sites at elevations of <400 m fit a simple quadratic equation using latitude, but, when higher elevations were included, a multiple regression using elevation was required. The present models can be used to simplify management programs for codling moth in areas where heat-driven models that require extensive trapping to synchronize with emergence are currently used. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Seasonal changes in the composition of storage and membrane lipids in overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Berková, Petra; Zahradníčková, Helena; Simek, Petr

    2014-10-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. It overwinters as a diapausing fifth instar larva. The overwintering is often a critical part of the insect life-cycle in temperate zone. This study brings detailed analysis of seasonal changes in lipid composition and fluidity in overwintering larvae sampled in the field. Fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol (TG) depots in the fat body and relative proportions of phospholipid (PL) molecular species in biological membranes were analyzed. In addition, temperature of melting (Tm) in TG depots was assessed by using differential scanning calorimetry and the conformational order (fluidity) of PL membranes was analyzed by measuring the anisotropy of fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene probe in membrane vesicles. We observed a significant increase of relative proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n6) at the expense of palmitic acid (C16:0) in TG depots during the larval transition to diapause accompanied with decreasing melting temperature of total lipids, which might increase the accessibility of depot fats for enzymatic breakdown during overwintering. The fluidity of membranes was maintained very high irrespective of developmental mode or seasonally changing acclimation status of larvae. The seasonal changes in PL composition were relatively small. We discuss these results in light of alternative survival strategies of codling moth larvae (supercooling vs. freezing), variability and low predictability of environmental conditions, and other cold tolerance mechanisms such as extending the supercooling capacity and massive accumulation of cryoprotective metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Crystalline protein profiling and cry gene detection in Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated during epizootics in Cydia pomonella L.

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    Konecka Edyta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition of Bacillus thuringiensis crystalline inclusions was characterized in 18 strains: 12 isolates were obtained from the intestinal tract of Cydia pomonella larvae during epizootics, 2 isolates were cultured from Leucoma salicis larvae taken from their natural populations, and 4 reference strains. The number and molecular mass of B. thuringiensis crystalline proteins (Cry and Cyt was estimated by the sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The crystals contained 1-8 proteins with molecular masses of 36-155 kDa. The toxin profiles differed both quantatively and qualitatively. The B. thuringiensis MPU B9 isolate had the highest number and diversity of Cry toxins. The analysis of crystal composition by SDS-PAGE was insufficient to detect groups and subgroups of Cry proteins. We identified 20 groups and 3 subgroups of Cry and Cyt crystalline toxins. Only one epizootic strain harboured cry25. In single reference strains, the cry1H, cry10 and cry25 genes were found. We did not find any correlation between the occurrence of cry genes and electrophoretic protein profiles of crystalline toxins.

  19. Application of Cydia pomonella expressed sequence tags: Identification and expression of three general odorant binding proteins in codling moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garczynski, Stephen F; Coates, Brad S; Unruh, Thomas R; Schaeffer, Scott; Jiwan, Derick; Koepke, Tyson; Dhingra, Amit

    2013-10-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is one of the most important pests of pome fruits in the world, yet the molecular genetics and the physiology of this insect remain poorly understood. A combined assembly of 8 341 expressed sequence tags was generated from Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencing of eight tissue-specific cDNA libraries. Putative chemosensory proteins (12) and odorant binding proteins (OBPs) (18) were annotated, which included three putative general OBP (GOBP), one more than typically reported for other Lepidoptera. To further characterize CpomGOBPs, we cloned cDNA copies of their transcripts and determined their expression patterns in various tissues. Cloning and sequencing of the 698 nt transcript for CpomGOBP1 resulted in the prediction of a 163 amino acid coding region, and subsequent RT-PCR indicated that the transcripts were mainly expressed in antennae and mouthparts. The 1 289 nt (160 amino acid) CpomGOBP2 and the novel 702 nt (169 amino acid) CpomGOBP3 transcripts are mainly expressed in antennae, mouthparts, and female abdomen tips. These results indicate that next generation sequencing is useful for the identification of novel transcripts of interest, and that codling moth expresses a transcript encoding for a new member of the GOBP subfamily. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. A pear-derived kairomone with pheromonal potency that attracts male and female codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Douglas M.; Knight, Alan L.; Henrick, Clive A.; Rajapaska, Dayananda; Lingren, Bill; Dickens, Joseph C.; Reynolds, Katherine M.; Buttery, Ronald G.; Merrill, Gloria; Roitman, James; Campbell, Bruce C.

    2001-08-01

    Ethyl (2 E, 4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate, a pear-derived volatile, is a species-specific, durable, and highly potent attractant to the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), a serious pest of walnuts, apples, and pears worldwide. This kairomone attracts both CM males and virgin and mated females. It is highly attractive to CM in both walnut and apple orchard contexts, but has shown limited effectiveness in a pear orchard context. Rubber septa lures loaded with ethyl (2 E, 4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate remained attractive for several months under field conditions. At the same low microgram load rates on septa, the combined gender capture of CM in kairomone-baited traps was similar to the capture rate of males in traps baited with codlemone, the major sex pheromone component. The particular attribute of attracting CM females renders this kairomone a novel tool for monitoring population flight and mating-ovipositional status, and potentially a major new weapon for directly controlling CM populations.

  1. Relevamiento y evaluación de parasitoides de huevo para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae y Grapholita molesta (Lepidotera: Tortricideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E. TORTOSA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el mes de octubre hasta el mes de abril de los años 2005-2006 y 2006-2007 realizamos la búsqueda e identificación de parasitoides de huevo de Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae y Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepi - doptera: Tortricidae en tres sitios de Mendoza, Argentina. Trichogramma cacoe - ciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae fue colectado en huevos de las dos especies plagas, en todos los sitios del relevamiento, durante los dos ciclos de colecta. Se encontró Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogram - matidae solo en un sitio en el mes de diciembre de 2005. En los años 2008 y 2009 T. cacoeciae fue criado, liberado y evaluada su eficiencia en el control de C. pomonella y G. molesta a través del daño en los frutos. Realizamos dos ensayos de evaluación a campo en dos cultivos de peral orgánicos, en uno de ellos el daño promedio en frutos por C. pomonella y G. molesta fue de 5,07% ± 0,82 (testigo sin liberación 15,60% ± 4,73 y en el otro ensayo el daño promedio de ambas plagas fue de 1,92% ± 0,50 (testigo sin liberación 11,34 % ± 1,13. En ambos casos existi - eron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre tratamiento y testigo.

  2. Effect of temperature and sorbitol in improving the solubility of carboxylesterases protein CpCE-1 from Cydia pomonella and biochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueqing; Zhang, Yalin

    2013-12-01

    Carboxylesterases (CEs) are enzymes responsible for the detoxification of insecticides in insects. In the Cydia pomonella, CEs are involved in synthetic pyrethroid, neonicotinoid, carbamate, and organophosphate detoxification. However, functional overexpression of CEs proteins in Escherichia coli systems often results in insoluble proteins. In this study, we expressed the fusion protein CpCE-1 in E. coli BL21 (DE3). This recombinant protein was overexpressed as inclusion bodies at 37 °C whereas it produced a higher percentage of soluble protein at lower growth temperatures. Production of soluble proteins and enzyme activity increased in the presence of sorbitol in the growth medium. The fusion protein was purified from the lysate supernatant using a Ni(2+)-NTA agarose gel column. The enzyme exhibited a higher affinity and substrate specificity for α-naphthyl acetate (α-NA), with k cat/K m of 100 s(-1) μM(-1) for α-NA, and the value is 29.78 s(-1) μM(-1) for β-naphthyl acetate. The V max and K m were also determined to be 12.9 μmol/min/mg protein and 13.4 μM using substrate α-NA. The optimum pH was 7.0 and temperature was 25 °C. An enzyme inhibition assay shows that PMSF and DEPC strongly inhibit the enzyme activity, while the metal ions Cu(2+) and Mg(2+) significantly activated the activity. More importantly, cypermethrin, methomyl, and acephate were found to suppress enzyme activity. The data demonstrated here provide information for heterologous expression of soluble protein and further study on insecticide metabolism in C. pomonella in vitro. This is the first report of the characterization of CEs protein from C. pomonella.

  3. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to R. pomonella flies from the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonel...

  4. Comparative Analysis of Recombinant Cytochrome P450 CYP9A61 from Cydia pomonella Expressed in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Wang, Wei; Tan, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Dong, Hui

    2017-03-22

    On the basis of prior work, cytochrome P450 CYP9A61 was found to be enriched in fat bodies and during feeding stages, and transcription was induced by λ-cyhalothrin in Cydia pomonella. In this study, recombinant CYP9A61 was expressed in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, and its biochemical properties were investigated. Substrate saturation curves and biochemical properties revealed that, in the presence of glycosylation, the yeast-secreted CYP9A61 exhibited a higher affinity for the substrate p-nitroanisole and was found to be more stable at certain pHs and temperatures than bacterially produced CYP9A61. Half-inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of three synthetic pyrethroids on both the bacterium- and yeast-expressed CYP9A61 suggested that recombinant CYP9A61 expressed in different hosts exhibits different inhibition properties. Taken together, our findings show that yeast-expressed CYP9A61 exhibits enzyme activity that is better than that expressed in bacteria and might be used for further metabolism assays to reveal the insecticide-detoxifying role of CYP9A61 in C. pomonella.

  5. Assessing the Global Risk of Establishment of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using CLIMEX and MaxEnt Niche Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Zhu, Hongyu; Zhang, Runzhi

    2015-08-01

    Accurate assessment of insect pest establishment risk is needed by national plant protection organizations to negotiate international trade of horticultural commodities that can potentially carry the pests and result in inadvertent introductions in the importing countries. We used mechanistic and correlative niche models to quantify and map the global patterns of the potential for establishment of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.), a major pest of apples, peaches, pears, and other pome and stone fruits, and a quarantine pest in countries where it currently does not occur. The mechanistic model CLIMEX was calibrated using species-specific physiological tolerance thresholds, whereas the correlative model MaxEnt used species occurrences and climatic spatial data. Projected potential distribution from both models conformed well to the current known distribution of codling moth. None of the models predicted suitable environmental conditions in countries located between 20°N and 20°S potentially because of shorter photoperiod, and lack of chilling requirement (Japan where codling moth currently does not occur but where its preferred host species (i.e., apple) is present. Average annual temperature and latitude were the main environmental variables associated with codling moth distribution at global level. The predictive models developed in this study present the global risk of establishment of codling moth, and can be used for monitoring potential introductions of codling moth in different countries and by policy makers and trade negotiators in making science-based decisions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Impact of Climate Change on Voltinism and Prospective Diapause Induction of a Global Pest Insect – Cydia pomonella (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckli, Sibylle; Hirschi, Martin; Spirig, Christoph; Calanca, Pierluigi; Rotach, Mathias W.; Samietz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Global warming will lead to earlier beginnings and prolongation of growing seasons in temperate regions and will have pronounced effects on phenology and life-history adaptation in many species. These changes were not easy to simulate for actual phenologies because of the rudimentary temporal (season) and spatial (regional) resolution of climate model projections. We investigate the effect of climate change on the regional incidence of a pest insect with nearly worldwide distribution and very high potential for adaptation to season length and temperature – the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella. Seasonal and regional climate change signals were downscaled to the hourly temporal scale of a pest phenology model and the spatial scale of pest habitats using a stochastic weather generator operating at daily scale in combination with a re-sampling approach for simulation of hourly weather data. Under future conditions of increased temperatures (2045–2074), the present risk of below 20% for a pronounced second generation (peak larval emergence) in Switzerland will increase to 70–100%. The risk of an additional third generation will increase from presently 0–2% to 100%. We identified a significant two-week shift to earlier dates in phenological stages, such as overwintering adult flight. The relative extent (magnitude) of first generation pupae and all later stages will significantly increase. The presence of first generation pupae and later stages will be prolonged. A significant decrease in the length of overlap of first and second generation larval emergence was identified. Such shifts in phenology may induce changes in life-history traits regulating the life cycle. An accordingly life-history adaptation in photoperiodic diapause induction to shorter day-length is expected and would thereby even more increase the risk of an additional generation. With respect to Codling Moth management, the shifts in phenology and voltinism projected here will require adaptations of

  7. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Myers, Clayton T; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  8. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Oviposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007 and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, ten apple cultivars viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  9. Impact of climate change on voltinism and prospective diapause induction of a global pest insect--Cydia pomonella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckli, Sibylle; Hirschi, Martin; Spirig, Christoph; Calanca, Pierluigi; Rotach, Mathias W; Samietz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Global warming will lead to earlier beginnings and prolongation of growing seasons in temperate regions and will have pronounced effects on phenology and life-history adaptation in many species. These changes were not easy to simulate for actual phenologies because of the rudimentary temporal (season) and spatial (regional) resolution of climate model projections. We investigate the effect of climate change on the regional incidence of a pest insect with nearly worldwide distribution and very high potential for adaptation to season length and temperature--the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella. Seasonal and regional climate change signals were downscaled to the hourly temporal scale of a pest phenology model and the spatial scale of pest habitats using a stochastic weather generator operating at daily scale in combination with a re-sampling approach for simulation of hourly weather data. Under future conditions of increased temperatures (2045-2074), the present risk of below 20% for a pronounced second generation (peak larval emergence) in Switzerland will increase to 70-100%. The risk of an additional third generation will increase from presently 0-2% to 100%. We identified a significant two-week shift to earlier dates in phenological stages, such as overwintering adult flight. The relative extent (magnitude) of first generation pupae and all later stages will significantly increase. The presence of first generation pupae and later stages will be prolonged. A significant decrease in the length of overlap of first and second generation larval emergence was identified. Such shifts in phenology may induce changes in life-history traits regulating the life cycle. An accordingly life-history adaptation in photoperiodic diapause induction to shorter day-length is expected and would thereby even more increase the risk of an additional generation. With respect to Codling Moth management, the shifts in phenology and voltinism projected here will require adaptations of plant

  10. Captures of MFO-resistant Cydia pomonella adults as affected by lure, crop management system and flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, D; Rodríguez, M A; Avilla, J

    2016-02-01

    The main resistance mechanism of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in the tree fruit area of Lleida (NE Spain) is multifunction oxidases (MFO). We studied the frequency of MFO-resistant adults captured by different lures, with and without pear ester, and flights in orchards under different crop management systems. The factor year affected codling moth MFO-resistance level, particularly in the untreated orchards, highlighting the great influence of codling moth migration on the spread of resistance in field populations. Chemical treatments and adult flight were also very important but mating disruption technique showed no influence. The second adult flight showed the highest frequency, followed by the first flight and the third flight. In untreated orchards, there were no significant differences in the frequency of MFO-resistant individuals attracted by Combo and BioLure. Red septa lures baited with pear ester (DA) captured sufficient insects only in the first generation of 2010, obtaining a significantly lower proportion of MFO-resistant adults than Combo and BioLure. In the chemically treated orchards, in 2009 BioLure caught a significantly lower proportion of MFO-resistant adults than Combo during the first and third flight, and also than DA during the first flight. No significant differences were found between the lures or flights in 2010. These results cannot support the idea of a higher attractiveness of the pear ester for MFO-resistant adults in the field but do suggest a high influence of the response to the attractant depending on the management of the orchard, particularly with regard to the use of chemical insecticides.

  11. Impact of climate change on voltinism and prospective diapause induction of a global pest insect--Cydia pomonella (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Stoeckli

    Full Text Available Global warming will lead to earlier beginnings and prolongation of growing seasons in temperate regions and will have pronounced effects on phenology and life-history adaptation in many species. These changes were not easy to simulate for actual phenologies because of the rudimentary temporal (season and spatial (regional resolution of climate model projections. We investigate the effect of climate change on the regional incidence of a pest insect with nearly worldwide distribution and very high potential for adaptation to season length and temperature--the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella. Seasonal and regional climate change signals were downscaled to the hourly temporal scale of a pest phenology model and the spatial scale of pest habitats using a stochastic weather generator operating at daily scale in combination with a re-sampling approach for simulation of hourly weather data. Under future conditions of increased temperatures (2045-2074, the present risk of below 20% for a pronounced second generation (peak larval emergence in Switzerland will increase to 70-100%. The risk of an additional third generation will increase from presently 0-2% to 100%. We identified a significant two-week shift to earlier dates in phenological stages, such as overwintering adult flight. The relative extent (magnitude of first generation pupae and all later stages will significantly increase. The presence of first generation pupae and later stages will be prolonged. A significant decrease in the length of overlap of first and second generation larval emergence was identified. Such shifts in phenology may induce changes in life-history traits regulating the life cycle. An accordingly life-history adaptation in photoperiodic diapause induction to shorter day-length is expected and would thereby even more increase the risk of an additional generation. With respect to Codling Moth management, the shifts in phenology and voltinism projected here will require

  12. Possibilities of eradicating the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. from Syria, by releasing gamma irradiation sterilized males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    1994-01-01

    Being a large apple producer, Syria is facing difficulties in exporting its surplus because of the high level of pesticide residues from the control of Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. etc. In addition, these species are under quarantine in some countries. A solution could be in using the sterile insect release technique (SIRT) for Codling moth. This method, however, has some limitations. It requires a thorough knowledge of biology and ecology of the pest species. It is also specific and effective towards particular pest species. A disadvantage could be the necessity to spray for other apple pests. Reporting the life history of the Codling moth in the apple producing regions, this paper discusses the possibility of using the SIRT for codling moth eradication. The results of the study indicate that the Codling moth has two distinct generations in the three main producing regions of the country. They also show that the separation between generations is very clear which may facilitate decision making in Codling moth control and eradication methods and reduces the number of required pesticide sprays. This also could be useful in adjusting Codling moth mass reading and release operations in a sterile insect release programme. Sex ratio is about 1:1 (males to females) and fecundity of the summer generation is higher than the spring one. The results also show that a very small percentage of the spring generation larvae enter diapause, while most of the summer generation larvae and all of those maturing in September do so. Studies on population density show that it is more than 5 times higher in neglected orchards than in commercial ones. Also the Codling moth summer generation increases about three times more than the spring generation, due probably to higher fecundity and favourable climatic conditions. (author)

  13. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in field and laboratory trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, D; Addison, M F; Malan, A P

    2016-09-01

    Three commercially available entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) strains (Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hb1 and Hb2) and two local species (S. jeffreyense and S. yirgalemense) were evaluated for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). In field spray trials, the use of S. jeffreyense resulted in the most effective control (67%), followed by H. bacteriophora (Hb1) (42%) and S. yirgalemense (41%). Laboratory bioassays using spray application in simulated field conditions indicate S. feltiae to be the most virulent (67%), followed by S. yirgalemense (58%). A laboratory comparison of the infection and penetration rate of the different strains showed that, at 14°C, all EPN strains resulted in slower codling moth mortality than they did at 25°C. After 48 h, 98% mortality was recorded for all species involved. However, the washed codling moth larvae, cool-treated (at 14°C) with S. feltiae or S. yirgalemense, resulted in 100% mortality 24 h later at room temperature, whereas codling moth larvae treated with the two H. bacteriophora strains resulted in 68% and 54% control, respectively. At 14°C, S. feltiae had the highest average penetration rate of 20 IJs/larva, followed by S. yirgalemense, with 14 IJs/larva. At 25°C, S. yirgalemense had the highest penetration rate, with 39 IJs/larva, followed by S. feltiae, with 9 IJs/larva. This study highlights the biocontrol potential of S. jeffreyense, as well as confirming that S. feltiae is a cold-active nematode, whereas the other three EPN isolates tested prefer warmer temperatures.

  14. Putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits express differentially through the life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jessica A; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-04-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Orchardists in Washington State are concerned about the possibility of codling moth field populations developing resistance to these two insecticides. In an effort to help mitigate this issue, we initiated a project to identify and characterize codling moth nAChR subunits expressed in heads. This study had two main goals; (i) identify transcripts from a codling moth head transcriptome that encode for nAChR subunits, and (ii) determine nAChR subunit expression profiles in various life stages of codling moth. From a codling moth head transcriptome, 24 transcripts encoding for 12 putative nAChR subunit classes were identified and verified by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequence determination. Characterization of the deduced protein sequences encoded by putative nAChR transcripts revealed that they share the distinguishing features of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily with 9 α-type subunits and 3 β-type subunits identified. Phylogenetic analysis comparing these protein sequences to those of other insect nAChR subunits supports the identification of these proteins as nAChR subunits. Stage expression studies determined that there is clear differential expression of many of these subunits throughout the codling moth life cycle. The information from this study will be used in the future to monitor for potential target-site resistance mechanisms to neonicotinoids and spinosads in tolerant codling moth populations. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Mapping Global Potential Risk of Establishment of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) Using MaxEnt and CLIMEX Niche Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Yee, Wee L; Neven, Lisa G

    2016-10-01

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major quarantine pest of apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the United States. Apple maggot is found only in North America and negatively impacts the apple industry in the western United States by reducing grower access to export markets. To reduce the threat of apple maggot to export countries and to facilitate the movement of commercial apples, an assessment of potential risk of establishment of apple maggot is needed to predict which regions are suitable or unsuitable for the fly. We used a correlative niche model MaxEnt and a mechanistic model CLIMEX to model global potential risk of establishment of apple maggot. The MaxEnt model was developed by integrating apple maggot occurrences with global climatic variables. Apple (a major host of apple maggot) climatic suitability was used as an additional variable to include species interactions in the MaxEnt model. The CLIMEX model was developed using published apple maggot physiological tolerance thresholds. Both the MaxEnt and CLIMEX models correctly predicted the known distribution of apple maggot in North America, met biological expectations when projected to the world, and mostly agreed on climatic suitability worldwide for the fly. Degree-days at 6.7 °C, elevation, precipitation seasonality, and apple climatic suitability were the most important predictors associated with apple maggot distribution in North America. Our results can be used to make science-based international trade decisions by policy makers, and for monitoring apple maggot potential introductions in countries where it currently does not occur. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Hledání SNP pro genetické mapování resistence obaleče jablečného, Cydia pomonella, vůči viru granulózy (CpGV).

    OpenAIRE

    HLADOVÁ, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major pest of pome fruit and walnuts in the world. Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is used as a highly efficient and specific way to control this pest. Recently, several resitant populations have been reported. This thesis presents literature survey of codling moth genetics and CpGV resistance. It also provides experimental design for linkage mapping of codling moth resistance to CpGV.

  17. Molecular phylogeny and population structure of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in Central Europe: I. Ancient clade splitting revealed by mitochondrial haplotype markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraner, A; Brandstätter, A; Thaler, R; Aray, B; Unterlechner, M; Niederstätter, H; Parson, W; Zelger, R; Dalla Via, J; Dallinger, R

    2008-09-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella L., Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is an important pest of pome fruit with global distribution. It has adapted successfully to different habitats by forming various ecotypes and populations, often termed strains, which differ among each other in several morphological, developmental, and physiological features. Many strains of Cydia pomonella have developed resistance against a broad range of chemically different pesticides. Obviously, pesticide-resistant strains must have a genetic basis inherent to the gene pool of codling moth populations, and this deserves our particular attention. The primary intention of the present study was to contribute novel information regarding the evolutionary phylogeny and phylogeography of codling moth populations in Central Europe. In addition, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that differential biological traits and response patterns towards pesticides in codling moth populations may be reflected at a mitochondrial DNA level. In particular, we wanted to test if pesticide resistance in codling moths is associated repeatedly and independently with more than one mitochondrial haplotype. To this end, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and constructed phylogenetic trees based on three mitochondrial genes: cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the A+T-rich region of the control region (CR), and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5). The results indicate that Central European populations of Cydia pomonella are clearly divided in two ancient clades. As shown by means of a molecular clock approach, the splitting of the two clades can be dated to a time period between the lower and middle Pleistocene, about 1.29-0.20 million years ago. It is assumed that the cyclic changes of warm and cold periods during Pleistocene may have lead to the geographic separation of codling moth populations due to glaciation, giving rise to the formation of the two separate refugial clades, as already shown for many

  18. Evidence for a Second Type of Resistance against Cydia pomonella Granulovirus in Field Populations of Codling Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, J A; Schulze-Bopp, S; Undorf-Spahn, K; Fritsch, E

    2017-01-15

    Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is an important biocontrol agent for the codling moth (CM) in organic and integrated apple production worldwide. Previously, Z chromosome-linked dominant resistance in at least 38 CM field populations in Europe was reported, threatening organic apple production. Growers responded by switching to a different resistance-breaking isolate of CpGV that could control these populations. Here, we report a nonuniform response of different CM field populations to CpGV isolates from CpGV genome groups A to E. Even more strikingly, one field population, NRW-WE, was resistant to all known CpGV genome groups except group B. Single-pair crossing experiments with a susceptible strain, followed by resistance testing of the F 1 offspring, clearly indicated cross-resistance to CpGV isolates that had been considered to be resistance breaking. This finding provides clear evidence of a second, broader type of CpGV resistance with a novel mode of inheritance that cannot be fully explained by Z-linkage of resistance. CpGV is registered and used in virtually all commercial apple growing areas worldwide and is therefore the most widely used baculovirus biocontrol agent. Recently, resistance to CpGV products was reported in different countries in Europe, threatening organic growers who rely almost exclusively on CpGV products. This resistance appeared to be targeted against a 24-bp repeat in the pe38 gene in isolate CpGV-M of genome group A, which had been used commercially for many years. On the other hand, resistance could be broken by CpGV isolates from CpGV genome groups B to E. Here, we report clear evidence of a second type of field resistance that is also directed against resistance-breaking isolates of CpGV genome groups C, D, and E and which appears not to be targeted against CpGV pe38 Therefore, we propose to differentiate between type I resistance, which is targeted against pe38 of CpGV genome group A, and a novel type II resistance with an

  19. Cross-amplification of microsatellites from the codling moth Cydia pomonella to three other species of the tribe Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M H; Dorn, S

    2010-11-01

    This study examined cross-species amplification of 33 microsatellite markers, previously developed for Cydia pomonella, in three related fruit moth species of the same tribe (Grapholitini), namely Grapholita molesta, Grapholita funebrana and Grapholita lobarzewskii. Eight microsatellite loci yielded polymorphic products for G. molesta, nine for G. funebrana and 11 for G. lobarzewskii. At all these loci, the number of alleles ranged between four and 11 in G. molesta, and between four and nine in G. funebrana and G. lobarzewskii each. The successful cross-amplified loci can be used for research on population genetics and gene flow of the three target species. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Possible functional co-operation of palindromes hr3 and hr4 in the genome of Cydia pomonella granulovirus affects viral replication capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenofy, Wael H; Jehle, Johannes A

    2015-09-01

    After previous studies had shown that natural transposon insertion between the two homologous regions hr3 and hr4 of the genome of the Mexican (M) strain of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV-M) resulted in a loss of viral competitiveness, the function of these homologous regions was investigated. A CpGV-based bacmid (CpBAC) was constructed and mutants with deleted hr3 and hr4 palindromes (CpBAChr3/hr4KO) and a construct (CpBAChr3-kan-hr4) with physically separated hr3 and hr4 repeats were generated to investigate their involvement in in vivo replication. Based on median lethal concentration (LC50) and median survival time (ST50) of the mutant viruses vCpBAChr3/hr4KO and vCpBAChr3-kan-hr4 it was found that the infectivity of both mutants for codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lep.: Tortricidae) larvae was not influenced compared with the parental virus vCpBAC. Co-infection experiments with vCpBAChr3-kan-hr4 and vCpBAC using different virus ratios revealed that vCpBAChr3-kan-hr4 was efficiently out-competed by vCpBAC during in vivo replication. These findings suggested that the separation of hr3 and hr4 resulted in a replication disadvantage of the mutant similar to the observation made in previous co-infection experiments using the transposon-carrying mutant CpGV-MCp5 and WT CpGV-M. It was concluded that the palindromes hr3 and hr4 may play a non-essential but co-functional role in the replication of CpGV-M.

  1. Determination of the Baseline Susceptibility of European Populations of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to Chlorantraniliprole and the Role of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Dolors; Rodríguez, Marcela A; Depalo, Laura; Avilla, Jesús

    2018-04-02

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest on pome fruit and walnut orchards worldwide. Its resistance to available insecticides has been widely reported. Chlorantraniliprole is an anthranilic diamide that was introduced in European countries in 2008-2009 and acts by activating the insect's ryanodine receptors. The aims of this study were to determine the baseline susceptibility of European populations of C. pomonella to chlorantraniliprole, to establish the discriminant concentrations (DC) to check the possible development of resistance, and to know the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) in the possible susceptibility decrease of field populations to the insecticide. Ten field populations from Spain along with others were used to calculate the baseline response of larvae to chlorantraniliprole incorporated into the diet. A pooled probit line was calculated, and three DC were established: 0.3 mg a.i./kg (close to the LC50), 1.0 mg a.i./kg (close to the LC90), and 10 mg a.i./kg diets (threefold the LC99). The DC were used to test the susceptibility of 27 field populations from France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Spain. The corrected mortality observed in all cases ranged within the expected interval, even with Spanish populations that showed between 12.1 and 100.0% of individuals with high P450 activity. However, the mortality caused by the DC0.3 decreased as the mean P450 activity increased. Field populations resistant to other insecticides were susceptible to chlorantraniliprole. The determined baseline codling moth susceptibility is a valuable reference for tracking possible future alterations in the efficacy of the insecticide.

  2. Cycle évolutif et voltinisme du Carpocapse (Cydia pomonella L., Lepidoptera, Tortricidae exprimés par le piégeage sexuel et les degrés-jours dans la région d’Azrou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M'Hamed HMIMINA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth (Cydia pomonella L. is a frightful pest in apple fruit production. Its presence in orchards is the cause of considerable damage and fruits are usually unmarketable. In order to determine voltinism of codling moth, the present study investigated the flight movement of populations during 8 growing seasons (2006-2013 in an orchard at Azrou region. The results based on capture of males in the traps and degree days method reveal that Cydia pomonella (L. can occur in 4 generations. However, in real conditions, the photoperiod, temperature and food availability influence strongly the insect diapause and we have consequently two complete generations while the third and incidentally the fourth are partial.

  3. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to Rhagoletis pomonella flies from the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Sim, Sheina B; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2012-03-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two species of hawthorns in the western USA as major hosts: the native black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and the introduced ornamental English hawthorn, C. monogyna. Apple and downy hawthorn-origin flies in the eastern USA use volatile blends emitted from the surface of their respective ripening fruit to find and discriminate among host trees. To test whether the same is true for western flies, we used coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and developed a 7-component apple fruit blend for western apple-origin flies, an 8-component black hawthorn fruit blend for flies infesting C. douglasii, and a 9-component ornamental hawthorn blend for flies from C. monogyna. Crataegus douglasii and C. monogyna-origin flies showed similar levels of upwind directed flight to their respective natal synthetic fruit blends in flight tunnel assays compared to whole fruit adsorbent extracts, indicating that the blends contain all the behaviorally relevant fruit volatiles to induce maximal response levels. The black and ornamental hawthorn blends shared four compounds in common including 3-methylbutan-1-ol, which appears to be a key volatile for R. pomonella populations in the eastern, southern, and western USA that show a preference for fruit from different Crataegus species. However, the blends also differed from one another and from domesticated apple in several respects that make it possible that western R. pomonella flies behaviorally discriminate among fruit volatiles and form ecologically differentiated host races, as is the case for eastern apple and hawthorn flies.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA revealed the extent of genetic diversity and invasion origin of populations from two separate invaded areas of a newly invasive pest, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Duan, X; Qiao, X; Li, X; Wang, K; Men, Q; Chen, M

    2015-08-01

    Cydia pomonella is a serious invasive insect pest in China, and has caused severe damage to the production of apple and pear in its invaded areas. This species is distributing in the northwest and northeast of China, but no occurrence of it has been recorded in the large areas (about 3000-5000 km away) between the invaded northwestern and northeastern regions despite continuous monitoring. As yet the genetic diversity and invasion origin of the C. pomonella populations in Northwestern and Northeastern China is obscure. In this study, we investigate the genetic diversity of 14 populations of C. pomonella sampled throughout the main distribution regions in Northwestern (Xinjiang and Gansu Provinces) and Northeastern (Heilongjiang Province) China and compared them with nine populations from Europe and other continents using the mitochondrial COI, COII and Cytb genes. Both the populations from Northeastern and Northwestern China shared some haplotypes with populations from other countries. Haplotypes of the three mitochondrial genes had a different distribution in Northeastern and Northwestern China. The northeastern populations had more private haplotypes than the northwestern populations. A large number of the individuals from northwestern populations shared a few haplotypes of each of the three genes. The haplotype numbers and haplotype diversities of the northeastern populations were similar to those of field populations in other countries, but were higher than those of the northwestern populations. Populations from the Northwestern China showed similar haplotype number and haplotype diversity. We conclude that the population genetic background of C. pomonella populations in Northeastern and Northwestern China varies due to different invasion sources and that this should be considered before the application of new pest control tactics.

  5. Control of Cydia pomonella L. and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) in pome-fruit orchards with Ecodian sex pheromone dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfora, G; Baldessari, M; Maines, R; Trona, F; Reggiori, F; Angeli, G

    2007-01-01

    A mating disruption approach using high densities of pheromone dispensers, has been recently proposed for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck.), (Lepidoptera Tortricidae), control. Ecodian Star dispensers, made of low-cost biodegradable material and easy to apply, were formulated with 10 mg of codlemone (E8,E10-12OH) and 10 mg of grapamone (Z8-12OH) and placed at a rate of 1,400-2,000 dispensers/ha. The pheromone release rates from new and field aged dispensers were evaluated by hexane extraction of the residual attractant (indirectly) and gas-chromatographic analysis. The release rate of field-aged dispensers decreased over time with a good linearity; they released a significant amount of synthetic sex pheromones over the entire season. Dispensers elicited close-range approaches of codling moth males in wind tunnel irrespective of their age. Field trials carried out from 2003 to 2004 confirmed the efficacy of Ecodian Star dispensers for codling moth and oriental fruit moth control, regardless the size of the treated area. Our results demonstrate that Ecodian dispensers achieved a good level of activity and longevity over the season. The potential of this strategy for the control of the moths is discussed.

  6. Cross-resistance between azinphos-methyl and acetamiprid in populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), from Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alan L

    2010-08-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), has been intensely managed with the organophosphate insecticide azinphos-methyl for 50 years, and populations have developed resistance. New management programs have been developed and implemented that rely more heavily on other classes of insecticides. A prerequisite for developing effective resistance management strategies for these compounds is to establish their current levels of effectiveness. Adult and neonate larval assays were conducted to assess the response of field-collected codling moth populations from apple in Washington State. Male codling moth populations exhibited a range of responses to a discriminating concentration of azinphos-methyl in a survey of 20 populations. Populations from certified organic orchards were more susceptible than those from conventional orchards. Mean fecundity was inversely related to azinphos-methyl tolerance. Male responses to azinphos-methyl and acetamiprid varied significantly among populations and were correlated. The residual effectiveness of field applications of both insecticides varied significantly against neonate larvae. Neonate bioassays with insecticide-dipped fruit found significant differences among populations with azinphos-methyl, acetamiprid, methoxyfenozide and spinosad, but not with esfenvalerate. These results support a concern that alternation of insecticides with different modes of action may not be a sufficient strategy to avoid the evolution of broad-spectrum insecticide resistance by codling moth. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Reprint of: Seasonal changes in the composition of storage and membrane lipids in overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Berková, Petra; Zahradníčková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2015-12-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. It overwinters as a diapausing fifth instar larva. The overwintering is often a critical part of the insect life-cycle in temperate zone. This study brings detailed analysis of seasonal changes in lipid composition and fluidity in overwintering larvae sampled in the field. Fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol (TG) depots in the fat body and relative proportions of phospholipid (PL) molecular species in biological membranes were analyzed. In addition, temperature of melting (Tm) in TG depots was assessed by using differential scanning calorimetry and the conformational order (fluidity) of PL membranes was analyzed by measuring the anisotropy of fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene probe in membrane vesicles. We observed a significant increase of relative proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n6) at the expense of palmitic acid (C16:0) in TG depots during the larval transition to diapause accompanied with decreasing melting temperature of total lipids, which might increase the accessibility of depot fats for enzymatic breakdown during overwintering. The fluidity of membranes was maintained very high irrespective of developmental mode or seasonally changing acclimation status of larvae. The seasonal changes in PL composition were relatively small. We discuss these results in light of alternative survival strategies of codling moth larvae (supercooling vs. freezing), variability and low predictability of environmental conditions, and other cold tolerance mechanisms such as extending the supercooling capacity and massive accumulation of cryoprotective metabolites. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Stability of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae Populations in Pacific Northwest Pear Orchards Managed with Long-Term Mating Disruption for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalya G. Amarasekare

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola, in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella, negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks of this secondary pest. Hence, the objective of this study was to understand how codling moth management influences the abundance of pear psylla and its natural enemy complex in pear orchards managed under long-term codling moth mating disruption programs. We conducted this study within a pear orchard that had previously been under seasonal mating disruption for codling moth for eight years. We replicated two treatments, “natural enemy disrupt” (application of two combination sprays of spinetoram plus chlorantraniliprole timed against first-generation codling moth and “natural enemy non-disrupt” four times in the orchard. Field sampling of psylla and natural enemies (i.e., lacewings, coccinellids, spiders, Campylomma verbasci, syrphid flies, earwigs revealed that pear psylla populations remained well below treatment thresholds all season despite the reduced abundance of key pear psylla natural enemies in the natural enemy disrupt plots compared with the non-disrupt treatment. We speculate that pear psylla are difficult to disrupt when pear orchards are under long-term codling moth disruption.

  9. Liberación y establecimiento de Mastrus ridens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E. TORTOSA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proveniente de California, EE.UU. e incorrectamente identificado como Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst, el parasitoide Mastrus ridens Horstmann (Hyme - noptera: Ichneumonidae fue introducido en Argentina en 2005 para el control de Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Desde 2005 hasta 2009 se liberaron en total 185.268 individuos adultos de M. ridens en 58 sitios, en cultivos de peral, membrillero, nogal y manzanos en la provincia de Mendoza. Muestreos realizados en 2005 y 2007 mostraron el pasaje invernal como prepupa y una dispersión de 2.000 metros aproxi - madamente desde el sitio de liberación. El establecimiento de M. ridens fue estimado entre los años 2006 y 2009 a través de la determinación del parasitoidismo, cuyo rango varió entre 0 y 45,3%. El promedio de parasitoidismo entre 2005 y 2009 fue 9,89%, muy superior al parasitoidismo observado en especies nativas (0,25%.

  10. Effect of the use of anti-hail nets on codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and organoleptic quality of apple (cv. Braeburn) grown in Alto Adige Region (northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiamonte, Irene; Raffo, Antonio; Nardo, Nicoletta; Moneta, Elisabetta; Peparaio, Marina; D'Aloise, Antonio; Kelderer, Markus; Casera, Claudio; Paoletti, Flavio

    2016-04-01

    The anti-hail nets are widely used to protect apple fruit against hailstorms and hail damage. They can have also beneficial effects against pests in apple orchards, in particular codling moth (Cydia pomonella). However, covering the trees with anti-hail nets can modify the orchard microclimate and reduce the interception of light, thus potentially causing negative consequences on the organoleptic quality of apple fruits. A consistent reduction of the percentage of apple fruits infested by codling moth was registered as a result of the use of anti-hail nets during two consecutive harvest years. Their use did not affect fruit maturity, but reduced the skin colour, sugar content, pulp total phenol content, volatile compound composition and sensory characteristics. However, the results were inconsistent over the two years apart for total phenols, formation of two volatile compounds (butyl and hexenyl acetate, the first being one of the main odorants in most apple cultivars), sensory attributes of 'flavour of lemon' and 'juiciness'. For these parameters, the fruits from plots where the trees were not covered showed higher values than those from plots where anti-hail nets were used. The use of anti-hail nets was effective in preventing the attack of codling moth to apple fruits, suggesting their use in organic management where conventional insecticides are prohibited. Under the conditions tested, anti-hail nets showed a negative effect on some of the quality characteristics measured on apple fruits, which could influence consumer acceptability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Expression of the Cydia pomonella granulovirus matrix metalloprotease enhances Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus virulence and can partially substitute for viral cathepsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimwe, Egide; Hodgson, Jeffrey J; Passarelli, A Lorena

    2015-07-01

    The Cydia pomonella granulovirus open reading frame 46 (CpGV-ORF46) contains predicted domains found in matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade extracellular matrix proteins. We showed that CpGV-MMP was active in vitro. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) expressing CpGV-ORF46 replicated similarly to a control virus lacking CpGV-ORF46 in cultured cells. The effects of AcMNPV expressing CpGV-MMP on virus infection in cultured cells and Trichoplusia ni larvae in the presence or absence of other viral degradative enzymes, cathepsin and chitinase, were evaluated. In the absence of cathepsin and chitinase or cathepsin alone, larval time of death was significantly delayed. This delay was compensated by the expression of CpGV-MMP. CpGV-MMP was also able to promote larvae melanization in the absence of cathepsin and chitinase. In addition, CpGV-MMP partially substituted for cathepsin in larvae liquefaction when chitinase, which is usually retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, was engineered to be secreted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological Characteristics of Experimental Genotype Mixtures of Cydia Pomonella Granulovirus (CpGV): Ability to Control Susceptible and Resistant Pest Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graillot, Benoit; Bayle, Sandrine; Blachere-Lopez, Christine; Besse, Samantha; Siegwart, Myriam; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel

    2016-05-21

    The detection of resistance in codling moth (Cydia pomonella) populations against the Mexican isolate of its granulovirus (CpGV-M), raised questions on the sustainability of the use of this biological insecticide. In resistant host cells, CpGV-M is not able to complete its replication cycle because replication is blocked at an early step. Virus isolates able to overcome this resistance have been characterized-among them, the CpGV-R5 isolate. In mixed infections on resistant insects, both CpGV-M and CpGV-R5 viruses replicate, while CpGV-M alone does not induce mortality. Genetically heterogeneous virus populations, containing 50% of each CpGV-M and CpGV-R5 appear to control resistant host populations as well as CpGV-R5 alone at the same final concentration, even if the concentration of CpGV-R5 is only half in the former. The use of mixed genotype virus preparations instead of genotypically homogeneous populations may constitute a better approach than traditional methods for the development of baculovirus-based biological insecticides.

  13. Stability of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Pacific Northwest Pear Orchards Managed with Long-Term Mating Disruption for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Shearer, Peter W

    2017-09-30

    This study focused on conservation biological control of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola , in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We hypothesized that insecticides applied against the primary insect pest, codling moth Cydia pomonella , negatively impact natural enemies of pear psylla, thus causing outbreaks of this secondary pest. Hence, the objective of this study was to understand how codling moth management influences the abundance of pear psylla and its natural enemy complex in pear orchards managed under long-term codling moth mating disruption programs. We conducted this study within a pear orchard that had previously been under seasonal mating disruption for codling moth for eight years. We replicated two treatments, "natural enemy disrupt" (application of two combination sprays of spinetoram plus chlorantraniliprole timed against first-generation codling moth) and "natural enemy non-disrupt" four times in the orchard. Field sampling of psylla and natural enemies (i.e., lacewings, coccinellids, spiders, Campylomma verbasci , syrphid flies, earwigs) revealed that pear psylla populations remained well below treatment thresholds all season despite the reduced abundance of key pear psylla natural enemies in the natural enemy disrupt plots compared with the non-disrupt treatment. We speculate that pear psylla are difficult to disrupt when pear orchards are under long-term codling moth disruption.

  14. Costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): implications for pest control and the sterile insect release programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Terblanche, John S

    2011-07-01

    Sterile insect release (SIR) is used to suppress insect pest populations in agro-ecosystems, but its success hinges on the performance of the released insects and prevailing environmental conditions. For example, low temperatures dramatically reduce SIR efficacy in cooler conditions. Here, we report on the costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for laboratory and field responses of codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Using a component of field fitness, we demonstrate that low temperature acclimated laboratory-reared moths are recaptured significantly more (∼2-4×) under cooler conditions in the wild relative to warm-acclimated or control moths. However, improvements in low temperature performance in cold-acclimated moths came at a cost to performance under warmer conditions. At high ambient temperatures, warm-acclimation improved field performance relative to control or cold-acclimated moths. Laboratory assessments of thermal activity and their limits matched the field results, indicating that these laboratory assays may be transferable to field performance. This study demonstrates clear costs and benefits of thermal acclimation on laboratory and field performance and the potential utility of thermal pretreatments for offsetting negative efficacy in SIR programmes under adverse thermal conditions. Consequently, the present work shows that evolutionary principles of phenotypic plasticity can be used to improve field performance and thus possibly enhance pest control programmes seeking increased efficacy.

  15. TRPA5, an Ankyrin Subfamily Insect TRP Channel, is Expressed in Antennae of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Multiple Splice Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Alberto Maria; Bengtsson, Jonas Martin; Montagné, Nicolas; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Salvagnin, Umberto; Bassoli, Angela; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are an ancient family of cation channels, working as metabotropic triggers, which respond to physical and chemical environmental cues. Perception of chemical signals mediate reproductive behaviors and is therefore an important target for sustainable management tactics against the codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, olfactory behavior strongly depends on diel periodicity and correlation of chemical with physical cues, like temperature, and physical cues thus essentially contribute to the generation of behavioral response. From an antennal transcriptome generated by next generation sequencing, we characterized five candidate TRPs in the codling moth. The coding DNA sequence of one of these was extended to full length, and phylogenetic investigation revealed it to be orthologous of the TRPA5 genes, reported in several insect genomes as members of the insect TRPA group with unknown function but closely related to the thermal sensor pyrexia Reverse transcription PCR revealed the existence of five alternate splice forms of CpTRPA5. Identification of a novel TRPA and its splice forms in codling moth antennae open for investigation of their possible sensory roles and implications in behavioral responses related to olfaction. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. Biological Characteristics of Experimental Genotype Mixtures of Cydia Pomonella Granulovirus (CpGV: Ability to Control Susceptible and Resistant Pest Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Graillot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The detection of resistance in codling moth (Cydia pomonella populations against the Mexican isolate of its granulovirus (CpGV-M, raised questions on the sustainability of the use of this biological insecticide. In resistant host cells, CpGV-M is not able to complete its replication cycle because replication is blocked at an early step. Virus isolates able to overcome this resistance have been characterized—among them, the CpGV-R5 isolate. In mixed infections on resistant insects, both CpGV-M and CpGV-R5 viruses replicate, while CpGV-M alone does not induce mortality. Genetically heterogeneous virus populations, containing 50% of each CpGV-M and CpGV-R5 appear to control resistant host populations as well as CpGV-R5 alone at the same final concentration, even if the concentration of CpGV-R5 is only half in the former. The use of mixed genotype virus preparations instead of genotypically homogeneous populations may constitute a better approach than traditional methods for the development of baculovirus-based biological insecticides.

  17. Key amino acid associated with acephate detoxification by Cydia pomonella carboxylesterase based on molecular dynamics with alanine scanning and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue Qing; Liu, Ji Yuan; Li, Xian Chun; Chen, Mao Hua; Zhang, Ya Lin

    2014-05-27

    Insecticide-detoxifying carboxylesterase (CE) gene CpCE-1 was cloned from Cydia pomonella. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and computational alanine scanning (CAS) indicate that Asn 232 in CpCE-1 constitutes an approximate binding hot-spot with a binding free energy difference (ΔΔGbind) value of 3.66 kcal/mol. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/km) of N232A declined dramatically, and the half inhibitory concentrations (IC50) value increased by more than 230-fold. Metabolism assay in vitro reveals that the acephate could be metabolized by wild CpCE-1, whereas N232A mutation is unable to metabolize the acephate, which suggests that the hot-spot Asn 232 is a crucial residue for acephate metabolism. Mutation detection suggests that low frequency of Asn 232 replacement occurred in Europe field strains. Our MD, CAS, site-directed mutagenesis, and metabolism studies introduce a new amino acid residue Asn 232 involved in the metabolism of the acephate with CpCE-1, and this method is reliable in insecticide resistance mechanism research and prediction of key amino acids in a protein which is associated with specific physiological and biochemical functions.

  18. Evaluating the potential of suppressing codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. field populations by the use of the sterile insect release method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    1998-11-01

    Studies were done to evaluate the possibility of using the sterile insect technique for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., eradication from Syria. Data accumulated during these studies indicate that codling moth has two distinct generations (spring and summer generation) in the country. Spring generation starts from mid April to early May, reaches its peak about one month later, then declines rapidly soon after. Adults of summer generation start their activity in July, peak in August and wild moths disappear by late September to early October. A very small percentage of spring generation larvae enter diapause, while most of summer generation larvae and all of hose maturing in September do so. Sex ratio is about 1:1 (males to females). Studies on population density and rate of increase show that it ranged between 2.4 and 11.05 larvae/tree in commercial and neglected apple orchards respectively. The results also indicate that codling moth summer generation increased about three times more than spring generation. In the radiosensitivity studies, it is clear that egg production and hatch decreased with increasing radiation dose. Females were more sensitive to irradiation treatment than males. A dose of 15 krad caused 100% sterility in treated females and reduced fecundity to less than 1% This dose (35 Krad) had no adverse effect on male longevity and competitiveness under laboratory conditions. However, males exposed to a dose of 25 or 35 Krad mated less times than control males and recovered some of their fertility overtime. (author)

  19. Novel resistance to Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) in codling moth shows autosomal and dominant inheritance and confers cross-resistance to different CpGV genome groups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sauer, A. J.; Fritsch, E.; Undorf-Spahn, K.; Nguyen, Petr; Marec, František; Heckel, D. G.; Jehle, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2017), č. článku e0179157. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22765S; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-35819P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cydia pomonella granulovirus * inheritance * resistance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0179157

  20. Dissipation of chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb-insecticides used to control codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae) in apples for production of baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpyrka, Ewa; Matyaszek, Aneta; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2017-05-01

    Dissipations of three insecticides: chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb in apples were studied following their foliar application on apples intended for production of baby food. The apples were sprayed with formulations for control of codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae). Six experiments were conducted; each insecticide was applied individually on dessert apples. A validated gas chromatography-based method with simultaneous electron capture and nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GC-ECD/NPD) was used for the residue analysis. The analytical performance of the method was satisfactory, with expanded uncertainties ≤36% (a coverage factor, k = 2, and a confidence level of 95%). The dissipations of insecticides were studied in pseudo-first-order kinetic models (for which the coefficient of determination, R 2 , ranged between 0.9188 and 0.9897). Residues of studied insecticides were below their maximum residue limits of 0.5 mg/kg at an early stage of growth of the fruit. The half-lives of chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb were 16-17, 4-6 and 20-24 days, respectively. The initial residue levels declined gradually and reached the level of 0.01 mg/kg in 1 month for chlorpyrifos-methyl, 2 months for chlorantraniliprole and 2.5 months for indoxacarb. To obtain the insecticide residue levels below 0.01 mg/kg, which is the default MRL for food intended for infants and young children, the application of the studied insecticides should be carried out at recommended doses not later then: 1 month before harvest for chlorpyrifos-methyl, 2 months for chlorantraniliprole and 2.5 months for indoxacarb.

  1. Comparing the genetic structure of codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) from Greece and France: long distance gene-flow in a sedentary pest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudouris, C Ch; Franck, P; Olivares, J; Sauphanor, B; Mamuris, Z; Tsitsipis, J A; Margaritopoulos, J T

    2012-04-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is the most important insect pest of apple production in Europe. Despite the economic importance of this pest, there is not information about the genetic structure of its population in Greece and the patterns of gene-flow which might affect the success of control programs. In this study, we analysed nine samples from apple, pear and walnut from various regions of mainland Greece using 11 microsatellite loci. Six samples from the aforementioned hosts from southern France were also examined for comparison. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance analyses separated the codling moth samples in two genetic clusters. The first cluster consisted mainly of the individuals from Greece, and the second of those from France, although admixture and miss-classified individuals were also observed. The low genetic differentiation among samples within each country was also revealed by F(ST) statistics (0.009 among Greek samples and 0.0150 among French samples compared to 0.050 global value among all samples and 0.032 the mean of the pair-wise values between the two countries). These F(ST) values suggest little structuring at large geographical scales in agreement with previous published studies. The host species and local factors (climatic conditions, topography, pest control programs) did not affect the genetic structure of codling moth populations within each country. The results are discussed in relation to human-made activities that promote gene-flow even at large geographic distances. Possible factors for the genetic differentiation between the two genetic clusters are also discussed.

  2. Comparison of Lures Loaded with Codlemone and Pear Ester for Capturing Codling Moths, Cydia pomonella, in Apple and Pear Orchards using Mating Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, D.E.; Cichón, L.; Garrido, S.; Ribes-Dasi, M.; Avilla, J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies were conducted in apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen and pear, Pyrus communis L. (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards to evaluate the attractiveness of grey halobutyl septa loaded with 1 (L2) and 10 (Mega) mg of codlemone, 8E, 10E-dodecadien-1-ol, 3 mg of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (DA2313), and 3 mg of pear ester plus 3 mg of codlemone (Combo) to adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). All studies were conducted in orchards treated with pheromone mating disruption. All four lures were tested on diamond-shaped sticky traps placed in 60 plots of apple and 40 plots of pears in 2003/04, and in 62 plots of apples and 30 of pears in 2004–05. Combo lures attracted significantly more moths (males + females) than all the others in both years. Comparisons among flights showed significant differences mainly for flight 1 and 2, but not always for flight 3. Mega lures provided no significant improvement compared with L2 lures during both seasons regarding the total number of moths. Combo and DA2313 lures attracted fewer females than males during the whole season. For most sample dates, more virgin than mated females were attracted to Combo lures, except during the third flight, and the overall ratio was 60:40, although the difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that the Combo lures are better indicators of codling moth activity in pheromone treated orchards, regardless of pest population level, when compared with similar lures containing codlemone or pear ester alone. PMID:20883133

  3. Molecular cloning and expression of CYP9A61: a chlorpyrifos-ethyl and lambda-cyhalothrin-inducible cytochrome P450 cDNA from Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueqing; Li, Xianchun; Zhang, Yalin

    2013-12-13

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs or P450s) play paramount roles in detoxification of insecticides in a number of insect pests. However, little is known about the roles of P450s and their responses to insecticide exposure in the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.), an economically important fruit pest. Here we report the characterization and expression analysis of the first P450 gene, designated as CYP9A61, from this pest. The full-length cDNA sequence of CYP9A61 is 2071 bp long and its open reading frame (ORF) encodes 538 amino acids. Sequence analysis shows that CYP9A61 shares 51%-60% identity with other known CYP9s and contains the highly conserved substrate recognition site SRS1, SRS4 and SRS5. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that CYP9A61 were 67-fold higher in the fifth instar larvae than in the first instar, and more abundant in the silk gland and fat body than other tissues. Exposure of the 3rd instar larvae to 12.5 mg L(-1) of chlorpyrifos-ethyl for 60 h and 0.19 mg L(-1) of lambda-cyhalothrin for 36 h resulted in 2.20- and 3.47-fold induction of CYP9A61, respectively. Exposure of the 3rd instar larvae to these two insecticides also significantly enhanced the total P450 activity. The results suggested that CYP9A61 is an insecticide-detoxifying P450.

  4. Molecular Cloning and Expression of CYP9A61: A Chlorpyrifos-Ethyl and Lambda-Cyhalothrin-Inducible Cytochrome P450 cDNA from Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqing Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs or P450s play paramount roles in detoxification of insecticides in a number of insect pests. However, little is known about the roles of P450s and their responses to insecticide exposure in the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L., an economically important fruit pest. Here we report the characterization and expression analysis of the first P450 gene, designated as CYP9A61, from this pest. The full-length cDNA sequence of CYP9A61 is 2071 bp long and its open reading frame (ORF encodes 538 amino acids. Sequence analysis shows that CYP9A61 shares 51%–60% identity with other known CYP9s and contains the highly conserved substrate recognition site SRS1, SRS4 and SRS5. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that CYP9A61 were 67-fold higher in the fifth instar larvae than in the first instar, and more abundant in the silk gland and fat body than other tissues. Exposure of the 3rd instar larvae to 12.5 mg L−1 of chlorpyrifos-ethyl for 60 h and 0.19 mg L−1 of lambda-cyhalothrin for 36 h resulted in 2.20- and 3.47-fold induction of CYP9A61, respectively. Exposure of the 3rd instar larvae to these two insecticides also significantly enhanced the total P450 activity. The results suggested that CYP9A61 is an insecticide-detoxifying P450.

  5. Using Next Generation Sequencing to Identify and Quantify the Genetic Composition of Resistance-Breaking Commercial Isolates of Cydia pomonella Granulovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpiero Gueli Alletti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV isolates as biological control agents of codling moth (CM larvae is important in organic and integrated pome fruit production worldwide. The commercially available isolates CpGV-0006, CpGV-R5, and CpGV-V15 have been selected for the control of CpGV resistant CM populations in Europe. In infection experiments, CpGV-0006 and CpGV-R5 were able to break type I resistance and to a lower extent also type III resistance, whereas CpGV-V15 overcame type I and the rarely occurring type II and type III resistance. The genetic background of the three isolates was investigated with next generation sequencing (NGS tools by comparing their nucleotide compositions to whole genome alignments of five CpGV isolates representing the known genetic diversity of the CpGV genome groups A to E. Based on the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in Illumina sequencing reads, we found that the two isolates CpGV-0006 and CpGV-R5 have highly similar genome group compositions, consisting of about two thirds of the CpGV genome group E and one third of genome group A. In contrast, CpGV-V15 is composed of equal parts of CpGV genome group B and E. According to the identified genetic composition of these isolates, their efficacy towards different resistance types can be explained and predictions on the success of resistance management strategies in resistant CM populations can be made.

  6. Using Next Generation Sequencing to Identify and Quantify the Genetic Composition of Resistance-Breaking Commercial Isolates of Cydia pomonella Granulovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alletti, Gianpiero Gueli; Sauer, Annette J; Weihrauch, Birgit; Fritsch, Eva; Undorf-Spahn, Karin; Wennmann, Jörg T; Jehle, Johannes A

    2017-09-04

    The use of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) isolates as biological control agents of codling moth (CM) larvae is important in organic and integrated pome fruit production worldwide. The commercially available isolates CpGV-0006, CpGV-R5, and CpGV-V15 have been selected for the control of CpGV resistant CM populations in Europe. In infection experiments, CpGV-0006 and CpGV-R5 were able to break type I resistance and to a lower extent also type III resistance, whereas CpGV-V15 overcame type I and the rarely occurring type II and type III resistance. The genetic background of the three isolates was investigated with next generation sequencing (NGS) tools by comparing their nucleotide compositions to whole genome alignments of five CpGV isolates representing the known genetic diversity of the CpGV genome groups A to E. Based on the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Illumina sequencing reads, we found that the two isolates CpGV-0006 and CpGV-R5 have highly similar genome group compositions, consisting of about two thirds of the CpGV genome group E and one third of genome group A. In contrast, CpGV-V15 is composed of equal parts of CpGV genome group B and E. According to the identified genetic composition of these isolates, their efficacy towards different resistance types can be explained and predictions on the success of resistance management strategies in resistant CM populations can be made.

  7. Evaluation of spray-dried lignin-based formulations and adjuvants as solar protectants for the granulovirus of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, S P; Lacey, L A; Behle, R W

    2006-10-01

    Commercial formulations of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., granulovirus (CpGV) are limited by their short residual activity under orchard conditions in the Pacific Northwest. We evaluated spray-dried lignin-encapsulated formulations of CpGV for improved solar stability based on laboratory bioassays with a solar simulator and in field tests in an infested apple orchard. In laboratory tests, aqueous lignin formulations containing a high dosage of 3 x 10(10) occlusion bodies (OB)/L, with and without the additives titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and sugar, provided significant solar protection of virus, i.e., mortality of codling moth exposed to lignin formulations that had been irradiated with 9.36 x 10(6) joules/m(2) was 92-94%, compared with 66-67% from a glycerin-stabilized product (Cyd-X) or suspension of pure unformulated virus at the same rates. By comparison, a lower dosage of the lignin formulation (3 x 10(8)OB/L) did not provide significant solar protection. Equivalent dosage-dependent patterns in solar protection were observed in further tests with the lignin formulation, when an intermediate (3 x 10(9)OB/L) as well as the low dosage provided no solar protection. Equivalent rates of a blank lignin formulation (containing no virus) did not affect larval mortality, suggesting a protective effect of the lignin on the virus at the high rate. The use of several spray adjuvants, 'NuFilm-17' and 'Organic Biolink' (sticker-spreaders at 0.06% v/v), 'Raynox' (sunburn protectant at 5% v/v), and 'Trilogy'(neem oil at 1% v/v) did not provide solar protection of a commercial CpGV preparation in laboratory tests. In season long orchard tests (Golden Delicious), the lignin formulation of CpGV applied at 6.57 x 10(12)OB/ha did not significantly improve control of codling moth or protection of fruit compared with Cyd-X at equivalent rates. Our studies show that lignin-based CpGV formulations provided solar protection at relatively high virus dosages. The testing of lignin

  8. Identification of host fruit volatiles from three mayhaw species (Crataegus series Aestivales) attractive to mayhaw-origin Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2011-09-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these populations could serve as reservoirs for fruit odor discrimination behaviors facilitating sympatric host race formation and speciation, specifically the recent shift from downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to domestic apple (Malus domestica) in the northern USA. Coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and flight tunnel bioassays were used to identify the behaviorally active natal fruit volatile blends for three of the five major southern hawthorns: C. opaca (western mayhaw), C. aestivalis (eastern mayhaw), and C. rufula (a possible hybrid between C. opaca and C. aestivalis). A 6-component blend was developed for C. opaca (3-methylbutan-1-ol [44%], pentyl acetate [6%], butyl butanoate [6%], propyl hexanoate [6%], butyl hexanoate [26%], and hexyl butanoate [12%]); an 8-component blend for C. aestivalis (3-methylbutan-1-ol [2%], butyl acetate [47%], pentyl acetate [2%], butyl butanoate [12%], propyl hexanoate [1%], butyl hexanoate [25%], hexyl butanoate [9%], and pentyl hexanoate [2%]); and a 9-component blend for C. rufula (3-methylbutan-1-ol [1%], butyl acetate [57%], 3-methylbutyl acetate [3%], butyl butanoate [5%], propyl hexanoate [1%], hexyl propionate [1%], butyl hexanoate [23%], hexyl butanoate [6%], and pentyl hexanoate [3%]). Crataegus aestivalis and C. opaca-origin flies showed significantly higher levels of upwind directed flight to their natal blend in flight tunnel assays compared to the non-natal blend and previously developed apple, northern downy hawthorn, and flowering dogwood blends. Eastern and western mayhaw flies also were tested to the C. rufula blend, with eastern flies displaying higher levels of upwind flight compared with the western flies, likely due to the presence of butyl acetate in the C. aestivalis and C. rufula

  9. Maximizing Information Yield From Pheromone-Baited Monitoring Traps: Estimating Plume Reach, Trapping Radius, and Absolute Density of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Michigan Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C G; Schenker, J H; McGhee, P S; Gut, L J; Brunner, J F; Miller, J R

    2017-04-01

    Novel methods of data analysis were used to interpret codling moth (Cydia pomonella) catch data from central-trap, multiple-release experiments using a standard codlemone-baited monitoring trap in commercial apple orchards not under mating disruption. The main objectives were to determine consistency and reliability for measures of: 1) the trapping radius, composed of the trap's behaviorally effective plume reach and the maximum dispersive distance of a responder population; and 2) the proportion of the population present in the trapping area that is caught. Two moth release designs were used: 1) moth releases at regular intervals in the four cardinal directions, and 2) evenly distributed moth releases across entire approximately 18-ha orchard blocks using both high and low codling moth populations. For both release designs, at high populations, the mean proportion catch was 0.01, and for the even release of low populations, that value was approximately 0.02. Mean maximum dispersive distance for released codling moth males was approximately 260 m. Behaviorally effective plume reach for the standard codling moth trap was < 5 m, and total trapping area for a single trap was approximately 21 ha. These estimates were consistent across three growing seasons and are supported by extraordinarily high replication for this type of field experiment. Knowing the trapping area and mean proportion caught, catch number per single monitoring trap can be translated into absolute pest density using the equation: males per trapping area = catch per trapping area/proportion caught. Thus, catches of 1, 3, 10, and 30 codling moth males per trap translate to approximately 5, 14, 48, and 143 males/ha, respectively, and reflect equal densities of females, because the codling moth sex ratio is 1:1. Combined with life-table data on codling moth fecundity and mortality, along with data on crop yield per trapping area, this fundamental knowledge of how to interpret catch numbers

  10. Identification of fruit volatiles from green hawthorn (Crataegus viridis) and blueberry hawthorn (Crataegus brachyacantha) host plants attractive to different phenotypes of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2011-09-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. In a companion paper, we showed that R. pomonella flies infesting two different mayhaw species (Crataegus opaca and C. aestivalis) can discriminate between volatile blends developed for each host fruit, and that these blends are different from previously constructed blends for northern fly populations that infest domestic apple (Malus domestica), downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis), and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). Here, we show by using coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and flight tunnel bioassays, that two additional southern hawthorn fly populations infesting C. viridis (green hawthorn) and C. brachyacantha (blueberry hawthorn) also can discriminate between volatile blends for each host fruit type. A 9-component blend was developed for C. viridis (3-methylbutan-1-ol [5%], butyl butanoate [19.5%], propyl hexanoate [1.5%], butyl hexanoate [24%], hexyl butanoate [24%], pentyl hexanoate [2.5%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.5%], pentyl butanoate [2.5%], and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) [20.5%]) and an 8-component blend for C. brachyacantha (3-methylbutan-1-ol [0.6%], butyl acetate [50%], pentyl acetate [3.5%], butyl butanoate [9%], butyl hexanoate [16.8%], hexyl butanoate [16.8%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.3%], and pentyl butanoate [3%]). Crataegus viridis and C. brachyacantha-origin flies showed significantly higher levels of upwind oriented flight to their natal blend in flight tunnel assays compared to the alternate, non-natal blend and previously developed northern host plant blends. The presence of DMNT in C. viridis and butyl acetate in C. brachyacantha appeared to be largely responsible for driving the differential response. This sharp behavioral distinction underscores the diversity of odor response phenotypes in the southern USA, points to possible host race formation in these

  11. The use of radiation induced sterility for the control of the moths Laspeyresia pomonella L. and Laspeyresia molesta B. Part of a coordinated programme on the control of lepidopterous insects by the sterile male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzalev, M.

    1979-05-01

    Various artificial media based on wheat germ-agar were evaluated for their suitability in rearing larvae of the codling-moth Laspeyresia pomonella L. and the oriental fruit moth Laspeyresia molesta B. A medium of green apples was used as a control. All larval media evaluated for the codling-moth produced comparable results; slightly better results, however, were obtained with a medium in which a mixture of apple puree, oat germs, milk and sugar had been added, and with the green apples alone. Similar results were also obtained with the oriental fruit moth; in this instance, however, the medium containing the apple puree etc. was slightly inferior. Media under cover maintained favourable condition for larval development for more than 40 days. On the other hand, uncovered media dessicated rapidly and consequently were unfavourable for larval development. In field ecological studies it was observed that the number of oriental fruit moths in trap catches declined when the rainfall exceeded 5 mm or the temperature fell below 10 0 C

  12. Novel resistance to Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV in codling moth shows autosomal and dominant inheritance and confers cross-resistance to different CpGV genome groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette J Sauer

    Full Text Available Commercial Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV products have been successfully applied to control codling moth (CM in organic and integrated fruit production for more than 30 years. Since 2005, resistance against the widely used isolate CpGV-M has been reported from different countries in Europe. The inheritance of this so-called type I resistance is dominant and linked to the Z chromosome. Recently, a second form (type II of CpGV resistance in CM was reported from a field population (NRW-WE in Germany. Type II resistance confers reduced susceptibility not only to CpGV-M but to most known CpGV isolates and it does not follow the previously described Z-linked inheritance of type I resistance. To further analyze type II resistance, two CM strains, termed CpR5M and CpR5S, were generated from parental NRW-WE by repeated mass crosses and selection using the two isolates CpGV-M and CpGV-S, respectively. Both CpR5M and CpR5S were considered to be genetically homogeneous for the presence of the resistance allele(s. By crossing and backcrossing experiments with a susceptible CM strain, followed by resistance testing of the offspring, an autosomal dominant inheritance of resistance was elucidated. In addition, cross-resistance to CpGV-M and CpGV-S was detected in both strains, CpR5M and CpR5S. To test the hypothesis that the autosomal inheritance of type II resistance was caused by a large interchromosomal rearrangement involving the Z chromosome, making type I resistance appear to be autosomal in these strains; fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes (BAC-FISH was used to physically map the Z chromosomes of different CM strains. Conserved synteny of the Z-linked genes in CpR5M and other CM strains rejects this hypothesis and argues for a novel genetic and functional mode of resistance in CM populations with type II resistance.

  13. Novel resistance to Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) in codling moth shows autosomal and dominant inheritance and confers cross-resistance to different CpGV genome groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Annette J; Fritsch, Eva; Undorf-Spahn, Karin; Nguyen, Petr; Marec, Frantisek; Heckel, David G; Jehle, Johannes A

    2017-01-01

    Commercial Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) products have been successfully applied to control codling moth (CM) in organic and integrated fruit production for more than 30 years. Since 2005, resistance against the widely used isolate CpGV-M has been reported from different countries in Europe. The inheritance of this so-called type I resistance is dominant and linked to the Z chromosome. Recently, a second form (type II) of CpGV resistance in CM was reported from a field population (NRW-WE) in Germany. Type II resistance confers reduced susceptibility not only to CpGV-M but to most known CpGV isolates and it does not follow the previously described Z-linked inheritance of type I resistance. To further analyze type II resistance, two CM strains, termed CpR5M and CpR5S, were generated from parental NRW-WE by repeated mass crosses and selection using the two isolates CpGV-M and CpGV-S, respectively. Both CpR5M and CpR5S were considered to be genetically homogeneous for the presence of the resistance allele(s). By crossing and backcrossing experiments with a susceptible CM strain, followed by resistance testing of the offspring, an autosomal dominant inheritance of resistance was elucidated. In addition, cross-resistance to CpGV-M and CpGV-S was detected in both strains, CpR5M and CpR5S. To test the hypothesis that the autosomal inheritance of type II resistance was caused by a large interchromosomal rearrangement involving the Z chromosome, making type I resistance appear to be autosomal in these strains; fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes (BAC-FISH) was used to physically map the Z chromosomes of different CM strains. Conserved synteny of the Z-linked genes in CpR5M and other CM strains rejects this hypothesis and argues for a novel genetic and functional mode of resistance in CM populations with type II resistance.

  14. Earthworms as phoretic hosts for Steinernema carpocapsae and Beauveria bassiana: Implications for enhanced biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior research indicated that earthworms may serve as phoretic hosts to entomopathogenic nematodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that biocontrol efficacy of nematodes could be enhanced in the presence of earthworms based on increased nematode dispersal through the soil. We also hypothesized that ear...

  15. Aerosol emitters disrupt codling moth, Cydia pomonella, competitively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Peter S; Gut, Larry J; Miller, James R

    2014-12-01

    Isomate(®) CM MIST aerosol emitters (Pacific BioControl Corp, Vancouver, WA) containing 36 g of codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, were deployed at various densities in a commercial apple orchard to generate dosage-response profiles in order to elucidate the behavioral mechanism of disruption. Moth captures decreased asymptotically as Isomate(®) CM MIST densities increased. Data fitting to Miller-Gut and Miller-de Lame plots yielded straight lines, with positive and negative slopes respectively. Catch of male moths decreased from 28 trap(-1) in the control to 0.9 trap(-1) at the highest emitter density. Disruption of >90% was realized at emitter densities greater than 5 units ha(-1) . The resulting set of profiles explicitly matched the predictions for competitive rather than non-competitive disruption. Thus, these devices probably disrupt by inducing false-plume following rather than by camouflaging traps and females. The use of 5 MIST units ha(-1) would be necessary to achieve the same level of codling moth control provided by a standard pheromone treatment with passive reservoir dispensers. The need for only a few aerosol emitters, 2.5-5 units ha(-1) , mitigates the cost of labor required to hand-apply hundreds of passive reservoir dispensers; however, a potential weakness in using this technology is that the low deployment density may leave areas of little or no pheromone coverage, where mate finding may occur. This technology is likely to benefit substantially from treatment of large contiguous blocks of crop. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Desiccation and cold storage of Galleria mellonella cadavers and effects on in vivo production of Steinernema carpocapsae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Wang, H.; Feng, Q.Z.; Cui, X.Y.; Liu, R.Y.; Sun, Y.B.; Li, G.C.; Tan, H.; Song, D.M.; Liu, W.; Ruan, W.B.; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDDirect application of insect cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) can successfully control target pest insects. Little is known about the effects of environmental factors (desiccation and temperature) on the production process for infective juveniles (IJ) in insects.

  17. Desiccation and cold storage of Galleria mellonella cadavers and effects on in vivo production of Steinernema carpocapsae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Huan; Feng, Qing-zhou; Cui, Xi-yang; Liu, Ri-yue; Sun, Yan-bo; Li, Guo-chao; Tan, Hao; Song, Dong-min; Liu, Wen; Ruan, Wei-bin; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Direct application of insect cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) can successfully control target pest insects. Little is known about the effects of environmental factors (desiccation and temperature) on the production process for infective juveniles (IJ) in insects.

  18. Pesticides used against Cydia pomonella disrupt biological control of secondary pests of apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of codling moth management programs on secondary pests of apple were examined from 2008 to 2011 in five replicated large-plot trials. The orchards were chosen for a history of Eriosoma lanigerum and tetranychid mite outbreaks. Programs covered the first, second, or both generations of C....

  19. Field performance of gamma irradiated and reared codling moth Cydia Pomonella (L.) males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F.; Mansour, M.

    2003-04-01

    Marked males of codling moth, reared during immature stage on a local artificial diet, were released in two square plot (20 x 20 m) of two separate orchards. One of the orchard received sterile males exposed to 350 Gry (treatment), while the other received non-sterile males (control). To monitor the performance of sterile males compared to the control, pheromone traps were hung at certain distances (one trap/50 m) of the release site in each orchard, covering all four directions for 300 m. Traps up were checked daily for up to ten days after release. Results showed that number of control males was significantly less than sterile males at the first 50 m from the dispersion point (61.5% for control, 76.3% for treatment), Control males, however were captured more frequently at larger distance. For instance, the percentage for control and treated males were 17.2, 12.4% at 100 m, 10.4, 3.8% at 150 m and 7.2, 2.1% at 200 m respectively. A small percentage of control males (2.8%) reached 250 m, while treated males did not. These results indicate that sterile codling moth males exposed to a dose 350 Gy don't have the same dispersion ability as control ones. The results also show that the number of treated males responded to sex pheromone were less than control males in the first and second day after release, However they become more frequent in the third and fourth day, decreased in the fifth and stopped completely in day sixth. (author)

  20. Rapid assessment of the sex of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs and larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrbová, Iva; Neven, L. G.; Bárcenas, N. M.; Gund, N. A.; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 4 (2009), s. 249-261 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1860 Grant - others:International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 58-5352-4-F004; International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 12055/R; Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food(DE) 05OE023/2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lepidoptera * molecular markers * period gene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2009

  1. Distribution Characteristics of Eggs and Neonate Larvae of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10-15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone. Oviposition at random with respect to the fruit occurred only at very low population density. The choice of oviposition site between fruit and the adaxial leaf surface and abaxial leaf surface (AbLS) was variable and cultivar related. Cultivars on which eggs predominated on the AbLS were less frequent and characterized by low trichome density. In the literature, neonate larvae from eggs on the AbLS suffered greater mortality, as did those in Nelson that hatched more distant from the fruit. This review discusses the interaction between these distribution characteristics and species-specific host-plant volatiles, egg adhesion to plant surfaces, oviposition deterrents, predation, and their relevance to pest management.

  2. Host density responses of Mastrus ridibundus, a parasitoid of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Mills, N.J.

    2001-01-01

    The response of Mastrus ridibundus (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), an introduced parasitoid of the codling moth, to host density was investigated by three different approaches. In a field-release experiment in six walnut orchards, the probability of a host patch (tree) being attacked

  3. Probing the W chromosome of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, with sequences from microdissected sex chromatin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrbová, Iva; Traut, W.; Vítková, Magda; Nguyen, Petr; Kubíčková, S.; Marec, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 2, (2007), s. 135-145 ISSN 0009-5915 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/1860; GA ČR GD521/03/H160; GA AV ČR IAA6007307 Grant - others:International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 12055/R Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : W chromosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.337, year: 2007

  4. A flight cylinder bioassay as a simple, effective quality control test for Cydia pomonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of quality of the sterile male insects that are being mass-reared for release in area-wide integrated pest management programmes that include a sterile insect technique component is crucial for the success of these programmes. Routine monitoring of sterile male quality needs to be carried...

  5. Evaluation of an aerosol emitter for mating disruption of Cydia pomonella in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldessari, M; Rizzi, C; Tolotti, G; Angeli, G

    2013-01-01

    Some techniques have been developed to disrupt mating (MD) of codling moth (CM) by treating orchards with pheromone. Synthetic pheromone is applied to the crop as a formulation that is designed to protect these generally labile compounds from degradation while gradually releasing pheromone into the atmosphere. In Trentino South Tyrol MD has been adopted successfully (24,500 ha, i.e. 73% of the apple area) to control CM in heavily infested areas; while in areas with low pest pressure, less pesticides are usually applied (2-3 per year) and as a consequence, pheromone mating disruption is not considered economically convenient. Hand applied sealed plastic tubes and plastic ampoules are the two pheromone formulations more widely used. A new pheromone-based control technique, called Puffer, has been recently proposed. Puffers are battery-powered devices that release pheromone from pressurized aerosol cans every 15 minutes for 12 hours or 30 min for 24 hours. During each puff a quantity of 6.95 mg a.i. is emitted. The high release rate of pheromone per puff from aerosol dispensers is thought to compensate for their low application densities (2-2.5 puffer/hectare). Results of three year field trials carried out in Trentino-South Tyrol demonstrated the potential of Puffer as effective tool to control the moth.

  6. Modeling population dynamics and dispersion of Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gharehkhani, Gholamhossein

    2009-01-01

    The study of insect dispersal plays an essential role in estimating the spread of damage caused by a newly invaded pest or the spatial distribution of an insect during the active period in growing season. Moreover concerning dispersal, quantitative information performs a crucial role in the evaluation and implementation of pest control. Since rearing clean and healthy insects in sufficient numbers is the most important prerequisite for many basic research programs and for developing pest cont...

  7. 75 FR 19390 - Cydia Pomonella Granulovirus; Product Cancellation Order for a Pesticide Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... II. was effective December 31, 2009. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeannine Kausch, Biopesticides..., Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. [FR Doc. 2010-8521 Filed 4-13-10...

  8. Seasonal changes in the composition of storage and membrane lipids in overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozsypal, Jan; Košťál, Vladimír; Berková, Petra; Zahradníčková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, October 01 (2014), s. 124-133 ISSN 0306-4565 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12103; GA ČR GA13-18509S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : triacylglycerols * phospholipids * fatty acids Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306456514001284

  9. Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vreysen, M. J. B.; Carpenter, J. E.; Marec, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 3 (2010), s. 165-181 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/2106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : area-wide integrated pest management * codling moth * genetic sexing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.276, year: 2010

  10. Preliminary study of the quarantine treatment by gamma rays for codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples and pears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusef, Maria V.; Kaupert, Norma L.; Quintana, G. M.

    1999-01-01

    After irradiation, important variations have been observed in the behaviour and metabolism of the moth larvae that are clearly attributable to the effects of gamma rays. The variation includes the loss of the characteristic pink colour, partial or total loss of appetite, loss of turgidity, etc. (author)

  11. Assessing the global risk of establishment of Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) using CLIMEX and MaxEnt niche models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate assessment of insect pest establishment risk is needed by national plant protection organizations to negotiate international trade of horticultural commodities that can potentially carry the pests and result in inadvertent introductions in the importing countries. We used mechanistic and co...

  12. Geographic variability in response to azinphos-methyl in field-collected populations of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleño, Jimena; Anguiano, Olga L; Cichón, Liliana B; Garrido, Silvina A; Montagna, Cristina M

    2012-11-01

    Resistance to insecticides has been related to application history, genetic factors of the pest and the dynamic within the treated area. The aim of this study was to assess the geographic variation in azinphos-methyl response and the role of esterase and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes in codling moth populations collected within different areas of the Río Negro and Neuquén Valley, Argentina. Diapausing field-collected populations showed resistance ratios at the LC(50) that were 0.7-8.7 times higher than that of the susceptible strain. Mean esterase (EST) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activities (expressed as α-N min(-1) mg(-1) prot(-1) and pg 7-OHC insect(-1) min(-1) respectively) were significantly correlated with LD(50) values from the field-collected populations. In addition, azinphos-methyl response was associated with the geographic area where the insect population was collected: populations from isolated and more recent productive areas presented significantly lower resistance ratios in comparison with populations from older and more intensive productive areas. The populations assayed presented different resistance levels to azinphos-methyl. The response was highly correlated with the orchard's geographic location. EST and ECOD activities were involved in azinphos-methyl response in the given region. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Key residues involved in the interaction between Cydia pomonella pheromone binding protein 1 (CpomPBP1) and Codlemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Liu, Jiyuan; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2016-10-06

    Codlemone exhibited high affinity to CpomPBP1, studying their binding mode can provide insights into the rational design of active semiochemicals. Our findings suggested that residues including Phe12, Phe36, Trp37, Ile52, Ile 94, Ala115 and Phe118 were favorable to the binding of Codlemone to CpomPBP1, whereas residues providing unfavorable contributions like Ser56 were negative to the binding. Van der waals energy and electrostatic energy, mainly derived from the sidechains of favorable residues, contributed most in the formation and stability keeping of CpomPBP1-Codlemone complex. Of the residues involved in the interaction between CpomPBP1 and Codlemone, Phe12 and Trp37, whose mutation into Ala caused significant decrease of CpomPBP1 binding ability, were two key residues in determining the binding affinity of Codlemone to CpomPBP1. This study shed lights on discovering novel active semiochemicals as well as facilitating chemical modification of lead semiochemicals.

  14. Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays of lab-reared Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) quality and field performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximum production and fitness of insect species that are mass-reared for biological control programs such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) have benefitted from the employment of quality control and quality management. With a growing interest in the use of SIT as a tactic for the suppression/e...

  15. Climate change impact on development rates of the codling moth ( Cydia pomonella L.) in the Wielkopolska region, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, Radosław; Kuchar, Leszek; Leśny, Jacek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate how the observed and predicted climate changes may affect the development rates and emergence of the codling moth in the southern part of the Wielkopolska region in Poland. In order to simulate the future climate conditions one of the most frequently used A1B SRES scenarios and two different IPCC climate models (HadCM3 and GISS modelE) are considered. A daily weather generator (WGENK) was used to generate temperature values for present and future climate conditions (time horizons 2020-2040 and 2040-2060). Based on the generated data set, the degree-days values were then calculated and the emergence dates of the codling moth at key stages were estimated basing on the defined thresholds. Our analyses showed that the average air surface temperature in the Wielkopolska region may increase from 2.8°C (according to GISS modelE) even up to 3.3°C (HadCM3) in the period of 2040-2060. With the warming climate conditions the cumulated degree-days values may increase at a rate of about 142 DD per decade when the low temperature threshold ( T low ) of 0°C is considered and 91 DD per decade when T low = 10°C. The key developmental stages of the codling moth may occur much earlier in the future climate conditions than currently, at a rate of about 3.8-6.8 days per decade, depending on the considered GCM model and the pest developmental stage. The fastest changes may be observed in the emergence dates of 95% of larvae of the second codling moth generation. This could increase the emergence probability of the pest third generation that has not currently occurred in Poland.

  16. Quality control tests of lab-reared Cydia pomonella and Cactoblastis cactorum field performance: Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research, operational, and commercial programs which rely on mass-reared insects of high quality and performance, need accurate methods for monitoring quality degradation during each step of production, handling and release. With continued interest in the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) a...

  17. Development of a dynamic population model as a decision support system for Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella L.) management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trapman, M.; Helsen, H.H.M.; Polfliet, M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004 RIMpro-Cydia was developed as a dynamic population model that simulates the within-year biology of a local codling moth population. The model is meant to be used by growers and advisors to optimize the control of codling moth populations in organic and integrated managed orchards. The model

  18. The optimal sex pheromone release rate for trapping the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Runzhi

    2016-02-16

    For successful pest management, codlemone (E, E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol) is widely used to monitor codling moth. The pheromone release rate is essential for the lure's attractiveness. The optimal sex pheromone release rate (V0) for trapping codling moth was evaluated during 2013-2014. The overwinter generation V0 was 6.7-33.4 μg wk(-1), and moth catches (MCs) were 0.82 ± 0.11 adults/trap/week; MCs for lower (V1) and higher (V2) release rates were 52.4% and 46.3%, respectively, of that for V0. The first generation V0 was 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1), with MCs of 1.45 ± 0.29 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 34.5% and 31.7%, respectively, of those for V0. Combining across generations, the final V0 was 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1), with MCs of 1.07 ± 0.06 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 51.4% and 41.1%, respectively, of that for V0. Overwinter generation emergence was relatively concentrated, requiring a wider V0. Maintaining the release rate at 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1) could optimize the lure's efficacy; this resulted in the capture of nearly 1.9 and 2.4 times more moths than V1 and V2, respectively. The results also indicate that a dispenser pheromone release rate of 200-300 times that of the female moth can perfectly outcompetes females in the field.

  19. Climate change impact on development rates of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in the Wielkopolska region, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, Radosław; Kuchar, Leszek; Leśny, Jacek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate how the observed and predicted climate changes may affect the development rates and emergence of the codling moth in the southern part of the Wielkopolska region in Poland. In order to simulate the future climate conditions one of the most frequently used A1B SRES scenarios and two different IPCC climate models (HadCM3 and GISS modelE) are considered. A daily weather generator (WGENK) was used to generate temperature values for present and future climate conditions (time horizons 2020-2040 and 2040-2060). Based on the generated data set, the degree-days values were then calculated and the emergence dates of the codling moth at key stages were estimated basing on the defined thresholds. Our analyses showed that the average air surface temperature in the Wielkopolska region may increase from 2.8°C (according to GISS modelE) even up to 3.3°C (HadCM3) in the period of 2040-2060. With the warming climate conditions the cumulated degree-days values may increase at a rate of about 142 DD per decade when the low temperature threshold (T(low)) of 0°C is considered and 91 DD per decade when T(low) = 10°C. The key developmental stages of the codling moth may occur much earlier in the future climate conditions than currently, at a rate of about 3.8-6.8 days per decade, depending on the considered GCM model and the pest developmental stage. The fastest changes may be observed in the emergence dates of 95% of larvae of the second codling moth generation. This could increase the emergence probability of the pest third generation that has not currently occurred in Poland.

  20. El proceso de construcción de una red socio técnica regional. El programa de control de carpocapsa en la fruticultura de las provincias de Río Negro y Neuquén, Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    VILLARREAL, PATRICIA LILIANA

    2014-01-01

    La producción frutícola de las provincias de Río Negro y Neuquén tiene como uno de sus principales destinos la exportación a mercados europeos y del Mercosur y otros en menor medida. En tal sentido, los productos están sujetos a las exigencias de sanidad y calidad de los países importadores -orientados fundamentalmente por los requerimientos de las grandes cadenas de distribución- de manera que los procesos de certificación se intensifican cada temporada. Entre los princip...

  1. Analysis of radiation-induced W Chromosome aberrations in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), by fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makee, H.; Tafesh, N.; Marec, František

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 3 (2008), s. 143-151 ISSN 1612-4758 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6007307; GA ČR GA206/06/1860 Grant - others:International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 10829/R; International Atomic Energy Agency(AT) 12055/R Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : codling moth * W chromosome * W-chromosome painting probe Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.014, year: 2008

  2. Susceptibility in field populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Ontario and Quebec apple orchards to a selection of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg-McGuffin, Kristy; Scott, Ian M; Bellerose, Sylvie; Chouinard, Gérald; Cormier, Daniel; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia

    2015-02-01

    Codling moth is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. Insecticide resistance has become a widespread pest management issue. However, the current status of insecticide resistance in Ontario and Quebec codling moth populations is unknown. Codling moth populations were collected from 27 orchards in Ontario and Quebec from 2008 to 2010. A series of laboratory bioassays were performed to establish baseline susceptibility of adults and larvae to azinphos-methyl, thiacloprid, chlorantraniliprole and methoxyfenozide. Adult codling moth percentage mortality ranged from 22 to 97% and from 21 to 85% when exposed to topical bioassays using azinphos-methyl and thiacloprid respectively. Azinphos-methyl LC50 values from three selected orchards were ca fivefold greater than those from an insecticide-susceptible population. Neonate larva percentage mortality ranged from 5 to 50%, from 15 to 65%, from 90 to 100% and from 10 to 40% when exposed to diet bioassays using azinphos-methyl, thiacloprid, chlorantraniliprole and methoxyfenozide respectively. Based on the response of the field-collected populations, resistance development to some registered insecticides was evident in some Ontario and Quebec populations. With the present status of insecticide resistance documented in these regions, modifications to codling moth management strategies should be initiated before changes in field efficacy occur. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effects of Earthworms on the Dispersal of Steinernema spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, D. I.; Tylka, G. L.; Berry, E. C.; Lewis, L. C.

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that dispersal of S. carpocapsae may be enhanced in soil with earthworms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the effects of earthworms on dispersal of other Steinernema spp. Vertical dispersal of Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and S. glaseri was tested in soil columns in the presence and absence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Dispersal was evaluated by a bioassay and by direct extraction of nematodes from soil. Upward dispersal ...

  4. Variations in Immune Response of Popillia japonica and Acheta domesticus to Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Gaugler, R; Cui, L

    1994-03-01

    The infectivities of Steinernema carpocapsae, S. glaseri, S. scapterisci, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora to Japanese beetle larvae, Popillia japonica, and house cricket adults, Acheta domesticus, were compared using external exposure and hemocoelic injection. Only H. bacteriophora and S. glaseri caused high P. japonica mortality after external exposure. When nematodes were injected, P. japonica had a strong encapsulation and melanization response to all species except S. glaseri. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and S. carpocapsae were able to overcome the immune response, but S. scapterisci was not. All species except S. scapterisci were able to kill and reproduce within the host. Only S. scapterisci and S. carpocapsae caused A. domesticus mortality after external exposure. When nematodes were injected, A. domesticus had a strong immune response to all species except S. scapterisci. Steinernema carpocapsae effectively overcame the strong immune response and caused high host mortality, but S. glaseri and H. bacteriophora did not. Steinernema scapterisci caused high host mortality and reproduced, S. glaseri and H. bacteriophora caused low host mortality but only S. glaseri reproduced, and S. carpocapsae was able to kill the host but reproduced poorly. Most (ca. 90%) of the S. carpocapsae in the hemocoel of P. japonica became encapsulated and melanized within 8 hours postinjection. The symbiotic bacterium, Xenorhabduf nematophilus, was often released before this encapsulation and melanization.

  5. Review of Vaccinia Virus and Baculovirus Viability Versus Virucides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buckley, Patricia E; O'Connell, Kevin P; Ouellette, Gary D

    2008-01-01

    .... This review summarizes what is known about the susceptibility to virucides of two candidate viral simulants, the baculoviruses Cydia pomonella granulovirus and Heliothis zea nuclear polyhedrosis...

  6. Development of mass production, gamma sterilization and release of the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella L. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of the sterile male technique for control of lepidopterous insects attacking fruit and forest trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suski, Z.W.

    1979-03-01

    Research on codling moths was conducted from Spring 1973 to Autumn 1978 and included rearing of larvae on thinning apples and artificial diet ecology, radiation sterilization and the effect of field releases of sterile moths in suppressing the wild population. Field releases of irradiated with 30 Krad unsexed insects were conducted in two consecutive seasons, namely in 1977 and 1978 and aimed at a sterile to wild ratio of 97:1 and 233:1 respectively. The experimentally obtained ratio, however, based on catches in traps baited with sex attractant was 24:1 and 79:1 respectively. Examination of fruit infestation at harvest revealed an increase in infestation by 9% in the 1977 sterile release programme and by 56% in the 1978 programme. Likely causes of the failure of the SIT programme were the immigration of fertile females from the surrounding area and inadequate mating competitiveness of the released moths due to somatic damage caused by the irradiation and laboratory adaptation. The sharp increase of fruit infestation in 1978 was very likely the result of a six fold increase in yield which provided a better chance of survival for hatching larvae

  7. Steinernema huense sp. n., a new entomopathogenic nematode (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) from Vietnam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Phan, K. L.; Mráček, Zdeněk; Půža, Vladimír; Nermuť, Jiří; Jarošová, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 7 (2014), s. 761-775 ISSN 1388-5545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12105 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : carpocapsae group * description * molecular Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.239, year: 2014

  8. Endosymbiont-based immunity in Drosophila melanogaster against parasitic nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shruti; Frazer, Joanna; Banga, Ashima; Pruitt, Katherine; Harsh, Sneh; Jaenike, John; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    Associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and their hosts represent a complex ecosystem within organisms ranging from humans to protozoa. Drosophila species are known to naturally harbor Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts, which play a protective role against certain microbial infections. Here, we investigated whether the presence or absence of endosymbionts affects the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster larvae to infection by Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes carrying or lacking their mutualistic Gram-negative bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila (symbiotic or axenic nematodes, respectively). We find that the presence of Wolbachia alone or together with Spiroplasma promotes the survival of larvae in response to infection with S. carpocapsae symbiotic nematodes, but not against axenic nematodes. We also find that Wolbachia numbers are reduced in Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic compared to symbiotic nematodes, and they are also reduced in Spiroplasma-containing compared to Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic nematodes. We further show that S. carpocapsae axenic nematode infection induces the Toll pathway in the absence of Wolbachia, and that symbiotic nematode infection leads to increased phenoloxidase activity in D. melanogaster larvae devoid of endosymbionts. Finally, infection with either type of nematode alters the metabolic status and the fat body lipid droplet size in D. melanogaster larvae containing only Wolbachia or both endosymbionts. Our results suggest an interaction between Wolbachia endosymbionts with the immune response of D. melanogaster against infection with the entomopathogenic nematodes S. carpocapsae. Results from this study indicate a complex interplay between insect hosts, endosymbiotic microbes and pathogenic organisms.

  9. Lateral Dispersal and Foraging Behavior of Entomopathogenic Nematodes in the Absence and Presence of Mobile and Non-Mobile Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harit K Bal

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes have been classified into cruisers (active searchers and ambushers (sit and wait foragers. However, little is known about their dispersal and foraging behavior at population level in soil. We studied lateral dispersal of the ambush foraging Steinernema carpocapsae (ALL strain and cruise foraging Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (GPS11 strain from infected host cadavers in microcosms (0.05 m2 containing Wooster silt-loam soil (Oxyaquic fragiudalf and vegetation in the presence or absence of non-mobile and mobile hosts. Results showed that the presence of a non-mobile host (Galleria mellonella larva in a wire mesh cage enhanced H. bacteriophora dispersal for up to 24 hr compared with no-host treatment, but had no impact on S. carpocapsae dispersal. In contrast, presence of a mobile host (G. mellonella larvae increased dispersal of S. carpocapsae compared with no host treatment, but had no effect on H. bacteriophora dispersal. Also H. bacteriophora was better at infecting non-mobile than mobile hosts released into the microcosms and S. carpocapsae was better at infecting mobile than non-mobile hosts, thus affirming the established cruiser-ambusher theory. However, results also revealed that a large proportion of infective juveniles (IJs of both species stayed near (≤ 3.8 cm the source cadaver (88-96% S. carpocapsae; 67-79% H. bacteriophora, and the proportion of IJs reaching the farthest distance (11.4 cm was significantly higher for S. carpocapsae (1.4% than H. bacteriophora (0.4% in the presence of mobile hosts. S. carpocapsae also had higher average population displacement than H. bacteriophora in the presence of both the non-mobile (5.07 vs. 3.6 cm/day and mobile (8.06 vs. 5.3 cm/day hosts. We conclude that the two species differ in their dispersal and foraging behavior at the population level and this behavior is affected by both the presence and absence of hosts and by their mobility.

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medjedba, A. Vol 25, No 3 (2013) - Articles Etude du comportement de ponte du carpocapse (Cydia pomonella L.) (Lepidoptera ; Tortricidae) sur deux varietes de pommier (Malus domestica BORKH.) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1015-2288.

  11. Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part I. Control of lepidopteran pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J. F.; Beers, E. H.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.

    2005-01-01

    Three neonicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin, were evaluated for their impact on four species of lepidopteran pests of apple in Washington, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), the Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote & Robinson). None of the neonicotinyl insecticides demonstrated sufficient activity against P. pyrusana, C. rosaceana, or L. subjuncta to warrant field trials. Conversely, all had some activity against one or more stages of C. pomonella. Acetamiprid was highly toxic to larvae in laboratory bioassays, and had relatively long activity of field-aged residues (21 days). It also showed some toxicity to C. pomonella eggs (via topical exposure) and adults. Acetamiprid provided the highest level of fruit protection from C. pomonella attack in field trials conducted over five years in experimental orchards with extremely high codling moth pressure. Thiacloprid performed similarly in bioassays, but fruit protection in field trials was slightly lower than acetamiprid. Clothianidin showed moderate to high toxicity in bioassays, depending on the C. pomonella stage tested, but poor fruit protection from attack in field trials. None of the neonicotinyl insecticides were as toxic to larvae or effective in protecting fruit as the current standard organophosphate insecticide used for C. pomonella control, azinphosmethyl. However, both acetamiprid and thiacloprid should provide acceptable levels of C. pomonella control in commercial orchards where densities are much lower than in the experimental orchards used for our trials. The advantages and disadvantages of the neonicotinyl insecticides as replacements for the organophosphate insecticides and their role in a pest management system for Washington apple orchards are discussed. Abbreviation: MFR Maximum field rate PMID:16341246

  12. Efficacy and release rate of reservoir pheromone dispensers for simultaneous mating disruption of codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelinski, L L; Il'ichev, A L; Gut, L J

    2009-02-01

    Five formulations of controlled release, polyethylene tube dispensers of pheromone were evaluated during three field seasons for disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Evaluations were conducted in replicated 4-ha plots of commercial apple in Michigan. Disruption of both C. pomonella and G. molesta male orientation to pheromone traps in plots treated with a dual-species formulation (Isomate CM/OFM TT), simultaneously releasing the pheromone components of both C. pomonella and G. molesta, was equivalent to that obtained by treating plots with separate formulations for each species (Isomate C Plus or Isomate C TT for C. pomonella and Isomate M Rosso for G. molesta) through mid-season. However, disruption efficacy of the dual-species formulation was significantly lower near the end of the season for G. molesta compared with the Isomate M Rosso formulation because of depletion of active ingredients and coincided with a slight increase in fruit injury. Effective disruption of C. pomonella and G. molesta also was obtained with a multispecies formulation (Isomate CM/OFM/LR) that releases the main pheromone components of C. pomonella, G. molesta, and several leafroller species. Each formulation type releasing (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) also was found to release the E,Z- and Z,E-isomers of codlemone. Our data provide further evidence that simultaneous disruption of C. pomonella and G. molesta with dispensers releasing both species' pheromone components is possible; however, the controlled release formulations tested here require modification or postponed deployment coupled with early season control by other means to achieve season-long efficacy. Simultaneous disruption of several species with a single formulation will be economically advantageous in regions where control of multiple pests is needed given the need for hand application of this

  13. Susceptibility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae pupae to entomopathogenic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrini Giulia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is one of the most serious and economically damaging insects worldwide, affecting the quality and quantity of both olive oil and table olives. Laboratory bioassays were conducted for the first time to evaluate the susceptibility of B. oleae pupae to two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN species, Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The nematodes tested caused pupal mortality of 62.5% and 40.6%, respectively. The most noteworthy result was obtained with S. carpocapsae which was able to infect 21.9% of the emerged adults. Since this tephritid fly spent several months in the soil as pupa, the use of EPNs could be a promising method to control this pest.

  14. The potential use of entomopathogenic nematodesagainst Typhaea stercorea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Tina Stendal; Steenberg, Tove

    2000-01-01

    Four entomopathogenic nematode species, Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and H. megidis, were tested in a petri dish assay against larvae and , were tested in a petri dish assay against larvae and adults of the hairy fungus beetle Typhaea stercorea. In general, a...... of mould probably limited the nematode infection. When the bait was used in tube traps, desiccation and growth of mould was prevented, but nematode efficacy dropped to 4.4% in the traps and 12% in the surrounding litter....

  15. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of phorid and sciarid flies in mushroom crops

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, María Jesús; Gea, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and S. carpocapsae, to control mushroom flies and to evaluate the effect of these treatments on Agaricus bisporus production. Two mushroom cultivation trials were carried out in controlled conditions, in substrate previously infested with the diptera Megaselia halterata and Lycoriella auripila, with two treatments: 106infective juveniles (IJ) per square meter of S. feltiae and 0.5x106IJ m-2S. feltiae...

  16. Effects of Entomopathogenic Nematodes on the Development of Root-knot Nematode and Aphid, and on the Parasitism of Aphid Parasitoid in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yu-kun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes(EPN which is recognized as a kind of potential biological control material have been paid more and more attention in recent years. In the present study, we selected tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum as the object to study the effects of EPN (Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophoraon the development of root-knot nematodes and aphid (Myzus persicae, and on the parasitism of aphid parasitoid (Aphidius gifuensis in tobacco. The results showed that (1Under the condition of the artificial removal of aphids, the number of egg per plant was significantly lower under the EPN treatments than control treatment(PS. carpocapsae treatment than the other treatments(PH. bacteriophora cadaver treatment were 89.6 individual·plant-1 and 0.996 g·plant-1, 99.8 individual·plant-1 and 3.258 g·plant-1, 76.6 individual·plant-1 and 1.643 g·plant-1, respectively, indicating that EPN treatment could decrease the number of aphids per mass; (3On the first three observation dates, the number of aphid mummies was significantly lower under S. carpocapsae cadaver treatment than H. bacteriophora cadaver treatment. The results indicated that EPN treatments in tobacco could affect the development of root-knot nematode, and had impact on the development of aphids and the activities of aphid parasitoid by "bottom-up" approach, and these effects were affected by the species of EPN.

  17. Improving the biocontrol potential of entomopathogenic nematodes against Mamestra brassicae: effect of spray application technique, adjuvants and an attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bert; Brusselman, Eva; Nuyttens, David; Moens, Maurice; Temmerman, Femke; Pollet, Sabien; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), is a potential biological control agent for the cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae L.). This research aimed to identify a suitable spray application technique, and to determine whether yeast extract added to an EPN spray has an attracting and/or a feeding stimulant effect on M. brassicae. The biological control capabilities of EPN against this pest were examined in the field. Good coverage of the underside of cauliflower leaves, the habitat of young instar larvae (L1-L4) of M. brassicae was obtained using different spray boom configurations with vertical extensions that carried underleaf spraying nozzles. One of the configurations was selected for field testing with an EPN spray. Brewer's yeast extract stimulated larval feeding on leaves, and increased the mortality of these larvae when exposed to EPN. The field trial showed that a spray application with S. carpocapsae, Addit and xanthan gum can effectively lower the numbers of cabbage heads damaged by M. brassicae. Brewer's yeast extract did not significantly increase this field performance of EPN. Steinernema carpocapsae, applied with an appropriate spray technique, can be used within biological control schemes as part of a resistance management programme for Bt. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Studies on bacterial flora and biological control agent of Cydia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, in order to find a more effective and safe biological control agent against Cydia pomonella, we investigated the bacterial flora and tested them for insecticidal effects on this insect. According to morphological, physiological and biochemical tests, bacterial flora were identified as Proteus rettgeri (Cp1), ...

  19. Nontarget effects of orchard pesticides on natural enemies: lessons from the field and laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nontarget effects of insecticide programs used to control codling moth, Cydia pomonella were studied in large-plot field trials in apples, pears, and walnuts in the western United States. We sampled the abundance of natural enemies and outbreaks of secondary pests. The insecticides used in the f...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1148 - Occlusion Bodies of the Granulosis Virus of Cydia pomenella; tolerance exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occlusion Bodies of the Granulosis Virus of Cydia pomenella; tolerance exemption. 180.1148 Section 180.1148 Protection of Environment... of the microbial pest control agent Occlusion Bodies of the Granulosis Virus of Cydia pomonella...

  1. PREMISE Insect Model: Integrated Population Dynamics Model for the Ex-ante Evaluation of IPM against Insect Pest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennen, Wil; Alaphilippe, Aude

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. is the most serious pest of apple and pear worldwide and causes damage and decreased
    yields. To minimize this risk, IPM tools can be applied to reduce the use of chemicals. A cost-effective application of IPM depends
    on the number of insects at the time of

  2. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diapausing 5th instars of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, are serious quarantine pests of in-shell walnuts. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling this pest in walnuts...

  3. The North American Trichogramma (Hymenoptera) : Trichogrammatidae parasitizing certain tortricidae (Lepidoptera) on apple and pear, with ITS2 DNA characterizations and description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, J.D.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Platner, G.R.; Stouthamer, R.

    2002-01-01

    Eleven species of Trichogramma are reported parasitizing tortricid eggs on apple and pear in North America. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), were the primary pest species encountered. Species of the Trichogramma minutum complex were the

  4. Differentiating Oriental Fruit Moth and Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, Myriam; Bouvier, Floriane; Maugin, Sandrine; Lecomte, Alain; Lavigne, Claire

    2015-02-01

    Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are two important lepidopteran pests that may co-occur in apple orchards and are difficult to differentiate in the larval stage. We investigate the possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) coupled with partial least squares analysis to distinguish the larvae of the two species. We further assess whether wild individuals can be differentiated using laboratory strains of the two species for model calibration. The NIRS spectra of C. molesta and C. pomonella differed most in the wavelengths between 1,142 and 1,338 nm. Using these wavelengths, partial least squares analysis allowed the differentiation of C. molesta and C. pomonella at the larval stage with very low error, but only as long as both the calibration and prediction sets for individuals had the same origin (either both from the laboratory or both from the field). Errors that appeared when using laboratory individuals for calibration were owing to the divergence of the C. pomonella laboratory strain, most likely following evolution during rearing. Thus, NIRS appears to be a promising tool for the easy and rapid identification of individuals in the field, provided that it is calibrated based on a subset of field individuals. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Evaluation of novel semiochemical dispensers simultaneously releasing pear ester and sex pheromone for mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with two rates of ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was compared with similar dispensers and two commercial dispensers l...

  6. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  7. Comparing mating disruption of codling moth with standard and meso dispensers loaded with pear ester and codlemone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted with hand-applied combo dispensers loaded with the sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), and the pear volatile, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in apple, Malus domestica Bordkhausen during 2012. Two types of...

  8. “This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

  9. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  10. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged / commercial orchard interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth Cydia pomonella L., populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and non-host trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex ph...

  11. Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus - a novel method for control for codling moth control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies evaluated the lethal effectiveness of combining yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) with the codling moth granulosis virus (CpGV). Apples were treated with CpGV and three yeast species, including Metschnikowia pulcherrima Pitt and Miller, Cryptococcus tephrensis...

  12. Gut content analysis of arthropod predators of codling moth in Washington apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 70% of pome fruits in the USA are produced in central Washington State. The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) is consistently the most damaging pest. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify codling moth DNA in 2591 field-collected arthropod predators to estimate predation in s...

  13. Addition of pear ester enhances disruption of mating by female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with meso dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of applying low rates (50 ha-1) of dispensers to achieve disruption of adult communication of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., in walnuts, Juglans regia (L.),was evaluated with several methods. These included cumulative catches of male moths in traps baited with either sex pheromone (...

  14. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples and investigate whether these can be used to enhance the efficacy of pear ester, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, for monitoring female and male codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the f...

  15. Evaluating dispensers loaded with codlemone and pear ester for disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were compared with similar dispensers and a commercial dispenser (Isomate®-C Plus) loaded with codle...

  16. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in sex phermone-treated orchards with (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene or pear ester in combination with codlemone and acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) or (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) in two- or three-way combinations with the sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) and acetic acid (AA) were evaluated for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). All studies were conduct...

  17. METHOD OF ANALYSIS FOR POPULATION LIMITATION OF THE LEPIDOPTERA PEST IN FRUITERS (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE IN SIBIEL VILLAGE, SIBIU CITY IN CONDITIONS OF YEAR 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STANCĂ-MOISE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is described an experiment in Sibiel, made in an apple orchard of 1,50 ha surface, which was kept under observation in order to combat the Cydia pomonella L. pest. It was used a pheromone trap as a combat method, for the application of the plant treatments in time.

  18. Fate of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in harvested apples held under short photoperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., is a cosmopolitan pest of pome and stone fruits. It has been identified as a quarantine pest of concern in a number of countries where it is not known to occur, most of them in tropical or subtropical countries. Although considerable work has been done on the basi...

  19. Control and monitoring of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with novel high-load, low-density “meso” dispensers of sex pheromone and pear ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel low-density per ha “meso” dispensers loaded with both pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, kairomone and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., were evaluated versus meso dispensers loaded with pheromone-alone for their mating disru...

  20. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  1. Effect of flooding lead-arsenate contaminated orchard soil on growth, arsenic and lead accumulation in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead-arsenate has been used as a pesticide in controlling codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apple and plum orchards from 1900-1960. As a result, many old orchards contain high levels of arsenic. Flooding soils contaminated by lead-arsenate could increase plant arsenic and lead and become a human h...

  2. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  3. Accumulation of lead and arsenic by lettuce grown on lead-arsenate contaminated orchard soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead-arsenate was one of the preferred insecticides used as foliar spray to control codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apple (Malus sylvestris Mill) orchards from the 1900's to the 1960’s. Lead and arsenic are generally immobile and remain in the surface soil. Some of these contaminated lands are now...

  4. Neural ensemble coding merges sex and habitat chemosensory signals in an insect herbivore (RSPB-2012-2496)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used a neuroethological approach to study how blends of the main sex pheromone compound, codlemone, and three host plant volatiles, butyl hexanoate, ß-farnesene and pear ester, affect odor processing and ensuing behavior in the codling moth Cydia pomonella. In wind tunnel bioassays, a higher prop...

  5. Improving the performance of the Granulosis virus of Codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricideae) by adding the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies evaluated the effectiveness of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae with brown cane sugar (sugar) to the codling moth granulosis virus, CpGV, to improve larval control of Cydia pomonella (L.), on apple. Neither the use of the yeast or sugar alone caused larval mortality greater than the water con...

  6. Codling moth establishment in China: stages of invasion and potential future distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is an internal feeding pest of apples and can cause substantial economic losses to fruit growers due to larval feeding which in turn degrades fruit quality and can result in complete crop loss if left uncontrolled. Although this pest originally developed in central ...

  7. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold st...

  8. N-butyl sulfide as an attractant and co-attractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear eester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are am...

  9. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  10. Comparison of ex-situ volatile emissions from intact and mechanically damaged walnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) are insect pests that inflict serious economic damage to California walnuts. Feeding by these larvae causes physical damage, resulting in lower kernel quality, and can lead to fungal contamination by the aflatoxigenic fun...

  11. CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) CpomOR1 gene affects egg production and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. The inclusion of semiochemicals, including the main sex pheromone (codlemone), in codling moth IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this ...

  12. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on developmental stages of house fly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, M; D'Souza, Placid E; Patil, Jagadeesh

    2017-09-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica is a major domestic, medical and veterinary pest. The management of these flies reliance on insecticide, causes environmental constraints, insecticide resistance and residues in the meat, skin. Therefore one of the eco-friendly alternate methods is by using biological agents such as entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). In the present study evaluated the survival of EPN species Steinernema feltiae , Heterorhabditis indica , S. carpocapsae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi in poultry manure and also their efficacy against different developmental stages of house fly. After exposing to poultry manure, S. feltiae showed more survival as followed by H. indica , S. carpocapsae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi in all exposition period. When the exposition period extended to 96 h, all nematode species survivability was drastically reduced. After exposing these nematodes to poultry manure at 24 h their virulence capacity against wax moth, Galleria mellonella showed all the nematode species were able cause 100% mortality. However their progeny production was significantly reduced. Fly eggs and pupae were refractory to these nematode infection. Petri dish without artificial diet assay showed that, second and 3rd-instar larvae were highly susceptible to EPNs as compared to larvae provided with artificial diet. H. indica showed high virulence capacity compared to other nematodes tested. Poultry manure assay revealed that, H. indica and S. carpocapsae caused minimal mortality where as S. feltiae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi did not cause any mortality. This may be because of poor survival and limited movement of nematodes in poultry manure which may be due to ammonia, other toxic substances in poultry manure. The decrease in larval mortality in manure suggests that biocontrol of housefly by using EPNs is unlikely.

  13. Control of the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta, Using Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Laboratory and Fruit Bin Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, E; Lacey, L A; Guerra, N; Headrick, H L

    2006-03-01

    The oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta (Busck), which is among the most important insect pests of peaches and nectarines, has developed resistance to a wide range of insecticides. We investigated the ability of the entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser), S. feltiae (Filipjev), S. riobrave (Cabanillas et al.), and Heterorhabditis marelatus (Liu and Berry) to control OFM under laboratory and fruit bin conditions. At a dosage of 10 infective juveniles (IJ)/cm(2) in the laboratory, S. carpocapsae caused 63%, S. feltiae 87.8%, S. riobrave 75.6%, and H. marelatus 67.1% OFM mortality. All four nematode species caused significant OFM larval mortality in comparison to the nontreated controls. Steinernema feltiae was used for the bin assays due to the higher OFM mortality it caused than the other tested EPN species and to its ability to find OFM under cryptic environments. Diapausing cocooned OFM larvae in miniature fruit bins were susceptible to IJ of S. feltiae in infested corner supports and cardboard strips. Treatment of bins with suspensions of 10 or 25 S. feltiae IJ/ml water with wetting agent (Silwet L77) resulted in 33.3 to 59% and 77.7 to 81.6% OFM mortality in corner supports and cardboard strips, respectively. This paper presents new information on the use of EPN, specifically S. feltiae, as nonchemical means of OFM control.

  14. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of phorid and sciarid flies in mushroom crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and S. carpocapsae, to control mushroom flies and to evaluate the effect of these treatments on Agaricus bisporus production. Two mushroom cultivation trials were carried out in controlled conditions, in substrate previously infested with the diptera Megaselia halterata and Lycoriella auripila, with two treatments: 106infective juveniles (IJ per square meter of S. feltiae and 0.5x106IJ m-2S. feltiae + 0.5x106IJ m-2S. carpocapsae. Another experiment was carried out using the same treatments to evaluate the possible nematode effect on mushroom yield. The number of adults emerging from the substrate was evaluated for each fly species. No decrease in the population of M. halterata was detected with nematode application, whereas the number of L. auripila was reduced in both treatments, particularly in the individual treatment with S. feltiae. The application of entomopathogenic nematodes has no adverse effect on mushroom production.

  15. PEMBIAKAN NEMATODA PATOGEN SERANGGA (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditis DAN Steinernema PADA MEDIA SEMI PADAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Chaerani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Field application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN is still hampered by inefficient mass production. The aim of this study was to compare three published in vitro media (medium Wouts, Bedding and Han for mass propagation of three indigenous EPNs (Heterorhabditis indicus PLR2, H. indicus isolate 5, and Steinernema T96 and one commercial strain (S. carpocapsae #25. The media were impregnated in shredded polyurethane sponge, pre-inoculated with symbiotic bacteria of each nematode and inoculated with the respective infective juveniles (Ijs of the nematode. Nematode yields at three weeks after nematode inoculation were inconsistent accross replications and experiments and generally not significantly influenced by the kind of media tested. Average yields showed that the highest IJ productions were obtained on medium Han for  H. indicus PLR2 (0,4×105 Ijs/g medium and for S. carpocapsae #25  (2.2×105 IJs/g medium, and on  medium Wouts for H. indicus  isolate 5 (6.5×105 Ijs/g medium and Steinernema T96 (1.5×105 IJs/g medium. The Ijs’ body were significantly shorter than those of in vivo propagated, which may impair the nematode pathogenicity. Modifications of the propagation technique and media formulation are needed to improve the quantity and quality of Ijs.

  16. Susceptibility of Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae to Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Tourtois

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae and entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae are two soil-dwelling biological control agents used to manage western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and fungus gnats Bradysis spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae in glasshouses. Growers often use multiple natural enemies to achieve economic control, but knowledge of interactions among natural enemies is lacking. We conducted a laboratory bioassay to test the pathogenicity of four commercially available nematode species—Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhbditidae, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, S. feltiae (Filipjev, and S. riobrave Cabanillas et al.—to third instar and adult D. coriaria. Third instars were three times more susceptible than the adults to the entomopathogenic nematodes. Mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora was lower than the mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave. Neither infective juvenile foraging behavior nor size correlates with D. coriaria mortality. Dalotia coriaria appears to be most likely compatible with applications of S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora.

  17. RNAseq Analysis of the Drosophila Response to the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Yadav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster is an outstanding model to study the molecular and functional basis of host–pathogen interactions. Currently, our knowledge of microbial infections in D. melanogaster is well understood; however, the response of flies to nematode infections is still in its infancy. Here, we have used the potent parasitic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae, which lives in mutualism with its endosymbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila, to examine the transcriptomic basis of the interaction between D. melanogaster and entomopathogenic nematodes. We have employed next-generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq to investigate the transcriptomic profile of D. melanogaster larvae in response to infection by S. carpocapsae symbiotic (carrying X. nematophila or axenic (lacking X. nematophila nematodes. Bioinformatic analyses have identified the strong induction of genes that are associated with the peritrophic membrane and the stress response, as well as several genes that participate in developmental processes. We have also found that genes with different biological functions are enriched in D. melanogaster larvae responding to either symbiotic or axenic nematodes. We further show that while symbiotic nematode infection enriched certain known immune-related genes, axenic nematode infection enriched several genes associated with chitin binding, lipid metabolic functions, and neuroactive ligand receptors. In addition, we have identified genes with a potential role in nematode recognition and genes with potential antinematode activity. Findings from this study will undoubtedly set the stage for the identification of key regulators of antinematode immune mechanisms in D. melanogaster, as well as in other insects of socioeconomic importance.

  18. Correction: Graillot, B.; et al. Progressive Adaptation of a CpGV Isolate to Codling Moth Populations Resistant to CpGV-M. Viruses 2014, 6, 5135–5144

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Graillot

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In our article “Progressive Adaptation of a CpGV Isolate to Codling Moth Populations Resistant to CpGV-M.” (Viruses 2014, 6, 5135–5144; doi:10.3390/v6125135 [1] we obtained resistance values of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, RGV laboratory colony [2], when challenged with Cydia pomonella Granulovirus, Mexican Isolate (CpGV-M, that were lower than those previously published [2]. Careful analysis of both the RGV colony and the CpGV-M virus stock used led to the realization that a low level contamination of this virus stock with CpGV-R5 occurred. We have made new tests with a verified stock, and the results are now in agreement with those previously published.

  19. The effect of increasing temperature on the climate niche of selected pyralidae and tortricidae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Eva; Trnka, Miroslav; Žalud, Zdeněk; Semerádová, D.; Dubrovský, Martin; Eitzinger, Josef; Štěpánek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, SEP 2012 (2012), s. 54-57 ISSN 1335-258X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cydia pomonella * Ostrinia nubilalis * Lobesia botrana * změna klimatu * CLIMEX * climate change * sensitive areas Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  20. Climate variability and potential distribution of selected pest species in south Moravia and north-east Austria in the past 200 years – lessons for the future

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, E.; Trnka, M.; Žalud, Z.; Semerádová, D.; Dubrovský, Martin; Eitzinger, J.; Štepánek, P.; Brázdil, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 152, č. 2 (2014), s. 225-237 ISSN 0021-8596 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : lobesia-botrana lepidoptera * colding moth lepidoptera * european grapevine moth * predictive models * crop protection * cydia-pomonella * tortricidae * temperature * populations * phenology Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.653, year: 2014 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8853541

  1. Climate variability and potential distribution of selected pest species in south Moravia and north-east Austria in the past 200 years – lessons for the future

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Eva; Trnka, Miroslav; Žalud, Zdeněk; Semerádová, D.; Dubrovský, Martin; Eitzinger, Josef; Štěpánek, Petr; Brázdil, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 152, č. 2 (2014), s. 225-237 ISSN 0021-8596 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : lobesia-botrana lepidoptera * colding moth lepidoptera * european grapevine moth * predictive models * crop protection * cydia-pomonella * tortricidae * temperature * populations * phenology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.653, year: 2014

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment on development of codling moth larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffitt, H.R.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-03-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to gamma radiation at doses upto 160 Gy. Following irradiation the larvae were permited further development, pupation and adult emergence. The number of adults emerging, mature larvae and pupae present were determined. Data from these studies will be used to predict doses of gamma irradiation required as a quarantine treatment to prevent emergence of codling moth adults from fruit infested by larvae. 5 refs., 1 tab

  3. Gamma rays control coding moths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarris, L.

    Gamma rays are being tested as a means of controlling codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), under fruit storage conditions where fumigation will not work. Preliminary tests have shown that gamma radiation kills all exposed codling moth larvae, including larvae in the dormant stage. There is no carryover of radiation in the fruit and minimal effect on the fruit. Gamma irradiation of food is considered safe for human consumption at doses of 1 kilogray (10 kilorads) or less.

  4. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for walnuts infested with codling moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation may be a potential quarantine treatment for either diapausing or nondiapausing codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae in walnuts. Exposure of larvae to 51.9 Gy from a 60 Co source significantly reduced emergence of normal adults. The dose required for quarantine security (99.9968% mortality) was 230 Gy based on emergence of adults from treated larvae. Normal adults did not emerge from larvae exposed to 177 Gy in walnuts

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment on development of codling moth larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffitt, H.R.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-03-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to gamma radiation at doses upto 160 Gy. Following irradiation the larvae were permited further development, pupation and adult emergence. The number of adults emerging, mature larvae and pupae present were determined. Data from these studies will be used to predict doses of gamma irradiation required as a quarantine treatment to prevent emergence of codling moth adults from fruit infested by larvae. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Sublethal Effects of Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Calling Behavior and Pheromone Production of Tortricid Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Roldán, Miguel A; Gemeno, César

    2017-09-01

    In moths, sexual behavior combines female sex pheromone production and calling behavior. The normal functioning of these periodic events requires an intact nervous system. Neurotoxic insecticide residues in the agroecosystem could impact the normal functioning of pheromone communication through alteration of the nervous system. In this study we assess whether sublethal concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid, that competitively modulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the dendrite, affect pheromone production and calling behavior in adults of three economically important tortricid moth pests; Cydia pomonella (L.), Grapholita molesta (Busck), and Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). Thiacloprid significantly reduced the amount of calling in C. pomonella females at LC 0.001 (a lethal concentration that kills only 1 in 10 5 individuals), and altered its calling period at LC 1 , and in both cases the effect was dose-dependent. In the other two species the effect was similar but started at higher LCs, and the effect was relatively small in L. botrana. Pheromone production was altered only in C. pomonella, with a reduction of the major compound, codlemone, and one minor component, starting at LC 10 . Since sex pheromones and neonicotinoids are used together in the management of these three species, our results could have implications regarding the interaction between these two pest control methods.

  7. The chemosensory basis for behavioral divergence involved in sympatric host shifts. I. Characterizing olfactory receptor neuron classes responding to key host volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Shannon B; Linn, Charles E; Roelofs, Wendell L

    2006-03-01

    The recent shift of Rhagoletis pomonella from its native host hawthorn to introduced, domestic apple has been implicated as an example of sympatric speciation. Recent studies suggest that host volatile preference might play a fundamental role in host shifts and subsequent speciation in this group. Single sensillum electrophysiology was used to test a proposed hypothesis that differences in R. pomonella olfactory preference are due to changes in the number or odor specificity of olfactory receptor neurons. Individuals were analyzed from apple, hawthorn, and flowering dogwood-origin populations, as well as from the blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran (an outgroup). Eleven compounds were selected as biologically relevant stimuli from previous electroantennographic/behavioral studies of the three R. pomonella populations to host fruit volatiles. Cluster analysis of 99 neuron responses showed that cells from all tested populations could be grouped into the same five classes, ranging from those responding to one or two volatiles to those responding to several host volatiles. Topographical mapping also indicated that antennal neuron locations did not differ by class or fly taxa. Our results do not support the hypothesis that differences in host preference among Rhagoletis populations are a result of alterations in the number or class of receptor neurons responding to host volatiles.

  8. Bird use of organic apple orchards: Frugivory, pest control and implications for production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Mangan

    Full Text Available As the largest terrestrial biomes, crop and pasturelands can have very large positive or negative impacts on biodiversity and human well-being. Understanding how animals use and impact agroecosystems is important for making informed decisions that achieve conservation and production outcomes. Yet, few studies examine the tradeoffs associated with wildlife in agricultural systems. We examined bird use of organic apple orchards as well as how birds influence fruit production positively through control of an economically important insect pest (codling moth (Cydia pomonella and negatively through fruit damage. We conducted transect surveys, observed bird frugivory and assessed bird and insect damage with an exclosure experiment in small organic farms in western Colorado. We found that organic apple orchards in this region provide habitat for a large number of both human-adapted and human-sensitive species and that the species in orchards were relatively similar to adjacent hedgerow habitats. Habitat use did not vary as a function of orchard characteristics, and apple damage by both birds and C. pomonella was consistent within and across apple blocks that varied in size. A small subset of bird species was observed foraging on apples yet the effect of birds as agents of fruit damage appeared rather minor and birds did not reduce C. pomonella damage. Our results demonstrate that organic apple orchards have the potential to provide habitat for diverse bird communities, including species typically sensitive to human activities, with little apparent effect on production.

  9. Substrates for storing entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae Substratos para armazenar nematóides entomopatogênicos (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Andaló

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The survival of entomopathogenic nematodes under laboratory conditions is low. With the aim of evaluating substrates to extend the survival of entomopathogenic nematodes, suspensions of Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 and Steinernema carpocapsae All (3,000 IJ mL-1 were added to dirt, fine sand, coarse sand, foam, expanded clay, phenolic foam, agar, corn starch, Plantmax®, and water. The substrates were placed on Petri dishes (5 cm and kept at 16 ± 1°C. Survival evaluations were made after 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days, with three replicates. After 180 d, a greater percentage of S. carpocapsae infective juveniles (IJs were still alive in the foam treatment (57.5% as compared to other treatments, while expanded clay (28.4%, Plantmax® (9.3% and phenolic foam (11% were not effective in maintaining the survival rate. Foam (55.6%, coarse sand (53.1%, and fine sand (50.6% provided greater Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 IJ survival at 180 days. Agar (19.3%, phenolic foam (11.6%, and Plantmax® (10.7% had lower survival indices than the control (29.7%. The use of an appropriate substrate can provide greater IJ survival.Os nematóides entomopatogênicos apresentam baixa viabilidade em condições de laboratório. Com o objetivo de avaliar substratos para prolongar a sobrevivência dos nematóides entomopatogênicos, suspensões de Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 e Steinernema carpocapsae All (3.000 JI mL-1 foram adicionadas aos substratos solo, areia fina, areia grossa, espuma, argila expandida, esponja fenólica, ágar, amido de milho, Plantmax® e água. Estes foram colocados em placas de Petri (5 cm e mantidos a 16 ± 1°C. As avaliações foram feitas após 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias, com três repetições para cada dia. Após 180 dias, para S. carpocapsae All o substrato espuma (57,5% manteve maior porcentagem de juvenis infectantes (JI vivos; argila expandida (28,4%, Plantmax® (9,3% e esponja fenólica (11% não foram eficientes para manutenção da

  10. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses.

  11. Activated entomopathogenic nematode infective juveniles release lethal venom proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dihong Lu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are unique parasites due to their symbiosis with entomopathogenic bacteria and their ability to kill insect hosts quickly after infection. It is widely believed that EPNs rely on their bacterial partners for killing hosts. Here we disproved this theory by demonstrating that the in vitro activated infective juveniles (IJs of Steinernema carpocapsae (a well-studied EPN species release venom proteins that are lethal to several insects including Drosophila melanogaster. We confirmed that the in vitro activation is a good approximation of the in vivo process by comparing the transcriptomes of individual in vitro and in vivo activated IJs. We further analyzed the transcriptomes of non-activated and activated IJs and revealed a dramatic shift in gene expression during IJ activation. We also analyzed the venom proteome using mass spectrometry. Among the 472 venom proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors are especially abundant, and toxin-related proteins such as Shk domain-containing proteins and fatty acid- and retinol-binding proteins are also detected, which are potential candidates for suppressing the host immune system. Many of the venom proteins have conserved orthologs in vertebrate-parasitic nematodes and are differentially expressed during IJ activation, suggesting conserved functions in nematode parasitism. In summary, our findings strongly support a new model that S. carpocapsae and likely other Steinernema EPNs have a more active role in contributing to the pathogenicity of the nematode-bacterium complex than simply relying on their symbiotic bacteria. Furthermore, we propose that EPNs are a good model system for investigating vertebrate- and human-parasitic nematodes, especially regarding the function of excretory/secretory products.

  12. effect of gamma radiation and parasitic nematodes on the black cut-worm agrotis ipsilon(HUFN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sileem, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    The sterility effects were examined on the P1 generation of the black cutworm; Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) after gamma sterilization with at 0, 75, 100,125, 150,175 and 200 Gy, to identify the dose of gamma irradiation that would allow for maximum production of partially sterile P1 adults while inducing full sterility in the F1 generation. The studied effects were included the percentage mated males with untreated females, copulation duration to format spermatophores directly in the female bursa copulatrix, number of eggs /female deposited by females mated to irradiated males and egg hatch through three sequential females.The irradiated males with tested doses as well as untreated control were tested for mating successive and starting copulation at the same period of the scotophase. The mating competitiveness calculated from the direct observation in A. ipsilon males emerged from pupae irradiated at doses 75 to 200 Gy was noticed. The effect of substerilizing dose (125Gy) on certain biological aspects and reproduction was studied among parental generation, as well as immature stages were investigated throughout two successive generations. The influence of two entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema riobrivae on the insect management was included. Special attention was given to combined effect of F1 progeny of partially sterile males and S. Carpocapsae (All) on A .ipsilon, the combination of tested treatments at all concentrations analyzed for synergistic effect. The parasitisation efficacy of EPNs, the morbidity and mortality induced by normal IJs (i.e., IJs derived from untreated host) and the incubation time taken by normal IJs were compared with these of IJs derived from irradiated host with 125 Gy

  13. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes and aqueous plant extracts aiming at the control of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: TephritidaeCompatibilidade de nematóides entomopatogênicos e extratos vegetais aquosos visando o controle da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Rohde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae has been controlled mainly by the chemical method, which is responsible for environmental and public health impacts. It has often been ineffective due to development of resistant insect populations. Thus, it has necessary to research new effective and less impacting control forms. In this sense, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes and plant extracts has been effective for controlling this pest. However, studies are needed to assess the compatibility between these methods, aiming at their use in integrated management programs for this pest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae ALL and Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 with aqueous extracts prepared from dried plant of cinnamon leaf, twig and fruit (Melia azedarach, rue leaf (Ruta graveolens, ginger (Zingiber officinale and garlic (Allium sativum for the control of C. capitata. The bioassay was carried out in completely randomized design with four replicates per treatment. Each replication consisted of a glass tube containing 1 mL of plant extract 40% w/v and 1 mL suspension of entomopathogenic nematodes with 1800 JI/mL for S. carpocapsae ALL and 600 JI/mL for Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4. The viability and infectivity of this nematode were evaluated on C. capitata larvae after 48 and 120 hours. It was found that all extracts reduced the viability and infectivity of both nematodes and they were incompatible after 120 hours of exposure. The nematode Heterorhabditis sp. JPM4 was more sensitive than the S. carpocapsae ALL as it showed, in the first 48 hours, a reduction in the viability and infectivity of more than 80 and 75%, respectively, when exposed to all the extracts except the ginger.A mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae tem sido controlada, principalmente, pelo método químico, que é o responsável por impactos ambientais e na saúde pública e, muitas

  14. Molecular Tools for the Detection and the Identification of Hymenoptera Parasitoids in Tortricid Fruit Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Franck

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological control requires specific tools for the accurate detection and identification of natural enemies in order to estimate variations in their abundance and their impact according to changes in environmental conditions or agricultural practices. Here, we developed two molecular methods of detection based on PCR-RFLP with universal primers and on PCR with specific primers to identify commonly occurring larval parasitoids of the tortricid fruit pests and to estimate parasitism in the codling moth. Both methods were designed based on DNA sequences of the COI mitochondrial gene for a range of parasitoids that emerged from Cydia pomonella and Grapholita molesta caterpillars (102 parasitoids; nine species and a range of potential tortricid hosts (40 moths; five species damaging fruits. The PCR-RFLP method (digestion by AluI of a 482 bp COI fragment was very powerful to identify parasitoid adults and their hosts, but failed to detect parasitoid larvae within eggs or within young C. pomonella caterpillars. The PCR method based on specific primers amplified COI fragments of different lengths (131 to 463 bp for Ascogaster quadridentata (Braconidae; Pristomerus vulnerator (Ichneumonidae; Trichomma enecator (Ichneumonidae; and Perilampus tristis (Perilampidae, and demonstrated a higher level of sensibility than the PCR-RFLP method. Molecular estimations of parasitism levels in a natural C. pomonella population with the specific primers did not differ from traditional estimations based on caterpillar rearing (about 60% parasitism in a non-treated apple orchard. These PCR-based techniques provide information about within-host parasitoid assemblage in the codling moth and preliminary results on the larval parasitism of major tortricid fruit pests.

  15. Molecular and Functional Characterization of pheromone binding protein 1 from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohui; Chen, Jian; Yu, Haili; Tian, Xiaoli; Wu, Junxiang

    2018-02-02

    Pheromone binding protein (PBP) is thought primarily to bind and transport the sex pheromone in moths. The accumulated studies suggest that three PBPs were identified in moth species. In Grapholita molesta, the functions of GmolPBP2 and GmolPBP3 have been previously studied. However, the function of GmolPBP1 is still unclear. Furthermore, the Cydia pomonella sex pheromone Codlemone can act as a sex pheromone synergist of G. molesta. In C. pomonella, CpomPBP1 specifically bind the Codlemone. CpomPBP1 displays high identity with GmolPBP1 (70%), indicating that the two PBPs may share a similar 3D structure thus can bind the similar or same ligands. In this study, we explored the molecular and functional characterization of GmolPBP1. GmolPBP1, bearing the typical characteristics of Lepidopteran odorant binding proteins, was closest phylogenetically to CpomPBP1. Binding studies demonstrated that GmolPBP1 exhibited strong binding affinities with (Z)-8-dodecenyl alcohol, 1-dodecanol and Codlemone. Molecular docking showed that GmolPBP1 has different ligand recognition mechanism for the three ligands. Our results suggest that GmolPBP1 functions as recognizer of (Z)-8-dodecenyl alcohol and 1-dodecanol of the female sex pheromone blend, and may be the potential transporter of Codlemone, which contributes to the synergism of the pheromone response of G. molesta by Codlemone.

  16. Novaluron Causes Reduced Egg Hatch After Treating Adult Codling Moths, Cydia pomenella: Support for Transovarial Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hoon S.; Wise, John C.; Gökçe, Avhan; Whalon, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of apples throughout the United States. Reliance on broad spectrum organophosphates has been declining with the slated cancellation and has shifted towards narrow spectrum insecticides. Novaluron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, has primarily been used for its ovicidal and larvacidal activities. However, recent studies have demonstrated a transovarial effect after exposure to adults. The effects of novaluron were studied to determine if reduced egg hatch occurs after exposure of different sexes to this compound. Effects of this compound through horizontal transfer were also compared with a topical application to C. pomonella eggs. Results from independent exposure of different sexes to novaluron were different than the control for all three exposure types; male only, female only, and both treated. The horizontal transfer experiment yielded no significant difference while the topical application of novaluron on eggs showed significantly lower egg hatch. Although novaluron has no direct toxicity to adults, the results of this study demonstrate that the delayed lethal activity of this compound reduces hatching of eggs laid by treated adults. Along with the direct ovicidal and larvicidal properties of novaluron, the delayed lethal activity provides an important contribution to the overall control seen in the field. PMID:22239717

  17. Insecticidal Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains Isolated from Soil and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Konecka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempted to search novel Bacillus thuringiensis strains that produce crystals with potential utility in plant protection and with higher activity than strains already used in biopesticide production. Seven B. thuringiensis soil and water isolates were used in the research. We predicted the toxicity of their crystals by cry gene identification employing PCR method. The isolate MPU B63 with interesting, according to us, genes content was used in evaluating its crystal toxicity against Cydia pomonella caterpillars. The strain MPU B63 was cultured from water sample and had cry1Ab, cry1B, and cry15 genes. The LC50 crystals of MPU B63 were compared to LC50 of commercial bioinsecticide Foray determined against C. pomonella (codling moth. The activity of MPU B63 inclusions against codling moth larvae was approximately 24-fold higher than that of Foray. The results are a promising introduction for further study evaluating the potential usefulness of isolate MPU B63 crystals in plant protection.

  18. Conserved Patterns of Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in the Lepidoptera (WZ/ZZ): Insights from a Moth Neo-Z Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, James R.; Knipple, Douglas C.

    2017-01-01

    Where previously described, patterns of sex chromosome dosage compensation in the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) have several unusual characteristics. Other female-heterogametic (ZW/ZZ) species exhibit female Z-linked expression that is reduced compared with autosomal expression and male Z expression. In the Lepidoptera, however, Z expression typically appears balanced between sexes but overall reduced relative to autosomal expression, that is Z ≈ ZZ Cydia pomonella, which is a species from the earliest diverging lepidopteran lineage yet examined for dosage compensation and has a neo-Z chromosome resulting from an ancient Z:autosome fusion. While supported by intraspecific analyses, the Z ≈ ZZ pomonella neo-Z genes in outgroup species. In contrast, dosage compensation appears to be absent in reproductive tissues. We thus argue that inclusion of reproductive tissues may explain the incongruence from a prior study on another moth species and that patterns of dosage compensation are likely conserved in the Lepidoptera. Notably, this pattern appears convergent with patterns in eutherian mammals (X ≈ XX < AA). Overall, our results contribute to the notion that the Lepidoptera present challenges both to classical theories regarding the evolution of sex chromosome dosage compensation and the emerging view of the association of dosage compensation with sexual heterogamety. PMID:28338816

  19. The Relationship between Polarized Moonlight and the Number of Pest Microlepidoptera Specimens Caught in Pheromone Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowinszky László

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pheromone traps were deployed in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County (Hungary between 1982 and 1988, in 1990 and also between 1993 and 2013. These traps attracted 8 Microlepidoptera species: Phyllonorycter blancardella, P. corylifoliella, Anarsia lineatella, Eupoecilia ambiguella, Lobesia botrana, Grapholita funebrana, G. molesta and Cydia pomonella. We examined the trapping data of these species in the context of lunar phases and polarized moonlight. Catches of the European Vine Moth (Lobesia botrana and the Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella were higher in the First Quarter, whereas catches of Peach Twig Borer (Anarsia lineatella, Vine Moth (Eupoecilia ambiguella, Plum Fruit Moth (Grapholita funebrana and Oriental Fruit Moth (Grapholita molesta were larger in the Last Quarter. Catches of the other two species, the Spotted Tentiform Leafminer (Phyllonorycter blancardella and Hawthorn Red Midget Moth (P. corylifoliella, were higher in both the First and Last Quarters. When using pheromone traps, insects do not fly to a light source, so moonlight does not modify either the catching distance or flight activity. However, at high levels of polarized moonlight, pheromone trap catches will increase, as in the case of light-trap catches. The results are comprehensible when one considers that the target species can fly both during the daytime and also at night.

  20. Insecticidal Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains Isolated from Soil and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecka, Edyta; Baranek, Jakub; Hrycak, Anita; Kaznowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We attempted to search novel Bacillus thuringiensis strains that produce crystals with potential utility in plant protection and with higher activity than strains already used in biopesticide production. Seven B. thuringiensis soil and water isolates were used in the research. We predicted the toxicity of their crystals by cry gene identification employing PCR method. The isolate MPU B63 with interesting, according to us, genes content was used in evaluating its crystal toxicity against Cydia pomonella caterpillars. The strain MPU B63 was cultured from water sample and had cry1Ab, cry1B, and cry15 genes. The LC50 crystals of MPU B63 were compared to LC50 of commercial bioinsecticide Foray determined against C. pomonella (codling moth). The activity of MPU B63 inclusions against codling moth larvae was approximately 24-fold higher than that of Foray. The results are a promising introduction for further study evaluating the potential usefulness of isolate MPU B63 crystals in plant protection. PMID:22666145

  1. Mating disruption of Spilonota ocellana and other apple orchard tortricids using a multispecies reservoir dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Mario; Sjöberg, Patrick; Swiergiel, Weronika; Dinwiddie, Robert; Rämert, Birgitta; Tasin, Marco

    2015-04-01

    A new mating disruption formulation for population control of a wide range of tortricid pests, including Spilonota ocellana, was tested in Swedish apple orchards during 2012-2013. Owing to the characteristics of the local agricultural landscape, mating disruption was evaluated in isolated orchards rather than through an area-wide approach. Parameters such as trap shutdown, communication disruption in field cages, damage level and dispenser emission were measured as efficacy indicators. The test formulation reduced the catches in monitoring traps for the entire range of the tested species. In field cages, communication between sexes was disrupted for both Adoxophyes orana and Cydia pomonella. The fruit damage caused by leafrollers (including S. ocellana) was reduced by the treatment. The device showed a constant release of all components for the entire flight activity period of these pests. Single-orchard experiments showed a significant effect on field populations of the leafroller species complex. While promising, in light of the variability of the result, field scouting may be required to enable practitioners to estimate the density of the pests and avoid possible unexpected attacks. Additional experiments are needed to evaluate the efficacy of the product against C. pomonella. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Control of Pecan Weevil With Microbial Biopesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Bock, Clive; Mai, Kim; Boykin, Debbie; Wells, Lenny; Hudson, William G; Mizell, Russell F

    2017-12-08

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of pecans Carya illinoinensis ([Wangenh.] K. Koch) (Fagales: Juglandaceae). Control recommendations rely on broad spectrum chemical insecticides. Due to regulatory and environmental concerns, effective alternatives for C. caryae control must be sought for pecan production in conventional and organic systems. We explored the use of microbial biopesticides for control of C. caryae in Georgia pecan orchards. Three experiments were conducted. The first investigated an integrated microbial control approach in an organic system at two locations. Three microbial agents, Grandevo (based on byproducts of the bacterium Chromobacterium subtsugae Martin, Gundersen-Rindal, Blackburn & Buyer), the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser), and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, were applied to each treatment plot (0.6 ha) at different times during the season. A second experiment compared the effects of S. carpocapsae and B. bassiana applied as single treatments relative to application of both agents (at different times); survival of C. caryae was assessed approximately 11 mo after larvae were added to pots sunk in an organic pecan orchard. In a conventional orchard (with 1.0 ha plots), the third experiment compared Grandevo applications to a commonly used regime of chemical insecticides (carbaryl alternated with a pyrethroid). All experiments were repeated in consecutive years. The combined pest management tactic (experiment 1) reduced C. caryae infestation relative to non-treated control plots in both locations in 2014 and one of the two locations in 2015 (the other location had less than 1% infestation). In experiment 2, no differences among combined microbial treatments, single-applied microbial treatments or different numbers of application were observed, yet all microbial treatments reduced C. caryae survival relative to the control. In the third

  3. A nematode that can manipulate the behaviour of slugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alex; Green, Michael; Martin, Hayley; Crossland, Katie; Swaney, William T; Williamson, Sally M; Rae, Robbie

    2018-02-27

    The ability of parasites to manipulate the behaviour of their hosts has evolved multiple times, and has a clear fitness benefit to the parasite in terms of facilitating growth, reproduction and transfer to suitable hosts. The mechanisms by which these behavioural changes are induced are poorly understood, but in many cases parasite manipulation of serotonergic signalling in the host brain is implicated. Here we report that Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a parasite of terrestrial gastropod molluscs, can alter the behaviour of slugs. Uninfected slugs (Deroceras panormitanum, Arion subfuscus and Arion hortensis) avoid areas where P. hermaphrodita is present, but slugs infected with P. hermaphrodita are more likely to be found where the nematodes are present. This ability is specific to P. hermaphrodita and other nematodes (Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) do not induce this behavioural change. To investigate how P. hermaphrodita changes slug behaviour we exposed slugs to fluoxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and cyproheptadine (a serotonin receptor antagonist). Uninfected slugs fed fluoxetine no longer avoided areas where P. hermaphrodita was present; and conversely, infected slugs fed cyproheptadine showed no increased attraction to areas with nematodes. These findings suggest that a possible mechanism by whichP. hermaphrodita is able to manipulate parasite avoidance behaviour in host slugs is by manipulating serotonergic signalling in the brain, and that increased serotonin levels are potentially associated with a reduction in parasite avoidance. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Batı Karadeniz Bölgesindeki entomopatojen nematodların (Steinernematidae ve Heterorhabditidae tür çeĢitliliği ve dağılımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Gülcü

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae were investigated throughout the surveys conducted in Düzce, Bolu, Karabuk and Zonguldak provinces in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey between 2013 and 2015. Of the 183 soil samples collected, 6 % were positive for entomopathogenic nematodes. According to molecular analyses of the six isolates, the species were identified as Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. weiseri. The rest of the isolates which could not be identified with molecular identification methods were characterized as morphologically, and three of them were classified as belonging to Steinernema while two classified as Heterorhabditis. The soils of positive sites were classified as loam, sandy-loam and clay-loam, and their pH ranged from 4.68 to 7.41. The Steinernematids were isolated from agricultural fields including hazelnut, walnut, poplar, corn, tomato, bean, and Heterorhadits were from forest. Entomopathogenic nematodes were obtained only from Duzce and Bolu provinces. S.weiseri, which has previously been determined only in the Aegean and Central Anatolian regions, was isolated for the first time in the Black Sea Region.

  5. Nontarget effect of entomopathogenic nematodes on larvae of twospotted lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and green lacewing (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojht, Helena; Kac, Milica; Trdan, Stanislav

    2009-08-01

    The nontarget effect of Steinernema feltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, and three mixed suspensions of two species of entomopathogenic nematodes on the larvae of the twospotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and on the larvae of the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), were studied in a laboratory bioassay. The assay was performed at three temperature (15, 20, and 25 degrees C) and at three different concentrations of the suspension (500, 2,500, and 5,000 infective juveniles [IJs]/ml). The larvae of A. bipunctata were more susceptible to nematode attack than the larvae of C. carnea. Four days after treatment, significantly the lowest mortality of A. bipunctata and C. carnea larvae was recorded at 15 degrees C, whereas no significant differences were noted between 20 and 25 degrees C. At 500 IJs/ml, the nematodes had significantly the lowest nontarget effect on the larvae of both aphid predators, whereas no significant differences in this regard were established between 2,500 and 5,000 IJs/ml. We conclude that the entomopathogenic nematodes under investigation exhibit a pronounced nontarget effect on the larvae of both predators mentioned.

  6. Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes and the supernatants of the in vitro culture medium of their mutualistic bacteria for the control of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepenekci, Ilker; Hazir, Selcuk; Lewis, Edwin E

    2016-02-01

    The suppressive effects of various formulations of four entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species and the supernatants of their mutualistic bacteria on the root-knot nematodes (RKNs) Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in tomato roots were evaluated. The EPNs Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, S. glaseri and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were applied as either live infective juveniles (IJs) or infected insect cadavers. Spent medium from culturing the bacterial symbionts Xenorhabdus bovienii and Photorhabdus luminescens kayaii with the cells removed was also applied without their nematode partners. The aqueous suspensions of IJs, infected cadaver applications of EPNs and especially treatments of X. bovienii supernatant suppressed the negative impact of RKNs on tomatoes. Specific responses to treatment were reduced RKN egg masses, increased plant height and increased fresh and dry weights compared with the control where only RKNs were applied. Among the treatments tested, the plant-dipping method of X. bovienii into bacterial culture fluid may be the most practical and effective method for M. incognita and M. arenaria control. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. nilR is necessary for co-ordinate repression of Xenorhabdus nematophila mutualism genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Charles E; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi

    2006-11-01

    The bacterial mutualist Xenorhabdus nematophila colonizes a specific region of its nematode host Steinernema carpocapsae. We previously reported the identification of a chromosomal locus encoding three X. nematophila genes of unknown function, nilA, B and C, that are each necessary for colonization. Subsequent work indicated the global regulator Lrp is a repressor of nilC: nilC transcription is elevated in an lrp mutant and Lrp interacts directly with the nilC promoter. In this manuscript, we report the identification of an additional gene, nilR, required for repression of nilC transcription. We show that nilR and lrp mutants also have elevated expression of nilA and nilB, demonstrating that nilA, B and C are co-ordinately regulated. nil gene expression is derepressed most strongly when both nilR and lrp are lacking, suggesting NilR and Lrp synergistically repress nil transcription. NilR contains a helix-turn-helix-type DNA binding domain and likely acts directly at promoters. A comparison of the wild type and nilR proteomes indicates that NilR, unlike Lrp, regulates a small number of genes. Finally, X. nematophila carrying an ectopic copy of nilR colonizes at approximately 60-fold lower levels than the control strain, suggesting that derepression of nil gene expression is necessary for nematode colonization.

  8. Foraging behavior and virulence of some entomopathogenic nematodes

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    Manana A. Lortkipanidze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At present the biological control as a pest control technology is becoming more desirable. Biological formulations on basis of entomopathogenic nematodes are one of the effective means for the protection of agricultural and forest plants from harmful insects. Nowadays, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control agents is a key component in IPM system. The foraging strategies of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs vary between species. This variation is consistent with use of different foraging strategies between ambush, cruise and intermediate to find their host insects. In order to ambush prey, some species of EPNs nictate, or raise their bodies of the soil surface so they are better poised to attach passing insects, other species adopt a cruising strategy and rarely nictate. Some species adopt an intermediate strategy between ambush and cruise. We compared in laboratory the foraging strategies of the entomopathogenic nematode species: Steinernema carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and the recently described species Steinernema tbilisiensis and assessed their virulence against mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The tests showed that S. tbilisiensis adopts both foraging strategies.

  9. Further Screening of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Nematodes as Control Agents for Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Audsley, Neil

    2016-06-09

    Drosophila suzukii populations remain low in the UK. To date, there have been no reports of widespread damage. Previous research demonstrated that various species of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes could potentially suppress D. suzukii population development under laboratory trials. However, none of the given species was concluded to be specifically efficient in suppressing D. suzukii. Therefore, there is a need to screen further species to determine their efficacy. The following entomopathogenic agents were evaluated for their potential to act as control agents for D. suzukii: Metarhizium anisopliae; Isaria fumosorosea; a non-commercial coded fungal product (Coded B); Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, S. kraussei and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The fungi were screened for efficacy against the fly on fruit while the nematodes were evaluated for the potential to be applied as soil drenches targeting larvae and pupal life-stages. All three fungi species screened reduced D. suzukii populations developing from infested berries. Isaria fumosorosea significantly (p entomopathogens to suppress D. suzukii populations is discussed.

  10. Further Screening of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Nematodes as Control Agents for Drosophila suzukii

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    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii populations remain low in the UK. To date, there have been no reports of widespread damage. Previous research demonstrated that various species of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes could potentially suppress D. suzukii population development under laboratory trials. However, none of the given species was concluded to be specifically efficient in suppressing D. suzukii. Therefore, there is a need to screen further species to determine their efficacy. The following entomopathogenic agents were evaluated for their potential to act as control agents for D. suzukii: Metarhizium anisopliae; Isaria fumosorosea; a non-commercial coded fungal product (Coded B; Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, S. kraussei and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The fungi were screened for efficacy against the fly on fruit while the nematodes were evaluated for the potential to be applied as soil drenches targeting larvae and pupal life-stages. All three fungi species screened reduced D. suzukii populations developing from infested berries. Isaria fumosorosea significantly (p < 0.001 reduced population development of D. suzukii from infested berries. All nematodes significantly reduced adult emergence from pupal cases compared to the water control. Larvae proved more susceptible to nematode infection. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora proved the best from the four nematodes investigated; readily emerging from punctured larvae and causing 95% mortality. The potential of the entomopathogens to suppress D. suzukii populations is discussed.

  11. A serpin released by an entomopathogen impairs clot formation in insect defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubarro, Duarte; Avila, Mónica M; Hao, Youjin; Balasubramanian, Natesan; Jing, Yingjun; Montiel, Rafael; Faria, Tiago Q; Brito, Rui M; Simões, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae is an entomopathogenic nematode widely used for the control of insect pests due to its virulence, which is mainly attributed to the ability the parasitic stage has to overcome insect defences. To identify the mechanisms underlying such a characteristic, we studied a novel serpin-like inhibitor (sc-srp-6) that was detected in a transcriptome analysis. Recombinant Sc-SRP-6 produced in Escherichia coli had a native fold of serpins belonging to the α-1-peptidase family and exhibited inhibitory activity against trypsin and α-chymotrypsin with Ki of 0.42 × 10(-7) M and 1.22 × 10(-7) M, respectively. Functional analysis revealed that Sc-SRP-6 inhibits insect digestive enzymes, thus preventing the hydrolysis of ingested particles. Moreover, Sc-SRP-6 impaired the formation of hard clots at the injury site, a major insect defence mechanism against invasive pathogens. Sc-SRP-6 does not prevent the formation of clot fibres and the activation of prophenoloxidases but impairs the incorporation of the melanin into the clot. Binding assays showed a complex formation between Sc-SRP-6 and three proteins in the hemolymph of lepidopteran required for clotting, apolipophorin, hexamerin and trypsin-like, although the catalytic inhibition occurred exclusively in trypsin-like. This data allowed the conclusion that Sc-SRP-6 promotes nematode virulence by inhibiting insect gut juices and by impairing immune clot reaction.

  12. Investigating physiological methods to determine previous exposure of immature insects to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Effect of gamma radiation on phenoloxidase activity in codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., larvae was investigated. Phenoloxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in optical density at 490 nm, or by observing the degree of melanization in larvae killed by freezing. Results showed that, in unirradiated larvae, phenoloxidase activity could be detected in 7 day old larvae and activity continued to increase throughout the larval stage. This increase was not observed when larvae were irradiated with a minimum dose of 50 Gy during the 1st week of their development. However, irradiating larvae in which enzyme activity was already high (24 week old) did not eliminate the activity but reduced further increase. Larval melanization studies were in general agreement with the results of the phenoloxidase assay. (author)

  13. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, Kenneth A.; Bloem, Stephanie

    2000-01-01

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is considered the key pest of apples and pears in the fruit growing regions of south central British Columbia. This region includes about 18,000 acres of commercial production, as well as several urban centres with abundant backyard fruit trees and ornamental crab apples. Now, after 30 years of research and planning, an eradication programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented against CM. This article reviews the progress that the programme has made and how well reality has met expectations in key areas. Proverbs (1982) and Proverbs et al. (1982) reviewed the techniques for mass rearing, sterilising and releasing CM, DeBiasio (1988) developed the initial implementation plan and Dyck et al. (1993) reviewed the history and development of the programme up to 1992 when it became operational

  14. Nontarget lepidoptera species found in the pheromone traps for selected Tortricid species in 2002 and 2003 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hrudová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheromone traps were used to monitor the following tortricid moths, i.e. Adoxophyes orana, Archips podanus, A. rosanus, Hedya nubiferana, Pandemis heparana, Spilonota ocellana, Cydia pomonella, Cydia funebrana and Cydia molesta in the localities Brno-Tuřany (Brno-město, Nebovidy (Brno-venkov and Prakšice (Uherské Hradiště. Other Lepidoptera non-target species were present in these target-species pheromone traps, i.e. Adoxophyes orana, Agrotis segetum, Amphipoea oculaea, Archips rosanus, Celypha striana, Cydia coronillana, Enarmonia formosana, Epiblema scutulanum, Epinotia huebneriana, Eucosma fervidana, Euxoa tritici, Hedya pruniana, H. nubiferana, Lymantria dispar, Noctua pronuba, Notocelia rosaecolana, N. roborana, Pammene albuginana, P. suspectana, Pandemis cerasana, Pyrausta rectefascialis, P. aurata, Spilonota ocellana, Yponomeuta malinellus and Zygaena purpuralis.

  15. Effects of irradiation on phenoloxidase levels in codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neven, L.G.; Morford, M.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory trials were conducted to determine if changes in phenoloxidase, a common hemolymph component in insects, could be detected in codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). The 5 instars of codling moth were irradiated at doses of 0, 100, 300, 600, and 900 Gy and phenoloxidase levels were monitored at 0, 2, 4, and 6 d after treatment. The melanization method, protein electrophoresis, dot blot, and enzyme activity analyses were performed to determine phenoloxidase levels. No significant changes in the protein levels, enzymatic activity, or melanization rates in irradiated codling moth larvae were found. Although the melanization method may be adequate for determining whether larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (L.), were irradiated, it is not applicable to codling moth

  16. Pharmacological analysis of feeding in a caterpillar: different transduction pathways for umami and saccharin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszczolkowski, Maciej A.; Durden, Kevin; Marquis, Juleah; Ramaswamy, Sonny B.; Brown, John J.

    2009-05-01

    Neonate larvae of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), modify their behavior in the presence of saccharin, monosodium glutamate (MSG), or L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) by commencing their feeding earlier. Previously published pharmacological analysis demonstrated that phagostimulatory effects of MSG and L-AP4 (which elicit umami taste sensation in humans) are reversed by adenylate cyclase activator and phosphodiesterase inhibitor. In this study, by measuring the time needed to start ingestion of foliage treated with mixtures of phagostimulants and signal transduction modulators, we show that phagostimulatory effects of l-aspartate (the third hallmark umami substance) are also abolished by both adenylate cyclase activator and phosphodiesterase inhibitor, but not by phospholipase C inhibitor. However, stimulatory effects of hemicalcium saccharin were affected only by phospholipase C inhibitor. The results suggest that codling moth neonates use different transduction pathways for perception of hemicalcium saccharin and umami.

  17. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in larvae of three species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Jaryd A; Timm, Alicia E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB) was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle) of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick), Cydia pomonella (L.) and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick). Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C) with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae.

  18. Is the efficacy of biological control against plant diseases likely to be more durable than that of chemical pesticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardin, Marc; Ajouz, Sakhr; Comby, Morgane; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel; Graillot, Benoît; Siegwart, Myriam; Nicot, Philippe C.

    2015-01-01

    The durability of a control method for plant protection is defined as the persistence of its efficacy in space and time. It depends on (i) the selection pressure exerted by it on populations of plant pathogens and (ii) on the capacity of these pathogens to adapt to the control method. Erosion of effectiveness of conventional plant protection methods has been widely studied in the past. For example, apparition of resistance to chemical pesticides in plant pathogens or pests has been extensively documented. The durability of biological control has often been assumed to be higher than that of chemical control. Results concerning pest management in agricultural systems have shown that this assumption may not always be justified. Resistance of various pests to one or several toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis and apparition of resistance of the codling moth Cydia pomonella to the C. pomonella granulovirus have, for example, been described. In contrast with the situation for pests, the durability of biological control of plant diseases has hardly been studied and no scientific reports proving the loss of efficiency of biological control agents against plant pathogens in practice has been published so far. Knowledge concerning the possible erosion of effectiveness of biological control is essential to ensure a durable efficacy of biological control agents on target plant pathogens. This knowledge will result in identifying risk factors that can foster the selection of strains of plant pathogens resistant to biological control agents. It will also result in identifying types of biological control agents with lower risk of efficacy loss, i.e., modes of action of biological control agents that does not favor the selection of resistant isolates in natural populations of plant pathogens. An analysis of the scientific literature was then conducted to assess the potential for plant pathogens to become resistant to biological control agents. PMID:26284088

  19. Sequence and analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Juliana Pereira Bravo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at the sequence and analysis of the mtDNA control region (CR of the Diatraea saccharalis. The genome PCR amplification was performed using the complementary primers to the flanking regions of Bombyx mori CR mitochondrial segment. The sequencing revealed that the amplified product was 568 bp long, which was smaller than that observed for B. mori (725 bp. Within the amplified segment, a sequence with 338 nucleotides was identified as the control region, which displayed a high AT content (93.5%. The D. saccharalis mtDNA CR multiple sequence alignment analysis showed that this region had high similarity with the Lepidoptera Cydia pomonella.A broca da cana, Diatraea saccharalis pertence à família dos lepidópteros. A presença da larva pode ser extremamente destrutiva, chegando a inviabilizar a atividade canavieira, causando prejuízos consideráveis à agroindústria sucro-alcooleira. Atualmente a broca da cana vem sendo extinta da plantação por métodos de controle biológico, entretanto a evolução desses programas depende de maiores conhecimentos básicos da biologia molecular deste inseto. O estudo do segmento do genoma mitocondrial denominado região controle é amplamente utilizado em análises genéticas e filogenéticas em insetos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi sequenciar e analisar a região controle do genoma mitocondrial de Diatraea saccharalis. Esse segmento apresentou 338 nucleotídeos, menor que o observado em Bombyx mori, com conteúdo de 93,5% de A/T. As analises realizadas mostraram que Diatraea saccharalis apresenta 76% de similaridade com Cydia pomonella.

  20. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in larvae of three species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaryd A Ridgeway

    Full Text Available Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick, Cydia pomonella (L. and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick. Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae.

  1. Primer registro de Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae en perales y álamos en la Patagonia First record of Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae on pear trees and poplars in Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Dapoto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La región del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén es la zona más importante de producción de frutas de pepita de la Argentina. La principal plaga de estos cultivos es Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae. Los cambios implementados en las estrategias de control, principalmente la generalización del uso de la Técnica de Confusión Sexual, han causado en los últimos años cambios en la biodiversidad en esos cultivos. Durante la temporada 2008/09, en un establecimiento frutícola de producción orgánica en Vista Alegre (Neuquén, fue detectada Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, produciendo graves daños en frutos y hojas de perales y sobre el follaje de Populus spp. Se cita por primera vez H. indecisa para la Patagonia y el primer hallazgo de esta especie sobre Populus spp. y Pyrus communis L.The Alto Valle of Río Negro and Neuquén is the main production zone of pomme fruits from Argentina. The main pest is Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Changes operated in control strategies in the last years have brought changes in the biodiversity of fruit orchards. During the season 2008/09, Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was detected in a fruit establishment of Vista Alegre (Neuquén under organic production causing serious damages on fruits and leaves of pear trees and in the leaves of Populus spp. Hypercompe indecisa is reported for the first time in Patagonia and is the first record of this species on Populus spp.and Pyrus communis L.

  2. Effects of reservoir dispenser height on efficacy of mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David L; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Miller, James R; Grieshop, Matthew J; Gut, Larry J

    2011-08-01

    The effect of varying the height of reservoir dispensers for mating disruption of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was investigated. The goal was to improve the effectiveness of C. pomonella mating disruption through improved understanding of adult distribution within the tree canopy and the impact of pheromone dispenser placement on disruption. Two dispensers per tree were placed at 2 m and 4 m and/or one dispenser at each height on the tree at a label rate of 1000 units ha(-1) . Monitoring traps and tethered female moths were deployed in plots at 2 and 4 m heights to assess treatment effects by catches or matings respectively. Fewest male moths were captured with all dispensers placed at 4 m. Female mating was lowest, and with least variation between females tethered at 2 and 4 m, when dispensers were placed simultaneously at 2 and 4 m (28% mated). Mating was 32% with both dispensers at 4 m, 38% with both dispensers at 2 m and 46% in the no disruption control. Mating was highest across treatments when females were tethered at 2 m and dispensers placed at 4 m (40%), and when females were tethered at 4 m with dispensers placed at 2 m (46%). Traps at 4 m in trees captured more male moths than traps at 2 m, regardless of disruption dispenser positioning. Female mating was lowest when dispensers were placed simultaneously at 2 and 4 m, suggesting that current recommendations for placement of reservoir dispensers in tree crowns may be suboptimal. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Integrated assessment of climate change impact on surface runoff contamination by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Patrick; Sheedy, Claudia; Rousseau, Alain N; Bourgeois, Gaétan; Chouinard, Gérald

    2016-07-01

    Pesticide transport by surface runoff depends on climate, agricultural practices, topography, soil characteristics, crop type, and pest phenology. To accurately assess the impact of climate change, these factors must be accounted for in a single framework by integrating their interaction and uncertainty. This article presents the development and application of a framework to assess the impact of climate change on pesticide transport by surface runoff in southern Québec (Canada) for the 1981-2040 period. The crop enemies investigated were: weeds for corn (Zea mays); and for apple orchard (Malus pumila), 3 insect pests (codling moth [Cydia pomonella], plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar], and apple maggot [Rhagoletis pomonella]), 2 diseases (apple scab [Venturia inaequalis], and fire blight [Erwinia amylovora]). A total of 23 climate simulations, 19 sites, and 11 active ingredients were considered. The relationship between climate and phenology was accounted for by bioclimatic models of the Computer Centre for Agricultural Pest Forecasting (CIPRA) software. Exported loads of pesticides were evaluated at the edge-of-field scale using the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), simulating both hydrology and chemical transport. A stochastic model was developed to account for PRZM parameter uncertainty. Results of this study indicate that for the 2011-2040 period, application dates would be advanced from 3 to 7 days on average with respect to the 1981-2010 period. However, the impact of climate change on maximum daily rainfall during the application window is not statistically significant, mainly due to the high variability of extreme rainfall events. Hence, for the studied sites and crop enemies considered, climate change impact on pesticide transported in surface runoff is not statistically significant throughout the 2011-2040 period. Integr Environ Assess Managem 2016;12:559-571. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2015; Published 2015 SETAC. © Her Majesty the

  4. Is the efficacy of biological control against plant diseases likely to be more durable than that of chemical pesticides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eBardin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The durability of a control method for plant protection is defined as the persistence of its efficacy in space and time. It depends on (i the selection pressure exerted by it on populations of plant pathogens and (ii on the capacity of these pathogens to adapt to the control method. Erosion of effectiveness of conventional plant protection methods has been widely studied in the past. For example, apparition of resistance to chemical pesticides in plant pathogens or pests has been extensively documented. The durability of biological control has often been assumed to be higher than that of chemical control. Results concerning pest management in agricultural systems have shown that this assumption may not always be justified. Resistance of various pests to one or several toxins of Bacillus thuringensis and apparition of resistance of the codling moth Cydia pomonella to the Cydia pomonella granulovirus have, for example, been described. In contrast with the situation for pests, the durability of biological control of plant diseases has hardly been studied and no scientific reports proving the loss of efficiency of biological control agents against plant pathogens in practice has been published so far. Knowledge concerning the possible erosion of effectiveness of biological control is essential to ensure a durable efficacy of biological control agents on target plant pathogens. This knowledge will result in identifying risk factors that can foster the selection of strains of plant pathogens resistant to biological control agents. It will also result in identifying types of biological control agents with lower risk of efficacy loss i.e. modes of action of biological control agents that does not favor the selection of resistant isolates in natural populations of plant pathogens. An analysis of the scientific literature was then conducted to assess the potential for plant pathogens to become resistant to biological control agents.

  5. Interspecific competition between entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema is modified by their bacterial symbionts (Xenorhabdus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Sylvie

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symbioses between invertebrates and prokaryotes are biological systems of particular interest in order to study the evolution of mutualism. The symbioses between the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema and their bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus are very tractable model systems. Previous studies demonstrated (i a highly specialized relationship between each strain of nematodes and its naturally associated bacterial strain and (ii that mutualism plays a role in several important life history traits of each partner such as access to insect host resources, dispersal and protection against various biotic and abiotic factors. The goal of the present study was to address the question of the impact of Xenorhabdus symbionts on the progression and outcome of interspecific competition between individuals belonging to different Steinernema species. For this, we monitored experimental interspecific competition between (i two nematode species: S. carpocapsae and S. scapterisci and (ii their respective symbionts: X. nematophila and X. innexi within an experimental insect-host (Galleria mellonella. Three conditions of competition between nematodes were tested: (i infection of insects with aposymbiotic IJs (i.e. without symbiont of both species (ii infection of insects with aposymbiotic IJs of both species in presence of variable proportion of their two Xenorhabdus symbionts and (iii infection of insects with symbiotic IJs (i.e. naturally associated with their symbionts of both species. Results We found that both the progression and the outcome of interspecific competition between entomopathogenic nematodes were influenced by their bacterial symbionts. Thus, the results obtained with aposymbiotic nematodes were totally opposite to those obtained with symbiotic nematodes. Moreover, the experimental introduction of different ratios of Xenorhabdus symbionts in the insect-host during competition between Steinernema modified the proportion of

  6. Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah and Hirschmann (Tylenchida: Meloidoginidae) Infection in Tomato Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, J. P.; Dolinski, C.; Souza, R. M.; Lewis, E. E.

    2007-01-01

    Some studies suggest that entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) affect plant-parasitic nematode populations. Here, the effects of live and dead IJ of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora JPM4, H. baujardi LPP7, Steinernema feltiae SN and S. carpocapsae All were evaluated against eggs and J2 of the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis. According to treatment, 100 IJ were applied with 350 eggs, 350 J2 or 175 eggs + 175 J2 to tomato plants. Bioassays were conducted in March to May and repeated in September to November 2005. Both experiments lasted 9 weeks, and the variable evaluated was number of galls per plant. When eggs were used for infections in the first trial, plants exhibited lower gall number compared to control when live and dead H. baujardi IJ and live S. feltiae IJ were added (9.7, 4.5, 7.3 and 85.7 galls, respectively). In the second trial, live S. feltiae and S. carpocapasae IJ influenced gall formation compared to control (14.33, 14.57 and 168.02 galls, respectively). When J2 were used for infections, plants with live H. baujardi IJ presented less galls when compared to control in both trials (38.3 and 355.7 galls in the first trial and 145.2 and 326.2 in the second one, respectively). Infection with a mixture of J2 and eggs resulted in fewer galls than when live S. feltiae IJ were present in both trials, compared to control (38.3 and 44.2 galls vs. 275.3 and 192.2 galls, respectively). We conclude that H. baujardi and S. feltiae apparently may be inhibiting egg hatching and J2 infection. PMID:19259509

  7. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L

    2008-02-01

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.

  8. DNA diagnostics to identify internal feeders (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of pome fruits of quarantine importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenas, N M; Unruh, T R; Neven, L G

    2005-04-01

    A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is presented for differentiating among the North American internal apple-feeding pests codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); lesser appleworm, Grapholita prunivora (Walsh); and cherry fruitworm, Grapholita packardi Zeller. An approximately 470-bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced in three to six specimens of each species. Consistent and diagnostic differences were observed among the species in two regions of COI from which forward and reverse primers were designed to amplify a 112-116-bp segment of the gene. The primer sets were used to selectively amplify DNA from specimens of diverse geographic origin for each corresponding target species. Protocols were adapted for conventional and quantitative PCR, the latter being substantially faster. The method was validated as a decision-making tool for quarantine identifications for Mexico by representatives of their phytosanitary agency (Sanidad Vegetal). The method can facilitate identification of intercepted internal feeding Lepidoptera in apple and pear for many other importing nations.

  9. Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in apples using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda

    2006-10-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are serious pests of apples (Malus spp.) grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where these species are not found, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent their accidental introduction. The treatment used in this study consisted of hot, forced, moist air with a linear heating rate of 12 degrees C/h to a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C under a 1% oxygen and 15% carbon dioxide environment. We found that the fourth instar of both species was the most tolerant to the treatment, with equal tolerance between the species. Efficacy tests against the fourth instar of both oriental fruit moth and codling moth by using a commercial controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system chamber resulted in > 5,000 individuals of each species being controlled using the combination treatment. Confirmation tests against codling moth resulted in mortality of > 30,000 fourth instars. These treatments may be used to meet quarantine restrictions for organic apples where fumigation with methyl bromide is not desirable.

  10. Male oriental fruit moth response to a combined pheromone-based attracticide formulation targeting both oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, Maya L; McClaughlin, John R

    2005-04-01

    Combined attracticide formulations targeting Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in a field trapping experiment. Capture of male codling moths in traps baited with the combined formulation was reduced compared with traps baited with the codling moth formulation alone, whereas capture of male Oriental fruit moth was increased compared with traps baited with the Oriental fruit moth formulation alone. Subsequent wind tunnel experiments showed that a single locus of the mixed attracticide formulation or close parallel presentation of the two formulations enhanced source contact by male Oriental fruit moths but did not influence earlier behaviors. However, the two formulations presented in a serial arrangement to Oriental fruit moth males in the wind tunnel resulted in enhanced lock-on, upwind flight, and source contact behaviors. In addition, male Oriental fruit moths remained on mixed pheromone droplets of the paste matrix longer than on droplets of the Oriental fruit moth formulation alone. The increased time spent on the mixed droplet was correlated with a more rapid poisoning and a greater proportion of poisoned males compared with males exposed to the Oriental fruit moth attracticide alone. These results demonstrate that a combined attracticide formulation will have different effects on each of the targeted species. It is anticipated that, due to decreased attractiveness, a combined formulation would be less effective against the codling moth. However, a mixed formulation, due to increased attractiveness and toxicity, could be more effective against the Oriental fruit moth under field conditions.

  11. Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) phenology and management with methoxyfenozide in North Carolina apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Daniel M; Stinner, Ronald E; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G

    2004-08-01

    The phenology of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), on apple (Malus spp.) in North Carolina was studied using pheromone traps and egg sampling in abandoned and commercial orchards in 2000 and 2001, with subsequent development of an oviposition degree-day model and management studies in relation to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), phenology. Oriental fruit moth eggs were found in greater numbers on leaves early and on fruit later in the growing season, on the top versus the bottom of the leaf surface, and on the calyx area versus the side or stem end of the fruit. A degree-day (DD) model to predict oriental fruit moth oviposition was developed based on temperature accumulations from peak moth trap capture of the first (overwintering) generation, by using 7.2 and 32.2 degrees C as the temperature limits. The model predicted four ovipositing generations of oriental fruit moth with the second beginning 507 DD after peak moth catch. Using predictions of the oriental fruit moth and codling moth degree-day oviposition models, an experiment was conducted to determine the level of second generation oriental fruit moth control with methoxyfenozide applied under different scenarios for first generation codling moth. Methoxyfenozide was equally effective in managing codling moth and oriental fruit moth for all treatment timings.

  12. Population genetic structure of economically important Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) in South Africa: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, A E; Geertsema, H; Warnich, L

    2010-08-01

    Comparative studies of the population genetic structures of agricultural pests can elucidate the factors by which their population levels are affected, which is useful for designing pest management programs. This approach was used to provide insight into the six Tortricidae of major economic importance in South Africa. The population genetic structure of the carnation worm E. acerbella and the false codling moth T. leucotreta, analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, is presented here for the first time. These results were compared with those obtained previously for the codling moth Cydia pomonella, the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, the litchi moth Cryptophlebia peltastica and the macadamia nut borer T. batrachopa. Locally adapted populations were detected over local geographic areas for all species. No significant differences were found among population genetic structures as result of population history (whether native or introduced) although host range (whether oligophagous or polyphagous) had a small but significant effect. It is concluded that factors such as dispersal ability and agricultural practices have the most important effects on genetically structuring populations of the economically important Tortricidae in South Africa.

  13. Ability of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to detoxify juglone, the main secondary metabolite of the non-host plant walnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorski, Rafal; Ineichen, Simon; Dorn, Silvia

    2011-10-01

    Many plant species produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit attacks by herbivorous insects, and may thereby constrain insect expansion to new hosts. Walnut is a host for the codling moth Cydia pomonella, which efficiently detoxifies the main walnut defensive compound juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, which also belongs to the tribe Grapholitini, does not feed on walnut. We tested the performance of G. molesta, a highly invasive species, on artificial diets containing juglone at levels mimicking those found in walnut over the growing season. Juglone-fed G. molesta survived relatively well to adulthood, but larval and adult body weights were reduced, and larval developmental time was prolonged in a dose-dependent fashion. Chemical analysis of frass from larvae that had been fed a juglone-containing diet suggests that G. molesta reduces juglone to non-toxic 1,4,5-trihydroxynaphthalene in its gut. This unexpected tolerance of G. molesta to high levels of juglone may facilitate expansion of the host range beyond the current rosacean fruit trees used by this invasive pest.

  14. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT PROTECTION TREATMENTS IN APPLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tomaš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is the most represented fruit species in Croatia. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L, is one of the most important apple pests whose population is growing from year to year. The aim of this study was to determine the economic effectiveness of four treatments against codling moth (1 - based on baculovirus; 2 - based on the group of synthetic pyrethroid; 3 - based on kaolin, 4 - control treatment, on the three apple varieties. The experiment was performed at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, during three years (2012-2014. In order to analyze the results of apple production it was necessary to calculate production efficiency, labor productivity, and profitability of production. The results of the research of economic efficiency according to market prices treatment 1 and treatment 2 had economic coefficient above 1 with tendency of significant growth, while treatment 3 and 4 were uneconomical. The treatment 1showed advantage over the treatment 2 because of its positive effects on human health and biodiversity, as well as satisfactory economic efficiency.

  15. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, Celina I. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: horak@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Di Giorgio, Marina [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kairiyama, Eulogia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Presb. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No 15 B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Prov. Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-07-15

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  16. Primer registro de Hypercompe indecisa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae en perales y álamos en la Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela DAPOTO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La región del Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén es la zona más importante de producción de frutas de pepita de la Argentina. La principal plaga de estos cultivos es Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Los cambios implementados en las estrategias de control, principalmente la generalización del uso de la Técnica de Confusión Sexual, han causado en los últimos años cambios en la biodiversidad en esos cultivos. Durante la temporada 2008/09, en un establecimiento frutícola de producción orgánica en Vista Alegre (Neuquén, fue detectada Hypercompe indecisa (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, produciendo graves daños en frutos y hojas de perales y sobre el follaje de Populus spp. Se cita por primera vez a H. indecisa para la Patagonia y el primer hallazgo de esta especie sobre Populus spp. y Pyrus communis L.

  17. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial insecticides are effective, environmental friendly and are widely used worldwide to control insect pests. Nucleopolyhedroviruses and granuloviruses belonging to family Baculoviridae are widely used for control of caterpillar pests on wide varieties of crops and vegetables. The selected baculoviruses (BVs were evaluated for oviposition preference by Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii of virus treated and untreated (water: control host eggs (Sitotroga cerealella Olivier, which revealed no significant difference among the used concentrations regarding oviposition preference. All the used concentrations of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaNPV, Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV and Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV including 12.5×, 6.25×, 2.5×, 1.25× and 0.625× were harmless (E > 30% for parasitism by T. chilonis as comparison of virus treated and untreated control eggs showed similar parasitism i.e., ⩽15% reduction over control in parasitism. Thus it was concluded that all three types of baculoviruses were compatible with the parasitism by T. chilonis at all treated concentrations.

  18. Investigating physiological methods to determine previous exposure of immature insects to ionizing radiation and estimating the exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    1999-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on pupation and adult emergence in mature (diapausing and non-diapausing) codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., larvae and on phenoloxidase activity in larvae killed by freezing were investigated. Results showed that, a dose of 50 Gy reduced adult emergence (and pupation) significantly and a dose of 200 Gy completely prevented it. Diapausing larvae were more susceptible to irradiation than non-diapausing larvae, and female moths were more susceptible to irradiation injury than males. Phenoloxidase activity in codling moth larvae was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in optical density at 490 nm, or by observing the degree of melanization in larvae killed by freezing. Results showed that, in un-irradiated larvae, phenoloxidase activity can be detected in 7 days old larvae and it continues to accumulate throughout the larvae stage. This accumulation was not observed when larvae were irradiated with a minimum dose of 50 Gy during the 1st week of their development. However, irradiating larvae in which enzyme activity was already high (2-3 week old) did not remove activity but only reduced further accumulation. Larval melanization studies were in agreement with results of the phenoloxidase assay.(author)

  19. Gamma irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh pome fruits produced in Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, J.; Lires, C.; Horak, C.; Pawlak, E.; Docters, A.; Kairiyama, E.

    2009-07-01

    Argentina produces 1.8 million tons/year of apples ( Malus domestica L.) and pears ( Pyrus communis L.) in the Patagonia region. Cydia pomonella, codling moth, and Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth, ( Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are quarantine pests in pome fruits. Irradiation is a promising phytosanitary treatment because a dose of 200 Gy completely prevents pest adult emergence. A pilot irradiation process of commercially packaged 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears was performed in an irradiation facility with a Cobalt 60 source. Quality analyses were carried out at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of storage (1 °C, RH 99%) to evaluate fruit tolerance at 200, 400 and 800 Gy. Irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy had no undesirable effects on fruit quality (pulp firmness, external colour, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and sensory evaluations). Irradiation of 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears can be applied as a commercial quarantine treatment with a minimum absorbed dose of 200 Gy (to control codling moth and Oriental fruit moth) and <800 Gy (according to quality results).

  20. Pest occurrence model in current climate – validation study for European domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Svobodová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study yields detail validation of the pest occurrence models under current climate in wide European domain. Study organisms involve Cydia pomonella, Lobesia botrana, Ostrinia nubilalis, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Oulema melanopus, Rhopalosiphum padi, and Sitobion avenae. Method used in this study belongs to the category climate matching (CLIMEX model allowing the estimation of areas climatically favourable for species persistence based on the climatic parameters characterising the species development. In the process of model validation parameters were iteratively tested and altered to truly describe the pest presence. The modelled pests presence was verified by comparison of the observed pests occurrence with the number of generations in given modelled area. The notable component of the model parameterization was the sensitivity analyses testing the reaction of species development on changing meteorological items. Parameterization of the factors causing distribution patterns of study species was successful and modelled potential distributions of species correspond well to known core distribution areas for all of these species. This validation study is intended as an initial for forthcoming studies focused on the estimation of geographical shifts of selected pests in the conditions of climate change within the Europe.

  1. Gamma irradiation: Effect of dose and dose rate on development of mature codling moth larvae and adult eclosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burditt, Arthur K.; Hungate, Frank P.; Toba, H. Harold

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae infest apples, pears and many other fruits and nuts. Mature, nondiapausing, cocooned larvae in fiberboard strips were exposed to γ-irradiation at applied doses ranging from 0 to 98 Gy and dose rates from 0.77 to 204.4 Gy/min and subsequently held to permit further development, pupation and adult emergence. At or above an applied dose of 58 Gy, many of the adults that emerged were physically deformed and most were males. As the applied dose increased from 44 to 98 Gy, the percentage of normal adults decreased, the primary effect shifting from a higher percentage of abnormal adults, pupal mortality, to larval mortility. The effects were more pronounced at higher than at lower dose rates. Insect development apparently was not affected when larvae were irradiated at applied doses up to 31.7 Gy. Significantly more adults emerged when larvae were treated at low dose rates (1.0 Gy/min) than at higher dose rates (204 Gy/min). A rate of 52.2 Gy/min was more effective at preventing adult emergence than rates of 1, 4.4 or 201.5 Gy/min.

  2. Investigating physiological methods to determine previous exposure of immature insects to ionizing radiation and estimating the exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    1998-10-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on pupation and adult emergence in mature (diapausing and non-diapausing) codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., larvae and on phenoloxidase activity in larvae killed by freezing were investigated. Results showed that, a dose of 50 Gy reduced adult emergence (and pupation) significantly and 200 Gy completely prevented it. Diapausing larvae were more susceptible to irradiation that non-diapausing larvae and female moths were more susceptible to irradiation injury than males. Phenoloxidase activity in codling moth larvae was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the increase in optical density at 490 nm, or by observing the degree of melanization in larvae killed by freezing. Results showed that, in un-irradiated larvae, phenoloxidase activity can be detected in 7 day old larvae and activity continued to accumulate throughout the larval stage. This accumulation was not observed when larvae were irradiated with a minimum dose of 50 Gy during the 1st week of their development. However, irradiating larvae in which enzyme activity was already high (2-3 week old) did not remove activity but only reduced further accumulation. Larval melanization studies were in agreement with results of the phenoloxidase assay. (author)

  3. Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Establishment in China: Stages of Invasion and Potential Future Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongyu; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is an internal feeding pest of apples and can cause substantial economic losses to fruit growers due to larval feeding which in turn degrades fruit quality and can result in complete crop loss if left uncontrolled. Although this pest originally developed in central Asia, it was not known to occur in China until 1953. For the first three decades the spread of codling moth within China was slow. Within the last three decades, addition of new commercial apple orchards and improved transportation, this pest has spread to over 131 counties in seven provinces in China. We developed regional (China) and global ecological niche models using MaxEnt to identify areas at highest potential risk of codling moth establishment and spread. Our objectives were to 1) predict the potential distribution of codling moth in China, 2) identify the important environmental factors associated with codling moth distribution in China, and 3) identify the different stages of invasion of codling moth in China. Human footprint, annual temperature range, precipitation of wettest quarter, and degree days ≥10 °C were the most important predictors associated with codling moth distribution. Our analysis identified areas where codling moth has the potential to establish, and mapped the different stages of invasion (i.e., potential for population stabilization, colonization, adaptation, and sink) of codling moth in China. Our results can be used in effective monitoring and management to stem the spread of codling moth in China. PMID:28973489

  4. Assessing climate change impacts on fruit plant and pest phenology and their synchrony: the case of apple and codling moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, Raphael; Stöckli, Sibylle; Calanca, Pierluigi

    2017-04-01

    Temperature is a main climatic driver of plant phenology and the dominant abiotic factor directly affecting insect pests. Global warming is therefore expected to accelerate the development of plants and insects. Moreover, in the case of multivoltine pest species higher temperatures are expected to lead to the appearance of additional generations toward the end of the warm season. These changes could entail higher pest pressure and hence require an adaptation of pest management, but ultimately this would depend on whether plant and pest phenology remain synchronized or not. In this contribution we present an analysis of potential impacts of climate change on the phenology of the apple tree (Malus pumila L.), a fruit crop of economic relevance worldwide, and the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.), one of its main pests. Key developmental stages of the apple and the codling moth were simulated by means of two heat summation models. The models were calibrated with lab and field data from Switzerland and subsequently run with observed weather data and various climate change scenarios. The time period between flowering termination and the harvest of the apples was compared to the appearance of the second and third generation of codling moth larvae to study the interlinkage between host and pest. To illustrate the potential for practical applications of the phenology models, we used spatial temperature data of Switzerland to produce risk maps that can serve as a basis for further studies and decision support.

  5. Gamma irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh pome fruits produced in Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J.; Lires, C.; Horak, C.; Pawlak, E.; Docters, A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No. 15, (B1802AYA) Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kairiyama, E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No. 15, (B1802AYA) Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: kairiyam@cae.cnea.gov.ar

    2009-07-15

    Argentina produces 1.8 million tons/year of apples (Malus domestica L.) and pears (Pyrus communis L.) in the Patagonia region. Cydia pomonella, codling moth, and Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth, (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are quarantine pests in pome fruits. Irradiation is a promising phytosanitary treatment because a dose of 200 Gy completely prevents pest adult emergence. A pilot irradiation process of commercially packaged 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears was performed in an irradiation facility with a Cobalt 60 source. Quality analyses were carried out at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of storage (1 deg. C, RH 99%) to evaluate fruit tolerance at 200, 400 and 800 Gy. Irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy had no undesirable effects on fruit quality (pulp firmness, external colour, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and sensory evaluations). Irradiation of 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears can be applied as a commercial quarantine treatment with a minimum absorbed dose of 200 Gy (to control codling moth and Oriental fruit moth) and <800 Gy (according to quality results)

  6. Antennal transcriptomes of three tortricid moths reveal putative conserved chemosensory receptors for social and habitat olfactory cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Francisco; Witzgall, Peter; Walker, William B.

    2017-01-01

    Insects use chemical signals to find mates, food and oviposition sites. The main chemoreceptor gene families comprise odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs) and gustatory receptors (GRs). Understanding the evolution of these receptors as well as their function will assist in advancing our knowledge of how chemical stimuli are perceived and may consequently lead to the development of new insect management strategies. Tortricid moths are important pests in horticulture, forestry and agriculture around the globe. Here, we characterize chemoreceptors from the three main gene families of three economically important tortricids, based on male antennal transcriptomes using an RNA-Seq approach. We identified 49 ORs, 11 GRs and 23 IRs in the green budworm moth, Hedya nubiferana; 49 ORs, 12 GRs and 19 IRs in the beech moth, Cydia fagiglandana; and 48 ORs, 11 GRs and 19 IRs in the pea moth, Cydia nigricana. Transcript abundance estimation, phylogenetic relationships and molecular evolution rate comparisons with deorphanized receptors of Cydia pomonella allow us to hypothesize conserved functions and therefore candidate receptors for pheromones and kairomones. PMID:28150741

  7. Assessing the quality of mass-reared codling moths (Lepidoptera: tortricidae) by using field release-recapture tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, S.; Bloem, K.A.; Knight, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Following small-scale field releases of sterile, mass-reared codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), in the spring of 1995, significantly higher numbers of adults originating from larvae that had been induced into diapause were recaptured in passive interception traps compared with standard (nondiapaused) colony moths reared under either constant or fluctuating temperatures. When releases were made in the summer, significantly more diapaused females were again recaptured and similar numbers of diapaused and fluctuating temperature-reared standard males were trapped. Our field data showed that both male and female codling moths dispersed farther as ambient temperatures increased. When standard and diapaused sterile codling moths were released into replicated 1-ha plots under large-scale Sterile Insect Release program conditions in the summer and fall of 1996 and the spring of 1997, the proportion of recaptured diapaused males was significantly higher than for standard (nondiapaused) moths. This was true for recapture of males with passive interception, pheromone-baited, and virgin female-baited traps

  8. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, Celina I.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Kairiyama, Eulogia

    2009-01-01

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  9. Gamma irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh pome fruits produced in Patagonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.; Lires, C.; Horak, C.; Pawlak, E.; Docters, A.; Kairiyama, E.

    2009-01-01

    Argentina produces 1.8 million tons/year of apples (Malus domestica L.) and pears (Pyrus communis L.) in the Patagonia region. Cydia pomonella, codling moth, and Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth, (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are quarantine pests in pome fruits. Irradiation is a promising phytosanitary treatment because a dose of 200 Gy completely prevents pest adult emergence. A pilot irradiation process of commercially packaged 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears was performed in an irradiation facility with a Cobalt 60 source. Quality analyses were carried out at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of storage (1 deg. C, RH 99%) to evaluate fruit tolerance at 200, 400 and 800 Gy. Irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy had no undesirable effects on fruit quality (pulp firmness, external colour, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and sensory evaluations). Irradiation of 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears can be applied as a commercial quarantine treatment with a minimum absorbed dose of 200 Gy (to control codling moth and Oriental fruit moth) and <800 Gy (according to quality results).

  10. Arthropod diversity (Arthropoda on abandoned apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Šťastná

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 and 2011, the occurrence of arthropods on apple trees without management was monitored near the village of Velké Bílovice, South Moravia, in two selected localities (an abandoned apple tree orchard and a road apple tree alley. Arthropods in tree tops were killed using deltamehtrin applied with a fogger (Puls Fog. Each collection always contained the material from 5 trees in each site. In 2010, three collections were performed (28/4, 20/5, and 9/7, two in 2011 (11/5 and 23/6. Representatives of eleven orders were captured. Of all the orders trapped, Coleoptera was represented most frequently, the Hymenoptera and Diptera followed. In the alley, individuals of the Coleoptera (34% were caught most frequently, the Hymenoptera (19.6% and Hemiptera (17.4% followed. In the orchard, the Coleoptera (41.4% was represented most frequently, followed by the Hymenoptera (21.9% and Diptera (15%. In both the environments, species with negative economic impact were recorded (e.g. Anthonomus pyri, Tatianaerhynchites aequatus, Cydia pomonella, Rhynchites bacchus. However, a greater number of pest antagonists were also found (Scambus pomorum, Coccinella septempunctata, Episyrphus balteatus, Pentatoma rufipes, Orius spp.. Some species were important in faunistic terms, as some critically endangered species were recorded (e.g. Dipoena erythropus, Cryptocephalus schaefferi, and the Plectochorus iwatensis species was recorded for the first time in the Czech Republic.

  11. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Celina I.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Kairiyama, Eulogia

    2009-07-01

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth ( Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  12. Gamma irradiation: effect of dose and dose rate on development of mature codling moth larvae and adult eclosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Toba, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae infest apples, pears and many other fruits and nuts. Mature, nondiapausing, cocooned larvae in fiberboard strips were exposed to γ-irradiation at applied doses ranging from 0 to 98 Gy and dose rates from 0.77 to 204.4 Gy/min and subsequently held to permit further development, pupation and adult emergence. At or above an applied dose of 58 Gy, many of the adults that emerged were physically deformed and most were males. As the applied dose increased from 44 to 98 Gy, the percentage of normal adults decreased, the primary effect shifting from a higher percentage of abnormal adults, pupal mortality, to larval mortality. The effects were more pronounced at higher than at lower dose rates. Insect development apparently was not affected when larvae were irradiated at applied doses up to 31.7 Gy. Significantly more adults emerged when larvae were treated at low dose rates (1.0 Gy/min) than at higher dose rates (204 Gy/min). A rate of 52.2 Gy/min was more effective at preventing adult emergence than rates of 1, 4.4 or 201.5 Gy/min. (author)

  13. Gamma irradiation: effect of dose and dose rate on development of mature codling moth larvae and adult eclosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Toba, H.H. (Department of Agriculture, Yakima, WA (USA). Agricultural Research Lab.); Hungate, F.P. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae infest apples, pears and many other fruits and nuts. Mature, nondiapausing, cocooned larvae in fiberboard strips were exposed to {gamma}-irradiation at applied doses ranging from 0 to 98 Gy and dose rates from 0.77 to 204.4 Gy/min and subsequently held to permit further development, pupation and adult emergence. At or above an applied dose of 58 Gy, many of the adults that emerged were physically deformed and most were males. As the applied dose increased from 44 to 98 Gy, the percentage of normal adults decreased, the primary effect shifting from a higher percentage of abnormal adults, pupal mortality, to larval mortality. The effects were more pronounced at higher than at lower dose rates. Insect development apparently was not affected when larvae were irradiated at applied doses up to 31.7 Gy. Significantly more adults emerged when larvae were treated at low dose rates (1.0 Gy/min) than at higher dose rates (204 Gy/min). A rate of 52.2 Gy/min was more effective at preventing adult emergence than rates of 1, 4.4 or 201.5 Gy/min. (author).

  14. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisley, Rebecca K; Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south-eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south-eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  15. N-Butyl sulfide as an attractant and coattractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Peter J; Ohler, Bonnie; Lo, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S; Suckling, David M; Brunner, Jay

    2014-04-01

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear ester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are among those chemicals reported to attract or enhance attractiveness to codling moth. We evaluated the trapping of codling moth with N-butyl sulfide alone and in combination with acetic acid and pear ester in apple orchards. Acetic acid was attractive in two tests and N-butyl sulfide was attractive in one of two tests. N-Butyl sulfide increased catches of codling moth when used with acetic acid to bait traps. N-Butyl sulfide also increased catches of codling moth when added to traps baited with the combination of acetic acid and pear ester. Male and female codling moth both responded to these chemicals and chemical combinations. These results provide a new three-component lure comprising N-butyl sulfide, acetic acid, and pear ester that is stronger for luring codling moth females than other attractants tested.

  16. Separating the attractant from the toxicant improves attract-and-kill of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Gut, Larry J; Miller, James R

    2013-10-01

    The behavior of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), responding to three attract-and-kill devices was compared in flight tunnel experiments measuring attraction and duration of target contact. Placing a 7.6 by 12.6 cm card immediately upwind of a rubber septum releasing pheromone, dramatically increased the duration on the target to > 60 s. In this setting, nearly all the males flew upwind, landed on the card first, and spent the majority of time searching the card. In contrast, male codling moths spent 90% of males contacting the paper were knocked down 2 h after voluntary exposure. These findings suggest that past attempts to combine insecticide directly with sex pheromones into a small paste, gel, or other forms of dollops are ill-advised because moths are likely over-exposed to pheromone and vacate the target before obtaining a lethal dose of insecticide. It is better to minimize direct contact with the concentrated pheromone while enticing males to extensively search insecticide-treated surface nearby the lure.

  17. Regulatory Innovation, Mating Disruption and 4-Play(TM) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Walker, James T S

    2016-07-01

    Straight-chained lepidopteran pheromones are now regulated under a group standard in New Zealand, which is generic for moth pheromone products of similar low risk, under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act (1996). This means that compliant new pheromone products can be developed and commercialized with low regulatory requirements. This encourages innovation and supports fruit industries interested in meeting export phytosanitary standards, while targeting low or nil residues of pesticides. Changes to pheromone blends for reasons such as technical improvements or variations in pest species composition in different crops can be made with minimal regulatory involvement. We illustrate how this system now operates with a four species mating disruption product commercialized in 2012. The odors involved in "4-Play™" consist of a range of components used by codling moth (Cydia pomonella), lightbrown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), green-headed leafroller (Planotortrix octo), and brown-headed leafroller (Ctenopseustis obliquana). The development of 4-Play™ illustrates how mating disruption of insects can support industry goals.

  18. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Peisley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds active in apple orchards in south–eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests or negatively (e.g., crop damage to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south–eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella larvae (a major pest in apple crops. We found that: (1 excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2 bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples; and (3 when trading off the potential benefits (biological control with costs (bird damage to apples, birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  19. Investigations on the use of the sterile male technique for the control of codling moth in an integrated pest control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, K.

    1978-10-01

    The diapause of the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella L., was studied in relation to various altitudes of origin. Altitudes of 350 m and 1300 m above sea level showed that low-altitude moths had a longer diapause. Altitude appears to affect the duration of larval diapause. Biological control by virus-induced granulosis was investigated, using 3 to 4 applications of the virus per tree per season, at the rate of 2x10 11 to 9x10 11 virus capsules per application. Codling moth infestation was reduced by 74.2% to 88.2%. Trichomma enecator and Ascogaster quadridentatus Wesm., both parasites of the codling moth, were both colonized in the laboratory, and population dynamics are being studied. Copulatory behaviour in the males of A. quadridentatus is elicited primarily by pheromones produced by the female. Males emit some sounds which appear primarily intended to convey territorial rights to other males. The frequencies produced by males and by females differ. Codling moth odours stimulate females to oviposit. The effect of pesticides on parasitation is being studied. Details of a planned mass-rearing facility for lepidopteran and other pests are given

  20. Respiratory response of fifth-instar codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to rapidly changing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, L G

    1998-02-01

    Fifth-instar codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to 10 simulated heat treatments of apples and pears and CO2 levels were monitored as a measure of respiration. Marked increases in respiration rates (microliter CO2/mg/min) were noted during these treatments. Respiration peaked between 3.5 and 4.8 microliters CO2/mg/min; the amount of time to peak respiration depended on the heating rate and was correlated to the LT95. No differences were observed between male and female larvae in the timing of the peaks of CO2 production. In treatments where mortality occurred, CO2 levels dropped to zero, but only after a considerable time after death. Respiratory recovery rates, the time it took for CO2 levels to return to normal, were recorded after treatments at time points where CO2 production reached 3/4 and maximum peak. Respiration rates at constant temperatures were recorded within the range of 10-30 degrees C. Q10 over this range was 1.49, whereas Q10 was the greatest, 2.54, between 10 and 15 degrees C.

  1. Determination of areas with the most significant shift in persistence of pests in Europe under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Eva; Trnka, Miroslav; Dubrovský, Martin; Semerádová, Daniela; Eitzinger, Josef; Stěpánek, Petr; Zalud, Zdeněk

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to estimate the impact of climate change on the ranges of crop pest species in Europe. The organisms included in the study were species from the family Tortricidae (Cydia pomonella, Lobesia botrana) and the family Pyralidae (Ostrinia nubilalis), Chrysomelidae beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Oulema melanopus) and species from the family Aphididae (Ropalosiphum padi, Sitobion avenae). Climate conditions in the year 2055 were simulated using a subset of five representative global circulation models. Model simulations using these climate change scenarios showed significant shifts in the climatic niches of the species in this study. For Central Europe, the models predicted a shift in the ranges of pest species to higher altitudes and increases in the number of generations (NG) of the pests. In contrast, in the southern regions of Europe, the NG is likely to decrease owing to insufficient humidity. The ranges of species are likely to shift to the north. Based on the ensemble-scenario mean for 2055, a climate-driven northward shift of between 3° N (O. nubilalis) and 11° N (L. botrana) is expected. The areas that are most sensitive to experiencing a significant increase in climate suitability for future pest persistence were identified. These areas include Central Europe, the higher altitudes of the Alps and Carpathians and areas above 55° N. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Neural coding merges sex and habitat chemosensory signals in an insect herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trona, Federica; Anfora, Gianfranco; Balkenius, Anna; Bengtsson, Marie; Tasin, Marco; Knight, Alan; Janz, Niklas; Witzgall, Peter; Ignell, Rickard

    2013-06-07

    Understanding the processing of odour mixtures is a focus in olfaction research. Through a neuroethological approach, we demonstrate that different odour types, sex and habitat cues are coded together in an insect herbivore. Stronger flight attraction of codling moth males, Cydia pomonella, to blends of female sex pheromone and plant odour, compared with single compounds, was corroborated by functional imaging of the olfactory centres in the insect brain, the antennal lobes (ALs). The macroglomerular complex (MGC) in the AL, which is dedicated to pheromone perception, showed an enhanced response to blends of pheromone and plant signals, whereas the response in glomeruli surrounding the MGC was suppressed. Intracellular recordings from AL projection neurons that transmit odour information to higher brain centres, confirmed this synergistic interaction in the MGC. These findings underscore that, in nature, sex pheromone and plant odours are perceived as an ensemble. That mating and habitat cues are coded as blends in the MGC of the AL highlights the dual role of plant signals in habitat selection and in premating sexual communication. It suggests that the MGC is a common target for sexual and natural selection in moths, facilitating ecological speciation.

  3. Preliminary survey for entomopathogenic fungi associated with Ixodes scapularis>/i> (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern New York and New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, Elyes; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Humber, Richard A.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living larval, nymphal, and adult Ixodes scapularis Say were collected from scattered locales in southern New England and New York to determine infection rates with entomopathogenic fungi. Infection rates of larvae, nymphs, males, and females were 0% (571), 0% (272), 0% (57), and 4.3% (47), respectively. Two entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from field-collected I. scapularis females from Fire Island, NY. Isolates were identified as Verticillium lecanii (Zimmermann) Viegas and Verticillium sp. (a member of the Verticillium lecanii species complex).Ixodes scapularis Say is the principal vector of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner (Burgdorfer et al. 1982, Johnson et al. 1984), the etiologic agent of Lyme disease in the northeastern and upper-midwestern United States. Control of I. scapularis is based on chemical treatment (Mather et al. 1987b; Schulze et al. 1987, 1991), environmental management (Wilson et al. 1988, Schulze et al. 1995), and habitat modification (Wilson 1986). These methods have shown variable success, and some potentially have negative environmental effects (Wilson and Deblinger 1993, Ginsberg 1994).Studies concerning natural predators, parasitoids, and pathogens of I. scapularis are rare. The use of ground-dwelling birds as tick predators has had only limited success (Duffy et al. 1992). Nymphal I. scapularis are often infected with the parasitic wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Howard) (Mather et al. 1987a, Hu et al. 1993, Stafford et al. 1996, Hu and Hyland 1997), but this wasp does not effectively control I. scapularis populations (Stafford et al. 1996). The entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and S. glaseri (Steiner) are pathogenic only to engorged female I. scapularis, and thus have limited applicability (Zhioua et al. 1995). In contrast, the entomogenous fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin is highly pathogenic to all stages of I. scapularis, unfed as well as engorged

  4. Luta biotécnica contra as principais pragas da nogueira Biothecnical methods for the control of main pests of walnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Patanita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As preocupações e dificuldades sentidas pelos agricultores no combate às principais pragas da nogueira, o bichado (Cydia pomonella L. e a broca (Zeuzera pyrina L., conjugadas com a crescente preocupação com a qualidade alimentar, fomentou o interesse e o desenvolvimento de novos meios de luta que constituam verdadeiras alternativas à utilização sistemática, e muitas vezes irracional, de agro-químicos. A luta biotécnica, e mais concretamente a técnica da confusão sexual, surge como uma alternativa viável, uma vez que não existem, de momento, métodos biológicos ou culturais eficazes no controlo destas pragas. Este método de luta reduz gradualmente a população da praga, não deposita resíduos sobre os frutos, não origina fenómenos de resistência e não perturba a fauna auxiliar, facilitando a protecção da cultura contra pragas secundárias como ácaros [Panonychus ulmi (Koch] e afídeos [Panaphis juglandis (Goeze, Chromaphis juglandicola (Kaltenbach]. Neste trabalho serão apresentados e discutidos alguns resultados obtidos com a utilização do método da confusão sexual durante os anos de 2002 a 2004. Estes resultados apontam para uma elevada eficácia do método, principalmente no combate à broca dos ramos, uma vez que relativamente ao bichado, os níveis de infestação verificados ao longo dos três anos foram relativamente baixos. É evidente o decréscimo dos níveis populacionais de ambas as pragas ao longo dos anos em ensaio. Os níveis de infestação, não sendo elevados foram sempre inferiores nas parcelas em confusão sexual, notando-se também o seu decréscimo ao longo dos anos.The concerns and difficulties felt by the farmers to control the main pests of walnut, the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L. and the leopard moth (Zeuzera pyrina L., together with the growing concern about food quality, increased the interest on and the development of, new control methods that constitute real alternatives to the

  5. Semiochemical Strategies for Tortricid Moth Control in Apple Orchards and Vineyards in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Lucchi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    - This review summarizes work done in Italy in taking semiochemical-based management of orchard and vineyard pests from the research and development stage to successful commercial deployment. Mating disruption (MD) of codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM) was originally introduced into the Trentino-South Tyrol areas to address the development of CM resistance to insecticides, particularly insect growth regulators (IGRs), and to mitigate the conflict at the rural/urban interface related to the extensive use of insecticides. Although the mountainous terrain of the area was not optimal for the efficacy of MD, commitment and determination led to the rapid adoption of MD technology throughout the region. Grower cooperatives and their field consultants were strongly influential in convincing growers to accept MD technology. Public research institutions conducted extensive research and education, and provided credible assessments of various MD technologies. By 2016, the deployment of MD in effective area-wide strategies in apple (22,100 ha) and grapes (10,450 ha), has resulted in better control of tortricid moth pests and a substantial decrease in insecticide use. Collaboration between the research community and the pheromone industry has resulted in the development of increasingly effective single-species dispensers, as well as multi-species dispensers for the control of both target and secondary pests. Over the last 20 years, hand-applied reservoir dispensers have shown excellent efficacy in both apple and grapes. Recently, aerosol dispensing systems have been shown to be effective in apple orchards. Further research is needed on the efficacy of aerosols in vineyards before the technology can be widely adopted. The successful implementation of MD in apple and grape production in Trentino-South Tyrol is expediting adoption of the technology in other Italian fruit production regions.

  6. Identification of Host Fruit Volatiles from Snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), Attractive to Rhagoletis zephyria Flies from the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Olsson, Shannon B; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Mattsson, Monte; Schwarz, Dietmar; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2017-02-01

    A mixture of behaviorally active volatiles was identified from the fruit of snowberry, Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus, for Rhagoletis zephyria flies reared from snowberry fruit. A nine-component blend containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol (3%), dimethyl trisulfide (1%), 1-octen-3-ol (40%), myrcene (8%), nonanal (9%), linalool (13%), (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT, 6%), decanal (15%), and β-caryophyllene (5%) was identified that gave consistent electroantennogram activity and was behaviorally active in flight tunnel tests. In other flight tunnel assays, snowberry flies from two sites in Washington state, USA, displayed significantly greater levels of upwind oriented flight to sources with the snowberry volatile blend compared with previously identified volatile blends from domestic apple (Malus domestica) and downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) fruit from the eastern USA, and domestic apple, black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) from Washington state. Selected subtraction assays showed that whereas removal of DMNT or 1-octen-3-ol significantly reduced the level of upwind flight, removal of myrcene and β-caryophyllene, or dimethyl trisulfide alone did not significantly affect the proportion of upwind flights. Our findings add to previous studies showing that populations of Rhagoletis flies infesting different host fruit are attracted to unique mixtures of volatile compounds specific to their respective host plants. Taken together, the results support the hypothesis that differences among flies in their behavioral responses to host fruit odors represent key adaptations involved in sympatric host plant shifts, contributing to host specific mating and generating prezygotic reproductive isolation among members of the R. pomonella sibling species complex.

  7. Relationship between behavior and physiology in an invasive pest species: oviposition site selection and temperature-dependent development of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter-Hausmann, Claudia; Dorn, Silvia

    2010-04-01

    Oviposition site selection is crucial for the reproductive success of a herbivore insect species with relatively sedentary larvae. The optimal oviposition theory, i.e., the preference-performance hypothesis, has thus far mainly been tested with a focus on nutritional quality of the host. This study investigates whether female oriental fruit moth Grapholita (Cydia) molesta choose a microhabitat for oviposition characterized by a temperature range within which their offspring perform best. Thermal preferences of females during oviposition were assessed in a circular temperature gradient arena. Offspring performance and survival were assessed under different constant temperature conditions. Females preferred oviposition sites of approximately 30 degrees C over lower and higher temperatures. At this temperature, egg, larval, and pupal development was significantly faster than at 22 and 25 degrees C, and larval development was also faster than at 33 degrees C. At 30 degrees C and at the lower temperatures tested, survival of eggs and larvae was significantly higher than at 33 degrees C, whereas development was precluded at 35 degrees C. Furthermore, female pupal weight attained at 30 and 33 degrees C exceeded that reached at the lower temperatures tested. Considering the potentially reduced predation risk caused by the shorter developmental time of eggs and larvae, the laboratory data suggest that this species maximizes its fitness by selecting a thermally optimal environment for its offspring, supporting the optimal oviposition theory. Conversely, it is known that the codling moth (C. pomonella) lacks a mechanism to avoid temperatures lethal to progeny development, which may reflect the differences in geographic ranges of these tortricids.

  8. Use of glacial acetic acid to enhance bisexual monitoring of tortricid pests with kairomone lures in pome fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Hilton, R; Basoalto, E; Stelinski, L L

    2014-12-01

    Studies were conducted to assess glacial acetic acid (GAA) with various host plant volatiles (HPVs) and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8, 10-dodecadien-1-ol, of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L), as lures in traps for tortricid pests that often co-occur in tree fruits in the western United States. In addition to codling moth, field trapping studies were conducted with oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), obliquebanded leafroller Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), the leafroller Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the eyespotted budmoth, Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller). HPVs included ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester), (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, butyl hexanoate, (E)-β-ocimene, (E)-β-farnesene, and farnesol. Three types of GAA co-lures differing in a 10-fold range in weekly evaporation rates were tested. The evaporation rate of GAA co-lures was an important factor affecting moth catches. The highest rate tested captured fewer codling moth but more leafrollers and eyespotted budmoth. GAA co-lures caught both sexes of each species. The field life of butyl hexanoate and (E)-β-ocimene lures were much shorter than pear ester or sex pheromone lures. Adding GAA to pear ester or to (E)-β-ocimene significantly increased the catches of only codling moth or oriental fruit moth, respectively. Combining pear ester or (E)-β-ocimene with GAA did not affect the catch of either species compared with the single more attractive HPV. Adding HPVs to GAA did not increase the catches of either leafroller species or eyespotted budmoth. Traps baited with pear ester, sex pheromone, and GAA for monitoring codling moth were also effective in classifying pest pressure of both leafroller species within orchards.

  9. Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in peaches and nectarines using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda M; Obenland, David

    2006-10-01

    Two high-temperature, forced air treatments under controlled atmosphere conditions, called CATTS for controlled atmosphere/temperature treatment system, were developed for control of all life stages of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), infesting peaches and nectarines (both Prunus spp.). These treatments were used in efficacy and confirmation tests to kill > 5,000 fourth instar oriental fruit moths and > 30,000 fourth instar codling moths with zero survivors. The treatments consist of linear heating rates of either 12 or 24 degrees C/h to a final chamber temperature under a 1% O2, 15% CO2, and > 90% RH atmosphere with air speed between 1.2 and 2.0 m/s. At a 12 degrees C linear chamber heating rate, treatment takes approximately 3 h to reach a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C. The average lowest core temperatures of the fruit reached 43.8 degrees C within the last 30 min of the treatment. At a 24 degrees C linear chamber heating rate, it takes approximately 2.5 h to reach a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C. The average lowest core temperatures of the fruit reached 44.6 degrees C for the last 15 min of the treatment. It also was determined that both treatments did not significantly alter the quality parameters that were evaluated to a degree that would have negatively influenced the marketability of the fruit. Positive benefits of treatment included a slower ripening of treated fruit and an inhibition of the loss of juiciness during storage in some cultivars. These treatments may be used to replacement to methyl bromide fumigation for conventional fruit or as a new treatment for organic fruit contingent upon importing country approval.

  10. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs.

  11. Toxicity and residual activity of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide to codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G; Long, John W

    2004-08-01

    A series of studies were conducted to examine the residual activity and toxicity of the ecdysone agonists tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in North Carolina apple systems. Methoxyfenozide exhibited greater activity than tebufenozide against codling moth eggs in dose-response bioassays, with a 4.5- and 5.3-fold lower LC50 value to eggs laid on fruit treated before or after oviposition, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs were 57- and 12-fold less sensitive to methoxyfenozide than were codling moth eggs on fruit treated before and after oviposition, respectively. Methoxyfenozide was effective in reducing larval entries of both codling moth and oriental fruit moth in field residual activity bioassays, exhibiting activity for at least 28 d after application. Residue breakdown on fruit was approximately 80% at 28 d after treatment for both methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, with the most rapid residue decline (60%) occurring during the first 14 d after application. Two applications of methoxyfenozide applied at 14-d intervals provided better canopy coverage and higher residue levels than one application. Spray volume (683 versus 2,057 liters/ha) did not affect the efficacy of methoxyfenozide. Leaf and fruit expansion during the season was measured to determine potential plant-growth dilution effects on residual activity. There was very little increase in leaf area after mid May, but increase in fruit surface area over the season was described by a second order polynomial regression. Implications for codling moth and oriental fruit moth management programs are discussed.

  12. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Naithani, Kusum J; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2016-01-01

    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  13. Population dynamics and flight phenology model of codling moth differ between commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight and egg-hatch allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e.,1970’s model. In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  14. Quality of 'Brightwell' and 'Tifblue' blueberries after gamma irradiation for quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Blueberries must be subjected to a quarantine treatment of methyl bromide fumigation when shipped to certain domestic or export markets. The principle insects that inhibit distribution of blueberries are the apple maggot [Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)], blueberry maggot (R. mendax Curran), and plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)]. Methyl bromide fumigation is the only approved quarantine treatment for blueberries and it is scheduled to be phased out by the year 2001. Highbush blueberries’ tolerance to low-dose irradiation is cultivar-dependent (Eaton et al., 1970). Two main cultivars grown in Florida, ‘Climax’ and ‘Sharpblue’, will tolerate irradiation up to 0.75 kGy without loss of fruit market quality (Miller et al., 1994a, 1994b, 1995). A 1.0-kGy dose is the maximum allowed (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1986) for treatment of fresh fruit or vegetables, and reportedly (personal communications, J. Sharp and G. Hallman) »0.3 kGy is sufficient for control of blueberry insects requiring quarantine certification. Two or three times the minimum dose may, however, be required to assure that the minimum dose is absorbed by all berries during commercial application. Therefore, it is most important to determine the tolerance of berries to irradiation stress. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of low-dose irradiation on the quality and condition of ‘Brightwell’ and ‘Tifblue’, two major rabbiteye cultivars grown in Georgia. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (P £ 0.05) on a split-block experimental design, with harvest dates for ‘Brightwell’, and randomized sample sets as replications for ‘Tifblue’ berries. The data were tested for the main effect of irradiation dosage on quality attributes

  15. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Effect of Over-Tree Evaporative Cooling in Orchards on Microclimate and Accuracy of Insect Model Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Ute; Jones, Vincent P

    2015-12-01

    Orchard design and management practices can alter microclimate and, thus, potentially affect insect development. If sufficiently large, these deviations in microclimate can compromise the accuracy of phenology model predictions used in integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Sunburn causes considerable damage in the Pacific Northwest, United States, apple-producing region. Common prevention strategies include the use of fruit surface protectants, evaporative cooling (EC), or both. This study focused on the effect of EC on ambient temperatures and model predictions for four insects (codling moth, Cydia pomonella L.; Lacanobia fruitworm, Lacanobia subjuncta Grote and Robinson; oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana Harris; and Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott). Over-tree EC was applied in July and August when daily maximum temperatures were predicted to be ≥30°C between 1200-1700 hours (15/15 min on/off interval) in 2011 and between 1200-1800 hours (15/10 min on/off interval, or continuous on) in 2012. Control plots were sprayed once with kaolin clay in early July. During interval and continuous cooling, over-tree cooling reduced average afternoon temperatures compared with the kaolin treatment by 2.1-3.2°C. Compared with kaolin-treated controls, codling moth and Lacanobia fruitworm egg hatch in EC plots was predicted to occur up to 2 d and 1 d late, respectively. The presence of fourth-instar oblique-banded leafroller and Pandemis leafroller was predicted to occur up to 2 d and 1 d earlier in EC plots, respectively. These differences in model predictions were negligible, suggesting that no adjustments in pest management timing are needed when using EC in high-density apple orchards. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The genome of the Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Martin; Jehle, Johannes A.

    2003-01-01

    The genome of the Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV) was sequenced and analyzed. The double-stranded circular genome contains 110,907 bp and potentially encodes 129 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), 124 of which were similar to other baculovirus ORFs. Five ORFs were CrleGV specific and 26 ORFs were common to other granulovirus genomes. One ORF showed a significant similarity to a nonstructural protein of Bombyx mori densovirus-2. A baculovirus chitinase gene was identified, which is most likely not functional, because its central coding region including the conserved chitinase active site signature is deleted. Three gene copies (Crle20, 23, and 24) containing the Baculo PEP N domain of the polyhedron envelope protein were identified in CrleGV and other GV genomes. One of them (Crle23) appeared also to contain a p10-like sequence encoding of a number of leucine-rich heptad repeats and a proline-rich domain. Another striking feature of the genome is the presence of a hypervariable non-hr ori-like region of about 1800 bp consisting of different kinds of repeats and palindromes. Three other repeat-rich regions were identified within the genome and are considered as homologous regions (hrs). CrleGV is most closely related to the Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) as revealed by genome order comparisons and phylogenetic analyses. However, the AT content of the CrleGV genome, which is 67.6% and the highest found so far in baculoviruses, differed by 12.8% from the AT content of CpGV. This resulted in a major difference in the codon usage of both viruses and may reflect adaptive selection constraints to their particular hosts

  18. Chromosomal evolution in tortricid moths: conserved karyotypes with diverged features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindra Síchová

    Full Text Available Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n = 31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n = 30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n = 28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute

  19. Modeling codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae phenology and predicting egg hatch in apple orchards of the Maule Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barros-Parada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted in the Maule Region to characterize the phenology of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L. The Predictive Extension Timing Estimator (PETE and a logistic phenological model were validated with eight data sets of cumulative moth catches in sex pheromone (PH and kairomone-baited traps and the cumulative occurrence of fruit injuries from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards during the 2009-2011 seasons. Second, the start of egg hatch was predicted from the first sustained male and female moth catches (biofix in traps baited with pear ester (PE, PE+acetic acid (AA, PE+PH, and PH alone. Both phenological models fit data well except that the logistic provided a better fit than the PETE model of the phenology of egg hatch of the codling moth in the first generation, with a difference of 11 d between models in the prediction of 50% egg hatch. No significant difference was found between biofix dates established for males using either PH or PE+PH lures or for the biofix date based on female catches with PE+AA or PH+PE. The biofix established with the sustained female catch occurred nearly 11 d later than the male-based biofix. The use of a female biofix provided on average a 4-d improvement in the prediction of first egg hatch compared with the traditional use of a male biofix, but this difference was not significant. The use of PE+AA lures increased the proportion of cases when a female-based biofix could be established compared with the use of the PH+PE lure.

  20. Consultants Group Meeting on Improvement of Codling Moth SIT to Facilitate Expansion of Field Application. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    SIT currently has only limited application in Lepidoptera control. Prospects for improvement of the technique however are good, and the species with the best immediate prospect is the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). Codling moth is the key pest of most apple and pear orchards in the world and the cause of intensive insecticide use during the whole fruiting season. As a result of increasing development of insecticide resistance in codling moth, the banning of essential insecticides, as well as public concerns about the environment and food safety, the Subprogramme continues to receive enquiries from a number of countries as to the applicability of SIT as a suppression method for this species. SIT is currently used as part of areawide codling moth control in British Columbia, Canada and in the border area with Washington State, USA. The SIT can be integrated with a number of other techniques, including mating disruption as in the trial in Washington State. The Canadian programme is co-funded by growers, local and national government. The programme is proving effective at controlling the moth in an environmental friendly way. Currently the programme is only financially attractive with government subsidy although in view of the replacement of insecticide use with SIT, growers will be able to access the rapidly growing and very lucrative market for organic fruit. A new CRP is proposed with the objective of improving the efficiency of all stages of the SIT for codling moth. This will cover reducing the cost of production, product and process quality control, genetic sexing, strain compatibility and field monitoring among others.

  1. A conserved odorant receptor detects the same 1-indanone analogs in a tortricid and a noctuid moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eGonzalez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Odorant receptors (ORs interface animals with airborne chemical signals. They are under strong selection pressure and are therefore highly divergent in different taxa. Yet, some OR orthologs are highly conserved. These ORs may be tuned to odorants of broad importance, across species boundaries. Two widely distributed lepidopteran herbivores, codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae feeding in apples and pears, and the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae, a moth feeding on foliage of a wide range of herbaceous plants, both express a receptor ortholog, OR19, which shares 58% amino acid identity and 69% amino acid similarity. Following heterologous expression in the empty neuron system of Drosophila melanogaster, we show by single sensillum recordings that CpomOR19 and SlitOR19 show similar affinity to several substituted indanes. Tests with a series of compounds structurally related to 1-indanone show that 2-methyl-1-indanone, 2-ethyl-1-indanone, 3-methyl-1-indanone and 1-indanone elicit a strong response from both ORs. A keto group in position 1 is essential for biological activity and so are both rings of the indane skeleton. However, there is an important difference in steric complementary of the indane rings and the receptor. Methyl substituents on the benzene ring largely suppressed the response. On the other hand, alkyl substituents at position 2 and 3 of the five-membered ring increased the response indicating a higher complementarity with the receptor cavity, in both CpomOR19 and SlitOR19. Our results demonstrate a conserved function of an odorant receptor in two moths that are phylogenetically and ecologically distant. It is conceivable that a conserved OR is tuned to signals that are relevant for both species, although their ecological roles are yet unknown. Our finding demonstrates that functional characterization of ORs leads to the discovery of novel semiochemicals that have not yet been found through chemical

  2. Comparative Effect of Three Neurotoxic Insecticides With Different Modes of Action on Adult Males and Females of Three Tortricid Moth Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Roldán, Miguel A; Avilla, Jesús; Bosch, Dolors; Valls, Joan; Gemeno, César

    2017-08-01

    Insecticides are the dominant pest management method in fruit and vegetable crops worldwide owing to their quick effect, low cost, and relatively easy application, but they bear negative effects on human health and the environment. Insecticide mode of action (MoA), target species, and sex are variables that could affect insecticide-induced mortality. We recorded the mortality caused by three neurotoxic insecticides with different modes of action (chlorpyrifos [organophosphate, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor], λ-cyhalothrin [pyrethroid, sodium channel modulator], and thiacloprid [neonicotinoid, nicotinic acetylcholinesterase receptor agonist]) applied topically to adult males and females of three economically important tortricid species [Cydia pomonella (L.), Grapholita molesta (Busck), and Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller)] that strongly depend on insecticide use for their control. Concentration and dose-mortality curves were recorded at 24 and 48 h postapplication. Large mortality differences between insecticides (maximum 7,800-fold for LD50) were followed by much lower, yet important, differences between species (maximum 115-fold), and sexes (maximum 41.5-fold). Significant interactions between the three factors indicate that they are not independent from each other. Interestingly, with the organophosphate chlorpyrifos, males of the three species were less susceptible than females, which was unexpected, as females are larger than males. Higher female sensitivity to organophosphates has been reported previously but only in G. molesta, not in other moth species. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account sex in dose-mortality studies with adult moths. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Potential for Using Acetic Acid Plus Pear Ester Combination Lures to Monitor Codling Moth in an SIT Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. R. Judd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted in commercial apple orchards in British Columbia, Canada, to determine whether lures combining ethyl-(E,Z-2,4-decadienoate, pear ester (PE, with either acetic acid (AA or sex pheromone, (E,E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone, might improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L., in an area-wide programme integrating sterile insect technology (SIT and mating disruption (MD. Catches of sterile and wild codling moths were compared in apple orchards receiving weekly delivery of sterile moths (1:1 sex ratio using white delta traps baited with either AA or PE alone, and in combination. Sterile and wild codling moths responded similarly to these kairomone lures. For each moth sex and type (sterile and wild, AA-PE lures were significantly more attractive than AA or PE alone. Bisexual catches with AA-PE lures were compared with those of commercial bisexual lures containing 3 mg of codlemone plus 3 mg of PE (Pherocon CM-DA Combo lure, Trécé Inc., Adair, OK, USA, and to catches of males with standard codlemone-loaded septa used in SIT (1 mg and MD (10 mg programmes, respectively. CM-DA lures caught the greatest number of sterile and wild male moths in orchards managed with SIT alone, or combined with MD, whereas AA-PE lures caught 2–3× more females than CM-DA lures under both management systems. Sterile to wild (S:W ratios for male versus female moths in catches with AA-PE lures were equivalent, whereas in the same orchards, male S:W ratios were significantly greater than female S:W ratios when measured with CM-DA lures. Male S:W ratios measured with CM-DA lures were similar to those with codlemone lures. CM-DA and codlemone lures appear to overestimate S:W ratios as measured by AA-PE lures, probably by attracting relatively more sterile males from long range. Using AA-PE lures to monitor codling moths in an SIT programme removes fewer functional sterile males and reduces the need for trap maintenance compared with using

  4. Host status of fresh prunes by potential quarantine pests in laboratory tests and evaluation of packinghouse culls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, V Y; Miller, G T

    1999-04-01

    The status of fresh prunes, Prunus domestica L., as a host for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae); omnivorous leafroller, Platynota stultana Walshingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); and walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae), was investigated in laboratory tests and by examination of packinghouse culls. In laboratory no-choice tests, the mean number of adults reared per fruit was 0.01 for codling moth, 0.08 for omnivorous leafroller, 0 for oriental fruit moth, and 1.6 for navel orangeworm. In choice tests the mean number of adults reared per apple or fresh prune was for codling moth, 0.78 and 0.02 (significantly different); for omnivorous leafroller, 0.05 and 0.02; and for oriental fruit moth, 2.07 and 0 (significantly different), respectively. Walnut husk fly oviposited in fresh prunes in no-choice tests but pupae did not develop from the fruit. In choice tests, walnut husk fly did not oviposit in fresh prunes when caged with its normal host, green walnuts, in which large numbers of pupae developed. Inspection of packinghouse culls for immature insects showed that fresh prunes with possible larval feeding sites in the form of frass or fruit gum extrusions were lighter in weight, significantly less firm, similar in color, and had significantly higher soluble solids than noninfested fruit. Based on packinghouse cull samples, 1 fresh prune per 133 harvested fruit would be expected to show possible insect damage. Eleven peach twig borer larvae were found in fresh prune cull samples (213.9 kg) removed from a 16,744.5-kg harvest. The calculated level of infestation was 1 infested fruit per 8,501.8 fruit harvested or per 21.7 cartons of medium-sized packed fruit. Based on our results, the risk of

  5. Sprayable microencapsulated sex pheromone formulations for mating disruption of four tortricid species: effects of application height, rate, frequency, and sticker adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelinski, L L; McGhee, P; Haas, M; Il'ichev, A L; Gut, L J

    2007-08-01

    Several application parameters of microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulations were manipulated to determine their impact on efficacy of disruption for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris); and redbanded leafroller, Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker). Depending on the experiment, the formulations evaluated were those formerly manufactured by 3M Canada (London, ON, Canada) or those that are currently available from Suterra LLC (Bend, OR). The efficacy of MEC formulations applied by air-blast sprayer evenly throughout the entire canopy of 2-3-m-tall apple (Malus spp.) trees was equivalent to treatments in which targeted applications of MECs were made to the lower or upper 1.5 m of the canopy (at equivalent overall rates) for oriental fruit moth and both leafroller species. The realized distribution of deposited microcapsules within the tree canopy corresponded well with the intended heights of application within the canopy. The additional coapplication of the pine resin sticker Nu-Film 17 increased efficacy but not longevity of MEC formulations for oriental fruit moth; this adjuvant had no added effects for codling moth or leafroller formulations. Increasing the rate of active ingredient (AI) per hectare by 20-30-fold (range 2.5-75.0 g/ha) did not improve the disruption efficacy of MECs for codling moth or either leafroller species when both low and high rates were applied at equivalent frequencies per season. A low-rate, high-frequency (nine applications per season) application protocol was compared with a standard protocol in which two to three applications were made per season, once before each moth generation for each species. The low-rate, high-frequency protocol resulted in equivalent or better disruption efficacy for each moth species, despite using two-fold less total AI per hectare per season with the former treatment. The low-rate, frequent

  6. Area-wide population suppression of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, C.O.; Knight, A.L.; Richardson, G.; Bloem, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The area-wide pest population control concept began with E.F. Knipling (1979) in the 1970s. Control of a pest population on individual fields does little to control the overall pest population because only a portion of the population is being affected. Expanding control tactics beyond individual farms tends to suppress the population on a wider scale and frequently results in suppression of the population for more than one year. The Agriculture Research Service (ARS) believes that this concept has not been addressed with the focus and support that it deserves. The ARS Administration made a conscious decision in 1994 to create a series of area-wide programmes funded out of ARS-based funds that had previously been used for pilot tests. These programmes involve a coordinated effort among ARS and university scientists, growers, and fieldmen for agriculture supply centres and fruit packing houses. The first area-wide programme supported by ARS was the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) suppression programme. The codling moth is the key pest of pome fruit throughout the western United States (Beers et al. 1993). About half of the insecticides applied on these crops are directed toward this pest. A non-insecticidal control technique, mating disruption (MD), is available to replace the organophosphates. Removal of the hard pesticides directed against this pest would do the most to allow natural enemies to survive and reproduce in the orchards, which in turn would have the effect of reducing secondary pests. Elimination of the pesticides would also remove much of the health risks to workers and would minimise buildup of pesticide resistance. The objectives of the Codling Moth Area-wide Program are to enhance the efficacy of the non-pesticide approach, to demonstrate that mating disruption will work if conducted properly, to develop biological technology to lower costs of control that complement mating disruption, to implement effective

  7. History of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, W.; Curtis, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    During the 1930s and 1940s the idea of releasing insects of pest species to introduce sterility (sterile insect technique or SIT) into wild populations, and thus control them, was independently conceived in three extremely diverse intellectual environments. The key researchers were A. S. Serebrovskii at Moscow State University, F. L. Vanderplank at a tsetse field research station in rural Tanganyika (now Tanzania), and E. F. Knipling of the United States Department of Agriculture. Serebrovskii's work on chromosomal translocations for pest population suppression could not succeed in the catastrophic conditions in the USSR during World War II, after which he died. Vanderplank used hybrid sterility to suppress a tsetse population in a large field experiment, but lacked the resources to develop this method further. Knipling and his team exploited H. J. Muller's discovery that ionizing radiation can induce dominant lethal mutations, and after World War II this approach was applied on an area-wide basis to eradicate the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) in the USA, Mexico, and Central America. Since then very effective programmes integrating the SIT have been mounted against tropical fruit flies, some species of tsetse flies Glossina spp., the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), and the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.). In non-isolated onion fields in the Netherlands, the onion maggot Delia antiqua (Meigen) has since 1981 been suppressed by the SIT. In the 1970s there was much research conducted on mosquito SIT, which then went into 'eclipse', but now appears to be reviving. Development of the SIT for use against the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman and the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) has ended, but it is in progress for two sweetpotato weevil species, Cylas formicarius (F.) and Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), the false codling moth Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick), the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae

  8. Management of lepidopterans through irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Dheeraj; Parvez, Asif; Kausar, Hina; Srivastava, Meera

    2012-01-01

    suppression by irradiation include Spodoptera litura, S.exigua, S.frugiperda, Helicoverpa armigera, H.zea, Pectinophora gossypiella, Diatraea saccharalis, Cydia pomonella, C.molesta, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, Ephestia kuehniella, Crocidolomia binotalis, Chilo suppressalis, Ostrinia furnacalis, O.nubilalis, Plutella xylostella and Spilosoma obliqua. (author)

  9. Estimation of the change in the harmfulness of selected pests in expected climate - European area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodova, E.; Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Semeradova, D.; Dubrovsky, M.; Sefrova, H.

    2010-09-01

    Climate change is likely to be a dominant factor affecting the lifecycle and overall occurrence of pest's species whose development is directly linked with climate conditions. This study is focused on the estimation of the potential occurrence and generation growth of selected pests causing the significant damages on the yield of crops over western part of Europe in changing climate. Modelled species involved the main pest of potato Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Say 1824), the pest of maize European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, Hubner 1796), the pest which causes the damages in orchards and decreases the yield of apples, Codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Linnaeus 1758) and Cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus, Linnaeus 1758) seriously affecting wheat production. The development of these pests' is driven mainly by temperature of the environment, which is in turn function of air temperature. The climate change is likely to lead to an earlier once and prolongation of the growing season and in the same time accelerate pests' developmental rate and will increase number of generations. Estimates of potential distribution of selected pest species for the present as well as expected climate conditions are based on the dynamical model CLIMEX. This approach exploits the expression of the overall climate suitability for the species longterm survival in terms of ecoclimatic index. The CLIMEX model was at first validated with observed data of pests' occurrences using CRU 10´ climate data set a source of climate data. All pest models listed were then used to study the effects of climate change on pests by estimating changes in population dynamics and/or infestation pressure during the first half of the 21st century. Outputs of the models were applied within the European scale in the 10´ resolution using digital terrain model. Simulations of the impacts of expected climate on the pests distribution were conducted under three global circulation models (Had

  10. Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, M.; Stoeckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Fischer, A. M.; Duffy, B.; Samietz, J.

    2012-02-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously non-affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology, depending on actual weather conditions, and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980-2009 and 2045-2074 time periods) climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045-2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern Switzerland (for most stations from roughly 1

  11. Mortalidade do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae em testes de toxicidade residual de inseticidas e acaricidas usuais em pomáceas Mortality of predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae in residual toxicity persistence tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gustavo Ruiz

    2008-12-01

    . Azimphos-methyl foi o produto que menos afetou a sobrevivência do ácaro predador. Os inseticidas testados, usados na região do "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén" para o controle de Cydia pomonella, praga-chave das culturas de pomáceas, apresentaram baixa toxicidade sobre N. californicus.Phytoseiid mites, mainly Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, are important biological control agents of Tetranychidae pest mites in pip fruit crops in the region known as "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén", Argentina. We assessed the mortality of N. californicus when exposed to residues of the insecticides azimphos-methyl, carbaryl and cyfluthrin, as well as the acaricides cyhexatin and propargite. Pear plants were sprayed up to dip-point with pesticides in their recommended label concentrations. One, 3, 6 and 10 days after application (DAA, leaves were collected from treated plants and used to establish experimental arenas. Five adult laboratory-reared N. californicus specimens were transferred into each arena which contained Southern cattail pollen as food source. Experimental arenas were kept at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and a photoperiod of 14 hours. Mite mortality was assessed 24 hours after the confinement. The completely randomized design was adopted for data statistical analysis, mortality means were compared by Dunnett's test (p < 0.05. Progression of pesticide's effect decline was submitted to regression analysis. On 1 and 3 DAA mean mortality in all of the treatments was significantly different from that of the water-treated control. On the sixth DAA, propargite, cyhexatin and cyfluthrin treatments caused about 30% mortality, while mortality levels in treatments with azimphos-methyl and carbaryl were statistically similar to that of control treatment. On the tenth DAA, mortality in none of the pesticide treatments differed from that of control. All of the pesticide treatments presented progressive decline throughout the experimental period, being significant (p < 0

  12. Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hirschi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously non-affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology, depending on actual weather conditions, and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980–2009 and 2045–2074 time periods climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045–2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern