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Sample records for carpet viper echis

  1. Randomised Controlled Double-Blind Non-Inferiority Trial of Two Antivenoms for Saw-Scaled or Carpet Viper (Echis ocellatus) Envenoming in Nigeria: e767

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isa S Abubakar; Saidu B Abubakar; Abdulrazaq G Habib; Abdulsalam Nasidi; Nandul Durfa; Peter O Yusuf; Solomon Larnyang; John Garnvwa; Elijah Sokomba; Lateef Salako; R David G Theakston; Ed Juszczak; Nicola Alder; David A Warrell; Nigeria-UK EchiTab Study Group

    2010-01-01

      Background In West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom...

  2. Randomised controlled double-blind non-inferiority trial of two antivenoms for saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) envenoming in Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abubakar, Isa S; Abubakar, Saidu B; Habib, Abdulrazaq G; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Durfa, Nandul; Yusuf, Peter O; Larnyang, Solomon; Garnvwa, John; Sokomba, Elijah; Salako, Lateef; Theakston, R David G; Juszczak, Ed; Alder, Nicola; Warrell, David A

    2010-01-01

    In West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom (ISRCTN01257358...

  3. Randomised controlled double-blind non-inferiority trial of two antivenoms for saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus envenoming in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S Abubakar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom (ISRCTN01257358. METHODS: In a randomised, double-blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial, "EchiTAb Plus-ICP" (ET-Plus equine antivenom made by Instituto Clodomiro Picado was compared to "EchiTAb G" (ET-G ovine antivenom made by MicroPharm, which is the standard of care in Nigeria and was developed from the original EchiTAb-Fab introduced in 1998. Both are caprylic acid purified whole IgG antivenoms. ET-G is monospecific for Echis ocellatus antivenom (initial dose 1 vial and ET-Plus is polyspecific for E. ocellatus, Naja nigricollis and Bitis arietans (initial dose 3 vials. Both had been screened by pre-clinical and preliminary clinical dose-finding and safety studies. Patients who presented with incoagulable blood, indicative of systemic envenoming by E. ocellatus, were recruited in Kaltungo, north-eastern Nigeria. Those eligible and consenting were randomly allocated with equal probability to receive ET-Plus or ET-G. The primary outcome was permanent restoration of blood coagulability 6 hours after the start of treatment, assessed by a simple whole blood clotting test repeated 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 hr after treatment. Secondary (safety outcomes were the incidences of anaphylactic, pyrogenic and late serum sickness-type antivenom reactions. FINDINGS: Initial doses permanently restored blood coagulability at 6 hours in 161/194 (83.0% of ET-Plus and 156/206 (75.7% of ET-G treated patients (Relative Risk [RR] 1.10 one-sided 95% CI lower limit 1.01; P = 0.05. ET-Plus caused early reactions on more occasions than did ET-G [50/194 (25.8% and 39/206 (18.9% respectively RR (1.36 one-sided 95% CI 1.86 upper limit; P = 0.06. These reactions were classified as severe in 21 (10.8% and 11 (5.3% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: At these doses, ET-Plus was

  4. Differential procoagulant effects of saw-scaled viper (Serpentes: Viperidae: Echis) snake venoms on human plasma and the narrow taxonomic ranges of antivenom efficacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, Aymeric; Soerensen, Christoffer; Op den Brouw, Bianca; Lister, Callum; Dashevsky, Daniel; Arbuckle, Kevin; Gloria, Alexandra; Zdenek, Christina N; Casewell, Nicholas R; Gutiérrez, José María; Wüster, Wolfgang; Ali, Syed A; Masci, Paul; Rowley, Paul; Frank, Nathaniel; Fry, Bryan G

    2017-10-05

    Saw-scaled vipers (genus Echis) are one of the leading causes of snakebite morbidity and mortality in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and vast regions of Asia, constituting a public health burden exceeding that of almost any other snake genus globally. Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy, owing to the action of potent procoagulant toxins, is one of the most relevant clinical manifestations of envenomings by Echis spp. Clinical experience and prior studies examining a limited range of venoms and restricted antivenoms have demonstrated for some antivenoms an extreme lack of antivenom cross-reactivity between different species of this genus, sometimes resulting in catastrophic treatment failure. This study undertook the most comprehensive testing of Echis venom effects upon the coagulation of human plasma, and also the broadest examination of antivenom potency and cross-reactivity, to-date. 10 Echis species/populations and four antivenoms (two African, two Asian) were studied. The results indicate that the venoms are, in general, potently procoagulant but that the relative dependence on calcium or phospholipid cofactors is highly variable. Additionally, three out of the four antivenoms tested demonstrated only a very narrow taxonomic range of effectiveness in preventing coagulopathy, with only the SAIMR antivenom displaying significant levels of cross-reactivity. These results were in conflict with previous studies using prolonged preincubation of antivenom with venom to suggest effective cross-reactivity levels for the ICP Echi-Tab antivenom. These findings both inform upon potential clinical effects of envenomation in humans and highlight the extreme limitations of available treatment. It is hoped that this will spur efforts into the development of antivenoms with more comprehensive coverage for bites not only from wild snakes but also from specimens widely kept in zoological collections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood Coagulation Induced by Iranian Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis Carinatus Venom: Identification, Purification and Characterization of a Prothrombin Activator

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    Mahdi Babaie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Echis carinatus is one of the venomous snakes in Iran. The venom of Iranian Echis carinatus is a rich source of protein with various factors affecting the plasma protein and blood coagulation factor. Some of these proteins exhibit types of enzymatic activities. However, other items are proteins with no enzymatic activity.   Materials and Methods: In order to study the mechanism and effect of the venom on human plasma proteins, the present study has evaluated the effect of crude venom and all fractions. A procoagulant factor (prothrombin activator was isolated from the venom of the Iranian snake Echis carinatus with a combination of gel filtration (Sephadex G-75, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE- Sepharose and reverse phase HPLC. Furthermore, proteolytic activity of the crude venom and all fractions on blood coagulation factors such as prothrombin time (PT was studied. Results: In the present study, the PT test was reduced from 13.4 s to 8.6 s when human plasma was treated with crude venom (concentraion of venom was 1 mg/ml. The purified procoagulant factor revealed a single protein band in SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis under reducing conditions and its molecular weight was estimated at about 65 kDa. A single-band protein showed fragment patterns similar to those generated by the group A prothrombin activators, which convert prothrombin into meizothrombin independent of the prothrombinase complex. Conclusion: This study showed that the fraction which separated from Iranian snake Echis carinatus venom can be a prothrombin activators. It can be concluded that this fraction is a procoagulant factor.

  6. Expanding the neutralization scope of the EchiTAb-plus-ICP antivenom to include venoms of elapids from Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Andrés; Segura, Álvaro; Vargas, Mariángela; Herrera, María; Villalta, Mauren; Estrada, Ricardo; Wu, Francisco; Litschka-Koen, Thea; Perry, Michael Alfred; Alape-Girón, Alberto; León, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    EchiTAb-plus-ICP is an antivenom prepared from plasma of horses hyperimmunized with the venoms of the carpet viper (Echis ocellatus), the puff adder (Bitis arietans) and the black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis). Therefore, the use of this antivenom has been limited to Western Africa. In order to expand the neutralization scope of EchiTAb-plus-ICP, we supplemented the immunogenic mixture with the venoms of B. arietans, the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis), the Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja mossambica), the snouted cobra (N. annulifera), and the rinkhals (Hemachatus haemachatus) from Swaziland. The ability of the expanded-scope antivenom, hereby named EchiTAb + ICP, to neutralize the venoms of B. arietans, D. polylepis, N. mossambica and H. haemachatus was similar to those of FAV Afrique and the SVA African antivenoms. In comparison to the SAIMR antivenom, the expanded-scope EchiTAb + ICP had lower ability to neutralize the venom of B. arietans, but similar ability to neutralize the venoms of D. polylepis, N. mossambica and H. haemachatus. Owing to its low protein concentration, the expanded-scope EchiTAb + ICP had lower ability to neutralize the venom of N. annulifera than FAV Afrique and the SAIMR antivenoms. However, when formulated at a protein concentration as high as FAV Afrique and SAIMR antivenoms, the expanded-scope EchiTAb + ICP showed similar capacity to neutralize this poorly immunogenic venom. Our results encourage the transition to the new EchiTAb + ICP antivenom, with an expanded neutralization scope that includes venoms of some of the most medically important elapids from Southern Africa. Clinical trials are required to determine the minimum effective-safe dose of the new EchiTAb + ICP for each type of envenomation.

  7. Serine Protease Variants Encoded by Echis ocellatus Venom Gland cDNA: Cloning and Sequencing Analysis

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    S. S. Hasson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Envenoming by Echis saw-scaled viper is the leading cause of death and morbidity in Africa due to snake bite. Despite its medical importance, there have been few investigations into the toxin composition of the venom of this viper. Here, we report the cloning of cDNA sequences encoding four groups or isoforms of the haemostasis-disruptive Serine protease proteins (SPs from the venom glands of Echis ocellatus. All these SP sequences encoded the cysteine residues scaffold that form the 6-disulphide bonds responsible for the characteristic tertiary structure of venom serine proteases. All the Echis ocellatus EoSP groups showed varying degrees of sequence similarity to published viper venom SPs. However, these groups also showed marked intercluster sequence conservation across them which were significantly different from that of previously published viper SPs. Because viper venom SPs exhibit a high degree of sequence similarity and yet exert profoundly different effects on the mammalian haemostatic system, no attempt was made to assign functionality to the new Echis ocellatus EoSPs on the basis of sequence alone. The extraordinary level of interspecific and intergeneric sequence conservation exhibited by the Echis ocellatus EoSPs and analogous serine proteases from other viper species leads us to speculate that antibodies to representative molecules should neutralise (that we will exploit, by epidermal DNA immunization the biological function of this important group of venom toxins in vipers that are distributed throughout Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent.

  8. Preclinical evaluation of three polyspecific antivenoms against the venom of Echis ocellatus: Neutralization of toxic activities and antivenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Juan J; Arias, Ana Silvia; Rodríguez, Yania; Quesada-Bernat, Sarai; Sánchez, Laura V; Chippaux, Jean Philippe; Pla, Davinia; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-09-01

    Snakebite envenoming has a heavy burden in the public health in sub-Saharan Africa. The viperid species Echis ocellatus (carpet viper or saw-scaled viper) is the medically most important snake in the savannahs of western sub-Saharan Africa. Several antivenoms are being distributed and used in this region for the treatment of envenomings by E. ocellatus, but the preclinical efficacy of some of these antivenoms has not been assessed. The present study evaluated the preclinical efficacy against E. ocellatus venom of three polyspecific antivenoms: (a) Snake Venom Antiserum (Pan Africa), manufactured by Premium Serums and Vaccines (India); (b) Snake Venom Antiserum (Africa), manufactured by VINS Bioproducts (India); and (c) Antivipmyn(®) Africa, manufactured by Instituto Bioclon (Mexico). Antivenomics analysis revealed the ability of the three antivenoms to immunocapture the majority of components of the venoms of E. ocellatus from Cameroon, Nigeria and Mali, although their maximal immunocapturing capability varied. Bioclon and Premium Serums antivenoms were effective in the neutralization of lethal, hemorrhagic and in vitro coagulant activities of the venom of E. ocellatus from Cameroon, albeit with different potencies. VINS antivenom neutralized hemorrhagic activity of this venom, but failed to neutralize lethality at the highest antivenom dose tested, and had a low neutralizing efficacy against in vitro coagulant effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Viper Plague Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    a private herpetological collection infested with ticks (Kiel et al, 2006). Viper Plague presented signs and symptoms in the reptiles that were...1. Introduction The term Viper Plague was coined for a lethal disease state seen in snakes belonging to a private herpetological collection...Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). This was performed because this particular species of rattlesnake was present in the original herpetological collection

  10. Neutralization of haemorrhagic activity of viper venoms by 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-oxo-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, Kabburalli; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Gaonkar, Santosh Laxman; Sebastin Santhosh, Martin; Suresh Kumar, Muthuvel; Basappa; Priya, Babu Shubha; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal Subbegowda; Nanjunda Swamy, Shivananju; Girish, Kesturu Subbaiah

    2011-10-01

    Viper envenomation undeniably induces brutal local manifestations such as haemorrhage, oedema and necrosis involving massive degradation of extracellular matrix at the bitten region and many a times results in dangerous systemic haemorrhage including pulmonary shock. Snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) are being considered to be the primary culprits for the venom-induced haemorrhage. As a consequence, the venom researchers and medical practitioners are in deliberate quest of SVMP inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-oxo-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile (DFD) on viper venom-induced haemorrhagic and PLA(2) activities. DFD effectively neutralized the haemorrhagic activity of the medically important viper venoms such as Echis carinatus, Echis ocelatus, Echis carinatus sochureki, Echis carinatus leakeyi and Crotalus atrox in a dose-dependent manner. The histological examinations revealed that the compound DFD effectively neutralizes the basement membrane degradation, and accumulation of inflammatory leucocytes at the site of Echis carinatus venom injection further confirms the inhibition of haemorrhagic activity. In addition, DFD dose dependently inhibited the PLA(2) activities of Crotalus atrox and E. c. leakeyi venoms. According to the docking studies, DFD binds to hydrophobic pocket of SVMP with the ki of 19.26 × 10(-9) (kcal/mol) without chelating Zn(2+) in the active site. It is concluded that the clinically approved inhibitors of haemorrhagins could be used as a potent first-aid agent in snakebite management. Furthermore, a high degree of structural and functional homology between SVMPs and their relatives, the MMPs, suggests that DFD analogues may find immense value in the regulation of multifactorial pathological conditions like inflammation, cancer and wound healing.

  11. Local and systemic toxicity of Echis carinatus venom: neutralization by Cassia auriculata L. leaf methanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjaraj Urs, A N; Yariswamy, M; Joshi, Vikram; Suvilesh, K N; Sumanth, M S; Das, Diganta; Nataraju, A; Vishwanath, B S

    2015-01-01

    Viper bites cause high morbidity and mortality especially in tropical and subtropical regions, affecting a large number of the rural population in these areas. Even though anti-venoms are available, in most cases they fail to tackle viper venom-induced local manifestations that persist even after anti-venom administration. Several studies have been reported the use of plant products and approved drugs along side anti-venom therapy for efficient management of local tissue damage. In this regard, the present study focuses on the protective efficacy of Cassia auriculata L. (Leguminosae) against Echis carinatus venom (ECV) induced toxicity. C. auriculata is a traditional medicinal plant, much valued in alternative medicine for its wide usage in ayurveda, naturopathy, and herbal therapy. Further, it has been used widely by traditional healers for treatment of snake and scorpion bites in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. In the present study, C. auriculata leaf methanol extract (CAME) significantly inhibited enzymatic activities of ECV proteases (96 ± 1 %; P = 0.001), PLA2 (45 ± 5 %; P = 0.01) and hyaluronidases (100 %; P = 0.0003) in vitro and hemorrhage, edema and myotoxicity in vivo. Further, CAME effectively reduced the lethal potency of ECV and increased the survival time of mice by ~6 times (17 vs 3 h). These inhibitory potentials of CAME towards hydrolytic enzymes, mortal and morbid symptoms of ECV toxins clearly substantiates the use by traditional healers of C. auriculata as a folk medicinal remedy for snakebite.

  12. Purification and characterization of five snake venom metalloproteinases from Egyptian Echis pyramidum pyramidum venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aty, Azza M; Wahby, Ahmed F

    2014-08-01

    New five P-III snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs): EpyB2 (62 kDa), EpyB3 (62+23 kDa), EpyB4 (60 kDa), EpyB5 (67 kDa) and EpyB6 (66 kDa) of the most dangerous viper, Echis pyramidum pyramidum (Epy), were purified and characterized in a set of biochemical assays. The SVMPs were purified by applying a protocol of two successive chromatographic steps. Three purified SVMPs "EpyB2, EpyB4, and EpyB5" have hemorrhagic activity with MHDs, 7 μg, 7.6 μg and 15 μg, respectively; furthermore, they have high preference towards fibronectin, collagen, gelatin, fibrin and hemoglobin substrates compared with non-hemorrhagic SVMPs (EpyB3 and EpyB6). All the purified SVMPs showed remarkable thermal and pH stability, inhibited by metalloproteinase inhibitors and Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), and Hg(2+). The purified SVMPs act as α-fibrinogenases, prothrombin activators and procoagulants. In conclusion, Epy venom has multiple SVMPs that are responsible for hemorrhagic events and thus represent a significant health hazard for victims of envenomation, however, they may be useful for treating diseases involving abnormal blood clot formation.

  13. Viper. [Design modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L. E. Paul; Berry, Cassie; Lamborn, Dana; Murphy, Jack; Okelly, Chris

    1993-01-01

    A Viper aircraft was redesigned with a new airfoil and engine to verify if improvements can be made to the baseline configuration. The two major redesigning processes were: replacing the baseline aircraft's NACA 652-415 airfoil with an NLF 0414 Natural Laminar Flow airfoil, and the baseline aircraft's Lycoming 0-235 engine with a Teledyne Continental GR-36 rotary combustion engine. As a result of these changes: (1) the Viper aircraft becomes smaller in most respects (gross weight, wing platform area, and horizontal tail area); (2) overall drag of the aircraft decreased (due to reduction in area and the reduced drug of the new airfoil); (3) cruise velocity, the maximum rate of climb at sea level, and takeoff distance (but not landing distance) decreased; and (4) cost increased. Although the overall drag decreased, the performance remained about the same due to the reduced horsepower available from the Teledyne Continental engine.

  14. China Corners Carpet Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEAN; O’CONNER

    2008-01-01

    Isaw an advertisement for a 30-foot by 30-foot silk Persian carpet in a pan-Middle Eastern newspaperrecently with the punch line "Ifyour palace needs it, contactus." Palaces and carpet weavers are synonymous with the oil-soaked Middle East. As an occasional collector of Oriental

  15. Maintenance Manual for Carpets Made with Du Pont Carpet Nylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Pont Corp., Wilmington, DE.

    Information is divided into the following sections--(1) the selection of nylon carpet, (2) the advantages of nylon for carpets, (3) the characteristics of nylon carpet, (4) soiling and soil retardants, (5) vacuum cleaning, (6) spot cleaning and freshening of traffic lanes, (7) wet cleaning (shampooing), and (8) miscellaneous carpet maintenance…

  16. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF MEDICALLY IMPORTANT VIPERS OF PAKISTAN INFERRED FROM CYTOCHROME B SEQUENCES.

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    A. Feroze, S.A. Malik and W. C. Kilpatrick

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study principally comprises the phylogenetic comparison of the three medically important vipers (Echis carinatus sochureki, Daboia russelii russelii and Eristicophis macmahoni based on their molecular studies. In Pakistan, No comprehensive phylogenetic studies have so far been undertaken to collect molecular information by deciphering the cytochrome b gene (complete or partial for the three species of interest. Keeping in mind the significance and nuisance of these deadly vipers of Pakistan, a molecular phylogeny was elaborated by successfully translating the cytochrome b gene sequence data for the three taxa of interest. Snakes for the said studies were collected through extensive field surveys conducted in Central Punjab and Chagai Desert of Pakistan from 2004 to 2006. The genetic data obtained werefurther elucidated statistically through maximum parsimony and bootstrap analysis for knowing the probable relationships among the species of interest. A comprehensive resolution of their phylogeny should be brought about for medical reasons as these lethal vipers are significant sources of snakebite accidents in many urban and rural areas of Pakistan

  17. In vivo evaluation of homeostatic effects of Echis carinatus snake venom in Iran

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    Salmanizadeh Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The venom of the family Viperidae, including the saw-scaled viper, is rich in serine proteinases and metalloproteinases, which affect the nervous system, complementary system, blood coagulation, platelet aggregation and blood pressure. One of the most prominent effects of the snake venom of Echis carinatus (Ec is its coagulation activity, used for killing prey. Materials and methods Subfractions F1A and F1B were isolated from Ec crude venom by a combination of gel chromatography (Sephadex G-75 and ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sepharose (DE-52. These subfractions were then intravenously (IV injected into NIH male mice. Blood samples were taken before and after the administration of these subfractions. Times for prothrombin, partial thromboplastin and fibrinogen were recorded. Results and conclusions Comparison of the prothrombin time before and after F1A and F1B administrations showed that time for blood coagulation after injection is shorter than that of normal blood coagulation and also reduced coagulation time after Ec crude venom injection. This difference in coagulation time shows the intense coagulation activity of these subfractions that significantly increase the coagulation cascade rate and Causes to quick blood coagulation. The LD50 of the Ec crude venom was also determined to be 11.1 μg/mouse. Different crude venom doses were prepared with physiological serum and injected into four mice. Comparison of the prothrombin times after injection of subfractions F1A and F1B showed that the rate of mouse blood coagulation increases considerably. Comparing the partial thromboplastin times after injecting these subfractions with this normal test time showed that the activity rate of intrinsic blood coagulation system rose sharply in mice. Finally, by comparing the fibrinogen time after subfraction injections and normal test time, we can infer intense activation of coagulation cascade and fibrin production.

  18. Advanced tufted carpet patterning technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After a review of the tufting industry's development, and a brief introduction to available systems for producing patterned tufted carpets, the principle of ICN (Individually Controlled Needle) and the related advanced tufting technology Colortec are presented. Finally, Colortec machine, Axminster weaving machine, and Wilton loom are compared. It is believed that the Cobble Colortec machine is a significant jump forward in the tufted carpets industry as it now allows access to all major carpet markets in a competitive fashion.

  19. In Fibrous Fields. Technics: Carpet for Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Roger

    1974-01-01

    Carpet is an ageless youth. Civilization has written its history on carpet. The architect specifying carpet for a wide range of applications soon learns it is technically as advanced as the buildings it graces. Tells story of art and craft of carpet manufacture from obscure origins in the Orient to modern manufacturing methods. (Author/EA)

  20. Carpet Specifiers Guide. Ultron, Advanced Generation Nylon Carpet Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsanto Textiles Co., Atlanta, GA.

    The purpose of this guide is to assist specifiers in properly specifying carpet made of Monsanto Ultron advanced generation nylon fiber. The guide describes a variety of conditions that should be considered in arriving at the proper selection and provides reference information and data, ranging from varying regulatory requirements, performance and…

  1. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper venom reagent. (a) Identification. Russell viper venom reagent is a device used to determine the cause of an...

  2. [Viper (Vipera berus) snake bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, J; Kornalík, F

    2000-07-19

    Cases of snake bites (Vipera berus) have as compared with past years a rising trend in the Czech Republic. This ensues among other factors from a higher prevalence of snakes due to the improving ecological situation. The morbidity of snake bites is of no epidemiological importance, the frequency of snake bites amounts to several tens per year and in some clinically manifest intoxication does not develop. Nevertheless in individual cases, in children weakened subjects, a viper bite may be manifested by a serious and in exceptional instances fatal affection. Within the framework of first aid the authors do not recommend application of a tourniquet or dissecting of the wound because of undesirable potentiation of tissue traumatization. Non-specific treatment involves the administration of corticoids and antihistaminics. Specific immunotherapy, administration of horse antiserum (Ipser Europe, Pasteur Mérieux, France) is indicated only in case of systemic or very severe local symptoms and is associated with the risk of a severe allergic reaction. In case of severe systemic symptoms, symptomatic treatment in a health institution of the appropriate type is of fundamental importance. In all cases observation of the affected subject is recommended to rule out intoxication or the development of possible complications.

  3. Structural Characterization of Myotoxic Ecarpholin S From Echis carinatus Venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X.; Tan, T; Valiyaveettil, S; Go, M; Kini, R; Velazquez-Campoy, A; Sivaraman, J

    2008-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a common toxic component of snake venom, has been implicated in various pharmacological effects. Ecarpholin S, isolated from the venom of the snake Echis carinatus sochureki, is a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) belonging to the Ser49-PLA2 subgroup. It has been characterized as having low enzymatic but potent myotoxic activities. The crystal structures of native ecarpholin S and its complexes with lauric acid, and its inhibitor suramin, were elucidated. This is the first report of the structure of a member of the Ser49-PLA2 subgroup. We also examined interactions of ecarpholin S with phosphatidylglycerol and lauric acid, using surface plasmon resonance, and of suramin with isothermal titration calorimetry. Most Ca2+-dependent PLA2 enzymes have Asp in position 49, which plays a crucial role in Ca2+ binding. The three-dimensional structure of ecarpholin S reveals a unique conformation of the Ca2+-binding loop that is not favorable for Ca2+ coordination. Furthermore, the endogenously bound fatty acid (lauric acid) in the hydrophobic channel may also interrupt the catalytic cycle. These two observations may account for the low enzymatic activity of ecarpholin S, despite full retention of the catalytic machinery. These observations may also be applicable to other non-Asp49-PLA2 enzymes. The interaction of suramin in its complex with ecarpholin S is quite different from that reported for the Lys49-PLA2/suramin complex, where the interfacial recognition face (i-face), C-terminal region, and N-terminal region of ecarpholin S play important roles. This study provides significant structural and functional insights into the myotoxic activity of ecarpholin S and, in general, of non-Asp49-PLA2 enzymes.

  4. Efficacy of North American Crotalid Antivenom Against the African Viper Bitis gabonica (Gaboon Viper)

    OpenAIRE

    Meggs, William J.; Wiley, Christopher N.; Brewer, Kori L; Hack, Jason B.

    2010-01-01

    Envenomations by exotic snakes occur from zoological collections and private individual collectors. Antivenoms to these snakes may not be readily available. The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of North American crotalid antivenin in treating mice envenomated with venom of the African viper Bitis gabonica (Gaboon viper). The subjects of the study were Swiss Webster mice weighing approximately 30 g. The study was conducted in the University research laboratory. B. gabonica ...

  5. HAUSDORFF MEASURE OF FRACTAL SIERPINSKI CARPET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Fangyue; Xie Tingfan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present a general conclusion of looking for the exact value of Hausdorff measure of Sierpinski carpet and construct a special partial cover of the carpet. And then we obtained an upper bound of the value, which is the least one as we know. A conjecture for the measure is proposed at last.

  6. Nanotip Carpets as Antireflection Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Youngsam; Mobasser, Sohrab; Manohara, Harish; Lee, Choonsup

    2008-01-01

    Carpet-like random arrays of metal-coated silicon nanotips have been shown to be effective as antireflection surfaces. Now undergoing development for incorporation into Sun sensors that would provide guidance for robotic exploratory vehicles on Mars, nanotip carpets of this type could also have many uses on Earth as antireflection surfaces in instruments that handle or detect ultraviolet, visible, or infrared light. In the original Sun-sensor application, what is required is an array of 50-micron-diameter apertures on what is otherwise an opaque, minimally reflective surface, as needed to implement a miniature multiple-pinhole camera. The process for fabrication of an antireflection nanotip carpet for this application (see Figure 1) includes, and goes somewhat beyond, the process described in A New Process for Fabricating Random Silicon Nanotips (NPO-40123), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 1 (November 2004), page 62. In the first step, which is not part of the previously reported process, photolithography is performed to deposit etch masks to define the 50-micron apertures on a silicon substrate. In the second step, which is part of the previously reported process, the non-masked silicon area between the apertures is subjected to reactive ion etching (RIE) under a special combination of conditions that results in the growth of fluorine-based compounds in randomly distributed formations, known in the art as "polymer RIE grass," that have dimensions of the order of microns. The polymer RIE grass formations serve as microscopic etch masks during the next step, in which deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) is performed. What remains after DRIE is the carpet of nano - tips, which are high-aspect-ratio peaks, the tips of which have radii of the order of nanometers. Next, the nanotip array is evaporatively coated with Cr/Au to enhance the absorption of light (more specifically, infrared light in the Sun-sensor application). The photoresist etch masks protecting the apertures

  7. Mold management of wetted carpet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Dixit, Anupma; Lewis, Roger D; MacDonald Perkins, Maureen; Backer, Denis; Condoor, Sridhar; Emo, Brett; Yang, Mingan

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth and removal of fungi on wetted carpet using newly designed technologies that rely on physical principles of steam, heat, and fluid flow. Sixty samples of carpet were embedded with heat-treated house dust, followed by embedding, wearing with a hexapod, and wetting. Samples were inoculated using a liquid suspension of Cladosporium sphaerospermum prior to placement over a water-saturated foam pad. Incubation times were 24 hr, 7 days, and 30 days. Cleaning was performed using three methods; high-flow hot water extraction, hot water and detergent, and steam. Fungal loading increased from approximately 1500 colony forming units per area (CFU/cm(2)) in 24 hr to a maximum of approximately 10,200 CFU/cm(2) after 7 days with a slight decline to 9700 CFU/cm(2) after 30 days incubation. Statistically significant differences were found among all three methods for removal of fungi for all three time periods (p Steam-vapor was significantly better than the alternative methods (p steam has a consistent fungal removal rate, the detergent and high-flow, hot water methods decline in efficiency with increasing incubation time.

  8. Partial Purification and Characterization of Anticoagulant Factor from the Snake (Echis carinatus) Venom

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Snake venoms contain complex mixture of proteins with biological activities. Some of these proteins affect blood coagulation and platelet function in different ways. Snake venom toxin may serve as a starting material for drug design to combat several pathophysiological problems such as cardiovascular disorders. In the present study, purification of anticoagulation factor from venom of snake (Echis carinatus) was studied. Materials and Methods: Anticoagulation activity of crude v...

  9. Compartmental syndrome due to viper bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigasio, A; Battiston, B; De Filippo, G; Brunelli, G; Calabrese, S

    1991-01-01

    The case is reported of a young girl who was bitten on the hand by a viper and developed compartment syndrome of the intrinsic muscles more than 24 h later. Multiple dorsal and volar fasciotomies resolved the acute episode with complete restitutio ad integrum. The clinical case is discussed in detail and the literature on these rare complications of snake bites in European countries reviewed.

  10. Studies on Antivenom Activity of Ceiba pentandra Leaves’ Aqueous Methanol Extract Against Echis ocellatus’ Snake Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sarkiyayi shehu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous methanol of Ceiba pentandra leaves extract was tested for antivenom activity against Echis ocellatus snake venom. Among parameters investigated include: LD50 of the Echis ocellatus snake venom, phospholipase A2 activity, percentage hemolysis. In vivo analysis of total protein content, white blood cells, pack cell volume and haemoglobin contents were also investigated. The result reveals that Echis ocellatus has an LD50 of 0.280mg/kg ± 0.065. Haemolysis due to venom has drastically reduced by the extract from 66% to 27.4%. suggesting that the extract is effective in reducing haemolysis in mice. The in vivo studies reveals that there were significant (p<0.05 decrease in packed cell volume, total protein and haemoglobin contents for the venom group and there was only slight changes in the venom/extract and control groups suggesting that the extract has some inhibitory effect on the venom activity. The purified phospholipase incubated with the extract demonstrated neutralization effect against the phospholipase A2 activity. The result has shown that Ceiba pentandra leaves extract possess potent snake venom-neutralizing capacity. The plant leaves extract could be use as an antidote for snakebite envenomation.

  11. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Survey (VIPERS): First Release of spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Franzetti, P; Guzzo, L; Marchetti, A; Scodeggio, M

    2014-01-01

    We release the spectra for the more than 57000 objects presented in the First VIPERS Data Release. For each object we distribute the observed, wavelength and flux calibrated spectrum, as well as cleaned spectra, where artifacts due to fringing are removed. We also provide the sky and noise spectrum and the 2D spectrum. Data can be downloaded from http://vipers.inaf.it.

  12. 7 CFR 2902.33 - Carpets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Carpets. (a) Definition. Floor coverings composed of woven, tufted, or knitted fiber and a backing system... found on EPA's Web site http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/procure/products.htm and then clicking on...

  13. VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bristow, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Washington, DC.

  14. Acoustic cloaking and mirages with flying carpets

    CERN Document Server

    Diatta, Andre; Guenneau, Sebastien; Enoch, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Carpets under consideration here, in the context of pressure acoustic waves propagating in a compressible fluid, do not touch the ground: they levitate in mid-air (or float in mid-water), which leads to approximate cloaking for an object hidden underneath, or touching either sides of a square cylinder on, or over, the ground. The tentlike carpets attached to the sides of a square cylinder illustrate how the notion of a carpet on a wall naturally generalizes to sides of other small compact objects. We then extend the concept of flying carpets to circular cylinders. However, instead of reducing its scattering cross-section like in acoustic cloaks, we rather mimic that of another obstacle, say a square rigid cylinder. For instance, show that one can hide any type of defects under such circular carpets, and yet they still scatter waves just like a smaller cylinder on its own. Interestingly, all these carpets are described by non-singular acoustic parameters. To exemplify this important aspect, we propose a multi-...

  15. Genomic and phylogenetic evidence of VIPER retrotransposon domestication in trypanosomatids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Adriana; Krieger, Marco Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements are important residents of eukaryotic genomes and eventually the host can domesticate them to serve cellular functions. We reported here a possible domestication event of the vestigial interposed retroelement (VIPER) in trypanosomatids. We found a large gene in a syntenic location in Leishmania braziliensis, L. panamensis, Leptomanas pyrrhocoris, and Crithidia fasciculata whose products share similarity in the C-terminal portion with the third protein of VIPER. No remnants of other VIPER regions surrounding the gene sequence were found. We hypothesise that the domestication event occurred more than 50 mya and the conservation of this gene suggests it might perform some function in the host species. PMID:27849219

  16. Genomic and phylogenetic evidence of VIPER retrotransposon domestication in trypanosomatids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ludwig

    Full Text Available Transposable elements are important residents of eukaryotic genomes and eventually the host can domesticate them to serve cellular functions. We reported here a possible domestication event of the vestigial interposed retroelement (VIPER in trypanosomatids. We found a large gene in a syntenic location in Leishmania braziliensis, L. panamensis, Leptomanas pyrrhocoris, and Crithidia fasciculata whose products share similarity in the C-terminal portion with the third protein of VIPER. No remnants of other VIPER regions surrounding the gene sequence were found. We hypothesise that the domestication event occurred more than 50 mya and the conservation of this gene suggests it might perform some function in the host species.

  17. Electromagnetic Detection of a Perfect Carpet Cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Baile

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that a spherical invisibility cloak originally proposed by Pendry et al. can be electromagnetically detected by shooting a charged particle through it, whose underlying mechanism stems from the asymmetry of transformation optics applied to motions of photons and charges [PRL 103, 243901 (2009)]. However, the conceptual three-dimensional invisibility cloak that exactly follows specifications of transformation optics is formidably difficult to implement, while the simplified cylindrical cloak that has been experimentally realized is inherently visible. On the other hand, the recent carpet cloak model has acquired remarkable experimental development, including a recently demonstrated full-parameter carpet cloak without any approximation in the required constitutive parameters. In this paper, we numerically investigate the electromagnetic radiation from a charged particle passing through a perfect carpet cloak and propose an experimentally verifiable model to demonstrate symmetry breaking of transformation optics. PMID:25997798

  18. BOUNDS OF THE HAUSDORFF MEASURE OF SIERPINSKI CARPET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoguo Jia

    2006-01-01

    By means of the idea of [2](Jia Baoguo, J. Math. Anal. Appl. In press) and the self-similarity of Sierpinski carpet, we obtain the lower and upper bounds of the Hausdorff Measure of Sierpinski carpet, which can approach the Hausdorff Measure of Sierpinski carpet infinitely.

  19. Efficacy of North American crotalid antivenom against the African viper Bitis gabonica (Gaboon viper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggs, William J; Wiley, Christopher N; Brewer, Kori L; Hack, Jason B

    2010-03-01

    Envenomations by exotic snakes occur from zoological collections and private individual collectors. Antivenoms to these snakes may not be readily available. The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of North American crotalid antivenin in treating mice envenomated with venom of the African viper Bitis gabonica (Gaboon viper). The subjects of the study were Swiss Webster mice weighing approximately 30 g. The study was conducted in the University research laboratory. B. gabonica venom was obtained from Venom Supplies Pty Ltd (Tanunda, South Australia) and reconstituted in sterile water. North American Crotalid Fab2 antivenin (Anavyp, Instituto Bioclon, Mexico) was donated by the manufacturer. The experimental groups were: Group I received two times an intraperitoneal LD(50) dose of venom, 2.58 mg/kg. Group II received the same dose after incubation for 1 h with 10 mg of antivenin. Time to onset of toxicity defined as respiratory rate Mexico) demonstrated efficacy in increasing time to onset of distress in mice poisoned with B. gabonica (Gaboon viper) venom. Based on this result, treatment of humans envenomated with B. gabonica with North American Croatlid antivenin could be considered for severe envenomations if specific B. gabonica antivenin is unavailable.

  20. Case report: acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis following viper bite

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Anyi; Shan, Renfei; Huang, Daochao; Zhou, Jiajia; Keenoo, Anaswasseem; Qin, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The most serious complications of the central nervous system that occur after venomous snake bite are intracranial hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. We present a rarely seen central nervous system complication, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, after a treated Deinagkistrodon's viper bite. On April 5, 2015, a 50-year-old male farmer was bitten on his right leg by a Deinagkistrodon's viper. The bite rendered the victim unconscious for 14 days, during which he was treated with tetan...

  1. Neutralisation of Local Haemorrhage Induced by the Saw-Scaled Viper Echis carinatus sochureki Venom Using Ethanolic Extract of Hibiscus aethiopicus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Hasson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate the anti-snake venom activities of a local plant, Hibiscus aethiopicus L. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with ethanol. Different assays were performed according to standard techniques, to evaluate the plant’s acute toxicity and its antivenom activities. The results of evaluating the systemic acute toxicity of the H. aethiopicus extract using “oral and intra-peritoneal” route were normal even at the highest dose (24 g/kg tested. All guinea pigs (n=3 when treated with venoms E. c. sochureki (75 μg alone induced acute skin haemorrhage. In contrast, all guinea pigs (n=18 treated with both venom and the plant extract at a concentration between 500 and 1000 mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage. Moreover, all guinea pigs (n=18 treated with venom and the plant extract below 400 mg/kg showed acute skin haemorrhage. All guinea pigs treated with venom E. c. sochureki (75 μg alone induced acute skin haemorrhage after both 24 and 32 hours. In contrast, all guinea pigs treated with both venom and the plant extract (administered independently at concentrations between 500 and 1000 mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage after 32 hours. However, after 24 hours all tested guinea pigs showed less inhibition (<60% compared to that obtained after 32 hours. The outcome of this study reflects that the extract of H. aethiopicus plant may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom induced local haemorrhage.

  2. Ulster Carpets - Cleaner Production option report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Mercer, David

    A survey on options for saving water and energy was conducted at Ulster Carpets on 14th November 2002 by Henrik Wenzel from the Institute for Product Development in Denmark, and David Mercer from Enviros, South Africa. This report details observations made during this site visit and makes...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.205 - Carpeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall not be used in a space or compartment designed to contain only a furnace and/or water heater. Carpeting may be used in other areas where a furnace or water heater is installed, provided that it is not located under the furnace or water heater. ...

  4. EVALUATION OF RESPIRATORY MORBIDITY IN CARPET WEAVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupation exposes an individual to certain hazards which are known as occupational diseases or pneumoconiosis. Carpet weavers are constantly exposed to dust in their workplace environment, posing a threat to their health. Spirometry is a readily available tool to measure pulmonary functions in the high risk group at an early stage which helps to take necessary measures to prevent further damage. AIMS: To study and compare the effects of long term dust exposure on pulmonary functions of carpet weavers with those of healthy subjects unexposed to such dust. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 adult female workers from carpet making industry were chosen for our study. 50 age and sex matched healthy subjects who were not exposed to excessive dust, enrolled as the controls. Forced expiratory spirograms were recorded by RMS Medspiror. Parameters such as forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1, the ratio of FEV1/FVC, forced expiratory flow in the middle half of FVC (FEF25-75%, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR were assessed in both cases and controls. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The results were analyzed by using the student’s unpaired t-test. RESULTS: Carpet weavers showed deterioration in FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75%, PEFR and FEV1/FVC ratio which was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001, suggestive of obstructive respiratory disorder. CONCLUSION: Weavers are at risk of developing occupational lung disease which can be prevented by taking meticulous measures and creating health awareness among them.

  5. Report on the formal specification and partial verification of the VIPER microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Bishop; Hunt, Warren A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The formal specification and partial verification of the VIPER microprocessor is reviewed. The VIPER microprocessor was designed by RSRE, Malvern, England, for safety critical computing applications (e.g., aircraft, reactor control, medical instruments, armaments). The VIPER was carefully specified and partially verified in an attempt to provide a microprocessor with completely predictable operating characteristics. The specification of VIPER is divided into several levels of abstraction, from a gate-level description up to an instruction execution model. Although the consistency between certain levels was demonstrated with mechanically-assisted mathematical proof, the formal verification of VIPER was never completed.

  6. Distribution and abundance of pit vipers (Reptilia: Viperidae along the Western Ghats of Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Sawant

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of pit vipers in the Western Ghats namely Trimeresurus gramineus (Bamboo Pit Viper, T. malabaricus (Malabar Pit Viper and Hypnale hypnale (Hump-nosed Pit Viper was investigated in five wildlife sanctuaries of Goa from 2005 to 2009. Seasonal day-night data was collected based on band transect methods. All the pit viper species showed specific habitat preferences and their abundance changed with season. They were most abundant during monsoon. H. hypnale extended its range to the adjoining cashew plantations during the post monsoon and winter.

  7. Biomethanation of Carpet Grass (Axonopus fissifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima Ngumah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Axonopus fissifolius commonly called “carpet grass” was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 30 days. Anaerobic digestion was carried out in a batch-fed process at the ambient temperature of 27-290C. Biomethane measurements were obtained by measuring the volume displacement of a saturated filtered calcium hydroxide solution in a transparent calibrated vessel.  42.7g of fresh carpet grass clippings yielded 1.955 L of biomethane. Biomethane potential (BMP of carpet grass for a 30 day anaerobic digestion was 0.05 m3 CH4 kg-1 TS. The rates of biomethane potentials for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth six-day intervals were 1.5mL g-1 TS (2.81%, 6.4mL g-1 TS (14.58%, 16.1mL g-1 TS (30.18%, 17.74mL g-1 TS (33.25%, and 10.23mL g-1 TS (19.81% respectively. The total solids, volatile solids and pH of feedstock and digestate were 85.80% and 85.56%, 90.91% and 87.58%, 6.6 (27oC and 6.9 (27oC respectively.  The relatively high biomethane potential of carpet grass at the ambient temperature presented in this paper depicts anaerobic digestion as a viable means of profitably treating grass waste for both sanitation and generating biomethane especially in the tropics where the ambient temperatures are usually favourable for optimum biomethanation for most part of the year, thus making the process affordable and less cumbersome.DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.66.4.5228

  8. Cerebellar infarct with neurogenic pulmonary edema following viper bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Russell′s viper (Daboia russelli bites are well known to cause bleeding complications. However, thrombotic complications are rare. We present the case details of a female who was bitten by a Russell′s viper (Daboia russelli in her village. She then developed features of envenomation in the form of hemorrhagic episodes. She received 27 vials of polyvalent anti-snake venom to which the hemorrhagic complications responded. After about 48 h of the bite she developed features of cerebellar infarct along with pulmonary edema which was in all probability neurogenic in origin. She was managed with mechanical ventilation and extra ventricular drainage with good recovery. We discuss the likely pathogenesis of the infarct and pulmonary edema occurring in a patient with viper bite and other features of envenomation.

  9. Watching outside while under a carpet cloak of invisibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Zhu; Wang, De-Lin; Peng, Ru-Wen; Hu, Qing; Wang, Mu

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate in this work a unique approach for watching outside while hiding in a carpet cloaking based on transformation optics. Unlike conventional carpet cloaking, which screens all the incident electromagnetic waves, we break the cloak and allow incident light get into the carpet. Hence outside information is detected inside the cloak. To recover the invisible cloaking, complementary techniques are applied in the broken space. Consequently, a hiding-inside and watching-outside (HIWO) carpet cloak is sewed, which works as an invisible cloaking and allows surveillance of the outside at the same time. Our work provides a strategy for an ideal cloak with "hiding" and "watching" functions simultaneously.

  10. A NOTE ON HAUSDORFF MEASURES OF SIERPINSKI CARPETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Dongkui; Xu Zhiting

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, regular Sierpinski carpet as a new concept isgiven. The exact value of Hausdorff mea sure of the regular Sierpinski carpet and the range of Hausdorff measures for all forms of generalized Sierpinski carpets is also obtained. For any one of the generalized Sierpinshi carpets we show that there exists a regular carpet such that they have the same Hausdorff measures.CLC Number:O17 Document ID:AFoundation Item:Supported by the Natural Science Foundation of South China University of Technology.References:[1]Zhou Zuoling,Wu Min,The Hausdorff Measure of a Sierpinski Carpet,Science in China (Series A),29(2),(1999),138-144.[2]Zhu Yican,Luo Jin,The Hausdorff Measure of Generalized Sierpinski Carpets,Approx. Theory and its Appl.,16:2,(2000),13-18.[3]Wu Min,Zhou Zuoling,About the Hausdorff Measures of Sierpinski Carpets,Progress in Science,11 (1999),1032- 1035.[4]Falconer,K. ,Fractal Geometry-Mathematical Foundations and Applications. John Wiley and Sons.New York. 1990.Manuscript Received:2001年5月23日Published:2001年9月1日

  11. Carpet: Adaptive Mesh Refinement for the Cactus Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetter, Erik; Hawley, Scott; Hawke, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Carpet is an adaptive mesh refinement and multi-patch driver for the Cactus Framework (ascl:1102.013). Cactus is a software framework for solving time-dependent partial differential equations on block-structured grids, and Carpet acts as driver layer providing adaptive mesh refinement, multi-patch capability, as well as parallelization and efficient I/O.

  12. The flying carpet and other tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferis, Noah Thomas

    In this thesis we demonstrate propulsion of a thin plastic piezoelectric sheet using controlled traveling wave deformations. This is achieved in air, without touching the ground, thus confirming the physical basis for a "flying" carpet near a horizontal surface. The device developed in this work demonstrates a novel form of propulsion, which operates without separate moving parts, since all actuation elements are formed from the same thin sheet of material. Potential advantages of this include low manufacturing costs and long lifetime. This work also demonstrates the advantages, in general, of using integrated sensors to control the vibrations of thin plastic sheets. Although we focus here on traveling waves, the same techniques could be used to produce a wide variety of time-varying deformations. The device could be used to model biological organisms, for example, for fluid dynamics studies. In addition, sensor arrays, for example chemical or biological, could be integrated onto the sheet. We discuss the fundamental and experimental conditions for realizing such a device, and describe the experimental approach to produce the traveling waves and demonstrate propulsion. The propulsive forces qualitatively agree with previous theoretical predictions. Theory predicts that such a sheet needs to reach speeds of ~20 cm/s to produce its own lift (the so-called "flying carpet" effect). Currently, the sheet is not free, so the observed velocity is ~1-2 cm/s. We present preliminary work to free the sheet from its tethers by providing on-board power using a boost-converter circuit, and, alternatively, using a cart that carries the tethering wires and follows the sheet. In addition, to enable the sheet to begin moving without external lift, methods to reduce friction and static electricity are presented. Experiments with passive test samples show indications of lift beginning at ~20-30 cm/s. Two aspects related to the integration of improved functionality on the sheet are also

  13. Indian Carpet Industry after Trade Liberalization. Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rashid Malik, Rekha Prasad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the constraints and opportunities emerged for the Micro, small and medium enterprises in carpet industry after trade liberalization. The survey method was selected for this study. A structured questionnaire, containing both close and open ended questions was used for data collection. 65 carpet firms of Bhadohi District of Uttar Pradesh registered with All India Carpet Manufacture Association (AICMA were surveyed. Liberalization has brought many opportunities for carpet industry apart from challenges. Findings of the present study show that liberalization gave access to new markets and increased demand of products. Increased cost of raw material, difficulty in ‘export facilitation’ and ‘legal-regulatory framework and difficulty in procuring funds from local financial institutions were identified as the major constraints for the carpet industry.

  14. A case study for the real-time experimental evaluation of the VIPER microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, Victor A.; Angellatta, Rob K.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment to evaluate the applicability of the Verifiable Integrated Processor for Enhanced Reliability (VIPER) microprocessor to real time control is described. The VIPER microprocessor was invented by the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE), U.K., and is an example of the use of formal mathematical methods for developing electronic digital systems with a high degree of assurance on the system design and implementation correctness. The experiment consisted of selecting a control law, writing the control law algorithm for the VIPER processor, and providing real time, dynamic inputs into the processor and monitoring the outputs. The control law selected and coded for the VIPER processor was the yaw damper function of an automatic landing program for a 737 aircraft. The mechanisms for interfacing the VIPER Single Board Computer to the VAX host are described. Results include run time experiences, performance evaluation, and comparison of VIPER and FORTRAN yaw damper algorithm output for accuracy estimation.

  15. A case study for the real-time experimental evaluation of the VIPER microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, Victor A.; Angellatta, Rob K.

    1991-09-01

    An experiment to evaluate the applicability of the Verifiable Integrated Processor for Enhanced Reliability (VIPER) microprocessor to real time control is described. The VIPER microprocessor was invented by the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE), U.K., and is an example of the use of formal mathematical methods for developing electronic digital systems with a high degree of assurance on the system design and implementation correctness. The experiment consisted of selecting a control law, writing the control law algorithm for the VIPER processor, and providing real time, dynamic inputs into the processor and monitoring the outputs. The control law selected and coded for the VIPER processor was the yaw damper function of an automatic landing program for a 737 aircraft. The mechanisms for interfacing the VIPER Single Board Computer to the VAX host are described. Results include run time experiences, performance evaluation, and comparison of VIPER and FORTRAN yaw damper algorithm output for accuracy estimation.

  16. Roadmap Carpet 2030; Routekaart Tapijt 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppert, P. [Verenigde Nederlandse Tapijtfabrikanten VNTF, Zeist (Netherlands); Roemgens, B. [DNV, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    In 2010 a sectoral analysis and market research for living, offices and the care sector were carried out. In 2011, ambitions, formulated in a previous brochure for the carpet sector, were elaborated in this roadmap. It aims at giving direction to strengthening the carpet industry in the field of innovation and sustainability, including the realization of far-reaching energy efficiency. In preparing the roadmap five themes are explored: (1) markets of the future: care sector, office and residential buildings; (2) Health and comfort: indoor climate and maintenance; (3) New materials: bio-based and nano; (4) Flexible production: high-efficient and on-demand; and (5) Return and recycling: collection and qualitative reuse [Dutch] In 2010 zijn een sectoranalyse en marktverkenningen voor wonen, kantoor en zorginstellingen uitgevoerd. De eerdere brochure 'Visie tapijt 2030' beschrijft een richtinggevende visie op de tapijtsector. In 2011 zijn de ambities uit die visie verder uitgewerkt tot deze Routekaart Tapijt 2030 die richting geeft aan het versterken van de tapijtsector op het gebied van innovatie en duurzaamheid, met inbegrip van een vergaande energie-efficiency. Voor het opstellen van de Routekaart zijn vijf thema's uitgewerkt: (1) markten van de toekomst: zorg, kantoren en residentieel; (2) Gezond en gemak: binnenklimaat en onderhoud; (3) Nieuwe materialen: bio-based en nano; (4) Flexibele productie: hoog efficient en on-demand; en (5) Retour en recycling: inzamelen en hoogwaardig hergebruiken.

  17. EVALUATION OF AQUIFER CHARACTERISTICS IN ECHI, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA USING WELL LOGGING AND PUMPING TEST METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko Anomohanran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the aquifer characteristics of groundwater at Echi, Delta State, Nigeria. This was carried out by conducting electrical resistivity and spontaneous potential loggings in a drilled well at the study location. Pumping test using a one kilowatt pumping machine was carried out in the well. The logs were interpreted while the record of the pumping test was analysed using the Jacob straight line method. The result showed that five lithologic formations which are lateritic sand, clay, fine sand, medium grain sand and coarse sand exist in the area and that groundwater exist in the third, fourth and fifth formations. The analysis of the log record showed that the water quality increased with respect to the depth of the well. The value of the conductivity of the aquifer obtained from the analysis of the log record was 5.8×10-3 mS/m while the transmissivity was obtained as 86.0 m2/day. The specific capacity of the aquifer was obtained as 0.258. These values obtained from the test well revealed that the aquifer contained good quality water suitable for drinking and other purposes.

  18. Partial Purification and Characterization of Anticoagulant Factor from the Snake (Echis carinatus Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Amrollahi Byoki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Snake venoms contain complex mixture of proteins with biological activities. Some of these proteins affect blood coagulation and platelet function in different ways. Snake venom toxin may serve as a starting material for drug design to combat several pathophysiological problems such as cardiovascular disorders. In the present study, purification of anticoagulation factor from venom of snake (Echis carinatus was studied. Anticoagulation activity of crude venom, fractions and purified peptide were determined by using prothrombin time (PT and thrombin time (TT. Three fractions were partially purified from the venom of E. Carinatus by gel filtration on sephadex G-75 and final purification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with C18 column. A purified anticoagulant factor was derived which showed a single protein band in SDS-PAGE electrophoresis under reducing condition. Results of PT and TT tests for purified peptide (EC217 were found to be 102±4.242 and < 5 min. respectively. Determination of molecular weight revealed that the active purified peptide (EC217 was about 30 KD. In conclusion, the present study showed that the venom of E. carinatus contains at least one anticoagulant factor.

  19. Carpet As An Alternative Fuel in Cement Kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew J Realff

    2007-02-06

    Approximately 5 billion lbs of carpet will be removed from buildings in the US each year for the foreseeable future. This carpet is potentially a valuable resource because it contains plastic in the face of the carpet that can be re-used. However, there are many different types of carpet, and at least four major different plastics used to make the face. The face is woven through a backing fabric and held in place by a “glue” that is in most cases a latex cross-linked polymer which is heavily loaded with chalk (calcium carbonate). This backing has almost no value as a recycled material. In addition, carpet is a bulky material that is difficult to handle and ship and must be kept dry. It would be of significant benefit to the public if this stream of material could be kept out of landfills and some of its potential value unlocked by having high volume alternatives for recycled carpet use. The research question that this project investigated was whether carpet could be used as a fuel in a cement kiln. If this could be done successfully, there is significant capacity in the US cement industry to absorb carpet and use it as a fuel. Cement kilns could serve as a way to stimulate carpet collection and then side streams be taken for higher value uses. The research demonstrated that carpet was technically a suitable fuel, but was unable to conclude that the overall system could be economically feasible at this time with the constraints placed on the project by using an existing system for feeding the kiln. Collection and transportation were relatively straightforward, using an existing collector who had the capacity to collect high volumes of material. The shredding of the carpet into a suitable form for feeding was more challenging, but these problems were successfully overcome. The feeding of the carpet into the kiln was not successfully carried out reliably. The overall economics were not positive under the prevailing conditions of costs for transportation and size

  20. Measuring the VIPERS galaxy power spectrum at z∼1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Stefano; Bel, Julien; Granett, Ben; Guzzo, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey [VIPERS, Guzzo et al. 2014] is using the VIMOS spectrograph at the ESO VLT to measure redshifts for ~ 100,000 galaxies with IAB < 22.5 and 0.5 < z < 1.2, over an area of 24 deg2 (split over the W1 and W4 fields of CFHTLS). VIPERS currently provides, at such redshifts, the best compromise between volume, number of galaxies and dense spatial sampling. We present here the first estimate of the power spectrum of the galaxy distribution, P(k), at redshifts z ~ 0.75 and z ~ 1, obtained from the ~ 55,000 redshifts of the PDR-1 data release. We discuss first constraints on cosmological quantities, as the matter density and the baryonic fraction, obtained for the first time at an epoch when the Universe was about half its current age.

  1. Two cases of viper bite: still an important health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrija Hajra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Viper venoms act mainly as hemotoxic. Manifestations of snakebites depend on specific toxins that constitute the venom. The local and systemic snake bite related symptoms are directly linked to the toxicity of the venom. Edema, ecchymoses, hematoma, and gangrenous lesions are reported to occur as local symptoms. Systemic symptoms may include fever, nausea, vomiting, delirium, jaundice, circulatory collapse, convulsions, and coma. Death from secondary infections, neurotoxicity, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, intracranial hemorrhage, and acute renal failure are the well-known facts. For reduction of morbidity and mortality, it is important that antiserum is administered at the appropriate dose as early as possible after snake bite. There are several case reports about various complications of viperid bite. Here we are discussing two cases of viper bite. These cases are unique because of the extensive tissue necrosis. One of them succumbed to septicemia after acute pancreatitis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1274-1277

  2. Envenomation by the horned viper (Vipera ammodytes L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonić, V; Budimir, D; Bradarić, N; Luksić, B; Sapunar, D; Vilović, K

    1997-03-01

    Snake venom poisoning is a medical emergency that requires urgent therapeutic procedures. The treatment of venomous snakebites is still controversial because of unclear therapeutic modalities. Choice of treatment is dictated in part by regional characteristics with regard to patient population and types of venomous snakes. The purpose of the study presented here was to report regional experience with venomous snakebites and to describe first-aid, pre-hospital, and hospital therapeutic procedures for horned viper bite. During a 16-year period, from 1980 to 1996, at the Clinical Hospital Split (Croatia) we collected data on 389 victims of horned viper bite. Incidence of the local and general complications is presented. We also reviewed therapeutic modalities and outcome with special attention to compartment syndromes and the indications for fasciotomy.

  3. Formal verification of a microcoded VIPER microprocessor using HOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Karl; Arora, Tejkumar; Leung, Tony; Kalvala, Sara; Schubert, E. Thomas; Windley, Philip; Heckman, Mark; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1993-01-01

    The Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) and members of the Hardware Verification Group at Cambridge University conducted a joint effort to prove the correspondence between the electronic block model and the top level specification of Viper. Unfortunately, the proof became too complex and unmanageable within the given time and funding constraints, and is thus incomplete as of the date of this report. This report describes an independent attempt to use the HOL (Cambridge Higher Order Logic) mechanical verifier to verify Viper. Deriving from recent results in hardware verification research at UC Davis, the approach has been to redesign the electronic block model to make it microcoded and to structure the proof in a series of decreasingly abstract interpreter levels, the lowest being the electronic block level. The highest level is the RSRE Viper instruction set. Owing to the new approach and some results on the proof of generic interpreters as applied to simple microprocessors, this attempt required an effort approximately an order of magnitude less than the previous one.

  4. Scaling up of manufacturing processes of recycled carpet based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    In this work, feasibility of recycling post-consumer carpets using a modified vacuum assisted resisted molding process into large-scale components was successfully demonstrated. The scale up also included the incorporation of nano-clay films in the carpet composites. It is expected that the films will enhance the ability of the composite to withstand environmental degradation and also serve as a fire retardant. Low-cost resins were used to fabricate the recycled carpet-based composites. The scale up in terms of process was achieved by manufacturing composites without a hot press and thereby saving additional equipment cost. Mechanical and physical properties were evaluated. Large-scale samples demonstrated mechanical properties that were different from results from small samples. Acoustic tests indicate good sound absorption of the carpet composite. Cost analysis of the composite material based on the cost of the raw materials and the manufacturing process has been presented.

  5. Volatile organic chemical emissions from carpets. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Wooley, J.D.; Daisey, J.M.

    1992-04-01

    The primary objective of this research, was to measure the emission rates of selected individual VOC, including low molecular-weight aldehydes, released by samples of four new carpets that are typical of the major types of carpets used in residences, schools and offices. The carpet samples were collected directly from the manufacturers` mills and packaged to preserve their chemical integrity. The measurements of the concentrations and emission rates of these compounds were made under simulated indoor conditions in a 20-M{sup 3} environmental chamber designed specifically for investigations of VOC. The measurements were conducted over a period of one week following the installation of the carpet samples in the chamber. Duplicate experiments were conducted for one carpet. In addition, the concentrations and emission rates of VOC resulting from the installation of a new carpet in a residence were measured over a period of seven weeks. The stabilities of the week-long ventilation rates and temperatures were one percent relative standard deviation. The four carpets emitted a variety of VOC, 40 of which were positively identified. Eight of these were considered to be dominant. They were (in order of chromatographic retention time) formaldehyde, vinyl acetate, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane), 1,2-propanediol (propylene glycol), styrene, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, 4-phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH), and 2,6 di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT). With the exception of formaldehyde, only limited data are available on the toxicity and irritancy of these compounds at low concentrations. Therefore, it is difficult to determine at this time the potential magnitude of the health and comfort effects that may occur among the population from exposures to emissions from new carpets. The concentrations and emission rates of most compounds decreased rapidly over the first 12 h of the experiments.

  6. Public health aspects of snakebite care in West Africa: perspectives from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Abdulrazaq G

    2013-10-17

    Snakebite envenoming is a major public health problem among rural communities of the Nigerian savanna. The saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) and, to a lesser extent, the African cobras (Naja spp.) and puff adders (Bitis arietans) have proved to be the most important cause of mortality and morbidity. The main clinical features of E. ocellatus envenoming are systemic hemorrhage, incoagulable blood, shock, local swelling, bleeding and, occasionally, necrosis. Bites may be complicated by amputation, blindness, disability, disfigurement, mutilation, tissue destruction and psychological consequences. Antivenom remains the hallmark and mainstay of envenoming management while studies in Nigeria confirm its protection of over 80% against mortality from carpet-viper bites. However, the availability, distribution and utilization of antivenom remain challenging although two new antivenoms (monospecific EchiTab G and trispecific EchiTab ICP-Plus) derived from Nigerian snake venoms have proven very effective and safe in clinical trials. A hub-and-spoke strategy is suggested for broadening antivenom access to endemic rural areas together with instituting quality assurance, standardization and manpower training. With the advent of antivenomics, national health authorities must be aided in selecting and purchasing antivenoms appropriate to their national needs while manufacturers should be helped in practical ways to improve the safety, efficacy and potential coverage against snake venoms and pricing of their products.

  7. Alleviation of viper venom induced platelet apoptosis by crocin (Crocus sativus): implications for thrombocytopenia in viper bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, M Sebastin; Thushara, R M; Hemshekhar, M; Sunitha, K; Devaraja, S; Kemparaju, K; Girish, K S

    2013-11-01

    Viper envenomations are characterized by prominent local and systemic manifestations including hematological alterations. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) plays crucial role in the pathophysiology of hemorrhage by targeting/altering the platelets function which may result in thrombocytopenia. Platelets undergo the classic events of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway due to augmented endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The observed anticoagulant effects during viper envenomations could be due to exacerbated platelet apoptosis and thrombocytopenia. Moreover, antivenin treatments are ineffective against the venom-induced oxidative stress; therefore, it necessitates an auxiliary therapy involving antioxidants which can effectively scavenge the endothelium-generated/endogenous ROS and protect the platelets. The present study explored the effects of viper venom on platelet apoptosis and its amelioration by a phytochemical crocin. The study evaluated the Vipera russelli venom-induced apoptotic events including endogenous ROS generation, intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cyt-c translocation, caspase activation and phosphatidylserine externalization which were effectively mitigated when the venom was pre-treated with crocin. The study highlights one of the less studied features of venom-induced secondary complications i.e. platelet apoptosis and sheds light on the underlying basis for venom-induced thrombocytopenia, systemic hemorrhage and in vivo anticoagulant effect.

  8. Snakebite by the Shore Pit Viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) Treated With Polyvalent Antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Rupeng; Tan, Hock Heng

    2016-06-01

    Although snakebites are uncommon, there are several species of medically important venomous snakes native to Singapore. We present a case of envenoming by the shore pit viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) that showed clinical improvement when treated with the Indian (Haffkine) polyvalent antivenom. A 40-year-old man was bitten on his right hand by a snake, which was identified through photos and his description to be a shore pit viper, which is native to the local mangrove area. Severe swelling and pain developed immediately after the bite, which progressed up the arm. Because of the progression of local swelling, antivenom was started. He was given a total of 6 vials (60 mL) of polyvalent antivenom, with the first vial started 3 hours after the bite. He showed clinical improvement within 24 hours. His subsequent recovery was uneventful, with no other complications as a result of envenomation or antivenom use. Severe envenoming by the shore pit viper can lead to marked local effects such as extensive swelling and tissue necrosis. Antivenom is indicated in the presence of severe local envenomation. Antivenom against the shore pit viper is however not available locally. The Indian (Haffkine) polyvalent antivenom contains antibodies against 4 common venomous snakes in India, namely the Indian cobra, common krait, Russell's viper, and sawscaled viper. The improvement seen in this patient suggests possible cross-neutralizing activity of the Indian vipers' antivenom against the local shore pit viper venom. Further in vivo and in vitro studies should be performed to verify this clinical case.

  9. Extremely Thin Dielectric Metasurface for Carpet Cloaking

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, LiYi; Kanté, Boubacar

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel and simple approach to cloaking a scatterer on a ground plane. We use an extremely thin dielectric metasurface ({\\lambda}/12) to reshape the wavefronts distorted by a scatterer in order to mimic the reflection pattern of a flat ground plane. To achieve such carpet cloaking, the reflection angle has to be equal to the incident angle everywhere on the scatterer. We use a graded metasurface and calculate the required phase gradient to achieve cloaking. Our metasurface locally provides additional phase to the wavefronts to compensate for the phase difference amongst light paths induced by the geometrical distortion. We design our metasurface in the microwave range using highly sub-wavelength dielectric resonators. We verify our design by full-wave time-domain simulations using micro-structured resonators and show that results match theory very well. This approach can be applied to hide any scatterer on a ground plane not only at microwave frequencies, but also at higher frequencies up to th...

  10. Role of Magnetic Carpet in Coronal Heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. R. Verma; Diksha Chaudhary

    2008-03-01

    One of the fundamental questions in solar physics is how the solar corona maintains its high temperature of several million Kelvin above photosphere with a temperature of 6000 K. Observations show that solar coronal heating problem is highly complex with many different facts. It is likely that different heating mechanisms are at work in the solar corona. The separate kinds of coronal loops may also be heated by different mechanisms. Using data from instruments onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and from the more recent Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) scientists have identified small regions of mixed polarity, termed magnetic carpet contributing to solar activity on a short time scale. Magnetic loops of all sizes rise into the solar corona, arising from regions of opposite magnetic polarity in the photosphere. Energy released when oppositely directed magnetic fields meet in the corona is one likely cause for coronal heating. There is enough energy coming up from the loops of the “magnetic carpet” to heat the corona to its known temperature.

  11. Effect of One Carpet Weaving Workstation on Upper Trapezius Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Mahdavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the effect of carpet weaving at a proposed workstation on Upper Trapezius (UTr fatigue during a task cycle. Fatigue in the shoulder is one of the most important precursors for upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. One of the most prevalent musculoskeletal disorders between carpet weavers is disorder of the shoulder region. Methods: This cross-sectional study, included eight females and three males. During an 80-minute cycle of carpet weaving, Electromyography (EMG signals of right and left UTr were recorded by the surface EMG, continuously. After raw signals were processed, MPF and RMS were considered as EMG amplitude and frequency parameters. Time series model and JASA methods were used to assess and classify the EMG parameter changes during the working time. Results: According to the JASA method, 58%, 16%, 8% and 8% of the participants experienced fatigue, force increase, force decrease and recovery, respectively in the right UTr. Also, 50%, 25%, 8% and 16% of the participants experienced fatigue, force increase, force decrease and recovery, respectively in the left UTr. Conclusions: For the major portion of the weavers, dominant status in Left and right UTr was fatigue, at the proposed workstation during a carpet weaving task cycle. The results of the study provide detailed information for optimal design of workstations. Further studies should focus on fatigue in various muscles and time periods for designing an appropriate and ergonomics carpet weaving workstation

  12. Ergonomic Interventions in Manual Handling of Carpets to the retail sellers in a textile company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Darvishi

    2015-04-01

    .Conclusion: By implementing ergonomics interventions in carpet delivery sites, the risk factors of MSDs, induced by manual carpet handling, were reduced and safety and ergonomic conditions of the retailers were improved, compared to the previous conditions.

  13. 16 CFR 1631.33 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Textile Fiber Products Indentification Act, 15 U.S.C. section 70, et seq., and the rules and... otherwise market or handle any carpet or rug or small carpet or rug, including samples, swatches, or...

  14. Biodegradation of Navy N5RL1 carpet dye by Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain BHUSS X3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumari, Lata; Verma, Ajay Kumar; Tiwary, Dhanesh; Giri, Deen Dayal; Nath, Gopal; Mishra, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradation of Navy N5RL1, a widely used acidic azo dye in carpet industry, was studied by bacterial strain isolated from the dye-contaminated soil collected from a carpet industry premises located...

  15. Outline of an Anthropological Contribution to the Study of Snake Venom Variability: The Case of Echis sp. Envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Musch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the variability of snake venom composition is of high relevance for adequate treatment of snakebites. Clinical observations of bite victims are considered as a first step in the study of venom variability. The present paper suggests the study of local clinical observations made by healers as an anthropological contribution to the interdisci-plinary research of venom variability on a species and subspecies level. Such an anthropological contribution will take into account cultural particularities of a region. In order to illustrate his approach, the author describes his ethnozoological and ethnomedical fieldwork among Zarma and Tuareg in western Niger where he studied envenomation by Echis leucogaster. This species is of particular interest, as no medical descriptions of envenomation resulting from its bites seem to exist.

  16. Hump-nosed viper bite: an important but under-recognized cause of systemic envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan Chrishan; Yudhishdran, Jevon; Navinan, Rayno; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-01-01

    Hump-nosed viper bites are common in the Indian subcontinent. In the past, hump-nosed vipers (Hypnale species) were considered moderately venomous snakes whose bites result mainly in local envenoming. However, a variety of severe local effects, hemostatic dysfunction, microangiopathic hemolysis, kidney injury and death have been reported following envenoming by Hypnale species. We systematically reviewed the medical literature on the epidemiology, toxin profile, diagnosis, and clinical, laboratory and postmortem features of hump-nosed viper envenoming, and highlight the need for development of an effective antivenom.

  17. Posterior circulation ischemic stroke following Russell′s viper envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddalingana Gouda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke following viper bite is rare. We report a case of posterior circulation ischemic infarction following viper bite in a previously healthy woman. Soon after being bitten by the snake on the left leg, she developed local redness, echymosis and one hour later became drowsy. On examination she had skew deviation of eyes and down gaze preference, generalized hypotonia. A CT scan of brain showed infarcts in cerebellar hemispheres and occipital lobes on both sides and that was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging of brain. Her coagulation profile was deranged. Most common and serious central nervous system complication following snake bite is intracranial hemorrhage. Ischemic stroke commonly involves anterior circulation. Bilateral cerebellar and occipital infraction is not yet reported in literature. Exact cause for the development of infarction is not clear. The possible mechanisms of infarction in this scenario are discussed. Patient was treated with anti-snake venom and showed a good recovery. Early imaging and early treatment with anti-snake venom is important for a favorable outcome.

  18. A dc carpet cloak based on resistor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zhong Lei; Liu, Yu Sha; Yang, Fan; Cui, Tie Jun

    2012-11-05

    We propose, design, and implement a two-dimensional dc carpet cloak for steady electric field using the transformation optics (TO) method. Based on the circuit theory, we introduce a resistor network to mimic the resulting anisotropic conducting medium. The experimental prototype is fabricated using metal film resistors, and the measured results agree perfectly well with theoretical predictions. This study gives the first experimental verification of a dc carpet cloak, which expands the application of TO theory, and has potential applications in related areas.

  19. 40 CFR 63.5740 - What emission limit must I meet for carpet and fabric adhesive operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carpet and fabric adhesive operations? 63.5740 Section 63.5740 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Standards for Carpet and Fabric Adhesive Operations § 63.5740 What emission limit must I meet for carpet and fabric adhesive operations? (a) You must use carpet and fabric adhesives that contain no...

  20. Concrete with carpet recyclates: suitability assessment by surface energy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Cieślak, M

    2008-01-01

    Worn out textile floor coverings are burdensome wastes that are degraded in landfill sites after a very long period of time. One of the ways to manage this kind of waste may be the use of carpet recyclate (CR) as an additive for concrete reinforcement. Therefore, an attempt was made to predict the effects of recyclate additives on the durability a concrete-carpet mixture by employing the method of assessing surface properties of components in the concrete-carpet recyclates composite. Testing was performed on carpet wastes, containing polyamide (PA) and polypropylene (PP) piles and butadiene-styrene resin with chalk filler (BSC) as back coating, to assess the suitability of CR additive for concrete reinforcement by surface energy evaluation. Based on the measurements of contact angles, the free surface energy of recyclate components was determined. The reversible work of adhesion at the interface between these components in dry and wet states was also calculated. The results show that CR with both PA and PP fibers form a strong and water-resistant bond with concrete.

  1. Demonstration of automated dyebath reuse in carpet manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, J.L.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents a project conducted under a program of National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy, Environment, and Economics (NICE{sup 3}). The program has the objective of developing and demonstrating industrial processes which simultaneously conserve energy and reduce environmental pollution in an economically attractive manner. This project addressed textile dyeing, specifically batch dyeing of nylon carpets with acid dyes, and focused on providing a technically and financially attractive solution which does not impose burdens on the user industry, such as requirements for additional labor or expertise at the production facility. The batch dyeing of carpet is an inherently wasteful process. After each dye cycle, all of the water, energy, and residual chemicals used to dye the carpets are dumped to the drain. Reuse of the spent dyebaths is a proven technique for reducing consumption of water, chemicals, and energy. However, implementation of reuse on a plant-wide or industry-wide scale is impeded by the human involvement required. This NICE{sup 3} project developed and demonstrated a process for automated dyebath reuse, including a prototype automated analysis system. This required development of a modified dye cycle, incorporating hot-start and hot-termination for two different dye systems, as well as integration of the analysis system with the existing process control and production scheduling systems in the plant. The prototype analysis system was installed on a production beck in a commercial dyehouse, and automated dyebath reuse was demonstrated on carpets of both nylon 6 and nylon 6,6 polymers in a variety of colors. The results of the trials show that the automated analysis system can successfully analyze concentrations of multiple dyes in spent dyebaths without operator assistance and that dyebaths can be reconstituted based on these analyses and reused without compromising the quality of the carpets produced. Economic benefits representing

  2. Clustering-based redshift estimation: application to VIPERS/CFHTLS

    CERN Document Server

    Scottez, V; Granett, B R; Moutard, T; Kilbinger, M; Scodeggio, M; Garilli, B; Bolzonella, M; de la Torre, S; Guzzo, L; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bottini, D; Branchini, E; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; Davidzon, I; Fritz, A; Franzetti, P; Iovino, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Małek, K; Marulli, F; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Bel, J; Coupon, J; De Lucia, G; Ilbert, O; McCracken, H J; Moscardini, L

    2016-01-01

    We explore the accuracy of the clustering-based redshift estimation proposed by M\\'enard et al. (2013) when applied to VIPERS and CFHTLS real data. This method enables us to reconstruct redshift distributions from measurement of the angular clus- tering of objects using a set of secure spectroscopic redshifts. We use state of the art spectroscopic measurements with iAB 0.5 which allows us to test the accuracy of the clustering-based red- shift distributions. We show that this method enables us to reproduce the true mean color-redshift relation when both populations have the same magnitude limit. We also show that this technique allows the inference of redshift distributions for a population fainter than the one of reference and we give an estimate of the color-redshift mapping in this case. This last point is of great interest for future large redshift surveys which suffer from the need of a complete faint spectroscopic sample.

  3. Envenomation by a juvenile Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, D K; Kardong, K V

    1980-05-01

    Following an accidental bite inflicted by a juvenile Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma), the progress of envenomation was carefully monitored and subsequent laboratory work performed to determine the amount and quality of venom injected. Even a very small amount of venom from this species is capable of inducing noticeable local symptoms including edema, subcutaneous bleeding, and throbbing. Constitutional symptoms were present but minimal. The extent of inflammation present at any given time following envenomation was found to be a more accurate diagnostic signal than the speed with which it developed. This case is similar to that of bites by juveniles of other species of viperines and crotalines and may serve to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of bites by juvenile specimens of serpents in these families.

  4. Improved correction of VIPERS angular selection effects in clustering measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotta, A.; Granett, B. R.; Bel, J.; Guzzo, L.; de la Torre, S.; Aff004

    2016-10-01

    Clustering estimates in galaxy redshift surveys need to account and correct for the way targets are selected from the general population, as to avoid biasing the measured values of cosmological parameters. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) is no exception to this, involving slit collisions and masking effects. Pushed by the increasing precision of the measurements, e.g. of the growth rate f, we have been re-assessing these effects in detail. We present here an improved correction for the two-point correlation function, capable to recover the amplitude of the monopole of the two-point correlation function ξ(r) above 1 h-1 Mpc to better than 2.

  5. Effect of fiber material on ozone removal and carbonyl production from carpets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbass, Omed A.; Sailor, David J.; Gall, Elliott T.

    2017-01-01

    Indoor air quality is affected by indoor materials such as carpets that may act as sources and/or sinks of gas-phase air pollutants. Heterogeneous reactions of ozone with carpets may result in potentially harmful products. In this study, indoor residential carpets of varying fiber types were tested to evaluate their ability to remove ozone, and to assess their role in the production of carbonyls when exposed to elevated levels of ozone. Tests were conducted with six types of new unused carpets. Two sets of experiments were conducted, the first measured ozone removal and ozone deposition velocities, and the second measured primary carbonyl production and secondary production as a result of exposure to ozone. The tests were conducted using glass chambers with volume of 52 L each. Air exchange rates for all tests were 3 h-1. The ozone removal tests show that, for the conditions tested, the polyester carpet sample had the lowest ozone removal (40%), while wool carpet had the greatest ozone removal (65%). Most carpet samples showed higher secondary than primary carbonyl emissions, with carpets containing polypropylene fibers being a notable exception. Carpets with polyester fibers had both the highest primary and secondary emissions of formaldehyde among all samples tested. While it is difficult to make blanket conclusions about the relative air quality merits of various carpet fiber options, it is clear that ozone removal percentages and emissions of volatile organic compounds can vary drastically as a function of fiber type.

  6. Acoustic carpet cloak based on an ultrathin metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-07-01

    An acoustic metasurface carpet cloak based on membrane-capped cavities is proposed and investigated numerically. This design has been chosen for allowing ultrathin geometries, although adapted to airborne sound frequencies in the range of 1 kHz (λ ≈30 cm), surpassing the designs reported in the literature in terms of thinness. A formulation of generalized Snell's laws is first proposed, mapping the directions of the incident and reflected waves to the metasurface phase function. This relation is then applied to achieve a prescribed wavefront reflection direction, for a given incident direction, by controlling the acoustic impedance grading along the metasurface. The carpet cloak performance of the proposed acoustic metasurface is then assessed on a triangular bump obstacle, generally considered as a baseline configuration in the literature.

  7. A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-29

    We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak.

  8. Experimental Research of Automotive Needlepunched Carpets at Thermoforming Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-qing; GUO Zhi-ying; DONG xiang-huai; LI De-qun

    2007-01-01

    Tensile prerties with different thermoformingconditions and deformation mechanism at thermoformingtemperatures of automotive needlepunched carpets made up ofthree layers of different materials were reported.Investigations on the tensile properties were performed as afunction of thermoforming temperature, extensile speed andfiber orientation based on an orthogonal experiment design.The experimental results show that the automotive carpets arerate-dependent anisotropic one and very sensitive to theforming temperature. The tensile properties are stronglydepended an the forming temperature when compared with theextensile speed and the fiber orientation. Experiments onlyvarying with the temperature were performed because of thedominative effect of the temperature. Different defotmationperformances were observed with different temperatures.Deformation mechanisms at the thermoforming temperatureswere presented to explain the nonlinear trend of the ultimateelongation with the temperatures based on the combination ofthe experimental observations and the corresponding polymertheories.

  9. Muon-hadron detector of the carpet-2 array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhappuev, D. D.; Kudzhaev, A. U.; Klimenko, N. F.

    2016-05-01

    The 1-GeV muon-hadron detector of the Carpet-2 multipurpose shower array at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (INR, Moscow, Russia) is able to record simultaneously muons and hadrons. The procedure developed for this device makes it possible to separate the muon and hadron components to a high degree of precision. The spatial and energy features of the muon and hadron extensive-air-shower components are presented. Experimental data from the Carpet-2 array are contrasted against data from the EAS-TOP and KASCADE arrays and against the results of the calculations based on the CORSIKA (GHEISHA + QGSJET01) code package and performed for primary protons and iron nuclei.

  10. Discrete extremal lengths of graph approximations of Sierpinski carpets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Robert Jason

    The study of mathematical objects that are not smooth or regular has grown in importance since Benoit Mandelbrot's foundational work in the in the late 1960s. The geometry of fractals has many of its roots in that work. An important measurement of the size and structure of fractals is their dimension. We discuss various ways to describe a fractal in its canonical form. We are most interested in a concept of dimension introduced by Pierre Pansu in 1989, that of the conformal dimension. We focus on an open question: what is the conformal dimension of the Sierpinski carpet? In this work we adapt an algorithm by Oded Schramm to calculate the discrete extremal length in graph approximations of the Sierpinski carpet. We apply a result by Matias Piaggio to relate the extremal length to the Ahlfors-regular conformal dimension. We find strong numeric evidence suggesting both a lower and upper bound for this dimension.

  11. Intersection of the Sierpinski carpet with its rational translate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Meifeng [Nonlinear Scientific Research Center, Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)]. E-mail: daimf@ujs.edu.cn; Tian Lixin [Nonlinear Scientific Research Center, Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)]. E-mail: tianlx@ujs.edu.cn

    2007-01-15

    Motivated by Mandelbrot's idea of referring to lacunarity of Cantor sets in terms of departure from translation invariance, Nekka and Li studied the properties of these translation sets and showed how they can be used for a classification purpose. In this paper, we pursue this study on the Sierpinski carpet with its rational translate. We also get the fractal structure of intersection I(x, y) of the Sierpinski carpet with its translate. We find that the packing measure of these sets forms a discrete spectrum whose non-zero values come only from shifting numbers with a finite triadic expansion. Concretely, when x and y have a finite triadic expansion, a very brief calculation formula of the measure is given.

  12. Solar Magnetic Carpet I: Simulation of Synthetic Magnetograms

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Karen A.; Mackay, Duncan H.; van Ballegooijen, Adriaan A.; Parnell, Clare E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new 2D model for the photospheric evolution of the magnetic carpet. It is the first in a series of papers working towards constructing a realistic 3D non-potential model for the interaction of small-scale solar magnetic fields. In the model, the basic evolution of the magnetic elements is governed by a supergranular flow profile. In addition, magnetic elements may evolve through the processes of emergence, cancellation, coalescence and fragmentation. Model parameters fo...

  13. TECHNOLOGY OF REPAIRING OPERATIONAL SUITABILITY BITUMEN-RUBEROID CARPET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISHUK K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In the article is presented the analysis of the existing technologies for the restoration of the operational usability of bitumen-polymeric carpet, which allowed to identify their disadvantages, suggested ways to solve problems and highlighted the results of the studies. Firstly, existing bitumen-ruberoid carpet has a residual hydro insulating capacity that can be effectively used. Secondly, the physical condition of the repaired carpet has different types of defects and damage without the proper removal of which is difficult to ensure the desired outcome. The applying of additional layers in conditions of moistening of the lower layers and other defects contributes to their conservation and accelerated loss of operational integrity.Removal of these impacts can be up to 40-50% of all work, can not provide the required effectiveness outcomes in terms of durability, reliability and cost. Therefore the problem is to find ways to achieve a longer after repairing operation with simultaneous reduction of consumables indicators. Purpose of the study is to develop technological solutions serviceability restoration of roofing using unrolling technologies on the principles to minimize the impact of negative factors and the maximum possible use and strengthen the remaining hydro potential of the insulating coating through the use of special impregnating - saturating compositions. Features such compositions are based on the ability to deeply penetrate the thick bitumen-ruberoid carpet and restore his lost components and provide increased water resistance. Conclusion. The article can be introduced in practice of repair-refurbishable works of soft roofing covering of buildings and constructions.

  14. Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

    2012-12-01

    Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected.

  15. Inactivation of Mold Spores from Moist Carpet Using Steam Vapor: Contact Time and Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Emo, Brett; Lewis, Roger D; Kennedy, Jason; Thummalakunta, Laxmi N A; Elliott, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Steam vapor has been shown to reduce viable mold spores in carpet, but the minimal effective temperature and contact time has not been established. This study evaluated the effectiveness of steam vapor in reducing the number of viable mold spores in carpet as a function of temperature and contact time. Seventy carpet samples were inoculated with a liquid suspension of Cladosporium sphaerospermum and incubated over a water-saturated foam carpet pad for 24 hr. Steam was applied to the samples as the temperature was measured from the carpet backing. Contact time was closely monitored over seven time intervals: 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 sec. Following steam vapor treatment, mold spores were extracted from the carpet samples and the extract was plated on DG-18 plates at 1:1, 1:10, 1:100 dilutions followed by one week of incubation. Raw colony forming units were determined using an automated colony counter and adjusted based on dilution factor, extraction volume, and plated volume. Analysis of variance and linear regression were used to test for statistically significant relationships. Steam contact time exhibited a linear relationship to observed temperature of carpet backing (F = 90.176, R(2) = 0.609). Observed temperature of carpet backing had a positive relationship to percent reduction of mold (F = 76.605, R(2) = 0.569). Twelve seconds of steam vapor contact time was needed to achieve over 90% mold reduction on moist carpet.

  16. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Full spectroscopic data and auxiliary information release (PDR-2)

    CERN Document Server

    Scodeggio, M; Garilli, B; Granett, B R; Bolzonella, M; de la Torre, S; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Coupon, J; Cucciati, O; Davidzon, I; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Iovino, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Févre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Malek, K; Marchetti, A; Marulli, F; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Bel, J; Branchini, E; De Lucia, G; Ilbert, O; McCracken, H J; Moutard, T; Peacock, J A; Zamorani, G; Burden, A; Fumana, M; Jullo, E; Marinoni, C; Mellier, Y; Moscardini, L; Percival, W J

    2016-01-01

    We present the full public data release (PDR-2) of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), performed at the ESO VLT. We release redshifts, spectra, CFHTLS magnitudes and ancillary information (as masks and weights) for a complete sample of 86,775 galaxies (plus 4,732 other objects, including stars and serendipitous galaxies); we also include their full photometrically-selected parent catalogue. The sample is magnitude limited to i_AB = 2 are shown to have a confidence level of 96% or larger and make up 88% of all measured galaxy redshifts (76,552 out of 86,775), constituting the VIPERS prime catalogue for statistical investigations. For this sample the rms redshift error, estimated using repeated measurements of about 3,000 galaxies, is found to be sigma_z = 0.00054(1+z). All data are available at http://vipers.inaf.it and on the ESO Archive.

  17. Clustering-based redshift estimation: application to VIPERS/CFHTLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottez, V.; Mellier, Y.; Granett, B. R.; Moutard, T.; Kilbinger, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Garilli, B.; Bolzonella, M.; de la Torre, S.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Bel, J.; Coupon, J.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Moscardini, L.

    2016-10-01

    We explore the accuracy of the clustering-based redshift estimation proposed by Ménard et al. when applied to VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) real data. This method enables us to reconstruct redshift distributions from measurement of the angular clustering of objects using a set of secure spectroscopic redshifts. We use state-of-the-art spectroscopic measurements with iAB 0.5 which allows us to test the accuracy of the clustering-based redshift distributions. We show that this method enables us to reproduce the true mean colour-redshift relation when both populations have the same magnitude limit. We also show that this technique allows the inference of redshift distributions for a population fainter than the reference and we give an estimate of the colour-redshift mapping in this case. This last point is of great interest for future large-redshift surveys which require a complete faint spectroscopic sample.

  18. Antiphospholipid syndrome: analysis of dilute Russell's viper venom time titer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alan P; Cunningham, Mark T

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the characteristic features of the dilute Russell's viper venom time (DRVVT) titer in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The medical record of 3660 consecutive patients with DRVVT orders between 2006 and 2015 were examined for criteria satisfying the diagnosis of APS. DRVVT titer was studied as a function of titer distribution, titer stability, and clinicopathologic features. Twenty-six patients were diagnosed with APS based on a persistently positive DRVVT and a history of arterial or venous thrombosis. DRVVT titer was mostly of low magnitude (65-77% of patients), was of similar value between initial and repeat testing (mean DRVVT titer 1.40 vs. 1.38; P = 0.858; mean time interval 216 days), and was positively associated with anticardiolipin antibodies (IgG and IgM) and antibeta-2-glycoprotein I antibodies (IgG and IgM) (P antiphospholipid antibody profile in 0 and 62% of patients, respectively (P antiphospholipid antibody profiles.

  19. Identification of inhibitors of α2β1 integrin, members of C-lectin type proteins, in Echis sochureki venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, Piotr [Temple University, Department of Biology, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States); Calvete, Juan J. [Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Eble, Johannes A. [Excellence Cluster Cardio-Pulmonary System, Center for Molecular Medicine, Vascular Matrix Biology, Frankfurt University Hospital, Frankfurt am Main 60590 (Germany); Lazarovici, Philip [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, School of Pharmacy, Institute for Drug Research, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Marcinkiewicz, Cezary, E-mail: cmarcink@temple.edu [Temple University, Department of Biology, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Snake venom antagonists of α2β1 integrin have been identified as members of a C-lectin type family of proteins (CLP). In the present study, we characterized three new CLPs isolated from Echis sochureki venom, which interact with this integrin. These proteins were purified using a combination of gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. Sochicetin-A and sochicetin-B potently inhibited adhesion of cells expressing α2β1 integrin and binding of isolated α2β1 ectodomain to collagen I, as well as bound to recombinant GST-α2A domain in ELISA, whereas activity of sochicetin-C in these assays was approximately two orders of magnitude lower. Structurally, sochicetin-B and sochicetin-C are typical heterodimeric αβ CLPs, whereas sochicetin-A exhibits a trimer of its subunits (αβ){sub 3} in the quaternary structure. Immobilized sochicetins supported adhesion of glioma cell lines, LN18 and LBC3, whereas in a soluble form they partially inhibited adhesion of these cells to collagen I. Glioma cells spread very poorly on sochicetin-A, showing no cytoskeleton rearrangement typical for adhesion to collagen I or fibronectin. Adhesion on CLP does not involve focal adhesion elements, such as vinculin. Sochicetin-A also inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, similar to other CLPs' action on the blood coagulation system. - Highlights: • Isolation of three novel snake venom CLPs inhibiting α2β1 integrin • Reporting hexameric CLP, sochicetin-A with anti-collagen receptor activity • CLPs antagonize the interaction of glioma cells with collagen matrix. • Sochicetin-A does not support glioma cell spreading.

  20. Modification of waste carpet with hydrated ferric oxide for recycling as an adsorbent material to recover phosphate from wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Simon R.; Duplá García, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    The surface of waste wool rich carpet was modified to enable recycling as an adsorbent material to remove pollutants from water and to avoid bulky carpets contributing to landfill. The proteins of the wool fibres in waste carpets adsorbed either copper(II) nitrate or iron(II) ions to form nanoparticles of Hydrated Ferric Oxide (HFO). The copper(II) ions reversibly bound to the wool carpet. The strongest binding of the nanoparticles of HFO occurred after first oxidizing the surface epicuticle ...

  1. Evaluation of Related Risk Factors in Number of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Carpet Weavers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Karimi

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that occupational factors are associated with the number of MSDs developing among carpet weavers. Thus, using standard tools and decreasing hours of work per day can reduce frequency of MSDs among carpet weavers.

  2. 16 CFR 1631.34 - Small carpets and rugs not meeting acceptance criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... content label required to be affixed under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, if said label is... carpet or rug in immediate proximity to the said required label under the Textile Fiber Products... shall manufacture, import, distribute, or otherwise market or handle any small carpet or rug, including...

  3. Development of rapid continuous dyeing process for heavy-weight nylon 6,6 carpet

    Science.gov (United States)

    An improved continuous dyeing process for coloration of heavy-weight (60-70 oz/yd2), residential nylon 6,6 carpet is reported. By inserting a slot steam applicator after the dye pad and before the box steamer to preheat the carpet to around 180°F (greater than the nylon wet glass transition temperat...

  4. Critical Behaviour of the Gaussian Model on Sierpinski Carpets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林振权; 孔祥木

    2001-01-01

    The Gaussian model on Sierpinski carpets with two types of nearest neighbour interactions K and Kw and two corresponding types of the Gaussian distribution constants b and bw is constructed by generalizing that on a translationally invariant square lattice. The critical behaviours are studied by the renormalization-group approach and spin rescaling method. They are found to be quite different from that on a translationally invariant square lattice. There are two critical points at (K* = b, K*w = 0) and (K* = 0, K*w = bw), and the correlation length critical exponents are calculated.

  5. Ultra-stiff large-area carpets of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysami, Seyyed Shayan; Dallas, Panagiotis; Britton, Jude; Lozano, Juan G.; Murdock, Adrian T.; Ferraro, Claudio; Gutierrez, Eduardo Saiz; Rijnveld, Niek; Holdway, Philip; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Grobert, Nicole

    2016-06-01

    Herewith, we report the influence of post-synthesis heat treatment (aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) setup. Electron and X-ray diffraction showed that the heat treatment at 2350 °C under inert atmosphere purifies, removes residual catalyst particles, and partially aligns adjacent single crystals (crystallites) in polycrystalline MWCNTs. The purification and improvement in the crystallites alignment within the MWCNTs resulted in reduced dispersibility of the VA-MWCNTs in liquid media. High-resolution microscopy revealed that the crystallinity is improved in scales of few tens of nanometres while the point defects remain largely unaffected. The heat treatment also had a marked benefit on the mechanical properties of the carpets. For the first time, we report compression moduli as high as 120 MPa for VA-MWCNT carpets, i.e. an order of magnitude higher than previously reported figures. The application of higher temperatures (arc-discharge plasma, >=4000 °C) resulted in the formation of a novel graphite-matrix composite reinforced with CVD and arc-discharge-like carbon nanotubes.Herewith, we report the influence of post-synthesis heat treatment (aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) setup. Electron and X-ray diffraction showed that the heat treatment at 2350 °C under inert atmosphere purifies, removes residual catalyst particles, and partially aligns adjacent single crystals (crystallites) in polycrystalline MWCNTs. The purification and improvement in the crystallites alignment within the MWCNTs resulted in reduced dispersibility of the VA-MWCNTs in liquid media. High-resolution microscopy revealed that the crystallinity is improved in scales of few tens of nanometres while the point defects remain largely unaffected. The heat treatment also had a marked benefit on the mechanical properties of the carpets. For the first time, we report compression moduli as high as 120 MPa for VA-MWCNT carpets, i.e. an order of magnitude higher than

  6. Individual Growth Rates of Nikolsky’s Viper, Vipera berus nikolskii (Squamata, Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Z. S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Capture-mark-recapture data was used to infer growth rates of the Nikolsky’s viper, Vipera berus nikolskii (Vedmederja, Grubant et Rudaeva, 1986, in the Eastern Ukraine. We have found that growth rate is negatively correlated with age. The difference in growth rates before maturation is not significant between different sexes. Growth rates decrease rapidly after maturation in males and females, however adult males retain significantly higher average growth rates. There is large dispersion of growth rates in the group of adult females, which is caused, probably, by alteration of complete arrest of growth in the years with reproduction and more intensive growth in the years without it. Asymptotic snout-ventral length estimated after Von Bertalanffy model was 680 mm in females and 630 mm in males. Females mature after fifth and males mature after fourth hibernation. The larger females in vipers can not be the result of higher growth rates in females, but are the outcome of a combination of other factors including different maturation time and size (older and being larger, and, perhaps, longer life span due to lower mortality. Growth rates of the Nikolsky’s viper in the nature are higher than in other species in the group of small Eurasian vipers.

  7. Venom Concentrations and Clotting Factor Levels in a Prospective Cohort of Russell's Viper Bites with Coagulopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K Isbister

    Full Text Available Russell's viper envenoming is a major problem in South Asia and causes venom induced consumption coagulopathy. This study aimed to investigate the kinetics and dynamics of venom and clotting function in Russell's viper envenoming.In a prospective cohort of 146 patients with Russell's viper envenoming, we measured venom concentrations, international normalised ratio [INR], prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, coagulation factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX and X, and von Willebrand factor antigen. The median age was 39 y (16-82 y and 111 were male. The median peak INR was 6.8 (interquartile range [IQR]: 3.7 to >13, associated with low fibrinogen [median,3 at 6 h post-antivenom but had reduced to <2, by 24 h. The aPTT had also returned to close to normal (<50 sec at 24 h. Factor VII, VIII and IX levels were unusually high pre-antivenom, median peak concentrations of 393%, 307% and 468% respectively. Pre-antivenom venom concentrations and the INR (r = 0.20, p = 0.02 and aPTT (r = 0.19, p = 0.03 were correlated (non-parametric Spearman analysis.Russell's viper coagulopathy results in prolonged aPTT, INR, low fibrinogen, factors V, VIII and X which recover over 48 h. Severity of clotting abnormalities was associated with venom concentrations.

  8. Automatic Reading of Hand-painted Carpet Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fateh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Carpet patterns are in two categories: machine-printed and hand-painted. There are a few articles on automatic reading of machine-printed patterns, but due to the difficulties in reading of machine-printed patterns, there is not any published work yet. This article provides a new method for automatic reading of hand-painted carpet patterns which consists of the following steps: initial pixel-based color reduction, knot-based color reduction, segmentation by region growing and final color reduction. The proposed method is tailored for the application in hand and, therefore yields a good result. For 80 segments of different patterns, the algorithm has an approximate of 95% accuracy. In other words, the color of 95% of pattern knots are found accurately. It is tried to develop a method with proper accuracy and speed. Therefore, the proposed method is not completely automatic and the number of colors is required to be given by the user.

  9. Solar Magnetic Carpet I: Simulation of Synthetic Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. A.; Mackay, D. H.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Parnell, C. E.

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes a new 2D model for the photospheric evolution of the magnetic carpet. It is the first in a series of papers working towards constructing a realistic 3D non-potential model for the interaction of small-scale solar magnetic fields. In the model, the basic evolution of the magnetic elements is governed by a supergranular flow profile. In addition, magnetic elements may evolve through the processes of emergence, cancellation, coalescence and fragmentation. Model parameters for the emergence of bipoles are based upon the results of observational studies. Using this model, several simulations are considered, where the range of flux with which bipoles may emerge is varied. In all cases the model quickly reaches a steady state where the rates of emergence and cancellation balance. Analysis of the resulting magnetic field shows that we reproduce observed quantities such as the flux distribution, mean field, cancellation rates, photospheric recycle time and a magnetic network. As expected, the simulation matches observations more closely when a larger, and consequently more realistic, range of emerging flux values is allowed (4×1016 - 1019 Mx). The model best reproduces the current observed properties of the magnetic carpet when we take the minimum absolute flux for emerging bipoles to be 4×1016 Mx. In future, this 2D model will be used as an evolving photospheric boundary condition for 3D non-potential modeling.

  10. Pulmonary Functions are Impaired among Carpet Factory Workers: A Spirometric Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, B S; Banstola, D; Mahotra, N B; Shrestha, L; Pun, M

    2015-01-01

    Carpet factory produces various types of dusts and workers occupationally get exposed to them continuously. It has adverse health effects and most notably to the pulmonary functions. Nepal is one of the carpet exporter developing countries and still does have many factories within Kathmandu valley. However, the health hazards especially the status of pulmonary function of carpet factory workers from Nepal has not been studied. A cross-sectional comparative study was designed to recruit carpet factory workers and healthy controls to assess their pulmonary functions. A total of 118 subjects (59 males and 59 females) were recruited (60 carpet factory workers and 58 controls). Pulmonary function tests were carried out using Medical International Research Spirolab II portable spirometer. The carpet factory workers had significantly less FEV1 (90.37 ±16.6 % vs. 103.89±9.79%, pfactory workers had significantly higher FEV1/FVC ratio (89.96 ± 6.42 % vs. 87.12 ± 4.58 %, p = 0.007) as compared to control. Carpet industry dusts exposure adversely affects pulmonary functions among its workers. The findings significant increase in the FEV1/FVC ratio and decrease in FEV1, FVC, and PEFR suggest that the effects are both restrictive and obstructive patterns of lung disease.

  11. Hydrodynamics of a self-actuated bacterial carpet using microscale particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoyeon; Cheang, U Kei; Kim, Dalhyung; Ali, Jamel; Kim, Min Jun

    2015-03-01

    Microorganisms can effectively generate propulsive force at the microscale where viscous forces overwhelmingly dominate inertia forces; bacteria achieve this task through flagellar motion. When swarming bacteria, cultured on agar plates, are blotted onto the surface of a microfabricated structure, a monolayer of bacteria forms what is termed a "bacterial carpet," which generates strong flows due to the combined motion of their freely rotating flagella. Furthermore, when the bacterial carpet coated microstructure is released into a low Reynolds number fluidic environment, the propulsive force of the bacterial carpet is able to give the microstructure motility. In our previous investigations, we demonstrated motion control of these bacteria powered microbiorobots (MBRs). Without any external stimuli, MBRs display natural rotational and translational movements on their own; this MBR self-actuation is due to the coordination of flagella. Here, we investigate the flow fields generated by bacterial carpets, and compare this flow to the flow fields observed in the bulk fluid at a series of locations above the bacterial carpet. Using microscale particle image velocimetry, we characterize the flow fields generated from the bacterial carpets of MBRs in an effort to understand their propulsive flow, as well as the resulting pattern of flagella driven self-actuated motion. Comparing the velocities between the bacterial carpets on fixed and untethered MBRs, it was found that flow velocities near the surface of the microstructure were strongest, and at distances far above, the surface flow velocities were much smaller.

  12. Dispersion characteristics of silicon nanorod based carpet cloaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Venkata A; Blair, John; Summers, Christopher J; Park, Wounjhang

    2010-12-06

    A wide range of transformation media designed with conformal mapping are currently being studied extensively due to their favorable properties: isotropy, moderate index requirements, low loss and broad bandwidth. For optical frequency operation, the transformation media are commonly fabricated on high index semiconductor thin films. These 2D implementations, however, inevitably introduces waveguide dispersion, which affects the bandwidth and loss behavior. In this paper, for carpet cloaks implemented by a silicon nanorod array, we have confirmed that waveguide dispersion limits the bandwidth of the transformation medium by direct visualizing the cut-off conditions with near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). Furthermore, we have experimentally demonstrated the extension of cut-off wavelength by depositing a conformal dielectric layer. This study illustrates the constraints on the 2D transformation media imposed by the waveguide dispersion and suggests a general technique to tune and modify their optical properties.

  13. Solar Magnetic Carpet I: Simulation of Synthetic Magnetograms

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Karen A; van Ballegooijen, Adriaan A; Parnell, Clare E; 10.1007/s11207-011-9809-3

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new 2D model for the photospheric evolution of the magnetic carpet. It is the first in a series of papers working towards constructing a realistic 3D non-potential model for the interaction of small-scale solar magnetic fields. In the model, the basic evolution of the magnetic elements is governed by a supergranular flow profile. In addition, magnetic elements may evolve through the processes of emergence, cancellation, coalescence and fragmentation. Model parameters for the emergence of bipoles are based upon the results of observational studies. Using this model, several simulations are considered, where the range of flux with which bipoles may emerge is varied. In all cases the model quickly reaches a steady state where the rates of emergence and cancellation balance. Analysis of the resulting magnetic field shows that we reproduce observed quantities such as the flux distribution, mean field, cancellation rates, photospheric recycle time and a magnetic network. As expected, the simu...

  14. 16 CFR 1630.32 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... each label and/or invoice relating thereto pursuant to the requirements of the Textile Fiber Products... Flammable Fabrics Act shall manufacture, import, distribute, or otherwise market or handle any carpet or rug...

  15. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopa, Stephanie Lucero; Mulholland, James A; Realff, Matthew J; Lemieux, Paul M

    2008-08-01

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particle-board combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. SO2 emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet.

  16. Pit Viper strikes at the Hanford site. Pit maintenance using robotics at the Hanford Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder-Smith, Lynne

    2002-06-30

    The Pit Viper - a remote operations waste retrieval system - was developed to replace manual operations in the valve pits of waste storge tanks at the Hanford Site. The system consists of a typical industrial backhoe fitted with a robotic manipulator arm and is operated remotely from a control trailer located outside of the tank farm. Cameras mounted to the arm and within the containment tent allow the operator to view the entire pit area and operate the system using a joystick. The arm's gripper can grasp a variety of tools that allow personnel to perform cleaning, debris removal, and concrete repair tasks -- a more efficient and less dose-intensive process than the previous "long-pole" method. The project team overcame a variety of obstacles during development and testing of the Pit Viper system, and deployment occurred in Hanford Tank C-104 in December 2001.

  17. On the issue of taxonomical status of steppe viper (Vipera renardi in Right-bank Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Baybuz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on morphologic variability of the steppe viper in the Kirovograd region (Right-bank Ukraine are given firstly. Tentative estimation of the similaritylevel of the local population and the populations from the Left-bank Ukraine and the Crimea was carried out using methods of the multivariate statistics. Morphological data in line with the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis show that the population in the Kirovograd region belongs to widespread Eurasian species Vipera renardiand morphologically most close to the original populations of the lowland Crimea, Sivash and Forest-Steppe of the Left-bank Ukraine. This could indicate the complicated history of the Right-bank Ukraine colonization by the steppe viper and possible influence of environmental conditions on the vipers’ morphology

  18. Probing the accelerating Universe with redshift-space distortions in VIPERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Sylvain

    2016-10-01

    We present the first measurement of the growth rate of structure at z=0.8. It has been obtained from the redshift-space distortions observed in the galaxy clustering pattern in the VIMOS Public Redshift survey (VIPERS) first data release. VIPERS is a large galaxy redshift survey probing the large-scale structure at 0.5 Universe, which has been poorly explored until now. We obtain σ8 = 0.47 +/- 0.08 at z = 0.8 that is consistent with the predictions of standard cosmological models based on Einstein gravity. This measurement alone is however not accurate enough to allow the detection of possible deviations from standard gravity.

  19. Lethal herpesvirosis in 16 captive horned vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes): pathological and ultrastructural findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoi, C; Gal, A F; Taulescu, M A; Palmieri, C; Catoi, A F

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen captive adult horned vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) were submitted for necropsy examination following a 2-week history of lethargy, anorexia and dyspnoea. Gross lesions included widespread haemorrhage, serosanguineous effusions in the body cavities and multiple pinpoint white to yellow foci in the liver. Microscopically, there was multifocal hepatic coagulative necrosis associated with intranuclear acidophilic inclusion bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells. Similar endothelial lesions were observed in the myocardium, fat bodies, kidneys and spleen. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous virions (100-110 nm) in the nuclei of endothelial cells and intracytoplasmic enveloped virions (140-150 nm) were also found. The gross and histological findings and the ultrastructural features of the intranuclear inclusions and viral particles were consistent with herpesviral infection. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of a lethal herpesvirosis in horned vipers and the second report in snakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ViPEr: A Lexicon-Grammar of European Portuguese Verbs

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the current state of ViPEr, the Lexicon-Grammar of European Portuguese verbs, a database with distributional, syntactic and semantic properties of the most frequently occurring verbs. The classification follows the theoretical framework of the Lexicon-Grammar. The paper presents the main linguistic criteria that were adopted in the classification of 5052 frequently occurring verbs, which yield 6,059 different constructions or word senses. The paper ...

  1. Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should

  2. Chronic Pituitary Failure Resembling Sheehan's Syndrome Following a Bite of Russell's Viper. A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K G; Srividya, S; Usha Nandhini, K P; Ramprabananth, S

    2010-03-01

    Hypopituitarism can be the sequela of a variety of causes like postpartum pituitary necrosis or Sheehan's syndrome, lymphocytic hypophysitis, trauma and encephalitis. A very rare cause is envenomation by a bite of a Russell's viper. Very few cases with documented imaging findings of chronic pituitary failure resulting from snake bite have been reported. We describe a case of hypopituitarism with clinical, endocrine and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies occurring as a delayed complication of snake bite.

  3. Evaluation of Related Risk Factors in Number of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Carpet Weavers in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Nasim; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Motamedzade, Majid; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2016-12-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a common problem among carpet weavers. This study was undertaken to introduce affecting personal and occupational factors in developing the number of MSDs among carpet weavers. A cross-sectional study was performed among 862 weavers in seven towns with regard to workhouse location in urban or rural regions. Data were collected by using questionnaires that contain personal, workplace, and information tools and the modified Nordic MSDs questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by applying Poisson and negative binomial mixed models using a full Bayesian hierarchical approach. The deviance information criterion was used for comparison between models and model selection. The majority of weavers (72%) were female and carpet weaving was the main job of 85.2% of workers. The negative binomial mixed model with lowest deviance information criterion was selected as the best model. The criteria showed the convergence of chains. Based on 95% Bayesian credible interval, the main job and weaving type variables statistically affected the number of MSDs, but variables age, sex, weaving comb, work experience, and carpet weaving looms were not significant. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that occupational factors are associated with the number of MSDs developing among carpet weavers. Thus, using standard tools and decreasing hours of work per day can reduce frequency of MSDs among carpet weavers.

  4. Hump nosed viper bite inSri Lanka-descriptive observational study of 1543 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wijewantha HS; Sellahewa KH

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To identify the clinical manifestations of hump nosed viper envenomation and to recognize the available treatment methods to prevent complications.Methods: Descriptive observational study involving a series of1 543 patients admitted with hump nosed viper bite to 5 major hospitals in Sri Lanka was conducted. Data collection was done consecutively during February1990 and February2008. ExceptHypnale, identification of the biting snake was made by the corresponding author after visual examination of the dead or live snakes, which were brought to hospital.Results: Sixty seven(4.34%) patients developed systemic effects and two (0.1%) patients died due to effects of envenomation or complications of treatment. Systemic effects varied from coagulopathy, nephropathy to some neurological manifestations. Fifty nine (3.8%) patients had only coagulopathy and they received either, intravenous isotonic saline to ensure adequate urine out put i.e.0.5 mL/kg /hour or15 mL/kg of fresh frozen plasma(FFP). None of the patients that had coagulopathy developed renal failure. Contamination of the sample by mildly venomous species ofHypnale may have contributed to the low incidence of systemic complications.Conclusions: It is likely that early hydration with normal saline orFFP can prevent acute renal failure. FFP showed a tendency for early correction of coagulopathy. Role of FFP in hump nosed viper envenomation is worth studying in randomized double blind controlled clinical trials.

  5. VIPER: a visualisation tool for exploring inheritance inconsistencies in genotyped pedigrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Pedigree genotype datasets are used for analysing genetic inheritance and to map genetic markers and traits. Such datasets consist of hundreds of related animals genotyped for thousands of genetic markers and invariably contain multiple errors in both the pedigree structure and in the associated individual genotype data. These errors manifest as apparent inheritance inconsistencies in the pedigree, and invalidate analyses of marker inheritance patterns across the dataset. Cleaning raw datasets of bad data points (incorrect pedigree relationships, unreliable marker assays, suspect samples, bad genotype results etc.) requires expert exploration of the patterns of exposed inconsistencies in the context of the inheritance pedigree. In order to assist this process we are developing VIPER (Visual Pedigree Explorer), a software tool that integrates an inheritance-checking algorithm with a novel space-efficient pedigree visualisation, so that reported inheritance inconsistencies are overlaid on an interactive, navigable representation of the pedigree structure. Methods and results This paper describes an evaluation of how VIPER displays the different scales and types of dataset that occur experimentally, with a description of how VIPER's display interface and functionality meet the challenges presented by such data. We examine a range of possible error types found in real and simulated pedigree genotype datasets, demonstrating how these errors are exposed and explored using the VIPER interface and we evaluate the utility and usability of the interface to the domain expert. Evaluation was performed as a two stage process with the assistance of domain experts (geneticists). The initial evaluation drove the iterative implementation of further features in the software prototype, as required by the users, prior to a final functional evaluation of the pedigree display for exploring the various error types, data scales and structures. Conclusions The VIPER display was

  6. On a meeting between the Horn Viper and a Centipede in the Peloponnese, southern Greece  or the Biter, bit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Kretzschmar, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Vipera ammodytes L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern Europe. It was documented attacking Scolopendra cingulata Latreille (the venomous Mediterranean Banded Centipede...

  7. On a meeting between the Horn Viper and a Centipede in the Peloponnese, southern Greece  or the Biter, bit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Kretzschmar, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Vipera ammodytes L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern Europe. It was documented attacking Scolopendra cingulata Latreille (the venomous Mediterranean Banded Centipede...

  8. Development of VIPER: a simulator for assessing vision performance of warfighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familoni, Jide; Thompson, Roger; Moyer, Steve; Mueller, Gregory; Williams, Tim; Nguyen, Hung-Quang; Espinola, Richard L.; Sia, Rose K.; Ryan, Denise S.; Rivers, Bruce A.

    2016-05-01

    Background: When evaluating vision, it is important to assess not just the ability to read letters on a vision chart, but also how well one sees in real life scenarios. As part of the Warfighter Refractive Eye Surgery Program (WRESP), visual outcomes are assessed before and after refractive surgery. A Warfighter's ability to read signs and detect and identify objects is crucial, not only when deployed in a military setting, but also in their civilian lives. Objective: VIPER, a VIsion PERformance simulator was envisioned as actual video-based simulated driving to test warfighters' functional vision under realistic conditions. Designed to use interactive video image controlled environments at daytime, dusk, night, and with thermal imaging vision, it simulates the experience of viewing and identifying road signs and other objects while driving. We hypothesize that VIPER will facilitate efficient and quantifiable assessment of changes in vision and measurement of functional military performance. Study Design: Video images were recorded on an isolated 1.1 mile stretch of road with separate target sets of six simulated road signs and six objects of military interest, separately. The video footage were integrated with customdesigned C++ based software that presented the simulated drive to an observer on a computer monitor at 10, 20 or 30 miles/hour. VIPER permits the observer to indicate when a target is seen and when it is identified. Distances at which the observer recognizes and identifies targets are automatically logged. Errors in recognition and identification are also recorded. This first report describes VIPER's development and a preliminary study to establish a baseline for its performance. In the study, nine soldiers viewed simulations at 10 miles/hour and 30 miles/hour, run in randomized order for each participant seated at 36 inches from the monitor. Relevance: Ultimately, patients are interested in how their vision will affect their ability to perform daily

  9. Virtual Integrated Planning and Execution Resource System (VIPERS): The High Ground of 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    in our living room football games played by small holographic figures who run around on the carpet.55 This level of commercial development and broad...prime numbers provide the encryption basis for secure financial transactions in the future.8 Systems using these very large primes-- RSA 129 and greater

  10. Optical diffraction of fractal figures: random Sierpinski carpets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Denise; Chamaly, Stéphane; Perreau, Michel; Mercier, Daniel; Monceau, Pascal; Levy, Jean-Claude Serge

    1991-10-01

    The optical diffraction patterns of random Sierpinski carpets of different fractal dimensions at different levels of iteration are shown and analyzed. The sensitivity of such an analysis to long range correlations, is demonstrated theoretically by means of the transfer matrix formalism of fractals, T.M.F. The relation between the subdimensions defined in T.M.F. and diffraction patterns is outlined. Finally an analysis of experimental diffraction patterns is proposed in order to measure these new theoretical subdimensions. On présente ici les clichés de diffraction optique de tapis de Sierpinski aléatoires de différentes dimensions fractales, pris à des niveaux d'itération différents. Au moyen du formalisme de la matrice de transfert dans les fractals, on montre la sensibilité de cette analyse expérimentale aux corrélations à moyenne et longue portée. Ainsi la relation entre les sous-dimensions fractales du F.M.T. et les rapports d'intensité entre les clichés de diffraction de figures fractales à des niveaux d'itération différents est soulignée. Enfin on esquisse le principe d'une analyse expérimentale de ces nouvelles dimensions théoriques.

  11. Quantum information processing by weaving quantum Talbot carpets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías, Osvaldo Jiménez; de Melo, Fernando; Milman, Pérola; Walborn, Stephen P.

    2015-06-01

    Single-photon interference due to passage through a periodic grating is considered in a novel proposal for processing D -dimensional quantum systems (quDits) encoded in the spatial degrees of freedom of light. We show that free-space propagation naturally implements basic single-quDit gates by means of the Talbot effect: an intricate time-space carpet of light in the near-field diffraction regime. By adding a diagonal phase gate, we show that a complete set of single-quDit gates can be implemented. We then introduce a spatially dependent beam splitter that allows for projective measurements in the computational basis and can be used for the implementation of controlled operations between two quDits. Universal quantum information processing can then be implemented with linear optics and ancilla photons via postselection and feed-forward following the original proposal of Knill-Laflamme and Milburn. Although we consider photons, our scheme should be directly applicable to a number of other physical systems. Interpretation of the Talbot effect as a quantum logic operation provides a beautiful and interesting way to visualize quantum computation through wave propagation and interference.

  12. Directionally hiding objects and creating illusions above a carpet-like device by reflection holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiluan; Wu, Kedi; Shi, Yile; Wang, Hui; Wang, Guo Ping

    2015-02-01

    Realization of a perfect invisibility cloak still challenges the current fabricating technologies. Most experiments, if not all, are hence focused on carpet cloaks because of their relatively low requirements to material properties. Nevertheless, present invisibility carpets are used to hide beneath objects. Here, we report a carpet-like device to directionally conceal objects and further to create illusions above it. The device is fabricated through recording a reflection hologram of objects and is used to produce a time-reversed signal to compensate for the information of the objects and further to create light field of another object so as to realize both functions of hiding the objects and creating illusions, respectively. The carpet-like device can work for macroscopic objects at visible wavelength as the distance between objects and device is at decimeter scale. Our carpet-like device to realizing invisibility and creating illusions may provide a robust way for crucial applications of magic camouflaging and anti-detection etc.

  13. Visualization of vacuum cleaner-induced flow in a carpet by using magnetic resonance velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeesoo; Song, Simon

    2016-11-01

    Understanding characteristics of in-carpet flow induced by a vacuum cleaner nozzle is important to improve the design and performance of the cleaner nozzle. However, optical visualization techniques like PIV are limited to uncover the flow details because a carpet is opaque porous media. We have visualized a mean flow field in a cut-pile type carpet by magnetic resonance velocimetry. The flow was generated by a static vacuum cleaner nozzle, and the working fluid is a copper sulfate aqueous solution. Three dimensional, three component velocity vectors were obtained in a measurement domain of 336 x 128 x 14 mm3 covering the entire nozzle span and a 7-mm thick carpet below the nozzle. The voxel size was 1 x 1 x 0.5 (depthwise) mm3. Based on the visualization data, the permeability, the Forchheimer coefficient and pressure distribution were calculated for the carpet. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2016R1A2B3009541).

  14. Design of Nonwoven Carpets to Upgrade Sound Isolation Features in Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan Raziye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increases of the expected properties of textile products, better and advanced new designs are being created. Textiles used in vehicles are increasing, and the current performance of the expectations bar is determined by automobile manufacturers. While meeting the expectations of users in the vehicle mechanically, but also disturbing the user during operation of the mechanical properties of this ratio should be minimized. This study was intended to minimize sound transmission of nonwoven textile components, which are used in cars as silencer parts. For that purpose, four different models were developed in this study. First model consists of three designs for baggage carpets. Second model has six designs for floor coverings. Third model comprises two designs inner dash felt and finally fourth model includes two designs of hood liners. The acoustical absorption coefficients and transmission loss of these carpets were tested and evaluated in the frequency range of 16-6300 Hz. The measurements demonstrated that nonwoven layer is a very significant and effective part of a carpet due to its contribution in the sound isolation. With this study, it has been determined which layer has better performance on sound absorption and transmission loss among different carpet types. A combination of heavy layer and nonwoven layer carpets is found to be benefit for noise and sound insulation.

  15. VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The distinct build-up of dense and normal massive passive galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gargiulo, A; Scodeggio, M; Krywult, J; De Lucia, G; Guzzo, L; Garilli, B; Grannet, B R; de la Torre, S; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; Davidzon, I; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Haines, C; Hawken, A; Iovino, A; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Małek, K; Marulli, F; Moutard, T; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Zamorani, G; Bel, J; Branchini, E; Coupon, J; Ilbert, O; Moscardini, L

    2016-01-01

    We use the final data from the VIPERS redshift survey to extract an unparalleled sample of more than 2000 massive M > 10^11 M_sun passive galaxies (MPGs) at redshift 0.5 2000 M_sun pc^-2) MPGs show a constant comoving number density over this redshift range, whilst this increases by a factor ~ 4 for the least dense objects, defined as having Sigma 10^11 M_sun objects). Such systems observed at z ~ 1 in VIPERS, therefore, represent the most plausible progenitors of the subsequent emerging class of larger MPGs.

  16. Venomics of New World pit vipers: Genus-wide comparisons of venom proteomes across Agkistrodon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Ureña-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Sanz, Libia; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sánchez, Elda E.; Fry, Bryan G.; Gutiérrez, José María; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Sovic, Michael G.; Calvete, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a genus-wide comparison of venom proteome variation across New World pit vipers in the genus Agkistrodon. Despite the wide variety of habitats occupied by this genus and that all its taxa feed on diverse species of vertebrates and invertebrate prey, the venom proteomes of copperheads, cottonmouths, and cantils are remarkably similar, both in the type and relative abundance of their different toxin families. The venoms from all the eleven species and subspecies sampled showed relatively similar proteolytic and PLA2 activities. In contrast, quantitative differences were observed in hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities in mice. The highest myotoxic activity was observed with the venoms of A. b. bilineatus, followed by A. p. piscivorus, whereas the venoms of A. c. contortrix and A. p. leucostoma induced the lowest myotoxic activity. The venoms of Agkistrodon bilineatus subspecies showed the highest hemorrhagic activity and A. c. contortrix the lowest. Compositional and toxicological analyses agree with clinical observations of envenomations by Agkistrodon in the USA and Central America. A comparative analysis of Agkistrodon shows that venom divergence tracks phylogeny of this genus to a greater extent than in Sistrurus rattlesnakes, suggesting that the distinct natural histories of Agkistrodon and Sistrurus clades may have played a key role in molding the patterns of evolution of their venom protein genes. Biological significance A deep understanding of the structural and functional profiles of venoms and of the principles governing the evolution of venomous systems is a goal of venomics. Isolated proteomics analyses have been conducted on venoms from many species of vipers and pit vipers. However, making sense of these large inventories of data requires the integration of this information across multiple species to identify evolutionary and ecological trends. Our genus-wide venomics study provides a comprehensive overview of the toxic arsenal across

  17. Venomics of New World pit vipers: genus-wide comparisons of venom proteomes across Agkistrodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Ureña-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Sanz, Libia; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sánchez, Elda E; Fry, Bryan G; Gutiérrez, José María; Gibbs, H Lisle; Sovic, Michael G; Calvete, Juan J

    2014-01-16

    We report a genus-wide comparison of venom proteome variation across New World pit vipers in the genus Agkistrodon. Despite the wide variety of habitats occupied by this genus and that all its taxa feed on diverse species of vertebrates and invertebrate prey, the venom proteomes of copperheads, cottonmouths, and cantils are remarkably similar, both in the type and relative abundance of their different toxin families. The venoms from all the eleven species and subspecies sampled showed relatively similar proteolytic and PLA2 activities. In contrast, quantitative differences were observed in hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities in mice. The highest myotoxic activity was observed with the venoms of A. b. bilineatus, followed by A. p. piscivorus, whereas the venoms of A. c. contortrix and A. p. leucostoma induced the lowest myotoxic activity. The venoms of Agkistrodon bilineatus subspecies showed the highest hemorrhagic activity and A. c. contortrix the lowest. Compositional and toxicological analyses agree with clinical observations of envenomations by Agkistrodon in the USA and Central America. A comparative analysis of Agkistrodon shows that venom divergence tracks phylogeny of this genus to a greater extent than in Sistrurus rattlesnakes, suggesting that the distinct natural histories of Agkistrodon and Sistrurus clades may have played a key role in molding the patterns of evolution of their venom protein genes. A deep understanding of the structural and functional profiles of venoms and of the principles governing the evolution of venomous systems is a goal of venomics. Isolated proteomics analyses have been conducted on venoms from many species of vipers and pit vipers. However, making sense of these large inventories of data requires the integration of this information across multiple species to identify evolutionary and ecological trends. Our genus-wide venomics study provides a comprehensive overview of the toxic arsenal across Agkistrodon and a ground for

  18. Prediction of short-term and long-term VOC emissions from SBR bitumen-backed carpet under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Chen, Q.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents two models for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carpet. One is a numerical model using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tech-nique for short-term predictions, the other an analytical model for long-term predictions. The numerical model can (1) deal with carpet

  19. Psychosis in secondary empty sella syndrome following a Russell's viper bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Ratnakaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypopituitarism can present with psychiatric symptoms. We report a unique case of psychosis in clear consciousness in a case of hypopituitarism due to the secondary empty sella syndrome following a Russell's viper bite which was untreated and presented with psychotic symptoms for past 13 years following the snake bite. After the diagnosis of psychosis due to hypopituitarism was made, the patient was treated with levothyroxine and prednisolone supplements and his psychotic symptoms subsided without any psychotropic drugs. Vasculotoxic snake bites can cause hypopituitarism and can present with psychosis. Further research will be needed into the prevalence of this phenomenon.

  20. Herpes labialis in patients with Russell's viper bite and acute kidney injury: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waikhom, Rajesh; Sapam, Ranjeeta; Patil, Krishna; Jadhav, Jaya Prada; Sircar, Dipankar; Roychowdhury, Arpita; Dasgupta, Sanjay; Pandey, Rajendra

    2011-06-01

    Snake bite is an important health hazard in tropical countries and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Herpes labialis is a common ailment caused by the Herpes simplex virus. There is no published data showing any association between the snake bite and development of Herpes labialis. Here, we present a series of patients who developed Herpes labialis after Russell's viper bite and had acute kidney injury. We attempted to find whether snake bite is an immunosuppressed state and whether it could have pre-disposed the patients to the development of these lesions.

  1. Infant death after nose-horned viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) bite in Croatia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukšić, Boris; Culić, Viktor; Stričević, Luka; Brizić, Ivica; Poljak, Nikola K; Tadić, Zoran

    2010-12-01

    A case of a 45-day-old male infant, bitten on the neck by nose-horned viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes), is reported. This episode occurred while the baby was on a picnic with his parents in a hill near a town in southern Croatia. In spite of immediate arrival at hospital, where antivenom was administrated and all the necessary treatment measures were carried out, the infant died 6 h following the bite. The cause of death was severe and progressive hyperkalaemia, massive intravascular haemolysis, severe coagulopathy and myocardial dysfunction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carpet-dust chemicals as measures of exposure: Implications of variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead Todd P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in using chemicals measured in carpet dust as indicators of chemical exposures. However, investigators have rarely sampled dust repeatedly from the same households and therefore little is known about the variability of chemical levels that exist within and between households in dust samples. Results We analyzed 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 6 polychlorinated biphenyls, and nicotine in 68 carpet-dust samples from 21 households in agricultural communities of Fresno County, California collected from 2003-2005. Chemical concentrations (ng per g dust ranged from Conclusions Our findings suggest that attenuation bias should be relatively modest when using these semi-volatile carpet-dust chemicals as exposure surrogates in epidemiologic studies.

  3. Fluctuation behaviors of financial time series by a stochastic Ising system on a Sierpinski carpet lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen; Wang, Jun

    2013-09-01

    We develop a financial market model using an Ising spin system on a Sierpinski carpet lattice that breaks the equal status of each spin. To study the fluctuation behavior of the financial model, we present numerical research based on Monte Carlo simulation in conjunction with the statistical analysis and multifractal analysis of the financial time series. We extract the multifractal spectra by selecting various lattice size values of the Sierpinski carpet, and the inverse temperature of the Ising dynamic system. We also investigate the statistical fluctuation behavior, the time-varying volatility clustering, and the multifractality of returns for the indices SSE, SZSE, DJIA, IXIC, S&P500, HSI, N225, and for the simulation data derived from the Ising model on the Sierpinski carpet lattice. A numerical study of the model’s dynamical properties reveals that this financial model reproduces important features of the empirical data.

  4. Extreme fatigue and malaise--a syndrome caused by badly cleaned wall-to-wall carpets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nexø, E; Skov, P G; Gravesen, S

    1983-01-01

    Complaints connected with the indoor climate are often vague and a cause-effect relationship is difficult to demonstrate. The present paper describes two patients suffering from symptoms in the form of extreme fatigue and malaise. The patients connected their problems to the poorly cleaned working place. We found the working place to be covered with badly cleaned wall-to-wall carpet. Examination of 12 employees showed five to have symptoms related to the working place. Four of the five had precipitating antibodies against extracts of dust collected from the carpets and two of the five had a positive prick test to the same extract. After removal of the carpets all symptoms disappeared. We conclude that vague symptoms related to the indoor climate may be induced by accumulation of organic dust.

  5. Elastic properties of Sierpinski-like carpets: finite-element-based simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshmyan, V G; Patlazhan, S A; Timan, S A

    2001-11-01

    The elastic properties of two-dimensional continuous composites of fractal structures are studied with the set of Sierpinski-like carpets filled by voids or rigid inclusions. The effective elastic moduli of these carpets are calculated numerically using the finite-element and position-space renormalization group techniques. The fixed-point problem is analyzed by flow diagrams in the plane of the current Poisson ratios and coefficients of anisotropy of the composites. It is found that in the general case the effective elastic moduli asymptotically approach a power-law behavior. Moreover, the common exponent characterizes the scaling behavior of each component of the elastic modulus tensor of a definite carpet. The values of the scaling exponents and positions of the fixed points are shown to be independent of the elastic properties of the host and depend significantly on the fractal dimension of the composite.

  6. Elastic properties of Sierpinski-like carpets: Finite-element-based simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshmyan, V. G.; Patlazhan, S. A.; Timan, S. A.

    2001-11-01

    The elastic properties of two-dimensional continuous composites of fractal structures are studied with the set of Sierpinski-like carpets filled by voids or rigid inclusions. The effective elastic moduli of these carpets are calculated numerically using the finite-element and position-space renormalization group techniques. The fixed-point problem is analyzed by flow diagrams in the plane of the current Poisson ratios and coefficients of anisotropy of the composites. It is found that in the general case the effective elastic moduli asymptotically approach a power-law behavior. Moreover, the common exponent characterizes the scaling behavior of each component of the elastic modulus tensor of a definite carpet. The values of the scaling exponents and positions of the fixed points are shown to be independent of the elastic properties of the host and depend significantly on the fractal dimension of the composite.

  7. Insights into the Evolution of a Snake Venom Multi-Gene Family from the Genomic Organization of Echis ocellatus SVMP Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular events underlying the evolution of the Snake Venom Metalloproteinase (SVMP) family from an A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase (ADAM) ancestor remain poorly understood. Comparative genomics may provide decisive information to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this multi-locus toxin family. Here, we report the genomic organization of Echis ocellatus genes encoding SVMPs from the PII and PI classes. Comparisons between them and between these genes and the genomic structures of Anolis carolinensis ADAM28 and E. ocellatus PIII-SVMP EOC00089 suggest that insertions and deletions of intronic regions played key roles along the evolutionary pathway that shaped the current diversity within the multi-locus SVMP gene family. In particular, our data suggest that emergence of EOC00028-like PI-SVMP from an ancestral PII(e/d)-type SVMP involved splicing site mutations that abolished both the 3′ splice AG acceptor site of intron 12* and the 5′ splice GT donor site of intron 13*, and resulted in the intronization of exon 13* and the consequent destruction of the structural integrity of the PII-SVMP characteristic disintegrin domain. PMID:27420095

  8. THE EFFECTS OF DEGENERATION AT TURKISH CARPET ART AND SOME PRECAUTION RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel YILDIZ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Our traditional carpets are produced according to our needs. Their weaving technique, patterns and textile materials are shaped in parallel with our cultural structure. From past to the present, through the studies on the first examples of the carpets, we can observe the reflection of Turkish society's sociological, psychological, economic, geographic and cultural change and development. That is why the traditional hand rugs are as important as an archive document. The corruption of the examples of this archive will cause the incorrect cultural heritage to reach the next generations. For these purposes, in this study the proposed measures are tried to develop through the identification of the corruption causes.

  9. Serious envenomation after a snakebite by a Western bush viper (Atheris chlorechis) in the Netherlands : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Top, LJ; Tulleken, JE; Ligtenberg, JJM; van der Werf, TS; Zijlstra, JG; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Venomous snakebites are a rarity in the Netherlands. In this report we describe the case of a 26-year-old male amateur snakekeeper who was bitten in his left index finger by a Western bush viper (Atheris chlorechis). His clinical condition deteriorated rapidly with acute renal failure and considerab

  10. Toxicity of venoms from vipers of Pelias group to crickets Gryllus assimilis and its relation to snake entomophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Vladislav G; Osipov, Alexey V; Utkin, Yuri N

    2007-06-01

    The existing data indicate that snake venom is most toxic towards the natural vertebrate preys. Several species of snake include arthropods in their food. However, there is no available data on the toxicity of venom from entomophagous snakes towards their prey. We have studied the toxicity of venom from vipers of Pelias group towards crickets Gryllus assimilis. The Pelias group includes several closely related viper species inhabiting mainly the South European part of Russia, and they differ in their feeding preferences. Snakes from the Vipera renardi, Vipera lotievi, Vipera kaznakovi, and Vipera orlovi species feed on wide range of animals including insects, whereas snakes from Vipera berus and Vipera nikolskii species do not include insects in their diet. We have found that the venom from vipers that include insects in their diet possesses greater toxicity towards crickets. The greatest toxicity was observed for the venom from V. lotievi, which displays a preference for insects in its diet. Therefore, based on our data, we suggest that the viper entomophagy is not a result of behavior plasticity, but is probably determined at a genetic level.

  11. Structural and Pharmacological Comparison of Daboiatoxin from Badoia russelli siamensis with Viperotoxing F and Vipoxin from Other Vipers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopolan,G.; Thwin, M.; Gopalakrishnakone, P.; Swaminathan, K.

    2007-01-01

    Russell's viper (Vipera russelli, also known as Daboia russelli) is one of the major causes of fatal snakebites. To date, five Daboia russelli subspecies have been recognized. Daboiatoxin (DbTx) is the main lethal phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}) toxin in the venom of D. russelli siamensis (Myanmar viper) and has strong neurotoxic, myotoxic and cytotoxic activities. DbTx and its homologous neurotoxins viperotoxin F from D. russelli formosensis (Taiwan viper) and vipoxin from the Bulgarian sand viper V. ammodytes meridionalis consist of complexes between a nontoxic acidic PLA2 protein and an enzymatically active basic PLA2. DbTx and viperotoxin F are presynaptic toxins, while vipoxin is postsynaptic. The two chains of DbTx have been separated and their PLA2 enzymatic activity has been measured using the secretory PLA2 assay kit. The enzymatic activity of DbTx chain B is reduced by 30% of its original activity by chain A in a unimolar ratio, thus indicating that DbTx chain A acts as an inhibitor. The lethal activity of the two chains has also been studied in male albino mice and chain A is less lethal than chain B. The crystal structure of DbTx has also been determined and its structural details are compared with those of the two homologues. Furthermore, an attempt is made to correlate the sequence and structural determinants of these toxins with their enzymatic activities and their pharmacological effects.

  12. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). A Support Vector Machine classification of galaxies, stars and AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Malek, K; Pollo, A; Fritz, A; Garilli, B; Scodeggio, M; Iovino, A; Granett, B R; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bel, J; Bolzonella, M; Bottini, D; Branchini, E; Cappi, A; Coupon, J; Cucciati, O; Davidzon, I; De Lucia, G; de la Torre, S; Franzetti, P; Fumana, M; Guzzo, L; Ilbert, O; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fevre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Marulli, F; McCracken, H J; Paioro, L; Polletta, M; Schlagenhaufer, H; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Burden, A; Di Porto, C; Marchetti, A; Marinoni, C; Mellier, Y; Moscardini, L; Nichol, R C; Peacock, J A; Percival, W J; Phleps, S; Wolk, M; Zamorani, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive method for classifying sources in large sky surveys and we apply the techniques to the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Using the optical (u*, g', r', i') and NIR data (z', Ks), we develop a classifier for identifying stars, AGNs and galaxies improving the purity of the VIPERS sample. Support Vector Machine (SVM) supervised learning algorithms allow the automatic classification of objects into two or more classes based on a multidimensional parameter space. In this work, we tailored the SVM for classifying stars, AGNs and galaxies, and applied this classification to the VIPERS data. We train the SVM using spectroscopically confirmed sources from the VIPERS and VVDS surveys. We tested two SVM classifiers and concluded that including NIR data can significantly improve the efficiency of the classifier. The self-check of the best optical + NIR classifier has shown a 97% accuracy in the classification of galaxies, 97 for stars, and 95 for AGNs ...

  13. Evolutionary trajectories of snake genes and genomes revealed by comparative analyses of five-pacer viper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wei; Wang, Zong-ji; Li, Qi-ye; Lian, Jin-ming; Zhou, Yang; Lu, Bing-zheng; Jin, Li-jun; Qiu, Peng-xin; Zhang, Pei; Zhu, Wen-bo; Wen, Bo; Huang, Yi-jun; Lin, Zhi-long; Qiu, Bi-tao; Su, Xing-wen; Yang, Huan-ming; Zhang, Guo-jie; Yan, Guang-mei; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Snakes have numerous features distinctive from other tetrapods and a rich history of genome evolution that is still obscure. Here, we report the high-quality genome of the five-pacer viper, Deinagkistrodon acutus, and comparative analyses with other representative snake and lizard genomes. We map the evolutionary trajectories of transposable elements (TEs), developmental genes and sex chromosomes onto the snake phylogeny. TEs exhibit dynamic lineage-specific expansion, and many viper TEs show brain-specific gene expression along with their nearby genes. We detect signatures of adaptive evolution in olfactory, venom and thermal-sensing genes and also functional degeneration of genes associated with vision and hearing. Lineage-specific relaxation of functional constraints on respective Hox and Tbx limb-patterning genes supports fossil evidence for a successive loss of forelimbs then hindlimbs during snake evolution. Finally, we infer that the ZW sex chromosome pair had undergone at least three recombination suppression events in the ancestor of advanced snakes. These results altogether forge a framework for our deep understanding into snakes' history of molecular evolution. PMID:27708285

  14. Antitoxin use and pediatric intensive care for viper bites in Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, M; Pisani, M; Stoppa, F; Di Nardo, M; Pirozzi, N; Luca, E; Pulitanò, S; Conti, G; Marzano, L; De Luca, D; Valentini, P; Pietrini, D; Piastra, M

    2014-01-01

    In Italy viper bites represent an uncommon event, though envenomation can cause severe complications, more in children than adults, because of dose/body size ratio. We present a case series within a selected population: 10 Italian cases (from Rome surroundings) of viperbites requiring PICU admission, over a 5-year interval. Five children showed a systemic involvement, whereas the remaining patients showed a damage. All were managed and closely monitored in an ICU setting. Relevant clinical findings and therapeutic approach, ICU course and complications have been recorded. Age range was 3-15 years with mean age of 6,9 (SD±4,58) years; 2 patients needed respiratory support beyond oxygen supplementation. Most patients underwent fluid loading, while hemodynamic support was given to4/10. Median PICU stay was 60 hours (IQR=24.0-75.5). No mortality was reported. Indications and precautions for administration of antivenom in the last years have been reviewed: early treatment seems to reduce mortality/morbidity, though representing a threat for children. Current recommendations for the treatment of viper envenomation have been described, based on a literature's review and the application of these knowledges to clinical reality of our PICUs. Therefore, paediatric patients with systemic or rapidly evolving symptoms should be monitored carefully for the development of bite-related complications in an ICU setting mostly in younger children.

  15. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Star formation history of passive galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Siudek, M; Scodeggio, M; Garilli, B; Pollo, A; Haines, C P; Fritz, A; Bolzonella, M; de la Torre, S; Granett, B R; Guzzo, L; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; De Lucia, G; Davidzon, I; Franzetti, P; Iovino, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Marchetti, A; Marulli, F; Polletta, M; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Arnouts, S; Bel, J; Branchini, E; Ilbert, O; Gargiulo, A; Moscardini, L; Takeuchi, T T; Zamorani, G

    2016-01-01

    We trace the evolution and the star formation history of passive galaxies, using a subset of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). We extracted from the VIPERS survey a sample of passive galaxies in the redshift range 0.4

  16. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). A support vector machine classification of galaxies, stars, and AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małek, K.; Solarz, A.; Pollo, A.; Fritz, A.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Iovino, A.; Granett, B. R.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fevre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive method for classifying sources in large sky surveys and to apply the techniques to the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Using the optical (u∗,g',r',i') and near-infrared (NIR) data (z', Ks), we develop a classifier, based on broad-band photometry, for identifying stars, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and galaxies, thereby improving the purity of the VIPERS sample. Methods: Support vector machine (SVM) supervised learning algorithms allow the automatic classification of objects into two or more classes based on a multidimensional parameter space. In this work, we tailored the SVM to classifying stars, AGNs, and galaxies and applied this classification to the VIPERS data. We trained the SVM using spectroscopically confirmed sources from the VIPERS and VVDS surveys. Results: We tested two SVM classifiers and concluded that including NIR data can significantly improve the efficiency of the classifier. The self-check of the best optical + NIR classifier has shown 97% accuracy in the classification of galaxies, 97% for stars, and 95% for AGNs in the 5-dimensional colour space. In the test of VIPERS sources with 99% redshift confidence, the classifier gives an accuracy equal to 94% for galaxies, 93% for stars, and 82% for AGNs. The method was applied to sources with low-quality spectra to verify their classification, hence increasing the security of measurements for almost 4900 objects. Conclusions: We conclude that the SVM algorithm trained on a carefully selected sample of galaxies, AGNs, and stars outperforms simple colour-colour selection methods and can be regarded as a very efficient classification method particularly suitable for modern large surveys. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programme 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint

  17. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). PCA-based automatic cleaning and reconstruction of survey spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, A.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Iovino, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bolzonella, M.; de la Torre, S.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Coupon, J.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; Moutard, T.; Moscardini, L.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Identifying spurious reduction artefacts in galaxy spectra is a challenge for large surveys. Aims: We present an algorithm for identifying and repairing spurious residual features in sky-subtracted galaxy spectra by using data from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) as a test case. Methods: The algorithm uses principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the galaxy spectra in the observed frame to identify sky line residuals imprinted at characteristic wavelengths. We further model the galaxy spectra in the rest-frame using PCA to estimate the most probable continuum in the corrupted spectral regions, which are then repaired. Results: We apply the method to 90 000 spectra from the VIPERS survey and compare the results with a subset for which careful editing was performed by hand. We find that the automatic technique reproduces the time-consuming manual cleaning in a uniform and objective manner across a large data sample. The mask data products produced in this work are released together with the VIPERS second public data release (PDR-2). based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), that is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, which is a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/.

  18. Shedding light on fractals: exploration of the Sierpinski carpet optical antenna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Ting Lee

    2015-01-01

    We describe experimental and theoretical investigations of the properties of a fractal optical antenna-the Sierpinski carpet optical antenna. Fractal optical antennas are inspired by fractal antennas designed in radio frequency (RF) region. Shrinking the size of fractal optical antennas from fracta

  19. Characterization of Sierpinski carpet optical antenna at visible and near-infrared wavelengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.L.; Dikken, D.J.W.; Prangsma, J.C.; Segerink, F.B.; Herek, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    We present fabrication, characterization, and simulation results on an optical antenna inspired by the Sierpinski carpet fractal geometry for operation in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Measurements and simulations of the far-field scattering efficiency indicate a broadband optica

  20. A rapid assessment of bonded labour in the carpet industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mueen Nasir, Zafar

    2004-01-01

    Based on field work in four provinces of Pakistan. Examines labour arrangements and working conditions in the carpet weaving industry and identifies the main characteristics of employers and workers. Investigates the prevalence of debt bondage in the industry and makes recommendations for action and research.

  1. Characteristics Of Virgin And Pulled Wool Fibres Used In Tunisian Handmade Carpets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Harizi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors such as production methods fibre quality and structural parameters have distinctive influence on the quality and performance of a hand woven carpet. Because the most common fiber used for producing handmade carpet is wool this experiment was aimed to identify virgin and pulled wool characteristics of Tunisian sheep breeds. A total of 84 sheep and 15 samples of commercial pulled wool were used in this study. Samples of fiber were analyzed using standard objective measurements for staple length SL mean fiber diameter MFD coefficient of variation of fiber diameter FDCV fine fiber contain FC Breaking strength and Elongation. Results showed that Tunisian wool can be considered as medium wool. By conducting well-planned sorting Fine Queue of west sheep breed can supply the wool needed for textile industries. The wool of other sheep breeds can be used in handmade carpets. Also staple strength as one of the important wool characteristic affected significantly by alkali treatment during chemical unhairing process compared with wool collected by shearing process. Great attention must be paid to know the real characteristics of pulled wool before using it in handmade carpet industry.

  2. Working Conditions in Carpet Weaving Workshops and Muscu-loskeletal Complaints among Workers in Tabriz - Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Nazari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: Carpet weaving operations usualy involve poor working conditions that can lead to the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. This study investigated MSDs among car-pet weavers in relation to working conditions from workers' view in Tabriz City, Northwest Iran.Method: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in city of Tabriz, Iran. Data were col-lected using interviews and questionnaires. The study population consisted of 200 randomly selected healthy weavers from twenty five active carpet weaving workshops.Results: The results showed a high prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among the study population. The most commonly affected body areas were neck, lower back, ankles/feet, hands/wrists, upper back, shoulders and knees, respectively. More than half of the weavers were not satisfied with the thermal con-dition, noise level and cleanliness of the air in the workshops. The result indicated a significant relation-ship between upper back symptoms and daily working time and between lower back symptoms and the numbers of rows of knots woven in a day. Weavers' satisfaction with hand tools shape and thermal condi-tion of the workshops were associated with lower back symptoms, whereas satisfaction with weaving looms were associated with upper back complaints.Conclusion: The poor working condition of hand-woven carpet workshops such as environmental conditionsand work station design and tools should be the subject of ergonomics interventions.

  3. 16 CFR 1631.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carpet or rug has had a fire-retardant treatment, or is made of fibers which have had a fire-retardant... and lukewarm water (approximately 105 °F.). Immerse face down and gently knead back of rug to remove... in a pan and kneading the back of rug. Rinse thoroughly in lukewarm water. Line or floor dry....

  4. 16 CFR 1630.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carpet or rug has had a fire-retardant treatment, or is made of fibers which have had a fire-retardant... and lukewarm water (approximately 105 °F.) . Immerse face down and gently knead back of rug to remove... in a pan and kneading the back of rug. Rinse thoroughly in lukewarm water. Line or floor dry....

  5. RAPID MONITORING BY QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR PATHOGENIC ASPERGILLUS DURING CARPET REMOVAL FROM A HOSPITAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring for pathogenic Aspergillus species using a rapid, highly sensitive, quantitative polumerase chain reaction technique during carpet removal in a burn unit provided data which allowed the patients to be safely returned to the re-floored area sooner than if only conventio...

  6. RAPID MONITORING BY QPCR FOR PATHOGENIC ASPERGILLUS DURING CARPET REMOVAL FROM A HOSPITAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring for pathogenic Aspergillus species using a rapid, highly sensitive, quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique during carpet removal in a burn unit provided data which allowed the patients to be safely returned to the re-floored area sooner than if only conventi...

  7. Integration of value stream map and strategic layout planning into DMAIC approach to improve carpeting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Nagi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents an implementation of the Six Sigma DMAIC approach implementing lean tools and facilities layout techniques to reduce the occurrence of different types of nonconformities in the carpeting process. Such carpeting process can be found in several industries such as construction, aviation, and automotive. Design/methodology/approach: The improvement process was built through a sequential implementation of appropriate interconnected tools at each phase of the DMAIC approach. Utilized tools included: Pareto analysis, control charts, Ishikawa chart, 5-whys, failure mode and effect analysis, process capability ratio, value stream mapping, and strategic layout planning. Findings: The carpeting process capability, quality of the product, customer satisfaction, and cost of poor quality were significantly improved. Explicitly, the sigma level was improved from 2.297 to 2.886 and the defects per million opportunities (DPMO was reduced from 21615 to 3905. Originality/value: This paper has approved the capability of the Six Sigma DMAIC approach to analyze, investigate, and remove the root causes of the carpeting (preparation-installation process nonconformities .

  8. The Feasibility of Implementing Electronic Marketing in The Fars Province Handmade Carpet Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    habibollah doai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research the feasibility of implementing electronic marketing has been in the Fars province Handmade Carpet market. this research is terms of purpose Applications and terms of data collection, descriptive – survey, Statistical population consists of 61 exporter and experts, that judgment sampling method was used to sample, Which ultimately were selected the 43 exporting and experts as The sample. The reliability was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 94%. Tools and methods of data collection in the research is library ‌ observation and questionnaire. To describe the data from the frequency table , for the data analysis was used one-sample t-test and independent t-test. results indicate that the views of those involved in the carpet, to the implementation use Internet in activities related of customers, to the implementation use Internet in activities related of channels, to the implementation use Internet in activities related of marketing research, there is no in the Fars province carpet market and conditions are unfavorable. Finally, according to this study, it is recommended that of those involved in the carpet be trained for the implementation of electronic marketing and inform the advantages and opportunities of e-marketing.

  9. Volatile organic chemical emissions from carpet cushions: Screening measurements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Phan, T.A.

    1994-05-01

    The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has received complaints from consumers regarding the occurrence of adverse health effects following the installation of new carpeting (Schachter, 1990). Carpet systems are suspected of emitting chemicals which may be the cause of these complaints, as well as objectionable odors. Carpets themselves have been shown to emit a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The objective of this study was to screen the representative samples of carpet cushions for emissions of individual VOCS, total VOCs (TVOC), formaldehyde, and, for the two types of polyurethane cushions, isomers of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). The measurements of VOCS, TVOC and formaldehyde were made over six-hour periods using small-volume (4-L) dynamic chambers. Sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify many of the VOCs emitted by the cushion samples and to obtain quantitative estimates of the emission rates of selected compounds. Separate screening measurements were conducted for TDI. The data from the screening measurements were used by the CPSC`s Health Sciences Laboratory to help design and conduct week-long measurements of emission rates of selected compounds.

  10. Uniqueness of the Infinite Open Cluster for High-density Percolation on Lattice Sierpinski Carpet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Yuan WU

    2001-01-01

    We prove the uniqueness of infinite open cluster for high-density bond percolation on latticeSierpinski Carpet; forthermorc, an alternative proof of the existence of phase transition of the modelis given. A rescaling technique is developed and used as the main tool of our proofs.

  11. Recovery optimization and survival of human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus and murine norovirus on carpet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David; Fraser, Angela; Huang, Guohui; Jiang, Xiuping

    2017-09-01

    Carpet been attributed to prolonged and reoccurring outbreaks of human noroviruses (HuNoV), the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Viral recovery from environmental surfaces, such as carpet, remains undeveloped. Our aim was to determine survival of HuNoV surrogates on an understudied environmental surface, carpet. First, we measured the zeta potential and absorption capacity of wool and nylon carpet fibers, then developed a mini-spin column elution method (MSC), and lastly characterized the survival of HuNoV surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), over 60 days under 30 and 70% relative humidity (RH) on two types of carpet and one glass surface. Carpet surface charge was negative between relevant pH values (7 - 9). Additionally, wool could absorb ca. 2X more liquid than nylon. Percent recovery efficiency with the MSC ranged from 4.34 to 20.89% and 30.71 to 54.14% for FCV and MNV on carpet fibers, respectively, after desiccation. Overall, elution buffer type did not significantly affect recovery. Infectious FCV or MNV survived between <1 and 15 or 3 and 15 days, respectively. However, MNV survived longer under some conditions and at significantly (P <0.05) higher titers compared to FCV. Albeit, surrogates followed similar survival trends, i.e. both survived longest on wool then nylon and glass while 30% RH provided a more hospitable environment compared to 70% RH. RT-qPCR signals for both surrogates were detectable for the entire study but FCV genomic copies experienced significantly higher reductions (<3.80 log10 copies) on all surfaces compared to MNV (<1.10 log10 copies).IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Classical symptoms of illness include vomiting and diarrhea which could lead to severe dehydration and death. HuNoV are transmitted by the fecal-oral or vomitus-oral route via person-to-person, food, water, and/or environmental surfaces. Published laboratory

  12. Biochemical and hematological profiles of a wild population of the nose-horned viper Vipera ammodytes (Serpentes: Viperidae) during autumn, with a morphological assessment of blood cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lisičić, Duje; Đikić, Domagoj; Benković, Vesna; Horvat Knežević, Anica; Oršolić, Nada; Tadić, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    .... In order to determine baseline ranges for the nose-horned viper Vipera ammodytes, we determined the blood cell morphology and measured 20 hematological and 5 biochemical variables from the blood samples taken from 31...

  13. The design procedure for pre-grown stabilization reinforced grass carpet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Šlezingr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological (or biotechnical stabilization of banks based on the stabilization effect of grass has a fundamental disadvantage for reinforcement constructions and that is the delay in their functionality. It starts to be functional only several weeks after the sowing and its full function can be usually guaranteed for as late as the following vegetation period. Moreover, grass carpets on slopes forming banks of watercourses are damaged by erosion caused by the flow of water in the watercourse but also water flowing down the slopes. Other damage is inflicted by “trampling”, i.e. the damage caused by the movement of people (anglers, rowers, hikers, etc.. This can be prevented to a degree by pre-grown grass carpets. These will bring about the stabilization effect sooner but the resistance of a pre-grown grass carpet is finally the same as when a suitable grass mixture is sown. Therefore, in need of functional reinforcement significantly more resistant than a grass carpet, mostly stone or gravel riprap on the slope above the stabilization toe is designed.The aim of the presented paper is to inform the professional public on the results of a design and a following application of a pre-grown stabilization reinforced grass carpet which, as stated by the producers, manifests a considerably higher efficiency against damage caused by water and trampling. It can replace stone or gravel reinforcement above the stabilization toe and the resulting construction (bank modification fits better into the landscape.So far, no similar construction has been designed within bank stabilization procedures in the conditions of the Czech Republic. The reinforcement is formed by suitable three-dimensional geosynthetics, in our case three-dimensional geonets.

  14. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Star formation history of passive red galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, M.; Małek, K.; Scodeggio, M.; Garilli, B.; Pollo, A.; Haines, C. P.; Fritz, A.; Bolzonella, M.; de la Torre, S.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; De Lucia, G.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Marchetti, A.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Ilbert, O.; Gargiulo, A.; Moscardini, L.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We trace the evolution and the star formation history of passive red galaxies, using a subset of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The detailed spectral analysis of stellar populations of intermediate-redshift passive red galaxies allows the build up of their stellar content to be followed over the last 8 billion years. Methods: We extracted a sample of passive red galaxies in the redshift range 0.4 relation for intermediate-redshift passive red galaxies. Results: We find that at z 1 stellar populations in low-mass passive red galaxies are younger than in high-mass passive red galaxies, similar to what is observed at the present epoch. Over the full analyzed redshift range 0.4 relations of D4000 and HδA with stellar mass has not changed significantly with redshift. Assuming a single burst formation, this implies that high-mass passive red galaxies formed their stars at zform 1.7, while low-mass galaxies formed their main stellar populations more recently, at zform 1. The consistency of these results, which were obtained using two independent estimators of the formation redshift (D4000 and HδA), further strengthens a scenario in which star formation proceeds from higher to lower mass systems as time passes, i.e., what has become known as the downsizing picture. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope

  15. Bites by Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii siamensis) in Myanmar: effect of the snake's length and recent feeding on venom antigenaemia and severity of envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun-Pe; Ba-Aye; Aye-Aye-Myint; Tin-Nu-Swe; Warrell, D A

    1991-01-01

    An improved enzyme immunoassay technique (EIA) was used in the diagnosis of 311 suspected Russell's viper bite cases in Myanmar [Burma], 181 of whom (58%) had systemic envenoming. Russell's viper venom was detected in the sera of 175 (56.3%), cobra or green pit viper venoms in 4 (1.3%), and no venom in the remaining 132 (42.4). Among 175 of these patients who failed to bring the dead snake, EIA achieved a specific diagnosis of Russell's viper envenoming in 101 (58%). The serum venom antigen concentration was higher in patients with systemic envenoming than in those with local or no envenoming and it increased with the development of coagulopathy. Stomach contents were examined in 101 Russell's vipers responsible for bites. The presence of prey, usually a rodent, in the snake's stomach, indicating that it had eaten recently, did not influence the severity of envenoming, the initial venom level, or the percentage circumference increase and the extent of local swelling in the bitten limb. One hundred and fifty-five Russell's vipers responsible for bites showed a bimodal distribution of total lengths. The smaller snakes had probably been born that year. Longer snakes were responsible for more severe envenoming, a shorter interval between the bite and the detection of incoagulable blood, and more extensive local swelling with a greater percentage circumference increase of the bitten limb; but their bites were not associated with higher initial venom antigenaemia or a greater risk of developing acute renal failure.

  16. Transient distal renal tubular acidosis following hump nosed viper bite: Two cases from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranga M Weerakkody

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale; HNV is one of the six major snake species in Sri Lanka that cause envenomation. Nephrotoxicity, coagulopathy, and neurotoxicity are wellrecognized features of its envenomation. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA4 has only once been described previously in this condition, and we report two further cases. Two patients aged 53 and 51 presented following HNV bites with acute kidney injury and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Both underwent multiple cycles of hemodialysis until the polyuric phase was reached. Despite polyuria, both patients developed resistant hyperkalemia that needed further hemodialysis. The urinary pH, arterial pH, delta ratio, and transtubular potassium gradient confirmed RTA4. HNV venom has been shown to damage the proximal convoluted tubules in animal studies, but not the distal convoluted tubule, and hence the mechanism of our observation in these two patients is unclear. Unexplained hyperkalemia in recovery phase of HNV bite should raise suspicions of RTA4.

  17. Measuring Large-Scale Structure at z ~ 1 with the VIPERS galaxy survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) is the largest redshift survey ever conducted with the ESO telescopes. It has used the Very Large Telescope to collect nearly 100,000 redshifts from the general galaxy population at 0.5 properties and the relation of the latter to large-scale structure. This paper presents an overview of the galaxy clustering results obtained so far, together with their cosmological implications. Most of these are based on the ~ 55,000 galaxies forming the first public data release (PDR-1). As of January 2015, observations and data reduction are complete and the final data set of more than 90,000 redshifts is being validated and made ready for the final investigations.

  18. Viper and cobra venom neutralization by alginate coated multicomponent polyvalent antivenom administered by the oral route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Mukhopadhyay, Piyasi; Kundu, P P; Mishra, Roshnara

    2014-08-01

    Snake bite causes greater mortality than most of the other neglected tropical diseases. Snake antivenom, although effective in minimizing mortality in developed countries, is not equally so in developing countries due to its poor availability in remote snake infested areas as, and when, required. An alternative approach in this direction could be taken by making orally deliverable polyvalent antivenom formulation, preferably under a globally integrated strategy, for using it as a first aid during transit time from remote trauma sites to hospitals. To address this problem, multiple components of polyvalent antivenom were entrapped in alginate. Structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, swelling study, in vitro pH sensitive release, acid digestion, mucoadhesive property and venom neutralization were studied in in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that alginate retained its mucoadhesive, acid protective and pH sensitive swelling property after entrapping antivenom. After pH dependent release from alginate beads, antivenom (ASVS) significantly neutralized phospholipaseA2 activity, hemolysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity and lethality of venom. In ex vivo mice intestinal preparation, ASVS was absorbed significantly through the intestine and it inhibited venom lethality which indicated that all the components of antivenom required for neutralization of venom lethality were retained despite absorption across the intestinal layer. Results from in vivo studies indicated that orally delivered ASVS can significantly neutralize venom effects, depicted by protection against lethality, decreased hemotoxicity and renal toxicity caused by russell viper venom. Alginate was effective in entrapping all the structural components of ASVS, which on release and intestinal absorption effectively reconstituted the function of antivenom in neutralizing viper and cobra venom. Further research in this direction can strategize to

  19. Viper and Cobra Venom Neutralization by Alginate Coated Multicomponent Polyvalent Antivenom Administered by the Oral Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Mukhopadhyay, Piyasi; Kundu, P. P.; Mishra, Roshnara

    2014-01-01

    Background Snake bite causes greater mortality than most of the other neglected tropical diseases. Snake antivenom, although effective in minimizing mortality in developed countries, is not equally so in developing countries due to its poor availability in remote snake infested areas as, and when, required. An alternative approach in this direction could be taken by making orally deliverable polyvalent antivenom formulation, preferably under a globally integrated strategy, for using it as a first aid during transit time from remote trauma sites to hospitals. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this problem, multiple components of polyvalent antivenom were entrapped in alginate. Structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, swelling study, in vitro pH sensitive release, acid digestion, mucoadhesive property and venom neutralization were studied in in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that alginate retained its mucoadhesive, acid protective and pH sensitive swelling property after entrapping antivenom. After pH dependent release from alginate beads, antivenom (ASVS) significantly neutralized phospholipaseA2 activity, hemolysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity and lethality of venom. In ex vivo mice intestinal preparation, ASVS was absorbed significantly through the intestine and it inhibited venom lethality which indicated that all the components of antivenom required for neutralization of venom lethality were retained despite absorption across the intestinal layer. Results from in vivo studies indicated that orally delivered ASVS can significantly neutralize venom effects, depicted by protection against lethality, decreased hemotoxicity and renal toxicity caused by russell viper venom. Conclusions/Significance Alginate was effective in entrapping all the structural components of ASVS, which on release and intestinal absorption effectively reconstituted the function of antivenom in neutralizing viper and cobra

  20. A study on effect of world trade organization on Iran's membership on export of Iranian handmade carpet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Golmeymi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available World Trade Organization (WTO has been established to facilitate fringe trade in the world and there are many studies associated with the effect of WTO membership on export of various countries. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effect of WTO membership on export of Iranian handmade carpet. The survey uses insights from 80 experts who have at least ten years of related job experiences in carpet industry by performing an expletory and using descriptive and quantitative method for analyzing the data. The results of the survey indicate that Iran's membership in WTO will most likely reduce the sales price of handmade carpet. In addition, Iran's membership in WTO will increase scientific and professional power in handmade carpet. It will also help industry get more exposure into international market.

  1. 31 CFR 560.534 - Importation into the United States of, and dealings in, certain foodstuffs and carpets authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... textile floor coverings and carpets used as wall hangings that are classified under chapter 57 or heading... transactions permitted under this section: (1) A United States person living abroad is permitted to purchase...

  2. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Hierarchical scaling and biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappi, A.; Marulli, F.; Bel, J.; Cucciati, O.; Branchini, E.; de la Torre, S.; Moscardini, L.; Bolzonella, M.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Schimd, C.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: Building on the two-point correlation function analyses of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), we investigate the higher-order correlation properties of the same galaxy samples to test the hierarchical scaling hypothesis at z ~ 1 and the dependence on galaxy luminosity, stellar mass, and redshift. With this work we also aim to assess possible deviations from the linearity of galaxy bias independently from a previously performed analysis of our survey. Methods: We have measured the count probability distribution function in spherical cells of varying radii (3 ≤ R ≤ 10 h-1 Mpc), deriving σ8g (the galaxy rms at 8 h-1 Mpc), the volume-averaged two-, three-, and four-point correlation functions and the normalized skewness S3g and kurtosis S4g for different volume-limited subsamples, covering the following ranges: -19.5 ≤ MB(z = 1.1) - 5log (h) ≤ -21.0 in absolute magnitude, 9.0 ≤ log (M∗/M⊙h-2) ≤ 11.0 in stellar mass, and 0.5 ≤ zfollowing. 1) The hierarchical scaling between the volume-averaged two- and three-point and two- and four-point correlation functions holds throughout the whole range of scale and redshift we could test. 2) We do not find a significant dependence of S3g on luminosity (below z = 0.9 the value of S3g decreases with luminosity, but only at 1σ-level). 3) We do not detect a significant dependence of S3g and S4g on scale, except beyond z ~ 0.9, where S3g and S4g have higher values on large scales (R ≥ 10 h-1 Mpc): this increase is mainly due to one of the two CFHTLS Wide Fields observed by VIPERS and can be explained as a consequence of sample variance, consistently with our analysis of mock catalogs. 4) We do not detect a significant evolution of S3g and S4g with redshift (apart from the increase of their values with scale in the last redshift bin). 5) σ8g increases with luminosity, but does not show significant evolution with redshift. As a consequence, the linear bias factor b = σ8g/σ8m, where σ8

  3. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS): Galaxy segregation inside filaments at $z \\simeq 0.7$

    CERN Document Server

    Malavasi, N; Vibert, D; de la Torre, S; Moutard, T; Pichon, C; Davidzon, I; Kraljic, K; Bolzonella, M; Guzzo, L; Garilli, B; Scodeggio, M; Granett, B R; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Iovino, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Małek, K; Marulli, F; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Bel, J; Branchini, E; Coupon, J; De Lucia, G; Dubois, Y; Hawken, A; Ilbert, O; Laigle, C; Moscardini, L; Sousbie, T; Treyer, M; Zamorani, G

    2016-01-01

    We present the first quantitative detection of large-scale filamentary structure at $z \\simeq 0.7$ in the large cosmological volume probed by the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). We use simulations to show the capability of VIPERS to recover robust topological features in the galaxy distribution, in particular the filamentary network. We then investigate how galaxies with different stellar masses and stellar activities are distributed around the filaments and find a significant segregation, with the most massive or quiescent galaxies being closer to the filament axis than less massive or active galaxies. The signal persists even after down-weighting the contribution of peak regions. Our results suggest that massive and quiescent galaxies assemble their stellar mass through successive mergers during their migration along filaments towards the nodes of the cosmic web. On the other hand, low-mass star-forming galaxies prefer the outer edge of filaments, a vorticity rich region dominated by sm...

  4. THE USE OF THE ANTI-VENOM SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES ISOLATED FROM DUCK EGGS FOR INACTIVATION OF THE VIPER VENOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CRISTE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of specific anti-venom can be demonstrated using protection test in laboratory mice. Our study aimed to emphasize the possibility of viper venom inactivation by the antibodies produced and isolated from duck eggs and also to the activation concentration of these antibodies. The venom used for inoculation was harvested from two viper species (Vipera ammodytes and Vipera berus. The immunoglobulin extract had a better activity on the venom from Vipera berus compared to the venom from Vipera ammodytes. This could be the result of a better immunological response, as consequence of the immunization with this type of venom, compared to the response recorded when the Vipera ammodytes venom was used. Besides the advantages of low cost, high productivity and reduced risk of anaphylactic shock, the duck eggs also have high activity up to dilutions of 1/16, 1/32, respectively, with specific activity and 100 surviving in individuals which received 3 x DL50.

  5. VIPERS: An Unprecedented View of Galaxies and Large-Scale Structure Halfway Back in the Life of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Guzzo, L; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bel, J; Bolzonella, M; Bottini, D; Branchini, E; Burden, A; Cappi, A; Coupon, J; Cucciati, O; Davidzon, I; de la Torre, S; De Lucia, G; Di Porto, C; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Fumana, M; Garilli, B; Granett, B R; Guennou, L; Ilbert, O; Iovino, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Malek, K; Marchetti, A; Marinoni, C; Marulli, F; McCracken, H J; Mellier, Y; Moscardini, L; Nichol, R C; Paioro, L; Peacock, J A; Percival, W J; Phleps, S; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Schlagenhaufer, H; Scodeggio, M; Solarz, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Wolk, M; Zamorani, G; Zanichelli, A

    2013-01-01

    The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) is an ongoing ESO Large Programme to map in detail the large-scale distribution of galaxies at 0.5 < z <1.2. With a combination of volume and sampling density that is unique for these redshifts, it focuses on measuring galaxy clustering and related cosmological quantities as part of the grand challenge of understanding the origin of cosmic acceleration. VIPERS has also been designed to guarantee a broader legacy, allowing detailed investigations of the properties and evolutionary trends of z~1 galaxies. The survey strategy exploits the specific advantages of the VIMOS spectrograph at the VLT, aiming at a final sample of nearly 100,000 galaxy redshifts to iAB = 22.5 mag, which represents the largest redshift survey ever performed with ESO telescopes. In this introductory article we describe the survey construction, together with early results based on a first sample of ~55,000 galaxies.

  6. Raising medium function of environmental engineering by usinglife rubbish to produce carpet turf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Abundant material with low cost was utilized to raise medium function of producing carpet tutfby life rubbish. The results showed that the material used could strikingly raise water retentiveness and ventilating of medium. Through the determination of the effect of each growth index of several turfgrass, emergence density, plant height, root growth and individual plant's net primary production were all positively related to the materials amount mixed, showing that the mixture of material could promote turfgrass growth, further proving that the material used raised medium function of producing carpet turf by life rubbish and made most use of life rubbish resources. It provided a scientific base is for application of environmental engineering by using life rubbish to producecarpet turf. So the study had both important theoretic meaning and applied value.

  7. A BOCR and Fuzzy AHP method for identification and prioritization of carpet industry strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rangriz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Carpet is one of the most popular handcraft industries in Iran and it has created significant number of jobs in various villages and small towns in this country. There are literally many designs and plans introduced by Iranian carpet makers but during the past two decades, we have seen an increasing competition mostly from other countries such as China, India, Pakistan, etc. On the other hands, there are ongoing interests for membership of world trade organization (WTO and it is necessary to take the necessary actions. The proposed study of this paper uses different mathematical techniques to consider different actions for changing threats to opportunities, reducing unnecessary costs, increasing revenue and market share, etc. The proposed model of this paper uses Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP, Benefits-Opportunities-Costs-Risks (BOCR method to detect possible benefit, risk and cost components. We first setup all useful strategies and then using AHP prioritizes different actions.

  8. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). On the recovery of the count-in-cell probability distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Di Porto, C.; Cucciati, O.; Granett, B. R.; Iovino, A.; de la Torre, S.; Marinoni, C.; Guzzo, L.; Moscardini, L.; Cappi, A.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Marchetti, A.; Mellier, Y.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.

    2016-04-01

    We compare three methods to measure the count-in-cell probability density function of galaxies in a spectroscopic redshift survey. From this comparison we found that, when the sampling is low (the average number of object per cell is around unity), it is necessary to use a parametric method to model the galaxy distribution. We used a set of mock catalogues of VIPERS to verify if we were able to reconstruct the cell-count probability distribution once the observational strategy is applied. We find that, in the simulated catalogues, the probability distribution of galaxies is better represented by a Gamma expansion than a skewed log-normal distribution. Finally, we correct the cell-count probability distribution function from the angular selection effect of the VIMOS instrument and study the redshift and absolute magnitude dependency of the underlying galaxy density function in VIPERS from redshift 0.5 to 1.1. We found a very weak evolution of the probability density distribution function and that it is well approximated by a Gamma distribution, independently of the chosen tracers. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programmes 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  9. Detection and differentiation of herpes simplex viruses by use of the viper platform: advantages, limitations, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Amanda L S; Roberts, Catherine; Mazzulli, Tony; Hatchette, Todd F; LeBlanc, Jason J

    2014-06-01

    The Viper HSV-Q(x) assay was evaluated for the detection of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in specimens from oral, anogenital, and other miscellaneous sites. The HSV-Q(x) assay was found to be highly sensitive and accurate; however, a gray zone may be required for specimens with values falling between 50 and 800 maximum relative fluorescence units.

  10. Female carpet weavers' visual acuity and effective factors: Fordu rural area of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khajenasiri F.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy vision of workers is one of the important elements in carpet weaving industry which has essential role in improving of the job quality and efficiency. Visual acuity is the primary outcome measure in most studies involving eye diseases. Ihe aim of this study was determination of visual acuity and its effective factors in women carpet weaver in fordu rural area of Qom has been investigated.  Methods: In a cross-sectional (descriptive-analytical study visual acuity of 177 women carpet weaver has been determined. Job hours per day, job history, age, literacy, trauma history, diabetes history, family history of eye diseases, eye diseases history and family size  of subjects were determined .Results: The results of study indicated that the right eyes visual acuity of 72.4 % of women were desirable (0 - 0.8 and 27.6 % were undesirable (0.9-1.2. These results for the left eyes were 69.5 % and 30.5 % respectively. In addition, the result showed that with increasing the job hours and history and age, percent of women with undesirable both eyes visual acuity were increased. With higher literacy levels, percent of women with undesirable both eyes visual acuity decreased. In subjects with truma history, the undesirable visual acuity was higher. In this study the relation between visual acuity and job history, age, literacy, truma history and eye diseases history were statistically significant (in all cases P<0.05.Conclusions: High percentage of women carpet weaver were in undesirable  visual acuity and in this study the relation between visual acuity and job history, age, literacy, trauma history and eye diseases history were statistically significant (in all cases P<0.05.

  11. Shedding light on fractals: exploration of the Sierpinski carpet optical antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ting Lee

    2015-01-01

    We describe experimental and theoretical investigations of the properties of a fractal optical antenna-the Sierpinski carpet optical antenna. Fractal optical antennas are inspired by fractal antennas designed in radio frequency (RF) region. Shrinking the size of fractal optical antennas from fractal antennas in RF regions by a factor of lE-5 arises challenges of fabrication, characterization and modelling their response to incident light. The comparison between optical antennas with the Sierp...

  12. RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY AND SECONDARY CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN A MCDOWELL'S CARPET PYTHON (MORELIA SPILOTA MCDOWELLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilliger, Lionel; Chetboul, Valérie; Damoiseaux, Cécile; Nicolier, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    Echocardiography is an established and noninvasive diagnostic tool used in herpetologic cardiology. Various cardiac lesions have been previously described in reptiles with the exception of restrictive cardiomyopathy. In this case report, restrictive cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure associated with left atrial and sinus venosus dilation were diagnosed in a 2-yr-old captive lethargic McDowell's carpet python ( Morelia spilota mcdowelli), based on echocardiographic, Doppler, and histopathologic examinations. This cardiomyopathy was also associated with thrombosis within the sinus venosus.

  13. Can the Solar Wind be Driven by Magnetic Reconnection in the Sun's Magnetic Carpet?

    OpenAIRE

    Cranmer, Steven R.; van Ballegooijen, Adriaan A.

    2010-01-01

    The physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind remain unknown after many years of study. Some have suggested that the wind is driven by waves and turbulence in open magnetic flux tubes, and others have suggested that plasma is injected into the open tubes by magnetic reconnection with closed loops. In order to test the latter idea, we developed Monte Carlo simulations of the photospheric "magnetic carpet" and extrapolated the time-varying coronal field. These ...

  14. Monte Carlo Study of the Xy-Model on SIERPIŃSKI Carpet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Božidar; Przedborski, Michelle A.

    2014-09-01

    We have performed a Monte Carlo (MC) study of the classical XY-model on a Sierpiński carpet, which is a planar fractal structure with infinite order of ramification and fractal dimension 1.8928. We employed the Wolff cluster algorithm in our simulations and our results, in particular those for the susceptibility and the helicity modulus, indicate the absence of finite-temperature Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition in this system.

  15. Detection of venom after antivenom is not associated with persistent coagulopathy in a prospective cohort of Russell's viper (Daboia russelii envenomings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalana Maduwage

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Venom recurrence or persistence in the circulation after antivenom treatment has been documented many times in viper envenoming. However, it has not been associated with clinical recurrence for many snakes, including Russell's viper (Daboia spp.. We compare the recovery of coagulopathy to the recurrence or persistence of venom in patients with Russell's viper envenoming.The study included patients with Russell's viper (D. russelii envenoming presenting over a 30 month period who had Russell's viper venom detected by enzyme immunoassay. Demographics, information on the snake bite, and clinical effects were collected for all patients. All patients had serum collected for venom specific enzyme immunoassay and citrate plasma to measure fibrinogen levels and prothrombin time (international normalised ratio; INR. Patients with venom recurrence/persistence were compared to those with no detectable recurrence of venom. There were 55 patients with confirmed Russell's viper envenoming and coagulopathy with low fibrinogen concentrations: 31 with venom recurrence/persistence, and 24 with no venom detected post-antivenom. Fibrinogen concentrations increased and INR decreased after antivenom in both the recurrence and non-recurrence patients. Clinical features, laboratory parameters, antivenom dose and length of hospital were similar for both groups. Pre-antivenom venom concentrations were higher in patients with venom recurrence/persistence with a median venom concentration of 385 ng/mL (16-1521 ng/mL compared to 128 ng/mL (14-1492 ng/mL; p = 0.008.Recurrence of Russell's viper venom was not associated with a recurrence of coagulopathy and length of hospital stay. Further work is required to determine if the detection of venom recurrence is due to the venom specific enzyme immunoassay detecting both venom-antivenom complexes as well as free venom.

  16. VoIgt profile Parameter Estimation Routine (VIPER): H I photoionization rate at z<0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Gaikwad, Prakash; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy; Khaire, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a parallel code called "VoIgt profile Parameter Estimation Routine (VIPER)" for automatically fitting the H I Ly-$\\alpha$ forest seen in the spectra of QSOs. We obtained the H I column density distribution function (CDDF) and line width ($b$) parameter distribution for $z < 0.45$ using spectra of 82 QSOs obtained using Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and VIPER. Consistency of these with the existing measurements in the literature validate our code. By comparing this CDDF with those obtained from hydrodynamical simulation, we constrain the H I photoionization rate ($\\Gamma_{\\rm HI}$) at $z < 0.45$ in four redshift bins. The VIPER, together with the Code for Ionization and Temperature Evolution (CITE) we have developed for GADGET-2, allows us to explore parameter space and perform $\\chi^2$ minimization to obtain $\\Gamma_{\\rm HI}$. We notice that the $b$ parameters from the simulations are smaller than what are derived from the observations. We show the observed $b$ parameter distribution and...

  17. The VIPERS Multi-Lambda Survey - I: UV and NIR Observations, multi-color catalogs and photometric redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Moutard, T; Ilbert, O; Coupon, J; Hudelot, P; Vibert, D; Comte, V; Conseil, S; Davidzon, I; Guzzo, L; Llebaria, A; Martin, C; McCracken, H J; Milliard, B; Morrison, G E; Schiminovich, D; Treyer, M; Van Werbaeke, L

    2016-01-01

    We present observations collected in the CFHTLS-VIPERS region in the ultraviolet (UV) with the GALEX satellite (far and near UV channels) and the near infrared with the CFHT/WIRCam camera ($K_s$-band) over an area of 22 and 27 deg$^2$, respectively. The depth of the photometry was optimized to measure the physical properties (e.g., SFR, stellar masses) of all the galaxies in the VIPERS spectroscopic survey. The large volume explored by VIPERS will enable a unique investigation of the relationship between the galaxy properties and their environment (density field and cosmic web) at high redshift (0.5 < z < 1.2). In this paper, we present the observations, the data reductions and the build-up of the multi-color catalogs. The CFHTLS-T0007 (gri-{\\chi}^2) images are used as reference to detect and measure the $K_s$-band photometry, while the T0007 u-selected sources are used as priors to perform the GALEX photometry based on a dedicated software (EMphot). Our final sample reaches $NUV_{AB}$~25 (at 5{\\sigma})...

  18. Immunological cross-reactivity and neutralisation of European viper venoms with the monospecific Vipera berus antivenom ViperaTAb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casewell, Nicholas R; Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Smith, David; Coxon, Ruth; Landon, John

    2014-08-19

    Medically important cases of snakebite in Europe are predominately caused by European vipers of the genus Vipera. The mainstay of snakebite therapy is polyclonal antibody therapy, referred to as antivenom. Here we investigate the capability of the monospecific V. berus antivenom, ViperaTAb®, to cross-react with, and neutralise lethality induced by, a variety of European vipers. Using ELISA and immunoblotting, we find that ViperaTAb® antibodies recognise and bind to the majority of toxic components found in the venoms of the Vipera species tested at comparably high levels to those observed with V. berus. Using in vivo pre-clinical efficacy studies, we demonstrate that ViperaTAb® effectively neutralises lethality induced by V. berus, V. aspis, V. ammodytes and V. latastei venoms and at much higher levels than those outlined by regulatory pharmacopoeial guidelines. Notably, venom neutralisation was found to be superior to (V. berus, V. aspis and V. latastei), or as equally effective as (V. ammodytes), the monospecific V. ammodytes "Zagreb antivenom", which has long been successfully used for treating European snake envenomings. This study suggests that ViperaTAb® may be a valuable therapeutic product for treating snakebite by a variety of European vipers found throughout the continent.

  19. Immunological Cross-Reactivity and Neutralisation of European Viper Venoms with the Monospecific Vipera berus Antivenom ViperaTAb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R. Casewell

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Medically important cases of snakebite in Europe are predominately caused by European vipers of the genus Vipera. The mainstay of snakebite therapy is polyclonal antibody therapy, referred to as antivenom. Here we investigate the capability of the monospecific V. berus antivenom, ViperaTAb®, to cross-react with, and neutralise lethality induced by, a variety of European vipers. Using ELISA and immunoblotting, we find that ViperaTAb® antibodies recognise and bind to the majority of toxic components found in the venoms of the Vipera species tested at comparably high levels to those observed with V. berus. Using in vivo pre-clinical efficacy studies, we demonstrate that ViperaTAb® effectively neutralises lethality induced by V. berus, V. aspis, V. ammodytes and V. latastei venoms and at much higher levels than those outlined by regulatory pharmacopoeial guidelines. Notably, venom neutralisation was found to be superior to (V. berus, V. aspis and V. latastei, or as equally effective as (V. ammodytes, the monospecific V. ammodytes “Zagreb antivenom”, which has long been successfully used for treating European snake envenomings. This study suggests that ViperaTAb® may be a valuable therapeutic product for treating snakebite by a variety of European vipers found throughout the continent.

  20. Microalgae cultivation in a wastewater dominated by carpet mill effluents for biofuel applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnasamy, Senthil; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Hunt, Ryan W; Das, K C

    2010-05-01

    Industrial and municipal wastewaters are potential resources for production of microalgae biofuels. Dalton - the Carpet Capital of the World generates 100-115 million L of wastewater d(-1). A study was conducted using a wastewater containing 85-90% carpet industry effluents with 10-15% municipal sewage, to evaluate the feasibility of algal biomass and biodiesel production. Native algal strains were isolated from carpet wastewater. Preliminary growth studies indicated both fresh water and marine algae showed good growth in wastewaters. A consortium of 15 native algal isolates showed >96% nutrient removal in treated wastewater. Biomass production potential and lipid content of this consortium cultivated in treated wastewater were approximately 9.2-17.8 tons ha(-1) year(-1) and 6.82%, respectively. About 63.9% of algal oil obtained from the consortium could be converted into biodiesel. However further studies on anaerobic digestion and thermochemical liquefaction are required to make this consortium approach economically viable for producing algae biofuels.

  1. Working Conditions in Carpet Weaving Workshops and Muscu-loskeletal Complaints among Workers in Tabriz - Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Jalil; Mahmoudi, Nader; Dianat, Iman; Graveling, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Carpet weaving operations usualy involve poor working conditions that can lead to the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This study investigated MSDs among car¬pet weavers in relation to working conditions from workers' view in Tabriz City, Northwest Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in city of Tabriz, Iran. Data were col¬lected using interviews and questionnaires. The study population consisted of 200 randomly selected healthy weavers from twenty five active carpet weaving workshops. Results: The results showed a high prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among the study population. The most commonly affected body areas were neck, lower back, ankles/feet, hands/wrists, upper back, shoulders and knees, respectively. More than half of the weavers were not satisfied with the thermal con¬dition, noise level and cleanliness of the air in the workshops. The result indicated a significant relation¬ship between upper back symptoms and daily working time and between lower back symptoms and the numbers of rows of knots woven in a day. Weavers' satisfaction with hand tools shape and thermal condi¬tion of the workshops were associated with lower back symptoms, whereas satisfaction with weaving looms were associated with upper back complaints. Conclusion: The poor working condition of hand-woven carpet workshops such as environmental con¬ditions and work station design and tools should be the subject of ergonomics interventions. PMID:24688943

  2. Evaluating Effectiveness of Internet-Based Advertising in Iranian Carpet Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Yazdani

    2015-06-01

    Internet-based advertising is defined as a process of introducing of goods and services. It also rcognized as a process of services after sales that creating motivation of costomers through increasing purchase.The advantages of this approach refered to its low cost and its access of among customers. The aim of this study is determination of amount of effectiveness of carpet internet-based advertising. Another purpose of the study is validitation of consumers’ behavior about internet-based advertising. The issue is important, because diversity of carpet production in Iran is the basic target. Data collection of this study has been done via primary and secondary method as a quantitative approach from enduser of internet in Iran. This means statistical population is 110 people that use internet carpet sites. This popullation are selected according to the nature of activities for instance executive managers, public relation managers, human resources managers and expert’s workers. For data analaysing Spss and Amos saftewares applied in this study. The results of the study show communicating and content incentives have significant and positive effects on cognitive and affectiveresponses ofconsumers. On the other hands communicating and content incentives havenot significant and positive effects on attitude of consumers.

  3. Stories with and about wall carpets. An anthropological account on the inhabitation of Ursari Romanian Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Racleş

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the ways in which objects assist us in telling small stories about our positions in relation to our inhabited space, but also in relation to perceived dichotomised categories like us-others, the modern-the outmoded, civilized-backward. Acknowledging that narratives emerge from interactions between people, this paper is an attempt to show that an important role in the emergence of stories is played by interactions between people and objects. The wall carpets hung by Ursari Roma from a north-eastern Romanian town and the stories developed with and about these items constitute the main focus of this analysis. From an anthropological and material culture perspective, wall carpets are discussed as material presences in storytelling events and as objects of experience-centred stories that assist Roma people in negotiating and enacting their identities and belongings. Taking a cue from Georgakopoulou, who argues that narratives count on both discourses and activities (2007, home making practices and domestic activities (such as those related to the maintenance of the wall carpets are essential to this paper, as they enable an understanding of the “performative narrative of daily life” (Langellier 2004. The analysis is based on ethnographic material collected in 2014 in the aforementioned community, while the unit of analysis consists of excerpts from discussions with two Roma families, which became storytelling episodes.

  4. Application of Geospatial Information System for the Study of Illuminance in Carpet Weaving Workshops in Bokan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Madjidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpet weaving is an occupation that requires sufficient and appropriate lighting. The lighting in carpet weaving workshops affects the productivity and the physical and mental health of workers. Therefore, the evaluation of the illumination and the identification of work stations requiring lighting modifications will be helpful in promotion of the health and safety of workers in carpet weaving workshops. Methods: This study was carried out for the evaluation of illumination on the basis of Geospatial Information System (GIS technology in two carpet weaving workshops of Bokan city. As per the norms of Illumination Engineering Society, the sensors of the photometer Testo 545 were placed at lowest and highest of 35 and 163 cm in workshop I, and at 40 and 245 cm in workshop II, which correspond to the lowest and highest work surfaces in the respective workshops. Total, natural, and artificial illuminance was measured in the center of each measurement station using the photometer, and data was analyzed using the Arc GIS software. The maximum and minimum illuminances as well as isolux curves were obtained for each workshop. Results: The illuminance in workshops I and II were found to be lower and higher, respectively, than 200 lux, which is considered the standard for carpet weaving workshops. Thus, improving the artificial lighting system or redesigning it is essential for ensuring that the standard conditions of illuminance (200–300 lux are provided. Discussion: This study showed that the application of GIS technology renders the assessment of illumination in carpet weaving workshops possible. This assessment method could also prove useful for determining the exact stations in the carpet weaving workshops that need modifications, thereby leading to cost reduction.

  5. 钢筋工程新技术--钢筋卷网%New Reinforcement Technology-Reinforcement Carpet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾巍

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcement carpets have been applied for more than 20 years. Special designed robots weld straightened reinforcement bars to transverse thin metal strips to produce the reinforcement carpets. This is a kind of new reinforcement technology which is fully integrated process from design to production and installation. On this basis, Germany developed further reinforcement carpets which can withstand dynamic load in 2010. Carpets can be reinforcement in ground slabs, floor slabs, pavement of highways, bridge decks and other plate type members. Engineers can utilize finite element analysis software to optimize reinforcement and automatically generate reinforcement carpets drawings, data files and produce carpets. After transforming to work sites, once positioned, reinforcement carpets can be rolled out extremely quickly. Compared to conventional loose bar, reinforcement carpet can reduce fixing times of 60% ~ 70%, save reinforcement of 5% ~ 10% and reduce labour intensity etc. Brief history of reinforcement carpet system and applications in European and Oceania projects are also introduced.%钢筋卷网技术是用专门的焊网机将直条钢筋电阻点焊在横向薄钢带上形成一捆卷网,是一种全面整合了设计、生产、施工过程的钢筋工程新技术。在此基础上,2010年德国又研制成承受动载的钢筋卷网。卷网可用作基础底板、楼板、公路路面、桥面及其他板类构件的配筋。工程师可通过有限元分析软件优化钢筋设计、自动生成卷网图纸、数据文件并下料生产,运送至工地布筋位置、打开卷网滚动布筋,铺网速度极快。钢筋卷网与传统手工绑扎钢筋相比可缩短安装时间60%~70%,降低钢筋用量5%~10%及减轻现场劳动强度等优点。还介绍了钢筋卷网的发展简史以及在欧洲和大洋洲的工程应用。

  6. Control of immature stages of the flea Ctenocephalides felis(Bouché in carpets exposed to cats treated with imidacloprid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Fleas cause allergic dermatitis in cats and dogs and therefore warrant control. It has been demonstrated previously that there is marked inhibition of the development of the immature stages of the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis on fleece blankets exposed to cats treated with imidacloprid. This study reports on the efficacy of imidacloprid in suppressing adult flea emergence in carpet exposed to treated cats. Circular discs of carpet pre-seeded with flea eggs and larvae were exposed to 6 untreated control and 6 topically treated (imidacloprid 10 % m/v cats 1 to 2 days after treatment and subsequently fortnightly for 6 weeks. Exposure times on alternate days were either 1 or 6 hours. Adult flea yield from carpets was determined 35 days after exposure. Differences between flea yield on control carpets and those exposed for 1 hour were significant only for days +1 and +14. For the 6-hour exposure, differences were significant at all times except on Day +43. The ability of imidacloprid to suppress the yield of adult fleas on carpets (6-hour exposure steadily declined from 82 % (Day +2 to 12 %(Day +43. For the 1-hour exposure it varied inconsistently between 0 and 83 % over the 6-week study period.

  7. Analysis of volatile organic compounds emitted from aircraft carpets:comparison using headspace and dynamic chamber tests 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; YANG Xu-Dong; GAO Peng

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from three types of carpets used in aircrafts were compared by using headspace and dynamic chamber tests. The headspace samples contained many compounds that were not detected in the dynamic chamber test;in addition, the dominant VOCs found by these two methods were different. The findings indicate that for highly sorptive materials such as carpets, headspace analysis may give inaccurate indication of actual VOC emissions, and it is necessary to conduct dynamic chamber tests over a certain period of time in order to identify the true emission characteristics. From the dynamic chamber tests, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol was the main VOC emitted from all three carpets. The study also examined the emission characteristics of aircraft carpets. In all experiments, total VOC (TVOC) concentration peaked within a few hours after the start of the experiment and was followed by rapid decay. The emission parameters of TVOC emitted by all three carpets were calculated and the simulated data matched the measured data well.

  8. Isolation of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria from carpets of mosques in Tripoli, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahouma, Amal; Elghamoudi, Abdunabi; Nashnoush, Halima; Belhaj, Khalifa; Tawil, Khaled; Sifaw Ghenghesh, Khalifa

    2010-01-01

    Objective Isolation of potentially pathogenic bacteria from carpets in hospitals has been reported earlier, but not from carpets in mosques. The aim of the present study is to determine the pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria that may exist on the carpets of mosques in Tripoli, Libya. Methods Dust samples from carpets were collected from 57 mosques in Tripoli. Samples were examined for pathogenic bacteria using standard bacteriological procedures. Susceptibility of isolated bacteria to antimicrobial agents was determined by the disc-diffusion method. Results Of dust samples examined, Salmonella spp. was detected in two samples (3.5%, 1 in group B and 1 in group C1), Escherichia coli in 16 samples (28.1%), Aeromonas spp. in one sample (1.8%), and Staphylococcus aureus in 12 samples (21.1%). Multiple drug resistance was observed in >16.7% of E. coli and in 25% of S. aureus. Conclusion Contamination of carpets in mosques of Tripoli with antibiotic-resistant pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria may pose a health risk to worshipers, particularly, the very young, the old and the immunecompromised. Worshipers are encouraged to use personal praying mats when praying in mosques. PMID:21483559

  9. Climate change and peripheral populations: predictions for a relict Mediterranean viper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Brito

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological niche-based models were developed in peripheral populations of Vipera latastei North Africa to: 1 identify environmental factors related to species occurrence; 2 identify present suitable areas; 3 estimate future areas according to forecasted scenarios of climate change; and 4 quantify habitat suitability changes between present and future climatic scenarios. Field observations were combined with environmental factors to derive an ensemble of predictions of species occurrence. The resulting models were projected to the future North African environmental scenarios. Species occurrence was most related to precipitation variation. Present suitable habitats were fragmented and ranged from coastal to mountain habitats, and the overall fragmented range suggests a relict distribution from wider past ranges. Future projections suggest a progressive decrease in suitable areas. The relationship with precipitation supports the current unsuitability of most North Africa for the species and predicts future increased extinction risk. Monitoring of population trends and full protection of mountain forests are key-targets for long-term conservation of African populations of this viper. Predicted trends may give indications about other peripheral populations of Palearctic vertebrates in North Africa which should be assessed in detail.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan tripolyphosphate nanoparticles and its encapsulation efficiency containing Russell's viper snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, C; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2013-08-01

    Chitosan Tripolyphosphate (CS/TPP) nanoparticle is a biodegradable and nontoxic polysaccharide, used as a carrier for drug delivery. The morphology and particle-size measurements of the nanoparticles were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). This study aims to evaluate the impact of Russell's viper venom encapsulation on various factors and loading capacity, in addition to explore the physicochemical structure of nanoparticles. FTIR confirmed that tripolyphosphoric groups of TPP linked with ammonium groups of CS in the nanoparticles. Our results showed that CS can react with TPP to form stable cationic nanoparticles. The results also showed that encapsulation efficiency of venom at different concentrations of 20, 40, 60, 500, and 1000 µg/mL were achieved for CS/TPP nanoparticles at different concentrations of 1.5, 2, and 3 mg/mL. The cytotoxicity of CS/TPP nanoparticles was evaluated by MTT (-3 (4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a tetrazole) assay.

  11. The life and viper of Dr Patrick Russell MD FRS (1727-1805): physician and naturalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawgood, B J

    1994-11-01

    It is nearly two hundred years since the publication in 1796 of An Account of Indian Serpents collected on the Coast of Coromandel by Patrick Russell. Within the folio is a drawing and description of the venomous snake called Katuka Rekula Poda in the local Telugu language, whose venom was shown experimentally by Dr Russell to be nearly as lethal as that of Cobra de Capello. The snake is now known as Vipera russelli or Russell's viper. Dr Russell was representative of the naturalistic tendency of British medicine in the late 18th century. He was a keen observer and skilled doctor in clinical practice, particularly in Aleppo, Syria, during an outbreak of the plague, and indefatigable in his study of plant and animal life both in Aleppo and later in the Madras Province of India. As a physician as well as Naturalist to the East India Company in the Carnatic he was concerned with the problem of snakebite. His first aim was to find a means whereby the non-specialist could distinguish between poisonous and harmless snakes and so combat the terrible notion that all bites were mortal. His writing, encompassing social and natural histories and climaxed by a study of snakes, has left a rich legacy. Dr Patrick Russell was a man of the highest integrity and ability, a physician and naturalist par excellence.

  12. Measuring dabigatran with the dilute Russell viper venom confirm assay in an anticoagulation clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlasson, David L; Fritsma, George A

    2016-01-01

    The dabigatran dose-response is predictable; however, it is necessary to measure plasma levels in a variety of clinical conditions. We evaluated a novel dabigatran measure - the 'dilute Russell viper venom confirm (DRVVC) assay' - against current developmental assays and a reference method. We measured plasma dabigatran and compared results from the Stago Sta-Clot DRVVC assay, Stago Ecarin Chromogenic Assay, Biophen Hemoclot Thrombin Inhibitor, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We obtained dabigatran calibrators and controls from Biophen, and performed the coagulation assays using a Stago STA-R Evolution coagulometer. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method specimens were performed on an AB Sciex instrument at LabCorp. We enrolled 97 anticoagulation clinic patients (mean age 76 years) who were taking 150 mg dabigatran twice daily. All had creatinine clearances above 30 ml/min; patients were not excluded for concurrent medications or health issues. Citrated blood specimens were processed immediately, and stored at -70°C. We did not correlate collection time with medication time. We employed descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and the Bland-Altman difference plot to assess the data. The range for all assays was 11.6-917 ng/ml. Analysis of variance generated a P value of 0.1 and Bland-Altman differences were all below 4.0% compared with DRVVC. The DRVVC measures dabigatran with validity comparable to other methods.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Antivenoms for Snakebite Envenoming in 16 Countries in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hamza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite poisoning is a significant medical problem in agricultural societies in Sub Saharan Africa. Antivenom (AV is the standard treatment, and we assessed the cost-effectiveness of making it available in 16 countries in West Africa.We determined the cost-effectiveness of AV based on a decision-tree model from a public payer perspective. Specific AVs included in the model were Antivipmyn, FAV Afrique, EchiTab-G and EchiTab-Plus. We derived inputs from the literature which included: type of snakes causing bites (carpet viper (Echis species/non-carpet viper, AV effectiveness against death, mortality without AV, probability of Early Adverse Reactions (EAR, likelihood of death from EAR, average age at envenomation in years, anticipated remaining life span and likelihood of amputation. Costs incurred by the victims include: costs of confirming and evaluating envenomation, AV acquisition, routine care, AV transportation logistics, hospital admission and related transportation costs, management of AV EAR compared to the alternative of free snakebite care with ineffective or no AV. Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs were assessed as the cost per death averted and the cost per Disability-Adjusted-Life-Years (DALY averted. Probabilistic Sensitivity Analyses (PSA using Monte Carlo simulations were used to obtain 95% Confidence Intervals of ICERs.The cost/death averted for the 16 countries of interest ranged from $1,997 in Guinea Bissau to $6,205 for Liberia and Sierra Leone. The cost/DALY averted ranged from $83 (95% Confidence Interval: $36-$240 for Benin Republic to $281 ($159-457 for Sierra-Leone. In all cases, the base-case cost/DALY averted estimate fell below the commonly accepted threshold of one time per capita GDP, suggesting that AV is highly cost-effective for the treatment of snakebite in all 16 WA countries. The findings were consistent even with variations of inputs in 1-way sensitivity analyses. In addition, the PSA showed that

  14. Categorizing the Driving Affecting Factors on Iran’s Carpet Industry competitiveness by Fuzzy Topsis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Haghshenas Kashani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent and important problems of Iran industries is the lack of competitiveness and the major reason among several various reasons is due to the absence of a defined approach for competitiveness. During this study, by testing an integrated model and presenting it as the research final model, we are trying to categorize the driving affecting factors on Iran’s carpet industry competitiveness. Thus, one of the new Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM techniques – Fuzzy Topsis- was applied. The components of research conceptual model which has 3 main criteria (internal resources, market situation, and innovation strength and 44 sub criteria was categorized by Fuzzy Topsis technique. Accordingly, “market share”, “e-commerce”, “knowledge creation’, “industry reliability”, and “exporters expertise and skills” were recognized as the most important sub criteria and simultaneously “customers satisfaction”, “employees’ education”, “international certifications”, and “fundamental researches” were recognized as the least momentous and effective sub criteria. These results represent that Iran’s hand-made carpet industry has still some difficulties in applying marketing knowledge such as: on line marketing, e-commerce, and making merchants familiar to these techniques. In addition, paying excessive attention to the quality, durability, and appearance of the Iranian carpets make managers to ignore some other factors such as customer satisfaction. Among the main criteria, market-based perspective was chosen as the most leading and significant criterion. In other words, the approach of position improvement in the international markets is recommended for this industry.

  15. Categorizing the Driving Affecting Factors on Iran’s Carpet Industry competitiveness by Fuzzy Topsis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Haghshenas

    2011-07-01

    One of the most prominent and important problems of Iran industries is the lack of competitiveness and the major reason among several various reasons is due to the absence of a defined approach for competitiveness. During this study, by testing an integrated model and presenting it as the research final model, we are trying to categorize the driving affecting factors on Iran’s carpet industry competitiveness. Thus, one of the new Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM techniques – Fuzzy Topsis- was applied. The components of research conceptual model which has 3 main criteria (internal resources, market situation, and innovation strength and 44 sub criteria was categorized by Fuzzy Topsis technique. Accordingly, “market share”, “e-commerce”, “knowledge creation’, “industry reliability”, and “exporters expertise and skills” were recognized as the most important sub criteria and simultaneously “customers satisfaction”, “employees’ education”, “international certifications”, and “fundamental researches” were recognized as the least momentous and effective sub criteria. These results represent that Iran’s hand-made carpet industry has still some difficulties in applying marketing knowledge such as: on line marketing, e-commerce, and making merchants familiar to these techniques. In addition, paying excessive attention to the quality, durability, and appearance of the Iranian carpets make managers to ignore some other factors such as customer satisfaction. Among the main criteria, market-based perspective was chosen as the most leading and significant criterion. In other words, the approach of position improvement in the international markets is recommended for this industry.

  16. An empirical study on the effect of WTO membership on Iranian Handicraft industry: A case study of Persian carpet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shirzour Aliabadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The world Trade Organization (WTO is one of the few organizations, which could significantly influence on foreign trade and consequently on the economic structure of the countries. There are literally different people in Iran who either encourage or discourage WTO membership. Therefore, it is important to analyze Iran’s WTO membership to empower Iranian handmade carpet in international trades and to help improvement in quality of production. The purpose of this research is to study the effects of Iran’s membership in WTO to empower this industry by performing an empirical survey among 100 experts in this industry. Findings demonstrate that access to WTO plays an important role on increasing production of handmade carpet and developing this industry. In addition, the industry needs to incorporate the recent advances on technology to ensure cost efficient production materials. The industry also needs more creative and innovative ideas due to an increase competition in handmade carpet producers from other countries.

  17. Tensile Properties with or without Heat Dispersion of Automotive Needlepunched Carpets Made up of Two Layers of Different Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yunqing; GUO Zhiying; DONG Xianghuai; LI Dequn

    2008-01-01

    Tensile properties of automotive needlepunched carpets made up of two layers of different materials (a fabric layer and a foam layer) in their thermoforming temperatures ranges with or without heat dispersion were discussed. Effects of forming temperature, extensile speed and fiber orientation on the tensile properties were studied based on an orthogonal experiment design. The experimental results show that automotive carpets are rate-dependent anisotropic materials and more strongly depend on forming temperature than the extensile speed and fiber orientation. Furthermore,contributions of the fabric layer and the foam layer to the overall tensile performance were investigated by comparing the tensile results of single fabric layer with those of the overall carpet. Both the fabric layer and the foam layer show positive effects on the overall tensile strength which is the combination of the two layers' tensile strength and independent of temperature, extensile speed and fiber orientation.On the other hand, their influences on the overall deformation are relatively complicated.

  18. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Measuring non-linear galaxy bias at z ~ 0.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Porto, C.; Branchini, E.; Bel, J.; Marulli, F.; Bolzonella, M.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Marinoni, C.; Moscardini, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Marchetti, A.; Martizzi, D.; Mellier, Y.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Viel, M.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We use the first release of the VImos Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey of galaxies (VIPERS) of ~50 000 objects to measure the biasing relation between galaxies and mass in the redshift range z = [ 0.5,1.1 ]. Methods: We estimate the 1-point distribution function [PDF] of VIPERS galaxies from counts in cells and, assuming a model for the mass PDF, we infer their mean bias relation. The reconstruction of the bias relation is performed through a novel method that accounts for Poisson noise, redshift distortions, inhomogeneous sky coverage. and other selection effects. With this procedure we constrain galaxy bias and its deviations from linearity down to scales as small as 4 h-1 Mpc and out to z = 1.1. Results: We detect small (up to 2%) but statistically significant (up to 3σ) deviations from linear bias. The mean biasing function is close to linear in regions above the mean density. The mean slope of the biasing relation is a proxy to the linear bias parameter. This slope increases with luminosity, which is in agreement with results of previous analyses. We detect a strong bias evolution only for z> 0.9, which is in agreement with some, but not all, previous studies. We also detect a significant increase of the bias with the scale, from 4 to 8 h-1 Mpc , now seen for the first time out to z = 1. The amplitude of non-linearity depends on redshift, luminosity, and scale, but no clear trend is detected. Owing to the large cosmic volume probed by VIPERS, we find that the mismatch between the previous estimates of bias at z ~ 1 from zCOSMOS and VVDS-Deep galaxy samples is fully accounted for by cosmic variance. Conclusions: The results of our work confirm the importance of going beyond the over-simplistic linear bias hypothesis showing that non-linearities can be accurately measured through the applications of the appropriate statistical tools to existing datasets like VIPERS. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile

  19. Detailed optical characterization of three-dimensional visible-frequency polarization-independent carpet invisibility cloak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergin, Tolga, E-mail: tolga.ergin@kit.edu [Institute of Applied Physics, Institute of Nanotechnology, and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fischer, Joachim; Wegener, Martin [Institute of Applied Physics, Institute of Nanotechnology, and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The invention of the three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal by Costas M. Soukoulis and coworkers in 1994 has stimulated much further research - excellent research stimulates further research. Here, we report on using spatially inhomogeneous polymer woodpile structures in the long-wavelength limit as artificial graded-index structures. After briefly reviewing previous work on carpet invisibility cloaks designed by transformation optics, we present new experiments for various focus planes of the inspecting microscope as well as for different inspection angles in three-dimensional space. Numerical ray-tracing modeling is also provided. These data confirm our previous assessment that three-dimensional cloaking is quite robust for these structures.

  20. Impact of air pressure on volatile organic compound emissions from a carpet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹏; 邓琴琴; LIN; Chao-hsin; 杨旭东

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from materials is normally conducted under standard environmental conditions, i.e., (23±1) ℃ temperature, (50±5)% relative humidity, and 0.1 MPa pressure. In order to define VOC emissions in non-standard environmental conditions, it is necessary to study the impact of key environmental parameters on emissions. This paper evaluates the impact of air pressure on VOC emissions from an aircraft carpet. The correlation between air pressure and VOC diffusion coefficient is derived, and the emission model is applied to studying the VOC emissions under pressure conditions of less than 0.1 MPa.

  1. Silver nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotube carpets: influence of surface functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karumuri, Anil K; Oswal, Dhawal P; Hostetler, Heather A; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M

    2016-04-08

    The effectiveness of nanoparticle-based functional devices depends strongly on the surface morphology and area of the support. An emerging powerful approach of increasing the available surface area without decreasing strength or increasing bulk is to attach arrays of suitable nanotubes on the surface, and to attach the necessary nanoparticles to them. Earlier publications by this team have shown that carpet-like arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be successfully grown on a variety of larger carbon substrates such as graphite, foams and fabric, which offer hierarchical multiscale supporting architecture suitable for the attachment of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). A limiting factor of pure CNT arrays in fluid-based applications is their hydrophobicity, which can reduce the percolation of an aqueous medium through individual nanotubes. Previous studies have demonstrated that the treatment of CNT carpets with dry (oxygen) plasma can induce reversible wettability, and treatment with wet (sol-gel) coating can impart permanent wettability. In this paper, we report the influence of such treatments on the attachment of AgNPs, and their effectiveness in water disinfection treatments. Both types of hydrophilic surface treatment show an increase in silver loading on the CNT carpets. Oxygen-plasma treated surfaces (O-CNT) show fine and densely packed AgNPs, whereas silica-coated nanotubes (silica-CNT) show uneven clusters of AgNPs. However, O-CNT surfaces lose their hydrophilicity during AgNP deposition, whereas silica-CNT surfaces remain hydrophilic. This difference significantly impacts the antibacterial effectiveness of these materials, as tested in simulated water containing Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli, JM109). AgNPs on silica-coated CNT substrates showed significantly higher reduction rates of E. coli compared to AgNPs on plasma-treated CNT substrates, despite the finer and better dispersed AgNP distribution in the latter. These results provide important

  2. Search for cosmic gamma rays with the Carpet-2 extensive air shower array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhappuev, D. D.; Petkov, V. B.; Kudzhaev, A. U.; Klimenko, N. F.; Lidvansky, A. S.; Troitsky, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    The present-day status of the problem of searching for primary cosmic gamma rays at energies above 100 TeV is discussed, as well as a proposal for a new experiment in this field. It is shown that an increase of the area of the muon detector of the Carpet-2 air shower array up to 410 square meters, to be realized in 2016, will make this array quite competitive with past and existing experiments, especially at modest energies. Some preliminary results of measurements made with smaller area of the muon detector are presented together with estimates of expected results to be obtained with a coming large-area muon detector.

  3. Search for cosmic gamma rays with the Carpet-2 extensive air shower array

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhappuev, D D; Kudzhaev, A U; Klimenko, N F; Lidvansky, A S; Troitsky, S V

    2015-01-01

    The present-day status of the problem of searching for primary cosmic gamma rays at energies above 100 TeV is discussed, as well as a proposal for a new experiment in this field. It is shown that an increase of the area of the muon detector of the Carpet-2 air shower array up to 410 square meters, to be realized in 2016, will make this array quite competitive with past and existing experiments, especially at modest energies. Some preliminary results of measurements made with smaller area of the muon detector are presented together with estimates of expected results to be obtained with the coming large-area muon detector.

  4. A Study of Translating the Weaving Art into Architecture : Carpet Museum in Washington DC

    OpenAIRE

    Bazrafshan, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    CARPET is a mystery, It is not just woven one knot after the other It is a POEM, written one word after the other A SONG, composed one note after the other A PAINTING, done one color after the other A WALL, stacked one brick after (on) another. My architectural thesis began with the question of the relationship between the realm of the world most ancient craft and craft of building : The textile art and architecture. Two branches of art which are said their inve...

  5. The VIPERS Multi-Lambda Survey. I. UV and near-IR observations, multi-colour catalogues, and photometric redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutard, T.; Arnouts, S.; Ilbert, O.; Coupon, J.; Hudelot, P.; Vibert, D.; Comte, V.; Conseil, S.; Davidzon, I.; Guzzo, L.; Llebaria, A.; Martin, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Milliard, B.; Morrison, G.; Schiminovich, D.; Treyer, M.; Van Werbaeke, L.

    2016-05-01

    We present observations collected in the CFHTLS-VIPERS region in the ultraviolet with the GALEX satellite (far- and near-ultraviolet channels) and in the near-infrared with the CFHT/WIRCam camera (Ks band) over an area of 22 and 27 deg2, respectively. The depth of the photometry was optimised to measure the physical properties (e.g., star formation rate, stellar masses) of all the galaxies in the VIPERS spectroscopic survey. The large volume explored by VIPERS will enable a unique investigation of the relationship between the galaxy properties and their environment (density field and cosmic web) at high redshift (0.5 ≤ z ≤ 1.2). In this paper, we present the observations, the data reductions, and the build-up of the multi-colour catalogues. The CFHTLS-T0007 (gri-χ2) images are used as reference to detect and measure the Ks-band photometry, while the T0007 u∗-selected sources are used as priors to perform the GALEX photometry based on a dedicated software (EMphot). Our final sample reaches NUVAB ~ 25 (at 5σ) and KAB ~ 22 (at 3σ). The large spectroscopic sample (~51 000 spectroscopic redshifts) allows us to highlight the robustness of our star/galaxy separation and the reliability of our photometric redshifts with a typical accuracy of σz ≤ 0.04 and a fraction of catastrophic failures η ≤ 2% down to i ~ 23. We present various tests on the Ks-band completeness and photometric redshift accuracy by comparing our results with existing overlapping deep photometric catalogues. Finally, we discuss the BzK sample of passive and active galaxies at high redshift and the evolution of galaxy morphology in the (NUV-r) vs. (r-Ks) diagram at low redshift (z ≤ 0.25) based on the high image quality of the CFHTLS. The catalogue is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/A102The images, catalogues, and photometric redshifts for 1.5 million sources (down to NUV

  6. Novel role of antiplatelet agents (aspirin plus clopidogrel in an incoagulable blood of a victim of russell's viper snakebite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Bawaskar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake antivenom is a specific antidote to the venom action, neutralizing the circulating venom. However, it fails to neutralize the venom fixed to target organs such as platelets, renal tubules, etc. Russell's viper venom initiates rapid coagulation in a victim by activating blood platelets, factors V, X, and anticoagulant cofactors. Activation of thrombin, resulting in formation of micro-thrombi, fibrinolysis, and a vicious cascade, sets in. Inhibition of activated platelets by aspirin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor and clopidogrel (ADP receptor inhibitor helps to break this vicious circle induced by Russell's venom and may initiate the natural physiological clotting mechanism. They can be utilized as an adjuvant treatment.

  7. Photonic crystal carpet: Manipulating wave fronts in the near field at 1550 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Scherrer, G; Śmigaj, W; Kadic, M; Chang, T -M; Mélique, X; Lippens, D; Vanbésien, O; Cluzel, B; de Fornel, F; Guenneau, S; Gralak, B

    2013-01-01

    Ground-plane cloaks, which transform a curved mirror into a flat one, and recently reported at wavelengths ranging from the optical to the visible spectrum, bring the realm of optical illusion a step closer to reality. However, all carpet-cloaking experiments have thus far been carried out in the far-?field. Here, we demonstrate numerically and experimentally that a dielectric photonic crystal (PC) of a complex shape made of a honeycomb array of air holes can scatter waves in the near fi?eld like a PC with a at boundary at stop band frequencies. This mirage e?ffect relies upon a speci?fic arrangement of dielectric pillars placed at the nodes of a quasi-conformal grid dressing the PC. Our carpet is shown to work throughout the range of wavelengths 1500nm to 1650nm within the stop band extending from 1280 to 1940 nm. The device has been fabricated using a single- mask advanced nanoelectronics technique on III-V semiconductors and the near ?field measurements have been carried out in order to image the wave fron...

  8. Soil-skin adherence from carpet: use of a mechanical chamber to control contact parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia C; Bursac, Zoran; Biddle, Deborah; Coleman, Sheire; Johnson, Wayne

    2008-10-01

    A computer-controlled mechanical chamber was used to control the contact between carpet samples laden with soil, and human cadaver skin and cotton sheet samples for the measurement of mass soil transfer. Mass soil transfers were converted to adherence factors (mg/cm2) for use in models that estimate dermal exposure to contaminants found in soil media. The contact parameters of pressure (10 to 50 kPa) and time (10 to 50 sec) were varied for 369 experiments of mass soil transfer, where two soil types (play sand and lawn soil) and two soil sizes ( or = 139.7 soil transfers was performed to normalize the distribution. Estimated adjusted means for experimental conditions were exponentiated in order to express them in the original units. Mean soil mass transfer to cadaver skin (0.74 mg/cm2) was higher than to cotton sheets (0.21 mg/cm2). Higher pressure (p soil transfer. The original model was simplified into two by adherence material type (i.e., cadaver skin and cotton sheets) in order to investigate the differential effects of pressure, time, soil size, and soil type on transfer. This research can be used to improve estimates of dermal exposure to contaminants found in home carpets.

  9. Wool Carpet Dye Adsorption on Nanoporous Carbon Materials Derived from Agro-Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Ram Pradhananga

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, wool carpet dye adsorption properties of nanoporous activated carbon materials (NCMs prepared from bamboo agro-product is reported. Bamboo cane powder was chemically activated with phosphoric acid at different temperatures (400, 500, and 600 °C at an impregnation ratio of 1:1. We found that the specific surface area and the total pore volume of NCM increases with temperature giving the highest surface area and pore volume ca. 2130 m2·g−1 and 2.69 cc·g−1 at 600 °C. Owing to superior surface textural properties, bamboo-derived NCM showed excellent adsorption capacity for wool carpet dyes Lanasyn orange (LO and Lanasyn gray (LG. The adsorption phenomena could be described by Langmuir/Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity was ca. 2.60 × 103 and 3.04 × 103 mg·g−1 for LO and LG, respectively. The adsorption followed pseudo second order kinetics with the second order rate constant of 1.24 × 10−3 g·mg−1·min−1 (LO and 7.69 × 10−4 g·mg−1·min−1 (LG, respectively. This study demonstrated that the high surface area NCMs prepared from agro-product can be used as efficient and cost-effective adsorbent materials for the removal of dyes from industrial effluent.

  10. Biodegradation of Navy N5RL1 carpet dye by Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain BHUSS X3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Lata; Verma, Ajay Kumar; Tiwary, Dhanesh; Giri, Deen Dayal; Nath, Gopal; Mishra, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Biodegradation of Navy N5RL1, a widely used acidic azo dye in carpet industry, was studied by bacterial strain isolated from the dye-contaminated soil collected from a carpet industry premises located in Bhadohi, Sant Ravidas Nagar and Uttar Pradesh, India. The isolated strain was identified as Staphylococcus saprophyticus BHUSS X3 on the basis of morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The strain BHUSS X3 decolorized 95.7 % of dye (100 mg/l) within 6 h at optimum pH 8, temperature 35 °C, inoculum 4.0 % under static condition during 24 h incubation. The isolated bacterial strain BHUSS X3 can toralate dye concentration upto 1,000 mg/l. The dye degradation metabolites were confirmed by analysis of degraded products using UV-Vis spectrophotometric, HPLC and FTIR technique. The phytotoxicity analysis was also conducted on Phaseolus aureus and enhanced seed germination was recorded.

  11. Azemiopsin from Azemiops feae Viper Venom, a Novel Polypeptide Ligand of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, Yuri N.; Weise, Christoph; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Andreeva, Tatyana V.; Kryukova, Elena V.; Zhmak, Maxim N.; Starkov, Vladislav G.; Hoang, Ngoc Anh; Bertrand, Daniel; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Sieghart, Werner; Thompson, Andrew J.; Lummis, Sarah C. R.; Tsetlin, Victor I.

    2012-01-01

    Azemiopsin, a novel polypeptide, was isolated from the Azemiops feae viper venom by combination of gel filtration and reverse-phase HPLC. Its amino acid sequence (DNWWPKPPHQGPRPPRPRPKP) was determined by means of Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. It consists of 21 residues and, unlike similar venom isolates, does not contain cysteine residues. According to circular dichroism measurements, this peptide adopts a β-structure. Peptide synthesis was used to verify the determined sequence and to prepare peptide in sufficient amounts to study its biological activity. Azemiopsin efficiently competed with α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) (IC50 0.18 ± 0.03 μm) and with lower efficiency to human α7 nAChR (IC50 22 ± 2 μm). It dose-dependently blocked acetylcholine-induced currents in Xenopus oocytes heterologously expressing human muscle-type nAChR and was more potent against the adult form (α1β1ϵδ) than the fetal form (α1β1γδ), EC50 being 0.44 ± 0.1 μm and 1.56 ± 0.37 μm, respectively. The peptide had no effect on GABAA (α1β3γ2 or α2β3γ2) receptors at a concentration up to 100 μm or on 5-HT3 receptors at a concentration up to 10 μm. Ala scanning showed that amino acid residues at positions 3–6, 8–11, and 13–14 are essential for binding to Torpedo nAChR. In biological activity azemiopsin resembles waglerin, a disulfide-containing peptide from the Tropidechis wagleri venom, shares with it a homologous C-terminal hexapeptide, but is the first natural toxin that blocks nAChRs and does not possess disulfide bridges. PMID:22613724

  12. Azemiopsin from Azemiops feae viper venom, a novel polypeptide ligand of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, Yuri N; Weise, Christoph; Kasheverov, Igor E; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Kryukova, Elena V; Zhmak, Maxim N; Starkov, Vladislav G; Hoang, Ngoc Anh; Bertrand, Daniel; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Sieghart, Werner; Thompson, Andrew J; Lummis, Sarah C R; Tsetlin, Victor I

    2012-08-03

    Azemiopsin, a novel polypeptide, was isolated from the Azemiops feae viper venom by combination of gel filtration and reverse-phase HPLC. Its amino acid sequence (DNWWPKPPHQGPRPPRPRPKP) was determined by means of Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. It consists of 21 residues and, unlike similar venom isolates, does not contain cysteine residues. According to circular dichroism measurements, this peptide adopts a β-structure. Peptide synthesis was used to verify the determined sequence and to prepare peptide in sufficient amounts to study its biological activity. Azemiopsin efficiently competed with α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) (IC(50) 0.18 ± 0.03 μm) and with lower efficiency to human α7 nAChR (IC(50) 22 ± 2 μm). It dose-dependently blocked acetylcholine-induced currents in Xenopus oocytes heterologously expressing human muscle-type nAChR and was more potent against the adult form (α1β1εδ) than the fetal form (α1β1γδ), EC(50) being 0.44 ± 0.1 μm and 1.56 ± 0.37 μm, respectively. The peptide had no effect on GABA(A) (α1β3γ2 or α2β3γ2) receptors at a concentration up to 100 μm or on 5-HT(3) receptors at a concentration up to 10 μm. Ala scanning showed that amino acid residues at positions 3-6, 8-11, and 13-14 are essential for binding to Torpedo nAChR. In biological activity azemiopsin resembles waglerin, a disulfide-containing peptide from the Tropidechis wagleri venom, shares with it a homologous C-terminal hexapeptide, but is the first natural toxin that blocks nAChRs and does not possess disulfide bridges.

  13. Upward Altitudinal Shifts in Habitat Suitability of Mountain Vipers since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Masoud; Ahmadi, Mohsen; Nourani, Elham; Behrooz, Roozbeh; Rajabizadeh, Mehdi; Geniez, Philippe; Kaboli, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    We determined the effects of past and future climate changes on the distribution of the Montivipera raddei species complex (MRC) that contains rare and endangered viper species limited to Iran, Turkey and Armenia. We also investigated the current distribution of MRC to locate unidentified isolated populations as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of the current network of protected areas for their conservation. Present distribution of MRC was modeled based on ecological variables and model performance was evaluated by field visits. Some individuals at the newly identified populations showed uncommon morphological characteristics. The distribution map of MRC derived through modeling was then compared with the distribution of protected areas in the region. We estimated the effectiveness of the current protected area network to be 10%, which would be sufficient for conserving this group of species, provided adequate management policies and practices are employed. We further modeled the distribution of MRC in the past (21,000 years ago) and under two scenarios in the future (to 2070). These models indicated that climatic changes probably have been responsible for an upward shift in suitable habitats of MRC since the Last Glacial Maximum, leading to isolation of allopatric populations. Distribution will probably become much more restricted in the future as a result of the current rate of global warming. We conclude that climate change most likely played a major role in determining the distribution pattern of MRC, restricting allopatric populations to mountaintops due to habitat alterations. This long-term isolation has facilitated unique local adaptations among MRC populations, which requires further investigation. The suitable habitat patches identified through modeling constitute optimized solutions for inclusion in the network of protected areas in the region. PMID:26367126

  14. Rhodoaggregin:a novel multimeric platelet agonist from the venom of Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan Pit Viper)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By means of Superdex 75 gel filtration and Mono Q ion exchange chromatography, we have isolated a novel platelet aggregation inducer, termed rhodoaggregin, from the crude venom of Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper). The native molecular mass of rhodoaggregin (as estimated by gel filtration chromatography) was 66 kDa while its isoelectric point (pI) was determined to be 3.45. Under reducing conditions of SDS-PAGE, rhodoaggregin exhibited two distinctive bands with molecular masses of 18 kDa (α subunit) and 15 kDa (β subunit). In the absence of reducing agents, however, two bands were also observed, but with apparent molecular masses of 28 (major) and 52 (minor) kDa, respectively. Furthermore, mass spectrometric analysis also showed that rhodoaggregin had a molecular mass of 30155.39±3.25. These molecular weight data suggest that rhodoaggregin probably exists as a tetrameric structure consisting of two disulfide-linked heterodimers. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis showed that the two subunits of rhodoaggregin exhibit a high degree of homology with each other and with those of the C-type lectin related proteins (CLPs) from other snake venoms. Functional platelet assays showed that rhodoaggregin induced platelet aggregation in rabbit and human whole blood, platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) and washed platelets with a lag period and in an all-or-none manner. The concentration of rhodoaggregin that induced maximal aggregation is estimated at about 0.04 μg/ml (or 0.7 nM).

  15. Do snakes represent the principal predatory threat to callitrichids? Fatal attack of a viper (Bothrops leucurus) on a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in the Atlantic Forest of the Brazilian Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stephen F; Beltrão-Mendes, Raone

    2011-07-01

    A juvenile common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was attacked by a whitetail lancehead viper (Bothrops leucurus) while playing with other group members close to the ground at a site in northeastern Brazil. The attack was almost immediately fatal, but the viper was unable to ingest the body of the marmoset. After approximately 10 min, during which it attempted to swallow the marmoset a number of times, the viper moved away, abandoning the body. While raptors are the principal predators of callitrichids, this record reinforces the relative vulnerability of these primates to snakes in comparison with other platyrrhines, although the small number of recorded events precludes a more definitive analysis of the phenomenon.

  16. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Venoms from Russian Vipers of Pelias Group: Phospholipases A2 are the Main Venom Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Kovalchuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Venoms of most Russian viper species are poorly characterized. Here, by quantitative chromato-mass-spectrometry, we analyzed protein and peptide compositions of venoms from four Vipera species (V. kaznakovi, V. renardi, V. orlovi and V. nikolskii inhabiting different regions of Russia. In all these species, the main components were phospholipases A2, their content ranging from 24% in V. orlovi to 65% in V. nikolskii. Altogether, enzyme content in venom of V. nikolskii reached ~85%. Among the non-enzymatic proteins, the most abundant were disintegrins (14% in the V. renardi venom, C-type lectin like (12.5% in V. kaznakovi, cysteine-rich venom proteins (12% in V. orlovi and venom endothelial growth factors (8% in V. nikolskii. In total, 210 proteins and 512 endogenous peptides were identified in the four viper venoms. They represented 14 snake venom protein families, most of which were found in the venoms of Vipera snakes previously. However, phospholipase B and nucleotide degrading enzymes were reported here for the first time. Compositions of V. kaznakovi and V. orlovi venoms were described for the first time and showed the greatest similarity among the four venoms studied, which probably reflected close relationship between these species within the “kaznakovi” complex.

  17. Live-birth in vipers (Viperidae) is a key innovation and adaptation to global cooling during the Cenozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Vincent J

    2009-09-01

    The identification of adaptations and key innovations has long interested biologists because they confer on organisms the ability to exploit previously unavailable ecological resources and respond to novel selective pressures. Although it can be extremely difficult to test for the effects of a character on the rate of lineage diversification, the convergent evolution of a character in multiple lineages provides an excellent opportunity to test for the effect of that character on lineage diversification. Here, I examine the effect of parity mode on the diversification of vipers, which have independently evolved viviparity in at least 13 lineages. I find strong statistical evidence that viviparous species diversify at a greater rate than oviparous species and correlate major decreases in the diversification rate of oviparous species with periods of global cooling, such as the Oligocene. These results suggest that the evolution of viviparity buffered live-bearing species against the negative effects of global climate change during the Cenozoic, and was a key innovation in the evolution and diversification of live-bearing vipers.

  18. Venomics of Tropidolaemus wagleri, the sexually dimorphic temple pit viper: Unveiling a deeply conserved atypical toxin arsenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choo Hock; Tan, Kae Yi; Yap, Michelle Khai Khun; Tan, Nget Hong

    2017-02-27

    Tropidolaemus wagleri (temple pit viper) is a medically important snake in Southeast Asia. It displays distinct sexual dimorphism and prey specificity, however its venomics and inter-sex venom variation have not been thoroughly investigated. Applying reverse-phase HPLC, we demonstrated that the venom profiles were not significantly affected by sex and geographical locality (Peninsular Malaya, insular Penang, insular Sumatra) of the snakes. Essentially, venoms of both sexes share comparable intravenous median lethal dose (LD50) (0.56-0.63 μg/g) and cause neurotoxic envenomation in mice. LCMS/MS identified six waglerin forms as the predominant lethal principles, comprising 38.2% of total venom proteins. Fourteen other toxin-protein families identified include phospholipase A2, serine proteinase, snaclec and metalloproteinase. In mice, HPLC fractions containing these proteins showed insignificant contribution to the overall venom lethality. Besides, the unique elution pattern of approximately 34.5% of non-lethal, low molecular mass proteins (3-5 kDa) on HPLC could be potential biomarker for this primitive crotalid species. Together, the study unveiled the venom proteome of T. wagleri that is atypical among many pit vipers as it comprises abundant neurotoxic peptides (waglerins) but little hemotoxic proteinases. The findings also revealed that the venom is relatively well conserved intraspecifically despite the drastic morphological differences between sexes.

  19. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Venoms from Russian Vipers of Pelias Group: Phospholipases A2 are the Main Venom Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Sergey I.; Ziganshin, Rustam H.; Starkov, Vladislav G.; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Utkin, Yuri N.

    2016-01-01

    Venoms of most Russian viper species are poorly characterized. Here, by quantitative chromato-mass-spectrometry, we analyzed protein and peptide compositions of venoms from four Vipera species (V. kaznakovi, V. renardi, V. orlovi and V. nikolskii) inhabiting different regions of Russia. In all these species, the main components were phospholipases A2, their content ranging from 24% in V. orlovi to 65% in V. nikolskii. Altogether, enzyme content in venom of V. nikolskii reached ~85%. Among the non-enzymatic proteins, the most abundant were disintegrins (14%) in the V. renardi venom, C-type lectin like (12.5%) in V. kaznakovi, cysteine-rich venom proteins (12%) in V. orlovi and venom endothelial growth factors (8%) in V. nikolskii. In total, 210 proteins and 512 endogenous peptides were identified in the four viper venoms. They represented 14 snake venom protein families, most of which were found in the venoms of Vipera snakes previously. However, phospholipase B and nucleotide degrading enzymes were reported here for the first time. Compositions of V. kaznakovi and V. orlovi venoms were described for the first time and showed the greatest similarity among the four venoms studied, which probably reflected close relationship between these species within the “kaznakovi” complex. PMID:27077884

  20. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Venoms from Russian Vipers of Pelias Group: Phospholipases A₂ are the Main Venom Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Sergey I; Ziganshin, Rustam H; Starkov, Vladislav G; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2016-04-12

    Venoms of most Russian viper species are poorly characterized. Here, by quantitative chromato-mass-spectrometry, we analyzed protein and peptide compositions of venoms from four Vipera species (V. kaznakovi, V. renardi, V. orlovi and V. nikolskii) inhabiting different regions of Russia. In all these species, the main components were phospholipases A₂, their content ranging from 24% in V. orlovi to 65% in V. nikolskii. Altogether, enzyme content in venom of V. nikolskii reached ~85%. Among the non-enzymatic proteins, the most abundant were disintegrins (14%) in the V. renardi venom, C-type lectin like (12.5%) in V. kaznakovi, cysteine-rich venom proteins (12%) in V. orlovi and venom endothelial growth factors (8%) in V. nikolskii. In total, 210 proteins and 512 endogenous peptides were identified in the four viper venoms. They represented 14 snake venom protein families, most of which were found in the venoms of Vipera snakes previously. However, phospholipase B and nucleotide degrading enzymes were reported here for the first time. Compositions of V. kaznakovi and V. orlovi venoms were described for the first time and showed the greatest similarity among the four venoms studied, which probably reflected close relationship between these species within the "kaznakovi" complex.

  1. One strategy for arthroscopic suture fixation of tibial intercondylar eminence fractures using the Meniscal Viper Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Satoshi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Principles for the treatment of tibial intercondylar eminence fracture are early reduction and stable fixation. Numerous ways to treatment of this fracture have been invented. We designed a simple, low-invasive, and arthroscopic surgical strategy for tibial intercondylar eminence fracture utilizing the Meniscal Viper Repair System used for arthroscopic meniscal suture. Methods We studied 5 patients, who underwent arthroscopic suture fixation that we modified. The present technique utilized the Meniscal Viper Repair System for arthroscopic suture of the meniscus. With one handling, a high-strength ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene(UHMWPE suture can be passed through the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL and the loops for suture retrieval placed at both sides of ACL. Surgical results were evaluated by the presence or absence of bone union on plain radiographs, postoperative range of motion of the knee joint, the side-to-side differences measured by Telos SE, and Lysholm scores. Results The reduced position achieved after surgery was maintained and good function was obtained in all cases. The mean distance of tibia anterior displacement and assessment by Lysholm score showed good surgical results. Conclusion This method simplified the conventional arthroscopic suture fixation and increased its precision, and was applicable to Type II fractures that could be reduced, as well as surgically indicated Types III and IV. The present series suggested that our surgical approach was a useful surgical intervention for tibial intercondylar eminence fracture.

  2. DERMAL TRANSFER EFFICIENCY OF PESTICIDES FROM NEW AND USED CUT-PILE CARPET TO DRY AND WETTED PALMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents results of a study to determine the transfer efficiencies from carpet to human skin of four pesticides commonly used for residential indoor insect control. Formulations of the insecticides chlorpyrifos, pyrethrin I and piperonyl butoxide were applied to new...

  3. An Inquiry-Oriented Approach to Span and Linear Independence: The Case of the Magic Carpet Ride Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawro, Megan; Rasmussen, Chris; Zandieh, Michelle; Sweeney, George Franklin; Larson, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative instructional sequence for an introductory linear algebra course that supports students' reinvention of the concepts of span, linear dependence, and linear independence. Referred to as the Magic Carpet Ride sequence, the problems begin with an imaginary scenario that allows students to build rich imagery and…

  4. Comparisons of computer-controlled chamber measurements for soil-skin adherence from aluminum and carpet surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia; Bursac, Zoran; Coleman, Sheire; Johnson, Wayne

    2009-04-01

    A computer-controlled mechanical chamber was used to control the contact between carpet and aluminum sheet samples laden with soil, and human cadaver skin and cotton sheet samples for the measurement of mass soil transfer. The contact parameters of pressure (10-50 kPa) and time (10-50s) were varied for 768 experiments of mass soil transfer, where two soil types (play sand and lawn soil) and two soil particle sizes (soil mass transfer to cadaver skin was higher than mean transfer to cotton sheets for both carpet and aluminum transfers, and also generally higher pressure was associated with larger amounts of soil transfer for all contact scenarios. The mean soil adherence from carpet was 0.37+/-0.4 mg/cm(2), while the mean soil adherence from aluminum was 0.42+/-0.6 mg/cm(2). For aluminum, smaller soil particle size was associated with more transfer (p=0.0349), while for carpet, larger soil size was associated with more transfer (pSoil type was significant but only for aluminum surface, where sand was associated with higher adherence (psoils and dust present in indoor environments.

  5. Influence of combined dust reducing carpet and compact air filtration unit on the indoor air quality of a classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Hartog, J.J. de; Reijnaerts, J.; Beckmann, G.; Anzion, R.B.M.; Poels, K.; Godderis, L.

    2015-01-01

    Primary schools mostly rely on natural ventilation but also have an interest in affordable technology to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). Laboratory tests show promising results for dust reducing carpets and compact air filtration systems but there is no information available on the performance of

  6. 31 CFR 560.535 - Letters of credit and brokering services relating to certain foodstuffs and carpets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TREASURY IRANIAN TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560...) Brokering. United States persons, wherever located, are authorized to act as brokers for the purchase or...-country national. (3) A United States person may broker the sale of Iranian-origin carpets from Iran to...

  7. Prediction of short-term and long-term VOC emissions from SBR bitumen-backed carpet under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Chen, Q.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents two models for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carpet. One is a numerical model using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tech-nique for short-term predictions, the other an analytical model for long-term predictions. The numerical model can (1) deal with

  8. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Ωm0 from the galaxy clustering ratio measured at z ~ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, J.; Marinoni, C.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Branchini, E.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Iovino, A.; Percival, W. J.; Steigerwald, H.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2014-03-01

    We use a sample of about 22 000 galaxies at 0.65 Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) Public Data Release 1 (PDR-1) catalogue, to constrain the cosmological model through a measurement of the galaxy clustering ratio ηg,R. This statistic has favourable properties, which is defined as the ratio of two quantities characterizing the smoothed density field in spheres of a given radius R: the value of its correlation function on a multiple of this scale, ξ(nR), and its variance σ2(R). For sufficiently large values of R, this is a universal number, which captures 2-point clustering information independently of the linear bias and linear redshift-space distortions of the specific galaxy tracers. In this paper, we discuss how to extend the application of ηg,R to quasi-linear scales and how to control and remove observational selection effects, which are typical of redshift surveys as VIPERS, in detail. We verify the accuracy and efficiency of these procedures using mock catalogues that match the survey selection process. These results show the robustness of ηg,R to non-linearities and observational effects, which is related to its very definition as a ratio of quantities that are similarly affected. At an effective redshift z = 0.93, we measured the value ηg,R(15) = 0.141 ± 0.013 at R = 5h-1 Mpc. Within a flat ΛCDM cosmology and by including the best available priors on H0, ns and baryon density, we obtain a matter density parameter at the current epoch Ωm,0 = 0.270-0.025+0.029. In addition to the great precision achieved on our estimation of Ωm using VIPERS PDR-1, this result is remarkable because it appears to be in good agreement with a recent estimate at z ≃ 0.3, which was obtained by applying the same technique to the SDSS-LRG catalogue. It, therefore, supports the robustness of the present analysis. Moreover, the combination of these two measurements at z ~ 0.3 and z ~ 0.9 provides us with a very precise estimate of Ωm,0 = 0.274 ± 0.017, which

  9. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The decline of cosmic star formation: quenching, mass, and environment connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Bolzonella, M.; Granett, B. R.; De Lucia, G.; Branchini, E.; Zamorani, G.; Iovino, A.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Scodeggio, M.; de la Torre, S.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Moutard, T.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Bel, J.; Blaizot, J.; Coupon, J.; Hawken, A.; Ilbert, O.; Moscardini, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Gargiulo, A.

    2017-06-01

    We use the final data of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) to investigate the effect of the environment on the evolution of galaxies between z = 0.5 and z = 0.9. We characterise local environment in terms of the density contrast smoothed over a cylindrical kernel, the scale of which is defined by the distance to the fifth nearest neighbour. This is performed by using a volume-limited sub-sample of galaxies complete up to z = 0.9, but allows us to attach a value of local density to all galaxies in the full VIPERS magnitude-limited sample to i reside in higher-density environments over the full redshift range explored. Defining star-forming and passive galaxies through their (NUV-r) vs. (r-K) colours, we then quantify the fraction of star-forming over passive galaxies, fap, as a function of environment at fixed stellar mass. fap is higher in low-density regions for galaxies with masses ranging from log (ℳ/ℳ⊙) = 10.38 (the lowest value explored) to at least log (ℳ/ℳ⊙) 11.3, although with decreasing significance going from lower to higher masses. This is the first time that environmental effects on high-mass galaxies are clearly detected at redshifts as high as z 0.9. We compared these results to VIPERS-like galaxy mock catalogues based on a widely used galaxy formation model. The model correctly reproduces fap in low-density environments, but underpredicts it at high densities. The discrepancy is particularly strong for the lowest-mass bins. We find that this discrepancy is driven by an excess of low-mass passive satellite galaxies in the model. In high-density regions, we obtain a better (although not perfect) agreement of the model fap with observations by studying the accretion history of these model galaxies (that is, the times when they become satellites), by assuming either that a non-negligible fraction of satellites is destroyed, or that their quenching timescale is longer than 2 Gyr. Based on observations collected at the

  10. Untitled (Carpet)

    OpenAIRE

    Dettmers, Silke

    2014-01-01

    A stranger, who saw "Untitled" this June, said that it brought back for him the fairgrounds he worked on as a young man, the wooden sub structures of roller coasters in particular. This was an entirely new connection for me, and one I am grateful for. I never fully know where my work really comes from. In the months of making the sculpture in this exhibition I had looked at photographs of rickety bridges in far-flung places, the wooden beacons in the North Sea (a childhood memory) and Freu...

  11. Photonic crystal carpet: Manipulating wave fronts in the near field at 1.55 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, G.; Hofman, M.; Śmigaj, W.; Kadic, M.; Chang, T.-M.; Mélique, X.; Lippens, D.; Vanbésien, O.; Cluzel, B.; de Fornel, F.; Guenneau, S.; Gralak, B.

    2013-09-01

    Ground-plane cloaks, which transform a curved mirror into a flat one, and recently reported at wavelengths ranging from the optical to the visible spectrum, bring the realm of optical illusion a step closer to reality. However, all carpet-cloaking experiments have thus far been carried out in the far field. Here, we demonstrate numerically and experimentally that a dielectric photonic crystal (PC) of an irregular shape made of a honeycomb array of air holes can scatter waves in the near field like a PC with a flat boundary at stop band frequencies. This mirage effect relies upon a specific arrangement of dielectric pillars placed at the nodes of a quasiconformal grid dressing the PC. Our carpet is experimentally shown to flatten the scattered wave fronts of a PC with a bump throughout the range of wavelengths from 1520 to 1580 nm within the stop band extending from 1280 to 1940 nm. The device has been fabricated using a single-mask advanced nanoelectronics technique on III-V semiconductors and the near field measurements have been carried out in order to image the wave fronts’ curvatures around the telecommunication wavelength 1550 nm. Interestingly, comparisons of our near-field experimental results with full-wave simulations suggest the relatively low aspect ratio of the fabricated carpet (pillars have 200 nm diameter and 2 μm height) makes it inherently three dimensional. Moreover, this carpet is constrained to normal incidence. We therefore propose an elaborated design of the carpet (with pillars of varying radii) which should work at different angles of incidence.

  12. Acoustic carpet invisibility cloak with two open windows using multilayered homogeneous isotropic material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Chun-Yu; Xiang Zhi-Hai; Cen Zhang-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for designing an open acoustic cloak that can conceal a perturbation on flat ground and simultaneously meet the requirement of communication and matter interchange between the inside and the outside of the cloak.This cloak can be constructed with a multilayered structure and each layer is an isotropic and homogeneous medium.The design scheme consists of two steps:firstly,we apply a conformal coordinate transformation to obtain a quasi-perfect cloak with heterogeneous isotropic material; then,according to the profile of the material distribution,we degenerate this cloak into a multilayered-homogeneous isotropic cloak,which has two open windows with negligible disturbance on its invisibility performance.This may greatly facilitate the fabrication and enhance the applicability of such a carpet-type cloak.

  13. The antimicrobial peptide aurein 1.2 disrupts model membranes via the carpet mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, David I; Le Brun, Anton P; Whitwell, Thomas C; Sani, Marc-Antoine; James, Michael; Separovic, Frances

    2012-12-05

    The membrane interactions of the antimicrobial peptide aurein 1.2 were studied using a range of biophysical techniques to determine the location and the mechanism of action in DMPC (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) and DMPC/DMPG (dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol) model membranes that mimic characteristics of eukaryotic and prokaryotic membranes, respectively. Neutron reflectometry and solid-state NMR revealed subtle changes in membrane structure caused by the peptide. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, vesicle dye leakage and atomic force microscopy measurements were used to investigate the global mode of peptide interaction. Aurein 1.2 displayed an enhanced interaction with the anionic DMPC/DMPG membrane while exhibiting primarily a surface interaction with both types of model membranes, which led to bilayer disruption and membrane lysis. The antimicrobial peptide interaction is consistent with the carpet mechanism for aurein 1.2 with discrete structural changes depending on the type of phospholipid membrane.

  14. Can the Solar Wind be Driven by Magnetic Reconnection in the Sun's Magnetic Carpet?

    CERN Document Server

    Cranmer, Steven R

    2010-01-01

    The physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind remain unknown after many years of study. Some have suggested that the wind is driven by waves and turbulence in open magnetic flux tubes, and others have suggested that plasma is injected into the open tubes by magnetic reconnection with closed loops. In order to test the latter idea, we developed Monte Carlo simulations of the photospheric "magnetic carpet" and extrapolated the time-varying coronal field. These models were constructed for a range of different magnetic flux imbalance ratios. Completely balanced models represent quiet regions on the Sun and source regions of slow solar wind streams. Highly imbalanced models represent coronal holes and source regions of fast wind streams. The models agree with observed emergence rates, surface flux densities, and number distributions of magnetic elements. Despite having no imposed supergranular motions, a realistic network of magnetic "funnels" appeared spontaneously. We computed t...

  15. Spray-coated carbon nanotube carpets for creeping reduction of conducting polymer based artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simaite, Aiva; Delagarde, Aude; Tondu, Bertrand; Souères, Philippe; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Bergaud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    During cyclic actuation, conducting polymer based artificial muscles are often creeping from the initial movement range. One of the likely reasons of such behaviour is unbalanced charging during conducting polymer oxidation and reduction. To improve the actuation reversibility and subsequently the long time performance of ionic actuators, we suggest using spray-coated carbon nanotube (CNT) carpets on the surface of the conducting polymer electrodes. We show that carbon nanotubes facilitate a conducting polymer redox reaction and improve its reversibility. Consequently, in the long term, charge accumulation in the polymer film is avoided leading to a significantly improved lifetime performance during cycling actuation. To our knowledge, it is the first time a simple solution to an actuator creeping problem has been suggested.

  16. Evaluating the exact infinitesimal values of area of Sierpinski's carpet and volume of Menger's sponge

    CERN Document Server

    Sergeyev, Yaroslav D

    2012-01-01

    Very often traditional approaches studying dynamics of self-similarity processes are not able to give their quantitative characteristics at infinity and, as a consequence, use limits to overcome this difficulty. For example, it is well know that the limit area of Sierpinski's carpet and volume of Menger's sponge are equal to zero. It is shown in this paper that recently introduced infinite and infinitesimal numbers allow us to use exact expressions instead of limits and to calculate exact infinitesimal values of areas and volumes at various points at infinity even if the chosen moment of the observation is infinitely faraway on the time axis from the starting point. It is interesting that traditional results that can be obtained without the usage of infinite and infinitesimal numbers can be produced just as finite approximations of the new ones.

  17. A survey on ergonomic stress factors of musculoskeletal system in Iranian carpet restoration workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouladi B

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are one of the major problems, encountering work force today. Many researches have revealed the disadvantages and inconveniences that such problems have caused. Some kinds of careers are traditional and complex and are more probable to cause disorders. Carpet restoration is one of these jobs causing musculoskeletal disorders in the work force. The nature of this job puts a lot of pressure on the worker's body. The postures are most of the time problematic and are in need of some ergonomic actions to be taken in order to prevent from diseases and disorders of musculoskeletal system.Methods: In a cross- sectional survey, 144 male carpet restoration workers enrolled. NORDIC and PLIBEL checklists were used to assess the musculoskeletal stress factors with injury effects. Another checklist was employed to address demographic characteristics of the population under study.Results: The results showed that 82% of these workers suffered from some forms of musculoskeletal disorders mostly from knee and lower back discomfort. The more they had job experience, the more they suffered from MSDs. Disorders of neck and upper back had significant relationship with the duration of work experience. Also badly designed tools and awkward posture were of main risk factors. PLIBEL checklist successfully showed the main threatening risk factors of all body parts.Conclusion: The survey revealed that the incidence of MSDs in these workers is high and there are several risk factors affecting their body during work unsuitable design of tools, incorrect work height and bending position of the body during work were the most risk factors, which observed.

  18. Can the Solar Wind be Driven by Magnetic Reconnection in the Sun's Magnetic Carpet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, Steven R.; van Ballegooijen, Adriaan A.

    2010-09-01

    The physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind remain unknown after many years of study. Some have suggested that the wind is driven by waves and turbulence in open magnetic flux tubes, and others have suggested that plasma is injected into the open tubes by magnetic reconnection with closed loops. In order to test the latter idea, we developed Monte Carlo simulations of the photospheric "magnetic carpet" and extrapolated the time-varying coronal field. These models were constructed for a range of different magnetic flux imbalance ratios. Completely balanced models represent quiet regions on the Sun and source regions of slow solar wind streams. Highly imbalanced models represent coronal holes and source regions of fast wind streams. The models agree with observed emergence rates, surface flux densities, and number distributions of magnetic elements. Despite having no imposed supergranular motions in the models, a realistic network of magnetic "funnels" appeared spontaneously. We computed the rate at which closed field lines open up (i.e., recycling times for open flux), and we estimated the energy flux released in reconnection events involving the opening up of closed flux tubes. For quiet regions and mixed-polarity coronal holes, these energy fluxes were found to be much lower than that which is required to accelerate the solar wind. For the most imbalanced coronal holes, the energy fluxes may be large enough to power the solar wind, but the recycling times are far longer than the time it takes the solar wind to accelerate into the low corona. Thus, it is unlikely that either the slow or fast solar wind is driven by reconnection and loop-opening processes in the magnetic carpet.

  19. Musculoskeletal problems in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry: guidelines for workstation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choobineh, Alireza; Hosseini, Mostafa; Lahmi, Mohammadali; Khani Jazani, Reza; Shahnavaz, Houshang

    2007-09-01

    Long hours of static work with awkward posture at traditionally designed looms can cause high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among carpet weavers. A comprehensive study was conducted in this industry with the objectives of determination of MSDs symptoms prevalence; identification of major factors associated with MSDs symptoms in carpet weaving occupation; and development of guidelines for weaving workstation design. In the present paper, this ergonomics study is presented. The study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, MSDs symptoms in nine Iranian provinces were surveyed by questionnaire among 1439 randomly selected weavers. Working posture and weaving workstations were ergonomically assessed as well. The results of this phase revealed that symptoms from the musculoskeletal system occurred in high rate among weavers with the prevalence significantly higher than that of the general Iranian population (Pweaving workstation. Based on the findings, some general guidelines for workstation design were presented. In the second phase, considering the general guidelines, an adjustable workstation was designed and constructed. To develop quantitative guidelines for optimizing workstation set-up, in the laboratory, nine sets of experimental conditions were tested, and working posture and weavers' perceptions were measured. The results of this lab work showed that working posture was acceptable for both the researchers and the weavers when the weaving height was adjusted 20 cm above the elbow height and a high seat with forward slope was used. By combining the results of the two phases, guidelines for weaving workstation design were presented. In this ergonomics-oriented workstation, loom is vertical. Seat, loom and weaving heights are adjustable. There is enough leg room under the loom. The seat with 10 degrees forward slope is adjusted 15 cm above the popliteal height of the weaver. Weaving height is set at 20 cm above the elbow height. It is

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: determinants of residential carpet dust levels and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaValle, Curt T.; Deziel, Nicole C.; Jones, Rena R.; Colt, Joanne S.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cerhan, James R.; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K.; Flory, Abigail R.; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) associated with residential carpet dust measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Methods We evaluated the relationship between residential carpet dust PAH concentrations (benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, and their sum) and risk of NHL (676 cases, 511 controls) in the National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results multicenter case–control study. As a secondary aim, we investigated determinants of dust PAH concentrations. We computed odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for associations between NHL and concentrations of individual and summed PAHs using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, and study center. Determinants of natural log-transformed PAHs were investigated using multivariate least-squares regression. Results We observed some elevated risks for NHL overall and B cell lymphoma subtypes in association with quartiles or tertiles of PAH concentrations, but without a monotonic trend, and there was no association comparing the highest quartile or tertile to the lowest. In contrast, risk of T cell lymphoma was significantly increased among participants with the highest tertile of summed PAHs (OR = 3.04; 95 % CI, 1.09–8.47) and benzo(k)fluoranthene (OR = 3.20; 95 % CI, 1.13–9.11) compared with the lowest tertile. Predictors of PAH dust concentrations in homes included ambient air PAH concentrations and the proportion of developed land within 2 km of a residence. Older age, more years of education, and white race were also predictive of higher levels in homes. Conclusion Our results suggest a potential link between PAH exposure and risk of T cell lymphoma and demonstrate the importance of analyzing risk by NHL histologic type. PMID:26573845

  1. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The coevolution of galaxy morphology and colour to z 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krywult, J.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Pollo, A.; Vergani, D.; Bolzonella, M.; Davidzon, I.; Iovino, A.; Gargiulo, A.; Haines, C. P.; Scodeggio, M.; Guzzo, L.; Zamorani, G.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; de la Torre, S.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Tojeiro, R.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Coupon, J.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Moscardini, L.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The study of the separation of galaxy types into different classes that share the same characteristics, and of the evolution of the specific parameters used in the classification are fundamental for understanding galaxy evolution. Aims: We explore the evolution of the statistical distribution of galaxy morphological properties and colours combining high-quality imaging data from the CFHT Legacy Survey with the large number of redshifts and extended photometry from the VIPERS survey. Methods: Galaxy structural parameters were combined with absolute magnitudes, colours and redshifts in order to trace evolution in a multi-parameter space. Using a new method we analysed the combination of colours and structural parameters of early- and late-type galaxies in luminosity-redshift space. Results: We find that both the rest-frame colour distributions in the (U-B) vs. (B-V) plane and the Sérsic index distributions are well fitted by a sum of two Gaussians, with a remarkable consistency of red-spheroidal and blue-disky galaxy populations, over the explored redshift (0.5 statistical description of the structure of galaxies and their evolution. Additionally, the proposed method provides a robust way to split galaxies into early and late types. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS

  2. Data on the reproduction of a Caucasian Viper, Vipera kaznakovi Nikolsky, 1909 (Serpentes: Viperidae from Hopa (Northeastern Anatolia, Turkey

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    Bayram Göçmen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study we report an observation of a Caucasian Viper, Vipera kaznakovi from Hopa (Artvin, Turkey giving birth. During our field studies, we captured a female Vipera kaznakovi on July 21, 2012 from Esenkıyı village, Hopa (Artvin, Turkey, it was brought to the laboratory and kept in a terrarium for a period until May 28, 2013. The female (SVL= 483 mm, total length, TL = 541 mm gave birth to eight young (mean SVL= 146 mm, mean TL= 161.4 mm, range= 155 – 172 mm; mean weight, W= 3.11 g, range= 2.6 – 3.4 g on August 11, 2012. In six and a half months, the juvenile snakes had reached 163 mm SVL, 187 mm TL and 5.1g W and increased their size by approximately 15%.

  3. Population Pharmacokinetics of an Indian F(ab'2 Snake Antivenom in Patients with Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii Bites.

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    Geoffrey K Isbister

    Full Text Available There is limited information on antivenom pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of an Indian snake antivenom in humans with Russell's viper bites.Patient data and serial blood samples were collected from patients with Russell's viper (Daboia russelii envenoming in Sri Lanka. All patients received Indian F(ab'2 snake antivenom manufactured by VINS Bioproducts Ltd. Antivenom concentrations were measured with sandwich enzyme immunoassays. Timed antivenom concentrations were analysed using MONOLIXvs4.2. One, two and three compartment models with zero order input and first order elimination kinetics were assessed. Models were parameterized with clearance (CL, intercompartmental clearance (Q, central compartment volume (V and peripheral compartment volume (VP. Between-subject-variability (BSV on relative bioavailability (F was included to account for dose variations. Covariates effects (age, sex, weight, antivenom batch, pre-antivenom concentrations were explored by visual inspection and in model building. There were 75 patients, median age 57 years (40-70 y and 64 (85% were male. 411 antivenom concentration data points were analysed. A two compartment model with zero order input, linear elimination kinetics and a combined error model best described the data. Inclusion of BSV on F and weight as a covariate on V improved the model. Inclusion of pre-antivenom concentrations or different batches on BSV of F did not. Final model parameter estimates were CL,0.078 L h(-1, V,2.2L, Q,0.178 L h(-1 and VP,8.33L. The median half-life of distribution was 4.6 h (10-90%iles:2.6-7.1 h and half-life of elimination, 140 h (10th-90th percentilesx:95-223h.Indian F(ab'2 snake antivenom displayed biexponential disposition pharmacokinetics, with a rapid distribution half-life and more prolonged elimination half-life.

  4. Vipericidins: a novel family of cathelicidin-related peptides from the venom gland of South American pit vipers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcao, C B; de La Torre, B G; Pérez-Peinado, C; Barron, A E; Andreu, D; Rádis-Baptista, G

    2014-11-01

    Cathelicidins are phylogenetically ancient, pleiotropic host defense peptides-also called antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-expressed in numerous life forms for innate immunity. Since even the jawless hagfish expresses cathelicidins, these genetically encoded host defense peptides are at least 400 million years old. More recently, cathelicidins with varying antipathogenic activities and cytotoxicities were discovered in the venoms of poisonous snakes; for these creatures, cathelicidins may also serve as weapons against prey and predators, as well as for innate immunity. We report herein the expression of orthologous cathelicidin genes in the venoms of four different South American pit vipers (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops lutzi, Crotalus durissus terrificus, and Lachesis muta rhombeata)-distant relatives of Asian cobras and kraits, previously shown to express cathelicidins-and an elapid, Pseudonaja textilis. We identified six novel, genetically encoded peptides: four from pit vipers, collectively named vipericidins, and two from the elapid. These new venom-derived cathelicidins exhibited potent killing activity against a number of bacterial strains (S. pyogenes, A. baumannii, E. faecalis, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa), mostly with relatively less potent hemolysis, indicating their possible usefulness as lead structures for the development of new anti-infective agents. It is worth noting that these South American snake venom peptides are comparable in cytotoxicity (e.g., hemolysis) to human cathelicidin LL-37, and much lower than other membrane-active peptides such as mastoparan 7 and melittin from bee venom. Overall, the excellent bactericidal profile of vipericidins suggests they are a promising template for the development of broad-spectrum peptide antibiotics.

  5. Musculoskeletal symptoms as related to ergonomic factors in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry and general guidelines for workstation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choobineh, Alireza; Lahmi, Mohammadali; Shahnavaz, Houshang; Jazani, Reza Khani; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2004-01-01

    Carpet weaving is a high risk occupation for developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The objectives of the present study, which was carried out in the Iranian hand-woven carpet industry, were determination of the prevalence of MSD symptoms, identification of major factors associated with MSD symptoms and development of guidelines for workstation design. 1,439 randomly selected weavers participated in this study. A questionnaire was used to collect data on MSD symptoms. The results revealed that the prevalence rates for symptoms in different body regions were high as compared to the general Iranian population (for neck, back and large joints, p loom type, working posture, daily working time and seat type. Based on the results, some general guidelines for designing weaving workstations were developed. A prototype test showed that the new workstation was acceptable for subject tests and that it improved working posture.

  6. Optical phase cloaking of 700 nm light waves in the far field by a three-dimensional carpet cloak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Tolga; Fischer, Joachim; Wegener, Martin

    2011-10-21

    Transformation optics is a design tool that connects the geometry of space and propagation of light. Invisibility cloaking is a corresponding benchmark example. Recent experiments at optical frequencies have demonstrated cloaking for the light amplitude only. In this Letter, we demonstrate far-field cloaking of the light phase by interferometric microscope-imaging experiments on the previously introduced three-dimensional carpet cloak at 700 nm wavelength and for arbitrary polarization of light.

  7. [Molecular cloning and analysis of cDNA sequences encoding serine proteinase and Kunitz type inhibitor in venom gland of Vipera nikolskii viper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanova, A S; Fil'kin, S Iu; Starkov, V G; Utkin, Iu N

    2011-01-01

    Serine proteinases and Kunitz type inhibitors are widely represented in venoms of snakes from different genera. During the study of the venoms from snakes inhabiting Russia we have cloned cDNAs encoding new proteins belonging to these protein families. Thus, a new serine proteinase called nikobin was identified in the venom gland of Vipera nikolskii viper. By amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence, nikobin differs from serine proteinases identified in other snake species. Nikobin amino acid sequence contains 15 unique substitutions. This is the first serine proteinase of viper from Vipera genus for which a complete amino acid sequence established. The cDNA encoding Kunitz type inhibitor was also cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence of inhibitor is homologous to those of other proteins from that snakes of Vipera genus. However there are several unusual amino acid substitutions that might result in the change of biological activity of inhibitor.

  8. VIPERS: Unveiling the Combined Evolution of Galaxies and Large Scale Structure at 0.5≤z ≤1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, A.; Vipers Team

    2016-10-01

    The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) is the largest redshift survey ever conducted with the ESO telescopes. It has used the Very Large Telescope to collect nearly 100,000 redshifts from the general galaxy population at 0.5≤ z ≤1.2. With a combination of volume and sampling density that is unique for these redshifts, VIPERS allows statistical measurements of galaxy clustering and related cosmological quantities to be obtained on an equal footing with classic results from local redshift surveys. At the same time, the broad selection function and ancillary photometric data provide detailed information on the physical properties of the galaxy population and their relation to large-scale structure. This talk presents an overview of the results obtained so far, mostly based on the ˜ 55,000 galaxies forming the first public data release (PDR-1).

  9. Amino acid and cDNA sequences of a neutral phospholipase A2 from the long-nosed viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizaj, I; Liang, N S; Pungercar, J; Strukelj, B; Ritonja, A; Gubensek, F

    1992-03-15

    The amino acid sequence of a non-toxic phospholipase A2, ammodytin I2, from the venom of the long-nosed viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) and its cDNA sequence have been determined. The protein sequence was elucidated by sequencing the peptides generated by CNBr cleavage, mild acid hydrolysis and tryptic digestion of maleylated and non-maleylated protein. Sequencing of the cDNA showed that the protein is synthesized as an 137-amino-acid-residue precursor molecule consisting of a 16-residue signal peptide, followed by a 121-residue mature enzyme. Ammodytin I2 cDNA shows 73% nucleotide and 59% amino acid identities in the mature protein region in comparison to that of ammodytoxin A, the most presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipase A2 from the long-nosed viper. Identities in the signal-peptide region are considerably higher, 96% and 100%, respectively.

  10. First study of Vibrios in larval cultures of pullet carpet shell clam (Venerupis corrugata in hatchery

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    Javier Dubert Pérez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protocol for hatchery culture of the pullet carpet shell clam Venerupis corrugata spat is currently under development, as the only reliable means of providing spat to replenish natural beds or to support aquaculture activities. Among other variables, the microbiota has been demonstrated to be critical for successful bivalve culture. Shellfish hatcheries are hindered by fatal outbreaks of disease, regardless the bivalve species. These mass mortalities are mainly caused by opportunistic bacteria belonging to genus Vibrio and constitute one bottleneck for this economic activity. Different species, as V. tubiashii, V. pectenicida, V. splendidus, V. neptunius, V. ostreicida and V. bivalvicida, have been identified as responsible of mortalities in hatchery-reared larvae, affecting a wide range of bivalves. This is the first report of the microbiota associated with larval cultures of the pullet carpet shell clam. We present the results of the microbiological analyses of two larval cultures of pullet carpet shell reared in the Centro de Investigacións Mariñas (CIMA, Xunta de Galicia de Ribadeo (Galicia, NW Spain following the procedures developed in the institution. Each batch, A and B, was obtained from broodstocks collected in natural environment but in different geographical locations, the stock A (SW Galicia and the stock B (NW Galicia. Previous records of mortalities led us to divide each batch in two. One sub-batch (A1 and B1 was cultured following the routine procedures. Antibiotic was experimentally added to the other sub-batch (A2 and B2 with the aim of evaluating the effects on the culturable bacterial population (total marine bacteria and presumptive vibrios and on larval survival. Chloramphenicol, formerly the most commonly used antibiotic in bivalve hatcheries, was supplied with each change of seawater during larval development. Microbiological samples of broodstock, larvae and seawater in culture tanks were taken and processed

  11. Health hazards, injury problems, and workplace conditions of carpet-weaving children in three districts of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Saeed; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Cummings, Kristin J

    2010-01-01

    Carpet weaving among children is common in rural Pakistan, but little information is available on the health effects of this work. A total of 628 carpet-weaving children and 292 non-working children from 10 rural villages were evaluated with questionnaires and physical exams. Fifty-five home-based and 30 shed-based worksites in these villages were assessed. Girls comprised the majority of working (73%) and non-working (69%) children; the mean age for both boys and girls was 10 years. The mean number of hours worked daily was 7.2 for males and 6.8 for females. Dust exposure in homes was generally higher than in sheds. Working children had significantly greater odds of joint pain (OR = 2.8), dry cough (OR = 2.5), cuts/bruises (OR = 22.1), Phalen's sign (OR = 17.2), and neck/shoulder abnormalities (OR = 14.2). Symptoms and signs of acute and repetitive injury and respiratory symptoms were more common among carpet-weaving children than their non-working peers.

  12. Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

    2014-01-15

    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (ppiperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites.

  13. Heterodimeric neurotoxic phospholipases A2--the first proteins from venom of recently established species Vipera nikolskii: implication of venom composition in viper systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanova, Anna S; Zavada, Larisa L; Starkov, Vladislav G; Kovyazina, Irina V; Subbotina, Tatyana F; Kostyukhina, Ekaterina E; Dementieva, Irina N; Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V; Utkin, Yuri N

    2008-03-15

    For the first time the venom of recently established viper species Vipera nikolskii was fractionated and two heterodimeric phospholipases A(2) (HDP-1 and HDP-2) were isolated. Isolation of HDP-1 and HDP-2 is the first indication of the presence of two heterodimeric phospholipases A(2) in the venom of one viper species. When tested on the frog neuromuscular junction, isolated proteins affected neuromuscular transmission acting presynaptically. Using RP-HPLC, each heterodimer was separated into two monomeric subunits: basic phospholipase A(2) (HDP-1P and HDP-2P) and acidic component without enzymatic activity (HDP-In). The complete primary structures of subunits were deduced from corresponding sequences of cDNAs. The determined amino acid sequences were homologous to those of vipoxin from Vipera ammodytes and vaspin from Vipera aspis. Similar proteins were not found earlier in the well-studied venom of Vipera berus, the species from which V. nikolskii was recently separated. Our finding supports at the biochemical level the correctness of the establishment of V. nikolskii as an independent species. The finding of similar proteins (HDPs and vipoxin) in geographically remote species (V. nikolskii and V. ammodytes) corroborates the hypothesis about the pre-existence of genes encoding these proteins in all true viper species and their expression under certain conditions.

  14. Decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye through fungal co-culture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Simpal; Naraian, Ram

    2016-09-15

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of fungal co-culture for the decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye. For this purpose two lignocellulolytic fungi Pleurotus florida (PF) and Rhizoctonia solani (RS) were employed. The study includes determination of enzyme profiles (laccase and peroxidase), dye decolorization efficiency of co-culture and crude enzyme extracts. Both fungi produced laccase and Mn peroxidase and successfully decolorized solutions of different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, & 8.0(w/v) of dye. The co-culture resulted highest 98.54% dye decolorization at 2% (w/v) of dye as compared to monocultures (82.12% with PF and 68.89% with RS) during 12 days of submerged fermentation. The lower levels of dyes were rapidly decolorized, while higher levels in slow order as 87.67% decolorization of 8% dye. The promising achievement of the study was remarkable decolorizing efficiency of co-culture over monocultures. The direct treatment of the mono and co-culture enzyme extracts to dye also influenced remarkable. The highest enzymatic decolorization was through combined (PF and RS) extracts, while lesser by monoculture extracts. Based on the observations and potentiality of co-culture technology; further it can be exploited for the bioremediation of areas contaminated with hazardous environmental pollutants including textile and other industry effluents.

  15. Integrated AHP and network DEA for assessing the efficiency of Iranian handmade carpet industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Omid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA is a method for measuring the efficiency of peer decision making units (DMUs. Traditional DEA models deal with measurements of relative efficiency of DMUs regarding multiple-inputs vs. multiple-outputs. One of the drawbacks of these models is the neglect of intermediate products or linking activities. Recently, DEA has been extended to examine the efficiency of network structures, where there are lots of sub-processes that are linked with intermediate parameters. These intermediate parameters can be considered as the outputs of the first stage and simultaneously as the inputs for the second stage. In contrast to the traditional DEA analysis, network DEA analysis aims to measure different sub-processes’ efficiencies in addition to the total efficiency. Lots of network DEA technique has been used recently, but none of them uses Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP in network DEA for assessing a network’s efficiency. In this paper, AHP methodology is used for considering the importance of each sub-process and network DEA is used for measuring total and partial efficiencies based on the importance of each department measured from AHP methodology. In this regard, the case of Iranian Handmade Carpet Industry (IHCI is used.

  16. Perfluoroalkyl contaminants in window film: indoor/outdoor, urban/rural, and winter/summer contamination and assessment of carpet as a possible source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Crozier, Patrick W; Diamond, Miriam L; Helm, Paul A; Marvin, Chris H; Reiner, Eric J

    2009-10-01

    Window film concentrations of ionic perfluoroalkyl contaminants (PFCs) were determined indoors and outdoors at urban, suburban, and rural sites in or near Toronto, Ontario, Canada, to identify locations of relatively elevated concentrations and the nature of potential sources. The role of carpet installation and floor wax application as possible sources was also evaluated by sampling indoor window films at five sites before and after new carpet installations, at one site before and after a floor wax application, and at two carpet stores. Low concentrations were found in all outdoor window films, with comparable relative proportions of individual PFCs among sites, suggesting similar sources to the outdoor environment and rapid air mixing. PFCs in indoor window film were up to 20-fold greater than outdoor, providing some evidence that a significant proportion of PFCs originate from the indoor environment, although precipitation wash-off of outdoor window film may be confounding these results. For both indoor and outdoor film, PFC concentrations generally changed between the summer and winter but the chemical profiles were similar between seasons. Concentrations of PFCs in window films increased one month post carpet installation at three of the five sites, suggesting that some of the carpets may have been a source to the indoor environment. Indoor window films from two carpet stores (sigmaPFC = 16 and 7 pg/cm2) contained higher concentrations than the other indoor locations (sigmaPFC = < MDL to 4.3 pg/cm2), which may reflect the carpets stored within these buildings. The use of window film allowed collection of a wide range of samples and the results can be used to focus the efforts of more traditional air sampling campaigns.

  17. Structural and functional characterization of complex formation between two Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors from Russell's Viper venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ashis K; Dutta, Sumita; Kalita, Bhargab; Jha, Deepak K; Deb, Pritam; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (KSPIs) exhibit various biological functions including anticoagulant activity. This study elucidates the occurrence and subunit stoichiometry of a putative complex formed between two KSPIs (Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II) purified from the native Rusvikunin complex of Pakistan Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii russelii) venom (RVV). The protein components of the Rusvikunin complex were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. The non-covalent interaction between two major components of the complex (Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II) at 1:2 stoichiometric ratio to form a stable complex was demonstrated by biophysical techniques such as spectrofluorometric, classical gel-filtration, equilibrium gel-filtration, circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE analyses. CD measurement showed that interaction between Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II did not change their overall secondary structure; however, the protein complex exhibited enhanced hydrodynamic diameter and anticoagulant activity as compared to the individual components of the complex. This study may lay the foundation for understanding the basis of protein complexes in snake venoms and their role in pathophysiology of snakebite.

  18. Lance-headed viper (Bothrops moojeni bite wounding the eye Acidente botrópico (Bothrops moojeni com ferimento ocular

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    Érico Otaviano Brandão

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year-old girl was bitten in her left eye by a lance-headed viper identified as Bothrops moojeni, measuring 115 cm of length. There was severe facial swelling and left exophthalmus, and enucleation of the eye was necessary. The patient apparently had mild systemic envenoming, but local inflammatory signs and histological evidence of necrosis suggest that both the mechanical trauma and the local action of the venom had a role in the genesis of the eye lesion. It is arguable if the loss of the eye could be prevented even if the antivenom was administered earlier.Uma menina de 5 anos de idade foi picada no olho esquerdo por uma serpente da espécie Bothrops moojeni, que media 115 cm de comprimento. Houve intenso edema facial e ex-oftalmia; enucleação do olho foi necessária. A paciente aparentemente apresentou um envenenamento sistêmico leve, mas os sinais inflamatórios locais e a evidência histológica de necrose sugerem que tanto o traumatismo mecânico como a ação local do veneno tiveram um papel na gênese da lesão ocular. É questionável se o prognóstico da lesão ocular teria sido diferente se o antiveneno tivesse sido administrado em dose adequada mais precocemente.

  19. Bioenergetic modeling reveals that Chinese green tree vipers select postprandial temperatures in laboratory thermal gradients that maximize net energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tein-Shun; Lee, How-Jing; Tu, Ming-Chung

    2009-11-01

    With bioenergetic modeling, we tested the hypothesis that reptiles maximize net energy gain by postprandial thermal selection. Previous studies have shown that Chinese green tree vipers (Trimeresurus s. stejnegeri) have postprandial thermophily (mean preferred temperature T(p) for males =27.8 degrees C) in a linear thigmothermal gradient when seclusion sites and water existed. With some published empirical models of digestion associated factors for this snake, we calculated the average rate (E(net)) and efficiency (K(net)) of net energy gain from possible combinations of meal size, activity level, and feeding frequency at each temperature. The simulations consistently revealed that E(net) maximizes at the T(p) of these snakes. Although the K(net) peaks at a lower temperature than E(net), the value of K(net) remains high (>=0.85 in ratio to maximum) at the peak temperature of E(net). This suggested that the demands of both E(net) and K(net) can be attained by postprandial thermal selection in this snake. In conclusion, the data support our prediction that postprandial thermal selection may maximize net energy gain.

  20. VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The decline of cosmic star formation: quenching, mass, and environment connections

    CERN Document Server

    Cucciati, O; Bolzonella, M; Granett, B R; De Lucia, G; Branchini, E; Zamorani, G; Iovino, A; Garilli, B; Guzzo, L; Scodeggio, M; de la Torre, S; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fevre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Malek, K; Marulli, F; Moutard, T; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Bel, J; Blaizot, J; Coupon, J; Hawken, A; Ilbert, O; Moscardini, L; Peacock, J A; Gargiulo, A

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] We use the final data of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) to investigate the effect of environment on the evolution of galaxies between $z=0.5$ and $z=0.9$. We characterise local environment in terms of the density contrast smoothed over a cylindrical kernel, the scale of which is defined by the distance to the $5^{th}$ nearest neighbour. We find that more massive galaxies tend to reside in higher-density environments over the full redshift range explored. Defining star-forming and passive galaxies through their (NUV$-r$) vs ($r-K$) colours, we then quantify the fraction of star-forming over passive galaxies, $f_{\\rm ap}$, as a function of environment at fixed stellar mass. $f_{\\rm ap}$ is higher in low-density regions for galaxies with masses ranging from $\\log(\\mathcal{M}/\\mathcal{M}_\\odot)=10.38$ (the lowest value explored) to at least $\\log(\\mathcal{M}/\\mathcal{M}_\\odot)\\sim11.3$, although with decreasing significance going from smaller to larger masses. This is the first...

  1. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The coevolution of galaxy morphology and colour to z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Krywult, J; Pollo, A; Vergani, D; Bolzonella, M; Davidzon, I; Iovino, A; Gargiulo, A; Haines, C P; Scodeggio, M; Guzzo, L; Zamorani, G; Garilli, B; Granett, B R; de la Torre, S; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Małek, K; Marulli, F; Polletta, M; Tojeiro, R; Zanichelli, A; Arnouts, S; Bel, J; Branchini, E; De Lucia, G; Ilbert, O; McCracken, H J; Moscardini, L; Takeuchi, T T

    2016-01-01

    We explore the evolution of the statistical distribution of galaxy morphological properties and colours over the redshift range $0.5VIPERS survey. Galaxy structural parameters are measured by fitting S\\'ersic profiles to $i$-band images and then combined with absolute magnitudes, colours and redshifts, to trace the evolution in a multi-parameter space. We analyse, using a new method, the combination of colours and structural parameters of early- and late-type galaxies in luminosity--redshift space. We found that both the rest-frame colour distributions in the (U-B) vs. (B-V) plane and the S\\'ersic index distributions are well fitted by a sum of two Gaussians, with a remarkable consistency of red-spheroidal and blue-disky galaxy populations, over the explored redshift ($0.5

  2. Complex longitudinal diversification across South China and Vietnam in Stejneger's pit viper, Viridovipera stejnegeri (Schmidt, 1925) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Liu, Qin; Zhu, Fei; Zhong, Guang H; Chen, Xin; Myers, Edward A; Che, Jing; Zhang, Liang; Ziegler, Thomas; Nguyen, Truong Q; Burbrink, Frank T

    2016-06-01

    Viridovipera stejnegeri is one of the most common pit vipers in Asia, with a wide distribution in southern China and Vietnam. We investigated historical demography and explored how the environment and climatic factors have shaped genetic diversity and the evolutionary history of this venomous snake. A total of 171 samples from 47 localities were sequenced and analysed for two mitochondrial gene fragments and three nuclear genes. Gene trees reveal the existence of two well-supported clades (Southwest China and Southeast China) with seven distinct and strongly supported, geographically structured subclades within V. stejnegeri. Estimation of divergence time and ancestral area suggests that V. stejnegeri originated at ~6.0 Ma in the late Miocene on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The estimated date of origin and divergence of the island populations of Taiwan and Hainan closely matches the geological origin of the both islands. The mtDNA gene tree reveals the presence of west-east diversification in V. stejnegeri populations. Complex orogenesis and heterogeneous habitats, as well as climate-mediated habitat differentiation including glacial cycles, all have influenced population structure and the distribution of this taxon. The validity of V. stejnegeri chenbihuii is questionable, and this subspecies most probably represents an invalid taxon.

  3. Multiple causation of phylogeographical pattern as revealed by nested clade analysis of the bamboo viper (Trimeresurus stejnegeri) within Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creer, S; Malhotra, A; Thorpe, R S; Chou, W H

    2001-08-01

    In order to assess the utility of nested clade analysis, both standard phylogenetic algorithms and nested clade analysis were performed on a geographically widespread survey of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of the bamboo viper, Trimeresurus stejnegeri, within Taiwan. Gross tree topologies were congruent for all analyses and indicated the presence of two geographically overlapping clades within Taiwan. The smaller lineage was restricted to the north and east coasts, whereas the larger lineage occupied all but the northern range of the species within Taiwan including the Pacific offshore populations of Green and Orchid Islands. The phylogeographical pattern supports the existence of at least one colonization event from the continent since the initial isolation of Taiwan from the mainland in the Pliocene. However, determining the exact number of colonization events was not possible due to the simultaneous vicariant forces of hypothesized continental landbridge connections and the occurrence of dramatic in situ orogenesis throughout the Pleistocene. Nested clade analysis provided multiple temporal and spatial population historical inferences that are not possible with standard analyses and therefore should become widely applied to future phylogeographical studies.

  4. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Never mind the gaps: comparing techniques to restore homogeneous sky coverage

    CERN Document Server

    Cucciati, O; Branchini, E; Marulli, F; Iovino, A; Moscardini, L; Bel, J; Cappi, A; Peacock, J A; de la Torre, S; Bolzonella, M; Guzzo, L; Polletta, M; Fritz, A; Adami, C; Bottini, D; Coupon, J; Davidzon, I; Franzetti, P; Fumana, M; Garilli, B; Krywult, J; Malek, K; Paioro, L; Pollo, A; Scodeggio, M; Tasca, L A M; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Di Porto, C; Zamorani, G

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] Non-uniform sampling and gaps in sky coverage are common in galaxy redshift surveys but these effects can degrade galaxy counts-in-cells and density estimates. We carry out a comparison of methods that aim to fill the gaps to correct for the systematic effects. Our study is motivated by the analysis of the VIMOS Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), a flux-limited survey (i<22.5) based on one-pass observations with VIMOS, with gaps covering 25% of the surveyed area and a mean sampling rate of 35%. Our findings are applicable to other surveys with similar observing strategies. We compare 1) two algorithms based on photometric redshift, that assign redshifts to galaxies based on the spectroscopic redshifts of the nearest neighbours, 2) two Bayesian methods, the Wiener filter and the Poisson-Lognormal filter. Using galaxy mock catalogues we quantify the accuracy of the counts-in-cells measurements on scales of R=5 and 8 Mpc/h after applying each of these methods. We also study how they perform to...

  5. The Carpets and Karma: The Resilient Story of the Tibetan Community in Two Settlements in India and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat Rao Pulla

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the Tibetan people in two settlements, mainly in Nepal and India. Tibetan ref- ugees started crossing the Himalayan range in April 1959, in the wake of the Dalai Lama’s flight into exile and landed mostly in Nepal and India. Tibetans around the world do not know their fu- ture nor do they appear unduly worried. Most of them appear resilient and hopeful to see a ‘free Tibet’ a dream closer to their hearts, someday in the future. In this paper, we delve at their deep association between their philosophy of life based on the principles of ‘karma’ and their everyday economic avocation of weaving ‘carpets’. We find that these people weave their lives around kar- ma and the carpets. Karma embodies their philosophical and spiritual outlook while carpets, mats and paintings symbolise their day-to-day struggles, enterprises to cope, survive, thrive and flour- ish. The ‘karma carpet’ symbolises their journey into the future. The Tibetans although a refugee group do not have the same rights and privileges comparable to other refugees living in the world decreed under the United Nations Conventions. In this paper, we present the socio-economic situ- ation of these refugees, their enterprise and their work ethic that makes them who they are in the Nepalese and in Indian societies. For this research, we have triangulated both desk studies and personal narratives from focus groups and interviews to present a discussion centred on the Ti- betan struggle for human rights and their entrepreneurship through the carpet industry mainly in Nepal and India.

  6. Phage particles infecting branchial Rickettsiales-like organisms in banded carpet shell Polititapes virgineus (Bivalvia) from Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darriba, S; Ruiz, M; López, C

    2012-09-12

    Basophilic intracellular prokaryotic-like colonies were observed in the gills of banded carpet shell Polititapes virgineus (= Tapes rhomboides) (Linnaeus, 1767) from a natural bed in Galicia (NW Spain). Light microscope observations suggested the presence of 2 types of colonies, but transmission electron microscopy revealed that these were the same Rickettsiales-like colonies, one infected and the other uninfected by phage particles. This is the first report of the presence of phage particles in Rickettsiales-like organisms in the gills of P. virgineus.

  7. Mussel-Inspired Polymer Carpets: Direct Photografting of Polymer Brushes on Polydopamine Nanosheets for Controlled Cell Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Daniel; Ziegler, Lisa; Ichwan, Muhammad; Zhang, Tao; Schneider, Maximilian; Schiffmann, Michael; Thomas, Claudia; Hinrichs, Karsten; Jordan, Rainer; Amin, Ihsan

    2016-02-17

    2D mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) nanosheets are prepared and exploited as a functional surface for grafting various polymer brushes. The PDA nanosheet and its polymer-brush derivatives show lateral integrity and are robust; therefore, they can be detached from their substrates. Cell-adhesion tests show that the PDA nanosheet promotes cell growth and attachment, while a PDA-based poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate) carpet exhibits nonfouling behavior. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The physiological tolerance of the grey carpet shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum) and the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum) to anoxic exposure at three seasonal temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clint A; Harahush, Blake K; Renshaw, Gillian M C

    2011-09-01

    The epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum) and the grey carpet shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum) are commonly found in periodically hypoxic environments. The ecophysiological time available for these animals to safely exploit these niches during different seasonal temperatures was examined. The time to loss of righting reflex (T (LRR)) was examined in response to an open ended anoxic challenge at three seasonal temperatures (23, 25 and 27°C). Ventilation rates were measured in an open ended anoxic challenge at 23°C and during 1.5 h of anoxia followed by 2 h of re-oxygenation at 23 and 25°C. The mean T (LRR) of epaulette and grey carpet sharks was inversely proportional to temperature. The T (LRR) was similar between species at 23°C; however, grey carpet sharks had significantly reduced T (LRR) at higher temperatures. During the standardised anoxic challenge, epaulette sharks entered into ventilatory depression significantly earlier at 25°C. During re-oxygenation, epaulette sharks exposed to anoxia at 23°C had no significant increase in ventilation rates. However, after anoxic challenge and re-oxygenation at 25°C, epaulette sharks showed a significant increase in ventilation rates during re-oxygenation. Grey carpet sharks displayed no evidence of ventilatory depression during anoxia. However, during re-oxygenation, grey carpet sharks had significantly elevated ventilation rates above pre-experimental levels and control animals. These data demonstrate that the anoxia tolerance times of both species were temperature dependent, with a significant reduction in the T (LRR) occurring at higher temperatures. Epaulette sharks had a significantly greater T (LRR) at higher temperatures than grey carpet sharks, which did not enter into a ventilatory depression.

  9. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Downsizing of the blue cloud and the influence of galaxy size on mass quenching over the last eight billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, C. P.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Guzzo, L.; Davidzon, I.; Bolzonella, M.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Granett, B. R.; de la Torre, S.; De Lucia, G.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Gargiulo, A.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Moutard, T.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Zamorani, G.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Coupon, J.; Ilbert, O.; Moscardini, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Siudek, M.

    2017-08-01

    We use the full VIPERS redshift survey in combination with SDSS-DR7 to explore the relationships between star-formation history (using d4000), stellar mass and galaxy structure, and how these relationships have evolved since z 1. We trace the extents and evolutions of both the blue cloud and red sequence by fitting double Gaussians to the d4000 distribution of galaxies in narrow stellar mass bins, for four redshift intervals over 0 1011M⊙, d4000 change, showing higher Sérsic indices and central stellar mass densities. For these galaxies, bulge growth is required for them to reach the high-mass limit of the blue cloud and be quenched by internal mechanisms. The blue-cloud galaxies that are being quenched at z 0.8 lie along the same size-mass relation as present day quiescent galaxies and seem the likely progenitors of today's S0s. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  10. Preliminary evaluation of total protein concentration and electrophoretic protein fractions in fresh and frozen serum from wild Horned Vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Daniela; de Giorgi, Giada Bagnagatti; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Baggiani, Luciana; Spada, Eva; Perego, Roberta; Comazzi, Carlo; Belloli, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Determination of the health status of reptiles is based on physical examination and evaluation of hematologic and biochemical values. Evaluation of serum total protein (TP) concentration and protein fractions plays an important role in health assessment; however, little is known about references value for these analytes in wild viperoid snakes. In addition, studies evaluating the stability of proteins in frozen viperoid serum are lacking. The aims of this study were to establish preliminary reference values for concentrations of TP and protein fractions in serum from wild vipers and to evaluate the stability of serum proteins in frozen serum samples from viperoid snakes. Blood samples were collected from wild Horned Vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes). Using fresh serum, TP concentrations were determined using the biuret method and protein fractions were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE); albumin/globulin ratios were calculated. Analyses were also performed on serum frozen at -20°C for 70 days and then thawed. Pre- and post-storage results were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Five adult wild Horned Vipers were sampled and comprised 4 males and 1 female. The female snake had higher TP concentrations than the male snakes. The electrophoretic patterns demonstrated 6 protein fractions that were similar for all 5 snakes. There were no significant changes in the concentrations of the 6 protein fractions post-storage; the percentage of the alpha-1 fraction was increased in frozen/thawed serum. Total protein concentrations in serum from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes were in agreement with published reference intervals for healthy reptiles and viperoid snakes. Serum protein fractions were easy to identify using AGE electrophoresis. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  11. Crystals of phospholipase A2 inhibitor. The non-toxic component of vipoxin from the venom of Bulgarian viper (Vipera ammodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devedjiev, Y; Atanasov, B; Mancheva, I; Aleksiev, B

    1993-02-20

    Phospholipase A2 inhibitor, the non-toxic, acidic component of vipoxin from the venom of Bulgarian viper (Vipera ammodytes), has been crystallized. The tetragonal crystals obtained, exhibit the symmetry of space group P4(1)22 (or 4(3)22) with unit cell dimensions a = b = 59.9 A; c = 141.1 A; alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees. For two molecules per asymmetric unit, this would give Vm = 2.3 A3/Da, indicating normal packing. The crystals diffract to 2.5 A and a native data set to 3.2 A resolution has been collected.

  12. Evaluation of occupational exposure of carpet weavers in northern province of Madhya Pradesh (India during different seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khursheed Ahmad Wani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We investigated general working conditions in the carpet manufacturing industry and assessed the health risk factors of weavers working in this industry. Materials and Methods: Noise level, light intensity, temperature and humidity were measured with the help of sound level meter, lux meter and thermohygrometer, respectively at the workplace and the result were subjected to One Way Analysis of Variance. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among different weavers working in the carpet industry. Results: Results indicated that the weavers in these units were exposed to extreme environmental conditions. The majority of these weavers were suffering from eye irritation, back pain, allergies, general weakness, hearing loss, with most workers having three to five of these health problems. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among weavers, during different season. Conclusion: A large variation during different seasons is an indication that environmental conditions play an important role in determining the health of weavers at the workplace. Results clearly demonstrate that working conditions were not suitable for the type of work carried out by the weavers.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the grooved carpet shell, Ruditapes decussatus (Bivalvia, Veneridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ghiselli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of animal complete mitochondrial genomes currently available in public databases, knowledge about mitochondrial genomics in invertebrates is uneven. This paper reports, for the first time, the complete mitochondrial genome of the grooved carpet shell, Ruditapes decussatus, also known as the European clam. Ruditapes decussatus is morphologically and ecologically similar to the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, which has been recently introduced for aquaculture in the very same habitats of Ruditapes decussatus, and that is replacing the native species. Currently the production of the European clam is almost insignificant, nonetheless it is considered a high value product, and therefore it is an economically important species, especially in Portugal, Spain and Italy. In this work we: (i assembled Ruditapes decussatus mitochondrial genome from RNA-Seq data, and validated it by Sanger sequencing; (ii analyzed and characterized the Ruditapes decussatus mitochondrial genome, comparing its features with those of other venerid bivalves; (iii assessed mitochondrial sequence polymorphism (SP and copy number variation (CNV of tandem repeats across 26 samples. Despite using high-throughput approaches we did not find evidence for the presence of two sex-linked mitochondrial genomes, typical of the doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria, a phenomenon known in ∼100 bivalve species. According to our analyses, Ruditapes decussatus is more genetically similar to species of the Genus Paphia than to the congeneric Ruditapes philippinarum, a finding that bolsters the already-proposed need of a taxonomic revision. We also found a quite low genetic variability across the examined samples, with few SPs and little variability of the sequences flanking the control region (Largest Unassigned Regions (LURs. Strikingly, although we found low nucleotide variability along the entire mitochondrial genome, we observed high levels of length

  14. Understanding Russell's viper venom factor V activator's substrate specificity by surface plasmon resonance and in-silico studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pradeep K; Antonyraj, Christian B; Basheer Ahamed, Syed Ibrahim; Srinivas, Sistla

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor V (FV) is activated either by Factor X or thrombin, cleaving at three different sites viz., Site I (Arg709-Ser710), site II (Arg1018-Thr1019), and site III (Arg1545-Ser1546). Russell's viper venom factor V activator (RVV-V) is a thrombin-like serine proteinase that activates FV with selective, single cleavage at site III. A long lasting effort is being pending in understanding the 'selective' binding specificity of the RVV-V towards site III. Here, we present the binding kinetic study of RVV-V with two designed peptides corresponding to the regions from site I (Gln699-Asn713) and site II (1008Lys-Pro1022), respectively, that include 15 amino acids. Our investigation for justifying the binding efficacy and kinetics of peptides includes SPR method, protein-peptide docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and principal component analysis (PCA). Surprisingly, the SPR experiment disclosed that the Peptide II showed a lower binding affinity with KD of 2.775 mM while the Peptide I showed none. Docking and simulation of both the peptides with RVV-V engaged either rooted or shallow binding for Peptide II and Peptide I respectively. The peptide binding resulted in global conformational changes in the native fold of RVV-V, whereas the similar studies for thrombin failed to make major changes in the native fold. In support, the PCA analysis for RVV-V showed the dislocation of catalytic triad upon binding both the peptides. Hence, RVV-V, a serine protease, is incompetent in cleaving these two sites. This study suggests a transition in RVV-V from the native rigid to the distorted flexible structure and paves a way to design a new peptide substrate/inhibitor.

  15. Comparative in-vivo toxicity of venoms from South Asian hump-nosed pit vipers (Viperidae: Crotalinae: Hypnale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Anjana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Envenoming by south Asian hump-nosed pit vipers (Genus: Hypnale is a significant health issue in Sri Lanka and in peninsular India. Bites by these snakes frequently lead to local envenoming, coagulopathy and acute renal failure even resulting in death. Recently the genus was revised and the existence of three species viz H. hypnale, H. nepa and H. zara were recognized. There is, however, a paucity of information on the toxicity of the venoms of these species. Hence, we compared the toxic effects of the three Hypnale venoms using BALB/c mice. Findings Intraperitoneal median lethal doses (LD50 for H. hypnale, H. zara and H. nepa venoms were 1.6, 6.0 and 9.5 μg protein/g respectively. Minimum haemorrhagic doses for venoms of H. hypnale, H. zara and H. nepa were 3.4, 11.0 and 16.6 μg protein/mouse respectively. The minimum necrotic doses for the same venoms were 15.0, 55.1 and 68.2 μg protein/mouse respectively. Severe congestion and petecheal haemorrhages were observed in lungs, kidneys, liver and the alimentary tract. Histopathogical examination of kidneys revealed proximal tubular cell injury and acute tubular necrosis with intact basement membrane indicating possible direct nephrotoxicity. Hypnale venoms caused pulmonary oedema, hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, focal neuronal degeneration in brain and extramedullary haemopoiesis in spleen. H. hypnale venom caused all above histopathological alterations at lower doses compared to the other two. Conclusion Hypnale venoms cause similar pathological changes with marked differences in the severity of the toxic effects in vivo. Therefore, differences in the severity of the clinical manifestations could possibly be seen among bite victims of the three Hypnale species.

  16. RESEARCH AND APPLICATION OF BENTONITE WATERPROOF CARPET CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE%膨润土防水毯施工技术的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲春珑; 周卉鑫

    2011-01-01

    膨润土防水毯的国家或行业标准尚未正式颁布.在施工中针对具体情况,采用了相应的施工方法,解决了膨润土防水毯的大面积铺设、防水毯与其他防水材料的搭接、防水毯破损处的修补、施工缝及变形缝处细部构造等施工难题,收到了预期效果,形成了一套完整的专项技术.%At present, national or professional standard for bentonite waterproof carpet has not be officially issued, so relevant construction methods are adopted during the construction according to practical conditions to overcome construction difficulties, such as large laying area of bentonite waterproof carpet, overlapping between waterproof carpet and other waterproof material, repair of damaged waterproof carpet, detail construction at construction joint and deformation joint, etc. The expected effects are realized and a full set of special techniques are formed.

  17. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Luminosity and stellar mass dependence of galaxy clustering at 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Marulli, F; Branchini, E; Davidzon, I; de la Torre, S; Granett, B R; Guzzo, L; Iovino, A; Moscardini, L; Pollo, A; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bel, J; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Coupon, J; Cucciati, O; De Lucia, G; Fritz, A; Franzetti, P; Fumana, M; Garilli, B; Ilbert, O; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fevre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Malek, K; McCracken, H J; Paioro, L; Polletta, M; Schlagenhaufer, H; Scodeggio, M; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Burden, A; Di Porto, C; Marchetti, A; Marinoni, C; Mellier, Y; Nichol, R C; Peacock, J A; Percival, W J; Phleps, S; Wolk, M; Zamorani, G

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of galaxy clustering on luminosity and stellar mass, in the redshift range 0.5VIPERS). To characterize the spatial properties of the VIPERS galaxies, we measure the redshift-space two-point correlation functions (2PCF), and the projected correlation function, in samples covering different ranges of B-band absolute magnitudes and stellar masses. We consider both threshold and binned galaxy samples, with median B-band absolute magnitudes -21.6

  18. Layered tantalum oxynitride nanorod array carpets for efficient photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy: experimental and DFT insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Nageh K; Shaheen, Basamat S; Hafez, Ahmed M

    2014-04-09

    Anodically fabricated tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) nanorod array carpets are converted into the corresponding tantalum oxynitride (TaON) through nitridation in an ammonia atmosphere. The measured optical bandgap energy of TaON is ∼2.3 eV, which is also confirmed via the density functional theory calculations. When used to photoelectrochemically split water (AM 1.5G illumination, 1 M KOH, and 0.6 V applied DC bias), the multilayer nanorod films show visible-light incident photon conversion efficiencies (IPCE) as high as 7.5%. The enhanced photochemical activity is discussed in terms of the ordered one-dimensional morphology as well as the electron effective mass in TaON and Ta2O5.

  19. Absolute and Relative Activity of Microencapsulated Natural Essential Oils against the Larvae of Carpet Beetle Anthrenus flavipies (LeConte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Udakhe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on finding natural ecofriendly alternatives to the existing commercial Anthrenus flavipies resist chemicals. Eucalyptus, lavender, and citronella microcapsules were explored as natural alternatives. Chemical contents of microcapsules and fragrance releasing property were tested using gas chromatography. Absolute (proofing and relative (repellent activities of microcapsule treated fabrics were tested against the larvae of carpet beetle Anthrenus flavipies (LeConte. Proofing activity test results revealed that natural essential oils act as a deterrent for Anthrenus flavipies, but give lesser protection compared to commercial chemical permethrin. Repellency test results also affirmed these findings and it was observed that Anthrenus flavipies prefers to eat untreated fabric compared to its treated counterpart.

  20. The Marginalization of Globally-Born Businesses: Ethnically Divided Trade in Hamburg and the World Economy-The Case of Global Persian Carpet Trade through Ethnic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahamak Rezaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Persian carpets have long been a major commodity in the world market, controlled by the Tehran Carpet Bazaar and the Hamburg Free Harbor. Today about 200 private traders in the Hamburg Free Harbor area export their carpets to about 10,000 private carpet traders throughout the world, these being mainly of Iranian origin. The case of Persian Carpet represents one of the most magnificent and powerful examples of ethnic enclave economy in contemporary world. Approach: This study brought about some in depth knowledge, qualitative as well as quantitative, of how such an ethnic enclave economy of scale operates, how it reproduced itself and how it met the challenges, be it political, demographical or others. Results: The study showed, that in spite of major political turbulence in Iran since 1979, the spreading of state controlled trading companies inside and outside of Iran and increasing international market pressure due to the growth of copying production of Persian carpets in other countries, the Tehran-Hamburg axis remains the core of this trade-with private Iranian traders occupying the dominant position on both sides of the transaction line. Taking a closer look it became obvious that in particular, it is Iranian traders of Azarbaidjan descent who speak “Azari”, a language similar to Turkish, who control the trade in both cities. Understanding the character and strategies of ethnic economy and ethnic enclave economy this study concludes, that it was necessary to look beyond and within the demarcation of national background and even ethnic boundaries in a broader sense according to which these phenomena mistakenly had been attempted to be explained. Conclusion: The engine of ethnic enclave economy cannot be upheld without a core, entrance into mainstream economy which required both more than common national and ethnic background. The challenge for this economy is how to dissolve from strong ties to more loose organization

  1. A turbidimetric assay for the measurement of clotting times of procoagulant venoms in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Margaret A; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the procoagulant effect of snake venoms is important for understanding their effects. The aim of this study was to develop a simple automated method to measure clotting times to assess procoagulant venoms. A turbidimetric assay was developed which monitors changes in optical density when plasma and venom are mixed. Plasma was added simultaneously to venom solutions in a 96 well microtitre plate. After mixing, the optical density at 340 nm was monitored in a microplate reader every 30 s over 30 min. The clotting time was defined as the lag time until the absorbance sharply increased. The turbidimetric method was compared to manual measurement of the clotting time defined as the time when a strand of fibrin can be drawn out of the mixture. The two methods were done simultaneously, with the same venom and plasma, and compared by plotting the manual versus turbidimetric clotting times. Within-day and between-day runs were done and the coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated. Plots comparing manual clotting times to the lag time in the turbidimetric assay showed good correlation between the two methods for brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) venom, including 24 determinations in triplicate over six days for seven different venom concentrations. Good correlation was also found for four other venoms: tiger snake (Notechis scutatus), Carpet viper (Echis carinatus), Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) and Malaysian pit piper (Calloselasma rhodostoma). Between-day CV was in the range 10-20% for both methods, while within-day CV <10%. The turbidimetric assay appears to be a simple and convenient automated method for the measurement of clotting times to assess the effects of procoagulant venoms. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypopituitarism following envenoming by Russell's vipers (Daboia siamensis and D. russelii) resembling Sheehan's syndrome: first case report from Sri Lanka, a review of the literature and recommendations for endocrine management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonypillai, C N; Wass, J A H; Warrell, D A; Rajaratnam, H N

    2011-02-01

    Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii and D. siamensis) inhabit 10 South and South East Asian countries. People envenomed by these snakes suffer coagulopathy, bleeding, shock, neurotoxicity, acute kidney injury and local tissue damage leading to severe morbidity and mortality. An unusual complication of Russell's viper bite envenoming in Burma (D. siamensis) and southern India (D. russelii) is hypopituitarism but until now it has not been reported elsewhere. Here, we describe the first case of hypopituitarism following Russell's viper bite in Sri Lanka, review the literature on this subject and make recommendations for endocrine investigation and management. A 49-year-old man was bitten and seriously envenomed by D. russelii in 2005. He was treated with antivenom but although he recovered from the acute effects he remained feeling unwell. Hypopituitarism, with deficiencies of gonadal, steroid and thyroid axes, was diagnosed 3 years later. He showed marked improvement after replacement of anterior pituitary hormones. We attribute his hypopituitarism to D. russelii envenoming. Russell's viper bite is known to cause acute and chronic hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus, perhaps through deposition of fibrin microthrombi and haemorrhage in the pituitary gland resulting from the action of venom procoagulant enzymes and haemorrhagins. Forty nine cases of hypopituitarism following Russell's viper bite have been described in the English language literature. Patients with acute hypopituitarism may present with hypoglycaemia and hypotension during the acute phase of envenoming. Those with chronic hypopituitarism seem to have recovered from envenoming but present later with features of hypopituitarism. Over 85% of these patients had suffered acute kidney injury immediately after the bite. Steroid replacement in acute hypopituitarism is life saving. All 11 patients with chronic hypopituitarism in whom the outcome of treatment was reported, showed marked improvement with hormone

  3. Molecular phylogeography of the nose-horned viper (Vipera ammodytes, Linnaeus (1758)): evidence for high genetic diversity and multiple refugia in the Balkan peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursenbacher, S; Schweiger, S; Tomović, L; Crnobrnja-Isailović, J; Fumagalli, L; Mayer, W

    2008-03-01

    The nose-horned viper (Vipera ammodytes) occurs in a large part of the south-eastern Europe and Asia Minor. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed for a total of 59 specimens using sequences from three mitochondrial regions (16S and cytochrome b genes, and control region, totalling 2308 bp). A considerable number of clades were observed within this species, showing a large genetic diversity within the Balkan peninsula. Splitting of the basal clades was evaluated to about 4 million years ago. Genetic results are in contradiction with presently accepted taxonomy based on morphological characters: V. a. gregorwallneri and V. a. ruffoi do not display any genetic difference compared with the nominotypic subspecies (V. a. ammodytes), involving that these subspecies can be regarded as synonyms. High genetic divergence in the central part of the Balkan peninsula is not concordant with low morphological differentiation. Finally, the extensive genetic diversity within the Balkan peninsula and the colonisation routes are discussed.

  4. A record of Horned viper Vipera ammodytes (L. in the diet of the Stone marten Martes foina (Erxl. (Mammalia: Mustelidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian Georgiev

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Among undigested prey remains in Stone marten’s Martes foina (Erxl. faeces (n=47, collected in Sakar Mountain (near Sladun Village a single lower jaw from a Horned viper (Vipera ammodytes was found. The rest of taxa registered in the Rock marten’s diet among the faecas were: Insceta indet., Lacerta sp., Pseudopus apodus, Aves indet., Dryomis nitedula, Sylvaemus sp., Arvicola terrestris, Microtus sp., and fruits of Rosa sp., Rubus sp., and Pyrus sp. The percent frequency of the main prey groups in the faeces were as follows: Mammalia (n=35, 74.5%, Aves (n=16, 34.0%, Reptilia (n=4, 8.5%, Insecta (n=4, 8.5%, and fruits (n=5, 10.6%.

  5. Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) against Russell's viper venom: characterization of piperine as active principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

    2013-05-20

    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. To examine the ability of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L., Piperaceae (PLE) and piperine, one of the main active principles of Piper longum, to inhibit the Russell's viper (Doboia russelii, Viperidae) snake venom activities. Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine against Russell's viper venom was studied in embryonated fertile chicken eggs, mice and rats by using various models as follows: inhibition of venom lethal action, inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vitro), inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vivo), inhibition of venom necrotizing action, inhibition of venom defibrinogenating action, inhibition of venom induced paw edema, inhibition of venom induced mast cell degranulation, creatine kinase assay and assay for catalase activity. PLE was found to inhibit the venom induced haemorrhage in embryonated fertile chicken eggs. Administration of PLE and piperine significantly (p<0.01) inhibited venom induced lethality, haemorrhage, necrosis, defibrinogenation and inflammatory paw edema in mice in a dose dependent manner. PLE and piperine also significantly (p<0.01) reduced venom induced mast cell degranulation in rats. Venom induced decrease in catalase enzyme levels in mice kidney tissue and increase in creatine kinase enzyme levels in mice serum were significantly (p<0.01) reversed by administration of both PLE and piperine. PLE possesses good anti-snake venom properties and piperine is one of the compounds responsible for the effective venom neutralizing ability of the plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Echi omerici nel libro di Tobia ?

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    Toloni, Giancarlo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The journey home to Nineveh by Tobiah recalls Odysseus’ novstoı to Ithaca, a journey marked by dangers and adventures and by the ideas of love and the family. The biblical book stands as a historical-religious novel although the origin is to be sought in the literary genre of folktalle enriched with didactic, edifying, and prophetic elements. This elementary narrative structure could go back to the Odyssey – archetype of the modern novel – and particularly to the folktale of Odysseus. The hagiographer could have thus re-written in theological perspective the ancient story of Tobit and Tobiah from biblical and parabiblical tradition so as to answer the problems of the Israel of his time. The numerous analogies concerning the themes (the journey to the East, the dangers, the family feelings, etc. and the narrative elements (the relation father-son, the dog,the intermediaries, the drug, etc. show that the author must have known Odysseus’ novstoı, and also that he relied on his readers’ knowledge of it when he outlined the story of Tobiah following the scheme of the Greek hero’s journey. One should speak of an intelligent attempt to exploit the fame of the Homeric tale in order to confer authoritative status to his story, rather than of literary dependence or emulation. Indeed, the author of the story of Tobiah uses the folktale of Odysseus to revive the hope of the Jewish community to return to their land, just like Tobiah returned to Nineveh from Rages happily married with Sarah.

    El viaje de vuelta a casa de Tobías evoca el novstoı de Odiseo a Ítaca marcado igualmente por peligros y aventuras y por asuntos de amor y familia. Este libro bíblico es una novela históricoreligiosa, pero, en su origen se encuentra el género literario de cuento popular, enriquecido con elementos didácticos, edificantes y proféticos. Esta estructura narrativa elemental podría remontarse a la Odisea –arquetipo de la novela moderna– y particularmente al cuento popular de Odiseo. El hagiógrafo, por tanto, pudo haber reelaborado con perspectiva teológica esta antigua historia de Tobit y Tobías, recogida de la tradición bíblica y parabíblica, para responder a los problemas del Israel de su tiempo. Las numerosas analogías entre los temas (el viaje de Oriente, los peligros, los sentimientos familiares… y los elementos narrativos (la relación padre-hijo, el perro, los intermediarios, la medicina… confirman que el autor debió de conocer el novstoı de Odiseo. Se basaba en el conocimiento que sus lectores tenían de él para delinear la historia de Tobías sobre el esquema de viaje del héroe griego. Más que de una dependencia literaria o de una emulación, se trata de un intento inteligente de explotar la fama del relato homérico para poner un sello autoritativo a su historia. En ese sentido, parte del relato popular de Odiseo para revivir las expectativas de la comunidad judía hacia una diáspora oriental, sometida e incierta sobre su destino, previendo la vuelta de la deportación como Tobías, que volvió a Nínive desde Rages, feliz de haberse casado con Sara.

  7. Echi della Bildung nel marxismo italiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCO CAMBI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo scritto discute le ripercussioni della teoria della Bildung sulmarxismo: dal giovane Marx ai modelli del marxismo italiano, come Gramsci, Croce, Labriola, Mondolfo. Viene, infine, messa in rilievo la politica culturale del PCI, rimasta al centro dell’Italia repubblicana fino agli anni Settanta, indebolitasi soltanto negli anni Ottanta e poi, ancor più, dopo il 1989.

  8. PIPELINE微创通道结合VIPER2经皮椎弓根螺钉技术治疗腰椎退变性疾病%Treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases by pIPELINE minimally invasive access in combination with VIPER2 Percu-taneous Pedicle Screw Fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇旭; 陈钢; 龚飞鹏; 龙智生; 肖裕华; 李建飞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the curative effects of PIPELINE Expandable Access System in combination with VIPER2 percutaneous pedicle screw fixation on lumbar degenerative diseases. Methods The clinical data of 32 patients with lumbar de-generative diseases were collected,who received PIPELINE minimally invasive access decompression and fusion in combination with VIPER2 percutaneous pedicle screw fixation for treatment from February 2012 to December 2013 ,and follow-up was per-formed for all the patients. Posterior paramedian transmultifidus approach was adopted for all the patients ,spinal decompression and interbody fusion by PIPELINE Expandable Access System in combination with VIPER2 percutaneous pedicle screw fixation were performed. The visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score and Oswestry disability index (ODI) were adopted for the assessment of clinical effects. Complications as well as preoperative and postoperative indicators were observed. Results The average follow-up time of all the patients was 8.3 months. Statistical analysis showed that the VAS score for lumbocrural pain and ODI score at 1 week after operation and the last follow-up visit were remarkably improved compared with those before operation ,and the differ-ence was statistically significant(P<0.05). The improvement rate of the quality of life at the last follow-up visit was 85%. The aver-age duration of operation was 122 minutes. The average length of incision was 5.3cm. The average intraoperative bleeding volume was 0.18L and the average postoperative drainage volume was 0.085L. As for the postoperative complications ,epidermal necrosis of incision was observed in 3 cases,which achieved healing by primary intention after dressing change. Conclusion PIPELINE mini-mally invasive access in combination with VIPER2 percutaneous pedicle screw fixation has advantages such as mild tissue dam-age,less bleeding,fast postoperative recovery and definite short-term effects in the treatment of lumbar degenerative

  9. Visual PEF Reader - VIPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Victor; Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Boehmer, Rudy A.; Kim, Rachel Y.

    2011-01-01

    This software graphically displays all pertinent information from a Predicted Events File (PEF) using the Java Swing framework, which allows for multi-platform support. The PEF is hard to weed through when looking for specific information and it is a desire for the MRO (Mars Reconn aissance Orbiter) Mission Planning & Sequencing Team (MPST) to have a different way to visualize the data. This tool will provide the team with a visual way of reviewing and error-checking the sequence product. The front end of the tool contains much of the aesthetically appealing material for viewing. The time stamp is displayed in the top left corner, and highlighted details are displayed in the bottom left corner. The time bar stretches along the top of the window, and the rest of the space is allotted for blocks and step functions. A preferences window is used to control the layout of the sections along with the ability to choose color and size of the blocks. Double-clicking on a block will show information contained within the block. Zooming into a certain level will graphically display that information as an overlay on the block itself. Other functions include using hotkeys to navigate, an option to jump to a specific time, enabling a vertical line, and double-clicking to zoom in/out. The back end involves a configuration file that allows a more experienced user to pre-define the structure of a block, a single event, or a step function. The individual will have to determine what information is important within each block and what actually defines the beginning and end of a block. This gives the user much more flexibility in terms of what the tool is searching for. In addition to the configurability, all the settings in the preferences window are saved in the configuration file as well

  10. 双价抗蛇毒鸡卵黄抗体制备与生物活性研究%Preparation anti biological activity of bivalent IgY against cobra anti viper venom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁俊华; 孔天翰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To prepare the bivalent immunoglobulin yolk (lgY) against eobra and viper venom and to detect its activities as the foundation for production and application of polyvalent . Methods The venom of Naja atra Cantor and Daboia russellii siamensis injected alternately into the leghorn hen. Biva-lent lgY was extraeted by water dilution. The biological activity of bivalent lgY were deteeted in several as-pects, sueh as the potency ( by indireet ELISA assay), the cross immunity ( by double immunodiffusion), the membrane lysis activity ( by experiments of vitelline membrane lysis) and 50% lethal activity ( LD50 ). Results Bivalent IgY was extracted from eggs yolk in 28-42 days after the first immunization. The titers of bivalent lgY against cobra and viper venom were 1:12 800 and 1: 6400. The cross immunologic reactions of bivalent IgY were found obviously with six kinds of snake venoms from Elapinae and Viperinae. There were not immunologic precipitation lines between bivalent IgY and four kinds of snake venoms from Crotalinae. Bi- valent lgY obviously deereased the vitelline membrane lysis activity of cobra and viper venom and prolonged the average survival time of mice with cobra or viper envenomation (P < 0.05). Moreover, with the same dose of bivalent IgY, the survival rate of mice with cobra venom envenomation was higher than those with vi-per venom envenomation. Conclusion Bivalent lgY could signifieantly neutralize biologieal activities of co-bra and viper venom, protect animals with cobra or viper envenomation.%目的 通过双价抗蛇毒鸡卵黄抗体(bivalent anti-snake venom immunoglobulin yolk,双价IgY)的制备及其相关特性研究,为多价抗蛇毒IgY的制备和应用奠定基础.方法 两种单一抗原(舟山眼镜蛇、圆斑蝰泰国亚种)按顺序依次交替注入单只鸡体内,水稀释法制备双价IgY;测定双价IgY效价(间接ELISA法)、交叉免疫特性(双向免疫扩散试验)及对溶膜活性(溶膜试验)、半数

  11. cDNA cloning, structural, and functional analyses of venom phospholipases A₂ and a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor from steppe viper Vipera ursinii renardi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Inn-Ho; Wang, Ying-Ming; Cheng, An Chun; Starkov, Vladislav; Osipov, Alexey; Nikitin, Ilya; Makarova, Yana; Ziganshin, Rustam; Utkin, Yuri

    2011-02-01

    Snake venom phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂s) display a wide array of biological activities and are each characteristic to the venom. Here, we report on the cDNA cloning and characterization of PLA₂s from the steppe viper Vipera ursinii renardi venom glands. Among the five distinct PLA₂ cDNAs cloned and sequenced, the most common were the clones encoding a basic Ser-49 containing PLA₂ (Vur-S49). Other clones encoded either ammodytin analogs I1, I2d and I2a (designated as Vur-PL1, Vur-PL2 and Vur-PL3, respectively) or an ammodytoxin-like PLA₂ (Vurtoxin). Additionally, a novel Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor for this venom species was cloned and sequenced. Comparison of these PLA₂ and Kunitz inhibitor sequences with those in the sequence data banks suggests that the viper V. u. renardi is closely related to Vipera ammodytes and Vipera aspis. Separation of V. u. renardi venom components by gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography showed the presence of many PLA₂ isoforms. Remarkably, the most abundant PLA₂ isolated was Vur-PL2 while Vur-S49 analog was in very low yield. There are great differences between the proportion of cDNA clones and that of the proteins isolated. Two Vur-PL2 isoforms (designated as Vur-PL2A and Vur-PL2B) indistinguishable by masses, peptide mass fingerprinting, N-terminal sequences and CD spectroscopy were purified from the pooled venom. However, when rechromatographed on cation-exchanger, Vur-PL2A showed only one peak corresponding to Vur-PL2B, suggesting the existence of conformers for Vur-PL2. Vur-PL2B was weakly cytotoxic to rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and showed both strong anticoagulant and anti-platelet activities. This is the first case of a strong anticoagulating ammodytin I analog in Vipera venom. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Navigation strategies as revealed by error patterns on the Magic Carpet test in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio eBelmonti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionShort-term memory develops differently in navigation vs. manual space. The Magic Carpet (MC is a novel navigation test derived from the Walking Corsi Test and the manual Corsi Block-tapping Task (CBT. The MC requires mental rotations and executive function. In Cerebral Palsy (CP, CBT and MC scores relate differently to clinical and lesional factors. Hypotheses of this study are: that frontal lesions specifically affect navigation in CP; that brain lesions affect MC cognitive strategies.Material and methodsTwenty-two children with spastic CP, aged 5 to 14 years, 14 with a unilateral and 8 with a bilateral form, underwent the CBT and the MC. Errors were classified into 7 patterns by a recently described algorithm. Brain lesions were quantified according to a novel semi-quantitative MRI scale. Control data were partially drawn from a previous study on 91 typically developing children.ResultsChildren with CP performed worse than controls on both tests. Right hemispheric impairment correlated with spatial memory. MC span was reduced less than CBT span and was more selectively related to right middle white-matter and frontal lesions. Error patterns were differently distributed in CP than in typical development and depended on right brain impairment: children with more extensive right lesions made more positional than sequential errors.DiscussionIn CP, navigation is affected only by extensive lesions involving the right frontal lobe. In addition, these are associated with abnormal cognitive strategies. Whereas in typical development positional errors, preserving serial order, increase with age and performance, in CP they are associated with poorer performance and more extensive right-brain lesions. The explanation may lie in lesion side: right brain is crucial for mental rotations, necessary for spatial updating. Left-lateralized spatial memory strategies, relying on serial order, are not efficient if not accompanied by right-brain spatial

  13. Indoor air quality in two urban elementary schools--measurements of airborne fungi, carpet allergens, CO2, temperature, and relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Adgate, John L; Banerjee, Sudipto; Church, Timothy R; Jones, David; Fredrickson, Ann; Sexton, Ken

    2005-11-01

    This article presents measurements of biological contaminants in two elementary schools that serve inner city minority populations. One of the schools is an older building; the other is newer and was designed to minimize indoor air quality problems. Measurements were obtained for airborne fungi, carpet loadings of dust mite allergens, cockroach allergens, cat allergens, and carpet fungi. Carbon dioxide concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity were also measured. Each of these measurements was made in five classrooms in each school over three seasons--fall, winter, and spring. We compared the indoor environments at the two schools and examined the variability in measured parameters between and within schools and across seasons. A fixed-effects, nested analysis was performed to determine the effect of school, season, and room-within-school, as well as CO2, temperature and relative humidity. The levels of all measured parameters were comparable for the two schools. Carpet culturable fungal concentrations and cat allergen levels in the newer school started and remained higher than in the older school over the study period. Cockroach allergen levels in some areas were very high in the newer school and declined over the study period to levels lower than the older school. Dust mite allergen and culturable fungal concentrations in both schools were relatively low compared with benchmark values. The daily averages for temperature and relative humidity frequently did not meet ASHRAE guidelines in either school, which suggests that proper HVAC and general building operation and maintenance procedures are at least as important as proper design and construction for adequate indoor air quality. The results show that for fungi and cat allergens, the school environment can be an important exposure source for children.

  14. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The matter density and baryon fraction from the galaxy power spectrum at redshift $0.6

    CERN Document Server

    Rota, S; Bel, J; Guzzo, L; Peacock, J A; Wilson, M J; Pezzotta, A; de la Torre, S; Garilli, B; Bolzonella, M; Scodeggio, M; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; Davidson, I; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Iovino, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Mascagni, D; Małek, K; Marulli, F; Percival, W J; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Arnouts, S; Branchini, E; Coupon, J; De Lucia, G; Ilbert, O; Moscardini, L; Moutard, T

    2016-01-01

    We use the final catalogue of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) to measure the power spectrum of the galaxy distribution at high redshift, presenting results that extend beyond $z=1$ for the first time. We apply an FFT technique to four independent sub-volumes comprising a total of $51,728$ galaxies at $0.6

  15. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS): Downsizing of the blue cloud and the influence of galaxy size on mass quenching over the last eight billion years

    CERN Document Server

    Haines, C P; Guzzo, L; Davidzon, I; Bolzonella, M; Garilli, B; Scodeggio, M; Granett, B R; de la Torre, S; De Lucia, G; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Gargiulo, A; Brun, V Le; Fevre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Malek, K; Marulli, F; Moutard, T; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Zamorani, G; Bel, J; Branchini, E; Coupon, J; Ilbert, O; Moscardini, L; Peacock, J A; Siudek, M

    2016-01-01

    We use the full VIPERS redshift survey in combination with SDSS-DR7 to explore the relationships between star-formation history (using d4000), stellar mass and galaxy structure, and how these relationships have evolved since z~1. We trace the extents and evolutions of both the blue cloud and red sequence, by fitting double Gaussians to the d4000 distribution of galaxies in narrow stellar mass bins, for four redshift intervals over 010^11Msun, d4000<1.55) drops sharply by a factor five between z~0.8 and z~0.5. These galaxies are becoming quiescent at a rate that largely matches the increase in the numbers of massive passive galaxies seen over this period. We examine the size-mass relation of blue cloud galaxies, finding that its high-mass boundary runs along lines of constant M*/r_e or equivalently inferred velocity dispersion. Larger galaxies can continue to form stars to higher stellar masses than smaller galaxies. As blue cloud galaxies approach this high-mass limit, they start to be quenched, their d400...

  16. Mitochondrial phylogeny shows multiple independent ecological transitions and northern dispersion despite of Pleistocene glaciations in meadow and steppe vipers (Vipera ursinii and Vipera renardi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinenko, Oleksandr; Stümpel, Nikolaus; Mazanaeva, Lyudmila; Bakiev, Andrey; Shiryaev, Konstantin; Pavlov, Aleksey; Kotenko, Tatiana; Kukushkin, Oleg; Chikin, Yury; Duisebayeva, Tatiana; Nilson, Göran; Orlov, Nikolai L; Tuniyev, Sako; Ananjeva, Natalia B; Murphy, Robert W; Joger, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    The phylogeny and historical demography of small Eurasian vipers of the Vipera ursinii and V. renardi complexes were studied using mitochondrial DNA sequences analysed with Bayesian inference, Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony approaches, and mismatch distributions. Diversification in the group resulted from an initial dispersion in the later Pliocene - Pleistocene in two directions: north-westwards via the Balkans (V. ursinii complex) and north-eastwards from Asia Minor via the Caucasus (V. renardi complex). An independent, comparatively recent transition occurred from montane habitats to lowland grasslands in different mitochondrial lineages during the Late Pleistocene, when representatives of the both complexes had reached lowland steppes to the north. Effective population size showed clear signs of rapid growth in eastern V. renardi, triggered by colonization of vast lowland steppes, but in western V. ursinii complex grew during the Last Glaciation and experienced stabilization in Holocene. Expansion and population growth in lowland lineages of V. renardi was not strongly affected by Pleistocene climatic oscillations, when cold, dry conditions could have favoured species living in open grasslands. The high diversity of closely related haplotypes in the Caucasus and Tien-Shan could have resulted from repetitive expansion-constriction-isolation events in montane regions during Pleistocene climate fluctuations. The mitochondrial phylogeny pattern conflicts with the current taxonomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of in vivo toxicity and in vitro cytotoxicity of venom from the Cypriot blunt-nosed viper Macrovipera lebetina lebetina and antivenom production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nalbantsoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The venomous Levantine viper, Macrovipera lebetina lebetina is endemic to Cyprus. The objective of this study was to investigate in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo lethality, and antivenom production followed by a re-immunization schedule in mice against Macrovipera lebetina lebetina venom. The LD50 value was estimated as 7.58 mg/kg within 24 hours by different venom doses administrated intraperitoneally in mice. Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvants were used for first and second immunization of mice in antivenom production. A cell-based assay was performed to determine the effects of Macrovipera lebetina lebetina venom and antivenom neutralizing potency on L929 cell viability. The snake venom toxicity and cytotoxicity were examined and comparison of results showed good correlation, the LD50 value was tenfold higher than the IC50 value. The IC50 value was 0.62 ± 0.18 mL after 48 hours treatment while the calculated value was 1.62 ± 0.25 mL for the culture media totally refreshed after two hours treatment with venom. The in vitro efficacy of antivenom against Macrovipera lebetina lebetina venom was found to be low. This is the first report that describes the in vivo and in vitro toxic effects of Macrovipera lebetina lebetina venom and antivenom production against this species.

  18. Comparative study of anticoagulant and procoagulant properties of 28 snake venoms from families Elapidae, Viperidae, and purified Russell's viper venom-factor X activator (RVV-X).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntravat, Montamas; Nuchprayoon, Issarang; Pérez, John C

    2010-09-15

    Snake venoms consist of numerous molecules with diverse biological functions used for capturing prey. Each component of venom has a specific target, and alters the biological function of its target. Once these molecules are identified, characterized, and cloned; they could have medical applications. The activated clotting time (ACT) and clot rate were used for screening procoagulant and anticoagulant properties of 28 snake venoms. Crude venoms from Daboia russellii siamensis, Bothrops asper, Bothrops moojeni, and one Crotalus oreganus helleri from Wrightwood, CA, had procoagulant activity. These venoms induced a significant shortening of the ACT and showed a significant increase in the clot rate when compared to the negative control. Factor X activator activity was also measured in 28 venoms, and D. r. siamensis venom was 5-6 times higher than those of B. asper, B. moojeni, and C. o. helleri from Wrightwood County. Russell's viper venom-factor X activator (RVV-X) was purified from D. r. siamensis venom, and then procoagulant activity was evaluated by the ACT and clot rate. Other venoms, Crotalus atrox and two Naja pallida, had anticoagulant activity. A significant increase in the ACT and a significant decrease in the clot rate were observed after the addition of these venoms; therefore, the venoms were considered to have anticoagulant activity. Venoms from the same species did not always have the same ACT and clot rate profiles, but the profiles were an excellent way to identify procoagulant and anticoagulant activities in snake venoms.

  19. Dose dependent effects of standardized nose-horned viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) venom on parameters of cardiac function in isolated rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksic, B; Brizic, I; Lang Balija, M; Modun, D; Culic, V; Halassy, B; Salamunic, I; Boban, M

    2008-05-01

    Direct, dose dependent effects of the nose-horned vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) venom on various parameters of cardiac action in isolated rat hearts were examined. Biochemical (protein content, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and biological (minimum haemorrhagic and necrotizing dose and lethal dose (LD(50))) characterization of the venom was performed before testing. The hearts were infused with venom doses of 30, 90 and 150 microg/mL for 10 min followed by 30 min of wash out period. Left ventricular pressure, coronary flow, heart rate, atrioventricular conduction, myocardial oxygen consumption, incidence and duration of arrhythmias were measured and relative cardiac efficiency was calculated. Cardiac CPK, LDH, AST and troponin I were measured as biochemical markers of myocardial damage. The venom caused dose dependent electrophysiological instability and depression of contractility and coronary flow. Effects on the heart rate were biphasic; transient increase followed by significant slowing of the frequency. Relative cardiac efficiency decreased as oxygen consumption remained high relative to the heart rate-contractility product, indicating purposeless expenditure of oxygen and energy. Effects by the dose of 30 microg/mL were highly reversible while the dose of 90 mug/mL caused damages that were mostly irreversible. The dose of 150 mug/mL induced irreversible asystolic cardiac arrest.

  20. 羊八井50m2 RPC地毯性能研究%Study on the Performance of YBJ 50m2 RPC Carpet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    利用羊八井50m2 RPC地毯(YBJ-ARGO实验原型)的测试数据对其性能进行了分析研究,包括原初粒子方位角分布、天顶角分布、地毯的角分辨、探测时间系统误差对方位角分布的正弦调制、探测时间系统误差的离线修正、几何不对称的小型地毯探测器上原初粒子到达方向重建误差造成的方位角分布的不均匀性等.%The characteristics of a 50m2 RPC carpet(prototype of YBJ-ARGO experiment)was analyzed using its test run data.A correction method of the systematic time error is suggested,and non-uniform azimuthal angle distribution possibly due to direction reconstruction error on an asymmetric carpet is reported.

  1. Nonlinear force-free field modeling of the solar magnetic carpet and comparison with SDO/HMI and Sunrise/IMAX observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitta, L. P.; Kariyappa, R. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Solanki, S. K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    In the quiet solar photosphere, the mixed polarity fields form a magnetic carpet that continuously evolves due to dynamical interaction between the convective motions and magnetic field. This interplay is a viable source to heat the solar atmosphere. In this work, we used the line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory, as time-dependent lower boundary conditions, to study the evolution of the coronal magnetic field. We use a magneto-frictional relaxation method, including hyperdiffusion, to produce a time series of three-dimensional nonlinear force-free fields from a sequence of photospheric LOS magnetograms. Vertical flows are added up to a height of 0.7 Mm in the modeling to simulate the non-force-freeness at the photosphere-chromosphere layers. Among the derived quantities, we study the spatial and temporal variations of the energy dissipation rate and energy flux. Our results show that the energy deposited in the solar atmosphere is concentrated within 2 Mm of the photosphere and there is not sufficient energy flux at the base of the corona to cover radiative and conductive losses. Possible reasons and implications are discussed. Better observational constraints of the magnetic field in the chromosphere are crucial to understand the role of the magnetic carpet in coronal heating.

  2. Proteomic and biochemical analyses of short-tailed pit viper (Gloydius brevicaudus) venom: age-related variation and composition-activity correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian-Fang; Wang, Jin; He, Ying; Qu, Yan-Fu; Lin, Long-Hui; Ma, Xiao-Mei; Ji, Xiang

    2014-06-13

    We conducted an in-depth analysis of the proteomic and biochemical profiles of the venom of neonate and adult short-tailed pit vipers (Gloydius brevicaudus). Identified proteins were assigned to a few main toxin families. Disintegrin, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), serine proteinase, cysteine-rich secretory protein, C-type lectin-like protein, l-amino acid oxidase and snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) were detected in both venoms, while 5'-nucleotidase was detected only in the adult venom. SVMP was the predominant protein family in both venoms (neonate: 65.7%; adult: 64.4%), followed by PLA2 (neonate: 13.4%; adult: 25.0%). Antivenomic analysis revealed that commercial G. brevicaudus antivenom almost neutralized the chromatographic peaks with medium and high molecular masses in both venoms, but did not completely recognize peaks with low molecular mass. Toxicological and enzymatic activities show remarkable age-related variation in G. brevicaudus venom, probably resulting from variation in venom composition. Our data demonstrate age-related variation across venomics, antivenomics and biochemical profiles of G. brevicaudus venom, and have implications for the management of G. brevicaudus bites, including improving antivenom preparation by combining both venoms. This study investigates the composition and biochemical activity of neonate and adult Gloydius brevicaudus venoms. We found remarkable age-related variation in venom biological activity, likely the result of variation in venom composition. Antivenomics analysis was used to explore difference in neonate and adult G. brevicaudus venoms. Our findings have implications for the diagnosis and clinical management of G. brevicaudus bites, and the design of venom mixtures that will increase the efficacy of commercial antivenom. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of a toxic fraction and its cytotoxin-like component isolated from Russell's viper (Daboia russelii russelii) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Rupamoni; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2015-02-01

    The pathophysiological significance of a toxic fraction (GF-VI DEAE-II) isolated from Russell's viper venom (RVV) is characterized. GF-VI DEAE-II represents 1.6% of the total RVV protein and it comprises of a 27.6kDa minor component (RP-I) (0.04%, w/w) and a major 6.6kDa non-enzymatic peptide (1.11%, w/w), named Rusvitoxin. The LC-MS/MS analysis of RP-I showed its identity to snake venom serine proteases, whereas Rusvitoxin demonstrated its close identity with snake venom three finger toxins, cytotoxins and cardiotoxins particularly from Naja sp. GF-VI DEAE-II was found to be non-cytotoxic to the tested mammalian cancer cells and non-hemolytic; nevertheless, it demonstrated α-fibrin(ogen)ase activity and in vivo toxicity in BALB/c mice with an LD50 (i.p.) of 2.3mg/kg. GF-VI DEAE-II induced lethargy and hind-leg paralysis in mice within 10min of i.p. injection. GF-VI DEAE-II induced hyperfibrinogenomia, and significantly altered (p<0.05) the plasma levels of factor X, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines viz. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 in treated mice. Histological observations of tissues and biochemical properties of serum from GF-VI DEAE-II-treated mice suggested multiple organ dysfunctions. Conversely, Rusvitoxin at a dose of 5mg/kg did not induce toxicity in BALB/c mice. At 1:15 (antigen: antivenom, w/w) ratio, commercially polyvalent and monovalent antivenoms neutralized more than 80% of the fibrinolytic and anticoagulant activities of GF-VI DEAE-II. The present study suggests the significant role of GF-VI DEAE-II in RVV-induced pathogenesis in victim/prey.

  4. Inhibition of secretary PLA₂--VRV-PL-VIIIa of Russell's viper venom by standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, B L; Sudarshan, S

    2015-03-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic phospholipases A2s, which are the most toxic and lethal component of snake venom is still unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on VRV-PL-VIIIa of Indian Russells viper venom. Mangifera indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIIB sPLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) activity with an IC50 value of 6.8±0.3 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 96% at ~40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract at different concentrations (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. It was found that there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of the extract when examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration. The inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inducing activities. As the inhibition is independent of substrate, calcium concentration and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extracts mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with PLA2 enzyme. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 (Snake venom phospholipase A2) enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate its anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies are interesting to known on the role and mechanism of the principal inhibitory constituents present in the extract, so as to develop them into potent anti-snake venom and as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  5. Activated protein C resistance in patients following venous thromboembolism receiving rivaroxaban versus vitamin K antagonists: assessment using Russell viper venom time-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goralczyk, Tadeusz; Wojtowicz, Katarzyna B; Undas, Anetta

    2016-09-15

    Activated protein C resistance (APC-R) is assessed as part of thrombophilia screening, preferably in patients not taking oral anticoagulants. Rivaroxaban is known to alter some APC-R assays. To our knowledge, there have been no reports on the effect of rivaroxaban on the Russell viper venom time (RVVT)-based APC-R assay in real-life patients. In 168 consecutive outpatients suspected of having venous thromboembolism because of thrombophilia, APC-R was determined using the RVVT-based ProC Ac R assay (Siemens, Marburg, Germany). Patients receiving rivaroxaban or vitamin K antagonists were eligible. We measured rivaroxaban concentrations using the anti-Xa Biophen DiXal assay (Hyphen Biomed, Neuville-Sur-Oise, France) and factor V Leiden using the real-time PCR. APC-R was detected in 23 (28%) patients on rivaroxaban (n = 81) administrated 2-48 h since the blood draw, 15 (28%) patients on vitamin K antagonists (n = 54), and in four (12%) patients off anticoagulation (n = 33). Compared with nonanticoagulated patients, APC-R ratios were similar in patients on rivaroxaban, without any correlation with rivaroxaban concentrations (from 0 to 303 μg/l). None of the patients on rivaroxaban were found to have false-negative or false-positive APC-R ratios. Rivaroxaban concentrations up to 300 μg/l do not affect results of the ProC Ac R RVVT-based assay, which could be recommended in patients referred to a clinic for thrombophilia screening in whom the time since the last dose of rivaroxaban is uncertain.

  6. Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis DNA by use of self-obtained vaginal swabs with the BD ProbeTec Qx assay on the BD Viper system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Pol, Barbara; Williams, James A; Taylor, Stephanie N; Cammarata, Catherine L; Rivers, Charles A; Body, Barbara A; Nye, Melinda; Fuller, Deanna; Schwebke, Jane R; Barnes, Mathilda; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection worldwide, and improved diagnostic methods are critical for controlling this pathogen. Diagnostic assays that can be used in conjunction with routine chlamydia/gonorrhea nucleic acid-based screening are likely to have the most impact on disease control. Here we describe the performance of the new BD T. vaginalis Qx (TVQ) amplified DNA assay, which can be performed on the automated BD Viper system. We focus on data from vaginal swab samples, since this is the specimen type routinely used for traditional trichomonas testing and the recommended specimen type for chlamydia/gonorrhea screening. Vaginal swabs were obtained from women attending sexually transmitted disease or family planning clinics at 7 sites. Patient-collected vaginal swabs were tested by the TVQ assay, and the Aptima T. vaginalis (ATV) assay was performed using clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Additional clinician-collected vaginal swabs were used for the wet mount and culture methods. Analyses included comparisons versus the patient infection status (PIS) defined by positive results with the wet mount method or culture, direct comparisons assessed with κ scores, and latent class analysis (LCA) as an unbiased estimator of test accuracy. Data from 838 women, 116 of whom were infected with T. vaginalis, were analyzed. The TVQ assay sensitivity and specificity estimates based on the PIS were 98.3% and 99.0%, respectively. The TVQ assay was similar to the ATV assay (κ=0.938) in direct analysis. LCA estimated the TVQ sensitivity and specificity as 98.3 and 99.6%, respectively. The TVQ assay performed well using self-collected vaginal swabs, the optimal sample type, as recommended by the CDC for chlamydia/gonorrhea screening among women.

  7. Red-Carpet Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agron, Joe

    2001-01-01

    Presents comparative data on college and university residence hall construction projects, including construction costs, size, numbers of students, and cost per square foot. Also provides comparative housing cost data over the past decade and identifies types of amenities being added to dormitories. (GR)

  8. Magic Carpet Ride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2007-01-01

    Last month cabin fever overwhelmed me. I desperately needed a break: from my polite but wily students, from my unsatisfactory yet demanding lover, and from my overpopulated and mundane Chinese city. But going abroad took too much time, money and planning

  9. Household vacuum cleaners vs. the high-volume surface sampler for collection of carpet dust samples in epidemiologic studies of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buffler Patricia A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of pesticides and other compounds in carpet dust can be useful indicators of exposure in epidemiologic studies, particularly for young children who are in frequent contact with carpets. The high-volume surface sampler (HVS3 is often used to collect dust samples in the room in which the child had spent the most time. This method can be expensive and cumbersome, and it has been suggested that an easier method would be to remove dust that had already been collected with the household vacuum cleaner. However, the household vacuum integrates exposures over multiple rooms, some of which are not relevant to the child's exposure, and differences in vacuuming equipment and practices could affect the chemical concentration data. Here, we compare levels of pesticides and other compounds in dust from household vacuums to that collected using the HVS3. Methods Both methods were used in 45 homes in California. HVS3 samples were collected in one room, while the household vacuum had typically been used throughout the home. The samples were analyzed for 64 organic compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, using GC/MS in multiple ion monitoring mode; and for nine metals using conventional microwave-assisted acid digestion combined with ICP/MS. Results The methods agreed in detecting the presence of the compounds 77% to 100% of the time (median 95%. For compounds with less than 100% agreement, neither method was consistently more sensitive than the other. Median concentrations were similar for most analytes, and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.60 or higher except for allethrin (0.15 and malathion (0.24, which were detected infrequently, and benzo(kfluoranthene (0.55, benzo(apyrene (0.55, PCB 105 (0.54, PCB 118 (0.54, and PCB 138 (0.58. Assuming that the HVS3 method is the "gold standard," the extent to which the household vacuum cleaner method yields relative risk

  10. Effect of acclimatization on hemocyte functional characteristics of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and carpet shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Miguel Ángel; da Silva, Patricia Mirella; Le Goïc, Nelly; Palacios, Elena; Soudant, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Most experimental procedures on molluscs are done after acclimatization of wild animals to lab conditions. Similarly, short-term acclimation is often unavoidable in a field survey when biological analysis cannot be done within the day of sample collection. However, acclimatization can affect the general physiological condition and particularly the immune cell responses of molluscs. Our aim was to study the changes in the hemocyte characteristics of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the carpet shell clam Ruditapes decussatus acclimated 1 or 2 days under emersed conditions at 14 ± 1 °C and for 1, 2, 7, or 10 days to flowing seawater conditions (submerged) at 9 ± 1 °C, when compared to hemolymph withdrawn from organisms sampled in the field and immediately analyzed in the laboratory (unacclimated). The hemocyte characteristics assessed by flow cytometry were the total (THC) and differential hemocyte count, percentage of dead cells, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Dead hemocytes were lower in oysters acclimated both in emersed and submerged conditions (1%-5%) compared to those sampled in the field (7%). Compared to oysters, the percentage of dead hemocytes was lower in clams (0.4% vs. 1.1%) and showed a tendency to decrease during acclimatization in both emersed and submerged conditions. In comparison to organisms not acclimated, the phagocytosis of hemocytes decreased in both oysters and clams acclimated under submerged conditions, but was similar in those acclimated in emersed conditions. The ROS production remained stable in both oysters and clams acclimated in emersed conditions, whereas in submerged conditions ROS production did not change in both the hyalinocytes and granulocytes of oysters, but increased in clams. In oysters, the THC decreased when they were acclimated 1 and 2 days in submerged conditions and was mainly caused by a decrease in granulocytes, but the decrease in THC in oysters acclimated 2 days in emersed

  11. Effectiveness of house dust mite acaricide tri-n-butyl tin maleate on carpets, fabrics and mattress foam: a standardization of methodology Eficácia do acaricida maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico contra ácaros de poeira em carpetes, tecidos e espuma de colchão: padronização de metodologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satiko Uehara

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the acaricide tri-n-butyl tin maleate, industrially applied to samples of carpets, mattress foam, and fabrics used for furniture upholstery, soft toys and shoe uppers. Approximately 100 adult house dust mites of the species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were inoculated into a Petri dish containing the sample (a piece of carpet, mattress foam, or fabric, treated with the acaricide, randomly collected. Mite-maintenance culture medium was added on top of each sample. After one, two, three, seven and 30 days of incubation at 25 ºC and 75% relative humidity, each dish was examined using a 40X stereoscopic microscope (40X. One hundred percent acaricide effectiveness was obtained in treated materials by the end of the 30th-day postinoculation period, under optimal conditions for mite maintenance.O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a eficácia do acaricida maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico, aplicado industrialmente em amostras de carpetes, tecidos de revestimentos de móveis e de calçados, assim como de espumas de colchão. Aproximadamente 100 ácaros adultos da espécie Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus foram inoculados em placa de Petri contendo a amostra (pedaço de colchão, tecido ou carpete, tratada com o produto acaricida, coletados aleatoriamente. Foi acrescentado sobre a amostra, meio de cultivo para a manutenção dos ácaros. Cada placa foi examinada após 1, 2, 3, 7 e 30 dias de incubação a 25 ºC e 75% de U.R.A. (umidade relativa do ar, sob microscópio estereoscópico com 40X de aumento. O acaricida maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico apresentou 100% de eficácia acaricida após 30 dias da aplicação, em condições ótimas para a manutenção dos ácaros.

  12. Phylogeny and diversification of mountain vipers (Montivipera, Nilson et al., 2001) triggered by multiple Plio-Pleistocene refugia and high-mountain topography in the Near and Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stümpel, Nikolaus; Rajabizadeh, Mehdi; Avcı, Aziz; Wüster, Wolfgang; Joger, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    The Near and Middle East is a hotspot of biodiversity, but the region remains underexplored at the level of genetic biodiversity. Here, we present an extensive molecular phylogeny of the viperid snake genus Montivipera, including all known taxa. Based on nuclear and mitochondrial data, we present novel insights into the phylogeny of the genus and review the status of its constituent species. Maximum likelihood methods revealed a montane origin of Montivipera at 12.3Mya. We then analyzed factors of mountain viper diversity. Our data support substantial changes in effective population size through Plio-Pleistocene periods. We conclude that climatic oscillations were drivers of allopatric speciation, and that mountain systems of the Near and Middle East have strongly influenced the evolution and survival of taxa, because climatic and topographical heterogeneities induced by mountains have played a crucial role as filters for dispersal and as multiple refugia. The wide diversity of montane microhabitats enabled mountain vipers to retain their ecological niche during climatic pessima. In consequence the varied geological and topographical conditions between refugia favoured genetic isolation and created patterns of species richness resulting in the formation of neoendemic taxa. Our data support high concordance between geographic distributions of Montivipera haplotypes with putative plant refugia.

  13. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Exploring the dependence of the three-point correlation function on stellar mass and luminosity at 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Moresco, M; Moscardini, L; Branchini, E; Cappi, A; Davidzon, I; Granett, B R; de la Torre, S; Guzzo, L; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bel, J; Bolzonella, M; Bottini, D; Coupon, J; Cucciati, O; De Lucia, G; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Fumana, M; Garilli, B; Ilbert, O; Iovino, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Małek, K; McCracken, H J; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Scodeggio, M; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A

    2016-01-01

    The three-point correlation function (3PCF) is a powerful probe to investigate the clustering of matter in the Universe in a complementary way with respect to lower-order statistics, providing additional information with respect to two-point correlation function and allowing to shed light on biasing, nonlinear processes and deviations from Gaussian statistics. In this paper, we analyse the first data release of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), determining the dependence of the three-point correlation function on luminosity and stellar mass at $z=[0.5,1.1]$. We exploit the VIPERS Public Data Release 1, consisting of more than 50000 galaxies with B-band magnitudes in the range $-21.6\\lesssim M_{\\rm B}-5\\log(h)\\lesssim-19.9$ and stellar masses in the range $9.8\\lesssim\\log(M_\\star[h^{-2}\\,M_\\odot])\\lesssim 10.7$. We measure both the connected 3PCF and the reduced 3PCF in redshift space, probing different configurations and scales, in the range $2.5

  14. Real-Time Observation of Antimicrobial Polycation Effects on Escherichia coli: Adapting the Carpet Model for Membrane Disruption to Quaternary Copolyoxetanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congzhou; Zolotarskaya, Olga Y; Nair, Sithara S; Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Ohman, Dennis E; Wynne, Kenneth J; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2016-03-29

    Real-time atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for analyzing effects of the antimicrobial polycation copolyoxetane P[(C12)-(ME2Ox)-50/50], C12-50 on the membrane of a model bacterium, Escherichia coli (ATCC# 35218). AFM imaging showed cell membrane changes with increasing C12-50 concentration and time including nanopore formation and bulges associated with outer bacterial membrane disruption. A macroscale bactericidal concentration study for C12-50 showed a 4 log kill at 15 μg/mL with conditions paralleling imaging (1 h, 1x PBS, physiological pH, 25 °C). The dramatic changes from the control image to 1 h after introducing 15 μg/mL C12-50 are therefore reasonably attributed to cell death. At the highest concentration (60 μg/mL) further cell membrane disruption results in leakage of cytoplasm driven by detergent-like action. The sequence of processes for initial membrane disruption by the synthetic polycation C12-50 follows the carpet model posited for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). However, the nanoscale details are distinctly different as C12-50 is a synthetic, water-soluble copolycation that is best modeled as a random coil. In a complementary AFM study, chemical force microscopy shows that incubating cells with C12-50 decreased the hydrophobicity across the entire cell surface at an early stage. This finding provides additional evidence indicating that C12-50 polycations initially bind with the cell membrane in a carpet-like fashion. Taken together, real time AFM imaging elucidates the mechanism of antimicrobial action for copolyoxetane C12-50 at the single cell level. In future work this approach will provide important insights into structure-property relationships and improved antimicrobial effectiveness for synthetic amphiphilic polycations.

  15. 蛇毒制剂对体外培养的兔结膜下成纤维细胞的影响%The effect of viper venom on the attachment, migration and proliferation of Tenon′s capsular fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金华; 魏厚仁; 吕源淑; 姜发纲

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To observe the effect of viper (Ahylysantipfarciasi) venom on attachment to collagen, migration and proliferation of rabbit Tenon′s capsular fibroblast (TFs) in tissue culture. Methods Anti-adhesion experiment: The 3-5 passage TFs suspended in DMEM medium were pre-incubated for 30 minutes in the presence of various concentrations of viper venom (0, 2.5×10-4, 5.0×10-4, 1.0×10-3 and 5.0×10-3 U/ml) at 37℃, 5% CO2, then inoculated in 24-well plate coated with rat-tail collagen. After incubation for 90 minutes, the floating cells were removed. The attached cells in each well were enumerated microscopically and determined by the value of absorption (A) of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolzyl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazodium bromide (MTT). Anti-migration experiment: A denuded area was made when the 3rd passage of TFs was confluent into a monolayer. Cells were then exposed to viper venom (0-5.0×10-3 U/ml) at 37℃, 5%CO2, and the cells having migrated into the denuded area were enumerated every 6 hours. Anti-proliferative experiment: Two hours after the 3rd passage of TFs was incubated in the 24-well plate at 37℃, 5%CO2, they were exposed to different concentrations of viper venom drug (0-5.0×10-3 U/ml). Twenty-four and 48 hours later, the number of cells was determined by MTT method. Results Viper venom inhibited TFs from attaching to collagen in a dose-dependent manner and the ID50 was 1.0×10-3 U/ml. Only did 5.0×10-3 U/ml of viper venom show significant difference from the control during 6-48 hours. The difference of A value was not significant among all groups at 24 and 48 hr. Conclusions In vitro, viper venom (>1.0×10-3 U/ml) can significantly inhibit the attachment of TFs to collagen, and 5.0×10-3 U/ml can inhibit the migration, but can not affect their proliferation.%目的 观察蛇毒制剂对体外培养的兔结膜下成纤维细胞与胶原黏附及细胞移行和增殖的影响。方法 将培养的第3~5代兔结膜下成纤维细胞于

  16. Activity of Tri-N-Butyl Tin maleate in carpets against Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger, verified through two methodologies: Inhibition Halo (HZ and Inhibition Surface (Print Atividade de tri-n-butyl tin maleate em carpetes contra Staphylococcus aureus e Aspergillus niger, verificada através de duas metodologias: Zona de Inibição (ZI e Superfície de Inibição (Impressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satiko Uehara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify the activity of the Tri-N-Butyl Tin maleate compound against Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger, after its industrial application in 40 samples of carpets of different materials (polypropylene, polyester, polyamide and wool. The qualitative assays were performed through two methodologies: Inhibition Halo (HZ and Inhibition of Surface (Print. The carpet with the product inhibited 100% of bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and fungi (Aspergillus niger growth, under the conditions of this study. The microbial inhibition was higher in upper portion of carpets. The methodologies employed appear to be adequate to test the bactericide and fungicide activities of the Tri-N-Butyl Tin maleate. The print methodology confirmed the results obtained by the inhibition zone assay. Further studies using the same methodologies are needed to confirm our results.O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a atividade do composto maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico contra Staphylococcus aureus e Aspergillus niger, após sua aplicação industrial em 40 amostras de carpetes de diferentes materiais (polipropileno, poliéster, poliamida e lã. Os ensaios qualitativos foram realizados através de duas metodologias: Zona de Inibição (ZI e Superfície de Inibição (Impressão. Os carpetes tratados com o produto apresentaram 100% de inibição de crescimento bacteriano (Staphylococcus aureus e fúngico (Aspergillus niger, sob as condições desse estudo. A inibição de crescimento microbiano foi mais elevada na porção superior dos carpetes. As metodologias empregadas parecem ser adequadas para testar a atividade bactericida e fungicida do maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico. A metodologia de impressão confirmou os resultados obtidos no ensaio de zona de inibição. Estudos futuros utilizando as mesmas metodologias são necessários para confirmação destes dados.

  17. Biogeography and conservation of viperids from North-West Africa : an application of ecological niche-based models and GIS

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Brito; Fahd, S.; Geniez, P.; Martinez-Freiria, F.; Pleguezuelos, J. M.; Trape, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    North-West Africa is an outstanding region to study biogeographic patterns in biodiversity distribution. This study identifies biogeographic affinities and areas of probable occurrence for seven viperid snakes through the combination of high resolution presence data and environmental factors. Vipers exhibited distinct biogeographical affinities: Bitis arietans was mostly found along savannahs, Echis leucogaster along the Sahel/savannahs, Cerastes cerastes and C vipera throughout most desertic...

  18. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) . Exploring the dependence of the three-point correlation function on stellar mass and luminosity at 0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, M.; Marulli, F.; Moscardini, L.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Davidzon, I.; Granett, B. R.; de la Torre, S.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Carbone, C.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; De Lucia, G.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Małek, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: The three-point correlation function (3PCF) is a powerful probe to investigate the clustering of matter in the Universe in a complementary way with respect to lower-order statistics, providing additional information with respect to the two-point correlation function and allowing us to shed light on biasing, non-linear processes, and deviations from Gaussian statistics. In this paper, we analyse the first data release of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), determining the dependence of the three-point correlation function on luminosity and stellar mass at z = [ 0.5,1.1 ]. Methods: We exploit the VIPERS Public Data Release 1, consisting of more than 50 000 galaxies with B-band magnitudes in the range - 21.6 ≲ MB - 5log (h) ≲ - 19.9 and stellar masses in the range 9.8 ≲ log (M⋆ [ h-2M⊙ ] ) ≲ 10.7. We measure both the connected 3PCF and the reduced 3PCF in redshift space, probing different configurations and scales, in the range 2.5

  19. An occupational health programme for adults and children in the carpet weaving industry, Mirzapur, India: a case study in the informal sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P K; Shukla, K P; Ory, F G

    1992-11-01

    The Indo-Dutch Environmental and Sanitary Engineering Project under Ganga action Plan in Kanpur and Mirzapur is being executed within the framework of Indo-Dutch bilateral development cooperation. The project aims to integrate technological, social and health related improvements. It is expected that the development approach and methodology can be replicated in other urban settlements in India. The project is being supplemented by a training and institutional strengthening programme, which will facilitate the transfer of new technologies and improvements in operation and maintenance of these new technologies. One of the project's goals is to improve living conditions in the targeted areas by installing drinking water and drainage systems. A socio-economic unit (SEU) in the project supports these technical interventions by encouraging the community to participate in project activities. The Occupational Health Programme in Mirzapur was conceived by the SEU to improve the health and living conditions of child and adult weavers. At the start of the programme, 200 weavers and 60 non-weaver workers from Mirzapur city, matched for age and socio-economic status, were interviewed and underwent a physical examination. The mean age of the weavers is 27 years, reflecting the relatively large percentage of child labour (13.5%). Illiteracy among them is 73%, whereas 14% have had only a primary education. 64.5% of the carpet weavers are Muslims and 35.6% are Hindus. 61% own a loom or work in a family owned loom shed. 95% of the weavers have a monthly income of less than 600 Rs. Complaints of a persistent cough and cough with expectoration, backache, the common cold and joint pains occurred more often in the weaver population than in the comparison group and have been identified as 'occupational hazards'. An intervention programme has been implemented based on the results of the occupational health survey. These interventions include awareness camps, installment of plexiglass

  20. Viper NHEXS Program: A Viper Pilot Neck Health & Conditioning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    lateral flexion , and rotation. The greatest amount of movement takes place in the cervical and lumbar regions due to the position of the ribcage...minimal threshold, can cause disk protrusions, ligamentous injuries, and cervical muscle strains [3]. However, Wagstaff and colleagues [3] reported that...incidents of in-flight pain was 6.7 G [3]. The three key risk factors contributing to cervical +Gz injuries in fighter pilots include (1) repeated

  1. Talbot-carpets of periodic and quasi-periodic close-packed 2D mask structures calculated by a modified chirp-z-algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Jacqueline; Sandfuchs, Oliver; Gatto, Alexandre; Thomae, Daniel; Brunner, Robert

    2012-06-01

    In this contribution we simulate theoretically the resulting 3D Talbot-carpets of different initial close-packed 2D mask structures. Especially, we investigate the transition from regular periodic to quasi-periodic tessellations. For the pure periodic mask structure a hexagonally tessellation was selected. The calculated field distribution adjacent to the mask still shows a lateral six-fold symmetry but also a rather complex characteristics in the propagation direction. In particular, the appearance and the repetition of self-imaging planes deviate significantly from the classical Talbot-effect. For the quasi-periodic tessellation a Penrose tapestry based on rhombus pairs was chosen. A pronounced lateral fivefold symmetry becomes visible in the field distribution. In the propagation direction dominant planes with increased intensity are observed clearly, but, instead of a simple periodicity, a complex behavior becomes obvious. The numerical algorithm used in our simulations is based on a modified angular spectrum method, in which Bluestein's fast Fourier (FFT) algorithm is applied. This approach allows to decouple the sampling points in the real space and in the spatial frequency domain so that both parameter can be chosen independently. The introduced fast and flexible algorithm requires a minimized number of numerical steps and a minimal computation time, but still offers high accuracy.

  2. Pulsed laser deposited porous nano-carpets of indium tin oxide and their use as charge collectors in core-shell structures for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Timothy R; Farnum, Byron H; Lopez, Rene

    2015-02-14

    Porous In2O3:Sn (ITO) films resembling from brush carpets to open moss-like discrete nanostructures were grown by pulsed laser deposition under low to high background gas pressures, respectively. The charge transport properties of these mesoporous substrates were probed by pulsed laser photo-current and -voltage transient measurements in N719 dye sensitized devices. Although the cyclic voltammetry and dye adsorption measurements suggest a lower proportion of electro-active dye molecules for films deposited at the high-end background gas pressures, the transient measurements indicate similar electron transport rates within the films. Solar cell operation was achieved by the deposition of a conformal TiO2 shell layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Much of the device improvement was shown to be due to the TiO2 shell blocking the recombination of photoelectrons with the electrolyte as recombination lifetimes increased drastically from a few seconds in uncoated ITO to over 50 minutes in the ITO with a TiO2 shell layer. Additionally, an order of magnitude increase in the electron transport rate in ITO/TiO2 (core/shell) films was observed, giving the core-shell structure a superior ratio of recombination/transport times.

  3. Meshwork-carpet type hydrocarbon reservoir transportation system in Junggar Basin%准噶尔盆地网毯式油气成藏输导体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桠颖; 徐怀民; 姚卫江; 刘楼军

    2011-01-01

    利用输导体地质综合研究方法,以断层、砂体及断—砂组合关系分析为基础,对准噶尔盆地白垩系油气成藏体系进行研究,分析网毯式油气成藏体系输导体的特征及分布.结果表明:按照输导体与毯状仓储层中底砾岩的接触关系,可建立3类9型输导体样式,包括上沟通型、下沟通型、自沟通型、内沟通型断裂输导体,沟通型、未沟通型不整合面输导体,上沟通型、下沟通型、内沟通型砂体连通输导体;不同类型的输导体组合出“Y”型输导模式、“T”型输导模式、“H”型输导模式;输导体在仓储层的“成毯”和“溢散”过程中起到关键作用;复杂的网状输导体系控制了研究区油气藏的形成、分类及分布特征.%Using the the geological comprehensive study method of transportation system, the hydrocarbon accumulation system of Cretaceous in Junggar Basin was studied based on fault, sand body and matching relationship of sand-fault. The characteristics and the spatial distribution of transportation system of meshwork-carpet type hydrocarbon reservoir system were analyzed. The results show that three classes and nine types of conductor department styles are defined according t6 the contact relationship between elements of transportation systems and basal conglomerate of storage layer. It includes upper-connected type, down-connected type, all-connected type and inner-connected type of fault transportation system, connected type and non-connected type of unconformity transportation system as well as upper-connected type, down-connected type and inner-connected type of sand body connected transportation system. Different types of transportation combinations make three transportation models of oil and gas about "Y" type model, "T" type model, and "H" type model. Transportation system plays a key role in the process of making carpet and diffusion in storage layer. Reticular and complex transportation

  4. 传统藏毯进行有机方式生产的可行性分析%A Feasibility Study on Organic Production of Traditional Tibetan Carpets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙璐; 刘宗岸; 杨泽慧; 陈江涛; 袁才勇; 杨少慧; 王学农

    2016-01-01

    根据有机纺织品标准的要求,进行危害分析,明确了有机藏毯加工过程中的关键控制点为:选毛、洗毛、染色、编织、洗毯、定形和污水处理。通过采取一系列措施,建立文件管理程序、记录管理程序、原料采购控制程序、原料进厂验收存储程序、品质检验管理程序、不合格品控制程序、允许使用的投入物清单及投入物使用规程等,可以保障藏毯的有机状态,实现传统藏毯的有机生产。%According to the requirements of organic textile standard, hazard analysis was conducted and the critical control points for organic production of Tibetan carpets are determined: wool sorting, scouring, dyeing, knitting, carpets washing, setting, and sewage disposal. It demonstrates that the organic production can be realized and the organic property of Tibetan carpets can be kept through taking a series of measures such as building ifle management program, record management program, raw material purchasing program, incoming material acceptance and storage program, quality inspection program, sub-quality products controlling program, the list of permitted inputs, and procedure of using inputs and so on.

  5. The effect of Echis coloratus venom on biochemical and molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hazem K. Ghneim

    2017-03-28

    Mar 28, 2017 ... addition, hemorrhagic metalloproteinase was iso- lated from the venom of ..... ple (5 µl), 2 × SYBR Green PCR Master Mix (12.5 µl), each forward and ... cycler software version 2.3 to calculate the threshold cycle (Ct) using the ...

  6. CRISI E RINASCITA DELL'EUROPA: ECHI DEL DIBATTITO FENOMENOLOGICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Lenoci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio, attraverso un'analisi delle riflessioni di Husserl e Scheler, si propone di esaminare la loro concezione sull'Europa e la tradizione culturale europea, mettendo in rilievo l'evoluzione e lo sviluppo delle loro posizioni avanti e dopo la prima Guerra mondiale.

  7. Sequence homology between phospholipase and its inhibitor in snake venom. The primary structure of the inhibitor of vipoxin from the venom of the Bulgarian viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes, Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancheva, I; Kleinschmidt, T; Aleksiev, B; Braunitzer, G

    1984-08-01

    We are presenting the first primary structure of a snake venom inhibitor. It was isolated from the neurotoxin vipoxin of the Bulgarian Viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes, Serpentes) which represents a complex of a strong toxic basic protein with phospholipase A2 activity (2 isoenzymes) and the nontoxic acidic component functioning as its inhibitor. The sequence was established by automatic degradation in a liquid phase sequenator on the S-carboxymethylated chain and on the peptides obtained by tryptic hydrolysis of the oxidized chain. A limited tryptic digestion of the oxidized chain provided the necessary overlapping peptides. The inhibitor consists of 122 amino-acid residues including 14 cysteine and 10 tyrosine residues and is thus similar to the phospholipases from snake venoms. A comparison of the inhibitor sequence with the primary structure of the phospholipase A2 (CM-II) from the Horned Adder (Bitis nasicornis) venom shows a surprising homology of 52%. The identical amino acids include the cysteine and tyrosine residues and are generally accumulated in the surroundings of cysteine residues. The histidine (pos. 47) in the active center of the phospholipase A2 is substituted by glutamine in the inhibitor, but the tryptophan (pos. 30) which is essential for the enzymatic activity is present. The significant homology between enzyme and inhibitor in the vipoxin complex is believed to originate from a gene duplication. The relatively late development of the reptiles and the snake venom complex explains the highly preserved structure compared to other enzyme-inhibitor systems.

  8. Sequence homology between phospholipase and its inhibitor in snake venom. The primary structure of phospholipase A2 of vipoxin from the venom of the Bulgarian viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes, Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancheva, I; Kleinschmidt, T; Aleksiev, B; Braunitzer, G

    1987-04-01

    The amino-acid sequence of phospholipase A2 from the neurotoxin vipoxin of the Bulgarian Viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes, Serpentes) is presented. The enzyme consists of 122 amino-acid residues including 7 disulfide bonds and thus belongs to phospholipases A2 group IIA. The sequence was determined by automatic Edman degradation of the intact chain and of the peptides obtained after tryptic hydrolysis of the oxidized chain. The short cleavage time of 30 min and another limited tryptic digestion of the oxidized and citraconylated chain provided overlapping peptides. Sequencing was done with liquid- and gas-phase sequenators. The complete alignment of all peptides was facilitated by the high degree of homology with known viperid venom phospholipases A2. In common with mammalian phospholipases, the tryptophan residue in position 30 (essential for enzymatic activity) as well as the histidine in position 47 in the active site are present. Vipoxin phospholipase A2 shows 53.3% homology with another phospholipase A2 from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom (Ammodytoxin B), whereas 62% homology was found between both subunits of vipoxin phospholipase A2 and its inhibitor. This high degree of identity can be accounted for in terms of a common origin by gene duplication.

  9. 基于拓扑构型的地毯图案生成方法%A Generation Method of Carpet Pattern Based on Topology Configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海英; 彭宏; 杨一帆; 徐正光

    2013-01-01

    Traditional fabric patterns generally contain certain basic elements which are characteristically distributed. However, the existing pattern generation methods based on characteristics and examples preserve neither the integrity of elements and structures in pattern, nor the information of styles and levels, such as distribution characteristics. Thus, taking Xinjiang carpet design as an example, an auto-generating method of patterns based on topological structure is presented. By interactively identifying patterns with different perception layers to serve as templates and extracting elements of the same class accurately by template-matching algorithm, pattern topological structure is generated. Then, appropriate patterns are extracted after the design of selection rules. Finally, the matrix mark method is used to embed the pattern. The experimental results show that the method not only solves the overlapping problem of pattern elements, but also generates beautifully-layered patterns that can express the composition, element image and color of the fabric prints, which can meet the design requirements of style inheritance.%传统的织物图案中通常包含按一定特征分布的基本元素,而现有基于特征和实例的图案生成方法难以保持图案中基本纹样元素与结构特征的完整性以及分布特征等基于风格层次的信息.文中以新疆地毯图案为例,提出一种基于拓扑构型的图案自动生成方法.将交互标识出的不同感知层的图案元素作为模板,并约束模板匹配算法较准确地提取同类图案元素,生成图案拓扑构型;再设计选择规则,提取合适的图案纹样.最后利用所提出的标识矩阵法进行纹样嵌图,结果表明,该方法不仅解决了图案元素重叠的问题,而且能生成体现织物图案的构图、元素形象和色彩的具有层次美感的图案,满足风格传承的设计要求.

  10. Prothrombin Segovia: a new congenital abnormality of prothrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, E; Paramo, J A; Bascones, C; Fisac, P R; Cuesta, B; Fernandez, J

    1986-05-01

    A family with a new congenital dysprothrombinemia is presented. The propositus is a 21-yr-old man who presented simultaneously with hemartrosis of the left knee and an extensive hematoma following a minor trauma. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged. Prothrombin activity was very low when measured by biological assay using physiological activators (7% by one-stage method and 20% by two-stage method) or a Russel's viper venom-cephalin mixture (23%), Notechis scutatus scutatus venom (15%) and Echis carinatus venom (17%); in contrast, the level was found to be borderline to normal using Taipan viper venom (64%) and normal by both staphylocoagulase and immunologic methods. Family studies revealed consanguinity between the propositus' mother and father and both presented a 50% reduced prothrombin level when physiological activators or Echis carinatus viper venom were used. A line of identity between normal and abnormal prothrombin was observed on immunodiffusion. The migration of the abnormal prothrombin was less anodic and was not changed by the addition of calcium. The patient's serum showed 3 bands in the bidimensional immunoelectrophoresis system, whereas normal serum showed only 2 bands. The term prothrombin Segovia is proposed to define this new prothrombin abnormality.

  11. Performance Characteristics of AOAC Method 2005.06 for the Determination of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Manila Clams, European Otter Clams, Grooved Carpet Shell Clams, Surf Clams, and Processed King Scallops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Alison; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    An approach was developed for the verification of method performance of the AOAC 2005.06 LC-fluorescence detector (FLD) method for determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve shellfish. This was developed following advice published by the Analytical Laboratory Accreditation Criteria Committee and applied to shellfish species that had not been previously subjected to a full single-laboratory validation scheme. The refined approach was developed following the need to assess performance in a number of shellfish species infrequently monitored through the UK statutory monitoring program, while reducing the impact and cost of the studies, most notably in terms of the use of valuable reference standards. The species assessed were manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), European otter clams (Lutraria lutraria), grooved carpet shell clams (R. decussatus), surf clams (Spisula solida), and king scallops (Pecten maximus) presented as adductor only or adductor plus roe. The method was assessed for sensitivity in terms of LOD and LOQ, toxin recovery, and method precision in each species. It incorporated the PSP toxins deemed toxic and/or prevalent in UK samples and commercially available as certified reference standards. The toxins studied included GTX1-5, dcSTX, STX, C1&2, and NEO. The toxins dcGTX2&3 were included for surf clams due to the prevalence of these toxins in this species as a result of toxin decarbamoylation. Method performance targets were met for each of the characteristics investigated. Consequently, the method was deemed fit for purpose for the screening and quantification of these clam and scallop species for PSP toxins by AOAC Method 2005.06 LC-FLD.

  12. Technical Innovation, Non-technical Factor Collaboration and Enterprise Performance-Based on the Multi-case Study of Tibetan Carpet Enterprises%技术创新、非技术因素协同与企业业绩--基于西藏藏毯企业的多案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丽; 唐亚军; 次旦平措

    2015-01-01

    在市场经济条件下西藏经济迅速发展,民族手工业等特色产业逐渐壮大,大量研究揭示民族手工业发展与市场之间的密切关系。西藏藏毯企业在外部环境与青海藏毯企业日益趋同的情况下仍存在巨大差异,需要从企业内部微观层面诠释深层次原因。文章以企业创新理论为基础,在综合现有的技术创新影响因素的基础上构建西藏藏毯企业技术创新影响模型,选择4家具有代表性的藏毯企业进行案例研究。发现现有研究揭示的技术创新影响因素并不都适用于藏毯企业,突出表现在内部受技术创新能力和激励机制的影响,外部受市场需求、市场竞争程度以及政府支持力度的影响,进一步研究发现技术创新与企业业绩之间受到技术因素和非技术因素协同程度的调节。%Under market economy, Tibet's economy develops rapidly. And the featured industries in Tibet, such as ethnic handicrafts, grow gradually, too. Numerous studies reveal a close relationship between ethnic handi⁃crafts’development and the market. The external environment of Qinghai’s and Tibetan carpet business be⁃comes more and more convergent, but there are still huge differences between Tibetan carpet business in Qinghai and Tibet, which needs high-level interpretation and micro-level analysis of the enterprises. Basing on the Enter⁃prise Innovation Theory, this article integrates the existing influential factors of technological innovation so as to construct an influential model of the technological innovation for Tibetan carpet. And 4 typical Tibetan carpet en⁃terprises are selected as study cases, the study shows that not all the existing influential factors about technical innovation research is applicable for the Tibetan carpet enterprises. Internally, the Tibetan carpet enterprises could be affected by the technological innovation and the incentive mechanism. Externallly, they could be

  13. Padrões espaciais da riqueza de espécies de viperídeos na América do Sul: temperatura ambiental vs. cinética-bioquímica = Spatial patterns of viperid species richness in South America: environmental temperature vs. biochemical kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Souza Lima-Ribeiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo testar a influência da temperatura na taxa metabólica de viperídeos como um mecanismo básico de origem dos padrões espaciais de riqueza desse grupo na América do Sul, como proposto por Allen et al. (2002 dentro da Teoria Metabólica em Ecologia. Para isso, testamos a relação entre o logaritmo natural dariqueza de espécies de viperídeos e o inverso da temperatura (em Kelvin, 1000*K-1, após corrigir os efeitos da autocorrelação espacial, e verificamos se a reta estimada apresenta inclinação de -9,0*T. As variáveis apresentaram baixo índice de correlação (r2 = 0,216; p The aim of this study was to test the influence of temperature on metabolic rates of viperid species as the underlying mechanism to explain the richness pattern of this group in South America, following the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE proposed by Allen et al. (2002. We tested MTE predictions by considering the relationship between the natural logarithm of viperid species richness and the inverse of temperature (in Kelvin, 1000*K-1 after to correct for spatial autocorrelation effects and to check whether the linear function presents a slope of -9.0*T. The relationship between variables presented low correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.216; P < 0.0001 and a slope of -3.737*T (C.I. (95% ± 0.379.These results showed that viperids respond in a different way to the temperature gradient in comparison with other taxa and the prediction of Allen et al. (2002, since the confidence interval of slope in this case doesnot include the value of -9.0*T. This study demonstrates that temperature is not the sole driver of broad-scale spatial pattern of viperid species richness in South America.

  14. Design and parameter optimization of ditching and compacting parts of rapeseed carpet seedling transplanter%油菜毯状苗移栽机开沟镇压部件设计与参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊; 汤庆; 袁文胜; 王苏飞; 吴崇友

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, rapeseed has been considered as the most important oil crop in China, and the rapeseed seedling transplantation has become a main cultivation pattern in the crop rotation of rice and rapeseed. The existing transplanter is still with low working efficiency and not suitable for paddy soil, which has poor fluidity of soil. In aiming of solving these problems, a fully automatic cultivation pattern was proposed, which cut and picked seedling blocks with high speed and then transplanted them under the condition of sticky heavy soil. By using the slicing and transplanting principle of rice transplanter, the functions of ditching, covering and compacting the soil were set up, and finally a rapeseed seedling carpet transplanter was formed, which was suitable for the transplantation in paddy stubble field instead of being limited in paddy field. In view of the original machine’s drawbacks such as little installation space of underframe and light counterbalance weight, the paper described a design of a driven ditching device with oblique ripple and a V-shaped press wheel.In the process of observing the power, the design skillfully use the origin fan pulley on the engine of the transplanter chassis to drive the hydraulic pump. In aim of realizing a continuous adjustment of the running speed and ripple disc coulter of the machine to meet the requirement of different soil conditions, a series of hydraulic valve has been put into use. The designed machine could adapt to different soil condition. By analyzing the characteristics of transplanter and the requirements for transplanting the rapeseed blanket seedlings, the paper accomplished the calculation of the diameter and width of wave coulter. The paper carried out an analysis on motion trail based on the determination of disc parameter, and established the association of principal parameters such as forward speed, depth of ditching and rotation speed of wave coulter. The conclusion was drawn that when the maximum

  15. A Red Carpet for Iron Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenthaler, Martina U; Rivella, Stefano; Hentze, Matthias W; Galy, Bruno

    2017-01-26

    200 billion red blood cells (RBCs) are produced every day, requiring more than 2 × 10(15) iron atoms every second to maintain adequate erythropoiesis. These numbers translate into 20 mL of blood being produced each day, containing 6 g of hemoglobin and 20 mg of iron. These impressive numbers illustrate why the making and breaking of RBCs is at the heart of iron physiology, providing an ideal context to discuss recent progress in understanding the systemic and cellular mechanisms that underlie the regulation of iron homeostasis and its disorders.

  16. Waste must not be 'swept under carpet'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, David

    2007-09-01

    New waste management legislation comes into force later this year which will change the way all organisations deal with waste generated on their premises. The issue of employee recycling participation and the right choice of waste and recycling systems should be high on the agenda for the healthcare sector according to Dr David Gillett, sales and marketing director at Taylor, the UK based waste containment provider.

  17. A Magic Carpet Trip to Learning Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Billie M.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a series of hands-on activities for teaching about continents and oceans. Includes projects on (1) why earth is the blue planet; (2) continent names, shapes, and locations; and (3) continental drift. Discusses use of poetry, music games, mathematics, and science to interest students. Suggests ending with using maps in following directions…

  18. Composition: A Carpet is Created (1992)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2010-01-01

    This is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance...

  19. Super-utilizers get red carpet treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    MetroHealth Medical Center in Cleveland has partnered with two health plans to provide intensive care coordination for high-cost patients with multiple medical problems and, often, behavioral health issues. Nurse practitioners at two primary care sites provide one-on-one care coordination for super-utilizers. They assess the patients' needs, help coordinate community resources, and prepare a treatment plan that is flagged when patients visit the emergency department. The nurse practitioners meet with health plan representatives monthly and brainstorm on ways to meet patients' needs.

  20. Red carpet for CERN's 50th

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Scientists, heads of state, and representatives from many countries came to CERN's Official 50th Anniversary Ceremony 19 October to celebrate the Organization's 50th anniversary, and to praise its contributions to human knowledge while also fostering cooperation between scientists and their countries, across Europe and beyond.

  1. Carpet Aids Learning in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The Healthy and High Performance Schools Act of 2002 has set specific federal guidelines for school design, and developed a federal/state partnership program to assist local districts in their school planning. According to the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), high-performance schools are, among other things, healthy, comfortable,…

  2. Antisnake Venom Activity of Hibiscus aethiopicus L. against Echis ocellatus and Naja n. nigricollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Hasson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate whether the Hibiscus aethiopicus L. plant has neutralization activity against venoms of two clinically important snakes. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with water. Different assays were performed to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its anti-snake venom activities. The results showed that H. aethiopicus extract alone had no effect on the viability of C2C12 muscle cells, but significantly (P<.05 protected muscle cells against the toxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 55, 150, and 300 μg/mL. The maximum protective effect of the extract was exhibited at 75 μg/mL. The extract significantly (P<.001 inhibited the cytotoxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 300 μg/mL. All rabbits (n=10 and guinea pigs (n=10 were alive after the two weeks of given the lethal dosage 16 g/Kg of the H. aethiopicus extract herbal solution. No abnormal behaviour was observed of both groups of animals. All guinea pigs (n=3 treated with venoms alone (5 mg/kg died. However, all guinea pigs (n=21 treated with venom (5 mg/kg and the extract (400 to 1000 mg/kg survived. Guinea pigs (n=3 treated with Naja n. nigricollis venom alone (2.5 mg/kg and guinea pigs (n=21 venom with the extract (400 to 1000 mg/kg died. The H. aethiopicus completely (100% blocked the haemorrhagic activity of E. ocellatus in the egg embryo at 3.3 mg/mL of extract. These findings suggest that H. aethiopicus may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage.

  3. Měkkýši údolí Vltavy (Čechy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Horáčková

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent mollusc assemblages of the Vltava River, the longest river in the Czech Republic (430 km, and its valley were studied (South and Central Bohemia. Altogether, 162 species of terrestrial and freshwater molluscs representing 65% of the total Czech malacofauna, were recorded at 532 sites studied between 1940 and 2013. Considering high species richness and diversity of mollusc fauna, the Vltava River valley ranks among the malacologically richest areas in the Czech Republic despite (1 the strong migration barrier of the nine dams on the upper and middle river stretches, (2 the long-term human influence in a whole river valley during the Holocene and, (3 the intensive agriculture in the lower part of the river floodplain. The river phenomenon, partly developed in the upper river stretch and fully developed in the middle part of the river, is the leading cause of such remarkable species richness.

  4. Un oltremare diffuso. Il navegar sardesco fra Mediterraneo di Ponente, echi dell'Impero e italianismi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Spissu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I retabli sardi tra Quattro e Cinquecento documentano la stratificazione di influenze che giungono da Valencia, Barcellona, Maiorca e Napoli. Tra le sollecitazioni importate vi sono stilemi flandro-iberici e forme gotico-catalane, alle quali subentrano timidamente singolari italianismi e aggiornamenti alla maniera moderna. Caso eccezionale è il Maestro di Ozieri, in quanto sfugge apparentemente alla dimensione delle rotte mediterranee che partono dai consolidati centri-guida. L'isola, definita spesso crocevia e crogiolo di idee pur sempre provenienti da mondi contigui, diviene approdo per la sintesi di una cultura eterogenea, germanico-fiamminga, che dialoga con il raffaellismo meridionale, in alcuni momenti di sperimentale compromesso. In uno sguardo più ampio si potrà comprendere come il percorso del Maestro di Ozieri si inscriva invece appieno nella prospettiva di un “Mediterraneo allargato” al Nord Europa, secondo l'effettiva configurazione dell'Impero di Carlo V. Sardinian retablos of the late XVth and early XVIth century document the layering of influences coming from Valencia, Barcelona, Mallorca and Naples. Among the foreign inputs there are Flemish-Iberian stylistic elements and Gothic-Catalan shapes, mildly joined by singular Italianisms and knowledge of the Modern Manner. An exceptional case is the Master of Ozieri, who seems to evade the routes connecting established Mediterranean hubs. The island of Sardinia, which is often defined a crossroads and melting-pot of ideas—though such ideas would come from neighbouring regions—eventually becomes the landfall made by a German-Flemish culture that in some cases dialogues with Southern Raphaelism trough experimental compromise. By enlarging the field of view, one is provided the perspective of a broader Mediterranean area including Northern Europe, which is proper of Charles V’s empire’s extent and encompasses the Master of Ozieri’s path.

  5. La parabola: radici orientali ed echi occidentali di una forma narrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Lo Vecchio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The parable was born in the East among the Jews as a form of oral narrative, the māšāl, codified in writing in the Torah later and imported to the West by Christianity through the parables of Jesus. While Christian tradition was dogmatizing it, Jewish culture preserved the parable from the theological crystallization of the Holy Scriptures, using it both in a religious and secular context. The purpose of this article is to investigate the parable as borderform in its original structure, analyzing how it works through the tools of Biblical exegesis and literary philology. Examining the biblical māšāl, the paper reveals that, unlike how the Christian tradition intends the parables of Jesus, the Jewish parable is not a closed text, unintelligible without faith, but an example of the Benjamin’s Kunst des Erzählens, a text that is open and susceptible to amplification and change, deeply rooted in reality. A border culture between East and West, such as the Yiddish culture, has used the parable to tell of the rabbinic Wisdom, the experience of life accrued over the centuries by the Jews of Eastern Europe, and has handed this literary form down to the West through authors of Jewish heritage such as Kafka, thereby freeing it from its Christian dogma.

  6. 钵苗机插与毯苗机插水稻生育特点及产量形成间的差异%Difference of Yield Formation and Growth Trait between Mechanized Transplanting by Rice Pot-mat Seedling and Rice Carpet Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米长生; 陆海空; 洪国保; 毛学勤; 黄本干; 刘卫东

    2014-01-01

    通过不同品种钵苗机插与毯苗机插两种机插方式比较,在相同栽培条件下,钵苗机插生育期提前,植株变高,基部节间增粗,穗粒数增多,千粒重、产量和出米率提高;杂交籼稻钵苗机插抽穗在安全期内,生产无风险,为大面积机插安全生产提供了一条可行之路。%Compare with mechanized transplanting by rice pot-mat seedling and rice carpet seedling, the result indicated that under the same culturing condition, mechanized transplanting on rice pot-mat seedling can advance the growth period, increase the plant hight, thick basal internode, increase kernel number, thousand seed weight, yield and polished rice rate. Mechanized transplanting by rice pot-mat seedling on indica hybrid rice can heading safely and had no risks on production, it provide a viable route for large area production safety on mechanized transplanting.

  7. Gene tree parsimony of multilocus snake venom protein families reveals species tree conflict as a result of multiple parallel gene loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casewell, Nicholas R; Wagstaff, Simon C; Harrison, Robert A; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2011-03-01

    The proliferation of gene data from multiple loci of large multigene families has been greatly facilitated by considerable recent advances in sequence generation. The evolution of such gene families, which often undergo complex histories and different rates of change, combined with increases in sequence data, pose complex problems for traditional phylogenetic analyses, and in particular, those that aim to successfully recover species relationships from gene trees. Here, we implement gene tree parsimony analyses on multicopy gene family data sets of snake venom proteins for two separate groups of taxa, incorporating Bayesian posterior distributions as a rigorous strategy to account for the uncertainty present in gene trees. Gene tree parsimony largely failed to infer species trees congruent with each other or with species phylogenies derived from mitochondrial and single-copy nuclear sequences. Analysis of four toxin gene families from a large expressed sequence tag data set from the viper genus Echis failed to produce a consistent topology, and reanalysis of a previously published gene tree parsimony data set, from the family Elapidae, suggested that species tree topologies were predominantly unsupported. We suggest that gene tree parsimony failure in the family Elapidae is likely the result of unequal and/or incomplete sampling of paralogous genes and demonstrate that multiple parallel gene losses are likely responsible for the significant species tree conflict observed in the genus Echis. These results highlight the potential for gene tree parsimony analyses to be undermined by rapidly evolving multilocus gene families under strong natural selection.

  8. Effect of Trimeresurus albolabris (green pit viper) venom on mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... 1Clinical Microscopy Research Unit, Department of Clinical Microscopy, Faculty of ... At a concentration of 10 µg crude venom, red blood cells (RBC) osmotic fragility ... in human victims of Trimeresurus albolabris (green pit.

  9. PROFILE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTI-OPHIDIAN PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep V. Binorkar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The morbidity and mortality associated with snake bite is a serious health concerned especially in developing countries. The rural communities are the worst affected and where it is considered as one of the occupational health hazards especially related to agriculture industry. About 50,000 deaths are recorded per year as a result of snakebite. The scenario may sometimes deteriorate further because of Ineffectiveness and or complications of the anti snake venom as well as untimely interventions or lack of appropriate medications in venomous snakebite cases. The common poisonous snakes found in India are Cobra (Naja naja, Krait (Bangarus Caeruleus, Russell’s viper (Daboia russelli and saw scaled viper (Echis Carinatus. Over the years many attempts have been made for the development of snake venom antagonists from plants sources. Ethnobotanical data suggests that certain plant species are used traditionally all over the world to treat snakebite cases successfully. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. Present article deals with the Traditional, ethno botanical and pharmacological review of certain plants utilized in the cases of snakebite.

  10. Un libro-labirinto. Echi di Borges in “House of leaves” di Mark Z. Danielewski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano D'Ambrosio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most remarkable features of Jorge Luis Borges’ work is the deliberate confusion between fictitious quotations and real references, and vice versa. This bizarre intertextual practice has inspired theoretical reflections by critics such as Gérard Genette and Antoine Compagnon, and the work of various writers, such as the American Mark Z. Danielewski. Through an analysis of the Borgesian echoes in Danielewski’s first novel House of Leaves, this article examines the forms taken by quotations, the questions they pose and the effects they produce.

  11. THE PHOENIX AND THE CARPET%快速阅读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Princess Dahlia ooked from her upstairs' chamber into the courtyard. Her maid,Amery,was busy packing their things.They had to leave the castle quickly through the secret passageway known only to Princess Dahlia, her family,and their very close servants. Princess Dahlia watched as enemy soldiers poured through the battered gates toward her home,the keep. Her father's soldiers met the enemy before they got to the keep.

  12. Floating Carpets and the Delamination of Elastic Sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J. W.

    2011-07-22

    We investigate the deformation of a thin elastic sheet floating on a liquid surface and subject to a uniaxial compression. We show that at a critical compression the sheet delaminates from the liquid over a finite region forming a delamination "blister." This blistering regime adds to the wrinkling and localized folding regimes that have been studied previously. The transition from wrinkled to blistered states occurs when delamination becomes energetically favorable compared with wrinkling. We determine the initial blister size and the evolution of blister size with continuing compression before verifying our theoretical results with experiments at a macroscopic scale. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  13. THE KING’S CARPET: DRAMA PLAY IN TEACHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Kerekes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trying to develop new perspectives of teaching is never easy, but trying to cultivate ownership and initiative among teacher education students is a still greater aspiration that is infrequently realized. This article addresses each of these highly valued goals for teacher educators as a case study reveals the impact of involving teacher candidates in interdisciplinary focused, constructivist and reflective models and planning for teaching, and then student teaching, which reaffirms this approach. Most significant is the phenomenon of several teacher candidates continuing their development and study of innovative drama play projects with their classes after the semester finishes. The resulting transformations in professional identity development, self-efficacy and student-teacher relationships confirm the value of the teacher education model which has developed over a decade of practice (Lyublinskaya & Kerekes, 2009.

  14. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Osses

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m−2 of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m−2. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i deposition of water to the desert, and (ii intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog.

  15. Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurs in the International Carpet Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Dana, Leo-Paul; Light, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    competing with traditional manufacturers. We identify two important issues: 1) the existence of a time-lag from the date of arrival of new migrant groups before the group is able to establish some weak business ties and transform those to strong ones; 2) the key to the success of new immigrant groups...

  16. On the Red Carpet. Expats in Rotterdam and The Hague

    OpenAIRE

    Bochove, Marianne; Rusinovic, Katja; Engbersen, Godfried

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In a range of Dutch cities, in recent years a policy has been developed which is specifically directed to knowledge workers or expatriates – often simply called expats. Special expat information centers were opened in, among other cities, The Hague, Amsterdam, Nijmegen, Leiden and Eindhoven. Rotterdam, the city which forms the central focus of this research, established an Expat Desk at the end of 2008. Although differences exist regarding the exact design of such ex...

  17. On the Red Carpet. Expats in Rotterdam and The Hague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van Bochove (Marianne); K.M. Rusinovic (Katja); G.B.M. Engbersen (Godfried)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In a range of Dutch cities, in recent years a policy has been developed which is specifically directed to knowledge workers or expatriates – often simply called expats. Special expat information centers were opened in, among other cities, The Hague, Amsterdam, Nijmegen, Lei

  18. China Rolls out the Red Carpet for Foreign Experts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The transnational flow of talented people is a major characteristic of globalization. With the objective of building China into an innovative country, the Chinese government is striving to embrace outstanding scientists and experts from around the globe to nurture its capacity in scientific and technological innovation. By implementing positive and open talent strategies, China is becoming a new arena for international talents to work to their full potential.

  19. HAUSDORFF MEASURES OF A CLASS OF SIERPINSKI CARPETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Dan; Yang Xiaoling

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a lemma as a new method to calculate the Hausdorff measure of fractal is given. And then the exact values of Hausdorff measure of a class of Sierpinski sets which satisfy balance distribution and dimension ≤ 1 are obtained.

  20. Malakofauna Přírodní rezervace Údolí Teplé (západní Čechy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Dvořák

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Author has found 49 mollusc species in the Údolí Teplé Nature Reserve in 2007. The most species occur in alder forest near the Teplá River and in small parts of the talus slope covered by mountain ash, willow, and hazel. The richest sites host up to 30 mollusc species. Perpolita petronella (L. Pfeiffer, 1853 is endangered species of the highest conservation importance in the reserve. Other species interesting in term of regional snail fauna are Euconulus praticola (Reinhardt, 1883 (rare species of wetlands, Semilimax kotulae (Westerlund, 1883, and Discus ruderatus (A. Férussac, 1821 (both boreoalpine species of mountain forests. The mollusc assemblages consist of forest species (ca. 1⁄2, wetland and aquatic species (ca. 1⁄4, and mesophilous species (ca. 1⁄4. Although some open sites are presented in the reserve (along the railway, no xerophilous species or species of open habitats were found. No specific management is necessary to preservation of relatively rich mollusc assemblages.

  1. Malakofauna v nivě Jizery (Severní Čechy The mollusc fauna of the Jizera River floodplain (North Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojen Ložek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research of floodplain mollusc communities of the Jizera River (the Elbe tributary, North Bohemia, Czech Republic. Altogether, 101 mollusc species (100 species of gastropods, one species of bivalve were recorded at 55 selected sites during previous and recent researches in 1945–1997 and 2002–2009, representing 40% of the total Czech malacofauna. The upper well-preserved stretch of the river hosts a rich forest mollusc fauna with some rare woodland species e.g. Arion intermedius, Cochlodina dubiosa corcontica, Daudebardia brevipes, D. rufa, Vertigo alpestris and Vitrea subrimata. Impoverish assemblages of the lower stretch are represented by some common or open/semi-open country species, because the river flows there through the landscape of an intensive agricultural land use and high settlement density. Despite, the occurrence of 31 rare species (four of them endangered, eight vulnerable, and 19 near threatened was recorded at the upper stretch of the Jizera River alluvium, which provides an important refuge for these mollusc faunas.

  2. La vida invisible ed El séptimo velo di Juan Manuel de Prada: quando echi e geometrie divengono formule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cattaneo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Il presente articolo vorrebbe mostrare, soffermandosi soprattutto sull’analisi dei romanzi La vida invisible (2003 e El séptimo velo (2007, come la traiettoria letteraria di Juan Manuel de Prada sia nel fondo frutto di una progressiva sedimentazione di tic stilistici, metafore, similitudini, immagini e personaggi che ricorrono sistematicamente nei suoi libri, finendo per dare vita a universi chiusi, retti su archetipi che, con la loro fissità, offuscano il brillante stile barocco dell’autore e mettono a nudo una certa serialità delle vicende narrate. The aim of this article is to show, through the analysis of the novels La vida invisible and El séptimo velo, how the whole literary work of Juan Manuel de Prada –one of the most acclaimed spanish writers born in the Seventies– is based on a progressive sedimentation of stylistic devices, metaphors, similes, images and characters. As a consequence, the literary worlds that he creates in his books are claustrophobic and rely on archetypes that, because of their shared traits, undermine the brilliance of his baroque style and reveal some repetitiveness in the elaboration of plots and situations.

  3. Nivní malakofauna Ploučnice (Severní Čechy The floodplain mollusc fauna of the Ploučnice River (North Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Juřičková

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research of the floodplain mollusc communities of the Ploučnice River (Elbe tributary, North Bohemia, Czech Republic. Altogether, 66 mollusc species (65 species of gastropods, one species of bivalve were recorded in the 35 floodplain forest sites during the research between 2007 and 2011, representing 27% of the total Czech malacofauna. More than a half of all species represents the common forest species (52% of all recorded species with some rare woodland species as Aegopinella nitidula, Daudebardia rufa, Macrogastra ventricosa, Oxychilus depressus, O. glaber and two endangered species Clausilia bidentata and Daudebardia brevipes. Rare wetland species protected by the NATURA system Vertigo angustior and vulnerable V. antivertigo were also found. The occurrence of these rare species (two of them endangered, three vulnerable, and 11 near threatened makes the Ploučnice river alluvium as an important mollusc refugium of prime conservation importance in this fragmented Czech landscape of long-term agricultural land use.

  4. Identification of novel serum proteins in a Japanese viper: homologs of mammalian PSP94.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Narumi; Sakiyama, Akie; Deshimaru, Masanobu; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2007-07-27

    Three small serum proteins (SSP-1, -2, and -3), with molecular masses of 6.5-10kDa, were isolated from Habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) serum, and the amino acid sequences were determined by protein and cDNA analysis. Despite only limited sequence identity to any mammalian prostatic secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94), all of the Cys residues in these SSPs were well conserved. SSPs are the first PSP94 family proteins to be identified in reptiles. SSP-1 and -3 weakly inhibited the proteolytic activity of a snake venom metalloproteinase. On the other hand, SSP-2 formed a tight complex with triflin, a snake venom-derived Ca(2+) channel blocker that suppresses the smooth muscle contraction. This suggests a role for SSP-2 in the self defense system of venomous snakes.

  5. Wound Myiasis Due to Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Persian Horned Viper, Pseudocerastes persicus (Squamata: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dehghani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of myiasis due to Musca domestica describes in Pseudocerastes persicus for the first time. The snake was found in Bari Karafs, Kashan, Iran, with a lesion on its body. Fourteen live larvae of M. domestica removed from its wound. This is the first report of a new larval habitat of M. domestica.

  6. Responses of infrared-sensitive tectal units of the pit viper Crotalus atrox to moving objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldenbach, Felix; Bleckmann, Horst; Kohl, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Rattlesnakes perceive IR radiation with their pit organs. This enables them to detect and strike towards warm-blooded prey even in the dark. In addition, the IR sense allows rattlesnakes to find places for thermoregulation. Animate objects (e.g., prey) tend to move and thus cause moving IR images across the pit membrane. Even when an object is stationary, scanning head movements of rattlesnakes will result in moving IR images across the pit membrane. We recorded the neuronal activity of IR-sensitive tectal neurons of the rattlesnake Crotalus atrox while stimulating the snakes with an IR source that moved horizontally at various velocities. As long as object velocity was low (angular velocity of ~5°/s) IR-sensitive tectal neurons hardly showed any responses. With increasing object velocity though, neuronal activity reached a maximum at ~50°/s. A further increase in object velocity up to ~120°/s resulted in a slight decrease of neuronal activity. Our results demonstrate the importance of moving stimuli for the snake's IR detection abilities: in contrast to fast moving objects, stationary or slowly moving objects will not be detected when the snake is motionless, but might be detected by scanning head movements.

  7. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: their occurrence in Spanish honey collected from purple viper's bugloss (Echium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orantes-Bermejo, F J; Serra Bonvehí, J; Gómez-Pajuelo, A; Megías, M; Torres, C

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from Echium spp. plant have been defined in 103 Spanish honey samples. Each sample was examined to determine total pollen content, the percentage of Echium spp. pollen, and simultaneous measurements of PAs and their N-oxides concentrations by the HPLC-ESI/MS method to identify the potential origin of PAs in honey. PAs were found in 94.2% of the raw honey samples analysed, in the range of 1-237 µg kg(-1) (average concentration = 48 µg kg(-1)). The PA pattern was clearly dominated by echimidine, lycopsamine and their N-oxides, representing the 97.8% of total ∑PAs, and only echimidine and echimidine-N-oxide surpassed the 87% of total ∑PA content. Others PAs, seneciphylline and heliotrine-N-oxide, appear to be reported in a lower incidence and concentration (average of 3 and 1 µg kg(-1), respectively). The Pearson Chi-squared test (p ≤ 0.01) confirms the non-correspondence between pollen plants and PA content. This study was also realised to generate a dataset in order to evaluate the potential risk of Spanish honeys containing PA plants belonging to the genera Echium.

  8. Canopy Venom: Proteomic Comparison among New World Arboreal Pit-Viper Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Debono

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Central and South American pitvipers, belonging to the genera Bothrops and Bothriechis, have independently evolved arboreal tendencies. Little is known regarding the composition and activity of their venoms. In order to close this knowledge gap, venom proteomics and toxin activity of species of Bothriechis, and Bothrops (including Bothriopsis were investigated through established analytical methods. A combination of proteomics and bioactivity techniques was used to demonstrate a similar diversification of venom composition between large and small species within Bothriechis and Bothriopsis. Increasing our understanding of the evolution of complex venom cocktails may facilitate future biodiscoveries.

  9. Seasonal, daily activity, and habitat use by three sympatric pit vipers (Serpentes, Viperidae) from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marcelo C; Hartmann, Paulo A; Winck, Gisele R; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2014-04-25

    Viperid snakes are widely distributed in the South America and the greater distribution range of the family is found at the Crotalinae subfamily. Despite the abundance of this snakes along their geographic distribution, some ecological aspects remain unknown, principally at subtropical areas. In the present study, we evaluated the activity (daily and seasonal) and the use of the habitat by Bothrops diporus, B. jararaca and B. jararacussu, in an Atlantic Forest area at southern Brazil. We observed higher incidence of viperid snakes during the months with higher temperatures, while no snakes were found during the months with lower temperatures. The data suggest the minimum temperature as environmental variable with the greatest influence on the seasonal activity of this species. Considering the daily activity, we observed a tendency of snakes to avoid the warmest hours. Bothrops jararacussu tend to avoid open areas, being registered only inside and at the edges of the forest. We compared our results with previous studies realized at tropical areas and we suggest the observed seasonal activity as an evolutive response, despite the influence of the different environmental variables, according to the occurence region.

  10. Canopy Venom: Proteomic Comparison among New World Arboreal Pit-Viper Venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Jordan; Cochran, Chip; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Nouwens, Amanda; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W; Kawasaki, Minami; Wood, Kelly; Dobson, James; Baumann, Kate; Jouiaei, Mahdokht; Jackson, Timothy N W; Koludarov, Ivan; Low, Dolyce; Ali, Syed A; Smith, A Ian; Barnes, Andrew; Fry, Bryan G

    2016-07-08

    Central and South American pitvipers, belonging to the genera Bothrops and Bothriechis, have independently evolved arboreal tendencies. Little is known regarding the composition and activity of their venoms. In order to close this knowledge gap, venom proteomics and toxin activity of species of Bothriechis, and Bothrops (including Bothriopsis) were investigated through established analytical methods. A combination of proteomics and bioactivity techniques was used to demonstrate a similar diversification of venom composition between large and small species within Bothriechis and Bothriopsis. Increasing our understanding of the evolution of complex venom cocktails may facilitate future biodiscoveries.

  11. Zero Power Buoyancy Control for Distributed Autonomous Sensor Networks Conducted During Crimson Viper 2010 Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE...producing simple, small, power-efficient data harvesting nodes with variable buoyancy, enabling unsupervised underwater sensing with subsequent surfacing...aerosol samples for subsequent analysis at NRL. At regular intervals, a hand-held hyperspectral sensor as to be used to collect near-water optical

  12. Compartment syndrome after viper-bite in toddler: case report and review of literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pietrangiolillo, Zaira; Frassoldati, Rossella; Leonelli, Virginia; Freschi, Rachele; Russomando, Antonia; Lucaccioni, Laura; Iughetti, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    ... and an acute compartment syndrome of the right upper limb, a rare complication of venom snakebite. Administration of antivenom and fasciotomy were needed to resolve the acute episode permitting a positive outcome. On the basis of literature review and our experience we hypothesize an algorithm for the treatment of these patients.

  13. Compartment syndrome after viper-bite in toddler: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrangiolillo, Zaira; Frassoldati, Rossella; Leonelli, Virginia; Freschi, Rachele; Russomando, Antonia; Lucaccioni, Laura; Iughetti, Lorenzo

    2012-04-01

    Snakebites in Italy are a rare source of severe medical condition, except in case of venomous snakes. The venom causes both local and/or systemic complication which may determine death in 6-60 hours, particularly in children and the elderly. In fact, the same amount of venom affects children more severely than adults because of the reduced total dilution volume in children. The only specific and conflicting therapy for venomous snakebite is to administer the appropriate anti-venom; the remaining therapy is symptomatic and supportive. We describe the case of a 22-month-old child who, despite appropriate symptomatic treatment, developed severe signs and an acute compartment syndrome of the right upper limb, a rare complication of venom snakebite. Administration of antivenom and fasciotomy were needed to resolve the acute episode permitting a positive outcome. On the basis of literature review and our experience we hypothesize an algorithm for the treatment of these patients.

  14. SeaVipers- Computer Vision and Inertial Position/Reference Sensor System (CVIPRSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    shown a heightened demand for CV based technologies in commercial, industrial, and consumer products. First debuted in 1992 by Volkswagen , self-parking...and parking-assist systems are in- creasingly available to consumers on automobiles from many major automakers [4]. Using a combination of servo motors ...safe during DPS failure. Light Taut Wire (LTW) systems consist of a weighted sinker, a long spool of wire, a motorized winch, and a ring-shaped

  15. Histopathological changes in rat myocardium caused by Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (European viper) snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unković-Cvetković, N; Cvetković, M; Petković, D; Jovanović, T; Unković, S

    1983-01-01

    The application of Vipera ammodytes ammodytes snake venom, either crude venom or fractions 5 and 6 of the 11 obtained from a Sephadex G-100 column, produced parenchymal degeneration of the myocardium of isolated rat hearts.

  16. An Investigation Into Low Fuel Pressure Warnings on a Macchi-Viper Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Space Technologies Australia, Manager/Librarian (2 copies) Australi.,n Airlines, Library Qantas Airways Limited Ansett Airlines of Australia, Library...without written permission. Copyright is the responsibility of the Director Publishing and Marketing , AGPS. Inquiries should be directed to the Manager

  17. Analysis and Simulation of Sierpinski Carpet Type Fractal Multiband Antenna for Wide Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwivedi, S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Micro strip patch antennas became very popular because of planer profile, ease of analysis and fabrication, compatibility with integrated circuit technology & their attractive radiation characteristics. Here, in this particular paper, author main focus is on fractal based rectangular microstrip patch antenna, whose thickness is 1.6mm and substrate material Flame Retardant 4 (FR-4 with a dielectric constant of approximately 4.4, is a line feed and has a partial ground plane. After simulation, the antenna performance characteristics such as antenna input impedance, VSWR, Return Loss are analysed and discussed in this paper. This antenna is used as a mobile antenna and Wi-Fi antenna for communication purposes like WiMax and WiFi. Use of fractal antenna can meet the need of all modern communication with a boom in an era of todays technologies with thin section, small size, being easy to manufacture and low price.

  18. Representation and Description of Carpet Patterns Using Wavelet and Fourier–Mellin Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid khodakarami

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the description and the representation of carpet’s flowers. The available carpet’s flowers set are classified in 14 classes. Since flowers have rotation, scale change and transition, the desirable descriptor should be invariant to this change. In this research we use wavelet descriptor and Fourier-Mellin descriptor. In wavelet descriptor uses the standard deviation of sub-bands. We recognize flowers to evaluate the used descriptors. The nearest neighbor method was used for the recognition and that highest recognition rate was obtained by the manhattan distance criterion. Some flowers segregated with inner details and considered in this research. For a method that is done according to the flower’s Contour and Fourier descriptor, the reported recognition rate is 69.4%, but in Fourier-Mellin method that considers the inner details also, the recognition rate is 81.5%.

  19. 75 FR 42315 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Carpets and Rugs: Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... labeler, or other interested party to hide or exert undue influence over the third party conformity... body's testing results are not subject to undue influence by any other person, including another... conformity assessment body does not exercise undue influence over other governmental authorities on matters...

  20. The Impact of Ergonomically Designed Workstations on Shoulder EMG Activity during Carpet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motamedzade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical exposure to the trapezius muscle activity in female weavers for a prolonged period in the workstation A (suggested by previous studies and workstation B (proposed by the present study. Methods: Electromyography data were collected from nine females during four hours for each ergonomically designed workstation at the Ergonomics Laboratory, Hamadan, Iran. The design criteria for ergonomically designed workstations were: 1 weaving height (20 and 3 cm above elbow height for workstations A and B, respectively, and 2 seat type (10° and 0° forwardsloping seat for workstations A and B, respectively. Results: The amplitude probability distribution function (APDF analysis showed that the left and right upper trapezius muscle activity was almost similar at each workstation. Trapezius muscle activity in the workstation A was significantly greater than workstations B (P<0.001. Conclusion: In general, use of workstation B leads to significantly reduced muscle activity levels in the upper trapezius as compared to workstation A in weavers. Despite the positive impact of workstation B in reducing trapezius muscle activity, it seems that constrained postures of the upper arm during weaving may be associated with musculoskeletal symptoms.

  1. Factors affecting hematology and plasma biochemistry in the southwest carpet python (Morelia spilota imbricata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gillian L; Fleming, Patricia A; Twomey, Leanne; Warren, Kristin A

    2012-04-01

    Despite increased worldwide popularity of keeping reptiles as pets, we know little about hematologic and biochemical parameters of most reptile species, or how these measures may be influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Blood samples from 43 wild-caught pythons (Morelia spilota imbricata) were collected at various stages of a 3-yr ecological study in Western Australia. Reference intervals are reported for 35 individuals sampled at the commencement of the study. As pythons were radiotracked for varying lengths of time (radiotransmitters were surgically implanted), repeated sampling was undertaken from some individuals. However, because of our ad hoc sampling design we cannot be definitive about temporal factors that were most important or that exclusively influenced blood parameters. There was no significant effect of sex or the presence of a hemogregarine parasite on blood parameters. Erythrocyte measures were highest for pythons captured in the jarrah forest and at the stage of radiotransmitter implantation, which was also linked with shorter time in captivity. Basophil count, the only leukocyte influenced by the factors tested, was highest when the python was anesthetized, as was globulin concentration. Albumin and the albumin:globulin ratio were more concentrated in summer (as was phosphorous) and at the initial stage of radiotransmitter placement (as was calcium). No intrinsic or extrinsic factors influenced creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid, or total protein. This study demonstrates that factors including season, location, surgical radiotransmitter placement, and anesthetic state can influence blood parameters of M. s. imbricata. For accurate diagnosis, veterinarians should be aware that the current reference intervals used to identify the health status of individuals for this species are outdated and the interpretation and an understanding of the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors are limited.

  2. Biodegradation of Navy N5RL1 carpet dye by Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain BHUSS X3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumari, Lata; Verma, Ajay Kumar; Tiwary, Dhanesh; Giri, Deen Dayal; Nath, Gopal; Mishra, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    ... in Bhadohi, Sant Ravidas Nagar and Uttar Pradesh, India. The isolated strain was identified as Staphylococcus saprophyticus BHUSS X3 on the basis of morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis...

  3. New stopping cell capabilities : RF carpet performance at high gas density and cryogenic operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranjan, M.; Purushothaman, S.; Dickel, T.; Geissel, H.; Plass, W. R.; Schaefer, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Van de Walle, J.; Weick, H.; Dendooven, P.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a stopping cell to be used at the FRS and Super-FRS (Superconducting FRagment Separator) at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy-Ion Research and the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), both in Darmstadt, Germany. The cell has a stopping volume with a length of 1m and a

  4. Butterflies, Magic Carpets, and Scary Wild Animals: An Intervention with a Young Gymnast

    OpenAIRE

    Howells, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a reflective case example of a sport psychology consultation carried out with a 9-year-old gymnast during the final year of the consultant’s training to become a British Psychological Society (BPS) chartered sport psychologist. During this period of time, the author was under the supervision of an experienced applied sport psychologist. The article draws on the published research in applied sport psychology and the wider child development literature to inform and negotia...

  5. Quantifying nitrogen-fixation in feather moss carpets of boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Thomas H; Zackrisson, Olle; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Sellstedt, Anita

    2002-10-31

    Biological nitrogen (N) fixation is the primary source of N within natural ecosystems, yet the origin of boreal forest N has remained elusive. The boreal forests of Eurasia and North America lack any significant, widespread symbiotic N-fixing plants. With the exception of scattered stands of alder in early primary successional forests, N-fixation in boreal forests is considered to be extremely limited. Nitrogen-fixation in northern European boreal forests has been estimated at only 0.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1); however, organic N is accumulated in these ecosystems at a rate of 3 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) (ref. 8). Our limited understanding of the origin of boreal N is unacceptable given the extent of the boreal forest region, but predictable given our imperfect knowledge of N-fixation. Herein we report on a N-fixing symbiosis between a cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp.) and the ubiquitous feather moss, Pleurozium schreberi (Bird) Mitt. that alone fixes between 1.5 and 2.0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) in mid- to late-successional forests of northern Scandinavia and Finland. Previous efforts have probably underestimated N-fixation potential in boreal forests.

  6. Carpet or Carcel: The Effect of Age of Acquisition and Language Mode on Bilingual Lexical Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta; Brehm, Laurel; Brick, Cameron A.; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Fischer, Kara; Wagner, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Lexical access was examined in English-Spanish bilinguals by monitoring eye fixations on target and lexical competitors as participants followed spoken instructions in English to click on one of the objects presented on a computer (e.g., "Click on the beans"). Within-language lexical competitors had a phoneme onset in English that was shared with…

  7. 24 CFR 200.948 - Building product standards and certification program for carpet cushion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS...-76—(Reapproved 1990) Standard Specification for Flexible Cellular Materials—Vinyl Chloride Polymers...

  8. Evaluation of Carpet Steam and Heat Cleaners as Biological Sampling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    typically stocked by specialty companies. The key differences between residential-, commercial-, and industrial-grade units are the temperature and...engine. The unit included a vacuum blower, solution pump, heat exchangers , and a 90 gal waste tank. The unit allowed complete temperature control up to...therefore expected to be well above the infectious dose of 8,000–50,000 (Public Health Agency of Canada , 2011; Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  9. 16 CFR 1630.61 - Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... natural “lay” of the hair structure for ten complete strokes. (8) Place test specimen in a circulating... wool or hair attached to the hide with no synthetic fibers and (2) have been treated with a fire...

  10. 16 CFR 1631.61 - Hide carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... natural “lay” of the hair structure for ten complete strokes. (8) Place test specimen in a circulating... wool or hair attached to the hide with no synthetic fibers and (2) have been treated with a fire...

  11. Accelerated evolution of small serum proteins (SSPs)-The PSP94 family proteins in a Japanese viper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Narumi; Matsuo, Hisashi; Deshimaru, Masanobu; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2008-12-15

    Five small serum proteins (SSPs) with molecular masses of 6.5-10 kDa were detected in Habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) serum; this included two novel proteins SSP-4 and SSP-5. The amino acid sequences of these proteins and of SSP-1, SSP-2, and SSP-3, which were reported previously, were determined on the basis of the nucleotide sequences of their cDNAs. Although these proteins exhibited only limited sequence identity to mammalian prostatic secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94), the topological pattern of disulfide bonds in SSPs was identical to that of the mammalian proteins. SSP-3 and SSP-4 lacked approximately 30 residues at the C-terminal. Each of the full-length cDNAs encoded a mature protein of 62-90 residues and a highly conserved signal peptide. The evolutionary distances between SSPs estimated on the basis of the amino acid changes were significantly greater than those of the synonymous nucleotide substitutions; these finding, together with results from analyses of nonsynonymous to synonymous rates of change (dN/dS) suggest that snake SSPs have endured substantial accelerated adaptive protein evolution. Such accelerated positive selection in SSPs parallels other findings of similar molecular evolution in snake venom proteins and suggests that diversifying selection on both systems may be linked, and that snake SSP genes may have evolved by gene duplication and rapid diversification to facilitate the acquisition of various functions to block venom activity within venomous snakes.

  12. Isolation of a galactose-binding lectin from the venom of the snake Bothrops godmani (Godmann's pit viper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, B; Rojas, G; Gutiérrez, J M; Ramírez, G

    1990-01-01

    A galactose-binding lectin, isolated from the venom of B. godmani by affinity chromatography, is an acidic protein (pI 4.9) with a subunit mol. wt of about 14,000, occurring mostly as a disulfide-linked dimer of 28,000. A small proportion of lectin appears as a monomer and as a tetramer. The lectin agglutinates erythrocytes from mice, rabbit, cow and human (all ABO types, either Rh positive or negative), but does not agglutinate horse, sheep, goat and snake (Oxybelis aeneus, Colubridae) erythrocytes. The agglutinating activity is inhibited by 1 mM EDTA. The lectin is devoid of lethal, hemorrhagic, myotoxic, proteolytic and phospholipase A2 activities. It is not mitogenic for human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The only effect observed was a moderate induction of edema in the footpad of mice, with a minimal edema-forming dose of 22 micrograms. This effect developed rapidly, and was significantly inhibited by i.p. administration of cyproheptadine, a histamine and serotonin antagonist, before injection of the lectin. Despite the edema-forming activity observed, the low concentration of lectin in crude venom, together with its relatively low potency, suggest that this lectin is not a key component in the development of edema following envenomations by B. godmani.

  13. Cross-recognition of a pit viper (Crotalinae) polyspecific antivenom explored through high-density peptide microarray epitope mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engmark, Mikael; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María

    2017-01-01

    -throughput methodology based on custom designed high-density peptide microarrays. By combining data on antibody-peptide interactions with multiple sequence alignments of homologous toxin sequences and protein modelling, we have determined linear elements of antibody binding sites for snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs...... at the catalytic active site responsible for toxicity, but instead at other sites, of which some are known for allosteric inhibition or for interaction with the tissue target. Antibody recognition was found to be preserved for several minor variations in the protein sequences, although the antibody...

  14. The VIPER project (Visualization Integration Platform for Exploration Research): a biologically inspired autonomous reconfigurable robotic platform for diverse unstructured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Oliver J.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-09-01

    Over the last decade the world has seen numerous autonomous vehicle programs. Wheels and track designs are the basis for many of these vehicles. This is primarily due to four main reasons: a vast preexisting knowledge base for these designs, energy efficiency of power sources, scalability of actuators, and the lack of control systems technologies for handling alternate highly complex distributed systems. Though large efforts seek to improve the mobility of these vehicles, many limitations still exist for these systems within unstructured environments, e.g. limited mobility within industrial and nuclear accident sites where existing plant configurations have been extensively changed. These unstructured operational environments include missions for exploration, reconnaissance, and emergency recovery of objects within reconfigured or collapsed structures, e.g. bombed buildings. More importantly, these environments present a clear and present danger for direct human interactions during the initial phases of recovery operations. Clearly, the current classes of autonomous vehicles are incapable of performing in these environments. Thus the next generation of designs must include highly reconfigurable and flexible autonomous robotic platforms. This new breed of autonomous vehicles will be both highly flexible and environmentally adaptable. Presented in this paper is one of the most successful designs from nature, the snake-eel-worm (SEW). This design implements shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators which allow for scaling of the robotic SEW designs from sub-micron scale to heavy industrial implementations without major conceptual redesigns as required in traditional hydraulic, pneumatic, or motor driven systems. Autonomous vehicles based on the SEW design posses the ability to easily move between air based environments and fluid based environments with limited or no reconfiguration. Under a SEW designed vehicle, one not only achieves vastly improved maneuverability within a highly unstructured environment, but also gains robotic manipulation abilities, normally relegated as secondary add-ons within existing vehicles, all within one small condensed package. The prototype design presented includes a Beowulf style computing system for advanced guidance calculations and visualization computations. All of the design and implementation pertaining to the SEW robot discussed in this paper is the product of a student team under the summer fellowship program at the DOEs INEEL.

  15. Viper Venom Botox: The Molecular Origin and Evolution of the Waglerin Peptides Used in Anti-Wrinkle Skin Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Jordan; Xie, Bing; Violette, Aude; Fourmy, Rudy; Jaeger, Marc; Fry, Bryan G

    2017-01-01

    The molecular origin of waglerin peptides has remained enigmatic despite their industrial application in skin cream products to paralyse facial muscles and thus reduce the incidence of wrinkles. Here we show that these neurotoxic peptides are the result of de novo evolution within the prepro region of the C-type natriuretic peptide gene in Tropidolaemus venoms, at a site distinct from the domain encoding for the natriuretic peptide. It is the same region that yielded the azemiopsin peptides from Azemiops feae, indicative of a close relationship of this toxin gene between these two genera. The precursor region for the molecular evolution is a biodiversity hotspot that has yielded other novel bioactive peptides with novel activities. We detail the diversity of components in this and other species in order to explore what characteristics enable it to be such a biodiscovery treasure trove. The unusual function of Tropidolaemus venoms may have been selected for due to evolutionary pressures brought about by a high likelihood of prey escape.

  16. Proteomic and functional analyses of the venom of Porthidium lansbergii lansbergii (Lansberg's hognose viper) from the Atlantic Department of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Charris, Eliécer; Montealegre-Sanchez, Leonel; Solano-Redondo, Luis; Mora-Obando, Diana; Camacho, Erika; Castro-Herrera, Fernando; Fierro-Pérez, Leonardo; Lomonte, Bruno

    2015-01-30

    The venom of the Lansberg's hognose pitviper, Porthidium lansbergii lansbergii, a species found in the northern region of Colombia, is poorly known. Aiming to increase knowledge on Porthidium species venoms, its proteomic analysis and functional evaluation of in vitro and in vivo activities relevant to its toxicity were undertaken. Out of 51 protein components resolved by a combination of RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE, 47 were assigned to 12 known protein families. In similarity with two previously characterized venoms from species within this genus, Porthidium nasutum and Porthidium ophryomegas, that of P. lansbergii lansbergii was dominated by metalloproteinases, although in lower proportion. A common feature of the three Porthidium venoms appears to be a high content of disintegrins. Proteins not previously observed in Porthidium venoms belong to the vascular endothelium growth factor, phosphodiesterase, and phospholipase B families. P. lansbergii lansbergii venom showed relatively weak lethal activity to mice, and induced a moderate local myotoxicity, but considerable hemorrhage. Its isolated VEGF component showed potent edema-inducing activity in the mouse footpad assay. Significant thrombocytopenia, but no other major hematological changes, were observed in envenomed mice. In vitro, this venom lacked coagulant effect on human plasma, and induced a potent inhibition of platelet aggregation which was reproduced by its purified disintegrin components. Phospholipase A2 and proteolytic activities were also demonstrated. Overall, the compositional and functional data herein described for the venom of P. lansbergii lansbergii may contribute to a better understanding of envenomings by this pitviper species, for which specific clinical information is lacking. Porthidium lansbergii lansbergii is estimated to be responsible for nearly 20% of snakebite envenoming cases at the Atlantic Department of Colombia, but the identity and functional properties of its venom components are largely unknown. This study provides the first combined proteomic and functional analyses of the venom of this pitviper, which may contribute to a better understanding of the features of envenomings by this species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The VIPERS Multi-Lambda Survey. II. Diving with massive galaxies in 22 square degrees since z = 1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutard, T.; Arnouts, S.; Ilbert, O.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; Guzzo, L.; Hudelot, P.; McCracken, H. J.; Van Werbaeke, L.; Morrison, G. E.; Le Fèvre, O.; Comte, V.; Bolzonella, M.; Fritz, A.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function and stellar mass density from redshift z = 0.2 to z = 1.5 of a Ks 22.5) samples, respectively. The galaxy stellar mass function is measured with ~760 000 galaxies down to Ks ~ 22 and over an effective area of ~22.4 deg2, the latter of which drastically reduces the statistical uncertainties (i.e. Poissonian error and cosmic variance). We point out the importance of carefully controlling the photometric calibration, whose effect becomes quickly dominant when statistical uncertainties are reduced, which will be a major issue for future cosmological surveys with EUCLID or LSST, for instance. By exploring the rest-frame (NUV-r) vs. (r-Ks) colour-colour diagram with which we separated star-forming and quiescent galaxies, (1) we find that the density of very massive log (M∗/M⊙) > 11.5 galaxies is largely dominated by quiescent galaxies and increases by a factor 2 from z ~ 1 to z ~ 0.2, which allows for additional mass assembly through dry mergers. (2) We also confirm the scenario in which star formation activity is impeded above a stellar mass log(ℳ*SF/M⊙) = 10.64±0.01. This value is found to be very stable at 0.2

  18. The VIPERS Multi-Lambda Survey - II: Diving with massive galaxies in 22 square degrees since z = 1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Moutard, T; Ilbert, O; Coupon, J; Davidzon, I; Guzzo, L; Hudelot, P; McCracken, H J; Van Waerbeke, L; Morrison, G E; Fèvre, O Le; Comte, V; Bolzonella, M; Fritz, A; Garilli, B; Scodeggio, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) and stellar mass density from redshift z=0.2 to z=1.5 of a $K_{AB}$22.5) samples, respectively. The SMF is measured with ~760,000 galaxies down to $K_s$=22 and over an effective area of ~22.4 deg$^2$, the latter of which drastically reduces the statistical uncertainties (i.e. Poissonian error & cosmic variance). We point out the importance of a careful control of the photometric calibration, whose impact becomes quickly dominant when statistical uncertainties are reduced, which will be a major issue for future generation of cosmological surveys with, e.g. EUCLID or LSST. By exploring the rest-frame (NUV-r) vs (r-$K_s$) color-color diagram separating star-forming and quiescent galaxies, (1) we find that the density of very massive log($M_*/ M_{\\odot}$) > 11.5 galaxies is largely dominated by quiescent galaxies and increases by a factor 2 from z~1 to z~0.2, which allows for additional mass assembly via dry mergers, (2) we confirm a scena...

  19. Anti-venom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica L. against Daboia russellii (Russell's viper) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, B L; Zameer, F; Girish, K S; D'Souza, Cletus J M

    2011-06-01

    Several plant extracts rich in pharmacologically active compounds have shown to antagonize venom of several species. Mangifera indica has been used against snakebite by the traditional healers. However, there is paucity of scientific data in support. In this study, we evaluated the antivenom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of M. indica against D. russellii venom-induced pharmacological effects such as life myotoxicity, edema, LD50 etc. The extract inhibited the phospholipase, protease, hyaluronidase, 5'nucleotidase, ATPase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities with varying IC50 values. It significantly inhibited both metalloproteases and serine proteases activities. Further, the extract significantly reduced the myotoxicity of the venom, as evident by the reduction of serum creatin kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Though the extract completely inhibited in vitro PLA2 activity, it was unable to completely inhibit in situ hemolytic and in vivo edema-inducing activities, usually brought about by PLA2s. In lethality studies, co-injection of the venom preincubated with the extract showed higher protection than the independent injection of venom, followed by the extract in the mice. However, in both the cases the extract -a cocktail of inhibitors significantly increased the survival time, when compared to that of mice injected (i.p) with the venom alone. These results encourage further studies on the potential use of cocktail of inhibitors in improving the treatment of snake envenomation. Further, this study substantiates the use of M. indica as an antidote against snakebite by the traditional healers.

  20. Purification and characterisation of two hemorrhagic metalloproteinases from the venom of the long-nosed viper, Vipera ammodytes ammodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Adrijana; Gubensek, Franc; Krizaj, Igor

    2002-01-01

    Two hemorrhagic proteins, VaH1 and VaH2, have been purified from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom. They are monomeric glycoproteins of an apparent molecular mass of 70kDa and multiple isoelectric points around pH 5.5. Both molecules are proteolytically active against azocasein as substrate. VaH1, which was characterised in detail, showed maximum activity at pH 7.5. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid eliminated the proteolytic as well as the hemorrhagic activity of VaH1 while iodoacetamide, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and pepstatin A, inhibitors of cysteine, serine and aspartic proteinases respectively, had no effect. VaH1 is therefore a metalloproteinase whose hemorrhagic activity is very likely the result of its proteolytic activity. VaH1 is a fibrinogenase, hydrolysing exclusively the Aalpha-chain of fibrinogen. In the B-chain of insulin it cleaved with a high preference the bond between Ala(14) and Leu(15). Based on its molecular mass, VaH1 (as well as VaH2) is a Class P-III metalloproteinase. Partial amino acid sequences of its CNBr fragments demonstrated a high level of identity with the reprolysin subfamily of zinc-metalloproteinases.

  1. Systémově dynamický model pro podporu řízení destinace cestovního ruchu jižní Čechy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Štumpf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to propose a system model that will lead to an efficient participation of a destination management organization (DMO on the management of a tourism destination and will help to reach a consensus among stakeholders. It means a high efficiency of the Hospitality & Tourism industry, as well as a high level of visitors̕ satisfaction, low level of residents̕ irritation and a preservation of a cultural and natural potential of a tourism destination. The computer simulation model, which enables policy testing and the scenario analyses of the future development based on various policies and decisions, are presented in this paper. The main methodological approach used in this paper was system dynamics. This method helped to reveal the complexity of a tourism system and to identify connections among a number of stakeholders in a tourism destination. This method, which is based on the computer simulations, enabled not only the economic impacts evaluation, but also to reveal the sociocultural and environmental relations in a complex organism such as tourism destination. The system dynamics model was developed for the Region of South Bohemia, which is one of the leading tourism destinations in the Czech Republic. The model has also allowed an application of conditions for tourism development from neighbour Region of Upper Austria for a comparison of various tourism policies.

  2. Výroba součásti rámu střechy automobilu plošným tvářením

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Projekt vypracovaný v rámci inženýrského studia oboru N2326 předkládá návrh technologie postupu výroby výlisku – dílce z mikrolegované oceli s vyšší mezí kluzu H 240 LA a konstrukční návrh nástroje pro jeho lisování. Na základě literární studie technologie plošného tváření za studena byl navržen technologický postup výroby v deseti operacích. Konstrukce sdruženého postupového nástroje vychází z typu lisu, který je určen pro lisování daného výlisku. Lis KRUPP 400t disponuje lisovací silou 4 00...

  3. Měkkýši Jindřišského údolí u Jindřichova Hradce (jižní Čechy, Česká republika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilém Hrdlička

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research of mollusc communities in the floodplain of Hamerský potok Brook (Nežárka River tributary, South Bohemia, Czech Republic. Altogether, 42 mollusc species (39 species of gastropods, three species of bivalves were recorded in the study area during the research in 2015, representing 17% of the total Czech malacofauna. More than a half of all species represents common forest species, but several sensitive woodland species as Causa holosericea, Ena montana and Macrogastra plicatula and the vulnerable wetland species, such as Euconulus praticola were also found. The occurrence of these rare species (three near threatened and one vulnerable makes the valley of Hamerský potok Brook an important mollusc refugium of prime conservation importance in this fragmented Bohemian landscape of a long-term agricultural land-use.

  4. Public Health Indicators for Europe: Context, Selection, Definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers PGN; ECHI (European Community Health Indicators); ECHI team; VTV

    2006-01-01

    This ECHI-2 report (ECHI = European Community Health Indicators) presents a list of indicators in the field of public health. The indicators range from health status (e.g. cancer incidence) through health determinants (e.g. nutrition, air pollution) to preventive actions and health care systems. The

  5. 16 CFR 1630.63 - Suspension of washing requirements for carpets and rugs with alumina trihydrate in the backing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... previously established to the satisfaction of the Consumer Product Safety Commission is normally used for... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY... drying procedure as shall previously have been found to be equivalent by the Consumer Product...

  6. Mercury health effects among the workers extracting gold from carpets and dusted clays through amalgamation and roasting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Nayab; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Abbas; Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed

    2015-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic metal which can cause serious health effects. The aim of this research was to determine the concentrations of total Hg (T-Hg), methyl Hg (Me-Hg), and inorganic Hg (I-Hg) in the biological samples (plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), urine, hair, and nails) of the exposed goldsmith workers. This is the first study that determines the detailed Hg concentrations in the biological samples (plasma, RBCs, urine, hair, and nails) of the exposed goldsmith workers and correlates them with the diseases noted among the workers in a single paper. Biological samples were collected from goldsmith workers (n = 40) and analyzed for T-Hg, Me-Hg, and I-Hg using atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with mercury hydride system. The mean T-Hg concentration in RBCs (33 μg L(-1)), plasma (11.8 μg L(-1)), urine (167 μg L(-1)), hair (4.21 μg g(-1)), and nails (5.91 μg g(-1)) were higher than the control RBCs (1.64 μg L(-1)), plasma (0.55 μg L(-1)), urine (2.72 μg L(-1)), hair (0.35 μg g(-1)), and nails (0.51 μg g(-1)). All workers participated in this study were suffering from physical and mental diseases. The concentration of Hg was found higher among the workers suffering from mental diseases as compared to those suffering from physical diseases. Among the physical diseases, the most serious diseases were sexual dysfunction, skin diseases, and fatigue because the workers suffering from these diseases had higher concentration of Hg than the workers with other diseases. The occurrence of physical diseases (88%) was greater than the mental diseases (53%) among the workers. The correlations of physical and mental diseases with experience (years of work) and exposure time were significant (p  0.05) correlation was observed between demographic parameters and Hg concentrations in the biological samples of the workers. The burning process of amalgamated gold is a significant source of Hg exposure to goldsmith workers; therefore, awareness and precautionary measures are needed to provide protection to them.

  7. Sexual dimorphism in development and venom production of the insular threatened pit viper Bothrops insularism (Serpentes: Viperidae of Queimada Grande Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Travaglia-Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops insularis is a threatened snake endemic to Queimada Grande Island, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and the occurrence of sexual abnormalities in females (females with functional ovaries and rudimentary hemipenis has been reported in this population. To date there are few data regarding developmental features of this particular species. The aim of this study was to follow some developmental features in specimens maintained in captivity for seven years in the Herpetology Laboratory at Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil. We verified a pronounced sexual dimorphism in development and venom production in the specimens analyzed. In this regard, females showed greater length, mass and amount of venom in comparison to males. Our results suggest a possible niche partitioning between the sexes that reduces (or minimizes intraspecific disharmonic interactions (eg. competition on their small living area (Queimada Grande Island. Taken together, our data suggest that males and females probably are divergent in their diets, with females feeding preferentially on endothermic prey (such as migratory birds, while males maintain the juvenile diet (with the major items being ectothermic prey.

  8. Kinetic studies on the activation of human factor X. The role of metal ions on the reaction catalyzed by the venom coagulant protein of Viper russelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S; Robey, F A; Kosow, D P

    1978-07-10

    The effect of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+ on the initial rate of activation of human Factor X by the venom coagulant protein of Vipera russelli has been investigated. Neither Mg2+ nor Mn2+ alone support the reaction. Ca2+ is an essential activator and exhibits cooperative kinetics. Both Mg2+ and Mn2+ enhance the reaction cooperatively when Ca2+ is present at suboptimal concentrations. Similarly, Ca2+ quenches the intrinsic fluorescence of human Factor X in a cooperative manner. While neither Mg2+ nor Mn2+ by themselves affect the fluorescence of human Factor X, they decrease the cooperativity of the Ca2+ binding to the protein as judged by Hill plots of the Ca2+ -induced fluoresence quenching. EPR measurements indicate that there are three high affinity Mn2+ binding sites on human Factor X which can also bind Ca2+. Positive cooperativity was not observed for Mn2+ binding. These data indicate that Ca2+ can cause a conformational change of the Factor X molecule which allows the activation reaction to proceed. We propose that Mn2+ does not support the activation of human Factor X because it cannot induce a necessary conformational change in the absence of Ca2+.

  9. Viper venom induced inflammation with Montivipera xanthina (Gray, 1849) and the anti-snake venom activities of Artemisia absinthium L. in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Erel, Sura Baykan; Köksal, Cinel; Göçmen, Bayram; Yıldız, Mehmet Zülfü; Karabay Yavaşoğlu, Nefise Ülkü

    2013-04-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the characterization of Montivipera xanthina crude venom partially by in vitro and in vivo and the anti-snake venom activities of Artemisia absinthium L. in comparison with carrageenan-induced acute inflammation model in rats. The LD50 value was estimated as 8.78 mg/kg within 24 h by different venom doses administrated intraperitoneally in mice. The IC50 value was 0.43 ± 0.18 μg/ml after 48 h treatment while the calculated value was 0.73 ± 0.10 μg/ml for the culture media totally refreshed after 2 h treatment with venom. Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally with A. absinthium extract, 30 min before venom or carrageenan was injected subplantarly into the left hind paw. Intraperitoneal administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg extract was inhibited venom induced paw swelling at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h (p in vivo toxicity and inflammatory actions and in vitro cytotoxic actions of crude M. xanthina venom were performed as a first report and inhibition of venom-induced inflammation by methanolic extract of A. absinthium was described.

  10. Snake venomics of the Lesser Antillean pit vipers Bothrops caribbaeus and Bothrops lanceolatus: correlation with toxicological activities and immunoreactivity of a heterologous antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, José María; Sanz, Libia; Escolano, José; Fernández, Julián; Lomonte, Bruno; Angulo, Yamileth; Rucavado, Alexandra; Warrell, David A; Calvete, Juan J

    2008-10-01

    The venom proteomes of the snakes Bothrops caribbaeus and Bothrops lanceolatus, endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands of Saint Lucia and Martinique, respectively, were characterized by reverse-phase HPLC fractionation, followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. The venoms contain proteins belonging to seven ( B. caribbaeus) and five ( B. lanceolatus) types of toxins. B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus venoms contain phospholipases A 2, serine proteinases, l-amino acid oxidases and zinc-dependent metalloproteinases, whereas a long disintegrin, DC-fragments and a CRISP molecule were present only in the venom of B. caribbaeus, and a C-type lectin-like molecule was characterized in the venom of B. lanceolatus. Compositional differences between venoms among closely related species from different geographic regions may be due to evolutionary environmental pressure acting on isolated populations. The venoms of these two species differed in the composition and the relative abundance of their component toxins, but they exhibited similar toxicological and enzymatic profiles in mice, characterized by lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, phospholipase A 2 and proteolytic activities. The venoms of B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus are devoid of coagulant and defibrinogenating effects and induce only mild local myotoxicity in mice. The characteristic thrombotic effect described in human envenomings by these species was not reproduced in the mouse model. The toxicological profile observed is consistent with the abundance of metalloproteinases, PLA 2s and serine proteinases in the venoms. A polyvalent (Crotalinae) antivenom produced in Costa Rica was able to immunodeplete approximately 80% of the proteins from both B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus venoms, and was effective in neutralizing the lethal, hemorrhagic, phospholipase A 2 and proteolytic activities of these venoms.

  11. Soluble P-selectin rescues viper venom–induced mortality through anti-inflammatory properties and PSGL-1 pathway-mediated correction of hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Der-Shan; Ho, Pei-Hsun; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2016-01-01

    Venomous snakebites are lethal and occur frequently worldwide each year, and receiving the antivenom antibody is currently the most effective treatment. However, the specific antivenom might be unavailable in remote areas. Snakebites by Viperidae usually lead to hemorrhage and mortality if untreated. In the present study, challenges of rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom markedly increased the circulating soluble P-selectin (sP-sel) level, but not P-selectin (P-sel, Selp−/−) mutants, in wild-type mice. Because sP-sel enhances coagulation through the P-selectin ligand 1 (PSGL-1, Selplg) pathway to produce tissue factor–positive microparticles, we hypothesized that increasing the plasma sP-sel level can be a self-rescue response in hosts against snake venom–mediated suppression of the coagulation system. Confirming our hypothesis, our results indicated that compared with wild-type mice, Selp−/− and Selplg−/− mice were more sensitive to rattlesnake venom. Additionally, administration of recombinant sP-sel could effectively reduce the mortality rate of mice challenged with venoms from three other Viperidae snakes. The antivenom property of sP-sel is associated with improved coagulation activity in vivo. Our data suggest that the elevation of endogenous sP-sel level is a self-protective response against venom-suppressed coagulation. The administration of recombinant sP-sel may be developed as a new strategy to treat Viperidae snakebites. PMID:27779216

  12. Sexual dimorphism in development and venom production of the insular threatened pit viper Bothrops insularism (Serpentes: Viperidae of Queimada Grande Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Travaglia-Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops insularis is a threatened snake endemic to Queimada Grande Island, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and the occurrence of sexual abnormalities in females (females with functional ovaries and rudimentary hemipenis has been reported in this population. To date there are few data regarding developmental features of this particular species. The aim of this study was to follow some developmental features in specimens maintained in captivity for seven years in the Herpetology Laboratory at Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil. We verified a pronounced sexual dimorphism in development and venom production in the specimens analyzed. In this regard, females showed greater length, mass and amount of venom in comparison to males. Our results suggest a possible niche partitioning between the sexes that reduces (or minimizes intraspecific disharmonic interactions (eg. competition on their small living area (Queimada Grande Island. Taken together, our data suggest that males and females probably are divergent in their diets, with females feeding preferentially on endothermic prey (such as migratory birds, while males maintain the juvenile diet (with the major items being ectothermic prey.

  13. Lachesis muta (Viperidae) cDNAs reveal diverging pit viper molecules and scaffolds typical of cobra (Elapidae) venoms: implications for snake toxin repertoire evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M; Ching, Ana T C; Carvalho, Eneas; Faria, Fernanda; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Ho, Paulo L; Diniz, Marcelo R V

    2006-06-01

    Efforts to describe toxins from the two major families of venomous snakes (Viperidae and Elapidae) usually reveal proteins belonging to few structural types, particular of each family. Here we carried on an effort to determine uncommon cDNAs that represent possible new toxins from Lachesis muta (Viperidae). In addition to nine classes of typical toxins, atypical molecules never observed in the hundreds of Viperidae snakes studied so far are highly expressed: a diverging C-type lectin that is related to Viperidae toxins but appears to be independently originated; an ohanin-like toxin, which would be the third member of the most recently described class of Elapidae toxins, related to human butyrophilin and B30.2 proteins; and a 3FTx-like toxin, a new member of the widely studied three-finger family of proteins, which includes major Elapidae neurotoxins and CD59 antigen. The presence of these common and uncommon molecules suggests that the repertoire of toxins could be more conserved between families than has been considered, and their features indicate a dynamic process of venom evolution through molecular mechanisms, such as multiple recruitments of important scaffolds and domain exchange between paralogs, always keeping a minimalist nature in most toxin structures in opposition to their nontoxin counterparts.

  14. Hyaluronidase and protease activities from Indian snake venoms: neutralization by Mimosa pudica root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, K S; Mohanakumari, H P; Nagaraju, S; Vishwanath, B S; Kemparaju, K

    2004-06-01

    The aqueous root extract of Mimosa pudica dose dependently inhibited the hyaluronidase and protease activities of Indian snakes (Naja naja, Vipera russelii and Echis carinatus) venom. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  15. The Marginalization of Globally-Born Businesses:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak

    Persian carpets have long been a major commodity in the world market, controlled by the Tehran Carpet Bazaar and the Hamburg Free Harbour. Today about 200 private traders in the Hamburg Free Harbour area export their carpets to about 10,000 private carpet traders throughout the world , these being...

  16. Tropomyosin and Actin Identified as Major Allergens of the Carpet Clam (Paphia textile and the Effect of Cooking on Their Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Methods. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Results. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18–150 kDa. In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. Conclusion. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin.

  17. MEASUREMENTS OF TRANSFERRABLE RESIDUE FROM CERAMIC TILE, VINYL TILE, HARDWOOD FLOORING, AND CARPET USING A PRESS SAMPLER AND C18, PUF, AND COTTON SAMPLING DISKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unintentional and avoidable human exposure is a consequence of pesticide use indoors. Pesticides on household surfaces are a source of exposure to children. Therefore, concern has been raised regarding the potential for contamination of foods in homes where pesticides have been...

  18. Reproductive activity and biochemical composition of the pullet carpet shell Venerupis senegalensis (Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Ria de Aveiro (northwestern coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Joaquim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study characterizes the reproductive cycle of Venerupis senegalensis (=V. pullastra from Ria de Aveiro (Portugal as well as its nutrient storage and exploitation strategy. The reproductive cycle followed a seasonal cycle that correlated negatively with sea surface temperature, and comprised a ripe stage in winter followed by a spawning period that began in late winter and ended in the early summer. This extended spawning may be an advantageous strategy for the species because it ensures a continuous supply of settlers. Gametogenesis began in late summer/early autumn and intensified with the decrease in temperature during autumn. The condition index increased even during the spawning period, which indicates that there is rapid recovery and that reserves are accumulated during late summer and used later in the gametogenic process. Proteins did not contribute significantly to gametogenesis and the glycogen pattern is typical of conservative species, since gametogenesis depends largely on the amount of glycogen stored. The lipid storage and utilization cycle showed that gametogenesis took place in autumn/winter and that energy reserves were accumulated in summer.

  19. Biochemical compounds' dynamics during larval development of the carpet-shell clam Ruditapes decussatus (Linnaeus, 1758): effects of mono-specific diets and starvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Domitília; Joaquim, Sandra; Ramos, Margarete; Sobral, Paula; Leitão, Alexandra

    2011-09-01

    Successful larval growth and development of bivalves depend on energy derived from internal (endotrophic phase) and external (exotrophic phase) sources. The present paper studies survival, growth and biochemical changes in the early developmental stages (from egg to pediveliger) of the clam Ruditapes decussatus in order to characterize the nutritional requirements and the transition from the endotrophic to the exotrophic phase. Three different feeding regimes were applied: starvation and two mono-specific microalgal diets ( Isochrysis aff galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans). A comparison between fed and unfed larvae highlighted the importance of egg lipid reserves, especially neutral lipids, during a brief endotrophic phase of embryonic development (first 2 days after fertilization). Egg reserves, however, may energetically contribute to the maintenance of larvae beyond the embryonic development. In fed larvae, the endotrophic phase is followed by a mixotrophic phase extending to days 5-8 after fertilization and a subsequent exotrophic phase. Metamorphosis starts around day 20. The intense embryonic activities are supported by energy derived from lipids, mainly from neutral lipids, and the metamorphic activities are supported by energy derived essentially from proteins accumulated during the planktonic phase and depend on the nutritional value of diets. The diet of I. aff galbana proves to be more adequate to R. decussatus larval rearing. The results provide useful information for the successful production of R. decussatus aquaculture.

  20. CATALOG OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. INSULATION, WALLCOVERINGS, RESI- LIENT FLOOR COVERINGS, CARPET, ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND CAULKS, AND PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses and presents data on constituents and emissions from products that have the potential to impact the indoor air environment. t is a tool to be used by researchers to help organize the study of materials as potential sources of indoor air emissions. ncluded are...

  1. MEASUREMENTS OF TRANSFERRABLE RESIDUE FROM CERAMIC TILE, VINYL TILE, HARDWOOD FLOORING, AND CARPET USING A PRESS SAMPLER AND C18, PUF, AND COTTON SAMPLING DISKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unintentional and avoidable human exposure is a consequence of pesticide use indoors. Pesticides on household surfaces are a source of exposure to children. Therefore, concern has been raised regarding the potential for contamination of foods in homes where pesticides have been...

  2. Měkkýši Dolanského rybníka (severní Čechy – příspěvek k poznání měkkýšů CHKO Kokořínsko – Máchův kraj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Beran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a malacological survey of the Dolanský rybník Pond in the Kokořínsko – Máchův kraj Protected Landscape Area (Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic. Altogether 48 species of molluscs (14 freshwater and 27 terrestrial gastropods, 7 bivalves were found at 8 sites. The most interesting result of this research was a discovery of a rare and endangered gastropod Pupilla alpicola. It is the first record of this relic species from Northern Bohemia. Vertigo moulinsiana, a relic from the Middle Holocene, was recorded at five studied sites in sedge marshes and reeds. This finding extended our knowledge about its distribution in the Kokořínsko – Máchův kraj PLA and this part of the Czech Republic.

  3. Měkkýši národní přírodní památky Kopičácký rybník (střední Čechy Molluscs of the Kopičácký rybník National Nature Monument (Central Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Škodová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The habitat diversity of the Kopičácký rybník National Nature Monument (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic contains a pond with littoral vegetation and nearby fens, and surrounding Molinia meadows. The first malacological records originate from a short visit in 2004 when an abundant population of Vertigo angustior was found there. A detailed research during 2005–2012 resulted in the discovery of Anisus vorticulus, a critically endangered freshwater snail species. This local small population is even more worthy of a specific protection management as the site seems to be one of the last refugees of this species in the Czech Elbe Basin.

  4. 细粒棘球蚴感染中阻断TGF-β1受体对淋巴细胞的影响%Effect of inhibition of TGF-β1 receptors on lymphocytes during infection of Echi-nococcus granulosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印双红; 杨文才; 张俊波; 陈小林; 徐芳洁; 侯隽; 吴向未; 陈雪玲; 姚元勇; 邢明明

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of TGF-β1 on T lymphocytes of BALB/c mice infected with Echinococcus granulosus( E.granulosus ) in vitro.Methods: The inhibitor group:the spleen cells of BALB/c mouse were co-cultured with E.granulosus and SB525334.The control group:the spleen cells of BALB/c mouse were co-cultured with E.granulosus and PBS.The blank group:the spleen cells of BALB/c mouse were co-cultured with RPMI-1640 medium and SB525334.The lymphocytes were collected at 48 h post-infection.The T lymphocyte subsets, the number of CD4+CD25+T cells, the number of NK cells, and the expression of NKG2D receptor were detected by flow cytometry.The NK cell activity was determined with the lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay(LDH).Results:The inhibition the TGF-β1 receptors resulted in the increase of in the number of CD4+T cells,the decrease in the number of CD8+T cells,the increase of in the ratio CD4+/CD8+T cells,the decrease of in the number of CD4+CD25+T cells,the increase in the expression of the NKG2D receptors,the increase in the lysis rate of Yac-1 cells by NK cells,and a positive cor-relation between the expression of activity receptor NKG2D and killing activity of NK, which were mediated by E.granulosus.Conclusion: The inhibition of TGF-β1 receptors can enhance the immune response of T lymphocytes against E.granulosus infection in vitro.%目的:观察TGF-β1对细粒棘球蚴体外与BALB/c小鼠T淋巴细胞培养的影响。方法:阻断剂组:BALB/c小鼠脾细胞+细粒棘球蚴+SB525334共培养;对照组:BALB/c小鼠脾细胞+细粒棘球蚴+PBS共培养;空白对照:BALB/c小鼠脾细胞+RPMI-1640培养基+SB525334共培养。方法:48 h收集淋巴细胞,流式细胞仪检测T淋巴细胞亚群、CD4+CD25+T细胞的数量、NK细胞的数量及其活性受体NKG2D的表达;乳酸脱氢酶法检测NK细胞的杀伤活性。结果:体外阻断TGF-β1受体后,引起细粒棘球蚴介导的CD4+T细胞数量升高、CD8+T细胞数量降低、CD4+/CD8+T细胞比值升高、CD4+CD25+T细胞数量减少、NK细胞活性受体NKG2D的表达增加、NK细胞对靶细胞Yac-1的裂解率增加和NK细胞活性及其活性受体NKG2D成正相关。结论:体外阻断TGF-β1受体可提高T淋巴细胞免疫,从而抵制细粒棘球蚴的感染。

  5. The Effects of Health Shocks on Employment and Health Insurance: The Role of Employer-Provided Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Cathy J.; Neumark, David; Motika, Meryl

    2012-01-01

    Background Employment-contingent health insurance (ECHI) has been criticized for tying insurance to continued employment. Our research sheds light on two central issues regarding employment-contingent health insurance: whether such insurance “locks” people who experience a health shock into remaining at work; and whether it puts people at risk for insurance loss upon the onset of illness, because health shocks pose challenges to continued employment. Objective To determine how men’s dependence on their own employer for health insurance affects labor supply responses and health insurance coverage following a health shock. Data Sources We use the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) surveys from 1996 through 2008 to observe employment and health insurance status at interviews two years apart, and whether a health shock occurred in the intervening period between the interviews. Study Selection All employed married men with health insurance either through their own employer or their spouse’s employer, interviewed in at least two consecutive HRS waves with non-missing data on employment, insurance, health, demographic, and other variables, and under age 64 at the second interview. We limited the sample to men who were initially healthy. Data Extraction Our analytical sample consisted of 1,582 men of whom 1,379 had ECHI at the first interview, while 203 were covered by their spouse’s employer. Hospitalization affected 209 men with ECHI and 36 men with spouse insurance. A new disease diagnosis was reported by 103 men with ECHI and 22 men with other insurance. There were 171 men with ECHI and 25 men with spouse employer insurance who had a self-reported health decline. Data Synthesis Labor supply response differences associated with ECHI – with men with health shocks and ECHI more likely to continue working – appear to be driven by specific types of health shocks associated with future higher health care costs but not with immediate increases in morbidity that

  6. The Marginalization of Globally-Born Businesses: Ethnically Divided Trade in Hamburg and the World Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Persian carpets have long been a major commodity in the world. Persian carpets have long been a major commodity in the world market, controlled by the Tehran Carpet Bazaar and the Hamburg Free Harbor. Today about 200 private traders in the Hamburg Free Harbor area export their ...... together in order to remain in control of this world-wide billion dollars trade......Problem statement: Persian carpets have long been a major commodity in the world. Persian carpets have long been a major commodity in the world market, controlled by the Tehran Carpet Bazaar and the Hamburg Free Harbor. Today about 200 private traders in the Hamburg Free Harbor area export...... their carpets to about 10,000 private carpet traders throughout the world, these being mainly of Iranian origin. The case of Persian Carpet represents one of the most magnificent and powerful examples of ethnic enclave economy in contemporary world. Approach: This study brought about some in depth knowledge...

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2003 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 award winner, Shaw Industries, developed EcoWorx carpet tiles with a backing that uses less toxic materials. The carpet tile fiber and backing are readily separated for recycling.

  8. Comparative evaluation of Roche Aurora FLOW, Becton and Dickinson Viper system, and Dynex DS2 for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis in various clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Ali; Costa, Sandra; Veenings, Sanne; Tuin, Hellen; van Loon, Linda; Bliekendaal, Harry

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce a high-throughput system, Aurora FLOW, for the simultaneous detection of 3 clinically relevant pathogens of sexually transmitted infections. Comparative evaluation with other systems revealed an overall concordance of 97.9% for Chlamydia trachomatis and comparable performance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  9. Venom of the crotaline snake Atropoides nummifer (jumping viper) from Guatemala and Honduras: comparative toxicological characterization, isolation of a myotoxic phospholipase A(2) homologue and neutralization by two antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E; Saravia, P; Angulo, Y; Arce, V; Lomonte, B; Chávez, J J; Velásquez, R; Thelestam, M; Gutiérrez, J M

    2001-06-01

    A comparative study was performed on the venoms of the crotaline snake Atropoides nummifer from Guatemala and Honduras. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, under reducing conditions, revealed a highly similar pattern of these venoms, and between them and the venom of the same species from Costa Rica. Similar patterns were also observed in ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Shephadex C-25, in which a highly basic myotoxic fraction was present. This fraction was devoid of phospholipase A(2) activity and strongly reacted, by enzyme-immunoassay, with an antiserum against Bothrops asper myotoxin II, a Lys-49 phospholipase A(2) homologue. A basic myotoxin of 16 kDa was isolated to homogeneity from the venom of A. nummifer from Honduras, showing amino acid composition and N-terminal sequence similar to those of Lys-49 phospholipase A(2) variants previously isolated from other crotaline snake venoms. Guatemalan and Honduran A. nummifer venoms have a qualitatively similar toxicological profile, characterized by: lethal; hemorrhagic; myotoxic; edema-forming; coagulant; and defibrinating activities, although there were significant quantitative variations in some of these activities between the two venoms. Neutralization of toxic activities by two commercially-available antivenoms in the region was studied. Polyvalent antivenom produced by Instituto Clodomiro Picado was effective in the neutralization of: lethal; hemorrhagic; myotoxic; coagulant; defibrinating; and phospholipase A(2) activities, but ineffective against edema-forming activity. On the other hand, MYN polyvalent antivenom neutralized: hemorrhagic; myotoxic; coagulant; defibrinating; and phospholipase A(2) activities, albeit with a lower potency than Instituto Clodomiro Picado antivenom. MYN antivenom failed to neutralize lethal and edema-forming activities of A. nummifer venoms.

  10. Neutralisation of venom-induced haemorrhage by IgG from camels and llamas immunised with viper venom and also by endogenous, non-IgG components in camelid sera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, R.A.; Hasson, S.S.; Harmsen, M.M.; Laing, G.D.; Theakston, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    Envenoming by snakes results in severe systemic and local pathology. Intravenous administration of antivenom, prepared from IgG of venom immunised horses or sheep, is the only effective treatment of systemic envenoming. Conventional antivenoms, formulated as intact IgG, papain-cleaved (Fab) or pepsi

  11. Neutralisation of venom-induced haemorrhage by IgG from camels and llamas immunised with viper venom and also by endogenous, non-IgG components in camelid sera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, R.A.; Hasson, S.S.; Harmsen, M.M.; Laing, G.D.; Theakston, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    Envenoming by snakes results in severe systemic and local pathology. Intravenous administration of antivenom, prepared from IgG of venom immunised horses or sheep, is the only effective treatment of systemic envenoming. Conventional antivenoms, formulated as intact IgG, papain-cleaved (Fab) or pepsi

  12. Sequences and structural organization of phospholipase A2 genes from Vipera aspis aspis, V. aspis zinnikeri and Vipera berus berus venom. Identification of the origin of a new viper population based on ammodytin I1 heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Isabelle; Bouchier, Christiane; Garrigues, Thomas; Wisner, Anne; Choumet, Valérie

    2003-07-01

    We used a PCR-based method to determine the genomic DNA sequences encoding phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) from the venoms of Vipera aspis aspis (V. a. aspis), Vipera aspis zinnikeri (V. a. zinnikeri), Vipera berus berus (V. b. berus) and a neurotoxic V. a. aspis snake (neurotoxic V. a. aspis) from a population responsible for unusual neurotoxic envenomations in south-east France. We sequenced five groups of genes, each corresponding to a different PLA2. The genes encoding the A and B chains of vaspin from the neurotoxic V. a. aspis, PLA2-I from V. a. zinnikeri, and the anticoagulant PLA2 from V. b. berus are described here. Single nucleotide differences leading to amino-acid substitutions were observed both between genes encoding the same PLA2 and between genes encoding different PLA2s. These differences were clustered in exons 3 and 5, potentially altering the biological activities of PLA2. The distribution and characteristics of the PLA2 genes differed according to the species or subspecies. We characterized for the first time genes encoding neurotoxins from the V. a. aspis and V. b. berus snakes of central France. Genes encoding ammodytins I1 and I2, described previously in Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (V. am. ammodytes), were also present in V. a. aspis and V. b. berus. Three different ammodytin I1 gene sequences were characterized: one from V. b. berus, the second from V. a. aspis, V. a. zinnikeri and the neurotoxic V. a. aspis, and the third from the neurotoxic V. a. aspis. This third sequence was identical with the reported sequence of the V. am. ammodytes ammodytin I1 gene. Genes encoding monomeric neurotoxins of V. am. ammodytes venom, ammodytoxins A, B and C, and the Bov-B LINE retroposon, a phylogenetic marker found in V. am. ammodytes genome, were identified in the genome of the neurotoxic V. a. aspis. These results suggest that the population of neurotoxic V. a. aspis snakes from south-east France may have resulted from interbreeding between V. a. aspis and V. am. ammodytes.

  13. Textiles: Some technocal information and data III: Low flammable and other high performance fibres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    1978-07-01

    Full Text Available importance in the flammability performance is well illustrated in the case of certain wool shag carpets. Legislation for carpets sold in Canada requires that all carpets be tested under bone dry conditions. Consequently the natural moisture content... of the wool fibres (10-14%) is not available to prevent the spread of flame. If, however, these carpets were tested under higher relative humidity conditions the burning methenamine tablet employed as ignition source would not be sufficient to cause flame...

  14. Introductory guide to floors and flooring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Billingham, PA

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available ........................................................................ Soft floor coverings 39 Carpets ......................................................................................... 40 Laying carpets ............................................................................. 44 Wooden floors... the glue that holds the finish, causing woodwork to swell and some carpets to rot. It can carry with it dissolved salts from thesoil and thegarden and deposit theseon the floor, spoiling the finish and even flaking stonework. Water vapour can sometimes...

  15. Kiire aeg ja mittepõgenemistsoon / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2000-01-01

    Baseli 20. video, filmi ja uue meedia festivalist "Viper - http://www.viper.ch". Sümpoosionist "Quick Times". Festivali serveris oli Eestist Lauri Tiidemanni video "Käed". Osalemistingimustest. Jaan Tinguely muuseumist (arhitekt Mario Botta). Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Ekraan kui membraan". Tartu, 2007, lk. 81-83

  16. Common adder bite to the tongue causing life threatening toxicity from airway compromise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte C G; Jessen, Casper L; Lambertsen, Karin;

    2010-01-01

    We illustrate the acute phase and development of symptoms in a 24-year-old man following a European Common Viper bite to the tongue.......We illustrate the acute phase and development of symptoms in a 24-year-old man following a European Common Viper bite to the tongue....

  17. Expression and characterization of recombinant ecarin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonebring, A.; Lange, U.; Bucha, E.; Deinum, J.; Elg, M.; Lovgren, A.

    2012-01-01

    The snake venom protease ecarin from Echis carinatus was expressed in stable transfected CHO-S cells grown in animal component free cell culture medium. Recombinant ecarin (r-ecarin) was secreted from the suspension adapted Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-S) host cells as a pro-protein and activation to

  18. Le Grand Lille (Frans)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussiere, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Lille occupe une place particuliere dans l'Europe des metropoles. Fille de l'eau dont elle tire son nom, Insula, son histoire est d'abord celle d'une lutte incessante pour domestiquer une nature inhospitaliere et transformer un site ingrat en un paysage urbain attractif. Se situer au coeur de l'echi

  19. Expression and characterization of recombinant ecarin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonebring, A.; Lange, U.; Bucha, E.; Deinum, J.; Elg, M.; Lovgren, A.

    2012-01-01

    The snake venom protease ecarin from Echis carinatus was expressed in stable transfected CHO-S cells grown in animal component free cell culture medium. Recombinant ecarin (r-ecarin) was secreted from the suspension adapted Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-S) host cells as a pro-protein and activation to

  20. 废旧地毯中热熔胶的回收及其性能测试%Recycling and Its Performance Test of the Hot Melt Glue from Worn Carpet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹兴华; 张富青; 唐兴兴; 别雨濛; 袁军

    2016-01-01

    对废旧地毯中热熔胶的回收及其性能测试进行研究,应用甲苯、二氯乙烷、1,2-二氯乙烷、N,N-二甲基甲酰胺(DMF)作为提取剂对样品做溶出实验,对各提取剂的溶出效果进行比较并对所回收的热熔胶[1]性能进行测试,结果表明:在所试验的提取剂中1,2-二氯乙烷的溶出效果最好,回收的热熔胶的粘合强度和市售热熔胶的粘合强度非常接进,符合实验预期,因此本研究为废旧地毯中热熔胶的回收提供了一种途径.

  1. 轿车塑料复合地毯热成型中传热过程的建模与研究%Construction and Research of Heat Transfer Model in the Thermoforming of Plastics Composite Carpets for Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦华生; 郭志英; 张云青; 卫志亮; 龚杜弟

    2005-01-01

    结合传热学中非稳态导热理论,对轿车地毯热成型加热和冷却阶段中的传热现象进行了理论研究,分别建立了加热和冷却过程的物理模型和数学模型,并推导出了加热和冷却时间的理论计算公式.最后将理论模型应用到实际的轿车地毯生产工艺中,论证了模型的实用性和精度.

  2. Modeling and Study of Thermoforming Process of Car Carpet%轿车地毯热力塑性成型中热传递模型的建构与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦华生; 郭志英; 张云青; 卫志亮; 龚杜弟

    2005-01-01

    结合传热学中非稳态导热理论,对轿车地毯热力塑性成型加热和冷却阶段中的传热现象进行了理论研究,分别建立了轿车地毯热力塑性成型中加热和冷却过程的物理模型和数学模型,并推导出了加热和冷却时间的理论设计计算公式.最后将理论模型应用到实际的轿车地毯生产工艺中,从而论证了模型的实用性和精度.

  3. Debajo de la alfombra de los barrios del sur: Derecho a la ciudad o nuevas formas de higienismo Under The Carpet Of The Southern Barrios: Right To The City Or New Forms Of Hygienism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gretel Thomasz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo describimos el proceso de cambio acontecido en un espacio urbano singular de la ciudad de Buenos Aires (Parque Patricios sur en conexión con la llegada y el establecimiento de diversos grupos de población carentes de vivienda. Tomando como trasfondo la primacía de un nuevo modelo de planificación urbana en Buenos Aires conocido con el nombre de "planeamiento estratégico", sostenemos la tesis de que dicho espacio ha sido indirectamente categorizado por el poder público como un espacio urbano residual a ser habitado por seres humanos superfluos o "residuales". Discutimos las repercusiones del referido modelo urbano en términos del "derecho a la ciudad" detentado por distintos sectores sociales. Desde otra perspectiva, este artículo representa un esfuerzo por iluminar una zona de la ciudad deprimida y olvidada que constituye la contracara de los espacios urbanos renovados y embellecidos a través de intervenciones que abrevan en el "planeamiento estratégico", cuyo estudio ha sido escasamente abordado desde las ciencias sociales, tradicionalmente centradas en el análisis de los espacios "clásicos" de la pobreza tales como complejos habitacionales, villas miseria y asentamientos.In this article, the process of change that occurred in a particular urban space in Buenos Aires City (Parque Patricios Sur in connection with the arrival and establishment of various groups of homeless people is described. Taking as a general context the primacy of a new urban planning model in Buenos Aires, we argue that this space has been categorized by the public power as a residual urban space to be populated by superfluous or "residual" human beings. The implications of the new urban model in terms of the "right to the city" of different social sectors is discussed. From another perspective, this article represents an effort to illuminate a forgotten and depressed area of Buenos Aires City, the counterpart of the urban spaces renovated and beautified through interventions inspired by the new planning model. This area has rarely been studied in the social sciences, which has traditionally focused on the analysis of the "classical" spaces of poverty, such as housing complexes, slums, and popular settlements.

  4. Bilateral parotid enlargement following snake bite:A rare sign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madi Deepak; Achappa Basavaprabhu; John T Ramapuram; Chowta Nithyananda; Soundarya Mahalingam

    2013-01-01

    Snakebite is a common medical emergency in India. Unusual complications may occur after viper bite. Bilateral parotid enlargement after viper bite is a rare entity. An 18-year old gentleman presented to our hospital with history of viper bite. On examination he had cellulitis of right lower limb. He developed swelling of both the parotid glands 12 h after admission. He developed coagulopathy, acute renal failure and died within 48 h of hospital admission. Development of parotid swelling after snake bite is associated with poor prognosis. This case is found worth reporting as it is an unusual complication having prognostic value.

  5. Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windley, Phillip J.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

  6. Kelomehele preemia Baseli festivalil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Baselis festivalil "VIPER - International Festival for Film Video and New Media" tunnistati parimaks CD-ROMiks Gustav Deutschi/Anna Schimeki "Odysee today", netiprojektiks itaallaste "01.ORG", äramärkimispreemia - Raivo Kelomehe "Videoweaver"

  7. Kelomehele preemia Baseli festivalil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Baselis festivalil "VIPER - International Festival for Film Video and New Media" tunnistati parimaks CD-ROMiks Gustav Deutschi/Anna Schimeki "Odysee today", netiprojektiks itaallaste "01.ORG", äramärkimispreemia - Raivo Kelomehe "Videoweaver"

  8. Polyvalent horse F(Ab`)2 snake antivenom: Development of process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... mice as animal test and the their potency expressed in terms of ED50 ... the antivenoms. All animals used in this study were maintained and ..... True Vipers: Natural History and ... Experiments on the preventive inoculation of.

  9. Wood or Laminate?—Psychological Research of Customer Expectations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiménez, Paul; Dunkl, Anita; Eibel, Kerstin; Denk, Elisabeth; Grote, Vincent; Kelz, Christina; Moser, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    .... However, when investigating psychological differences, wood is usually compared to carpets, glass, leather, stone, or plastic but is not compared to a visually similar material such as laminate...

  10. A Simple Survey Concerning the Approach of the Cleaning Companies to Mercury Spills

    OpenAIRE

    Derya Camur; Songul Acar Vaizoglu; Cagatay Guler

    2010-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge of the cleaning companies in case of mercury spills at home. METHOD: Thirty-two cleaning companies were interviewed by a telephone survey. Two standard questions were asked to an authorized people of the company. “A manometer is broken on the carpet. The mercury in the manometer is all spilled on the wall to wall carpet in the living room. We want our carpet to be cleaned. Could you do it? How can be the carpet cleaned? Have you e...

  11. Long term variations in small mammal composition of a snake diet do not mirror climate change trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugiero, Lorenzo; Milana, Giuliano; Capula, Massimo; Amori, Giovanni; Luiselli, Luca

    2012-08-01

    The study of the dietary changes which have intervened over the years in generalist and opportunist predators may provide useful information on the temporal modifications of their prey communities, especially under a climate change scenario. In this study, we analysed the quantitative changes in the small mammal portion of the diet of a generalist and opportunist predator, the asp viper (Vipera aspis) at a forest zone in central Italy, for the period 1987-2010. In addition, small mammals were trapped in five of these years. Apodemus spp., Mus musculus, and Myodes glareolus were the main prey for vipers. Among the various taxa eaten by vipers, only two showed significantly consistent trends over the years, with M. glareolus increasing and Sorex spp. declining in the viper diet. There were no significant relationships between the number of years passed after the first year of sampling and the diversity and dominance indexes of prey composition. We also found a significantly positive relationship between small mammal abundance in the field and their relative frequency of occurrence in the viper's diet, thus demonstrating that vipers really sampled the small mammal species in relation to their local availability. Despite being temperate-zone forest-associated species, hence likely adversed by global warming, Sorex spp. and M. glareolus showed opposite trends over the years, thus suggesting that such trends may reflect more local scale perturbations (local forest overgrowth and diminution of logging).

  12. Verkenning van technologische oplossingen voor milieuproblemen in de textiel- en tapijtveredeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman EJ; Schijndel MW van; Soczo ER; LAE

    1994-01-01

    This report gives an overview of technological solutions for environmental bottlenecks in the textile and carpet finishing sector in the Netherlands. The results of the study will be used to underpin the decision-making process around the possible introduction of a subprogramme on textile and carpet

  13. 40 CFR 63.5779 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... boats. Aluminum wipedown solvents means solvents used to remove oil, grease, welding smoke, or other... considered a boat manufacturing facility for the purpose of this subpart. Carpet and fabric adhesive means any chemical material that permanently attaches carpet, fabric, or upholstery to any surface of a...

  14. 75 FR 59611 - Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... entered into Iranian commerce. Based on this definition, foodstuffs and carpets of third-country origin... carpets of third-country origin that are transshipped through Iran for importation into the United States... of Iranian- origin household goods and personal effects set forth in section 560.524(b) of the...

  15. 77 FR 34027 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... years from the date of approval by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), of information collection... to perform each year varies, depending upon the number of carpet styles and the annual volume of... may vary from one to 200, depending upon the number of carpet styles and the annual production...

  16. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey: Measuring the growth rate of structure around cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Hawken, A J; Iovino, A; Guzzo, L; Peacock, J A; de la Torre, S; Garilli, B; Bolzonella, M; Scodeggio, M; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; Davidzon, I; Fritz, A; Franzetti, P; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fevre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Małek, K; Marulli, F; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Arnouts, S; Bel, J; Branchini, E; De Lucia, G; Ilbert, O; Moscardini, L; Percival, W J

    2016-01-01

    We identified voids in the completed VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), using an algorithm based on searching for empty spheres. We measured the cross-correlation between the centres of voids and the complete galaxy catalogue. The cross-correlation function exhibits a clear anisotropy in both VIPERS fields (W1 and W4), which is characteristic of linear redshift space distortions. By measuring the projected cross-correlation and then deprojecting it we are able to estimate the undistorted cross-correlation function. We propose that given a sufficiently well measured cross-correlation function one should be able to measure the linear growth rate of structure by applying a simple linear Gaussian streaming model for the redshift space distortions (RSD). Our study of voids in 306 mock galaxy catalogues mimicking the VIPERS fields would suggest that VIPERS is capable of measuring $\\beta$ with an error of around $25\\%$. Applying our method to the VIPERS data, we find a value for the redshift space ...

  17. Ozone-surface interactions: Investigations of mechanisms, kinetics, mass transport, and implications for indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Glenn Charles [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    In this dissertation, results are presented of laboratory investigations and mathematical modeling efforts designed to better understand the interactions of ozone with surfaces. In the laboratory, carpet and duct materials were exposed to ozone and measured ozone uptake kinetics and the ozone induced emissions of volatile organic compounds. To understand the results of the experiments, mathematical methods were developed to describe dynamic indoor aldehyde concentrations, mass transport of reactive species to smooth surfaces, the equivalent reaction probability of whole carpet due to the surface reactivity of fibers and carpet backing, and ozone aging of surfaces. Carpets, separated carpet fibers, and separated carpet backing all tended to release aldehydes when exposed to ozone. Secondary emissions were mostly n-nonanal and several other smaller aldehydes. The pattern of emissions suggested that vegetable oils may be precursors for these oxidized emissions. Several possible precursors and experiments in which linseed and tung oils were tested for their secondary emission potential were discussed. Dynamic emission rates of 2-nonenal from a residential carpet may indicate that intermediate species in the oxidation of conjugated olefins can significantly delay aldehyde emissions and act as reservoir for these compounds. The ozone induced emission rate of 2-nonenal, a very odorous compound, can result in odorous indoor concentrations for several years. Surface ozone reactivity is a key parameter in determining the flux of ozone to a surface, is parameterized by the reaction probability, which is simply the probability that an ozone molecule will be irreversibly consumed when it strikes a surface. In laboratory studies of two residential and two commercial carpets, the ozone reaction probability for carpet fibers, carpet backing and the equivalent reaction probability for whole carpet were determined. Typically reaction probability values for these materials were 10

  18. Ozone-surface interactions: Investigations of mechanisms, kinetics, mass transport, and implications for indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Glenn C.

    1999-12-01

    In this dissertation, results are presented of laboratory investigations and mathematical modeling efforts designed to better understand the interactions of ozone with surfaces. In the laboratory, carpet and duct materials were exposed to ozone and measured ozone uptake kinetics and the ozone induced emissions of volatile organic compounds. To understand the results of the experiments, mathematical methods were developed to describe dynamic indoor aldehyde concentrations, mass transport of reactive species to smooth surfaces, the equivalent reaction probability of whole carpet due to the surface reactivity of fibers and carpet backing, and ozone aging of surfaces. Carpets, separated carpet fibers, and separated carpet backing all tended to release aldehydes when exposed to ozone. Secondary emissions were mostly n-nonanal and several other smaller aldehydes. The pattern of emissions suggested that vegetable oils may be precursors for these oxidized emissions. Several possible precursors and experiments in which linseed and tung oils were tested for their secondary emission potential were discussed. Dynamic emission rates of 2-nonenal from a residential carpet may indicate that intermediate species in the oxidation of conjugated olefins can significantly delay aldehyde emissions and act as reservoir for these compounds. The ozone induced emission rate of 2-nonenal, a very odorous compound, can result in odorous indoor concentrations for several years. Surface ozone reactivity is a key parameter in determining the flux of ozone to a surface, is parameterized by the reaction probability, which is simply the probability that an ozone molecule will be irreversibly consumed when it strikes a surface. In laboratory studies of two residential and two commercial carpets, the ozone reaction probability for carpet fibers, carpet backing and the equivalent reaction probability for whole carpet were determined. Typically reaction probability values for these materials were 10

  19. Power-Heat-Set: Heat-setting for carpet yarn——overheated steam or saturated steam%Power-Heat-Set: 地毯丝热定型——采用过热蒸汽或饱和蒸汽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆为林

    2009-01-01

    纺织工业中的热定型是描述大多数情况下在蒸汽或干燥热环境中进行热加工的一个术语.热定型赋予纤维、纱线或织物尺寸稳定性和其他所要求的属性,如高蓬松性、抗折皱性或耐温性.热定型也用来改进后继加工的属性.

  20. A Simple Survey Concerning the Approach of the Cleaning Companies to Mercury Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Camur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge of the cleaning companies in case of mercury spills at home. METHOD: Thirty-two cleaning companies were interviewed by a telephone survey. Two standard questions were asked to an authorized people of the company. “A manometer is broken on the carpet. The mercury in the manometer is all spilled on the wall to wall carpet in the living room. We want our carpet to be cleaned. Could you do it? How can be the carpet cleaned? Have you ever cleaned a carpet on which mercury was spilled?” It is stated that mercury spillage has happened just a very short time ago and nothing have been done after that. RESULTS: Fifty percent of the 32 companies work in Istanbul, 37.5% in Ankara and 22.5% in Izmir. Three companies from Ankara, five from Istanbul, one from Izmir stated that they have encountered with mercury spillage before. Three of the companies who have stated that the have not encountered with mercury spillage before, asked “What is mercury?” and one of them asked whether “Mercury is a communicable disease, isn’t it?”. Twenty-two of the interviewed cleaning companies stated that they could clean the carpet with stain remover and three of them offered vacuuming, one washing the carpet with carpet shampoo, one person cleaning the stain by wiping with alcohol/ethyl alcohol. Five of the companies stated that they could not clean the stain and one of them he has advised throwing the carpet away. CONCLUSION: In many developing countries there is no responsible association or institution for mercury spills. Such simple surveys may be very important in determining training and gaps concerning public health problems. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 557-562

  1. A novel first aid stretcher for immobilization and transportation of spine injured patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Sheng Liu

    Full Text Available Effective immobilization and transportation are vital to the life-saving acute medical care needed when treating critically injured people. However, the most common types of stretchers used today are wrought with problems that can lead to further medical complications, difficulty in employment and rescue, and ineffective transitions to hospital treatment. Here we report a novel first aid stretcher called the "emergency carpet", which solves these problems with a unique design for spine injured patients. Polyurethane composite material, obtained by a novel process of manually mixing isocyanate and additives, can be poured into a specially designed fabric bag and allowed to harden to form a rigid human-shaped stretcher. The effectiveness of the emergency carpet was examined in the pre-hospital management of victims with spinal fractures. Additionally, it was tested on flat ground and complex terrain as well as in the sea and air. We demonstrated that the emergency carpet can be assembled and solidified on the scene in 5 minutes, providing effective immobilization to the entire injured body. With the protection of the emergency carpet, none of the 20 patients, who were finally confirmed to have spinal column fracture or dislocation, had any neurological deterioration during transportation. Furthermore, the carpet can be handled and transported by multiple means under differing conditions, without compromising immobilization. Finally, the emergency carpet allows the critically injured patient to receive multiple examinations such as X-ray, CT, and MRI without being removed from the carpet. Our results demonstrate that the emergency carpet has ideal capabilities for immobilization, extrication, and transportation of the spine injured patients. Compared with other stretchers, it allows for better mobility, effective immobilization, remarkable conformity to the body, and various means for transportation. The emergency carpet is promising for its

  2. Venomous snakebite in Thailand. I: Medically important snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanhome, L; Cox, M J; Wilde, H; Jintakoon, P; Chaiyabutr, N; Sitprija, V

    1998-05-01

    Thailand has an abundance of venomous snakes. Among the neurotoxic family Elapidae, there are three species of the genus Naja (cobras), three of the genus Bungarus (kraits), and the king cobra of the genus Ophiophagus. Other Elapidae snakes in Thailand include sea snakes and Asian coral snakes of the genus Calliophis. They have potent venoms but rarely bite humans. Tissue and hemotoxic snakes are represented by family Viperidae, subfamilies Viperinae and Crotalinae. They remain an occupational hazard for farmers and rubber tappers, causing serious morbidity but only rare deaths, since competent treatment is now widely available throughout Thailand. Purified equine antivenin is manufactured locally for the monocled and Siamese spitting cobras (Naja kaouthia and N. siamensis), king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus), most green pit vipers (Trimeresurus sp.), Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma), and the Siamese Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis).

  3. Molecular phylogeny of Vipera Laurenti, 1768 and the related genera Macrovipera (Reuss, 1927) and Daboia (Gray, 1842), with comments about neurotoxic Vipera aspis aspis populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, Thomas; Dauga, Catherine; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Choumet, Valérie; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2005-04-01

    We used mtDNA sequences (cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2) to reconstruct molecular phylogenies of Vipera sensu lato, Vipera sensu stricto, and Vipera aspis. Three major clades were identified within the Vipera s.l. group: (1) the European vipers, (2) the oriental vipers, consisting of Montivipera (Vipera 2) plus Macrovipera lebetina, and (3) a group of Asian and North African vipers consisting of Daboia russelii, V. palaestinae, and Macrovipera mauritanica. We also distinguished three clades within the monophyletic European Vipera group: V. ammodytes, V. aspis, and V. latastei, and Pelias with monophyly of Vipera 1 uncertain. Within V. aspis, the specimens collected in France formed the sister group of an Italian clade. The "neurotoxic" French population of V. aspis, which has a specific venom profile, separated from other French V. aspis early in the history of this group.

  4. Impacts Of Passive Removal Materials On Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darling, Erin; Cros, Clement; Wargocki, Pawel;

    2011-01-01

    a continuous acceptability scale. Materials were either new carpet that was aired out for three weeks, clay plaster applied to gypsum wallboard that was aired out for up to one month, both materials, or neither. Perceived Air Quality (PAQ) assessed by the panel was most acceptable and concentrations...... of aldehydes were lowest when only clay plaster or both clay plaster and carpet were in the chambers without ozone. The least acceptable PAQ and the highest concentrations of aldehydes were observed when carpet and ozone were present together; addition of clay plaster for this condition improved PAQ...

  5. Effective equine immunization protocol for production of potent poly-specific antisera against Calloselasma rhodostoma, Cryptelytrops albolabris and Daboia siamensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sapsutthipas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Snake envenomation has been estimated to affect 1.8 million people annually with about 94,000 deaths mostly in poor tropical countries. Specific antivenoms are the only rational and effective therapy for these cases. Efforts are being made to produce effective, affordable and sufficient antivenoms for these victims. The immunization process, which has rarely been described in detail, is one step that needs to be rigorously studied and improved especially with regard to the production of polyspecific antisera. The polyspecific nature of therapeutic antivenom could obviate the need to identify the culprit snake species. The aim of this study was to produce potent polyspecific antisera against 3 medically important vipers of Thailand and its neighboring countries, namely Cryptelytrops albolabris "White lipped pit viper" (CA, Calleoselasma rhodostoma "Malayan pit viper" (CR, and Daboia siamensis "Russell's viper" (DS. Four horses were immunized with a mixture of the 3 viper venoms using the 'low dose, low volume multi-site' immunization protocol. The antisera showed rapid rise in ELISA titers against the 3 venoms and reached plateau at about the 8th week post-immunization. The in vivo neutralization potency (P of the antisera against CA, CR and DS venoms was 10.40, 2.42 and 0.76 mg/ml, respectively and was much higher than the minimal potency limits set by Queen Soavabha Memorial Institute (QSMI. The corresponding potency values for the QSMI monospecific antisera against CA, CR and DS venoms were 7.28, 3.12 and 1.50 mg/ml, respectively. The polyspecific antisera also effectively neutralized the procoagulant, hemorrhagic, necrotic and nephrotoxic activities of the viper venoms. This effective immunization protocol should be useful in the production of potent polyspecific antisera against snake venoms, and equine antisera against tetanus, diphtheria or rabies.

  6. [総説]Skin Injuries Due to Poisonous Snake Bites

    OpenAIRE

    Uezato, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Masatoshi; Division of Dermatology, Department of Organ-oriented Medicine School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine University of Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Department of Health Science, Okinawa Prefectural Institute of Health and Environment

    2004-01-01

    We present an overall view of poisonous snake bites in Japan. In Main Land, Japan north of the Tokara Straits or Tose Line, poisonous snake bites by the Nihon mamusi (aspecies of a viper native to Main Land Japan), and Yamakagashi (tiger keelback) are of major clinical importance, whereas in the South-West Islands south of the Tokara Straits, serious problems occur due to the snake bites by the Habu (a pit viper native to the Ryukyu Islands). In Main Land Japan, approximately 10 mortality cas...

  7. Development of Equine IgG Antivenoms against Major Snake Groups in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Raimondi Guidolin; Celso Pereira Caricati; José Roberto Marcelino; Wilmar Dias da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Background Snake envenoming is a significant public health problem in underdeveloped and developing countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, it is estimated that 90,000–400,000 envenomations occur each year, resulting in 3,500–32,000 deaths. Envenomings are caused by snakes from the Viperidae (Bitis spp. and Echis spp.) and Elapidae (Naja spp. and Dendroaspis spp.) families. The African continent has been suffering from a severe antivenom crisis and current antivenom production is only sufficient to...

  8. Pulling up the pill pushers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-12

    The meal was superb. What a spread - quality ingredients, expertly cooked, efficiently and unobtrusively served, and all in a delightful setting, with soft music, intimate tables and knee-deep carpets.

  9. Ozone Generators That Are Sold as Air Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that body odor may be masked by the smell of ozone but is not removed by ozone ( ... chemicals, including some chemicals that contribute to the smell of new carpet (Weschler, 1992b; Zhang and Lioy, ...

  10. Plaadid / Tui Hirv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hirv, Tui, 1984-

    2007-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Andrea Bocelli "Vivere. The Best Of", Britney Spears "Blackout", John Fogerty "Revival", Bat For Lashes "Fur And Gold", Jimmy Eat World "Chase This Light", Duran Duran "Red Carpet Massacre"

  11. Allergic rhinitis - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Installing furnace filters or other air filters Removing furniture and carpets from your floors Using a dehumidifier ... Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also ...

  12. Allergic rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have carpets in the house? What type of furniture is best to have? How do I get ... of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Georgetown University Medical School, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, ...

  13. Simulating relativistic binaries with Whisky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiotti, L.

    We report about our first tests and results in simulating the last phase of the coalescence and the merger of binary relativistic stars. The simulations were performed using our code Whisky and mesh refinement through the Carpet driver.

  14. Home Textile Exports Show Recovery Signs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Lan; Guoyun

    2010-01-01

    @@ In this article we have analysed the export performance of Chinese main home textile products, including bedding products, carpet, curtain and towel based on official export data during the first eight months of 2010.

  15. Growing Carbon Nanotubes from Both Sides of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinlong; Li, Yilun; Gao, Caitian; Kim, Nam Dong; Fan, Xiujun; Wang, Gunuk; Peng, Zhiwei; Hauge, Robert H; Tour, James M

    2016-03-23

    The design and synthesis of hybrid structures between graphene and carbon nanotubes is an intriguing topic in the field of carbon nanomaterials. Here the synthesis of vertically aligned CNT carpets underneath graphene and from both sides of graphene is described with continuous ordering over a large area. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopic characterizations show that CNT carpets grow underneath graphene through a base-growth mechanism, and grow on top of graphene through a tip-growth mechanism. Good electrical contact is observed from the top CNT carpets, through the graphene layer, to the bottom CNT carpets. This sandwich-like CNT/graphene/CNT hybrid structure could provide an approach to design and fabricate multilayered graphene/CNTs materials, as well as potential applications in the fields of nanomanufacturing and energy storage.

  16. Mixed-Up Floors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Examines the maintenance management problems inherent in cleaning multiple flooring materials revealing the need for school officials to keep it simple when choosing flooring types. Also highlighted is a carpet recycling program used by Wright State University (Ohio). (GR)

  17. Determination of partition and diffusion coefficient of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

  18. Determination of partition and diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity (journal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50% and 70% RH). A dynamic dual-chamber test meth...

  19. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a 16S rRNA gene fragment for authentication of four clam species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alicia; García, Teresa; Gonzalez, Isabel; Asensio, Luis; Rodriguez, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Pablo E; Martin, Rosario

    2002-04-01

    Specific identification of four clam species, Ruditapes decussatus (grooved carpet shell), Venerupis pullastra (pullet carpet shell), Ruditapes philippinarum (Japanese carpet shell), and Venerupis rhomboides (yellow carpet shell), was achieved by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Amplification of DNA isolated from the foot muscle produced fragments of 511 bp for V. pullastra, 523 bp for R. decussatus, 545 bp for R. philippinarum, and 502 bp for V. rhomboides. The restriction profiles obtained by agarose gel electrophoresis when amplicons were digested with endonucleases BsmAI and BsrI allowed unequivocal identification of the four clam species. This approach would be less costly, simpler, and quicker than conventional sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products followed by detailed comparison of individual sequences, especially when large numbers of samples need to be analyzed.

  20. Vertically aligned nanowires on flexible silicone using a supported alumina template prepared by pulsed anodization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.

    2009-01-01

    Carpets of vertically aligned nanowires on flexible substrates are successfully realized by a template method. Applying special pulsed anodization conditions, defect-free nanoporous alumina structures supported on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a flexible silicone elastomer, are created. By using...