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Sample records for carpathians bend insights

  1. Time-dependent thermal state of the lithosphere in the foreland of the Eastern Carpathians bend. Insights from new geothermal measurements and modelling results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetrescu, Crisan; Wilhelm, H.; Tumanian, M.;

    2007-01-01

    in establishing the temperature field in the depth range of geothermal measurements. The lateral variation of the palaeoclimatically corrected surface heat flux from the centre of the Focsani Depression (40 mW m-2) to its margin and the foreland platform (70 mW m-2) is mainly the result of the lateral variation...... words: Carpathians foreland, geothermics, heat flow, lithosphere rheology, sedimentation, thermal modelling.  ...

  2. Architecture, tectonics and subsidence mechanisms of the Focsani Depression - southeastern Carpathians bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarapoanca, M.; Bertotti, G.; Matenco, L.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Cloetingh, S.; Dinu, C.

    2003-04-01

    ARCHITECTURE, TECTONICS AND SUBSIDENCE MECHANISMS OF THE FOCSANI DEPRESSION SOUTHEASTERN CARPATHIANS BEND M. Tarapoanca (1, 2), G. Bertotti (3), L. Matenco (2, 4), D. Garcia-Castellanos (3), S. Cloetingh (3), C. Dinu (4) (1) S.C. Prospectiuni S.A., Romania, (2) Netherlands Research Centre for Integrated Solid Earth Sciences, email: mtarapoanca@yahoo.com, (3) Vrije Universiteit, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, The Netherlands, (4) Bucharest University, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics, Romania In front of the SE Carpathians Bend a very deep basin (Focşani Depression) developed in Miocene to recent times. An important part of the subsidence in Focşani Depression (FD) occurred after the main stages of thrusting in the Carpathians. Apparently, the basin lies in the “wrong” place and evolved in the “wrong” time. Around 13 km-thick Badenian-to-Quaternary (<16.5 Myr) sediments were deposited in the central part of the FD. During Badenian (16.5-13 Myr), the foreland (S-ward Trotuş fault) underwent NE-SW extension and NW-trending basins opened in the eastern Moesian platform. A NW-SE-oriented area of subsidence stretched from Transylvanian basin through the FD to the SE of the Moesian platform while thrusting was going on in the East-European/Scythian platform, East Carpathians and Getic Depression. Starting with the Sarmatian (13-10 Myr) the FD depocenter moved out of the Carpathian belt coeval with the exhumation of South and central-northern East Carpathians. The basin enlarged and was tilted toward the belt. The tilting was accompanied by dextral shearing mainly along Intramoesian and Peceneaga-Camena faults. After Sarmatian times, subsidence occurred practically only to the S-SE of Trotus fault. During Meotian-Pontian (10-5 Myr) the subsidence slowed down in the FD and strongly increased afterwards. This subsidence amplification has been accompanied by normal faulting and shearing in Moesian platform. The western margin of FD has undergone E

  3. Architecture of the Focşani Depression: A 13 km deep basin in the Carpathians bend zone (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    TǎRǎPoancǎ, M.; Bertotti, G.; Maå£Enco, L.; Dinu, C.; Cloetingh, S. A. P. L.

    2003-12-01

    In front of the SE Carpathians Bend a very deep basin (Focşani Depression) developed in Miocene to Recent times. An important part of its subsidence occurred after the main stages of thrusting in the Carpathians. Apparently, the basin lies in the "wrong" place and evolved in the "wrong" time. In this study, we constrain its architecture and evolution by analyzing a large database consisting of more than 1000 km two-dimensional seismic lines and more than 60 wells. Around 13 km thick, Badenian-to-Quaternary (<16.5 Myr) sediments were deposited in the central part of the Focşani Depression. During the Badenian (16.5-13 Myr), the foreland (south of Trotuş fault) underwent NE-SW directed extension and NW trending basins opened in the eastern Moesian platform. A NW-SE oriented area of subsidence stretched from the Transylvania basin through the Focşani Depression to the SE of the Moesian platform while thrusting was going on in the East European/Scythian platform, East Carpathians, and Getic Depression. Starting with the Sarmatian (13-10 Myr), the Focşani Depression depocenter moved out of the Carpathian belt coeval with the exhumation of the south and the East Carpathians north of the Trotuş fault. The basin became wider and was tilted toward the belt. Tilting was accompanied by dextral shearing mainly along the Intramoesian and Peceneaga-Camena faults. After Sarmatian times, subsidence occurred practically only SSE of Trotuş fault. During Meotian-Pontian (10-5 Myr), subsidence slowed down. Stronger, Pliocene-Quaternary subsidence is coeval with normal faulting and shearing in Moesian platform. The western margin of the Focşani Depression was then tilted eastward, coeval with the exhumation of the bend zone and opening of the intramontane basins in the inner part of the belt.

  4. The Carpathians. Integrating nature and society towards sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, Jacek; Ostapowicz, Katarzyna [Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Geography and Spatial Management; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej [Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA (United States). USDA Forest Service; Wyzga, Bartlomiej (eds.) [Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Nature Conservation

    2013-06-01

    Provides an interdisciplinary approach. Explores ways to generate value for the Carpathian mountain region. Gives a new insight into the Carpathian mountain region. The Carpathians are a distinct mountain chain in the core of Central and Eastern Europe holding valuable biological resources and a rich cultural heritage. The last twenty years have witnessed an increasing awareness of the Carpathians' value for European society and strengthened research cooperation in the region, especially after the enlargement of the European Union in 2004 and 2007. This book presents a wide range of problems related to sustainable development in the Carpathian region that were discussed during the 1{sup st} Forum Carpaticum held in 2010 in Krakow, Poland. The four sections of the book deal with various issues related to the abiotic environment, forests and biodiversity, human activities, and research methods allowing a better understanding of the past, present and future of the Carpathians.

  5. The Palaeolithic site Bistricioara-Lut\\varie III in the Romanian Carpathians - Insights from various luminescence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christoph; Antohi-Trandafir, Oana; Timar-Gabor, Alida; Anghelinu, Mircea; Veres, Daniel; Hambach, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The loess derivates on top of the terrace gravels in the Bistrita valley (Carpathians, northeastern Romania) host a large number of Palaeolithic settlements, some of which reveal several distinct cultural layers characterised by charcoal, other combustion features and/or scattered lithics. While the youngest productive layers at the site Bistricioara-Lut\\varie III (BL III) are associated with Gravettian and Epigravettian technocomplexes, the knowledge about older occupations remains diffuse. Definitely, the high density of last glacial settlements in such a harsh environment represents a puzzle. Furthermore, new excavations in 2015 exposed large (>1 m) combustion features without a related lithic inventory and of unknown origin (natural fires or fires places). The present contribution aims at fathoming the versatile applications of luminescence methods to tackle the unsolved questions at BL III. Despite methodological deficiencies concerning grain size dependent age discrepancies, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of quartz demonstrated the archive's chronological depth (>76 ka above terrace gravels) and placed the youngest cultural layer (CL1) in the Last Glacial Maximum, in agreement with radiocarbon (14C) dates (Trandafir et al. 2015). This cultural layer yielded a set of heated lithics (flint) during the recent excavation, providing the opportunity to directly date human presence by thermoluminescence (TL) and to reconcile these ages with (independent) methods dating different events (OSL, 14C). Such a comparison of techniques also serves at testing the accuracy of explorative TL measurement protocols under 'natural conditions'. Finally, detached from any chronological issues, the temperature-dependent sensitisation of the 110 °C quartz TL peak - in analogue to the flint TL signal - potentially allows determining the maximum heating temperature of samples from the combustion features (Göksu et al. 1989), which in turn helps elucidating whether the

  6. Kinematically - controlled deep contact of the East European Platform and the Carpathian Orogen in the Vrancea Bending Zone and contact with the Neogene Volcanic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragut, Dorina-Alina

    2016-04-01

    The complex zone between the Moesian and East European platforms to the south and east and the Southern Europe continental units were amalgamated in the last 20 million years in an intricate dynamics of what was thought to be the eastern component of the Alpine Tethys. By seismic tomography and attenuation studies, a high velocity body extended from the near surface to deeper levels than 300 km was pointed out as having a very complex geometry which suggests a very active three dimensional evolution. Most of the frequent, persistent and clustered seismic events from this contact area known as Vrancea Seismogenic Zone are located into this high velocity body. The origin of this seismicity is highly controversial. Among most of the accepted assumptions on its origins, two look like most robust: (a) the recent studies consider the subduction of the Tehys oceanic lithosphere, and (b) delamination of a portion of the East European / Moesian continental mantle after the oceanic lithosphere subduction ended sometimes in the mid-Miocene. The delamination zone was probably a near-horizontal mid-lithospheric interface dripping down into the mantle. Towards the internal part of the Bend Zone, the volcanic activity, dominant in the Neogene time, ceased some 400,000 years ago but there are evidences that the last stages of the alkali-basaltic volcanic activity has post-volcanic effects even at present. We integrate satellite geodesy results with various seismological studies in order to explain the very small values of the present-day horizontal component of the velocity field, almost at the edge of technological detectability. The vectors have a very peculiar distribution which we interpret as supporting the idea of the mantle flow around the high seismic velocity body detected via seismological investigations. We estimate an anti-clockwise deep rotation flow around the lithospheric "slab" which is seated adjacent to the astensosphere advancing towards the surface, having

  7. New insights into the structure of An tracts and B'-B' bends in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuprina, V P; Fedoroff OYu; Reid, B R

    1991-01-15

    Energy calculations suggest that the currently available NOE distance constraints for An tracts in DNA are incapable of distinguishing between structures with a narrowed minor groove arising from a large propeller twist with a small inclination or from a small propeller twist with a large negative inclination. Furthermore, analysis of published data, together with energy estimations, strongly argue against bifurcated hydrogen bonding between A and T residues being the cause of the anomalous structural properties of An tracts. A conformational analysis of the B'-B' junction has been performed in which a single variable base pair has been inserted between two regions of B' structure. We have calculated low-energy structures for AnGAn,AnCAn,AnTAn,AnCTn, and TnCAn duplexes, where the An and Tn tracts were fixed in the anomalous B' conformation. Upon optimization, all these structures were found to contain a pronounced roll-like bending into the major groove at the site of the insertion. The important factors in the formation of these B'-B' bends are the destruction of the B' conformation and the concomitant widening of the minor groove at the junction region in order to reduce minor groove interstrand base clashes and improve interstrand stacking energy. If the B' conformation has strong negative inclination, the improved intrastrand stacking energy also contributes to the bending. In calculations of duplexes with An and Tn tracts in the B conformation instead of B', the bending disappears. PMID:1988043

  8. The Getic Sub-Carpathians, Space of Carpathian Contiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LĂCRĂMIOARA-FLORINELA POPA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Getic Sub-Carpathians show permittivity from their position, altitude, valley’s orientation, mild climate, from the circulation and habitation favourability viewpoint. This way, they become a space of Carpathian contiguity. The humanization of this sector has deep roots in this space history. The fact that they have been a good place for the development of human settlements, through the attributes offered by the physical-geographic characteristics of the territory, is shown by the presence of the three old settlements that took the role of capitals: Câmpulung, Curtea de Argeş and Târgovişte. Depressions represented the right places for the settlements’ genesis and evolution; the valleys crossing them have been the ways for the development of communication routs; the Sub-Carpathian heights offered some of the pastures necessary for animal feeding; they also played the role of shelter against the natural (e.g. the attenuation of cold air masses and human factors.

  9. High Holocene coastal uplift gives insight into the seismic behavior at the Arica Bend (Peru-Chile subduction zone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madella, Andrea; Delunel, Romain; Szidat, Sönke; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2016-04-01

    KEYWORDS: northern Chile, coastal uplift, plate coupling, seismic cycle The Peru-Chile subduction zone offshore of the Arica Bend (18.3° S) is characterized by a seaward-concave geometry, which represents a very uncommon tectonic setting. Several published estimates of plate coupling suggest that the locking degree in the curved segment may be significantly lower than to the north and south of it, however, the lack of historical slip events hinders a full understanding of the seismic behavior in this particular portion of plate interface. We have mapped a terrace located at 35 m a.s.l. ca. 3 km onshore from the mouth of the Lluta river, which debouches immediately to the north of Arica. The sedimentology of the terrace has been described and three wood fragments embedded therein have been collected for radiocarbon dating. In addition, we compared the long stream profile of the Lluta river with its modeled steady-state profile, aiming to detect any possible tectonic perturbation along the trunk stream. Results show that the dated terrace consists of a thin storm deposit embedded within fluvial delta conglomerates, which have been most likely deposited near sea-level at ~10 ka. We thus infer that the coast of the Arica Bend, although characterized by long-term quiescence, has undergone remarkable uplift (~5 mm/y) throughout the Holocene. The vertical displacement has been inferred at roughly 175 km from the trench, which corresponds to the landward termination of the locked zone. Considering this structural position and the long-term absence of coseismic events in this trench segment, we propose that the inferred uplift signal might be related to interseismic flexural buckling, which does not result in permanent crustal deformation. Contrariwise, in the adjacent coastal regions north and south of the Arica Bend, repeated seismic cycles have resulted in long-term permanent crustal deformation, as observable in the uplifted Coastal Cordillera.

  10. Seismic Tomography of the South Carpathian System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, G. W.; Ren, Y.; Dando, B. D.; Houseman, G.; Ionescu, C.; Hegedus, E.; Radovanovic, S.; South Carpathian Project Working Group

    2010-12-01

    The South Carpathian Mountain Range is an enigmatic system, which includes one of the most seismically active regions in Europe today. That region, Vrancea in the SE Carpathians, is well studied and its deep structure may be geologically unique, but the mantle structures beneath the western part of the South Carpathian Range are not well resolved by previous tomographic studies. The South Carpathian Project (SCP) is a major temporary deployment (2009-2011) of seismic broadband systems extending across the eastern Pannonian Basin and the South Carpathian Mountains. In this project we aim to map the upper mantle structure in central Europe with the objective of testing geodynamic models of the process that produced extension in the Pannonian, synchronous with convergence and uplift in the Carpathians. Here, we describe initial results of finite-frequency tomography using body waves to image the mantle of the region. We have selected teleseismic earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5.9, which occurred between 2005 and 2010. The data were recorded on 57 temporary stations deployed in the South Carpathian Project, 56 temporary stations deployed in the earlier Carpathian Basins Project (CBP), and 41 permanent broadband stations. The differential travel times are measured in high, intermediate and low frequencies (0.5-2.0 Hz, 0.1-0.5 Hz and 0.03-0.1 Hz for both P-wave, 0.1-0.5 Hz, 0.05-0.1 Hz and 0.02-0.05 Hz for S-wave), and are inverted to produce P and S-wave velocity maps at different depths in the mantle. An extensive zone of high seismic velocities is located in the Mantle Transition zone beneath the Pannonian Basin, and is related to down-welling associated with an earlier phase of continental convergence in the Pannonian region. These results will be used in conjunction with 3D geodynamical modelling to help understand the geological evolution of this region. SCP working group: G. Houseman, G. Stuart, Y. Ren, B. Dando, P. Lorinczi, School of Earth and

  11. CARPATHIANS ENDEMIC TAXA IN ARGEŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Alexiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Endemic plant species are the biogeographic elements why use the delimitation of biogeographical regions. Their presence explains, in the context of identifying phyto-historical factors, distribution of species and certain distribution patterns. Endemic areas, with pronounced as the basic unit of biogeography, indicates those particular geographic region, both in the growth areas and the evolutionary biological processes of speciation.In this study we proposed the following objectives: knowing the list Carpathian endemic species and endemic centers present in Argeş, also, areas of endemism in the Carpathians Mountains of the Argeş County.

  12. Endemic taxa of vascular plants in the Polish Carpathians

    OpenAIRE

    Halina Piękoś-Mirkowa; Zbigniew Mirek

    2011-01-01

    The Carpathians, particularly their highest massif, the Tatra Mountains, exhibit the greatest richness of endemics in Poland. The present paper is a critical recapitulation of existing knowledge of endemism among the vascular plants of the Polish part of the Carpathians. It comprises a list of all 110 taxa (49 species, 26 microspecies of the genus Alchemilla and 35 conspicuous subspecies) that can be considered Carpathian endemics or subendemics. Their distribution, vertical ranges and habita...

  13. The Carpathian Convention and the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šturma, Pavel; Vostrá, Lenka

    Budapest : L´Harmattan, 2009 - (Majtényi, B.; Tamburelli, G.), s. 138-144 ISBN 978-963-9457-52-2. ISSN 2060-5404. [ Sustainable Development and Transboundary Co-Operation in Mountain Regions. Budapest (HU), 20.09.2007-22.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : the Carpathian Convention * public international law * transboundary co-operation Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  14. Structural Researches in the Eastern Carpathians (in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Balintoni

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural Researches in the Eastern Carpathians. The Alpine mesoscopic lineations in the East Carpathians metamorphics, are NW-SE orientated. A few lineations, nearly E-W orientated, could be proved as pre-Alpine in age. Within the Ditrău Massif, is conserved a pre-Alpine attitude of foliations, as frozen magmatic flow, along the metamorphic pre-Triassic fabric. The lineation directions were conditioned by the Cretaceous-Tertiary contractional elimination of the External Carpathian Flysch Basin.

  15. The geomorphic effectiveness of a large flood on the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region: insights on geomorphic controls and post-flood geomorphic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1940s, the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region has undergone long periods of channel narrowing, which have been occasionally interrupted by rare, large floods that widen the channel (termed a channel reset). The most recent channel reset occurred in 2008 following a 17-year period of extremely low stream flow and rapid channel narrowing. Flooding was caused by precipitation associated with the remnants of tropical depression Lowell in the Rio Conchos watershed, the largest tributary to the Rio Grande. Floodwaters approached 1500 m3/s (between a 13 and 15 year recurrence interval) and breached levees, inundated communities, and flooded the alluvial valley of the Rio Grande; the wetted width exceeding 2.5 km in some locations. The 2008 flood had the 7th largest magnitude of record, however, conveyed the largest volume of water than any other flood. Because of the narrow pre-flood channel conditions, record flood stages occurred. We used pre- and post-flood aerial photographs, channel and floodplain surveys, and 1-dimensional hydraulic models to quantify the magnitude of channel change, investigate the controls of flood-induced geomorphic changes, and measure the post-flood response of the widened channel. These analyses show that geomorphic changes included channel widening, meander migration, avulsions, extensive bar formation, and vertical floodplain accretion. Reach-averaged channel widening between 26 and 52% occurred, but in some localities exceeded 500%. The degree and style of channel response was related, but not limited to, three factors: 1) bed-load supply and transport, 2) pre-flood channel plan form, and 3) rapid declines in specific stream power downstream of constrictions and areas of high channel bed slope. The post-flood channel response has consisted of channel contraction through the aggradation of the channel bed and the formation of fine-grained benches inset within the widened channel margins. The most significant post-flood geomorphic

  16. Loess in the foothills of the western Carpathians and its importance for paleoenvironmental reconstruction towards the Carpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreht, Igor; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Kels, Holger; Hambach, Ulrich; Schulte, Philipp; Eckmeier, Eileen; Klasen, Nicole; Bösken, Janina; Krauss, Lydia; Zeeden, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The CRC 806 "Our way to Europe" focuses on the first arrival and dispersal of anatomically modern humans (AMH) from Africa to Europe. Within the second phase of this project, a subproject investigates the eastern trajectory of AMH dispersal through the Levant and Balkan Peninsula. Special attention is given to the Carpathian Basin and the surrounding foothills of the Carpathian Mountains. To this date, most Paleolithic sites in this region have been found in the foothills. To test the hypothesis whether this observation presents a valid pattern, or if it may be biased by the fact that the lowlands of the Carpathian Basin are covered by thick loess deposits overlying the archaeologic remains of AMH, beside improved archeological perspective it is also necessarily to understand the regional past climatic conditions from the time of the first AMH appearance in Europe around 40 ka ago. Loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) from the lowlands of the Carpathian Basin preserve almost continuous records of past environmental changes from this region. During the last decade, LPS were intensively investigated resulting in a good overall understanding of general paleoenvironmental conditions in the Carpathian Basin itself. However, short LPS from the surrounding mountains have only been studied in few localities and not well understood yet. This presents a challenge in understanding the past environmental conditions of the foothill areas which are hypothesized to be a preferred habitat of the AMH. As an attempt to bridge this gap, we are presenting the initial results from the Şanoviţa section (western Romania), located at the transition from lowlands to foothills of the Carpathians. Based on a multi-proxy study (grain-size, rock magnetism, color and geochemical analysis) of last glacial sediments, we improve the understanding of paleoenvironmental conditions between the Carpathian Basin and the western flank of the Carpathian Mountains. Şanoviţa is located at the upper end of a

  17. Risk and geodynamically active areas of Carpathian lithosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper illustrates an application of multidisciplinary data analysis to the Carpathian-Pannonian region and presents a verification of a Complex model of the Carpathian - Pannonian lithosphere by recent data sets and geophysical data analyses and its utilization for the determination of risk and active geodynamic and tectonic zones of Ist order . This model can be used for the analysing any Carpathian area from the point of view of the seismic risk, hazards and geodynamic activity, which is important to know for the building of a repository for the radioactive wasted material. Besides the traditionally used geological (sedimentological and volcanological data) and geomorphological data (Remote Sensing), an emphasis was laid on geodetic, grav/mag data, seismic, seismological and other geophysical data (magnetotelluric, heat flow, paleomagnetic etc.). All available geonomic (geologic, geodetic, geophysical, geomorphological) data were verified and unified on the basis of the same scale and in the Western Carpathians on the Remote Sensing data. The paper concentrates on two problematic areas - the so call 'rebounding area' in the Eastern Carpathians and the Raba - Muran - Malcov tectonic systems. (authors)

  18. Geologic and Isotopic Models for the Carpathian Crystalline Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Coriolan Balintoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Carpathian metamorphics protoliths have TDM model Sm/Nd ages between 1.6 and 2.0 Ga. This suggests an important episode of continental crust formation after the 2.0 Ga. The Biharia lithogroup (Apuseni Mountains and the Tulghes lithogroup (East Carpathians furnished Zircon U/Pb ages from metagranitoids and acid metavolcanics, respective, around 500 Ma; this is a sign of existence of some Lower Proterozoic protoliths among Carpathian metamorphics. The bimodal intrusions which are piercing the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Paiuseni lithogroup in Highiş Massif (Apuseni Mountains have given Permian ages on Zircon U/Pb data. The Paiuseni lithogroup probably represents the fill of a rift basin of the same age. The Arieseni, Muntele Mare and Vinta granitoid intrusions from Apuseni Mountains, with U/Pb ages between Lower Devonian and Permian, indicates some contractional and extensional processes, in connection with Variscan Orogeny.

  19. An autonomous environmental policy for the Carpathian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United Nation documents are unanimous in calling for regional co-operation in the environmental policy to avoid the further unnecessary pollution and degradation of the environment. The Carpathian (or Pannon) Basin provides (or Pannon) Basin provides an excellent opportunity for a very special kind of co-operation. The basin's river systems, climatic conditions, weather patterns, fauna and flora closely interact rendering this region a unique geographical and environmental unit. Recently a variety of interests and counter-interests have surfaced among the states with territories inside the basin Hungary and Slovakia lie entirely within the basin; Romania, Yugoslavia, and Croatia only partially, while peripheral areas of Austria, Slovenia, and the Ukraine touch the basin. The various environmental factors may transfer the environmental risks from one country to the other inside the basin. Probably the single most important prerequisites co-operation among the countries of the basin is the recognition of common interests in, a acceptance of responsibility for, a clean and sustainable environment that is, an acceptance on the part of the countries concerned what might be called collective regional responsibility. First steps in this direction might be the establishment of an information system, a data bank, common standards for water quality management, a unified clean air policy, co-ordinated regulations on truck transit, transfer and storage of hazardous wastes and so on tailored to the needs of the basin. Today, numerous barriers exist to the development of such an autonomous policy, and it is only in the long-term that will be overcome. Breaking down these barriers should also promote general trust and goodwill among the countries of the Basin. (author)

  20. Semiconductor laser beam bending

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, REMZİ; ÇELEBİ, FATİH VEHBİ

    2015-01-01

    This study is about a single-component cylindrical structured lens with a gradient curve that was used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independently of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single-piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams was developed. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted, or colored glass and are used to undermine or absorb the energy of...

  1. Large carnivores in the Carpathian Mountains: status and conservation problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Okarma, H.; Dovchanych, Y.; Findo, S.; Ionescu, O.; Koubek, Petr; Szemethy, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2002), s. 33-39. ISSN 0078-3250 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : carnivores * conservation * Carpathians Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  2. Deep Deformation Pattern for the Carpathian-Pannonian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qorbani, E.; Bokelmann, G.; Kovacs, I.; Horvath, F.; Falus, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Carpathian-Pannonian region (CPR) is the northeastern end of the Alpine mountain belt. In the Western Alps, available results of anisotropy investigations (SKS splitting) show clear belt-parallel anisotropy. In the Eastern Alps this pattern not only is broken but also does not follow the strike of Carpathians and Dinarides. In this study, we characterize upper mantle anisotropic structure and deep deformation pattern for the Carpathian-Pannonian region. We reprocess the SKS splitting parameters from the teleseismic events recorded by the Carpathian Basin Project (CBP) stations. We investigate these measurements together with the petrologic indicator of deformation in basalt-hosted upper mantle xenoliths from the Pannonian basin in terms of deformation geometry and its responsible tectonics. The observed anisotropy is referred to an asthenospheric origin and is interpreted as the flow/alignments within the upper mantle. We consider the models which have been suggested so far to explain the evolution and current stage tectonics of the Pannonian basin according to the deformation pattern observed from the SKS splitting results. This is followed by discussion about the (in)consistency between these models and our results. We present here the most plausible model of interaction between asthenospheric mantle with overlying and surrounding lithosphere which may possibly explain the deep deformation pattern in relation with the present-day tectonics of the CPR.

  3. Contribution to the lichen biota of the Romanian Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíček, J.; Bouda, F.; Liška, Jiří; Palice, Zdeněk; Peksa, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2015), s. 713-735. ISSN 0018-0971 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV025 Keywords : The Balkans * biodiversity * Southern and Eastern Carpathians Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.653, year: 2014

  4. Climate Trends in the Slovak Part of the Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melo, M.; Lapin, M.; Kapolková, H.; Pecho, Jozef; Kružicová, A.

    Berlin: Springer, 2013 - (Kozak, J.; Ostapowicz, K.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Wyzga, B.), s. 131-150. (Environmental Science and Engineering. Environmental Science). ISBN 978-3-642-12724-3 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : climate change * climate trends * Carpathians * Slovakia Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-12725-0_10

  5. Western Carpathians in the territory of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skupien, P.; Vašíček, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 3/1 (2008), s. 139-149. ISSN 0138-0974 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/07/1365 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Outer Western Carpathians * nappes * localities Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  6. Silicon crystal under bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical behavior of a silicon crystal under bending is investigated. For a crystal of length 30 mm and thickness 3 mm, to achieve the specified bend angle of 0.64 mrad, the appropriate angle of the aluminum punches is 0.96 mrad

  7. Sustainable tourism development in the Carpathian region in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes natural and anthropogenic tourism resources in the Carpathian region in Serbia, as well as legal and institutional frameworks which need to be strengthened with the aim of ensuring sustainable tourism development of the region. The sustainable tourism development will necessitate the linking of stakeholders within and at the level of the region, along with an adequate support at the national level in order to take advantage of numerous opportunities offered by an increasingly intense cross-border cooperation. Taking into account the greater number of protected areas and those planned to be protected in the Carpathian region, as well as specificities of tourism development in these areas, special attention in the paper has been given to sustainable tourism development of protected areas.

  8. Interdisciplinary cooperation and studies in geoscience in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field, as the more innovative studies are increasingly crossing discipline boundaries and thus benefitting from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by supporting and promoting the creation of “meeting places” able to provide a framework for researchers and scholars involved in geoscience research to find common grounds for discussion and collaboration. Most recently, this was achieved by organizing the 1st Workshop on “Interdisciplinarity in Geosciences in the Carpathian Basin” (IGCB held in the Department of Geography at the University of Suceava (Romania, between the 18th and 22nd October 2012. This event brought together both an international group of scientists and local researchers which created opportunities for collaboration in research topics such as geography, environment, geology and botany, biology and ecology in the Carpathian Basin.

  9. Dendroclimatic reconstruction of summer temperatures in Southern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Horia HOLOBÂCĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A significant summer temperature warming trend and little or no change in precipitation variation have been observed in the southern part of the Carpathians after 1980. In this paper we seek to find similar past climatic conditions using a dendroclimatic reconstruction of summer temperatures. Regional dendroclimatic reconstruction has been conducted in four different massifs (Bucegi, Piatra Craiului, Făgăraş and Parâng Massifs belonging to the Southern Carpathians. The four sampling sites are located nearby the upper timberline, the forest stands being here dominated by Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L Karst. A tree-ring width (TRW chronology of P. abies has been used here to reconstruct summer temperatures back to the end of 19th century. Results indicate that during the considered period, the decadal periods characterized by cold summers alternate with those with warm summer temperatures

  10. Cladonia metacorallifera, a lichen species new to the Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Osyczka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A rare lichen Cladonia metacorallifera was found in the Bieszczady Mts. and this is the first report of the species from the Eastern Carpathians. In Poland, its occurrence is probably limited to small populations scattered in high mountain situations. The data of distribution of the species in Poland, ecological characterization of the new locality and some taxonomical remarks concerning the recorded specimen, as well as a photograph of its habit are provided.

  11. Renewable energy sources for sustainable tourism in the Carpathian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandryk, O. M.; Arkhypova, L. M.; Pobigun, O. V.; Maniuk, O. R.

    2016-08-01

    The use of renewable energy in sustainable tourism development of the region is grounded in the paper. There are three stages of selecting areas for projects of renewable energy sources: selection of potentially suitable area; consideration of exclusion criteria, detailed assessment of potential sites or areas. The factors of impact on spatial constraints and opportunities for building wind, solar and small hydro power plants on the parameters of sustainable tourism development in the Carpathian region were determined.

  12. The peculiarities of bear numbers dynamics in the Eastern Carpathians

    OpenAIRE

    Khoyetskyy, Pavlo

    2013-01-01

    There have been two periods of change in the dynamics of bear population in the Eastern Carpathians. The first period lasted over 50 years, starting in the late 1940s and ending in the year 2001. The second period started in the early 21st century. The bear population reached its maximum – of about 1100 individuals – in the early 1970s. Over 85% of recorded bear deaths have resulted from poaching.

  13. Temporal properties of seismicity and largest earthquakes in SE Carpathians

    OpenAIRE

    Byrdina, S.; P. Shebalin; Narteau, C.; Mouël, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    In order to estimate the hazard rate distribution of the largest seismic events in Vrancea, South-Eastern Carpathians, we study temporal properties of historical and instrumental catalogues of seismicity. First, on the basis of Generalized Extreme Value theory we estimate the average return period of the largest events. Then, following Bak et al. (2002) and Corral (2005a), we study scaling properties of recurrence times between earthquakes in appropriate spatial vol...

  14. Petrology of Badenian ignimbrites, Gutai Mts. (Eastern Carpathians)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrina Fulop; Marinel Kovacs

    2003-01-01

    Gutâi Mts., part of inner Carpathians volcanic arc, consist of products of felsic and intermediate volcanism. The previously known “Badenian Rhyodacitic Formation”, expression of the felsic explosive volcanism, is composed of a well-defined basal unit of ignimbrites, overlain by a sequence of resedimented volcaniclastics of similar origin, interlayered with mudstones. The petrography of ignimbrites shows matrix-supported lapilli tuffs having a heterogeneous composition with insignificant late...

  15. Dispersion suppressors with bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    Dispersion suppressors of two main types are usually used. In one the cell quadrupole focussing structure is the same as in normal cells but some of the dipoles are replaced by drifts. In the other, the quadrupole strengths and/or spacings are different from those of the normal cells, but the bending is about the same as it is in the cells. In SSC designs to date, dispersion suppressors of the former type have been used, consisting of two cells with bending equivalent to one. In this note a suppressor design with normal bending and altered focussing is presented. The advantage of this scheme is that circumference is reduced. The disadvantages are that additional special quadrupoles must be provided (however, they need not be adjustable), and the maximum beta values within them are about 30% higher than the cell maxima.

  16. Distribution and Phytocoenotic Context of Kobresia simpliciuscula (Wahlenb. Mack. in South-Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai PUSCAS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a critical analysis of the distribution and habitat requirements of the rare arctic-alpine plant species Kobresia simpliciuscula (Wahlenb. Mack. in the South-Eastern Carpathians. The species was recorded in this part of Carpathians only from Romania, in Bucegi Mountains. The mention of K. simpliciuscula in Rodna Mountains (Eastern Carpathians is considered to be erroneous. K. simpliciuscula was found in the Southern Carpathians in a different habitat type compared to the one characteristic for populations in the Arctic and the Alps. The species does not grow in the pioneer phytocoenoses of the Caricion bicoloris-atrofuscae alliance but, on the contrary, in dry calciphilous alpine vegetation included in Oxytropido-Elynion. The plant communities where K. simpliciuscula was found in Bucegi Mountains belong to Achilleo schurii-Dryadetum (Beldie 1967 Coldea 1984. These phytocoenoses are very similar to those described for the species in Belianske Tatra Mountains (Western Carpathians, Slovakia.

  17. Nature conservation in Central and Eastern Europe with a special emphasis on the Carpathian Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural environment of the Carpathian Mountains is one of the richest in Europe in terms of species richness and ecological value. In general, these mountains are well preserved and constitute an important part of Europe's nature resources. The Carpathian area, although divided by political and ethnic frontiers, provides an excellent example of the possibility of protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Natural or seminatural forest ecosystems are the most valuable ecosystems together with man-made meadows and pastures. It is expected that the formerly diverse approaches to nature protection will become unified as the Carpathian countries are incorporated into the European Union. In this paper the various forms of nature protection in the individual Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine and Romania) are described. - Current status of nature protection in countries of the Carpathian Region is described

  18. Environmental Challenges Related to the Acquisition of the Trans Carpathian Wide Angle Reflection and Refraction Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragut, Dorina-Alina; Schultz, Gehrig; Mocanu, Victor; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Starostenko, Vitaly

    2015-04-01

    Complex structures like the Carpathian Orogen and its neighbouring platforms and related inter-orogenic basin system can be understood only by complex integration of complementary investigative tools. Most of regional geoscientific investigations in Romania have targeted the very intricate, high intermediate-depth seismicity, clustered Carpathian Bend Zone: Vrancea. Despite huge geological and geophysical efforts, the area remains a matter of robust debate, at least from the point of view of geodynamic driving mechanisms. However, other areas outside Vrancea remained somehow "orphaned". However, a large wide angle refraction and reflection (WARR) survey was carried out in the summer of 2014 by a large international partnership in order to study the transition from the East European Platform to the northern part of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians, Transylvanian Basin and the Apuseni Mountains. The main scientific objectives of the WARR project relate to three main investigation domains: crustal architecture; affinity of crystalline basement and sedimentary basins architecture. The profile is about 700 km in total, in Ukraine and Romania. Recorders were placed at 1.75 - 2.0 km intervals along an alignment forming the Romanian segment. Recorders used were stand-alone DSS Cubes from the Helmholz Center of GFZ Potsdam and from the Institute of Geophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The seismic sources were explosives ("Riogel" and "Riodet" by Maxam), with shotpoints spaced at 20 - 65 km with a total of 800 - 1200 kg explosives/site in clusters of drill-holes loaded with 50 kg explosive/hole, average depth of 25 m. Very complicated and legally-challenging environmental permitting requirements represented a real issue for successful implementation of the project. The main concern of local and central authorities related to potential pollution of sensitive components. Here, we present the strategy, actions and results concluded in order to reach the scientific and

  19. AA, bending magnet, BLG

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipole (bending magnets; BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). The BLG had a steel length of 4.70 m, a good field width of 0.24 m, and a weight of about 70 t. Jean-Claude Brunet inspects the lower half of a BLG. For the BST magnets see 7811105 and 8006036.

  20. Vegetation of the selected forest stands and land use in the Carpathian Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation and land use maps of forested mountain areas in central Europe are presented. - Within the framework of the project 'Effects of forest health on biodiversity with emphasis on air pollution in the Carpathian Mountains' 26 permanent study sites were established in the vicinity of the ozone monitoring sites. The study sites were located on the NW-SE transect through the Western (12 sites), Eastern (11 sites) and Southern (3 sites) Carpathians in forest ecosystems typical of each area. Some of the forest monitoring sites were located in national parks, biosphere reserves and areas of protected landscape. Each permanent site of 0.7 ha area consisted of 5 small 500m2 circular plots, arranged in the form of a cross, i.e. four placed on the cardinal points (N, E, S, W) and one in the center. Phytosociological records were done twice during the 1998 growing season using the Braun-Blanquet's method. The study sites represented various types of forest: Picea abies stands (8), beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands (10), fir (Abies alba) stands (2) and mixed beech-fir, spruce-fir and beech-spruce stands (6). Age of most stands was 80-100 years. Degree of crown damage varied greatly between sites, a percentage of damaged trees decrease in Carpathians from West to East. It corresponds well with the O3 level in these areas. Typical damage by O3 in herb layer species in several Carpathian sites were found. Land-use map for the entire Carpathian Mountains and two detailed land use maps for Tatras (Western Carpathians) and Retezat (Southern Carpathians) are presented. A little more than half of the Carpathian territory is forested. The most densely forested are Eastern Carpathians, while the most sparsely Western Carpathians. Arable lands occupy 22.6% of the Carpathians, pastures and meadows 6.2%, water bodies 1.9%, and build up areas several percent. In the highest elevation of the Carpathians alpine meadows (11.3%) and rocks (3.5%) are distributed

  1. New paleomagnetic results from the Upper Cretaceous red marls of the Pieniny Klippen Belt, Western Carpathians: Evidence for general CCW rotation and implications for the origin of the structural arc formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, Emő; Grabowski, Jacek; Plašienka, Dušan; Túnyi, Igor; Krobicki, Michał; Haas, János; Pethe, Mihály

    2013-04-01

    The Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB) is a narrow arcuate structure separating the Central and Outer Western Carpathians formed during several Cenozoic deformational stages. The primary aim of this study was to obtain paleomagnetic constraints for the mechanism of formation of the arc. We investigate Albian-Santonian red pelagic marls from 14 localities, distributed along a strike length of ca. 400 km. AMS measurements reveal a pattern characteristic of weakly deformed sedimentary rocks and magnetic lineations do not correlate with the general strike of the PKB. Paleomagnetic analysis revealed well defined hematite-based ancient magnetization components at 13 localities, which are dated using fold- and inclination tests. A within-locality fold test is negative for two localities exhibiting large CCW rotations of similar magnitude situated at the two ends of the PKB. Remanences of pre-folding age were documented for 11 localities, with an overall mean paleomagnetic direction of D = 311°, I = 53°, and α95 = 11°. The indicated general CCW rotation most probably took place during the Miocene, together with Western Central and Outer Carpathians. Paleolatitudes for the PKB indicate a considerable separation from the southern margin of stable Europe leaving space for coordinated rotation. A paleomagnetic oroclinal test involving all localities with primary magnetizations was negative. When localities with monoclinal steep dips are omitted due to possible declination bias, the overall mean paleomagentic direction does not change significantly, but correlation is observed between the general trend of the PKB and the paleomagnetic declinations. Thus, we conclude that the present shape of the arc can be partly due to oroclinal bending. This must have happened before Oligocene since paleomagnetic declinations for neighboring Paleogene basins in the Central and Outer Western Carpathians reveal a uniform CCW rotation of ca. 50° magnitude, irrespective of the position of the

  2. Divergence history of the Carpathian and smooth newts modelled in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, P; Nadachowska-Brzyska, K; Dudek, K; Babik, W

    2016-08-01

    Information about demographic history is essential for the understanding of the processes of divergence and speciation. Patterns of genetic variation within and between closely related species provide insights into the history of their interactions. Here, we investigated historical demography and genetic exchange between the Carpathian (Lissotriton montandoni, Lm) and smooth (L. vulgaris, Lv) newts. We combine an extensive geographical sampling and multilocus nuclear sequence data with the approximate Bayesian computation framework to test alternative scenarios of divergence and reconstruct the temporal and spatial pattern of gene flow between species. A model of recent (last glacial period) interspecific gene flow was favoured over alternative models. Thus, despite the relatively old divergence (4-6 mya) and presumably long periods of isolation, the species have retained the ability to exchange genes. Nevertheless, the low migration rates (ca. 10(-6) per gene copy per generation) are consistent with strong reproductive isolation between the species. Models allowing demographic changes were favoured, suggesting that the effective population sizes of both species at least doubled as divergence reaching the current ca. 0.2 million in Lm and 1 million in Lv. We found asymmetry in rates of interspecific gene flow between Lm and one evolutionary lineage of Lv. We suggest that intraspecific polymorphism for hybrid incompatibilities segregating within Lv could explain this pattern and propose further tests to distinguish between alternative explanations. Our study highlights the importance of incorporating intraspecific genetic structure into the models investigating the history of divergence. PMID:27288862

  3. Paleogene palaeogeography and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováč, Michal; Plašienka, Dušan; Soták, Ján; Vojtko, Rastislav; Oszczypko, Nestor; Less, György; Ćosović, Vlasta; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Králiková, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    The data about the Paleogene basin evolution, palaeogeography, and geodynamics of the Western Carpathian and Northern Pannonian domains are summarized, re-evaluated, supplemented, and newly interpreted. The presented concept is illustrated by a series of palinspastic and palaeotopographic maps. The Paleogene development of external Carpathian zones reflects gradual subduction of several oceanic realms (Vahic, Iňačovce-Kričevo, Szolnok, Magura, and Silesian-Krosno) and growth of the orogenic accretionary wedge (Pieniny Klippen Belt, Iňačovce-Kričevo Unit, Szolnok Belt, and Outer Carpathian Flysch Belt). Evolution of the Central Western Carpathians is characterized by the Paleocene-Early Eocene opening of several wedge-top basins at the accretionary wedge tip, controlled by changing compressional, strike-slip, and extensional tectonic regimes. During the Lutetian, the diverging translations of the northward moving Eastern Alpine and north-east to eastward shifted Western Carpathian segment generated crustal stretching at the Alpine-Carpathian junction with foundation of relatively deep basins. These basins enabled a marine connection between the Magura oceanic realm and the Northern Pannonian domain, and later also with the Dinaridic foredeep. Afterwards, the Late Eocene compression brought about uplift and exhumation of the basement complexes at the Alpine-Carpathian junction. Simultaneously, the eastern margin of the stretched Central Western Carpathians underwent disintegration, followed by opening of a fore-arc basin - the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin. In the Northern Hungarian Paleogene retro-arc basin, turbidites covered a carbonate platform in the same time. During the Early Oligocene, the rock uplift of the Alpine-Carpathian junction area continued and the Mesozoic sequences of the Danube Basin basement were removed, along with a large part of the Eocene Hungarian Paleogene Basin fill, while the retro-arc basin depocentres migrated toward the east

  4. Temporal properties of seismicity and largest earthquakes in SE Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Byrdina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the hazard rate distribution of the largest seismic events in Vrancea, South-Eastern Carpathians, we study temporal properties of historical and instrumental catalogues of seismicity. First, on the basis of Generalized Extreme Value theory we estimate the average return period of the largest events. Then, following Bak et al. (2002 and Corral (2005a, we study scaling properties of recurrence times between earthquakes in appropriate spatial volumes. We come to the conclusion that the seismicity is temporally clustered, and that the distribution of recurrence times is significantly different from a Poisson process even for times largely exceeding corresponding periods of foreshock and aftershock activity. Modeling the recurrence times by a gamma distributed variable, we finally estimate hazard rates with respect to the time elapsed from the last large earthquake.

  5. Hygrocybe salicis-herbaceae (Agaricomycetes, Hygrophoraceae: an arctic-alpine species new to the South-Eastern Carpathians (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ronikier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New localities of Hygrocybe salicis-herbaceae were observed during the research on the fungi of the alpine zone in the Carpathians. This is the first record of this arctic-alpine fungus in the South-Eastern Carpathians. Macro- and micromorphological characters of the Carpathian collections are compared with the descriptions from other regions. A revision of literature data indicates that the sites in the Parâng Mts. reported here are the only known localities of the species from the entire Carpathian range.

  6. Bending to fly

    CERN Document Server

    Thiria, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Wing flexibility governs the flying performance of flapping wing flyers. Here we use a self-propelled flapping-wing model mounted on a "merry-go-round" to investigate the effect of wing compliance on the propulsive efficiency of the system. Our measurements show that the elastic nature of the wings can lead not only to a substantial reduction of the consumed power, but also to an increment of the propulsive force. A scaling analysis using a flexible plate model for the wings points out that, for flapping flyers in air, the time-dependent shape of the elastic bending wing is governed by the wing inertia. Based on this prediction, we define the ratio of the inertial forces deforming the wing to the elastic restoring force that limits the deformation as the 'elasto-inertial number'. Our measurements with the self-propelled model confirm that it is the appropriate structural parameter to describe flapping flyers with flexible-wings.

  7. Phase trombones with bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    The phase shifting trombones considered up to now for SSC application consisted of sets of evenly spaced quadrupoles separated by drift spaces. One such trombone was placed between a dispersion suppressor and a crossing insertion, so that the trombone had zero dispersion. With such trombones, it is possible to change {beta}{sup *} at constant tune, or to change the tunes by several units without altering the cell phase advances in the arcs. An objection to the above type of phase trombone is that it adds to the circumference, since no bending is included. This objection may or may not be valid depending on the potential usefulness of the drift spaces in them. In this note the authors show an alternative trombone design in which dipoles are included between the quadrupoles as in the normal arc cells. Since these trombones have dispersion, they are placed at the ends of the arcs, to be followed in turn by the dispersion suppressors and crossing insertions.

  8. Some regularities in the distribution of kenophytes in the Polish Carpathians and their foreland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zając Maria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Carpathians and their northern foreland are a rewarding object for the kenophyte distribution research. The study, using the cartogram method, showed that the number of kenophyte species decreases with increasing altitude. Only few kenophytes were found in the lower forest zone. This regularity concerns also the species that reach higher altitudes in the mountains of their native lands. A number of species migrated into the Carpathians through rivers and streams. River valleys generate many open habitats, which are easily colonized by kenophytes due to the lack of competition. In the Carpathians, towns used to be founded in the mountain valleys and this was also a favouring factor of kenophyte propagation. The arrangement of mountain ranges in the Polish Carpathians, including their foreland, hindered the migration of some species and allowed to discover the possible migration routes into the area covered by research. Tracing these migration routes was possible only for those species that have not occupied the whole available area yet. Additionally, the study indicated the most dangerous invasive species in the Polish Carpathians and their foreland.

  9. Petrology of Badenian ignimbrites, Gutai Mts. (Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Fulop

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Gutâi Mts., part of inner Carpathians volcanic arc, consist of products of felsic and intermediate volcanism. The previously known “Badenian Rhyodacitic Formation”, expression of the felsic explosive volcanism, is composed of a well-defined basal unit of ignimbrites, overlain by a sequence of resedimented volcaniclastics of similar origin, interlayered with mudstones. The petrography of ignimbrites shows matrix-supported lapilli tuffs having a heterogeneous composition with insignificant lateral variations. The juvenile components, pumice, glass shards and crystals of plagioclase, quartz and biotite are predominant; cognate nonvesicular glassy clasts are rare, unlike accidental clasts of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks which are abundant. Pyroxene andesite accidental lithic clasts and pyroxene crystal clasts are scarce. The geochemical study of ignimbrites pointed out their rhyolitic character and geochemical signatures resembling subduction-related volcanics. Petrogenesis of ignimbrites involves complex evolution in the crustal magma chamber of some enriched (by subduction components mantle melts. Magmagenesis could be related to the uprise of the astenospheric mantle during the back-arc opening of the Intracarpathian region.

  10. Possible ecologically based ways of preserving and developing the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. І. Nikolaichuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine has transformed into one of the most environmentally dangerous countries in the world due to the high concentration of industrial production and agriculture and predatory use of natural resources. The current ecological situation in Ukraine is characterized by a deep ecological crisis, which is caused by the laws of operation of the command economy of the former USSR. The majority of the environmental and social indicators of Ukraine are among the worst in Europe. The Carpathian Mountains are among the most significant and interesting landscapes in Europe from the geological and geomorphological, scenic and biological perspectives. The giant arc of the Carpathians begins in southern Romania and passes through Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary to Austria, crosses all Eastern and Central Europe. A third of the forest reserves of Ukraine are located in the Ukrainian Carpathians, at 53.5% the percentage of forest cover of the area is among the highest in the country. About 50% of the gene pool of Ukraine’s plants, many species of trees and medicinal plants grows there. The geographical location and large area of the rich natural heritage of the Carpathians have multifaceted importance for the conservation of biological, phytocoenotic and landscape diversity and maintaining the ecological balance in the central part of our continent. As with the Alps mountain range, this is an important ecological corridor between Western, Central and Eastern Europe, which promotes the migration of species and their spread into lowland landscapes. In order to preserve biodiversity an inventory of virgin forest ecosystems should be made and strict measures for their protection should be enforced. It is necessary to continue the practice of establishing bilateral areas in cross-border protected areas in order to combine efforts to solve pressing environmental challenges. Conservation of the Carpathians Biodiversity is an urgent problem

  11. Total Petroleum Systems of the Carpathian - Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey defined the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System and the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System, which contain three assessment units, in the Carpathian-Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria. The Moesian Platform Assessment Unit, contained within the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System, is composed of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks within the Moesian platform region of southern Romania and northern Bulgaria and also within the Birlad depression in the northeastern platform area. In Romania, hydrocarbon sources are identified as carbonate rocks and bituminous claystones within the Middle Devonian, Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Neogene stratigraphic sequences. In the Birlad depression, Neogene pelitic strata have the best potential for generating hydrocarbons. In Bulgaria, Middle and Upper Jurassic shales are the most probable hydrocarbon sources. The Romania Flysch Zone Assessment Unit in the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System encompasses three structural and paleogeographic subunits within the Pre-Carpathian Mountains region: (1) the Getic depression, a segment of the Carpathian foredeep; (2) the flysch zone of the eastern Carpathian Mountains (also called the Marginal Fold nappe); and (3) the Miocene zone (also called the Sub-Carpathian nappe). Source rocks are interpreted to be Oligocene dysodile schist and black claystone, along with Miocene black claystone and marls. Also part of the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System is the Romania Ploiesti Zone Assessment Unit, which includes a zone of diapir folds. This zone lies between the Rimnicu Sarat and Dinibovita valleys and between the folds of the inner Carpathian Mountains and the external flanks of the Carpathian foredeep. The Oligocene Dysodile Schist is considered the main hydrocarbon source rock and Neogene black marls and claystones are likely secondary sources; all are thought to be at their maximum

  12. A Numerical Study of the Spring-Back Phenomenon in Bending with a Rebar Bending Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Hwan Choi; Lawrence Kulinsky; Joon Soo Jun; Jin Ho Kim

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the rebar bending methodology started to change from field processing to utilizing rebar bending machines at plant sites prior to transport to the construction locations. Computerized control of rebar plant bending machines provides more accurate and faster bending of rebars than the low quality inefficient field processing alternative. The bending process involves plastic deformation of rebars, where bending stress beyond the yield point of the material is applied. When the bending...

  13. Effect of bending pattern on finger joint bending strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džinčić Igor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited information is available on end gluing hardwoods in contrast to softwoods, which have been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of bending patern on bending strength of finger jointed beech wood. In structural uses finger jointing is finally the major method to end joint timber for the production of glue-laminated elements. There are no bending strength experimental results for finger-jointed hardwoods for investigations conducted in Serbia. Two finger jointed profiles were studied in accordance with DIN68140. The finger joints were made by side and by face of beam. Length jointed samples were loaded at the side and in the face. The obtained results led to the conclusion that the direction of load, gluing surface and the position of joint influence on the strength of continued longitudinal beams.

  14. Assessing the recent climate change effects on Southern Carpathians permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Razvan; Vespremeanu-Stroe, Alfred; Cruceru, Nicolae; Pop, Olimpiu

    2014-05-01

    Most of the rock glaciers from Southern Carpathians (SC) are relict or inactive in the present. A few cases of active or complex (active only across their upper parts) rock glaciers are supposed to exist in Retezat Massif (Vespremeanu-Stroe et al., 2012), but recent growth of vegetation (especially Pynus mugo) on their fronts arises the hypothesis of a contemporary inactivation trend. The present work aims to evaluate how the climate oscillations from the last 70 years impacted SC permafrost. Rock glaciers feedback was assessed using permafrost creep measurements (on two rock glaciers from Retezat Massif) and estimations of the vegetation age installed on the rock glaciers fronts. We assessed the main climatic indices for the alpine area, with a focus on the cold snow free interval (SFI; autumn and early winter) which is the most critical period for permafrost existence as revealed by its correlations with the multiannual variability of the bottom temperature of snow during late winter (BTS) and with the permafrost temperature. We assessed the magnitude of SFI by calculating the freezing index (°Ch) at several locations from SC. The oscillation of the freezing index during the last 70 years was possible using air temperature from high meteorological stations by establishing a relation between ground surface temperatures (GST) monitored in numerous sites from SC and air temperature. The main findings indicate a recent climate warming, since late 1970s, who initiated a gradual rock glaciers inactivation which speeds up in the last decade (2003 - 2012) due to unprecedented low freezing indices. These are supported by the low creep values in the median and terminal parts of monitored rock glaciers comparing with the permafrost rich upper parts and by the young ages of Pynus mugo shrubs (few decades) which colonize the rock glaciers fronts.

  15. A New Kind of Bend Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new kind of bend sensor is introduced.It can be used to detect the bend angle of an object or inclination between two objects.It has characteristics of small size, lightweight, high reliability, fine flexibility and plasticity.When this bend sensor is used with a proper converting circuit, it can implement dynamic measuring the bend angle of an object conveniently.The application of the bend sensor in dataglove is also described.

  16. Hydrochemical differences between Carpathian streams with similar physico-geographical conditions of catchments (the Polish Flysch Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucała, Anna; Wiejaczka, Łukasz

    2014-05-01

    The study was conducted during one hydrological year (2012/2013) in two Jaszcze and Jamne catchments (11.39 km2 and 8.95 km2, respectively) located in the Gorce Mountains with environmental features representative for the Western Flysch Carpathians (in 2012/2013 hydrological year). The Jaszcze and Jamne streams (9.3 km and 6.4 km long, respectively), are left tributaries of the Ochotnica river. Both catchments are in the range of the Magura nappe of the Carpathian Flysch. The Jaszcze and Jamne valleys are located in two climatic vertical zones: 1) a temperate cold zone (of a mean annual temperature of 4-6 ºC) and 2) a cold zone (2-4ºC), above 1,100 m a.s.l. Mean annual precipitation for this region in the years 1958-2008 was 841 mm. The aim of the research was to determine differences in the physicochemical properties between streams, the valleys of which are characterised by similar physico-geographical conditions. The discussed valleys are alike because of their proximity, and the similarity manifests itself through the occurrence of the same geology, relief and exposure of both valleys, as well as inclination and soil cover. The climatic conditions and circulation of groundwater are also similar. In both valleys, forest is the dominant land use form (the Jaszcze catchment - 77% and the Jamne - 55%). The research showed that the Jaszcze stream is characterised by a higher discharge throughout the year than the Jamne stream. In spring, the mean water flow rate calculated for the entire longitudinal profile of the Jaszcze stream was 1.6 times higher than the rate obtained for the Jamne stream. In summer and autumn, this rate was respectively 1.8 and 2.2 times higher in the Jaszcze stream than in the Jamne stream. The mean annual temperature of water in the Jamne stream is higher by 0.8 °C than the temperature of water in the Jaszcze stream. This is caused by the higher temperature of groundwater (even by up to 2-3 °C) and the lower discharge (the temperature

  17. Breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age: Transcultural warriorhood and a Carpathian crossroad in the 16th century BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandkilde, Helle

    2014-01-01

    ) and in the northern zone (rock). In a Carpathian crossroad between the Eurasian Steppes, the Aegean world and temperate Europe during this time, a transcultural assemblage coalesced, fusing both tangible and intangible innovations from various different places. Superior warriorhood was coupled to beliefs...... momentous creativity that drew upon Carpathian originals, contacts and a pool of Carpathian ideas, but ultimately drawing on emergent Mycenaean hegemonies in the Aegean. This provided the incentive for a cosmology-rooted resource from which the NBA could take its starting point....

  18. Hygrocybe salicis-herbaceae (Agaricomycetes, Hygrophoraceae): an arctic-alpine species new to the South-Eastern Carpathians (Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Ronikier

    2013-01-01

    New localities of Hygrocybe salicis-herbaceae were observed during the research on the fungi of the alpine zone in the Carpathians. This is the first record of this arctic-alpine fungus in the South-Eastern Carpathians. Macro- and micromorphological characters of the Carpathian collections are compared with the descriptions from other regions. A revision of literature data indicates that the sites in the Parâng Mts. reported here are the only known localities of the species from the entire Ca...

  19. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  20. Banatitic magmatic and metallogenetic belt: metallogeny of the Romanian Carpathians segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S̡erban-Nicolae Vlad

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Carpathians sector of the Late Cretaceous Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenetic belt (BMMB contains 1 plutons and volcano-plutonic complexes, i. e. calc-alkaline, I-type granitoids, with related ores; 2 shoshonitic plutons that lack economic interest. Two provinces have been delineated: the Apuseni Mts. Province in the North and the Western South Carpathians in the South. Apuseni Mts. Province is a non-porphyry environment related to more evolved (granodioritic-granitic magmatism. It is subdivided into three zones: Vlădeasa (Pb-Zn ores of restricted metallogenetic potential; Gilău-Bihor (Fe, Bi, Mo, Cu, W, Au, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Ag, U, B ores / conspicuous peri-batholitic arrangement and South Apuseni (only one minor Fe-skarn occurrence. Western South Carpathians Province occurs in Romania and extends in Eastern Serbia. It is subdivided into South Banat Mts.–Timok Zone (SBTZ and Poiana Ruscă Mts.– North Banat Mts.– Ridanj-Krepoljin Zone (PR-NB-RKZ. SBTZ is a typical porphyry environment of high metallogenetic potential (Cu, Au, Pb, Zn, while PR-NB-RKZ is a non-porphyry environment with small to medium size Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu deposits/prospects exhibiting commonly a peri-plutonic zoning. The metallogenetic model of the Romanian Carpathians segment of BMMB is conceived based on correlating magma composition/level of emplacement and ore types.

  1. The Carpathian range represents a weak genetic barrier in South-East Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hervella, M.; Izagirre, N.; Alonso, S.; Ioana, M.; Netea, M.G.; Rua, C. de la

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the present study we have assessed whether the Carpathian Mountains represent a genetic barrier in East Europe. Therefore, we have analyzed the mtDNA of 128 native individuals of Romania: 62 of them from the North of Romania, and 66 from South Romania. RESULTS: We have analyzed their

  2. Do patches of alder bog forest enhance the myriapod diversity in the Carpathians?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wytwer, J.; Tajovský, Karel; Lamorski, T.; Nicia, P.; Pižl, Václav; Starý, Josef; Sterzyńska, M.

    Olomouc : Institute of Soil Biology , BC ASCR, 2014. s. 108. ISBN 978-80-86525-28-0. [International Congress of Myriapodology /16./. 20.07.2014-25.07.2014, Olomouc] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : alder bog forest * myriapod diversity * Carpathians Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. A failure of conservation payments: agrienvironmental and afforestation subsidies jointly destroying the biodiversity of Carpathian grasslands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, L.; Konvička, O.; Beneš, Jiří; Popelářová, M.; Konvička, Martin

    Praha : Czech University of Life Sciences, 2009. s. 109-110. ISBN 978-80-213-1961-5. [European Congress of Conservation Biology /2./. 01.09.2009-05.09.2009, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : carpathian grasslands Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Postcollisional lithospheric evolution of the Southeast Carpathians: Comparison of geodynamical models and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göǧüş, Oǧuz H.; Pysklywec, Russell N.; Faccenna, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    Seismic evidence and thermal and topographic transients have led to the interpretation of lithospheric removal beneath the Southeast Carpathians region. A series of numerical geodynamic experiments in the context of the tectonic evolution of the region are conducted to test the surface-crustal response to lithosphere delamination and slab break-off. The results show that a delamination-type removal ("plate-like" migrating instability) causes a characteristic pattern of surface uplift/subsidence and crustal extension/shortening to occur due to the lithospheric deformation and dynamic/thermal forcing of the sublithospheric mantle. These features migrate with the progressive removal of the underlying lithosphere. Model results for delamination are comparable with observables related to the geodynamic evolution of the Southeast Carpathians since 10 Ma: the mantle structure inferred by seismic tomography, migrating patterns of uplift (>1.5 km) and subsidence (>2 km) in the region, crustal thinning in the Carpathian hinterland and thickening at the Focsani depression, and regional extension in the Carpathian corner (e.g., opening of Brasov basin) correlating with volcanism (e.g., Harghita and Persani volcanics) in the last 3 Myr.

  5. Recent landforms evolution in the Moravian-Silesian Carpathians (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demek, J.; Hradecký, J.; Kirchner, Karel; Pánek, T.; Létal, A.; Smolová, I.

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2012 - (Lóczy, D.; Stankoviansky, M.; Kotarba, A.), s. 103-139. (Springer Geography). ISBN 978-94-007-2447-1 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : recent landforms evolution * Western Carpathians * topographic changes Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.springer.com/earth+sciences+ and +geography/geography/book/978-94-007-2447-1

  6. Some new Eocene elasmobranch reports from the outer Western Carpathians (Moravia, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Skupien, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 268, č. 1 (2013), s. 113-123. ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Elasmobranchii * Leidybatis jugossus * Centrophorus * Eocene * Western Carpathian Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2013

  7. Structure and diversity of small mammal communities of mountain forests in Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Čepelka, L.; Heroldová, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 3 (2014), s. 481-490. ISSN 1612-4669 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : species diversity * Rodents * Insectivores * Mountain forests * Carpathians Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.095, year: 2014

  8. Changes in the distribution of isotherms across the Carpathian Mountains in response to climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Micu, Dana; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cheval, Sorin; Birsan, Marius-Victor

    2016-04-01

    Air temperature is a crucial climate variable in the monitoring of climate change effects, especially in high-elevation regions highly sensitive to the recent warming. The study highlights the spatial changes and the vertical anomalies of the observed temperature trends associated with displacements of some important isotherms, relevant for the typololgy of periglacial process (e.g. 2°, 0°, 2°, 3°C) and the spread of forest vegetation (10°C), across the Carpathian Mountains range. The analyses are based on homogenized daily mean, minimum and maximum temperature available at 0.1° resolution (~10 km) for 1961-2010, developed within the CARPATCLIM project (www.carpatclim.eu). The changes in isotherm distribution were investigated for each season by comparing distinct three 30-year time-slices (1961-1990, 1971-2000 and 1981-2010) at regional scale, with focus on the five Carpathian Mountains regions. The results show consistent spatial changes, suggesting a strong northward displacement of isotherms in winter and summer and a slightly less one in spring. The strongest changes associated to the isotherms of average and maximum temperature occur the strongest in the areas beyond 47°N latitude, distinguishing extended areas of the Northwestern Carpathians, the Northeastern Carpathians and Southwestern and Southern Carpathians. In summer, the vertical displacement of all isotherms were found significant over the entire Carpathian domain, with changes of up to 0.6-0.8°C for minimum temperature isotherms and over 0.8-1.0°C for the average and maximum temperature. In autumn, most visible changes were assigned to maximum temperature isotherms, especially when comparing the time-slices overlapping the last 40 years of the study period, yet at a weaker magnitude compared to other seasons (below 0.6°C). The spatial changes in the distribution of isotherms are relevant for the timing and intensity of processes in the areas with active seasonal ground freezing (above 2

  9. Concurrent and opposed environmental trends during the last glacial cycle between the Carpathian Basin and the Black Sea coast: evidence from high resolution enviromagnetic loess records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, Ulrich; Zeeden, Christian; Veres, Daniel; Obreht, Igor; Bösken, Janina; Marković, Slobodan B.; Eckmeier, Eileen; Fischer, Peter; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Danube Basin near to the Black Sea (Urluia quarry, Dobrogea, Romania). In order to investigate the potential of Danubian loess in recording millennial-scale palaeoclimate variability, a 22 m deep drill-core from the Titel loess plateau and a more than 15 metres thick LPSS from the Urluia quarry were contiguously sampled. Both sides provide improved insight into past climate evolution of the regions down to MIS 6. The presentation will focus on the down-core/down-section variability of χ and χfd as environmental proxy parameters. Based on these mineral magnetic proxies we can already draw the following conclusions: 1) The dust accumulation rates in both regions were relatively constant over the past c. 130 kyrs, even during full interglacial conditions. 2) In the studied sections, the pedo-complex S1 represents ± the Eemian and not the entire MIS 5, as previously assumed. 3) There are a lot of similarities between the mineral magnetic records of the Titel-Plateau (Vojvodina, South Carpathian Basin) and the Urluia quarry (Dobrogea, Lower Danube Basin) and also between these records and those from the Chinese Loess Plateau, but also fundamental differences. 4) During the early glacial (end of MIS5) we find no evidence for soil formation in the South Carpathian Basin whereas in the Dobrogea near to the Black Sea coast embryonic soils developed. On the contrary, during the younger part of MIS 3 (≤ 40 ka) near to the Black Sea coast soil humidity sharply decreased towards the LGM whereas in the South Carpathian Basin the mineral magnetic proxies indicate a relative maximum in pedogenesis/soil humidity. Sedimentological, geochemical, geochronological and palaeomagnetic investigations are in progress. They will provide further high quality data sets leading to an improved understanding of the Late Pleistocene environmental evolution in the Danube Basin.

  10. Chemical and morphological characteristics of key tree species of the Carpathian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankovska, Blanka; Godzik, Barbara; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuri; Moravcik, Pavel

    2004-07-01

    Concentrations of Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, S and Zn in the foliage of white fir (Abies alba), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) from 25 sites of the Carpathian Mts. forests (Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine) are discussed in a context of their limit values. S/N ratio was different from optimum in 90% of localities when compared with the European limit values. Likewise we found increase of Fe and Cu concentrations compared with their background levels in 100% of locations. Mn concentrations were increased in 76% of localities. Mn mobilization values indicate the disturbance of physiological balance leading to the change of the ratio with Fe. SEM-investigation of foliage waxes from 25 sites in the Carpathian Mts. showed, that there is a statistically significant difference in mean wax quality. Epistomatal waxes were damaged as indicated by increased development of net and amorphous waxes. The most damaged stomata in spruce needles were from Yablunitsa, Synevir and Brenna; in fir needles from Stoliky, and in beech leaves from Mala Fatra, Morske Oko and Beregomet. Spruce needles in the Carpathian Mts. had more damaged stomata than fir needles and beech leaves. Spruce seems to be the most sensitive tree species to environmental stresses including air pollution in forests of the Carpathian Mountains. Foliage surfaces of three forest tree species contained Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Cl, Mn, Na, Ni and Ti in all studied localities. Presence of nutrition elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, K and Mn) on foliage surface hinders opening and closing stomata and it is not physiologically usable for tree species. - Chemical composition of foliage and structure of epicuticular waxes indicated phytotoxic effects of air pollution in many forest sites of the Carpathian Mountains.

  11. Chemical and morphological characteristics of key tree species of the Carpathian Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, S and Zn in the foliage of white fir (Abies alba), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) from 25 sites of the Carpathian Mts. forests (Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine) are discussed in a context of their limit values. S/N ratio was different from optimum in 90% of localities when compared with the European limit values. Likewise we found increase of Fe and Cu concentrations compared with their background levels in 100% of locations. Mn concentrations were increased in 76% of localities. Mn mobilization values indicate the disturbance of physiological balance leading to the change of the ratio with Fe. SEM-investigation of foliage waxes from 25 sites in the Carpathian Mts. showed, that there is a statistically significant difference in mean wax quality. Epistomatal waxes were damaged as indicated by increased development of net and amorphous waxes. The most damaged stomata in spruce needles were from Yablunitsa, Synevir and Brenna; in fir needles from Stoliky, and in beech leaves from Mala Fatra, Morske Oko and Beregomet. Spruce needles in the Carpathian Mts. had more damaged stomata than fir needles and beech leaves. Spruce seems to be the most sensitive tree species to environmental stresses including air pollution in forests of the Carpathian Mountains. Foliage surfaces of three forest tree species contained Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Cl, Mn, Na, Ni and Ti in all studied localities. Presence of nutrition elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, K and Mn) on foliage surface hinders opening and closing stomata and it is not physiologically usable for tree species. - Chemical composition of foliage and structure of epicuticular waxes indicated phytotoxic effects of air pollution in many forest sites of the Carpathian Mountains

  12. PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT OF GIFTED STUDENTS FROM CARPATHIAN MOUNTAIN AREAS BY MEANS OF FOLK ART CRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kozlovska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, presented at the Conference Plenary the possibilities of pedagogical support of gifted students from vocational schools, living in the mountainous areas of the Carpathians. Education of talented and gifted students requires pedagogical support. The specific conditions, in which Carpathian students live, require the development of pedagogical support of their abilities. New approaches to teaching science, which led to the selection of topics of this article are described. Gifted personalities differ from their peers by same criterias. The social aspect of the problem remains in the shadow: not to be ashamed of your talent and not to compare it with cliches. And goals of educators and psychologists have to be slightly different as is common. Widespread  Carpathian crafts include: embroidery, artistic textiles producing, carpet manufacture, carving, pottery, metalworking, fabric painting, knitting, lace, artistic weaving, artistic working of  leather, stones, bones and horns. Nowadays, some detachment of mountainous regions has significantly reduced due to new means of communication, including the Internet. The possibilities of colleges in mountainous regions still cannot reach the level of the colleges in capital. In Carpathian and Prykrpattya regions there is a number of vocational schools of art direction. During the execution of creative work in class industrial training necessary for students to comply with the rules of relationships form and decoration in various ways: decorative motif obeys the functional form, enriching it artistic and creative solutions, utilitarian function obeys the decorative motif Products, the form of the product can be extremely decorative, artistic and creative product solutions focused on practical value and decorative value of the product. Pedagogical support of gifted students from art colleges in the Carpathian region has extremely wide range of opportunities. The problem of finding and nurturing

  13. Contribution to climate stability via expansion of azonal boreal forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijnik, M. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Agricultural Economics and Rural Policy Group

    2002-10-01

    Since World War II, the forests in Ukraine's Carpathian region have suffered over exploitation. The upper border of the Carpathian forests crept to a lower elevation with the contraction of the azonal boreal forests of the Ukraine and the ability of the forests to perform their shelter functions and climate stabilization has decreased. For that reason, Ukraine has initiated a program for afforestation and reforestation which is aimed at planting trees in about 2 million hectares of low-productivity and waste lands and creating forest stands along rivers, canals and water bodies. It is expected that this program will increase the forest area by nearly 20 per cent, considerably improving the environmental situation in the country. Afforestation will lessen the threat of further degradation of the upper layer of fertile soil, and stabilize micro climate conditions as well as the water balance of the rivers. The forest resource base of the country will also increase. This study assessed the potential effects of the expansion of azonal boreal forests in the Carpathians on the carbon cycle and climate stability. It also addressed policy implementation costs. Initially, the study will consider a storage option, where trees are planted for a period of 50 years. Results show that afforestation and reforestation in the Carpathian mountains for the sole purpose of carbon uptake would not be very beneficial. However, the benefit would lie in soil and water protection. Future studies will focus on developing a dynamic optimization model to indicate optimal expansion of azonal boreal forests in the Carpathians. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  14. Combustion engineering: steam generator tube bending practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tube bending practices and procedures employed by Combustion Engineering (CE), when bending inconel tubing is discussed. CE has two different type tube geometries in the steam generator. The innermost tubes are 1800 U-bends while the majority of the tubes have two (2) 900 bends with a straight leg between these 900 bends. The first 18 rows have U-bends (2 1/2'' to 11''R), while the remaining tubes have the double 900 geometry. All double 900 bends are bent to a 10'' radius. This presentation will address the following important parameters necessary to achieve a high quality bent tube: fabrication requirements at the tube mill; tube bending equipment; tube bending operation; inspection and final preparation; and packaging

  15. Hormonal regulation of gravitropic bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Cui, D.; Xu, X.; Hu, L.; Cai, W.

    Gravitropic bending is an important subject in the research of plant Recent data support the basics of the Cholodny-Went hypothesis indicating that differential growth in gravitropism is due to redistribution of auxin to the lower sides of gravistimulated roots but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects So we carried a series of work surround the signals induced by auxin end center We found the endogenous signaling molecules nitric oxide NO and cGMP mediate responses to gravistimulation in primary roots of soybean Glycine max Horizontal orientation of soybean roots caused the accumulation of both NO and cGMP in the primary root tip Fluorescence confocal microcopy revealed that the accumulation of NO was asymmetric with NO concentrating in the lower side of the root Auxin induced NO accumulation in root protoplasts and asymmetric NO accumulation in root tips Gravistimulation NO and auxin also induced the accumulation of cGMP a response inhibited by removal of NO or by inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase compounds that also reduced gravitropic bending Asymmetric NO accumulation and gravitropic bending were both inhibited by an auxin transport inhibitor and the inhibition of bending was overcome by treatment with NO or 8-bromo-cGMP a cell-permeable analog of cGMP These data indicate that auxin-induced NO and cGMP mediate gravitropic curvature in soybean roots From Hu et al Plant Physiol 2005 137 663-670 The asymmetric distribution of auxin plays a fundamental role in plant gravitropic bending

  16. A Temperature Sensor Based on a Polymer Optical Fiber Macro-Bend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba Zubia Zaballa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of a plastic optical fiber (POF macrobend temperature sensor is presented. The sensor has a linear response versus temperature at a fixed bend radius, with a sensitivity of . The sensor system used a dummy fiber-optic sensor for reference purposes having a resolution below 0.3 °C. A comprehensive experimental analysis was carried out to provide insight into the effect of different surrounding media on practical macro-bend POF sensor implementation. Experimental results are successfully compared with bend loss calculations.

  17. A Temperature Sensor Based on a Polymer Optical Fiber Macro-Bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraleda, Alberto Tapetado; García, Carmen Vázquez; Zaballa, Joseba Zubia; Arrue, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The design and development of a plastic optical fiber (POF) macrobend temperature sensor is presented. The sensor has a linear response versus temperature at a fixed bend radius, with a sensitivity of 1.92·10−3 (°C)−1. The sensor system used a dummy fiber-optic sensor for reference purposes having a resolution below 0.3 °C. A comprehensive experimental analysis was carried out to provide insight into the effect of different surrounding media on practical macro-bend POF sensor implementation. Experimental results are successfully compared with bend loss calculations. PMID:24077323

  18. Wood bending using microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a new technique of wood bending where microwave irradiation is used to heat and soften wet wood specimens. Compared to the traditional steaming procedure, this procedure offers many advantages : (i) as the heating occurs inside the specimen, complete softening is obtained very quickly; (ii) temperature can be easily controlled in order to obtain the best processing conditions; (iii) the benefit will be especially big in the case of large specimens whose pretreatment may take hours with steaming; (iv) in general, the applicability of wood bending is enlarged, i.e. new wood species and specimens with lower quality can endure larger deformations with a reduced loss. In the case where drastic strain levels are required, the forming and setting operations should be done inside the microwave oven, in order to take advantage of the additional ''mechano-sorptive'' flexibility appearing when wood dries under load

  19. Bending stresses in Facetted Glass Shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne; Jönsson, Jeppe; Almegaard, Henrik

    structure will locally cause bending moments in the loaded facets. The bending stresses are dependent on the stiffness of the joints. Approximate solutions are developed to estimate the magnitude of the bending stresses. A FE-model of a facetted glass shell structure is used to validate the expressions and...

  20. Natural Hazard Prevention and the Mountain Land Risk Reduction in the Western Carpathians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Maas; Rudolf Ondrá(s)ik; Libor Jansky

    2005-01-01

    The Western Carpathians are located out of world main natural hazardous zones. Human casualties are related more to snow avalanches in connection with mountain hiking, some individuals yearly by flooding and rarely by forest fires. Economic lost about 0.1 to 0.2 %, exceptionally up to 0.8 % of the gross domestic product (GDP) proportionally to the Carpathian regions of particular countries.Natural disasters are linked, except of the above mentioned events, to infrequent small and medium scale earthquakes, landslides, and erosion. Records of the most harmful natural events are found in archives since the 16th century. Their systematic study and factor analysis started from the end of the 19th century, and protective measures and organization of impact mitigation developed during the 20th century to minimize the risk.

  1. Exhumation history of the Tatry Mountains, Western Carpathians, constrained by low-temperature thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmigielski, M.; Sinclair, H. D.; Stuart, F. M.; Persano, C.; Krzywiec, P.

    2016-01-01

    This study tests alternative models for the growth of the Tatry Mountains (Central Western Carpathians) by the application of low-temperature thermochronology. Zircon (U + Th)/He ages from the north of the range are mostly between 48 and 37 Ma and indicate cooling prior to the onset of fore-arc sedimentation in the region (42-39 Ma). In contrast, zircon (U + Th)/He ages in the south of the range are around 22 Ma. Apatite fission track ages across the sampled sites range from 20 to 15 Ma. Apatite (U + Th)/He ages range from 18 to 14 Ma with little variation with elevation or horizontal location. Based on thermal modeling and tectonic reconstructions, these Miocene ages are interpreted as cooling in the hanging wall of a northward dipping thrust ramp in the current location of the sub-Tatric fault with cooling rates of ~20°C/Myr at ~22-14 Ma. Modeled cooling histories require an abrupt deceleration in cooling after ~14 Ma to <5°C/Myr. This is associated with termination of deformation in the Outer Carpathians and is synchronous with the transition of the Pannonian Basin from a syn-rift to a postrift stage and with termination of N-S compression in the northern part of the Central Western Carpathians. Overall, the timing of shortening and exhumation is synchronous with the formation of the Outer Carpathian orogen and so the Miocene exhumation of the Tatry records retrovergent thrusting at the northern margin of the Alcapa microplate.

  2. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT surveys on glacial deposits in Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ZAMOSTEANU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study presents preliminary results regarding the use of electrical resistivity surveys in the assessment of the internal structure of the glacial deposits from the Romanian Carpathians.ERT is a geophysical method used to quantify changes in electrical resistivity of the ground towards passing electric current across an array of electrodes and simultaneous measurement of the induced potential gradient. Using specific software the measurements are further processed and correlated with the topography in order to obtain bedrock resistivity features. Therefore, the method is useful to evaluate the characteristics of geological strata and is widely used for mapping shallow subsurface geological structures. In the mountain regions ERT studies have been applied in different glacial and periglacial geomorphological studies - for permafrost detection (in Romanian Carpathians - Urdea et. al., 2008; Vespremeanu-Stroe et al., 2012, slope deformation analysis, the assessment of slip surface depths, sediment thickness, groundwater levels etc. One of the most commonly 2-D array used is the Wenner electrode configuration, which is moderately sensitive to both horizontal and vertical ground structures.Due to their elevations and Pleistocene’s climatic conditions, the Romanian Carpathians have been partially affected by Quaternary glaciations. The glaciers descended to about 1050-1200 m a.s.l. (Urdea and Reurther, 2009 in the Transylvanian Alps and Rodna Mountains (Eastern Carpathians carving a large number of U-shaped valleys and glacial cirques (Mîndrescu, 2006 and forming accumulations of unconsolidated glacial debris (moraines. Our study areas are two sites located in the northern (Rodna Mts. and southern (Iezer Păpuşa Mts. part of the mountain range.

  3. Large Late Pleistocene landslides from the marginal slope of the Flysch Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, T.; Hartvich, Filip; Jankovská, Vlasta; Klimeš, Jan; Tábořík, Petr; Bubík, M.; Smolková, V.; Hradecký, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2014), s. 981-992. ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : fossil landslide * radiocarbon dating * electrical resistivity tomography * pollen analysis * Late Pleistocene * Flysch Carpathians * Marine Isotope Stage 3 Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography; EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2014

  4. Conceptual bases of forecasting of effective use of economic capacity of the Carpathian region

    OpenAIRE

    Машіка, Ганна

    2016-01-01

    The research is carried out in the field of economic geography. The aim of this article is to raise the efficiency of economic potential of Carpathian region. The need for forecasting natural resource is described with particular attention. This paper proposes a new approach to the study of the region's economic potential, which is the object of the prediction. Content potential acquires new characteristics, which are dynamism and discrete.Studying the properties of types of resources gives t...

  5. Settlement history and sustainability in the Carpathians in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Turnock, David

    2005-01-01

    As part of a historical study of the Carpathian ecoregion, to identify salient features of the changing human geography, this paper deals with the 18th and 19th centuries when there was a large measure political unity arising from the expansion of the Habsburg Empire. In addition to a growth of population, economic expansion - particularly in the railway age - greatly increased pressure on resources: evident through peasant colonisation of high mountain surfaces (as in the Apuseni Mountains) ...

  6. RESEARCH ON MILK PRODUCTION AT GOATS FROM CARPATHIAN BREED IN RELATION WITH BREEDING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Ion RĂDUCUŢĂ; Călin, Ion; Emilia (RĂDUCUŢĂ) ION; Carmen Georgeta NICOLAE; Monica Paula MARIN; Horia Ion PRISECEANU

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to quantify the qualitative and quantitative parameters of milk production at goats from Carpathian breed in relation with the breeding system (extensive versus semi-intensive). To determine the total quantity of milk, the milk production control it included suckling period of kids and milking period of goats. For determining the quality of milk it was made the analysis of chemical composition of milk in the main constituents, namely water and dry matter, content of fat, prote...

  7. Hydromorphological quality as a key element of the ecological status of Polish Carpathian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej WYŻGA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available After a few decades of efforts to detect, quantify and counteract the effects of water pollution on river biota, recent years have brought an increasing understanding of the significance of hydromorphological quality of rivers for their ecological status, and research on Polish Carpathian rivers has contributed to the progress in this field. Our team developed a method of hydromorphological assessment of rivers, which is based on the European Standard EN-14614 and compromises between the needs for practical application and the environmental significance of results. Application of the method in rivers with different channel patterns confirmed its usefulness and showed a significant impact of channelization and channel incision on the hydromorphological quality of Carpathian rivers. Both disturbances simplified flow pattern and homogenised physical habitat conditions in rivers, and the changes are clearly reflected in the reduced abundance and diversity of fish fauna as well as the reduced taxonomic diversity of benthic invertebrate communities. Significant relationships between these biotic characteristics of Polish Carpathian rivers on one hand and the variation of physical habitat conditions and hydromorphological quality of the rivers on the other indicate that recovery of the degraded communities requires such restoration measures that will increase morphological complexity of the watercourses. Environmental changes that took place in Carpathian catchments during the twentieth century have changed water and sediment fluxes in the rivers and thus make it impossible to use the historical state of the watercourses as reference for their restoration. Therefore, reference conditions should be defined as those which exist or would exist under present environmental conditions in the catchment but with the lacking human influence on the channel, riparian zone and floodplain of the river which is to be restored. An erodible corridor seems to be a

  8. Ichnology of the Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds (Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuláš, Radek; Skupien, P.; Bubík, M.; Vašíček, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2009), s. 233-250. ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Upper Cretaceous * Western Carpathians * hemipelagic * ichnofossils * ichnofabric * red beds Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2009 http://www.geologicacarpathica.sk/src/main.php

  9. Early Cretaceous ammonites from the Butkov Quarry (Manín Unit, Central Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašíček, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2010), s. 393-415. ISSN 0001-5709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Western Carpathians * Manín Unit * Upper Valanginian * Lower Hauterivian * Ammonites Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.779, year: 2010 http://www.geo.uw.edu.pl/agp/table/pdf/60-3/08vasicek.pdf

  10. Recognition of elements of petroleum system in the eastern part of Polish Carpathians using magnetotellurics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The petroleum system applies to predispositions of hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation. To recognize petroleum system, multi-stage interdisciplinary studies including geological, geophysical and geochemical methods are needed. The electromagnetic methods can be effectively used at initial stages of the studies as well as complementary tools in advanced investigations. Source rocks of clastic series typical of the Carpathian orogen are related with shaly-mudstone sediments that have very low electric resistivity. Reservoir rocks are generally related with high-resistivity coarse-clastic complexes. The above given regularities make premises for connecting resistivity distribution with the occurrence of source rocks and reservoir rocks as well as recognition of tectonic zones that indirectly predetermine migration paths or the conditions for forming reservoir traps. It seems most advisable to use the electromagnetic methods in areas which are difficult to be examined with seismics, such as the Flysch Carpathians. Regional-scale and semi-detailed magnetotelluric surveys and, locally, detailed magnetotelluric surveys were conducted in the Carpathians. The results of survey allowed elements of the tectonics, location of potential source rocks and possible zones of reservoir rocks to be evaluated at a regional scale for the eastern part of the Polish Carpathians. Of particular usefulness for that task were resistivity maps showing resistivity distributions at different depths, maps of thickness of low-resistivity sediments related with shaly-mudstone rocks, and maps of thickness of high-resistivity sediments comprising sandstone complexes. Tectonic zones are shown both in maps of resistivity and structural maps as well as in magnetotelluric cross-sections with elements of geological interpretation. This paper was written as a result of the statutory research of the Department of General Geology, Environment Protection

  11. Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds in the Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skupien, P.; Bubík, M.; Švábenická, L.; Mikuláš, Radek; Vašíček, Zdeněk; Matýsek, D.

    Vol. 91. Tulsa : SEPM, 2009 - (Hu, X.; Wang, C.; Scott, R.; Wagreich, M.; Jansa, L.), s. 99-109 ISBN 978-1-56576-135-3 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Outer Carpathians * red beds * fossils Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Protected Areas in the Slovak Carpathians as a Contested Resource Between Metropolitan and Mountain Stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Meessen, Heino; Švajda, Juraj; Kohler, Thomas; Fabriciusová, Vladimíra; Galvánek, Dobromil; Buraľ, Miroslav; Káčerová, Marcela; Kadlečík, Ján

    2016-01-01

    In Eastern Europe’s westernmost mountain region, the Carpathians, the Slovak State Nature Conservancy is preserving a unique biodiversity in line with directives of the European Union. This is being done in large protected areas (LPAs). In this paper, we discuss current challenges of LPA management with a particular focus on contradictions between local people’s views and nationally to internationally determined sectoral planning strategies. We take stock of the benefits LPAs offer local popu...

  13. Climate variability in the Carpathian Mountains Region over 1961-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Sorin; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2014-07-01

    The Carpathian Mountains Region (CMR) lies over parts of the territories of seven Central and Southeastern European countries, and the mountain chain induces major changes in the temperate climate specific to the latitudes between 43° and 49°N. Different administrations govern the long-term meteorological networks; the infrastructure, collection protocols, and storage capacities are specific to each country, so that a comprehensive study on the climate of the area has met considerable difficulties along time. Climate of the Carpathian Region (CARPATCLIM) is a regional initiative developed between 2010 and 2013 aiming to enhance the climatic information in the area by providing comprehensive, temporally and spatially homogenous data sets of the main meteorological variables. Based on daily data aggregated to a monthly scale at 10-km resolution, this study exploits and promotes the results of the CARPATCLIM project, documenting the variability of the main climatic variables over 1961-2010. For each month, the significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified, mapped and placed in the context of previous studies and climate change perspectives. The study has revealed several patterns in the climatic variability, i.e., positive or negative trends prevailing over the entire area, very distinct delineation between various trends induced by the Carpathian Mountain chain, and pledges for further scientific approaches, i.e., causes of the variability and applications in other domains.

  14. The BioREGIO Carpathians project: aims, methodology and results from the “Continuity and Connectivity” analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Favilli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BioREGIO Carpathians is a transnational cooperation project, co-financed under the second call of the EU South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme, priority area “Protection and Improvement of the Environment”. BioREGIO Carpathians run for three years (2011–2013 and is a flagship project for the Carpathian Convention (article four dealing with landscape and biological diversity, its Biodiversity Protocol and the Biodiversity Working Group. The project is built on the conservation, restoration and valorisation of the Carpathians ecological continuum to enable large herbivores and carnivores to live in coexistence with modern society. The Carpathian countries are expecting a massive pressure to modernize and extend their road infrastructures. If not considering the requirements of ecological network, this run-to-development will enhance landscape fragmentation, limit dispersal and genetic exchange of wildlife species. BioREGIO applied a multi-disciplinary approach (physical, legal and socio-economic in order to identify the most influencing barriers regarding connectivity throughout the Carpathians. Using two ArcGIS 10.0 tools in a three-step approach and a series of site visits, the continuity and connectivity analysis identified not only physical barriers but also legal aspects and socio-economic behaviour that are influencing ecological connectivity and playing a major role to conserve wildlife population. The investigation on the ground together with local experts and stakeholders enabled the adaptation of the GIS results and the development of feasible solutions to overcome the detected barriers with recommended priorities for implementing appropriate measurements to maintain connectivity and to sustain large carnivores, herbivores and biodiversity in the Carpathians.

  15. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    2014-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  16. Crustal structure of the Pannonian-Carpathian region, Central Europe, from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Carpathian Basins Project Working Group

    2010-12-01

    The Pannonian Basin of Central Europe is a major extensional basin surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains. During the evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region, extension of the crust and lithosphere created several inter-related basins of which the Pannonian basin is the largest. Imaging the seismic velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle may help us understand the structure and geodynamic evolution of this part of central Europe. Here, we use ambient noise tomography to investigate the crust and uppermost mantle structure in the region. We have collected and processed continuous data from 56 temporary stations deployed in the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) for 16 months (2005-2007) and 41 permanent broadband stations; this dataset enables the most well-resolved images of the S-wave structure of the region yet obtained. We computed the cross-correlation between vertical component seismograms from pairs of stations and stacked the correlated waveforms over 1-2 years to estimate the Rayleigh wave Green’s function. Frequency-time analysis is used to measure the group velocity dispersion curves, which are then inverted for the group velocity maps. Our 4-10 s group velocity maps exhibit low velocity anomalies which clearly defined the major sediment depo-centers in the Carpathian region. A broad low velocity anomaly in the center of the 5 s group velocity map can be associated with the Pannonian Basin, whereas an anomaly in the southeastern region is related to the Moesian platform. Further east, the Vienna Basin can also be seen on our maps. A fast anomaly in the central region can be associated with the Mid-Hungarian line. At periods from 18 to 24 seconds, group velocities become increasingly sensitive to crustal thickness. The maps also reveal low-velocity anomalies associated with the Carpathians. The low velocity anomalies are probably caused by deeper crustal roots beneath the mountain ranges which occur due to isostatic compensation. CBP

  17. Garment-Integrated Bend Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gioberto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Garment-integrated sensors equip clothes with a smart sensing capability, while preserving the comfort of the user. However, this benefit can be to the detriment of sensing accuracy due to the unpredictability of garment movement (which affects sensor positioning and textile folds (which can affect sensor orientation. However, sensors integrated directly into garments or fabric structures can also be used to detect the movement of the garment during wearing. Specifically, a textile bend sensor could be used to sense folds in the garment. We tested a garment-integrated stitched sensor for five types of folds, stitched on five different weights of un-stretchable denim fabric and analyzed the effects of fold complexity and fabric stiffness, under un-insulated and insulated conditions. Results show that insulation improves the linearity and repeatability of the sensor response, particularly for higher fold complexity. Stiffer fabrics show greater sensitivity, but less linearity. Sensor response amplitude is larger for more complex fold geometries. The utility of a linear bending response (insulated and a binary shorting response (un-insulated is discussed. Overall, the sensor exhibits excellent repeatability and accuracy, particularly for a fiber-based, textile-integrated sensor.

  18. Devonian/Mississippian I-type granitoids in the Western Carpathians: A subduction-related hybrid magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broska, Igor; Petrík, Igor; B´eri-Shlevin, Yaron; Majka, Jaroslaw; Bezák, Vladimír

    2013-03-01

    SIMS zircon U-Pb dating of I-type granitoids from four Variscan crystalline basement outcrops in the Western Carpathians (Tribeč, Nízke Tatry, Čierna Hora and Slovenské Rudohorie Mts.) implies that they originated between 367 and 353 Ma. Therefore, they belong to the earliest Variscan I-type granitoids. The oldest Devonian age at ca. 367-364 Ma is obtained from an enclave-bearing tonalite and associated dikes of the Tribeč Mts. Several granodiorites from the Nízke Tatry, Vepor and Čierna Hora Mts. (353-357 Ma) show younger, Early Carboniferous ages. These data require a re-assessment of older models that explained the genesis of I-type granitoids in the Western Carpathians based on the assumption of younger, Middle to Upper Carboniferous ages. The I-type granite massifs of the Western Carpathians most probably originated in an arc-related environment within the Galatian superterrane, an assemblage of Gondwana derived fragments. The early age of I-type magmatism in the Western Carpathians marks the beginning of a north-dipping subduction of the Paleotethys ocean under Ibero-Ligerian and intra-Alpine terranes. We suggest a term "Proto-Tatricum" for that part of the Galatian superterrane where Devonian/Mississippian I-type granitoids were emplaced. Now the granitoids are incorporated as a part of crystalline basement into the Alpine Tatric and Veporic units within present West-Carpathian mountain chain.

  19. Elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytic formula is derived for the elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene based on an empirical potential for solid-state carbon atoms. Two physical origins are identified for the non-vanishing bending stiffness of the atomically thin graphene sheet, one due to the bond-angle effect and the other resulting from the bond-order term associated with the dihedral angles. The analytical prediction compares closely with ab initio energy calculations. Pure bending of graphene monolayers into cylindrical tubes is simulated by a molecular mechanics approach, showing slight nonlinearity and anisotropy in the tangent bending modulus as the bending curvature increases. An intrinsic coupling between bending and in-plane strain is noted for graphene monolayers rolled into carbon nanotubes. (fast track communication)

  20. Elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Qiang; Huang Rui [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Arroyo, Marino [Department of Applied Mathematics 3, LaCaN, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona 08034 (Spain)

    2009-05-21

    An analytic formula is derived for the elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene based on an empirical potential for solid-state carbon atoms. Two physical origins are identified for the non-vanishing bending stiffness of the atomically thin graphene sheet, one due to the bond-angle effect and the other resulting from the bond-order term associated with the dihedral angles. The analytical prediction compares closely with ab initio energy calculations. Pure bending of graphene monolayers into cylindrical tubes is simulated by a molecular mechanics approach, showing slight nonlinearity and anisotropy in the tangent bending modulus as the bending curvature increases. An intrinsic coupling between bending and in-plane strain is noted for graphene monolayers rolled into carbon nanotubes. (fast track communication)

  1. Bending magnets design of cERL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are now constructing Compact Energy Recovery Linac (cERL) to start commissioning in March of 2013. We started constructing 35MeV, 10mA, 1loop design, and after step by step reinforcement, we will complete 245MeV, 100mA, and 2loop facility of cERL. We use 2 type bending magnets, sector type magnet and branch bend. Both magnets are trapezoid shape and bending radiuses are 1m, bending angles are 45degree. After constructing second loop, we use the branch bend to separate low energy electron to first loop and high energy electron to second loop. We report these two type bending magnets design of cERL. (author)

  2. Minimum Membrane Bending Energies of Fusion Pores

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Meyer B.

    2009-01-01

    Membranes fuse by forming highly curved intermediates, culminating in structures described as fusion pores. These hourglass-like figures that join two fusing membranes have high bending energies, which can be estimated using continuum elasticity models. Fusion pore bending energies depend strongly on shape, and the present study developed a method for determining the shape that minimizes bending energy. This was first applied to a fusion pore modeled as a single surface and then extended to a...

  3. Stable isotope distribution in continental Maastrichtian vertebrates from the Haţeg Basin, South Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Csiki, Zoltan; Grigorescu, Dan

    2010-05-01

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of biogenic apatite from crocodiles, turtles and dinosaurs, and their relationship to climate and physiology have been evidenced by several studies (Barrick and Showers, 1995; Kolodny et al., 1996; Barrick et al., 1999; Fricke and Rogers, 2000; Stoskopf et al., 2001; Straight et al., 2004; Amiot et al., 2007). To date, few attempts have been made to correlate the enamel d13C to dietary resources of dinosaurs (Bocherens et al., 1988; Stanton Thomas and Carlson, 2004; Fricke and Pearson, 2008; Fricke, et al., 2008). One additional complication is that for dinosaurs, the d18O of enamel phosphate depends on both body water and variations in body temperature. Several studies addressed the issue of endothermy vs. ectothermy of fossil vertebrates by studying inter- and intra-bone and enamel isotopic variability (Barrick and Showers, 1994, 1995; Barrick et al., 1996; 1998; Fricke and Rogers, 2000). More recent investigations provided evidence for inter-tooth temporal variations and related them to seasonality and/or changes in physiology (Straight et al., 2004; Stanton Thomas and Carlson, 2004). The main objectives of this study are to extract palaeoclimatic information considering, beside lithofacial characteristics and the isotopic distribution of carbonates formed in paleosols, the stable isotope composition of vertebrate remains from the Haţeg Basin. We also sampled several teeth along their growth axis in order to get further information about growth rates and the amplitude of isotopic variation. Located in the South Carpathians in Romania, the Haţeg Basin contains a thick sequence of Maastrichtian continental deposits yielding a rich dinosaur and mammalian fauna. Stable isotope analyses of both calcretes and dinosaur, crocodilian and turtle remains from two localities (Tuştea and Sibişel) were integrated in order to reconstruct environmental conditions during the Maastrichtian time and to gain further insights into the metabolism

  4. Peeling, sliding, pulling and bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, John; Peng, Gunnar

    2015-11-01

    The peeling of an elastic sheet away from thin layer of viscous fluid is a simply-stated and generic problem, that involves complex interactions between the flow and elastic deformation on a range of length scales. Consider an analogue of capillary spreading, where a blister of injected viscous fluid spreads due to tension in the overlying elastic sheet. Here the tension is coupled to the deformation of the sheet, and thus varies in time and space. A key question is whether or not viscous shear stresses ahead of the blister are sufficient to prevent the sheet sliding inwards and relieving the tension. Our asymptotic analysis reveals a dichotomy between fast and slow spreading, and between two-dimensional and axisymmetric spreading. In combination with bending stresses and gravity, which may dominate parts of the flow but not others, there is a plethora of dynamical regimes.

  5. Cylindrical Bending of Deformable Textile Rectangular Patch Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek Boeykens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Textile patch antennas are well known as basic components for wearable systems that allow communication between a human body and the external world. Due to their flexibility, textile antennas are subjected to bending when worn, causing a variation in resonance frequency and radiation pattern with respect to the flat state in which their nominal design is performed. Hence, it is important for textile antenna engineers to be able to predict these performance parameters as a function of the bending radius. Therefore, we propose a comprehensive analytical model that extends the cylindrical cavity model for conformal rigid patch antennas by incorporating the effects of patch stretching and substrate compression. It allows to predict the resonance frequency and the radiation pattern as a function of the bending radius. Its validity has been verified experimentally. Unlike previous contributions, which concerned only qualitative studies by means of measurements and numerical full-wave simulations, the proposed model offers advantages in terms of physical insight, accuracy, speed, and cost.

  6. Biomorphodynamic modelling of inner bank advance in migrating meander bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Simone; Zolezzi, Guido; Toffolon, Marco; Gurnell, Angela M.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a bio-morphodynamic model at bend cross-sectional scale for the lateral migration of river meander bends, where the two banks can migrate separately as a result of the mutual interaction between river flow, sediments and riparian vegetation, particularly at the interface between the permanently wet channel and the advancing floodplain. The model combines a non-linear analytical model for the morphodynamic evolution of the channel bed, a quasi-1D model to account for flow unsteadiness, and an ecological model describing riparian vegetation dynamics. Simplified closures are included to estimate the feedbacks among vegetation, hydrodynamics and sediment transport, which affect the morphology of the river-floodplain system. Model tests reveal the fundamental role of riparian plants in generating bio-morphological patterns at the advancing floodplain margin. Importantly, they provide insight into the biophysical controls of the 'bar push' mechanism and into its role in the lateral migration of meander bends and in the temporal variations of the active channel width.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ON THE POSSIBILITIES OF VEGETABLE GROWING IN THE AREA OF WESTERN CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al. Silviu APAHIDEAN

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the area of Western Carpathian Mountains, the vegetable growing is less extended and the assortment of vegetables is limited to few species with smaller necessities regarding the pedoclimatic conditions. This research presents the results obtained after testing a number of 25 species and varieties of vegetables in the specific conditions of the area of Glacier - Western Carpathian Mountains, at an altitude of 1150 m. From these, the following vegetables reacted very well: onion, winter onion, chives, garlic, pea, celery, cabbage, salad, garden chicory, lovage, tarragon and rhubarb.

  8. Biological and Energy Productivity of Natural Spruce Forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Vasilishyn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern practice of forestry production in Ukraine, which is in the process of implementing the conceptual changes in forest management and harmonization of its basic approaches to the basics of sustainable development, requires a significant expansion of the current regulatory and informational tools used to assess the ecological functions of forests. For this purpose, during the 2012–2014, as part of an international project GESAPU, models and tables of bioproductivity for forest tree species in Ukraine were completed. The article presents the results of modeling the dynamics of the conversion coefficients for the main components of phytomass of modal natural spruce forests of the Carpathian region of Ukraine based on information from 32 plots in the database of «Forest Phytomass of Ukraine». According to the state forest accounting of Ukraine as of January 1, 2011, the spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians cover an area of 426.2 thousand ha, 45 % of which are spruce of natural origin. To evaluate the productivity of modal dynamics of pure and mixed spruce stands, the study developed models of the stock and overall productivity, derived by Bertalanffy growth function. On the basis of these models, normative reference tables of biological productivity of natural modal spruce forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians were developed. To successfully meet the challenges of evaluating the energy possibilities of forestry of Ukraine, the study used tables of energetic productivity of investigated stands. Built on the basis of the tables of bioproductivity, they reflect the dynamic processes of energy storage in the phytomass components and can be used in forest management to predict volumes of energetic woods.

  9. Petrology and geochemistry of a peridotite body in Central- Carpathian Paleogene sediments (Sedlice, eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppa Matúš

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied representative samples from a peridotite body situated NE of Sedlice village within the Central- Carpathian Paleogene sediments in the Central Western Carpathians. The relationship of the peridotite to the surrounding Paleogene sediments is not clear. The fractures of the brecciated peridotite margin are healed with secondary magnesite and calcite. On the basis of the presented bulk-rock and electron microprobe data, the wt. % amounts of mineral phases were calculated. Most of calculated “modal” compositions of this peridotite corresponds to harzburgites composed of olivine (∼70-80 wt. %, orthopyroxene (∼17-24 wt. %, clinopyroxene ( < 5 wt. % and minor spinel ( < 1 wt. %. Harzburgites could originate from lherzolitic protoliths due to a higher degree of partial melting. Rare lherzolites contain porphyroclastic 1-2 mm across orthopyroxene (up to 25 wt. %, clinopyroxene (∼ 5-8 wt. % and minor spinel ( < 0.75 wt. %. On the other hand, rare, olivine-rich dunites with scarce orthopyroxene porphyroclasts are associated with harzburgites. Metamorphic mineral assemblage of low-Al clinopyroxene (3, tremolite, chrysotile, andradite, Cr-spinel to chromite and magnetite, and an increase of fayalite component in part of olivine, indicate low-temperature metamorphic overprint. The Primitive Mantle normalized whole-rock REE patterns suggest a depleted mantle rock-suite. An increase in LREE and a positive Eu anomaly may be consequence of interactive metamorphic fluids during serpentinization. Similar rocks have been reported from the Meliatic Bôrka Nappe overlying the Central Western Carpathians orogenic wedge since the Late Cretaceous, and they could be a potential source of these peridotite blocks in the Paleogene sediments.

  10. Bandwidth engineering of photonic crystal waveguide bends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    An effective design principle has been applied to photonic crystal waveguide bends fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material using deep UV lithography resulting in a large increase in the low-loss bandwidth of the bends. Furthermore, it is experimentally demonstrated that the absolute bandwidth...

  11. 46 CFR 56.80-5 - Bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....1 of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). This shall not prohibit the use of..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Bending and Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will...

  12. Bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger;

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides. Although the graphene waveguides are lossy themselves, we show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. We use transmission line theory...

  13. Total Petroleum Systems of the North Carpathian Province of Poland, Ukraine, Czech Republic, and Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Three total petroleum systems were identified in the North Carpathian Province (4047) that includes parts of Poland, Ukraine, Austria, and the Czech Republic. They are the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System, the Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, and the Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System. The Foreland Basin Assessment Unit of the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System is wholly contained within the shallow sedimentary rocks of Neogene molasse in the Carpathian foredeep. The biogenic gas is generated locally as the result of bacterial activity on dispersed organic matter. Migration is also believed to be local, and gas is believed to be trapped in shallow stratigraphic traps. The Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, which includes the Deformed Belt Assessment Unit, is structurally complex, and source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are juxtaposed in such a way that a single stratigraphic section is insufficient to describe the geology. The Menilite Shale, an organic-rich rock widespread throughout the Carpathian region, is the main hydrocarbon source rock. Other Jurassic to Cretaceous formations also contribute to oil and gas in the overthrust zone in Poland and Ukraine but in smaller amounts, because those formations are more localized than the Menilite Shale. The Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System is defined on the basis of the suspected source rock for two oil or gas fields in western Poland. The Paleozoic Reservoirs Assessment Unit encompasses Devonian organic-rich shale believed to be a source of deep gas within the total petroleum system. East of this field is a Paleozoic oil accumulation whose source is uncertain; however, it possesses geochemical similarities to oil generated by Upper Carboniferous coals. The undiscovered resources in the North Carpathian Province are, at the mean, 4.61 trillion cubic feet of gas and 359 million barrels of oil. Many favorable parts of the province have been

  14. Bat guano deposit Holocene datings in the south Carpathian mountains (Romania). Tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two 14C datings in a 2.5 m thick bat guano deposit indicate the Boreal period for the beginning of the deposit. The bat colony of the cave of Adam (Pestera lui Adam, Baile Herculane, south Carpathian Mountains) is one of the oldest permanent bat colonies in Europe, probably established just after the last Ice Age. Evidence of palaeo-seismic activity inside the guano deposit allow a chronology of regional seismic events during the Holocene Period to be drawn up. (authors)

  15. HUMAN-INDUCED CHANGES IN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE PETROŞANI DEPRESSION (SOUTHERN CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA COSTACHE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the changes in ecosystem services in the most important coal field from the Southern Carpathians (Romania. The time horizon considered is the interval 1950-2010, characterized by two major processes: intensive development of the mining industry (1950-1989 and subsequent restructuring of mining, with significant consequences since 1996. Socio-economic phenomena associated with these two stages in the evolution of the region have generated major changes in ecosystem services, leading to increased human vulnerability, both to extreme events (natural hazards and pressure from economic factors.

  16. Climate change in the Carpathian-Balkan Area. Advancing research and cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Mindrescu, Marcel; Daniel VERES; Astrid BJÖRNSEN GURUNG; Kiefer, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    The Carpathian Mountains are considered to be one of Europe’s last “wilderness” areas, but are nevertheless under heavy pressure from human activities. Examples range from large-scale activities (e.g. metal and coal mining) and ecological disasters (e.g. tailing dam failures in the Toroiaga and Baia Mare areas) to cross-border pollution (e.g. Chernobyl nuclear accident). The current political thrust for economic development is accelerating the pace of industrial activities, exploitation of na...

  17. Organic and low intensive, traditional sheep farming in the Polish Carpathian Mts

    OpenAIRE

    Twardy, Dr. Stanislaw; Kuzniar, Dr. Antoni

    2006-01-01

    The Polish Carpathians Mts. occupy about 19.6 thousands km2, which constitute over 6 % of the area of the country. The length of this mountain chain within Poland 's territory is 330 km and width is 60-80 km. In described agricultural land the permanent grasslands dominate. At lower elevation, i.e. about 600-650 m a.s.l. they are moved, and the above this elevation land is utilised as a pasture. In whole area the low input agriculture is practised, usually as sub-sistence farming, i.e. feedin...

  18. Bending of light in conformal Weyl gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2010-06-01

    We reexamine the bending of light issue associated with the metric of the static, spherically symmetric solution of Weyl gravity discovered by Mannheim and Kazanas (1989). To this end we employ the procedure used recently by Rindler and Ishak to obtain the bending angle of light by a centrally concentrated spherically symmetric matter distribution in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter background. In earlier studies the term γr in the metric led to the paradoxical result of a bending angle proportional to the photon impact parameter, when using the usual formalism appropriate to asymptotically flat space-times. However, employing the approach of light bending of Rindler and Ishak we show that the effects of this term are in fact insignificant, with the discrepancy between the two procedures attributed to the definition of the bending angle between the asymptotically flat and nonflat spaces.

  19. 49 CFR 195.212 - Bending of pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bending of pipe. 195.212 Section 195.212... PIPELINE Construction § 195.212 Bending of pipe. (a) Pipe must not have a wrinkle bend. (b) Each field bend must comply with the following: (1) A bend must not impair the serviceability of the pipe. (2)...

  20. 49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bends and elbows. 192.313 Section 192.313... Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle bend... tested either before or after the bending process. (c) Wrought-steel welding elbows and...

  1. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF SOME PROTEINS IN THE MILK OF CARPATHIAN GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ZAULET

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects of the polymorphism of some Carpathian goat milk proteins. The Carpathian breed is the main breed of goats reared in Romania. The optimal working conditions were determined for the identification of the casein phenotypes. The technique of the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used. The milk samples were processed to remove the fat and whey and the migration was done in the presence of a standard sample which contained proteins with different molecular weights. The interpretation of the electrophoresis migrations revealed the presence of two genotypes, the homozygous genotype β-Cn BB and the heterozygous β-Cn AB. The homozygous genotype β-Cn AA was not identified in any individual. The heterozygous genotype β-Cn AB displayed a high frequency (59% and it was observed in 10 individuals. The homozygous genotype β-Cn BB was observed in 7 individuals and it had a frequency of 41%. The homozygous genotype β-Cn AA has not been identified in the studied population. The distribution of these genotypes showed that allele β-CnB was predominant (70% over allele β-can (30%.

  2. Saharan dust deposition in the Carpathian Basin and its possible effects on interglacial soil formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, György; Cserháti, Csaba; Kovács, János; Szalai, Zoltán

    2016-09-01

    Several hundred tons of windblown dust material are lifted into the atmosphere and are transported every year from Saharan dust source areas towards Europe having an important climatic and other environmental effect also on distant areas. According to the systematic observations of modern Saharan dust events, it can be stated that dust deflated from North African source areas is a significant constituent of the atmosphere of the Carpathian Basin and Saharan dust deposition events are identifiable several times in a year. Dust episodes are connected to distinct meteorological situations, which are also the determining factors of the different kinds of depositional mechanisms. By using the adjusted values of dust deposition simulations of numerical models, the annual Saharan dust flux can be set into the range of 3.2-5.4 g/m2/y. Based on the results of past mass accumulation rates calculated from stratigraphic and sedimentary data of loess-paleosol sequences, the relative contribution of Saharan dust to interglacial paleosol material was quantified. According to these calculations, North African exotic dust material can represent 20-30% of clay and fine silt-sized soil components of interglacial paleosols in the Carpathian Basin. The syngenetic contribution of external aeolian dust material is capable to modify physicochemical properties of soils and hereby the paleoclimatic interpretation of these pedogene stratigraphic units.

  3. RESEARCH ON MILK PRODUCTION AT GOATS FROM CARPATHIAN BREED IN RELATION WITH BREEDING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion RĂDUCUŢĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to quantify the qualitative and quantitative parameters of milk production at goats from Carpathian breed in relation with the breeding system (extensive versus semi-intensive. To determine the total quantity of milk, the milk production control it included suckling period of kids and milking period of goats. For determining the quality of milk it was made the analysis of chemical composition of milk in the main constituents, namely water and dry matter, content of fat, protein, lactose and minerals. The biological material studied in this paper was represented by the adult goats from Carpathian breed belonging of two private farms from the south region of country. The size of the control group during the whole lactation was 25 heads for each farm. The research took into account two farms of goats differentiated by breeding system practiced, respectively extensive and semi-intensive. The obtained results showed that regarding the quantitative milk production the best performance was achieved by animals from semi-intensive farm (253.21 liters versus 208.50 liters and in terms of milk quality by the animals from extensive farm.

  4. Trace element contamination in Slovakian part of Carpathian mountains studied by moss monitoring and foliar analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of terrestrial mosses as biomonitors in large-scale-multielement studies of heavy metal deposition from the atmosphere is a well established technique in Europe. In such studies it is advantageous to determine as many elements as possible in order to distinguish different source categories. A combination of INAA and AAS has been found very useful in this respect, in particular when epithermal activation is used for instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 44 elements in Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens moss samples from the Slovakian part of Carpathian Mts. and a background area in Central Norway were identified. The highest concentrations of the majority of trace elements were found in mosses growing in the second European Black Triangle (Poland - Czech-Slovak border) and hot spots Central Spis in Slovakia. These results are in conformity with the load of trace elements in the foliage of white fir (abies alba), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) from 5 sites of the Carpathian Mts. forests. Foliage surfaces of three forest tree species contained Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Cl, Mn, Na, Ni, and Ti in all studied localities. Anthropogenic and geogenic influences are being discussed on the basis of the results. Warimax rotated principal component analysis was used to identify and characterize different pollution sources and to point out the most polluted areas

  5. The genus Hebeloma in the alpine belt of the Carpathians including two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ursula; Ronikier, Anna; Schütz, Nicole; Beker, Henry J

    2015-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2012 regular visits to the Carpathians were made and a number of Hebeloma spp. were collected from the alpine area. In total 44 collections were made that represent 11 species, two of which, Hebeloma grandisporum and H. oreophilum, are described here as new. Of the 11 species, four (H. alpinum, H. marginatulum and the two species described as new) are known only from alpine or Arctic habitats. Hebeloma dunense and H. mesophaeum are commonly found in, but not restricted to, alpine habitats. The other five species (H. aanenii, H. laterinum, H. naviculosporum, H. vaccinum, H. velutipes) are usually found in lowland or boreal habitats. Hebeloma naviculosporum is reported for the first time from the alpine zone and H. alpinum for the first time as growing with Helianthemum. All but two species (H. alpinum, H. marginatulum) are reported for the first time from the Carpathian alpine zone. In this paper we discuss the habitat, the 11 recorded species and give detailed descriptions of the two new species, both morphologically and molecularly. A key for Hebeloma species from sect. Hebeloma occurring in Arctic-alpine habitats is provided. PMID:26354807

  6. Surface waves tomography and non-linear inversion in the southeast Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of shear-wave velocity models of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in the southeast Carpathians is determined by the non-linear inversion of surface wave group velocity data, obtained from a tomographic analysis. The local dispersion curves are assembled for the period range 7 s - 150 s, combining regional group velocity measurements and published global Rayleigh wave dispersion data. The lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity structure is reliably reconstructed to depths of about 250 km. The thickness of the lithosphere in the region varies from about 120 km to 250 km and the depth of the asthenosphere between 150 km and 250 km. Mantle seismicity concentrates where the high velocity lid is detected just below the Moho. The obtained results are in agreement with recent seismic refraction, receiver function, and travel time P-wave tomography investigations in the region. The similarity among the results obtained from different kinds of structural investigations (including the present work) highlights some new features of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in southeast Carpathians, as the relatively thin crust under Transylvania basin and Vrancea zone. (author)

  7. Dating of speleothems in non-karst caves - methodological aspects and practical application, Polish Outer Carpathians case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, J.; Margielewski, W.; Hercman, H.; Žák, Karel; Zernitska, V.; Pawlak, J.; Schejbal-Chwastek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, Supplement 1 (2015), s. 185-210. ISSN 0372-8854 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : non-karst caves * speleothem dating * landslide * Polish Outer Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2014

  8. MEDIA ENVIRONMENT AS FACTOR OF REALIZATION OF CREATIVE POTENTIAL OF FUTURE TEACHERS` IN THE MOUNTAIN SCHOOLS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Lebedieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows up “media environment” as a factor of future teachers` creative potential realization in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The problem of using media environment as a factor of future teachers` creative potential in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians and the ways of its optimization is the main point of this research. Highlights ways to modernize social and professional orientation training of students in the creative process of nature is situates in information education and educational environment of high school. We consider the causal link use media environment as a factor of future teachers` creative potential and complexity of the teacher in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The basic function of the media environment are extensity, instrumental, communicative, interactive, multimedia. Reveals some aspects of training students to creatively active teaching process we describe subjects with objective possibilities in the formation of professional skills of future teachers` and which directly affect the realization of creative potential – “Ukrainian folk art”, “Basic recitation and rhetoric”, “The basis of pedagogical creativity”. The necessity of creating a full-fledged media environment in higher education is important condition of successful education as an important factor that allows the efficiency of the creative potential of future teachers` in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians.

  9. Late-Holocene evolution of a floodplain impounded by the Smrdutá landslide, Carpathian Mountains (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, T.; Smolková, V.; Hradecký, J.; Sedláček, J.; Zernitskaya, V.; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Pazdur, A.; Řehánek, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2013), s. 218-229. ISSN 0959-6836 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Flysch Carpathians * landslide dam * late Holocene * recurrent landslide * sedimentary archive Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2013

  10. Contribution to the Veigaiidae Oudemans, 1939 fauna of the Carpathian Basin and the Balkan Peninsula (Acari: Mesostigmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ács, A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Altogether nine veigaiid mite species were listed from different countries of the Carpathian Basin and the Balkan Peninsula, eight of them belonging to the genus Veigaia Oudemans, 1905 and one to Gamasolaelaps Berlese, 1904. New species are added to the fauna of Albania (two, Austria (one, Kosovo (one, Macedonia (three, Serbia (four and Slovakia (two.

  11. THE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE PROBLEM IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS ON THE EXAMPLE OF CARPATHIAN REGION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliia Murava

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify waste generated within the territories of tourist destinations in Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and to classify it for the use of effective waste management methods. The dynamics of municipal waste generation in tourist destinations in Carpathian region has been analyzed. The sources of waste generation in tourist activities have been identified and classified by the criterion of their further use. The methods of waste management within the tourist destinations in Carpathian region have been proposed. The problem of tourist destinations waste has been identified as one of the significant environmental aspects of tourism industry. Recommendations for implementation of the waste management methods can form the basis of waste management programs within the tourist destinations in the Carpathians. To achieve the goal and to solve the identified tasks a range of research methods have been used in the study: praximetric method (analysis of research experience and summarizing the information of printed sources on environmental aspects of the tourism industry and the problems of waste management within tourist destinations; comparative analysis has been used for identification of quantitative indicators and dynamics of municipal waste generation; specific search method has been used for identifying, selecting, theoretical analysis, classification of the waste generated in tourist destinations and calculation of their generated amount.

  12. Complex local Moho topography in the Western Carpathians: Indication of the ALCAPA and the European Plate contact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubcová, Pavla; Środa, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 638, 7 January (2015), s. 63-81. ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08971S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Western Carpathians * seismic modelling * crustal structure * anomalous Moho * Bohemian Massif * Pannonian Basin Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2014

  13. Statistical and GIS based spatial analysis of factors contributing to the landslide evolution, Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Jan

    University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, 2005, s. 61-66. [Tagung für Ingenieurgeologie /15./. Erlangen (DE), 06.04.2005-09.04.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : landslide s * susceptibility maps * Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  14. Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Lower Cretaceous sediments in the Outer Western Carpathians (Silesian Unit, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Marcela; Švábenická, L.; Skupien, P.; Hradecká, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 4 (2011), s. 309-332. ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/01/1582 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : microfossils * paleoecology * biostratigraphy * Lower Cretaceous * Outer Western Carpathians * Silesian Unit Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.787, year: 2011

  15. A Temperature Sensor Based on a Polymer Optical Fiber Macro-Bend

    OpenAIRE

    Joseba Zubia Zaballa; Jon Arrue; Carmen Vázquez García; Alberto Tapetado Moraleda

    2013-01-01

    The design and development of a plastic optical fiber (POF) macrobend temperature sensor is presented. The sensor has a linear response versus temperature at a fixed bend radius, with a sensitivity of 〖1.92.10〗^(-3) 〖(°C) 〗^(-1) . The sensor system used a dummy fiber-optic sensor for reference purposes having a resolution below 0.3 °C. A comprehensive experimental analysis was carried out to provide insight into the effect of different surrounding media on practical macro-bend POF sensor imp...

  16. Bending stresses in Facetted Glass Shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne; Jönsson, Jeppe; Almegaard, Henrik

    A shell structure of glass combines a highly effective structural principle with a material of optimal permeability to light. A facetted shell structure has a piecewise plane geometry, and together the facets form an approximation to a curved surface. A distributed load on a plane-based facetted...... structure will locally cause bending moments in the loaded facets. The bending stresses are dependent on the stiffness of the joints. Approximate solutions are developed to estimate the magnitude of the bending stresses. A FE-model of a facetted glass shell structure is used to validate the expressions and...

  17. Measurement of irradiation creep in bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major deformation modes in LMFBR fuel channels are bowing caused by neutron flux and temperature gradients and dilation due to stresses imposed by the flowing sodium. In both cases, the stress state of interest is bending. The bulk of irradiation creep data has been generated by simply loaded specimens such as tensile or biaxial pressurized tubes but it is questionable whether this data can be used to predict creep in bending. An irradiation creep experiment using beams loaded in primary bending has been designed to investigate this premise

  18. Measurement of irradiation creep in bending. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSherry, A.J.; Marshall, J.; Patel, M.R.

    1980-01-31

    The major deformation modes in LMFBR fuel channels are bowing caused by neutron flux and temperature gradients and dilation due to stresses imposed by the flowing sodium. In both cases, the stress state of interest is bending. The bulk of irradiation creep data has been generated by simply loaded specimens such as tensile or biaxial pressurized tubes but it is questionable whether this data can be used to predict creep in bending. An irradiation creep experiment using beams loaded in primary bending has been designed to investigate this premise.

  19. Climate change in the Carpathian-Balkan Area. Advancing research and cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains are considered to be one of Europe’s last “wilderness” areas, but are nevertheless under heavy pressure from human activities. Examples range from large-scale activities (e.g. metal and coal mining and ecological disasters (e.g. tailing dam failures in the Toroiaga and Baia Mare areas to cross-border pollution (e.g. Chernobyl nuclear accident. The current political thrust for economic development is accelerating the pace of industrial activities, exploitation of natural resources and tourism. Romania has just recently been integrated into the European Union and many community-based projects were initiated to evaluate problems related to climatic and anthropogenic impacts.The diversity of landforms that characterize the Carpathian region encompassing mountain ranges and large spans of adjacent lowlands and the dynamic interplay between North Atlantic, continental, and Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns in southeastern Europe, have resulted in extremely fragmented habitats and exceptional biodiversity (Veres and Mindrescu, 2013. However, the Carpathian Mountains remain the least studied mountain environment in Europe, as reflected for example by the low number of well-dated and high-resolution paleorecords (e.g. Buczkó et al. 2009. Rose et al. (2009 published a pollution history study from a lake in the Retezat Mountains at the western extremity of the Southern Carpathians, but no paleoenvironmental studies exist for the rest of the mountain range, despite the abundance of suitable sites (Akinyemi et al., 2013.An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field (geosciences, as innovative science is increasingly stimulated by studies that cross disciplinary boundaries and thus benefit from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by creating “meeting places” where geoscience

  20. Numerical Evaluation of Bending Load Effect on the Failure Pressure of Wall-Thinned Pipe Bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the normal operating conditions, piping systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) are subject not only to internal pressure but also to bending loads induced by deadweight, thermal expansion, and internal pressure. Bending is thus considered to be an important factor in evaluating the integrity of piping components in NPPs. Local wall-thinning due to flow accelerated corrosion is a main degradation mechanism of carbon steel piping components in NPPs, and the integrity evaluation of wall-thinned piping components has become an important issue. This study investigated the effects of bending load on the failure of wall-thinned pipe bends under internal pressure. Our previous study experimentally evaluated the bending load effects on the failure pressure of wall-thinned elbows under displacement controlled in-plane bending load, but the numbers of experimental data were insufficient to determine the effects of bending load on the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe bends. Therefore, the present study systematically evaluates the effects of bending load on the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe bends using parametric finite element analyses

  1. A derivation of the generalized model of strains during bending of metal tubes at bending machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śloderbach Z.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the postulate concerning a local change of the “actual active radius” with a bending angle in the bend zone, a generalized model of strain during metal tube bending was derived. The tubes should be subjected to bending at tube bending machines by the method of wrapping at the rotating template and with the use of a lubricated steel mandrel. The model is represented by three components of strain in the analytic form, including displacement of the neutral axis. Generalization of the model during bending metal tubes at the tube bending machines as compared with the existing papers (Śloderbach, 1999; Śloderbach and Rechul, 2000 consists in including the neutral axis displacement and possibility of determination of strains at each point along the thickness of the wall of the bent tube in the bending and bend zone. The derived scheme of strain satisfies initial and boundary kinematic conditions of the bending process, conditions of continuity and inseparability of strains. The obtained analytic expressions can be classified as acceptable from the kinematic point of view

  2. A flexible sensor measuring displacement and bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Takashi; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    This paper proposes a new sensor that is capable of measuring both linear displacement and bending. The sensor is designed to be used with an electrostatic film motor that features mechanical flexibility, but can also be used as an independent sensor. The sensor employs three-phase electrodes both in sliding and stationary parts and estimates displacement and bending from the change of the capacitance between the electrodes. The paper describes an equivalent capacitance-network model for the sensor. Based on the model, sensing principles for both displacement and bending are presented and analyzed. The analyses are experimentally verified using a prototype sensor. The experimental results show that the prototype sensor could measure both displacement and bending with little interference between them.

  3. Estimation of tensile properties of pipe bends manufactured by cold bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, tensile tests were performed on specimens that simulated the cold bending and heat treatment of pipe bends to understand the mechanical properties of pipe bends manufactured by cold bending followed by heat treatment for relieving residual stress. The strength and ductility of cold worked materials were respectively found to be higher and lower than those of the parent material although heat treatment was carried out to relieve residual stress. In addition, the increase in strength and decrease in ductility were proportional to the applied strain levels for cold working. It was thus inferred that the intrados and extrados regions of pipe bends that were cold bended and heat treated show higher strength and lower ductility compared to the parent straight pipe and that the mechanical properties at the crown region are nearly the same as those of the parent straight pipe

  4. Slice of a LEP bending magnet

    CERN Document Server

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  5. Pipes under internal pressure and bending

    CERN Document Server

    Catinaccio, A

    2009-01-01

    This article covers the general behaviour of a straight uniform pipe, with built-in open ends, subject to internal pressure and in plane bending or curvature. It is intended as a summary of the basic equations driving the unintuitive phenomena of bending and instability of pipes under internal pressure. The analysis covers in addition the investigation of opposite pressure stabilisation effects that can be observed in some orthotropic material pipes like composite pressure hoses.

  6. Bending rigidity of composite resin coating clasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebe, K; Kibi, M; Ono, T; Nokubi, T

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the bending profiles of composite resin coating cast clasps. The cobalt-chromium alloy cast clasps were made using tapered wax pattern. Silane coupling method (Silicoater MD, Kulzer Co.) was used to attach composite resin to metal surface. The breakage and the bending rigidity of composite resin coating clasps were evaluated. Results were as follows: 1) After the repeated bending test to the tips of clasp arm at 10,000 times in 0.25 mm deflection, neither crack on composite resin surface nor separation at resin/metal interface was observed in any specimen. 2) There was no significant difference in the bending rigidity of clasp arms between before and after composite resin coating. From these results, it was demonstrated that the composite resin coating cast clasp was available in clinical cases and coating with composite resin had little influence on the bending rigidity of clasp arms. Therefore, it was suggested that our clasp designing and fabricating system to control the bending rigidity of clasp arms could be applied to composite resin coating clasps. PMID:8935086

  7. A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.

  8. Using multi-proxy palaeoecology to test a relict status of refugial populations of calcareous-fen species in the Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Petra; Horsák, M.; Hájek, Michal; Jankovská, Vlasta; Jamrichová, Eva; Moutelíková, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2015), s. 702-715. ISSN 0959-6836 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity * calcareous fen * fossil record * Holocene extinction * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2014

  9. New Equation for Bending Development of Arbitrary Rods and Application to Palm Fronds Bending

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2016-01-01

    A new general equation to explain bending of arbitrary rods (from arbitrary materials, cross sections, densities, strengthnesses, bending angles, etc) was proposed. This equation can solve several problems found in classical equations, which have many limitations such as only applies for small bending angles or must be solved using very complex schemes. Experiments were also conducted to confirm the theoretical predictions. The equation might be used to explain bending of palm fronds in a very simple way. The proposed equation may be used to obtain solution of several problems which are usually obtain with iteration procedures.

  10. Forming characteristics of thin-walled tube bending process with small bending radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Heng; YANG He; ZHAN Mei; GU Rui-Jie

    2006-01-01

    Currently requirements of thin-walled tube with small bending radius cause the defects such as wrinkling,overthinning and cross-section distortion more prone to occur in bending process. Based on the analysis of the forming characteristics by analytical and experimental methods,a complete 3D elastic-plastic FEM model of the process was developed using ABAQUS/Explicit code,including bending process,balls retracting and unloading process,and thus the plastic deformation characteristics with small bending radius were investigated. The main results show that: 1) The utmost deformation feature of the NC bending process is its continuous progressive deformation. 2) The occurring conditions of the defects such as wrinkling and tension instability in the process are obtained. The wrinkling is traditional on the double compressive stresses state and the tension instability is on the double tension stresses state. 3) The enhanced non-uniform deformation in thin-walled tube with small bending radius is demonstrated by comparing the stress/ strains distributions under the 1.5D and 1D bending conditions. 4) For 1D small bending process,a new method-"stepped mandrel retraction" is proposed to improve the bending quality in experiment according to the FE simulation. The simulation results are verified by experiment.

  11. Schottky barrier formation and band bending revealed by first- principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Hellman, Anders; Fang, Yurui; Gao, Shiwu; Käll, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    The formation of a Schottky barrier at the metal-semiconductor interface is widely utilised in semiconductor devices. With the emerging of novel Schottky barrier based nanoelectronics, a further microscopic understanding of this interface is in high demand. Here we provide an atomistic insight into potential barrier formation and band bending by ab initio simulations and model analysis of a prototype Schottky diode, i.e., niobium doped rutile titania in contact with gold (Au/Nb:TiO2). The local Schottky barrier height is found to vary between 0 and 1.26 eV depending on the position of the dopant. The band bending is caused by a dopant induced dipole field between the interface and the dopant site, whereas the pristine Au/TiO2 interface does not show any band bending. These findings open the possibility for atomic scale optimisation of the Schottky barrier and light harvesting in metal-semiconductor nanostructures.

  12. Channel-bed elevation changes for the Eastern Carpathian Rivers from streamflow gage records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoane, M.; Obreja, F.; Radoane, N.

    2012-04-01

    The rivers that drain the Eastern Carpathians were studied under the aspect of the contemporary modifications of the bed elevation using a data base on 37 cross sections. The determination method of the bed elevations dynamics is based on a long-term series of minimum annual water stages (1950 - 2010) at the gauging stations was used to determine the tendency to river-bed changes. This method was used in comparison with the hydrometric measurements in the pre-established sections, calculating the height of the lowest point of the bed in comparison with the reference level represented by "0" graphic of the hydrometric measuring staff. Hydrometric stations are distributed along the rivers, from a succesion of 3 (in the case of the smallest river) to 10 for the largest river. The six rivers used in this study were impacted by human interventions differently. Two of them are modified by major disturbances (especially dams), while the others 4 evolves in almost natural conditions. The studied channels covers the whole tipological spectrum, from straight to braided, sinuous or meandering. The objectives followed in the paper are the following: i)Which is the average state of the above defined fluvial processes, at the level of the 37 analyzed hydrometric stations afferent to the rivers from the Eastern Carpathians? 2)Can the effects of some control factors in the behaviour of the river beds be identified according to the data base that we have? 3) Are there common tendencies in the evolution of the east-Carpathians river beds with the one reported in different areas from Europe? Rivers response was differentiated, apparent without establishing a common pattern. The dominant fluvial process was channel incision in case of 3 rivers (of which only one impacted by the main human disturbances). Incision values varied between -50 cm and -300 cm. Other two rivers (of which oane with substantial human impact) the degradation process is dominant (values between +40 and + 100 cm

  13. Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri V. Politov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Volume 51 (1, 2008, pages 11-18Back Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians     D.V. PolitovLaboratory of Population Genetics, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences Y.V. PirkoInstitute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, Ukraine N.N. PirkoInstitute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, Ukraine E.A. MudrikDonetsk Botanical Gardens, Ukraine I.I. KorshikovDonetsk Botanical Gardens, Ukraine  contact authors by Editorial Office  SUMMARY  In natural pine populations, a mixed mating system is typical, characterized by the proportions of selfed and outcrossed seeds. Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. is one of the least studied European conifers in this respect. The mating system of six polymorphic allozyme loci were studied in haploid megagametophytes and diploid open-pollinated embryos in two stands located in the East Carpathians. In the 'Gorgany' population (24 trees, 198 seeds the mean singlelocus estimated outcrossing rate (ts was 0.731, and the multilocus estimate (tm was 0.773. In the 'Yayko' population the outcrossing rate was lower (27 trees, 213 seeds, ts=0.645, tm=0.700, suggesting 23-30% of seeds are self-pollinated. Correlation of outcrossing rate estimates among loci was less than 1, (0.300 in 'Gorgany' and 0.469 in 'Yayko' indicating biparental inbreeding occurred. Differences between tm and ts (0.042 in 'Gorgany' and 0.056 in 'Yayko' can also be influenced by consanguineous mating, indicated by the presence of spatial and genetic family structure. In small isolated populations of Pinus cembra, which are typical for the Carpathian part of the species' range, inbreeding depression may negatively affect seed quality. The high proportion of selfed seeds observed here can be expected in any seedlot of this species and should be taken into account while planning gene conservation or reforestation measures. Maternal trees in these populations

  14. Carpathian Biosphere Reserve (Ukraine): Towards Participatory Management. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 1 No. 2|

    OpenAIRE

    Hamor, Fedir D.; Geyer, Juliane; Ibisch, Pierre L.

    2009-01-01

    The Carpathian Biosphere Reserve (CBR) in Ukrainian Transcarpathia, formally recognized by UNESCO in 1992, is one of the most important protected areas in Europe. In 2007, the beech forests of Uholka were included into the UNESCO World Heritage Site Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians because of their uniqueness. In the course of the reserve’s spatial development and the potential integration of populated areas, participatory management arises as a crucial challenge. A first study of lo...

  15. Evaluation of the electromechanical properties in GdBCO coated conductor tapes under low cyclic loading and bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; Gorospe, Alking; Bautista, Zhierwinjay; Dedicatoria, Marlon J.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of low cyclic loading on the critical current, I c, under uniaxial and transverse loadings, and bending deformations in GdBCO coated conductor (CC) tapes were evaluated. Under monotonic continuous bending deformation, CC tapes exhibit a high tolerance of I c up to the lowest bending diameter of 12 mm using the Goldacker bending test rig. However, when the CC tape was subjected to alternate tension-compression bending, a lower irreversible bending strain limit was measured. This was also observed when cyclic bending was applied to the CC tapes which showed a significant decrease in I c just after 10 cycles of alternate tension-compression bending at 20 mm bending diameter. Such different I c degradation behavior under different bending deformation procedures gave insight into the proper handling of CC tapes from manufacturing, coiling and up to operating conditions. In the case of uniaxial tension, when electromechanical properties of CC tape were evaluated by repeated loading based on a critical stress level obtained under monotonic loading, I c also did not show significant change in its degradation behavior up to the irreversible stress limit. The GdBCO CC tape adopted can allow cyclic loading up to 100 cycles without significant irreversible degradation below the monotonic irreversible limit. In the case of the transverse cyclic test, with regard to the large scattering of data especially in the tensile direction, a different cyclic loading procedure was established. For 10 repeated loadings, the mechanical and electromechanical properties of the GdBCO CC tapes showed similar values within the reversible range under the monotonic loading. I c degraded abruptly indicating that no delamination occurred at the REBCO film during the subcritical cyclic loading. Different fracture morphologies were observed under cyclic loading depicting branch-like patterns of the remaining REBCO layer on the substrate of the CC tape.

  16. REGIONAL CLIMATE MODELING STUDY FOR THE CARPATHIAN REGION USING REGCM4 EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIECZKA I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The newest model version of RegCM is adapted with the ultimate aim of providing climate projection for the Carpathian region with 10 km horizontal resolution. For this purpose, first, coarse resolution reanalysis data and global climate model outputs are used to drive 50 km resolution model experiments, from which the outputs are used to provide necessary boundary conditions for the fine scale model runs. Besides the historical runs (for the period 1981-2010, RCP4.5 scenario is also analyzed in this paper for the 21st century. These experiments are essential since they form the basis of national climate and adaptation strategies by providing detailed regional scale climatic projections and enabling specific impact studies for various sectors.

  17. The Aquatic And Marshy Flora Of The Lotru River Basin (Southern Carpathians, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drăgulescu Constantin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper continues the series of floristic inventories of the main Romanian rivers in the Carpathian Mountains (from which have been published those of Mureş, Sadu, Olt, Someş, Criş, Târnave, Tisa. In this work the author lists 204 plant taxa (hydrophilic, meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic identified by the author or by other botanists in the Lotru Valley basin. Noted for each species were life form, floral element, ecological preferences for humidity (U, temperature (T, soil reaction (R, corology and coenology. Bibliographical sources are coded with numbers (see the references at the end of the paper. The sign “!” indicates that the author has seen the plant in that locality.

  18. Alternatives for the source of the exotic green clasts from Moldavian Nappes (East Carpathians, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, M.

    2009-04-01

    Important segment of the Carpathian chain, the East Carpathians consists of several tectonic units build up during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic closure of the Tethyan Ocean. These tectonic units are composed by crystalline basements and sedimentary covers, or only by sedimentary piles and they represent a result of two compressional phases of Alpine orogenesis: one during Late Cretaceous that was responsible for thrusting of Central East Carpathian Nappes and Outher Dacian Nappes, and a second phase during Early and Middle Miocene interval that involved the Moldavian Nappes as the external nappes (Sandulescu, 1988). The Moldavian Nappes consist of cover nappes tectonically detached from the basement upon which it was deposited. From inside towards outside several units occur: Convolute Flysch Nappe, Macla Nappe, Audia Nappe, Tarcau Nappe, Marginal Folds Nappe and Subcarpathian Nappe (Sãndulescu et al., 1981). If the internal units (up to Audia Nappe) are represented by the Cretaceous sediment piles, in the external units, especially in the Tarcau Nappe and also in the Marginal Folds Nappe the lithology is dominated by the Paleogene deposits, especially by the Oligocene formations. The most particular for these units are the presence of heterogeneous composition induced by the wildflysch type sedimentation. Previous researchers have considered the piles of the both units as flyschoid deposits, and for a minor central part (Slon Facies) they accepted a wildflysch scenario. Based on our field studies between Prahova valley (Romania) and Tisa upper stream basin (Ukraine), the different sedimentary strata (the Oligocene Tarcau, Fusaru, Kliwa sandstones, dysodilic and menilitic rocks, polymictic conglomerates, marls and argillaceous deposits together with Upper Cretaceous polymictic conglomerates and green-reddish argillaceous deposits) are tectonically mixed during the late-Oligocene - Middle Miocene events. The mechanism of sedimentary mélange is supposed to be related

  19. Alpine treeline and timberline dynamics during the Holocene in the Northern Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca GEANTĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High altitude environments (treeline and alpine communities are particularly sensitive to climate changes, disturbances and land-use changes due to their limited tolerance and adaptability range, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. The current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree- and timberlines upwards thus affecting alpine plant communities and causing land-cover change and fragmentation of alpine habitats. An upslope movement of some trees, shrubs and cold adapted alpine herbs as a response to the current climate warming has already been noted in many montane and subalpine regions.Four Holocene peat and lacustrine sediment sequences located between 1670 and 1918 m a.s.l. (Fig.1, in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romania, Eastern Carpathians are used with the aim to determine: i the sensitivity of high mountain habitats to climate, fire and land use changes; ii tree- and timberline shifts: and iii the influence of landscape topography on trees and shrubs.

  20. Monitoring of the Riverbeds of Rivers Dniester and Tisza of the Carpathian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burshtynska, K.; Shevchuk, V.; Tretyak, S.; Vekliuk, V.

    2016-06-01

    The paper analyses the causes of riverbed shifts of the rivers Dniester and Tisza of the Carpathian region. Among these reasons are mostly climate, physical and geographical, and anthropogenic factors, including frequent floods, weak rocks and soils, logging, and removal of gravel and sand materials out of the channels. The research considers the transition of the Dniester and Tisza rivers from mountaineous area into the lowland. The analysis of these shifts has been carried out on the 100 km long sections over a 100-year period. We used topographic maps and space images, as well as special geological and soil maps, as materials for this research. We have determined that the shifts of the Dniester and Tisza riverbeds can reach up to 500-1000 m in some sections. We also analyze the risks and dangers that follow such shifts.

  1. Changes of hypogeous funga in the Carpathian-Pannonian region in the past centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Bratek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of hypogeous fungi in the Carpathian-Pannonian region speeded up in the past decades, owing to the widespread of truffle hunting with dogs. As a result, not only several new species were found in the region, but our view of the frequency of truffles also changed fundamentally. It became evident that Tuber aestivum, T. brumale, T. macrosporum, T. magnatum, T. mesentericum and Mattirolomyces terfezioides can be collected in commercial quantity. Among the dog preferred hypogeous fungi (DPH several species, earlier believed to be rare like Octaviania asterosperma and Stephensia bombycina, also occurred. The taxonomic alterations and revisions brought about changes in the list of hypogeous fungi, and further changes are expected from molecular taxonomy research on a number of genera at present.

  2. Late Neolithic cultural elements from the Danube and Carpathian regions of Precucuteni – Trypillia A culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Burdo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The relations of Precucuteni – Trypillia A cultures with the cultures of the Late Neolithic/Early Eneolithic of South-Eastern Europe were primarily determined by two factors: origin and cultural contacts. Ideas about Precucuteni – Trypillia A formation appeared sixty years ago on the basis of typology and stratigraphy. The first part of the twentieth century was marked by numerous investigations of Neolithic cultures in South-Eastern Europe and excavations of Trypillia A sites in Ukraine. First, we present these materials. Precucuteni-Trypillia A complex was a multi-component formation which included components of different Southern and Western components originating from different cultures from the wide Balkan-Carpathian area. At different stages of T rypillia, some directions of contact became more important than others.

  3. Geographic information system (GIS) application for windthrow mapping and management in Iezer Mountains, Southern Carpathians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Savulescu Ionut; Mihai Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Windthrow problem is a difficult task for the forest managers in the Romanian Carpathians and especially in Iezer Mountains.The last windthrow,in July 2005,affected about 370 ha within the study area and left unprotected large slopes with important declivities (20-30°).In our study,we try to propose a tool for forest management,in order to control and minimize the negative effect of wind upon the mountain forest ecosystem.The digital data input derived from forestry data (forest stand typology,age,canopy coverage index,forest productivity class) and from the forest biotope features (soil and topography parameters).The main goal was to find a more objective way for digital layer reclassification in order to obtain the windthrow areas susceptibility map for the Iezer Mountains.Each digital layer has its own weight within the analysis and one of them was difficult to be modeled (the wind features).A statistical approach was developed on the basis of local phenomena and the windthrow features in the Romanian Carpathians.This allowed us to obtain the reclassification conditions for each digital layer.Forest canopy typology and soil features (mainly its volume) were considered as the key factors for the windthrow occurrence analysis.The final windthrow susceptibility map was validated with the help of the statistic occurrence of windthrow areas within each susceptibility class and after a field check of the sites.The result was encouraging,because 92.5% of the windthrow areas fall into the highest windthrow susceptibility class.

  4. ANALYSIS OF PROJECTED FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY CHANGES OF PRECIPITATION IN THE CARPATHIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIS ANNA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the major atmospheric source of surface water, thus, in order to build appropriate adaptation strategies for various economic sections related to water resources it is essential to provide projections for precipitation tendencies as exact as possible. Extreme precipitation events are especially important from this point of view since they may result in different environmental, economical, and/or even human health damages. Excessive precipitation for instance may induce floods, flash-floods, landslides, traffic accidents. On the other hand, lack of precipitation is not favorable either: long dry periods affect agricultural production quite negatively, and hence, food safety can be threatened. Several precipitation-related indices (i.e., describing drought or intensity, exceeding different percentile-based or absolute threshold values are analyzed for the Carpathian region for 1961–2100. For this purpose 11 completed regional climate model simulations are used from the ENSEMBLES database. Before the thorough analysis, a percentile-based bias correction method was applied to the raw data, for which the homogenized daily gridded CarpatClim database (1961–2010 served as a reference. Absolute and relative seasonal mean changes of climate indices are calculated for two future time periods (2021–2050 and 2071–2100 and for three subregions within the entire Carpathian region, namely, for Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. According to our results, longer dry periods are estimated for the summer season, mainly in the southern parts of the domain, while precipitation intensity is likely to increase. Heavy precipitation days and high percentile values are projected to increase, especially, in winter and autumn.

  5. Back from the brink: the Holocene history of the Carpathian barbel Barbus carpathicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej K Konopiński

    Full Text Available As a result of specific adaptations and habitat preferences strongly rheophilic fish species may show high levels of endemism. Many temperate rheophilic fish species were subjected to a series of range contractions during the Pleistocene, and then successfully expanded during the Holocene, colonising previously abandoned areas. The Carpathian barbel (Barbus carpathicus Kotlík, Tsigenopoulos, Ráb et Berrebi 2002 occurs in the montane streams in three basins of the main Central European rivers in the northern part of the Carpathian range. We used genetic variation within 3 mitochondrial and 9 microsatellite loci to determine a pattern of postglacial expansion in B. carpathicus. We found that overall genetic variation within the species is relatively low. Estimate of time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA of mitochondrial sequences falls within the Holocene. The highest levels of genetic variation found in upper reaches of the Tisa river in the Danube basin suggest that glacial refugia were located in the south-eastern part of the species range. Our data suggest that the species crossed different watersheds at least six times as three genetically distinct groups (probably established in different expansion episodes were found in northern part of the species range. Clines of genetic variation were observed in both the Danube and Vistula basins, which probably resulted from subsequent bottlenecks while colonizing successive habitats (south eastern populations or due to the admixture of genetically diverse individuals to a previously uniform population (Vistula basin. Therefore, B. carpathicus underwent both demographic breakdowns and expansions during the Holocene, showing its distribution and demography are sensitive to environmental change. Our findings are important in the light of the current human-induced habitats alterations.

  6. Back from the brink: the Holocene history of the Carpathian barbel Barbus carpathicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopiński, Maciej K; Amirowicz, Antoni; Kotlík, Petr; Kukuła, Krzysztof; Bylak, Aneta; Pekarik, Ladislav; Šediva, Alena

    2013-01-01

    As a result of specific adaptations and habitat preferences strongly rheophilic fish species may show high levels of endemism. Many temperate rheophilic fish species were subjected to a series of range contractions during the Pleistocene, and then successfully expanded during the Holocene, colonising previously abandoned areas. The Carpathian barbel (Barbus carpathicus Kotlík, Tsigenopoulos, Ráb et Berrebi 2002) occurs in the montane streams in three basins of the main Central European rivers in the northern part of the Carpathian range. We used genetic variation within 3 mitochondrial and 9 microsatellite loci to determine a pattern of postglacial expansion in B. carpathicus. We found that overall genetic variation within the species is relatively low. Estimate of time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of mitochondrial sequences falls within the Holocene. The highest levels of genetic variation found in upper reaches of the Tisa river in the Danube basin suggest that glacial refugia were located in the south-eastern part of the species range. Our data suggest that the species crossed different watersheds at least six times as three genetically distinct groups (probably established in different expansion episodes) were found in northern part of the species range. Clines of genetic variation were observed in both the Danube and Vistula basins, which probably resulted from subsequent bottlenecks while colonizing successive habitats (south eastern populations) or due to the admixture of genetically diverse individuals to a previously uniform population (Vistula basin). Therefore, B. carpathicus underwent both demographic breakdowns and expansions during the Holocene, showing its distribution and demography are sensitive to environmental change. Our findings are important in the light of the current human-induced habitats alterations. PMID:24349291

  7. Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri V. Politov

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In natural pine populations, a mixed mating system is typical,characterized by the proportions of selfed and outcrossed seeds. Swiss stone pine(Pinus cembra L. is one of the least studied European conifers in this respect. The mating system of six polymorphic allozyme loci were studied in haploid megagametophytes and diploid open-pollinated embryos in two stands located in theEast Carpathians. In the 'Gorgany' population (24 trees, 198 seeds the mean singlelocus estimated outcrossing rate (ts was 0.731, and the multilocus estimate (tm was 0.773. In the 'Yayko' population the outcrossing rate was lower (27 trees, 213 seeds, ts=0.645, tm=0.700, suggesting 23-30% of seeds are self-pollinated. Correlation ofoutcrossing rate estimates among loci was less than 1, (0.300 in 'Gorgany' and 0.469 in 'Yayko' indicating biparental inbreeding occurred. Differences between tm and ts (0.042 in 'Gorgany' and 0.056 in 'Yayko' can also be influenced by consanguineous mating, indicated by the presence of spatial and genetic family structure. In small isolated populations of Pinus cembra, which are typical for the Carpathian part of the species' range, inbreeding depression may negatively affect seed quality. The high proportion of selfed seeds observed here can be expected in any seedlot of this species and should be taken into account while planning gene conservation orreforestation measures. Maternal trees in these populations showed no heterozygote deficiency at these allozyme loci, and instead showed increased proportions of heterozygotes (inbreeding coefficient FIS = -0.200 in 'Gorgany' and -0.142 in 'Yayko'. Balancing selection may explain heterozygosity levels up to and above equilibrium proportions.

  8. Dust deposition in ventilation and air-conditioning duct bend flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We study particle deposition on the four inner surface of the duct bend. ► We analyse the effect of five ways of placements of the bend on particle deposition. ► Gravity and inertia force enhance the deposition as relaxation time rises. ► Deposition coefficient increases as air velocity or particle diameter increases. - Abstract: Particles carried by airflows in ventilation and air-conditioning systems have adverse effects on the quality of air in buildings and hence the health of building occupants. Gaining insight on particle deposition onto ventilation and air-conditioning duct bends is important for controlling pollutant dispersion. Based on the Reynolds stress transport model (RSM), this paper has taken into account the effects of drag, lift force, gravity, inertia force, turbulent diffusions, particle size and air velocity on the dimensionless deposition velocity of particles in smooth duct bends using fully developed velocity profiles. At two different air velocities of 3.0 m/s and 7.0 m/s, the aforementioned effects were predicted by Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS)-Lagrangian simulation on square shaped duct bends with different ways of placement. Preliminary results suggest that gravity and inertia force enhance the dimensionless deposition as dimensionless relaxation time rises. Change tendency of the dimensionless particle deposition velocity on different surfaces of bend duct agrees well with previous studies. As air velocity and particle diameter increase, a significant increase of particle deposition coefficient in the duct bends is observed. Particle deposition to intrados can be intensified by the combined action of gravity and inertia force in different direction.

  9. Sharp bends of phononic crystal surface modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Ahmet; Salman, Aysevil; Adem Kaya, Olgun; Ulug, Bulent

    2015-12-01

    Sharp bending of surface waves at the interface of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PnC) of steel cylinders in air and the method of using a diagonally offset cylindrical scatterer are numerically demonstrated by finite-element method simulations. The radii of the diagonally offset scatterer and the cylinder at the PnC corner, along with the distance between them, are treated as optimization parameters in the genetic algorithm optimization of sharp bends. Surface wave transmittance of at most 5% for the unmodified sharp bend is significantly enhanced to approximately 75% as a result of optimization. A series of transmittance peaks whose maxima increase exponentially, as their widths reduce, with increasing frequency is observed for the optimized sharp bend. The transmittance peaks appear at frequencies corresponding to integer plus half-beat periods, depending on the finite surface length. The optimal parameters are such that the cylinder radius at the PnC corner is not significantly modified, whereas a diagonally offset scatterer having a diameter of almost two periods and a shortest distance of about 0.7 periods between them is required for the strongest transmittance peak. Utilization of PnC surface sharp bends as acoustic ring resonators is demonstrated.

  10. Sharp bends of phononic crystal surface modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp bending of surface waves at the interface of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PnC) of steel cylinders in air and the method of using a diagonally offset cylindrical scatterer are numerically demonstrated by finite-element method simulations. The radii of the diagonally offset scatterer and the cylinder at the PnC corner, along with the distance between them, are treated as optimization parameters in the genetic algorithm optimization of sharp bends. Surface wave transmittance of at most 5% for the unmodified sharp bend is significantly enhanced to approximately 75% as a result of optimization. A series of transmittance peaks whose maxima increase exponentially, as their widths reduce, with increasing frequency is observed for the optimized sharp bend. The transmittance peaks appear at frequencies corresponding to integer plus half-beat periods, depending on the finite surface length. The optimal parameters are such that the cylinder radius at the PnC corner is not significantly modified, whereas a diagonally offset scatterer having a diameter of almost two periods and a shortest distance of about 0.7 periods between them is required for the strongest transmittance peak. Utilization of PnC surface sharp bends as acoustic ring resonators is demonstrated. (paper)

  11. Pure plate bending in couple stress theories

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjesfandiari, Ali R; Dargush, Gary F

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the pure bending of plates within the framework of modified couple stress theory (M-CST) and consistent couple stress theory (C-CST). In this development, it is demonstrated that M-CST does not describe pure bending of a plate properly. Particularly, M-CST predicts no couple-stresses and no size effect for the pure bending of the plate into a spherical shell. This contradicts our expectation that couple stress theory should predict some size effect for such a deformation pattern. Therefore, this result clearly demonstrates another inconsistency of indeterminate symmetric modified couple stress theory (M-CST), which is based on considering the symmetric torsion tensor as the curvature tensor. On the other hand, the fully determinate skew-symmetric consistent couple stress theory (C-CST) predicts results for pure plate bending that tend to agree with mechanics intuition and experimental evidence. Particularly, C-CST predicts couple-stresses and size effects for the pure bending of the ...

  12. Tunable thermoelectric properties in bended graphene nanoribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘长宁; 何军; 方卯发

    2016-01-01

    The ballistic thermoelectric properties in bended graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are systematically investigated by using atomistic simulation of electron and phonon transport. We find that the electron resonant tunneling effect occurs in the metallic–semiconducting linked ZZ-GNRs (the bended GNRs with zigzag edge leads). The electron-wave quan-tum interference effect occurs in the metallic–metallic linked AA-GNRs (the bended GNRs with armchair edge leads). These different physical mechanisms lead to the large Seebeck coefficient S and high electron conductance in bended ZZ-GNRs/AA-GNRs. Combined with the reduced lattice thermal conduction, the significant enhancement of the figure of merit ZT is predicted. Moreover, we find that the ZTmax (the maximum peak of ZT) is sensitive to the structural parameters. It can be conveniently tuned by changing the interbend length of bended GNRs. The magnitude of ZT ranges from the 0.15 to 0.72. Geometry-controlled ballistic thermoelectric effect offers an effective way to design thermoelectric devices such as thermocouples based on graphene.

  13. Comparison of immortalized bEnd5 and primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells as in vitro blood–brain barrier models for the study of T cell extravasation

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Oliver; Coisne, Caroline; Engelhardt, Britta; Lyck, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Important insights into the molecular mechanism of T cell extravasation across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) have already been obtained using immortalized mouse brain endothelioma cell lines (bEnd). However, compared with bEnd, primary brain endothelial cells have been shown to establish better barrier characteristics, including complex tight junctions and low permeability. In this study, we asked whether bEnd5 and primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (pMBMECs) were equally sui...

  14. Analysis of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in Jamne and Jaszcze stream valleys (Polish Carpathians – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zydroń Tymoteusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in Jamne and Jaszcze stream valleys (Polish Carpathians - preliminary results. Preliminary shallow landslide susceptibility mapping of the Jamne and Jaszcze stream valleys, located in the Polish Flysch Carpathians, is presented in the paper. For the purpose of mapping, there were used SINMAP and Iverson’s models integrating infiltration and slope stability calculations. The calibration of the used models parameters, obtained from limited field and laboratory tests, was performed using data from 8-9 July 1997, when as a consequence of a very intense rainfall, 94 shallow landslides were observed on meadows and arable lands. A comparison of the slope stability calculation results and the localisation of the noticed shallow landslides showed satisfactory agreement between localisation of the observed and computed unstable areas. However, it was concluded that better simulation results were obtained using Iverson’s model.

  15. Occurrence, origin and possible accumulations of oil in the SW part of the Carpathian Foredeep (SE Moravia - Czech)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The drilling exploration in the SW part of the Carpathian Foredeep, in the vicinity of the gas deposit and UGS Dolni Dunajovice encountered the influx of gas, water and oil in Carpathian, Eggenburgian sandstones and Upper Jurassic carbonates. Similar shows were observed in the region at the base of the Jurassic and Miocene in older exploration wells. The new interpretations of 3D seismic and 2D profiles provide a new geological model integrated with petrophysical properties and geochemistry. A molecular and isotopic composition of gas indicates its mixed bacterial and thermal origin. Biomarkers in the new oils suggest a close genetic relationship to the Upper Jurassic marls and economically successful oil accumulations in the southern part of the south-eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif. The new findings increase the prospects of finding new structures with oil and gas accumulations in this region. (authors)

  16. Interpretation models of the distribution of Bavarian chert and Carpathian obsidian in the Neolithic of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řídký, Jaroslav; Burgert, Pavel; Končelová, Markéta

    Glasgow : University of Glasgow, 2015 - (Campbell, L.). s. 139 ISBN N. [Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists /21./. 02.09.2015-05.09.2015, Glasgow] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16963S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Neolithic * distribution of Bavarian chert and Carpathian obsidian * chipped stone industry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://eaaglasgow2015.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/EAA-Glasgow-Abstract-Book.pdf

  17. Vegetation cover in West Carpathians during the Last Glacial Period - analogy of present day siberian forest - tundra and taiga

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jankovská, Vlasta

    Saint-Petersburg : VNIGRI, 2008 - (Priščepa, O.; Subetto, D.; Dzujba, O.), s. 282-289 ISBN 978-5-88953-122-7. [XII. All-Russian Palynological conference. Saint-Petersburg (RU), 29.09.2008-04.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/0587 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Last Glacial Period * palaeoreconstruction * West Carpathians Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  18. Monitoring and modelling of landslide and debris flow impact on transport and building infrasructure in the Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanik, Olena; Shevchuk, Viktor; Yahno, Evgen

    2016-04-01

    Mechanisms and factors of formation of landslide and debris flow processes are examined in terms of model objects in the Carpathians. The study area is within Eastern Carpathians and Transcarpathian depression (Tisa river basin). There were investigated more than 220 stabilized and active landslides. The analysis of water-gravitational processes in this region with complex heterogeneous geological structure confirmed the priority nature of occurrence of structural landslides in rheologically different geological environments, and made it possible to create a new classification of structural landslides and conditions of their formation with the decisive influence of destructive zones. This classification is the basis for constructing geological, physical and mathematical models of landslide slopes, and subsequent modeling of the landslide hazard based on the determination of the stress-strain state of slopes. Under the proposed mathematical model, the examined phenomenon is described as thermoelastic-plastic equilibrium of the isotropic matrix under effect of applied mass (gravitational field of the Earth) and surface efforts, inhomogeneous stationary temperature field. In addition, it is assumed that the Young modulus at each point of the matrix depends on the water saturation. Debris and mudflows in the Carpathians have a stage character, non-stationary and avalanche movements. The territory is prone to be affected by debris and mudflows, due to the geological, geomorphological and climatic conditions. Therefore the main conditions of the mudflow formation are as follows: the presence of the rock destruction products which could be a solid phase of debris mudflow; presence of the enough quantity of the rainfall runoff for the unconsolidated material removal; ruggedness of relief that provides simultaneous movement of the big values of the water-soil mass with the big velocities. The algorithm calculating the mudflow impact on infrastructure objects in Carpathians

  19. Evolution of the passive margin of the peripheral foreland basin: an example from the Lower Miocene Carpathian Foredeep (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francírek, Michal; Nehyba, Slavomír

    2016-02-01

    The Karpatian deposits of the central part of the Carpathian Foredeep in Moravia, which are deeply buried under the Outer Western Carpathians, provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct the former evolutionary stages of this peripheral foreland basin and its paleogeography. A succession of three depositional units characterized by a distinct depositional environment, provenance, and partly also foreland basin depozone, have been identified. The first depositional unit represents a proximal forebulge depozone and consists of lagoon-estuary and barred coastline deposits. The source from the "local" crystalline basement played here an important role. The second depositional unit consists of coastline to shallow marine deposits and is interpreted as a forebulge depozone. Tidalites recognized within this unit represent the only described tide-generated deposits of the Neogene infill of the Carpathian Foredeep basin in Moravia. The source from the basin passive margin (the Bohemian Massif) has been proved. The third depositional unit is formed by offshore deposits and represents a foredeep depozone. The provenance from both passive and active basin margin (Silesian Unit of the Western Carpathian Flysch Zone) has been proved. Thus, both a stepwise migration of the foredeep basin axis and shift of basin depozones outwards/cratonwards were documented, together with forebulge retreat. The shift of the foreland basin depozones more than 50 km cratonward can be assumed. The renewed thrusting along the basin's active margin finally completely changed the basin shape and paleogeography. The upper part of the infill was deformed outside the prograding thrust front of flysch nappes and the flysch rocks together with a strip of Miocene sediments were superposed onto the inner part of the basin. The width and bathymetric gradient of the entire basin was changed/reduced and the deposition continued toward the platform. The basin evolution and changes in its geometry are interpreted

  20. Numerical analysis of deep-seated mass movements in the Magura Nappe; Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, I.; Agliardi, F.; Ambrosi, C.; Crosta, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    International audience Deep-seated slope failures are common features in the mountains of the Raca Unit, Magura Nappe of the Flysch Belt of Western Carpathians. Since they represent very complicated system, understanding of their evolution and triggers still remains unclear. We tried to provide a back-analysis of their development by using a finite difference code (FDM) of continua (Flac 4.0). We confirmed that such large mass movements could be triggered by water saturation of the bedrock...

  1. Floristic diversity in relation to geomorphological and climatic factors in the subalpinealpine belt of the Rodna Mountains (the Romanian Carpathians)

    OpenAIRE

    Coldea, G.; Pop, A.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the GLORIA-EUROPE project, the floristic diversity, frequency and species coverage in relation to the main ecological gradients (altitude,aspect) were studied in the alpine pasture (Primulo-Caricetum curvulae, Oreochloo-Juncetum trifidi) and subalpine dwarf shrub communities (Rhododendro myrtifolii - Vaccinetum ) of the four summits from the Pietrosul Rodnei massif (Romanian Carpathians). Floristic diversity is higher in the plant communities...

  2. The Mythical Power of the Dual River-System of the Carpathian Basin: The Notion of a Hungarian Mesopotamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Keményfi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gyula Prinz is responsible for the notion of “Magyar Mezopotámia” [Hungarian Mesopotamia]. The natural basis for this idea is that Hungarian culture developed on the surface of an alluvial plains area. This sort of natural environment was the precondition of great civilizations based on agriculture. In other words, the intrinsic Duna-Tisza [Danubius-Tibiscus] river structure, which is similar to that of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, would elevate Hungary to the status of a mesopotamic country. This is how the central Hungarian area could become the distributing core of culture and how this culture could be radiated towards the neighboring peoples who also lived together with us in the Carpathian Basin. Our “cultural power” therefore “elevated” the cultural level of other peoples who lived with us on the edges of the Carpathian Basin. Accordingly, the end, or the borderline, of the highbrow “core culture” is located where the territory populated by Hungarians ends, or where the plains area shifts into the Carpathian Mountains.

  3. Palaeomagnetism of the Upper Miocene- Lower Pliocene lavas from the East Carpathians: contribution to the paleosecular variation of geomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vişan, Mădălina; Panaiotu, Cristian G.; Necula, Cristian; Dumitru, Anca

    2016-03-01

    Investigations of the paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field on geological timescales depend on globally distributed data sets from lava flows. We report new paleomagnetic results from lava flows of the East Carpathian Mountains (23.6°E, 46.4°N) erupted between 4 and 6 Ma. The average virtual geomagnetic pole position (76 sites) includes the North Geographic Pole and the dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles is in general agreement with the data of the Time Averaged geomagnetic Field Initiative. Based on this study and previous results from the East Carpathians obtained from 0.04–4 Ma old lava flows, we show that high value of dispersion are characteristic only for 1.5–2.8 Ma old lava flows. High values of dispersion during the Matuyama chron are also reported around 50°N, in the global paleosecular variation data set. More data are needed at a global level to determine if these high dispersions reflect the behaviour of the geomagnetic field or an artefact of inadequate number of sites. This study of the East Carpathians volcanic rocks brings new data from southeastern Europe and which can contribute to the databases for time averaged field and paleosecular variation from lavas in the last 6 Ma.

  4. Palaeomagnetism of the Upper Miocene- Lower Pliocene lavas from the East Carpathians: contribution to the paleosecular variation of geomagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vişan, Mădălina; Panaiotu, Cristian G; Necula, Cristian; Dumitru, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field on geological timescales depend on globally distributed data sets from lava flows. We report new paleomagnetic results from lava flows of the East Carpathian Mountains (23.6°E, 46.4°N) erupted between 4 and 6 Ma. The average virtual geomagnetic pole position (76 sites) includes the North Geographic Pole and the dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles is in general agreement with the data of the Time Averaged geomagnetic Field Initiative. Based on this study and previous results from the East Carpathians obtained from 0.04-4 Ma old lava flows, we show that high value of dispersion are characteristic only for 1.5-2.8 Ma old lava flows. High values of dispersion during the Matuyama chron are also reported around 50°N, in the global paleosecular variation data set. More data are needed at a global level to determine if these high dispersions reflect the behaviour of the geomagnetic field or an artefact of inadequate number of sites. This study of the East Carpathians volcanic rocks brings new data from southeastern Europe and which can contribute to the databases for time averaged field and paleosecular variation from lavas in the last 6 Ma. PMID:26997549

  5. First Plant Phenological Records in the Carpathians and their Possible Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekusova, M.; Horecká, V.; Mikulová, K.

    2009-04-01

    Phenological observations have a long history. The long time series come from Korea and some other parts of Asia, while wine harvest dates form the oldest phenological data sets in Europe. One of them started as early as 1457 year in Vienna, i.e. on the border of the Carpathian region. However, the first systematic phenological observations started in the south Carpathians almost four hundred years later following the establishment of the phenological network in Austria and later in the Hungarian Kingdom. A medical doctor P. Wierbitzky did first phenological observations in the Carpathian region in the beginning of thirties of the nineteenth century in Orawicza. The first systematic observations and records of plant development in this region are connected with the establishment of Austrian Institute for Meteorology and Geomagnetism since 1851. Although the historical significance of these observations is high, the data recorded are of lower quality, frequently interrupted and fragmented. Further development of phenological observations came with the introduction of the methodology of the observations introduced by Karl Fritsch in the beginning of the sixties of the nineteenth century mainly with the establishment of Hungarian Meteorological Service in 1871. These historical data were recorded and published in the yearbooks and, despite of the fragmentary character of the records, they are usable for some evaluations. This article brings the description of the data sets of systematic phenological network in the Carpathian region and considers some possible phenological evaluations. The phenological observations were done in some cases at the same localities as the climatologic observations but the number of phenological stations was quite lower in several years. The historical plant phenological records were based in many cases on the observation of four phenological phases: leafing, flowering, ripening and fall of leaves. Both the volume and the quality of the

  6. Probing the elastic limit of DNA bending

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Tung T

    2014-01-01

    Many structures inside the cell such as nucleosomes and protein-mediated DNA loops contain sharply bent double-stranded (ds) DNA. Therefore, the energetics of strong dsDNA bending constitutes an essential part of cellular thermodynamics. Although the thermomechanical behavior of long dsDNA is well described by the worm-like chain (WLC) model, the length limit of such elastic behavior remains controversial. To investigate the energetics of strong dsDNA bending, we measured the opening rate of small dsDNA loops with contour lengths of 40-200 bp using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). From the measured relationship of loop stability to loop size, we observed a transition between two separate bending regimes at a critical loop size below 100 bp. Above this loop size, the loop lifetime decreased with decreasing loop size in a manner consistent with an elastic bending stress. Below the critical loop size, however, the loop lifetime became less sensitive to loop size, indicative of softening of the doub...

  7. Finger-jointed beams in bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Lotte; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1997-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamic and static fatique of finger-jointed beams in bending was carried out. Results were obtained for five different frequencies from static loading to a load cycle period of two minutes. A total of seven series were long-term tested and five series were short-term tested...

  8. Demonstration model of LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    To save iron and raise the flux density, the LEP bending magnet laminations were separated by spacers and the space between the laminations was filled with concrete. This is a demonstration model, part of it with the spaced laminations only, the other part filled with concrete.

  9. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  10. Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, A.R.; Gong, H.; Wente, W.B. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The losses of aerosol particles in bends were determined numerically for a broad range of design and operational conditions. Experimental data were used to check the validity of the numerical model, where the latter employs a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code for characterizing the fluid flow field and Lagrangian particle tracking technique for characterizing aerosol losses. Physical experiments have been conducted to examine the effect of curvature ratio and distortion of the cross section of bends. If it curvature ratio ({delta} = R/a) is greater than about 4, it has little effect on deposition, which is in contrast with the recommendation given in ANSI N13.1-1969 for a minimum curvature ratio of 10. Also, experimental results show that if the tube cross section is flattened by 25% or less, the flattening also has little effect on deposition. Results of numerical tests have been used to develop a correlation of aerosol penetration through a bend as a function of Stokes number (Stk), curvature ratio ({delta}) and the bend angle ({theta}). 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Fuzzy model for Laser Assisted Bending Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini Oliviero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fuzzy model was developed to predict the residual bending in a conventional metal bending process assisted by a high power diode laser. The study was focused on AA6082T6 aluminium thin sheets. In most dynamic sheet metal forming operations, the highly nonlinear deformation processes cause large amounts of elastic strain energy stored in the formed material. The novel hybrid forming process was thus aimed at inducing the local heating of the mechanically bent workpiece in order to decrease or eliminate the related springback phenomena. In particular, the influence on the extent of springback phenomena of laser process parameters such as source power, scan speed and starting elastic deformation of mechanically bent sheets, was experimentally assessed. Consistent trends in experimental response according to operational parameters were found. Accordingly, 3D process maps of the extent of the springback phenomena according to operational parameters were constructed. The effect of the inherent uncertainties on the predicted residual bending caused by the approximation in the model parameters was evaluated. In particular, a fuzzy-logic based approach was used to describe the model uncertainties and the transformation method was applied to propagate their effect on the residual bending.

  12. Irradiation creep of stainless steel in bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development is described of a test to measure irradiation enhanced creep in bending of 20% cold-worked Type-316 stainless steel. The test will be irradiated in the experimental fast reactor EBR-II. The rationale used in design selection is described. The selected beam designs, the supportive tests in other stress states and the measurement techniques are described in detail. (Auth.)

  13. Irradiation creep of stainless steel in bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development is described of a test to measure irradiation enhanced creep in bending of 20% cold-worked Type-316 stainless steel. The test will be irradiated in the experimental fast reactor EBR-II. The rationale used in design selection is described. The selected beam designs, the supportive tests in other stress states and the measurement techniques are described in detail

  14. Bending of a thin flexible plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pobedria, B.E.

    1990-12-01

    A system of equations is derived which describes the one-dimensional deformation of thin shells. The analysis does not impose any constraints on the relative elongation and deflections. As an example, a solution is presented for the problem of the bending of a thin plate under uniform pressure.

  15. Oceanic Plate Bending Along the Manila Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Lin, J.; Zhan, W.

    2014-12-01

    We quantify along-trench variations in plate flexural bending along the Manila trench in the South China Sea. A 3-D interpreted flexural deformation surface of the subducting South China Sea Plate was obtained by removing from the observed bathymetry the effects of sediment loading, isostatically-compensated topography based on gravity modeling, age-related lithospheric thermal subsidence, and residual short-wavelength features. We analyzed flexural bending of 21 across-trench profile sections along the Manila trench and then calculated five best-fitting tectonic and plate parameters that control the flexural bending for each of the across-trench profile sections. Results of analysis revealed significant along-trench variations: The trench relief of the Manila trench varies from 0.8 to 2.2 km, trench-axis vertical loading (-V0) from -0.4x1012 to 1.21x1012 N/m, and axial bending moment (-M0) from 0.005x1017 to 0.6x1017 N. The effective elastic plate thickness seaward of the Manila outer-rise region (TeM) ranges from 30 to 40 km, while that trench-ward of the outer-rise (Tem) ranges from 11 to 30 km. This corresponds to a reduction in Te of 26-63% for the Manila trench. The transition from TeM to Tem occurs at a breaking distance of 50-120 km from the Manila trench axis. The axial vertical loading, bending moment, and the effective elastic thickness of the Manila trench are much smaller than the Mariana trench (Zhang et al., 2014). The contrast in the flexural bending between the Mariana and Manila trenches might be related to the difference in the ages of the subducting plates and other tectonic variables. Zhang, F., Lin, J., Zhan, W., 2014. Variations in oceanic plate bending along the Mariana trench, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 401, 206-214. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.032

  16. Anthropogenic degradation of mountainous raised bogs. Case study of the Polish Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajczak, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Publications on the human impact on peat bogs pay a lot of attention to peat erosion, peat burning and changes in the physical and chemical properties of peat deposits that indicate pollution in the environment, but a more detailed analysis of current changes in the peat bog relief as a result of peat deposit extraction and drying is omitted. Compared to other areas of the world, the level of knowledge on anthropogenic changes in the relief of peat bogs in some areas of Poland may be considered advanced. This applies not only to peat bogs in northern Poland but also southern Poland, where peat bogs in the Carpathians and the Sudetes are also found. The best analyzed peat bogs in southern Poland are the raised bogs in the Orawsko-Nowotarska Basin (Western Carpathians) and in valleys in the Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians). Both areas are impacted by deep precipitation shadow. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to assess the rate of shrinkage in the surface area of peat domes in the mentioned areas, (2) to describe the rate of growth in the surface area of older and younger post-peat areas, (3) to explain current changes in peat bogs morphology, (4) to explain changes in water retention in peat deposit, (5) to separate phases in peat bogs relief changes. With that in mind, the direction and rate of change of landforms typical of younger post-peat areas, such as peat extraction scarps, post-extraction hollows, drainage systems including ditches and regulated stream channels, were analyzed. A special emphasis was placed on the period of time when the restoration of such areas has taken place. The paper is based on an analysis of maps produced over the last 230 years as well as on aerial photographs taken since 1965 and on LiDAR data. Fieldwork included the geomorphological and hydrographic mapping of specified landforms within peat bogs using GPS methods. In period prior to human activity peat domes were larger than today and were surrounded by lagg fens and were

  17. Radiocarbon dating of the last volcanic eruption of the Ciomadul volcano, Southest Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The last volcanic eruption in the Carpathian-Pannonian Region occurred within the Ciomadul volcano, Southeast Carpathians. It is a lava dome complex active for about 900 ka. Following the effusive activity, at least two major explosive volcanic eruptions occurred forming two craters (Mohos and St. Anna). These eruptions resulted in pumiceous pyroclastic fall and flow deposits. In order to understand the behavior of this volcano and evaluate the possible renewal of the volcanic eruption, it is crucial to constrain the length of the active and repose periods and know the date of the last eruption. The former K/Ar and radiocarbon data are controversial and give only a rough estimate for the active phases. The age data for the last eruption is in the range from 10000 and 40000. In this study, we focus on the time of the last volcanic eruptions. We analyzed charcoal fragments found in pumiceous pyroclastic flow deposits from two localities. C-14 dating from the first locality (Bx) was executed by GPC technique in the ATOMKI, and the following five dating (one repeated dating of the ATOMKI sample, with excellent match; one resampled charcoal from the first locality, and one sample from a second locality (Tf), and dating of NaOH-soluble fractions coming from sample prep for all the three charcoal samples) in NSF Lab in Tucson, AZ by AMS technique. The new radiocarbon data provided valuable information on the behaviour of the Ciomadul volcano and help to constrain the time of the last eruption of the volcano. The main conclusions are the following: 1. The last volcanic eruption occurred at about 27000 BP. 2. The product of the youngest eruption is exposed at the southern margin of the volcano (Bx locality) and not at west (Tf locality) as was previously thought. 3. A striking new result is that there were at least two major explosive eruptions, not a single one, related to the formation of the St. Anna crater. The youngest one followed

  18. EVALUATION OF SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURE WITHIN THE CARPATHIANS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonel SUBIĆ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By transition process, which is presented in the Republic of Serbia for many years, rural areas are also covered in great extent. Changes in national agricultural policy, in terms of orientation towards rural development and multifunctional agriculture, have led to situation that process of development must involve all stakeholders, from governmental institutions, via local community, to population of rural areas. Such approach to rural development could initiate easier integration into international institutions and European Union, as well as to strengthening of cross-border cooperation within the mentioned area of economy. The most part of the Carpathians in the Republic of Serbia is taken by the national park „Đerdap“ and its protected zone. Within the mentioned protected area, sustainable use of agricultural land is based on traditional system of mountain agriculture that provides a high degree of ecological rationality and represents a very good foundation for development of integral and organic production.Opening toward the international community and peculiarly clear commitment of Serbia to European integrations,requires a new definition of role and importance of agricultural sector. Therefore, it is estimated that now is the perfect time for establishment of concrete conceptual framework and Strategy that will answer to key questions within the agro-food sector. In this context, authors’ intention (they are also the members of the research team of IAE Belgrade which is the holder of the project III 46006 - Sustainable agriculture and rural development in function of Republic of Serbia strategic goals achievement within the Danube region is to evaluate a social sustainability of agriculture in the area of the Carpathians in Serbia. Because of that, research is focused to administrative area of next municipalities: Golubac, Kučevo, Majdanpek, Kladovo and Negotin. Considering microeconomic character of research, it was used the

  19. Six hundred years of agricultural activity in the Gorce Mountains (Polish Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucała, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The role of human activity on agricultural land use were studied in the Ochotnica village (105 km2) with Jaszcze and Jamne catchments (the Gorce Mountains in Polish Carpathians) from the beginning of human settlement to present-day with special emphasise on the period 1846-2009. The visual interpretation of cadastral maps and air photos, combined with palynological and radiocarbon data as well as analysis of historical and census reports indicates more permanent conversion of land-cover of the Gorce Mountains were started by the expansion of Wallachian shepherds at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries. In the years 1846-2009, there was an increase in the forest area of Ochotnica by 77%, and in the Jaszcze and Jamne catchment by 29% and 43%, respectively. The arable land decreased in that period by 94% in both catchments. The period of 163 years shows diverging trends and dynamics of land use, referring to the three stages of the socio-economic development observed in the Polish Carpathians. Until World War II, agriculture was the main source of income of the growing rural population. The contribution of the agricultural land was approximately 70% in the 1930s., reaching the highest level in the history of human activity in the Gorce Mountains. After World War II, because of a shortage of food in the communist economy, the pressure on land cultivation resulted in the keep of the land use structure inherited from the past. The transition from the communist economy to a free market after 1989 and the accession of Poland to the European Union, forced a rapid increase in forest area at the expense of the agricultural land. They were the most significant land use changes from the time of the Wallachians' colonization of the Gorce Mountains. The changes in land use contributed to a decrease in the intensity of soil erosion on the slopes and an increase of channel incision in the both streams and Ochotnica river, draining the area of 107.6 km2 of the Gorce Mountains

  20. Climatic and environmental conditions favoring the crossing of the Carpathians by early Neolithic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perşoiu, Ioana; Perşoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    The study of the origin and spread of Neolithic has been the subject of heated debate since the early studies of Childe (1942). To what extent the dispersal process was influenced by environmental factors is still debated, one of the issues being whether climatic conditions influencing agricultural practices, could have influenced the dispersal route, "blocking" some of the Neolithic societies in front of ecological barriers. Data from Neolithic sites in SE Europe shows that a continuous stream of people and cultures flowed through the Danube's Iron Gates towards Central Europe, while in the eastern part of Europe this process was delayed, people and cultures "moving" around the Carpathians and crossing them with a delay of ca. 1000 years. One of the possible avenues for this crossing is the floodplain of Someşu Mic River (Transylvanian depression), home to the oldest (~8500 cal. BP) Neolithic settlement in Romania. In this paper, we review the climatic and environmental changes that affected the region at the time of Neolithic dispersal. Pollen and stable isotopes in cave ice indicate an early Holocene rapid warming during summer months, peaking around 7 ka cal. BP; and a delayed warming for autumn and winter months, peaking at 5 ka cal. BP, both followed by a continuous cooling trend towards the present. Someşu Mic River developed and maintained a narrow sinuous channel during the Holocene, with local development of meanders and anabranches, in response to both climatic and geologic controlling factors. Archaeological finds in the floodplain and the lower terraces suggest that human societies in the region responded in sensitive manner to these climatic and environmental changes. During warm and dry periods, with low fluvial activity, the number of settlements increased in the floodplain's perimeter, while during the short cold and humid periods, the number of settlements rapidly increased on the lower terraces and on the valley slopes, disappearing from the

  1. Frequency, predisposition, and triggers of floods in flysch Carpathians: regional study using dendrogeomorphic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilhán, Karel

    2015-04-01

    Dangerous overland flood events in the foothills of the flysch Carpathians often result from a cumulative effect of floods in high-gradient channels. Detailed understanding of the origin of floods in these catchments is only possible if the occurrence of these floods in the past has thoroughly been studied. Yet, no gauging stations can be found in the local catchments. The reconstruction of floods in ungauged catchments has so far been performed using dendrogeomorphic methods. Stems or branches floating in the floodwater can affect stems or roots of living trees and injure them. Trees are able to record these signals in their tree-ring series. Within the flysch Carpathians, the floods have been reconstructed based on the analysis of 446 cross sections from scarred tree roots and 192 increment cores from the stems of affected trees in the studied area of 10 catchments surrounding the highest peak of the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mts, the Lysá hora Mt. The dating comprised 64 floods (in different catchments) in 28 flood years for the maximal period of 1883-2012. Most catchments (nine out of ten) were affected by floods in the year 1997. Above-average frequency of floods has also been found for the last two decades, namely thanks to numerous samples taken from young tree roots that revealed more flood impacts. By contrast, although tree-ring series enabled the reconstruction of a longer time series, they only recorded the major floods. The most significant factor affecting the frequency of floods is the orientation of catchments toward the prevailing wind direction. Positive influence of catchment gradient on flood frequency and higher occurrence of floods in the period of intensive slope deforestation show that the floods of the 1950s to 1970s could have a character of flash floods. This assumption is also supported by the character of probable triggering precipitation (high magnitude-short duration precipitation) of this period. Generally, the most frequent probable

  2. Analysis of projected climate change in the Carpathian Basin region based on Holdridge life zone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelepcsényi, Zoltán; Breuer, Hajnalka; Sümegi, Pál

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays more and more environmental lobbyists believe that climate change must be demonstrated in a new form. The estimated temperature increase can be realized more easily, if the emphasis is on ecological effects of the predicted temperature. For this reason a bioclimatic classification method was used to analyse the projected changes for the Carpathian Basin region. We applied the Holdridge life zone system, which is relatively simple, so our results can be used to inform the population. Holdridge developed a geometric model for climate classification which declares the relationship between classes (life zones) and climate indices (mean annual biotemperature, average total annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration ratio). The necessary data for this study was derived from regional climate model (RCM) experiments of the ENSEMBLES project using the SRES A1B emission scenario. The temperature and precipitation data series were bias corrected for the selected RCM simulations. The target area of our investigations is the Carpathian Basin region. Life zones maps were created using the selected RCM simulations and their ensemble mean for the periods: 1961-1990 (T1), 2021-2050 (T2), 2061-2090 (T3). The spatial distribution of life zones and their temporal changes were investigated. According to our results the spatial pattern of life zones changes significantly from T1 to T3. It is possible that some types of life zones (e.g. boreal rain forest) will disappear; and some types (e.g. warm temperate thorn steppe) will appear in the target area. We determined those RCM simulations which predicted the maximum and minimum changes of the spatial pattern of life zones. Maps of T1 were compared to maps of T3 using Cohen's Kappa coefficient. Furthermore, relative extents, vertical distribution patterns and mean centres of life zones have been analysed. These parameters were defined for each decade and also for T1, T2 and T3. The temporal changes of the decadal values

  3. Plastic collapse loads in shape-imperfect pipe bends under in-plane opening bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effect of ovality and thinning/thickening on collapse load of pipe bends under in-plane opening bending moment was investigated using finite element limit analysis considering large geometric change effect. The material is assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic. Twice-elastic-slope method is used to obtain collapse moment from moment–rotation curves drawn for each bend. Variation of thickness due to thinning in the cross section of pipe bend produces negligible effect on collapse load. The effect of ovality is significant except for pipe ratio 20 with λ = 0.5. A new closed-form solution is proposed to determine collapse moment of pipe bends with ovality and it is validated with existing experimental data. -- Highlights: • Collapse loads for shape-imperfect pipe bends is determined. • Ovality and thinning are the shape imperfections considered. • Finite element limit analysis uses large geometry change effects. • Twice-elastic-slope method was used to obtain plastic loads. • Ovality needs to be considered to determine collapse load while thinning produces negligible effect

  4. When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe When Blood Cells Bend Understanding Sickle Cell Disease For people who don’t suspect they ... Cells Bend Wise Choices Links Living with Sickle Cell Disease See a sickle cell disease expert regularly. ...

  5. Quantitative Evaluation of Photoinduced Bending Speed of Diarylethene Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daichi Kitagawa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated photoinduced crystal bending behavior of various photochromic diarylethenes. In all the diarylethene derivatives we used in this work, the relationship between the initial photoinduced bending speed and the crystal thickness was well explained by the easy-handled Timoshenkoʼs bimetal model. Moreover, we proposed a quantitative analysis method to reveal the relationship between the bending speed and the molecular structure of diarylethenes. These results provide the quantitative evaluation method of the photoinduced crystal bending speed.

  6. The design of an agent to bend DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, T; Hogan, M E

    1996-01-01

    An artificial DNA bending agent has been designed to assess helix flexibility over regions as small as a protein binding site. Bending was obtained by linking a pair of 15-base-long triple helix forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) by an adjustable polymeric linker. By design, DNA bending was introduced into the double helix within a 10-bp spacer region positioned between the two sites of 15-base triple helix formation. The existence of this bend has been confirmed by circular permutation and phas...

  7. Bending strength analysis of steel-composite submerged floating tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Han, T H; Won, D.; Han, S. H.; Park, W. S.; Yum, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    A submerged floating tunnel (SFT) must have enough strength to resist to various external loadings such as bending, torsion, tension, and compression. The expected main deformation of SFT is caused by bending moment. And this bending moment makes tensile stress and compression stress on the wall of SFT. Thus, bending moment is a main affecting factor on the safety of SFT. Until now, a reinforced concrete tunnel was suggested for SFT by other researchers. In this study, an internal...

  8. Ultrasonic fatigue testing device under biaxial bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brugger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new fatigue testing device has been developed to test specimens under biaxial loading at 20 kHz. A flat smooth specimen with a disc geometry is placed on a torus frame and cyclically loaded at the center of its upper face. Disc bending generates a biaxial proportional stress state at the center of the lower face. Any positive loading ratio can be applied. A cast aluminum alloy (used to produce cylinder heads has been tested under biaxial bending using this device in order to determine its fatigue strength at 109 cycles under high hydrostatic pressure. Self-heating is moderate but macroscopic fatigue cracks after testing are very long. First results in VHCF regime are consistent with literature results obtained under similar stress state but in HCF regime and at 20 Hz.

  9. Development of Bend Sensor for Catheter Tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yoshitaka; Sano, Akihito; Fujimoto, Hideo

    Recently, a minimally invasive surgery which makes the best use of the catheter has been becoming more popular. In endovascular coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm, the observation of the catheter's painting phenomenon is very important to execute the appropriate manipulation of the delivery wire and the catheter. In this study, the internal bend sensor which consists of at least two bending enhanced plastic optical fibers was developed in order to measure the curvature of the catheter tip. Consequently, the painting could be more sensitively detected in the neighborhood of the aneurysm. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the developed sensor system are described and its usefulness is confirmed from the comparison of the insertion force of delivery wire and the curvature of catheter tip in the experiment of coil embolization.

  10. Monitoring thermoplastic composites under cyclic bending tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardi, Simone; Meola, Carosena; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; Simeoli, Giorgio; Acierno, Domenico; Russo, Pietro

    2016-05-01

    This work is concerned with the use of infrared thermography to visualize temperature variations linked to thermo-elastic effects developing over the surface of a specimen undergoing deflection under bending tests. Several specimens are herein considered, which involve change of matrix and/or reinforcement. More specifically, the matrix is either a pure polypropylene, or a polypropylene added with a certain percentage of compatibilizing agent; the reinforcement is made of glass, or jute. Cyclic bending tests are carried out by the aid of an electromechanical actuator. Each specimen is viewed, during deflection, from one surface by an infrared imaging device. As main finding the different specimens display surface temperature variations which depend on the type of material in terms of both matrix and reinforcement.

  11. Nuclear fuels accounting interface: River Bend experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This presentation describes nuclear fuel accounting activities from the perspective of nuclear fuels management and its interfaces. Generally, Nuclear Fuels-River Bend Nuclear Group (RBNG) is involved on a day-by-day basis with nuclear fuel materials accounting in carrying out is procurement, contract administration, processing, and inventory management duties, including those associated with its special nuclear materials (SNM)-isotopics accountability oversight responsibilities as the Central Accountability Office for the River Bend Station. As much as possible, these duties are carried out in an integrated, interdependent manner. From these primary functions devolve Nuclear Fuels interfacing activities with fuel cost and tax accounting. Noting that nuclear fuel tax accounting support is of both an esoteric and intermittent nature, Nuclear Fuels-RBNG support of developments and applications associated with nuclear fuel cost accounting is stressed in this presentation.

  12. Nuclear fuels accounting interface: River Bend experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes nuclear fuel accounting activities from the perspective of nuclear fuels management and its interfaces. Generally, Nuclear Fuels-River Bend Nuclear Group (RBNG) is involved on a day-by-day basis with nuclear fuel materials accounting in carrying out is procurement, contract administration, processing, and inventory management duties, including those associated with its special nuclear materials (SNM)-isotopics accountability oversight responsibilities as the Central Accountability Office for the River Bend Station. As much as possible, these duties are carried out in an integrated, interdependent manner. From these primary functions devolve Nuclear Fuels interfacing activities with fuel cost and tax accounting. Noting that nuclear fuel tax accounting support is of both an esoteric and intermittent nature, Nuclear Fuels-RBNG support of developments and applications associated with nuclear fuel cost accounting is stressed in this presentation

  13. Molecular Origin of Model Membrane Bending Rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of the bending modulus κ of bilayers in lamellar phases was studied by Small Angle X-ray Scattering technique for various nonionic CiEj surfactants. The bilayers are either unswollen and dispersed in water or swollen by water and dispersed in dodecane. For unswollen bilayers, the values of κ decrease with both an increase in the area per surfactant molecule and in the polar head length. They increase when the aliphatic chain length increases at constant area per surfactant molecule. Whereas for water-swollen membranes, the values of κ decrease as the content of water increases converging to the value of the single monolayer bending modulus. Such a behavior results from the decoupling of the fluctuations of the two surfactant membrane monolayers. Our results emphasize the determinant contribution of the surfactant conformation to κ

  14. Molecular Origin of Model Membrane Bending Rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtisovski, Erol; Taulier, Nicolas; Ober, Raymond; Waks, Marcel; Urbach, Wladimir

    2007-06-01

    The behavior of the bending modulus κ of bilayers in lamellar phases was studied by Small Angle X-ray Scattering technique for various nonionic CiEj surfactants. The bilayers are either unswollen and dispersed in water or swollen by water and dispersed in dodecane. For unswollen bilayers, the values of κ decrease with both an increase in the area per surfactant molecule and in the polar head length. They increase when the aliphatic chain length increases at constant area per surfactant molecule. Whereas for water-swollen membranes, the values of κ decrease as the content of water increases converging to the value of the single monolayer bending modulus. Such a behavior results from the decoupling of the fluctuations of the two surfactant membrane monolayers. Our results emphasize the determinant contribution of the surfactant conformation to κ

  15. Reconstructing recent environmental change in the Carpathian Basin; advocating an interdisciplinary approach for 2020 environmental science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon HUTCHINSON

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to environmental science is particularly important in the field of palaeoenvironmental research. Indeed, while the majority of such studies employ a range of proxies in their investigation, the more innovative studies tend to truly cross discipline boundaries. The investigation of depositional environments (e.g., lake sediments and mires as archives of environmental history has a long tradition in the Carpathian region. However, glacial lakes across the region have also been described as under-investigated despite their potential for palaeolimnological study (Buczko et al. 2009. Studies have also largely focused on relatively early (Late Glacial and Early Holocene environmental change.  Nevertheless, there is an increasing interest in the reconstruction of more human-driven impacts on the environment and events in the very recent past on a century to decade timescale e.g., post Industrial Revolution and following political change from the mid 1940s and in the late 1980s. Furthermore, efforts have are also being made to inform the debate about future climate and environmental changes linking palaeoenvironmental records to predictive computer modelling.

  16. Declining diversity in abandoned grasslands of the carpathian mountains: do dominant species matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mária Csergő

    Full Text Available Traditional haymaking has created exceptionally high levels of plant species diversity in semi-natural grasslands of the Carpathian Mountains (Romania, the maintenance of which is jeopardized by recent abandonment and subsequent vegetation succession. We tested the hypothesis that the different life history strategies of dominant grasses cause different patterns of diversity loss after abandonment of traditional haymaking in two types of meadow. Although diversity loss rate was not significantly different, the mechanism of loss depended on the life history of dominant species. In meadows co-dominated by competitive stress-tolerant ruderals, diversity loss occurred following the suppression of dominant grasses by tall forbs, whereas in meadows dominated by a stress-tolerant competitor, diversity loss resulted from increased abundance and biomass of the dominant grass. We conclude that management for species conservation in abandoned grasslands should manipulate the functional turnover in communities where the dominant species is a weaker competitor, and abundance and biomass of dominant species in communities where the dominant species is the stronger competitor.

  17. Characterization of photoautotrophic picoplankton assemblages in turbid, alkaline lakes of the Carpathian Basin (Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos VÖRÖS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The photoautotrophic picoplankton (PPP of ten shallow, hyposaline soda lakes located in three different geographical regions in the Carpathian Basin (Central Europe was characterized. These lakes, which frequently dry out completely, are extremely rich in PPP. Epifluorescence microscopy was applied to determine picocyanobacterial and picoeukaryotic cell abundance and PCR-based molecular techniques (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and cloning with phylospecies delineation to identify the members of PPP. Most of these lakes were eu- and hypertrophic with varying contribution of picocyanobacteria to the total PPP cell number. We found an unusually high PPP abundance with peaks of 8.16 × 106 cells mL-1 for picoeukaryotes and 1.78 × 107 cells mL-1 for picocyanobacteria. The majority of the retrieved PPP sequences belonged to picocyanobacteria (nonmarine Synechococcus/ Cyanobium, while others showed similarity to eukaryotic algal plastids (close to Trebouxiophycean isolates. Molecular analysis revealed significant genetic diversity in the PPP fraction of these lakes and showed that the closest relatives of our picocyanobacterial clones were recovered from different habitats, indicating seemingly no correlation between the 'saline' ecotypes and their phylogenetic position. Our results also confirmed that PPP might exploit different aquatic ecosystems and be successful even in the case of abrupt changes of environmental parameters (in our case, salinity. According to our knowledge, this is the first survey focusing on the identification of the PPP community members in turbid and alkaline lakes with extraordinarily high picoplankton productivity.

  18. Semiautomatic construction of isobase surfaces: A case study from the central Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlička, Karel; Sládek, Ján; Šilhavý, Jakub

    2015-05-01

    This article describes a method for semiautomated construction of isobase surfaces in the environment of a Geomorphological Information System (GmIS). The motivation to automate the process is that the manual construction of isobase surfaces involves several decision procedures, and also a lot of manual vectorization which can be time-consuming if the area of interest is large. A (semi-)automated process of isobase surface construction could accelerate the process of morphostructural analysis. Therefore, the contribution focuses on design, development and testing of such a method. The developed tools were compared to an expert driven construction of isobase surfaces. The automatically constructed data layers were compared to the layers that were constructed manually in the southwest part of the study area (Turčianska kotlina basin (Western Carpathians) and surrounding area in Slovakia). Three different statistical methods were used (correlation, linear regression and DTM volume difference checking). All three methods proved very high similarity of automatically created isobase surfaces to expert driven isobase surfaces creation. The results show that the method of semiautomated creation can be used in morphostructure analysis and save the time needed for manual isobase surface creation. The method's technological background is based on the ESRI platform. The original desktop solution has been developed for use on a client/server architecture that is able to present the capabilities of GmIS to a wider geomorphological audience.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF LANDSCAPE AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS IN THE CARPATHIANS ON THE FORMATION OF LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Pavliuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current stage of development of our country globalization and integration processes are becoming more powerful. In these circumstances, the problem of preserving Ukrainian national identity becomes urgent. The article deals with conditions of the linguistic identity as the bearer of the Ukrainian national cultural space. Based on the analysis of current researches of individual language learning the author concludes that linguistic identity is a social phenomenon. The development and establishment of the linguistic personality arises in the process of education, training, communication, i.e. in different activities depending on the nature of the social environment in general and speech environment in particular. However, some scientific research allow to affirm the need to incorporate formative influence of the nature on the linguistic identity. The focus of the article is Carpathian region as an environment in which ethnic culture and language were almost no external influences. An important conclusion from this research is that learning the problem of linguistic identity should take into account forming impact of the environment - both natural and linguistic.

  20. Evaluating the Remote Sensing and Inventory-Based Estimation of Biomass in the Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen G. Moisen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the potential of forest ecosystems as global carbon sinks requires a thorough knowledge of forest carbon dynamics, including both sequestration and fluxes among multiple pools. The accurate quantification of biomass is important to better understand forest productivity and carbon cycling dynamics. Stand-based inventories (SBIs are widely used for quantifying forest characteristics and for estimating biomass, but information may quickly become outdated in dynamic forest environments. Satellite remote sensing may provide a supplement or substitute. We tested the accuracy of aboveground biomass estimates modeled from a combination of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM imagery and topographic data, as well as SBI-derived variables in a Picea abies forest in the Western Carpathian Mountains. We employed Random Forests for non-parametric, regression tree-based modeling. Results indicated a difference in the importance of SBI-based and remote sensing-based predictors when estimating aboveground biomass. The most accurate models for biomass prediction ranged from a correlation coefficient of 0.52 for the TM- and topography-based model, to 0.98 for the inventory-based model. While Landsat-based biomass estimates were measurably less accurate than those derived from SBI, adding tree height or stand-volume as a field-based predictor to TM and topography-based models increased performance to 0.36 and 0.86, respectively. Our results illustrate the potential of spectral data to reveal spatial details in stand structure and ecological complexity.

  1. PLANT COMMUNITIES WITH ARNICA MONTANA IN NATURAL HABITATS FROM THE CENTRAL REGION OF ROMANIAN EASTERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MARDARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arnica montana is a species of European Union interest, whose harvest from the wild and exploitation should be made under certain management measures. In Romania it is a vulnerable species due to excessive collection. It is a species with European areal occuring in pastures, meadows, forest glades, shrubs communities of mountain to the subalpine regions and, isolated, up to the alpine belt. Most of the plant communities with Arnica montana are semi-natural, with a floristic composition in which there are numerous rare or threatened species also supporting the need of their conservation. Our study was focused on a numerical classification (hierarchical, using Flexible ß algorithm and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity based on 48 plots, of the plant communities with Arnica montana from the central region of Romanian Eastern Carpathians and on the investigation of the effect of some environmental variables (Ellenberg indicator values, altitude, heat load index on their floristic composition (100 m2 scale. Vegetation – environment relationship was assessed via detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis with Monte Carlo test. Six plant communities with Arnica montana were identified (communities of Festuca rubra with Agrostis capillaris, Festuca nigrescens, Vaccinium myrtillus, Nardus stricta, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Juniperus sibirica with a floristic composition mainly shaped by altitude, temperature and soil nitrogen content. Details related to location and sites characteristics, diagnostic species, floristic composition, presence of other rare or threatened species and Arnica montana abundance were presented for all these plant communities.

  2. Snow avalanche history in Parâng Mountains (Southern Carpathians revealed by dendrogeomorphic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviu MESEȘAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Parâng Mountains belong to Southern Carpathians, having the maximum altitude in Parângul Mare Peak (2519 m a.s.l.. The geology is dominated by crystalline schists, due to whom the relief is characterized by steep slopes. Between 1400 – 1700 m the average annual temperature is around 2-3ᴼC and the total precipitation about 1000-1200 mm/year. Coniferous belt extends roughly at the mentioned altitudes, being dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies forests. Above 1800 m the average annual temperature drops below 2ᴼC and the average rainfalls reach 1200 mm/year, allowing the development of alpine shrubs and alpine grassland (Oancea et al., 1987. Crests and steep slopes in these subalpine areas are prone to snow accumulation and avalanche release. Despite the favorable conditions for avalanche trigger in this area, only one avalanche event is historically recorded, with severe impact on forest areas, but no destructive impact on infrastructure or fatalities.

  3. Stable isotopes in lakes of the High Tatra mountains, Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data of oxygen, hydrogen and sulphate sulphur stable isotopes from the lakes of the Vysoke Tatry Mts., acquired in the framework of IAEA No. 8675/RB project ''Stable isotopes in lakes of High Tatra mountains, Western Carpathians, Slovakia'' represent the first set of this kind information on the territory of Slovakia. Moreover a complete set of chemical composition of waters was taken and compared to preceding results and contemporary state of acidification was evaluated. Values of studied chemical compounds respond to their source - initial precipitation waters and bedrock character with influence of biochemical processes. Acidification is due to inactive geological background (granites), high contribution of SOx and NOx from atmospheric deposition and low buffering ability of soil. Acidification of lakes is lowered from 1980 and is approaching to level before acidification, probably as consequence of industry crisis in Eastern Europe after 1989. Water samples from the Furkotska dolina valley water system follow the MWL with natural trend of increasing content of heavy isotopes with lowering altitude. In depth profiles of single lakes' isotope composition does not change - due to natural conditions during sampling campaigns (spring and fall homothermy?), all waters are meteoric in origin without signs of evaporation. Water of the Strbske pleso lake is enriched to heavy isotopes, all samples fit an evaporation line. This could be explained by longer residence time of water, or by the recharging from the last phases of the snowmelt. Sulphate sulphur isotope ratios from lakes are the same and they are identical with these of snow packs. (author)

  4. An Upper Pleistocene to Holocene limnic record from the Carpathian Basin near Vrsac (Vojvodina, Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeden, Christian; Hambach, Ulrich; Fisher, Peter; Obreht, Igor; Schulte, Philipp; Bösken, Janina; Wennrich, Voelker; Schäbitz, Frank; Klasen, Nicole; Gavrilov, Milivoj; Veres, Daniel; Markovic, Slobodan; Vött, Andreas; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Upper Pleistocene geoarchives in the Pannonian Basin are predominantly composed of loess-paleosol sequences accompanied by only few fluvial archives dating to this time frame. In 2015 a 10 m sediment core was recovered within an extensive loess area by means of vibracoring, with the recovered sedimentary succession mainly composed of limnic sediments. Coring was conducted within a depression northwest of Vrsac and east of the Banat Sands in the eastern Carpathian Basin (North-Eastern Serbia) in a region still lacking in paleoenvironmental records but which must have played a crucial role in the spread of modern human into Europe along the main rivers valley tributary to the Danube. Radiocarbon dating places the upper half of the core within the last ca. 20 ka, whereas luminescence dating is on going. Sedimentological analyses give evidence of phases of eolian sediment input within a predominantly limnic depositional environment. Aeolian sediment input has been altered, and early diagenesis is expected to have superimposed the eolian sediment. In addition, levels of carbonate precipitation can be observed in the core, some intervals being very rich in clay and decalcified; both show strong alteration of original sediment. No indications for fluvial input are apparent, suggesting a continuous sedimentation during the Upper Pleistocene and into the Holocene. Here preliminary results are presented including core images and description, XRF scans, grain-size data and an age model in progress. Based on these findings a detailed interpretation on the sedimentary system and (paleo)environmental processes involved are given.

  5. Sharing common pool resources at the border of protected areas in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-IRINA DINCA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The common pool resources are a very actual topic a pproached by both scientists and practitioners preoccupied nowadays of gradually incr easing environmental problems. Protected areas in Romania and especially in Romanian Carpath ians of national and natural park type (IUCN II and V represent areas of particular interes t in the light of the common pool resources theory imposing conservation laws on areas meeting a n increased pressure from human communities around them. The important socio-econom ic and ownership changes that Romania met in the last decades changed its previous state unique ownership into a multiple stakeholder ownership. At the same time vulnerable human communi ties located in fragile mountain areas and depending to a high extent on natural resources met an increased stress when exploiting natural resources at the border of protected areas. Consequently sharing the common pool of resources in the buffer zone of protected areas in the Romanian Carpathians represents a very actual and important topic to be treated in the pre sent study.

  6. Analysis of genetic diversity in crocuses with Carpathian Basin origin using AFLP-markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surányi, G; Máthé, C; Mosolygó, Agnes; Borbély, G; Vasas, G

    2010-01-01

    Crocus taxonomy has until now been based primarily on morphology, taking chromosome numbers into consideration. The genetics and genome structure of the genus, the relationships and diversity within the genus are not well known. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a whole genome approach to study genetic variation that is gaining in popularity for lower-level systematics. The present study employed the AFLP technique for analyzing relationships among taxa of the Crocus genus (particularly the Crocus vernus aggregate) with Carpathian Basin origin. The molecular variance obtained was based on amplification, separation and detection of EcoRI and Tru1I double-digested Crocus spp. genomic DNAs. Our results confirm the relatedness of C. tommasinianus, C. vittatus and C. heuffelianus at the Verni series of the Crocus genus. C. banaticus is taxonomically isolated as the sole member of the subgenus Crociris based on unique morphological features, but the difference is not convincing from AFLP data. The second interesting AFLP analysis result is the position of C. scepusiensis which separated it from the Crocus vernus aggregate. PMID:21565773

  7. Characterization and study of photonic crystal fibres with bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of a photonic crystal fibre (PRCF) with bends is presented. Using the versatile finite difference time domain method, the modal characteristics of the PCFs are found. Possibilities of employing PCFs with bends in sensing are discussed. It is found that a large evanescent field is present when the bend angle exceeds 45o

  8. Superconducting beam bending magnets at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows Gerhard Kesseler with the cyogenic vessels for one of the 10.8 Tesla-metre beam bending magnets. The magnet itself (not visible) is sitting inside the superinsukated helium vessel (white). The next larger shell and the biggest tubular structure (with the largest part behind the person) is the insulation vacuum tank. See CERN Courier 1970 pp. 228-229 CERN Courier 1973 pp. 144-145 Yellow Report CERN 78-03, 1978

  9. AA, assembly of wide bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets; BST, short and wide; BLG, long and narrow). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the copper coils being hoisted onto the lower half of a BST. See also 7811105, 8006050. For a BLG, see 8001044.

  10. Large deformation dynamic bending of composite beams

    OpenAIRE

    Derian, Edward J.

    1985-01-01

    The large deformation response of composite beams subjected to a dynamic axial load was studied. The beams were loaded with a moderate amount of eccentricity to promote bending. The study was primarily experimental but some finite element results were obtained. Both the deformation and the failure of the beams were of interest. The static response of the beams was also studied in order to determine the difference between the static and dynamic failure. Twelve different la...

  11. Drag Reduction, from Bending to Pruning

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Diego; Michelin, Sébastien; de Langre, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Most plants and benthic organisms have evolved efficient reconfiguration mechanisms to resist flow-induced loads. These mechanisms can be divided into bending, in which plants reduce their sail area through elastic deformation, and pruning, in which the loads are decreased through partial breakage of the structure. In this work, we show by using idealized models that these two mechanisms or, in fact, any combination of the two, are equally efficient to reduce the drag experienced by terrestrial and aquatic vegetation.

  12. Characterization of the NTPR and BD1 interacting domains of the human PICH-BEND3 complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitchai, Ganesha P; Hickson, Ian D; Streicher, Werner;

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome integrity depends on DNA structure-specific processing complexes that resolve DNA entanglement between sister chromatids. If left unresolved, these entanglements can generate either chromatin bridging or ultrafine DNA bridging in the anaphase of mitosis. These bridge structures are...... defined by the presence of the PICH protein, which interacts with the BEND3 protein in mitosis. To obtain structural insights into PICH-BEND3 complex formation at the atomic level, their respective NTPR and BD1 domains were cloned, overexpressed and crystallized using 1.56 M ammonium sulfate as a...

  13. More on the bending of light !

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, Kayll

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Rindler and Ishak have argued that the bending of light is, in principle, changed by the presence of a cosmological constant since one must consider not only the null geodesic equation, but also the process of measurement. I agree with the fact that both must be considered. Here, on the basis of the mathematically exact solution to the classical bending problem, and independent of the cosmological constant, I show that the approximate argument found in the vast majority of texts (new and old) for the measured value of the bending of light for a single source is, despite getting a good answer, bogus. In fact, the measured value for a single source is in part the result of the almost perfect cancelation of two terms, one of which is seldom considered. When one considers two sources, this cancelation is of no consequence, and if the sources are opposite with the same associated apsidal distance, the approximate argument gives the rigorously correct answer (up to numerical evaluation), an answer which i...

  14. First multi-bend achromat lattice consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first proposed lattice for a ‘diffraction-limited light source’ is reported. This approach has now more or less been used for the MAX IV project. By the beginning of 1990, three third-generation synchrotron light sources had been successfully commissioned in Grenoble, Berkeley and Trieste (ESRF, ALS and ELETTRA). Each of these new machines reached their target specifications without any significant problems. In parallel, already at that time discussions were underway regarding the next generation, the ‘diffraction-limited light source (DLSR)’, which featured sub-nm rad electron beam emittance, photon beam brilliance exceeding 1022 and the potential to emit coherent radiation. Also, at about that time, a first design for a 3 GeV DLSR was developed, based on a modified multiple-bend achromat (MBA) design leading to a lattice with normalized emittance of ∊x = 0.5 nm rad. The novel feature of the MBA lattice was the use of seven vertically focusing bend magnets with different bending angles throughout the achromat cell to keep the radiation integrals and resulting beam emittance low. The baseline design called for a 400 m ring circumference with 12 straight sections of 6 m length. The dynamic aperture behaviour of the DLSR lattice was estimated to produce > 5 h beam lifetime at 100 mA stored beam current

  15. The role of elasticity in slab bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourel, Loic; Goes, Saskia; Morra, Gabriele

    2014-11-01

    studies showed that plate rheology exerts a dominant control on the shape and velocity of subducting plates. Here, we perform a systematic investigation of the role of elasticity in slab bending, using fully dynamic 2-D models where an elastic, viscoelastic, or viscoelastoplastic plate subducts freely into a purely viscous mantle. We derive a scaling relationship between the bending radius of viscoelastic slabs and the Deborah number, De, which is the ratio of Maxwell time over deformation time. We show that De controls the ratio of elastically stored energy over viscously dissipated energy and find that at De>10-2, substantially less energy is required to bend a viscoelastic slab to the same shape as a purely viscous slab with the same intrinsic viscosity. Elastically stored energy at higher De favors retreating modes of subduction via unbending, while trench advance only occurs for some cases with De 1, where most zones have low De 0.1. Slabs with Deviscosities or they may be yielding, in which case our De estimates may be underestimated by up to an order of magnitude, potentially pointing towards a significant role of elasticity in ˜60% of the subduction zones. In support of such a role of elasticity in subduction, we find that increasing De correlates with increasing proportion of larger seismic events in both instrumental and historic catalogues.

  16. 75 FR 71666 - Bend/Ft. Rock Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Deschutes County, OR; West Bend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Jeffries, District Ranger, Bend-Fort Rock Ranger District, Red Oaks Square, 1230 NE. Third Street, Suite A...-Fort Rock Ranger District, Red Oaks Square, 1230 NE. Third Street, Suite A-262, Bend, Oregon 97701... Forest Service Bend/Ft. Rock Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Deschutes County, OR; West...

  17. 78 FR 4465 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0... Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant... (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 (CCNPP3). The NRC...

  18. 76 FR 81992 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0..., Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear... application is based upon the U.S. EPR reference COL (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs...

  19. Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhao-xian

    2016-01-15

    We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.

  20. Seismic velocity model of the crust and upper mantle along profile PANCAKE across the Carpathians between the Pannonian Basin and the East European Craton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostenko, V.; Janik, T.; Kolomiyets, K.;

    2013-01-01

    Results are presented of a seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction survey along a profile between the Pannonian Basin (PB) and the East European Craton (EEC) called PANCAKE. The P- and S-wave velocity model derived can be divided into three sectors: the PB; the Carpathians, including the...... Transcarpathian Depression and the Carpathian Foredeep; and the south-western part of the EEC, including the Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ). Seismic data support a robust model of the Vp velocity structure of the crust. In the PB, the 22-23km thick crust consists of a 2-5km thick sedimentary layer (Vp=2...

  1. Standard test methods for bend testing of material for ductility

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover bend testing for ductility of materials. Included in the procedures are four conditions of constraint on the bent portion of the specimen; a guided-bend test using a mandrel or plunger of defined dimensions to force the mid-length of the specimen between two supports separated by a defined space; a semi-guided bend test in which the specimen is bent, while in contact with a mandrel, through a specified angle or to a specified inside radius (r) of curvature, measured while under the bending force; a free-bend test in which the ends of the specimen are brought toward each other, but in which no transverse force is applied to the bend itself and there is no contact of the concave inside surface of the bend with other material; a bend and flatten test, in which a transverse force is applied to the bend such that the legs make contact with each other over the length of the specimen. 1.2 After bending, the convex surface of the bend is examined for evidence of a crack or surface irregu...

  2. Bending response of single layer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Si; Cao, Guoxin

    2016-03-01

    Using molecular mechanics (or dynamics) simulations, three different approaches, including the targeted molecular mechanics, four-point bending and nanotube methods, are employed to investigate the bending response of single layer MoS2 (SLMoS2), among which four-point bending is the most accurate approach to determine the bending stiffness according to the continuum theory. It is found that when the bending curvature radius is large enough (e.g. >4 nm), three approaches will give the same bending stiffness of SLMoS2 and the bending behavior is isotropic for SLMoS2, whereas the nanotube method with small tubes (e.g. theory, the revised Stillinger-Weber (SW) and reactive empirical bond-order (REBO) potentials can give the reasonable bending stiffness of SLMoS2 (8.7-13.4 eV) as well as the effective deformed conformation. In addition, since the Mo-S bond deformation of SLMoS2 under bending is similar to that under in-plane tension/compression, the continuum bending theory can quite accurately predict the bending stiffness of SLMoS2 if a reasonable thickness of SLMoS2 is given. For SLMoS2, the reasonable thickness should be larger than the distance between its two S atomic planes and lower than the distance between two Mo atomic planes of bulk MoS2 crystal, e.g. 0.375-0.445 nm.

  3. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE TRADITIONAL AND INNOVATIVE APPROACHES IN TRAINING PHARMACISTS FOR THEIR PROFESSIONAL WORK IN THE CARPATHIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Drachuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented the modern automated diagnostic systems and pharmacological rehabilitation technologies. There is a lack in the raw material base of many medicinal plants due to the bad environmental situation. Today natural resources were so depleted that Arnica was listed in the Red Book of Ukraine. Nowadays the training of specialists in the field of pharmacology requires not only new approaches associated with the development of medical science and computer technology. We have national traditions for the use of plant resources, particularly in the Carpathian region. Much of the research in the field of pharmacology requires new approaches in the analysis of clinical trails of new medical products. Pharmaceutical practice is focused on the types of professional activities. The ethical aspects related to medicines are equally significant. In the professional work of pharmacists information technologies are used on such stages as the creation of a medicinal product. The research of resources is conducted all over the world and is used to record all types of natural resources, but this term is most commonly used to define plant resources. The pharmacist should be able to adjust the recipes prescribed by doctors and know the rules of drug intake and provision. Regarding plant medicines, the Carpathian region has a rich heritage of traditional use of medical plants. Nowadays modern conditions require the active use of new technologies in pharmacist’s professional activity. Particularly acute is the problem of compatibility of medicinal substances and their interaction in the pharmaceutical phase as well as in the process of distribution and absorption. The Carpathian region which is extremely rich in medical plants should be constantly studied and integrated with the modern knowledge and capabilities

  4. Bridge helix bending promotes RNA polymerase II backtracking through a critical and conserved threonine residue

    KAUST Repository

    Da, Lin-Tai

    2016-04-19

    The dynamics of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) backtracking process is poorly understood. We built a Markov State Model from extensive molecular dynamics simulations to identify metastable intermediate states and the dynamics of backtracking at atomistic detail. Our results reveal that Pol II backtracking occurs in a stepwise mode where two intermediate states are involved. We find that the continuous bending motion of the Bridge helix (BH) serves as a critical checkpoint, using the highly conserved BH residue T831 as a sensing probe for the 3′-terminal base paring of RNA:DNA hybrid. If the base pair is mismatched, BH bending can promote the RNA 3′-end nucleotide into a frayed state that further leads to the backtracked state. These computational observations are validated by site-directed mutagenesis and transcript cleavage assays, and provide insights into the key factors that regulate the preferences of the backward translocation.

  5. Effect of pH and Ibuprofen on Phopholipid Bilayer Bending Modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggara, Mohan; Faraone, Antonio; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2010-03-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) e.g. Aspirin and Ibuprofen, are known to cause gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity with chronic usage. However, NSAIDs pre-associated with phospholipids has been experimentally shown to reduce the GI toxicity and increase the therapeutic efficacy. In this study, using neutron spin-echo the effect of ibuprofen on the phospholipid membrane bending modulus is studied as a function of pH and temperature. Ibuprofen was found to lower the bending modulus at all pH values. We further present molecular insights into the observed effect on membrane dynamics based on structural studies using molecular dynamics simulations and small angle neutron scattering data as well as changes in zwitterionic headgroup electrostatics due to pH and addition of ibuprofen. This study is expected to help towards effective design of drug delivery nanoparticles based on variety of soft condensed matter such as lipids or polymers.

  6. Consumer Insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANKOT

    2004-01-01

    Fang Jun, the head of consumer and market insights of Unilever Shanghai, has summarized his early life as a market in two sentences: rush about to study market changes;act all day to observe consumer behavior. And now?"Tell stories, conduct interviews and piece together different data; calculate numbers,build models and write reports."

  7. Science insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    "Below is an essay by Prof. Tanabe originally written in Japanese. It gives an insight to Prof. Tanabe's inquiring mind and his approach to science. He also seek, as always, to inspire and nudge the young to scientific discovery". PMID:25463310

  8. Estimating the water needed to end the drought or reduce the drought severity in the Carpathian region

    OpenAIRE

    T. Antofie; Naumann, G.; J. Spinoni; Vogt, J

    2015-01-01

    A drought severity climatology for the Carpathian region has been produced using the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (Sc-PDSI) for the period 1961–2010. Using the Sc-PDSI and the assumptions of the Palmer drought model (PDM) the precipitation required for drought termination (when Sc-PDSI reaches −0.5) and amelioration (when Sc-PDSI reaches −2.0) are computed for periods of 1, 3, and 6 months. We discuss the reduction of the uncertainty in the dete...

  9. Contribution to the Macrochelidae Vitzthum, 1930 fauna of the Carpathian Basin and the Balkan Peninsula (Acari: Mesostigmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ács

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From different localities of the Balkan Peninsula and the Carpathian Basin altogether 19 macrochelid mite species are listed belonging to the genera Geholaspis Berlese, 1918 (three species, Glyptholaspis Filipponi et Pegazzano, 1960 (one species, Longicheles Valle, 1953 (four species, Macrholaspis Oudemans, 1931 (one species, Macrocheles Latreille, 1829 (five species, Neopodocinum Oudemans, 1902 (two species and Nothrholaspis Berlese, 1918 (three species. New country occurrences are also given for Croatia (three species, Hungary (three species, Macedonia (five species Romania (five species and Serbia (seven species.

  10. Numerical analysis of deep-seated mass movements in the Magura Nappe; Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic)

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, I.; Agliardi, F.; Ambrosi, C.; Crosta, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    Deep-seated slope failures are common features in the mountains of the Raca Unit, Magura Nappe of the Flysch Belt of Western Carpathians. Since they represent very complicated system, understanding of their evolution and triggers still remains unclear. We tried to provide a back-analysis of their development by using a finite difference code (FDM) of continua (Flac 4.0). We confirmed that such large mass movements could be triggered by water saturation of the bedrock in the three particular g...

  11. Extending the area of investigation of fine versus coarse quartz optical ages from the Lower Danube to the Carpathian Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timar-Gabor, Alida; Constantin, Daniela; Marković, S.B.; Jain, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    mm) grains and coarse (63e90 mm) grains respectively. The current study aims at expanding these investigations, both by extending the area of study from the Lower Danube Basin to the Carpathian Basin and by applying time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence (TR-OSL) on quartz, in order to gain...... dose range investigated. A general disagreement between the ages obtained on the two grain sizes for samples with equivalent doses higher than about 100 Gy is reported as in the case of Romanian loess, inferring that the age discrepancy between the two grain sizes might be more widespread than...

  12. Evolving efficiency of restraining bends within wet kaolin analog experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Alexandra E.; Cooke, Michele L.; Madden, Elizabeth H.

    2015-03-01

    Restraining bends along strike-slip fault systems evolve by both propagation of new faults and abandonment of fault segments. Scaled analog modeling using wet kaolin allows for qualitative and quantitative observations of this evolution. To explore how bend geometry affects evolution, we model bends with a variety of initial angles, θ, from θ = 0° for a straight fault to θ = 30°. High-angle restraining bends (θ ≥ 20°) overcome initial inefficiencies by abandoning unfavorably oriented restraining segments and propagating multiple new, inwardly dipping, oblique-slip faults that are well oriented to accommodate convergence within the bend. Restraining bends with 0° < θ ≤ 15° maintain activity along the restraining bend segment and grow a single new oblique slip fault on one side of the bend. In all restraining bends, the first new fault propagates at ~5 mm of accumulated convergence. Particle Image Velocimetry analysis provides a complete velocity field throughout the experiments. From these data, we quantify the strike-slip efficiency of the system as the percentage of applied plate-parallel velocity accommodated as slip in the direction of plate motion along faults within the restraining bend. Bends with small θ initially have higher strike-slip efficiency compared to bends with large θ. Although they have different fault geometries, all systems with a 5 cm bend width reach a steady strike-slip efficiency of 80% after 50 mm of applied plate displacement. These experimental restraining bends resemble crustal faults in their asymmetric fault growth, asymmetric topographic gradient, and strike-slip efficiency.

  13. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CatherineLoudon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100 of subsegments (flagellomeres that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension does not have a lot of slack cuticle to "unfold" and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

  14. Isotopes as natural tracers in the water cycle: examples from the Carpathian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental isotopes are the best tracers in the water cycle. These isotopes can be grouped by different point of views, e.g. 1) stable or radioactive; 2) incorporated in the water molecule or not incorporated in the water molecule. Those incorporated in the water molecule gives information about the water itself, while the others give information about the solutes or physical conditions during the infiltration of water. The stable environmental isotopes: 1 H, 2 H (D), 3 He, 4 He, 6 Li, 7 Li, 10 B, 11 B, 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, 18 O, 20 Ne, 22 Ne, 32 S, 34 S, 35 Cl, 37 Cl, 79 Br, 81 Br, 86 Sr, 87 Sr. The radioactive environmental isotopes: 3 H (T), 14 C, 37 Cl, 39 Ar, 85 Kr, 129 I, 222 Rn, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 234 U, 238 U. Among the above isotopes the most commonly used are T, 2 H/1 H, 18 O/16 O, 13 C/12 C, 14 C. The stable isotope composition (δD, δ18 O) of precipitation depends on the distance from the seas, altitude, latitude and the mean temperature of surface air. As a result of the relation between the temperature and the stable isotope composition of precipitation, deeper groundwater resources infiltrated during the Ice Age in the Carpathian Basin possess an isotopic composition definitely different from those infiltrated during the Holocene (latest 10 000 years). Regarding the oxygen isotope composition: the δ18 O value of the Ice Age water is between -11 0/00 and -14 0/00 vs. VSMOW, while that of the Holocene water is between -9 0/00 and -9.7 0/00. This phenomenon allows us to trace the flow of water under the surface, to determine the origin of water and to identify mixing processes. Usual problem is the over-exploitation of groundwater, when the amount of extracted (exploited) water is higher than what the aquifer can provide, and, as a result, the potentially or actually polluted near surface water flows down to the aquifer and mixes with the deep water. In the Carpathian Basin, in many cases, this deep groundwater was infiltrated in the

  15. A WRB based harmonized digital soil map of the Carpathian-basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Endre; Vadnai, Péter; Pásztor, László; Micheli, Erika; Kovács, Károly; Bertóti, Diána

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing need for harmonized, cross-border soil datasets for several applications. The internationally accepted common nomenclature for soil classification is the WRB. Therefore the most typical way to derive international soil datasets is to translate the national systems into WRB. However, this approach necessarily neglects important details, such as none recorded or generalized soil information of the input soil datasets, so the output WRB class is just an expert knowledge based assumption. The geometry of the input datasets are often directly imported, taken as it is in the national datasets, regardless of the differences of the class definitions between the two systems. So the border lines are necessarily different from the ones the translated maps should use. Due to these potential problems, no accurate harmonized maps can be compiled using the traditional approaches. An alternative approach is to use derived property information required for the classification process and build a digital soil mapping based approach and a quantitative classification methodology to spatially define the different soil classes. Of course these methods require unbiased covariates like, DEM and satellite data, and several harmonized input calibration datasets. The e-SOTER project developed a novel approach to develop and present categorical information this way, using digital soil mapping tools, digital elevation modeling and remote sensing - mainly MODIS - tools together with a harmonized training-calibration dataset of soil properties. This slightly modified procedure was used to develop a soil database to support the Danube-region data development initiative. The resulting dataset covers the Carpathian-basin and has several layers of occurrence probabilities of WRB diagnostic horizons/features/properties and an additional layer of the reference soil group (RSG) of the WRB system. This paper describes this novel approach for the development of digital soil datasets

  16. The response of chironomid assemblages to mineral richness gradient in the Western Carpathian helocrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Syrovátka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid assemblages of helocrene springs were investigated in the Western Carpathians in order to identify potential effect of water mineral richness on the taxonomic structure of the assemblages. A complex gradient considering water chemistry and substratum was used as a measure of basicity (mineral richness. Taxonomic structure, total abundance and abundance of most frequent taxa were related to this gradient with regards to two contrasting habitats: trickle (A and water-loged soil with standing water (B. The variance in chironomid assemblage attributable to basicity was estimated and tested via PERMANOVA as well as the possible effect of the other environmental variables. The response of individual taxa was examined using GAM. The results indicate a strong relationship between basicity and substratum characteristics, with coarser mineral substrata at basic and high amount of organic matter at acidic conditions. Although water chemistry was correlated with and inseparable from these substratum properties, it could not be substituted with them, as they discriminated well only between acidic and basic springs, but did not follow the basicity gradient in either acidic or basic group of springs. Chironomid assemblage showed a strong and systematic response to the complex gradient of mineral richness, which explained the largest portion of variance in both the habitat A and B faunal data and was projected on the first axes of both NMDS ordinations. The assemblage response could be documented by the preference of several taxa for particular mineral richness conditions, while the number of taxa seemed to be highest in the middle of the basicity gradient. As only 17 samples were analysed so far, the results are considered preliminary and, hopefully, more confident results will be available in near future.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1403.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  17. Main flood peaks in the medieval Carpathian Basin (1000-1500): Annual and decadal overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of over 140 reported floods is mainly based on contemporary legal evidence (charters), partly on other types of contemporary documentary evidence. Majority of sources contains data on individual flood events (i.e. occurrence, seasonality, magnitude). Concerning main flood peaks, evidence on annual and multi-annual (decadal, multi-decadal) level is also available. Despite data increase in the 13th century, only in the 14th-15th centuries documentation is representative enough to draw further conclusions. Apart from secondary flood peaks (probably in the mid-13th century and the turn of the 13th-14th centuries), three main periods with high flood frequencies are detected: 1330s-1350s, 1390s-1430s, and the late 1480s-1490s (continuing in the early 16th century). The first major flood peak was primarily reported in the eastern Carpathian Basin (the Tisa catchment), and can be characterised by a number of high-intensity flood events (with 1342-1343 in centre). During the second major, prolonged flood peak of 1390s-1430s, and that of the third, late 15th century one the importance of floods occurred on the Danube and in the Danube catchment area has to be as well highlighted. Moreover, in the first half of the 15th century long-term hydrological problems (prolonged high water-level and high flood frequency problems) can be identified. In some cases high flood-frequency periods were accompanied by documented hydromorphological impacts and some impacts on society can be also detected. Results show good agreement with the decadal precipitation reconstruction based on speleothem investigations carried out in North-Hungary.

  18. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiop, Sorin T; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F; Boscaiu, Monica; Sestras, Radu E; Vicente, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The Norway spruce (Picea abies), the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing) levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing) levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material. PMID:26287687

  19. Asymmetric distribution of seismic motion across south-eastern Carpathians and its implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most striking features of the seismic motion distribution radiated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes is a strong lateral variation when passing from the fore-arc region to the back-arc region. The analysis of the seismograms recorded during the CALIXTO'99 tomography experiment for small- and moderate-magnitude earthquakes shows that the amplitudes are severely diminished by a factor of 10 to 100 in the back-side part (Transylvanian Basin) relative to the fore-side part (Romanian Plain). At the same time the predominant frequencies are shifted toward lower values for the stations located in the back-side area. Such effects could be explained in principle by source radiation pattern, attenuation and local site response. Since systematic lateral variations are obtained regardless of the fault geometry, we reject the hypothesis of the source effect. From other point of view, the information available regarding the structure of the uppermost crust shows no systematic difference between the 'fore-arc' and 'back-arc' areas. Consequently, we conclude that the difference observed in the frequency content and amplitude level comes from the deeper part of the structure and reflects a high inhomogeneous structure of the seismic attenuation, with high Q values in the colder seismogenic (subducting) slab and low Q values in the mantle wedge. This interpretation is consistent with the tomography image (Martin et al., 2001) and the heat-flow measurements (Demetrescu and Andreescu, 1994). Similar patterns are reported in other regions of the world (e.g., Japan, Tonga-Fiji, Vanuatu, North America, Brazil) characterized by typical active subduction systems (e.g., Satake and Hashida, 1989; Tsumura et al., 2000). We assume that the presence of a hot asthenospheric body just behind the Carpathian arc could explain the highly anomalous ground motion attenuation towards the Transylvanian basin, as revealed by macroseismic and instrumental data. (authors)

  20. Origin of natural gases in the Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Maciej

    2012-08-01

    Hydrocarbon gases from Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous reservoirs in the Paleozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep were generated mainly during low-temperature thermogenic processes ("oil window"). They contain only insignificant amounts of microbial methane and ethane. These gaseous hydrocarbons were generated from Lower Carboniferous and/or Middle Jurassic mixed Type III/II kerogen and from Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen, respectively. Methane, ethane and carbon dioxide of natural gas from the Middle Devonian reservoir contain a significant microbial component whereas their small thermogenic component is most probably genetically related to Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen. The gaseous hydrocarbons from the Upper Jurassic and the Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Mesozoic basement were generated both by microbial carbon dioxide reduction and thermogenic processes. The presence of microbial methane generated by carbon dioxide reduction suggests that in some deposits the traps had already been formed and sealed during the migration of microbial methane, presumably in the immature source rock environment. The traps were successively supplied with thermogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons generated at successively higher maturation stages of kerogen. The higher hydrocarbons of the majority of deposits were generated from mixed Type III/II kerogen deposited in the Middle Jurassic, Lower Carboniferous and/or Devonian strata. Type II or mixed Type II/III kerogen could be the source for hydrocarbons in both the Tarnów and Brzezówka deposits. In the Cenomanian sandstone reservoir of the Brzezowiec deposit and one Upper Jurassic carbonate block of the Lubaczów deposit microbial methane prevails. It migrated from the autochthonous Miocene strata.

  1. 226Ra and 222Rn in geothermal waters of the Carpathian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Due to favourable geology of the Carpathian many natural springs and drilled wells produce geothermal waters enriched in minerals. They represent significant economic and therapeutic value on which world famous bathing places developed in past centuries. Chemical composition of these waters has been extensively studied but less attention was paid to their radioactivity. Radon and radium content of waters may be interesting from different points of view. First, too much radon and radium in drinking water may pose health risk for humans. Second, radon and radium can be useful in tracing underground water transport. Therefore, cheap, reliable and accurate measurement of their concentrations has a great value. Etched track detector based simple method was developed in the Institute of Nuclear Research, Debrecen in the las years [1, 2]. In this work the radium and radon contents of thermal water of the springs and wells of the Gellert, Rac and Lukacs Baths as well as of the Rudas Drinking Hall in Budapest were measured. Samples from drinking-water wells of Feked, Szebeny, Vemend (near the Mecsek Mountain in Transdanubian region of Hungary) and about 50 mineral water samples were collected in Hargitha Country, Transylvania of Romania; in Slovenia and in the Great Hungarian Plain. The majority of the Romanian and Slovenian mineral waters have from low to moderate 226Ra activity concentration (-3). The Hungarian geothermal waters show higher values up to some kBqm-3. 222Rn and 226Ra determination of other well-known medical waters are planned. Further studies of commercially available bottled mineral waters and of dosimetric consequences due to daily consume of these measured waters are in progress. This work was supported by the National Scientific Research Fund, No. T-22985. (author)

  2. Tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic evolution of the Late Cretaceous arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallhofer, Daniela; Quadt, Albrecht von; Peytcheva, Irena; Schmid, Stefan M.; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2015-09-01

    The Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie Late Cretaceous magmatic arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen formed on the European margin during closure of the Neotethys Ocean. It was subsequently deformed into a complex orocline by continental collisions. The Cu-Au mineralized arc consists of geologically distinct segments: the Apuseni, Banat, Timok, Panagyurishte, and Eastern Srednogorie segments. New U-Pb zircon ages and geochemical whole rock data for the Banat and Apuseni segments are combined with previously published data to reconstruct the original arc geometry and better constrain its tectonic evolution. Trace element and isotopic signatures of the arc magmas indicate a subduction-enriched source in all segments and variable contamination by continental crust. The magmatic arc was active for 25 Myr (~92-67 Ma). Across-arc age trends of progressively younger ages toward the inferred paleo-trench indicate gradual steepening of the subducting slab away from the upper plate European margin. This leads to asthenospheric corner flow in the overriding plate, which is recorded by decreasing 87Sr/86Sr (0.70577 to 0.70373) and increasing 143Nd/144Nd (0.51234 to 0.51264) ratios over time in some segments. The close spatial relationship between arc magmatism, large-scale shear zones, and related strike-slip sedimentary basins in the Timok and Pangyurishte segments indicates mild transtension in these central segments of the restored arc. In contrast, the Eastern Srednogorie segment underwent strong orthogonal intraarc extension. Segmental distribution of tectonic stress may account for the concentration of rich porphyry Cu deposits in the transtensional segments, where lower crustal magma storage and fractionation favored the evolution of volatile-rich magmas.

  3. Self-bending symmetric cusp beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Ren, Yu-Xuan; Lu, Yao; Li, Yin-Mei

    2015-12-01

    A type of self-bending symmetric cusp beams with four accelerating intensity maxima is theoretically and experimentally presented. Distinguished from the reported regular polygon beams, the symmetric cusp beams simultaneously exhibit peculiar features of natural autofocusing and self-acceleration during propagation. Further, such beams take the shape of a fine longitudinal needle-like structure at the focal region and possess the strong ability of self-healing over obstacles. All these intriguing properties were verified experimentally. Particularly, the spatial profile of the reconstructed beam exhibits spatially sculpted optical structure with four siamesed curved arms. Thus, we anticipate that the structured beam will benefit optical guiding and optofluidics in surprising ways.

  4. Self-bending symmetric cusp beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Lu, Yao; Li, Yin-Mei, E-mail: liyinmei@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Optics and Optical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui Province 230026 (China); Ren, Yu-Xuan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    A type of self-bending symmetric cusp beams with four accelerating intensity maxima is theoretically and experimentally presented. Distinguished from the reported regular polygon beams, the symmetric cusp beams simultaneously exhibit peculiar features of natural autofocusing and self-acceleration during propagation. Further, such beams take the shape of a fine longitudinal needle-like structure at the focal region and possess the strong ability of self-healing over obstacles. All these intriguing properties were verified experimentally. Particularly, the spatial profile of the reconstructed beam exhibits spatially sculpted optical structure with four siamesed curved arms. Thus, we anticipate that the structured beam will benefit optical guiding and optofluidics in surprising ways.

  5. Bending of X65 Offshore Steel Pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Lofthaug, Kristoffer; Digerud, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is part of an ongoing research program between SIMLab and Statoil about impact loads on X65 offshore pipelines and it is a continuation of previous work.Offshore pipelines are frequently impacted by accidental loads, e.g. trawl gear or anchors. Such loads may cause severe damage to the pipe and a complex stress-strain history locally in the impacted area.Fracture have previously been found in pipes dynamically impacted. Quasi-static bending of similar pipes with the same boundary ...

  6. Great Bend tornadoes of August 30, 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umenhofer, T. A.; Fujita, T. T.; Dundas, R.

    1977-01-01

    Photogrammetric analyses of movies and still pictures taken of the Great Bend, Kansas Tornado series have been used to develop design specifications for nuclear power plants and facilities. A maximum tangential velocity of 57 m/sec and a maximum vertical velocity of 27 m/sec are determined for one suction vortex having a translational velocity of 32 m/sec. Three suction vortices with radii in the 20 to 30 m range are noted in the flow field of one tornado; these suction vortices apparently form a local convergence of inflow air inside the outer portion of the tornado core.

  7. Bending moduli of polymeric surfactant interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, S.T.; Witten, T. A.

    1988-01-01

    Our recent theory of the free energy and conformations of end-grafted polymer « brushes » is extended to polymers attached to curved surfaces. Several important systems, e.g., layers of polymeric surfactants or of strongly segregated diblock copolymers, can be well described as brushes. By expanding in powers of the curvature the free energy of a brush on a curved surface, the mean and Gaussian bending moduli may be obtained analytically. Results for K and K of monodisperse brushes are consis...

  8. The bend stiffness of S-DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Storm, C; Storm, Cornelis; Nelson, Philip

    2002-01-01

    We formulate and solve a two-state model for the elasticity of nicked, double-stranded DNA that borrows features from both the Worm Like Chain and the Bragg--Zimm model. Our model is computationally simple, and gives an excellent fit to recent experimental data through the entire overstretching transition. The fit gives the first value for the bending stiffness of the overstretched state as about 10 nm*kbt, a value quite different from either B-form or single-stranded DNA.

  9. Bending of light in quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Donoghue, John F; Holstein, Barry R; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre

    2015-02-13

    We consider the scattering of lightlike matter in the presence of a heavy scalar object (such as the Sun or a Schwarzschild black hole). By treating general relativity as an effective field theory we directly compute the nonanalytic components of the one-loop gravitational amplitude for the scattering of massless scalars or photons from an external massive scalar field. These results allow a semiclassical computation of the bending angle for light rays grazing the Sun, including long-range ℏ contributions. We discuss implications of this computation, in particular, the violation of some classical formulations of the equivalence principle. PMID:25723201

  10. Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Grimes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.

  11. Wooden Model of Wide AA Bending Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets: BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). A wide one had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. A wooden model was build in 1978, to gain dimensional experience. Here, Peter Zettwoch, one of the largest men at CERN at that time, is putting a hand in the mouth of the wooden BST monster.

  12. Nonlinear Bending Stiffness of Plates Clamped by Bolted Joints under Bending Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Tomohiro; Shibutani, Yoji

    Equivalent stiffness of plates clamped by bolted joints for designing should be evaluated according to not only the strength of bolted joints but also the deformation and vibration characteristics of the structures. When the applied external axial load or the bending moment is sufficiently small, the contact surfaces of the bolted joint are stuck together, and thus both the bolt and the clamped plates deform linearly. Although the sophisticated VDI 2230 code gives the appropriate stiffness of clamped plates for the infinitesimal deformation, the stiffness may vary nonlinearly with increasing the loading because of changing the contact state. Therefore, the present paper focuses on the nonlinear behaviour of the bending stiffness of clamped plates by using Finite Element (FE) analyses, taking the contact condition on bearing surfaces and between the plates into account. The FE models of the plates with thicknesses of 3.2, 4.5, 6.0 and 9.0 mm tightened with M8, 10, 12 and 16 bolts were constructed. The relation between bending moment and bending compliance of clamped plates is found to be categorized into three regions, namely, (i) constant compliance with fully stuck contact surfaces, (ii) transition showing the nonlinear compliance, and (iii) constant compliance with one-side contact surfaces. The mechanical models for these three regions are proposed and compared with FEM solutions. The prediction on the bounds of three regions is in a fairly good agreement except the case with smaller bolts and thicker plates.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON BENDING LOSS BETWEEN DIFFERENT S-SHAPED WAVEGUIDE BENDS USING MATRIX METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Bhattacharya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bending loss in the waveguide as well as the leakage losses and absorption losses along with a comparative study among different types of S-shaped bend structures has been computed with the help of a simple matrix method.This method needs simple 2×2 matrix multiplication. The effective-index profile of the bended waveguide is then transformed to an equivalent straight waveguide with the help of a suitable mapping technique and is partitioned into large number of thin sections of different refractive indices. The transfer matrix of the two adjacent layers will be a 2×2 matrix relating the field components in adjacent layers. The total transfer matrix is obtained through multiplication of all these transfer matrices. The excitation efficiency of the wave in the guiding layer shows a Lorentzian profile. The power attenuation coefficient of the bent waveguide is the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM of this peak .Now the transition losses and pure bending losses can be computed from these FWHM datas.The computation technique is quite fast and it is applicable for any waveguide having different parameters and wavelength of light for both polarizations(TE and TM.

  14. The Badenian-Sarmatian Extinction Event in the Carpathian foredeep basin of Romania: Paleogeographic changes in the Paratethys domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palcu, Dan V.; Tulbure, Maria; Bartol, Milos; Kouwenhoven, Tanja J.; Krijgsman, Wout

    2015-10-01

    The Badenian-Sarmatian boundary interval is marked by a major extinction event of marine species in the Central Paratethys. The exact age of the boundary is debated because many successions in marginal basins show erosional features and fauna reworking at the boundary level. Here, we selected the Tisa section in the Carpathian foredeep basin of Romania, which is continuous across this Badenian-Sarmatian Extinction Event (BSEE). Quantitative biostratigraphic records of planktic and benthic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils allow to accurately locate the Badenian-Sarmatian boundary and indicate a major paleoenvironmental change from open marine to brackish water conditions. Magnetostratigraphic results reveal a polarity pattern that uniquely correlates to the time interval between 12.8 and 12.2 Ma. Interpolation of constant sedimentation rates determines the age of the BSEE in the Carpathian foredeep at 12.65 ± 0.01 Ma, in good agreement with several earlier estimates. We conclude that the extinction event took place in less than 10 kyr, and that it was most likely synchronous across the Central Paratethys. It corresponds to a major paleogeographic change in basin connectivity with the Eastern Paratethys, during which the nature of the Barlad gateway switched from a passive to a full connection.

  15. Holocene history of Aconitum in the Polish Western Carpathians and adjacent regions: long-distance migrations or cryptic refugia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sutkowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum lasiocarpum (Rchb. Gáyer and A. variegatum L. are forest species with overlapped geographical ranges in the Beskid Niski and Doły Jasielsko-Sanockie Depression (W. Carpathians. They form here a hybrid zone. The cytogenetic evidences based on the Giemsa C-banding in A. variegatum showed the same cytotype in the Silesian Upland and the Moravskoslezské Beskids, pointing to the role of the Moravian Gate in the migrations of plants from the Moravian glacial forest refugium. Another linked the Małopolska Upland (Ojców with the two Carpathian regions, including the Pieniny Mts. The result points to the two hypothesis. Firstly, there existed glacial forest cryptic refugia in both regions, or the Małopolska’s population is secondary in relation to the Pieniny Mts. ISSR analysis of A. moldavicum showed relationships between one of the Małopolska’s population and the Podolian populations. The Holocene migrations of the species from the Beskid Niski to the Małopolska region were also probable. The refugial character of the Pieniny Mts. was corroborated by their close relation to the relictual populations of A. moldavicum Hacq. from the Nizke Tatry.

  16. Geology and Re-Os molybdenite geochronology of the Kurišková U-Mo deposit (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohút, M.; Trubač, J.; Novotný, L.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Demko, R.; Bartalský, B.; Erban, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2013), s. 271-282. ISSN 1802-6222 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15390S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : U–Mo ore deposit * Re–Os * molybdenite geochronology * genetic model * Gemeric Unit * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.744, year: 2013

  17. Siliciclastics in the Upper Triassic dolomite formations of the Krizna Unit (Maid Fatra Mountains, Western Carpathians): constraints for the Carnian Pluvial Event in the Fatric Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkora, M.; Siblík, Miloš; Soták, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2011), s. 121-138. ISSN 1335-0552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Carnian event * Upper Triassic dolomite s * Western Carpathians * Krizna Unit * shaly interbeds * lingulids * conchostracans Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.787, year: 2011

  18. The structure and species richness of the diatom assemblages of the Western Carpathian spring fens along the gradient of mineral richness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránková, Markéta; Bojková, J.; Poulíčková, A.; Hájek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2009), s. 355-368. ISSN 1802-5439 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : diatoms * Western Carpathians * poor-rich gradient Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.762, year: 2009

  19. The distribution of arctic-alpine elements within high-altitude vegetation of the Western Carpathians in relation to environmental factors, life forms and phytogeography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šibíková, I.; Šibík, J.; Hájek, Michal; Kliment, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 40, 2-3 (2010), s. 189-203. ISSN 0340-269X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : arctic-alpine species * vegetation * West Carpathians Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2010

  20. Amphibole perspective to unravel pre-eruptive processes and conditions in volcanic plumbing systems beneath intermediate arc volcanoes: A case study from Ciomadul volcano (SE Carpathians)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, B.; Harangi, S.; Ntaflos, T.; Mason, P.R.D.; Pál-Molnár, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ciomadul is the youngest volcano in the Carpathian-Pannonian region produced crystal-rich high-K dacites that contain abundant amphibole phenocrysts. The amphiboles in the studied dacites are characterized by large variety of zoning patterns, textures, and a wide range of compositions (e.g., 6.4-15

  1. DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE OF FUTURE TEACHERS ON THE BASIS OF ETHNIC AND CULTURAL VALUES INTRINSIC TO HIGHLANDERS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stakhiv

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents challenges and methods of teacher training activities aimed to develop communicative competence and prepare teachers for work in mountain area schools in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Research shows that specifics of social and cultural environment should be taken into account in the process of teaching native language and developing communicative competence of future teachers. Sociocultural approach defines language teaching strategies in the light of national culture, traditions of ethnic regions and the Ukrainian Carpathians in particular. Teacher training programs should include studies on material, cultural and spiritual values of highlanders. Such topics can be incorporated in the main native language course. Study and analysis of fiction pieces, especially those that reflect the socio-cultural peculiarities of linguistic community of the Ukrainian Carpathians can be of great value in achieving the goal. Small classes in mountain schools also place a demand upon educators to constantly upgrade approaches, forms and methods of teaching. The article offers an integral teacher training system aimed at developing communicative competence and preparing teachers to work in the mountain areas schools. A special place in this system is given to folk pedagogy, which accumulates the national and regional spiritual values. The author presents the components of communicative and socio-cultural competence of future teachers. The suggested algorithm for training primary school teachers insures reaching an appropriate level of socio-cultural, historical, linguistic and communicative competencies necessary for language teaching at primary schools in mountain regions of the Ukrainian Carpathians.

  2. Bending strain tolerance of MgB2 superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Melišek, T.; Kulich, M.; Kopera, L.

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the strain tolerance of MgB2 superconductors subjected to variable bending stresses. Bending of MgB2 wire was done at room temperature in different modes: (i) direct bending of straight annealed samples to variable diameters and by (ii) indirect bending by straightening of bent and annealed samples. I c-bending strain characteristics of samples made by in situ PIT and by the internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) process were measured at 4.2 K. The results show a good agreement between the direct and indirect bending mode, which allows easier estimation of limits important for the winding process of MgB2 superconductors with brittle filaments. A comparison of MgB2 wires made by in situ PIT and IMD processes showed improved strain tolerance for IMD due to better grain connectivity the low annealing temperature, which does not appear to reduce the mechanical strength of sheath material.

  3. Reduction Bending of Thin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Lan-xian; LIU Zu-ming; LIAO Hua; TU Jie-lei; DENG Shu-kang

    2009-01-01

    Reported are the results of reduction the bending of thin crystalline silicon solar ceils after printing and sintering of back electrode by changing the back electrode paste and adjusting the screen printing parameters without effecting the electrical properties of the cell. Theory and experiments showed that the bending of the cell is changed with its thickness of suhstrate, the thinner cell, the more serious bending. The bending of the cell is decreased with the thickness decrease of the back contact paste. The substrate with the thickness of 190μm printing with sheet aluminum paste shows a relatively lower bend compared with that of the substrate printing with ordinary aluminum paste, and the minimum bend is 0.55 mm which is reduced by52%.

  4. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel pipe to be operated at a pressure that produces a hoop stress of 30 percent, or more, of SMYS. (b)...

  5. Bamboo Taper Effect on Third Point Loading Bending Test

    OpenAIRE

    Naresworo Nugroho; Effendi Tri Bahtiar

    2013-01-01

    Geometrical shape of bamboo usually assumed as tapered hollow pipe. This study proved that the dimensional changes along the bamboo stem significantly affected to its Modulus of Rupture (SR) value which measured from third point loading bending test. Therefore if the bending test applied using third point loading configuration, the SR value should be adjusted by strength ratio of taper (Ct). Ct is theratio between (SR) calculated in the center span and the maximum bending stress along the bam...

  6. Bending instability characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Q.; Hu, T.; Chen, G.; Jiang, Q.

    2005-01-01

    The bending instability characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) of various configurations are studied using a hybrid approach in which the deformation-induced increase of the intratube interaction energy is modeled with the bending deformation energy using the elastic theory of beams. The intertube interaction energy is calculated using the van der Waals interatomic potential. This study shows that the bending instability may take place through the formation of a single kink...

  7. Compliance measurements of chevron notched four point bend specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomino, Anthony; Bubsey, Raymond; Ghosn, Louis J.

    1994-01-01

    The experimental stress intensity factors for various chevron notched four point bend specimens are presented. The experimental compliance is verified using the analytical solution for a straight through crack four point bend specimen and the boundary integral equation method for one chevron geometry. Excellent agreement is obtained between the experimental and analytical results. In this report, stress intensity factors, loading displacements and crack mouth opening displacements are reported for different crack lengths and different chevron geometries, under four point bend loading condition.

  8. PERMEABILITY OF SALTSTONE MEASUREMENT BY BEAM BENDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and, quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone mixes. A performance property for Saltstone mixes that is important but not routinely measured is the liquid permeability or saturated hydraulic conductivity of the cured Saltstone mix. The value for the saturated hydraulic conductivity is an input into the Performance Assessment for the SRS Z-Area vaults. Therefore, it is important to have a method available that allows for an accurate and reproducible measurement of permeability quickly and inexpensively. One such method that could potentially meet these requirements for the measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity is the technique of beam bending, developed by Professor George Scherer at Princeton University. In order to determine the feasibility of this technique for Saltstone mixes, a summer student, David Feliciano, was hired to work at Princeton under the direction of George Scherer. This report details the results of this study which demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the beam bending method to measurement of permeability of Saltstone samples. This research effort used samples made at Princeton from a Modular Caustic side solvent extraction Unit based simulant (MCU) and premix at a water to premix ratio of 0.60. The saturated hydraulic conductivities for these mixes were measured by the beam bending technique and the values determined were of the order of 1.4 to 3.4 x 10-9 cm/sec. These values of hydraulic conductivity are consistent with independently measured values of this property on similar MCU based mixes by Dixon and Phifer. These values are also consistent with the hydraulic conductivity of a generic Saltstone mix measured by Langton in 1985. The high water to premix ratio used for Saltstone along with the relatively low degree of hydration for MCU

  9. Static Fatigue of Optical Fibers in Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D.; Cuellar, E.; Middleman, L.; Zucker, J.

    1987-02-01

    While delayed fracture, or static fatigue, of optical fibers is well known, it is not well understood, and the prediction of the time to failure under a given set of conditions can be problematic. Unlike short term fracture, which is quite well understood and quantified in terms of the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics, the long term strength remains empirical. The goal of this study is to determine the design criteria for optical fibers subjected to long term applied mechanical loads. One difficulty in making lifetime predictions, as pointed out by Matthewson (Reference 1) and others, is that predictions made from data taken in tension and in bending do not agree. Another difficulty is the statistical nature of the fracture of glass. In making lifetime predictions it becomes important therefore that one (a) have ample data for statistical analysis and (b) have data for the loading configuration of interest. This is the purpose of our work. Since there is less data available in bending, and since several applications (such as wiring in aircraft and missiles) require bending, the data are taken in that configuration. The most significant finding in our work so far is the very large difference in static fatigue behavior between buffer coatings. Chandan and Kalish (Reference 2) and others have reported static fatigue curves, log (time to failure) versus log (applied stress), which are not linear, but rather bimodal. Our study confirms this result, but so far only for acrylate coated fibers. Silicone coated fibers show unimodal behavior. That is, the log (time to failure) versus log (applied stress) curve is linear, at least on the time scale studied so far. Data for acrylate coated fibers at 80°C in water are linear only for time scales of about one day, where a pronounced "knee" is observed. Data for silicone coated fibers under the same conditions are linear up to at least 6 months. Longer time scale tests and tests on fibers with other buffer materials

  10. Bend sensors based on periodically-tapered soft glass fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.; Richardson, D. J.; Brambilla, G; Feng, X.; Petrovich, M.N.; Ding, M.; Song, Z.(Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China)

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a technique for tapering periodically an all-solid soft glass fiber consisting of two types of lead silicate glasses by the use of a CO2 laser and investigate the bend sensing applications of the periodically-tapered soft glass fiber. Such a soft glass fiber with periodic microtapers could be used to develop a promising bend sensor with a sensitivity of ?27.75 ?W/m-1 by means of measuring the bend-induced change of light intensity. The proposed bend sensor exhibits a very low m...

  11. Wide range pure bending strains of Nb3Sn wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure bending behavior of Nb3Sn wire over a wide range of bending has been characterized. A previously developed test device designed to apply variable bending strains to Nb3Sn strands using a beam style sample holder was used. Based on finite element and experimental investigations, two sample holder beams were developed to cover pure bending strains up to 1.25% for ITER-type Nb3Sn wires. These newly designed beams were optimized to apply consistent and uniform pure bending strains to Nb3Sn strands over the entire bending range. Their performance was evaluated by testing two ITER-type Nb3Sn wires including one internal tin and one bronze route. The internal tin strands experienced around 55% critical current degradation at 1.25% bending strain while the critical current of the bronze route strands were only reduced by 40%. Upon removal of the bending load, the internal tin wires experienced significant permanent degradation whereas the bronze route wires were completely reversible. These critical current results were evaluated and explained using an existing integrated model accounting for neutral axis shift, current transfer length, filament breakage and uniaxial strain release under pure bending loads. (paper)

  12. A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Kotas, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension and...

  13. Sorting of bed load sediment by flow in meander bends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G.; Andrews, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Equilibrium sorting of coarse mobile bed load sediment in meander bends is considered. A theory of two-dimensional bed load transport of graded material, including the effects of gravity on lateral slopes and secondary currents, is developed. This theory is coupled with a simple tratement of flow in bends, an analytically determined bend shape, and the condition of continuity of each grain size range in transport to describe sorting. The theory indicates that the locus of coarse sediment shifts from the inside bank to the outside bank near the bend apex, as is observed.-Authors

  14. SRI CAT Section 1 bending magnet beamline description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses: APS bending magnet source; beamline layout; beamline optical components; beamline operation; time-resolved studies station; polarization studies station; and commissioning and operational schedule

  15. Design Study: ELENA Bending Magnet Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Schoerling, D

    2013-01-01

    The ELENA bending magnet prototype shall prove that the proposed design meets the requirements set by the ELENA beam dynamics. The following points will be discussed in detail: (i) production process of a magnetic yoke diluted with stainless steel plates, (ii) the stability and repeatability of the field homogeneity of such a yoke over the full working range, (iii) choice of soft magnetic steel, (iv) hysteresis effects, (v) mechanical deformations, (vi) thermal insulation to intercept heat load from baking for activation of NEG coating in the vacuum chamber, (vii) end shim design. In order to verify these points the following measurements will be performed: (i) Hall probe scanning, (ii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (DC), (iii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (AC).

  16. Bending the Cost Curve in Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Heidi; Bernhardt, M Brooke

    2016-08-01

    Healthcare for children with cancer costs significantly more than other children. Cost reduction efforts aimed toward relatively small populations of patients that use a disproportionate amount of care, like childhood cancer, could have a dramatic impact on healthcare spending. The aims of this review are to provide stakeholders with an overview of the drivers of financial costs of childhood cancer and to identify possible directions to curb or decrease these costs. Costs are incurred throughout the spectrum of care. Recent trends in pharmaceutical costs, evidence identifying the contribution of administration costs, and overuse of surveillance studies are described. Awareness of cost and value, i.e., the outcome achieved per dollar or burden spent, in delivery of care and research is necessary to bend the cost curve. Incorporation of these dimensions of care requires methodology development, prioritization, and ethical balance. PMID:27193602

  17. Bending of pipes with inconel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachpitz, Leonardo; Menezes, Carlos Eduardo B.; Vieira, Carlos R. Tavares [Primus Processamento de Tubos S.A. (PROTUBO), Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The high-frequency induction bending process, using API pipes coated with Inconel 625 reconciled to a mechanical transformation for a higher degree of resistance, was developed through a careful specification and control of the manufacturing parameters and inherent heat treatments. The effects of this technology were investigated by a qualification process consisting of a sequence of tests and acceptance criteria typically required by the offshore industry, and through the obtained results was proved the effectiveness of this entire manufacturing process, without causing interference in the properties and the quality of the inconel cladding, adding a gain of resistance to the base material, guaranteed by the requirements of the API 5L Standard. (author)

  18. Separation of blood in microchannel bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattert, Christoph; Jurischka, Reinhold; Schoth, Andreas; Kerth, Paul; Menz, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Biological applications of micro assay devices require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. This is achieved by a new blood separation technique based on a microchannel bend structure developed within the collaborative Micro-Tele-BioChip (μTBC) project co-funded by the German Ministry For Education and Research (BMBF). Different prototype polymer chips have been manufactured with an UV-LIGA process and hot embossing technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been determined by experimental measurements using human whole blood. Results show different separation efficiencies for cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry and blood sample characteristics and suggest an alternative blood separation method as compared to existing micro separation technologies.

  19. On the gravitational seesaw and light bending

    CERN Document Server

    Accioly, Antonio; Shapiro, Ilya L

    2016-01-01

    Local gravitational theories with more than four derivatives are superrenormalizable, and also may be unitary in the Lee-Wick sense. It makes sense to study low-energy properties of these theories, e.g., identify observables which might be useful for experimental detection of higher derivatives. Using an analogy with neutrino Physics, we explore the possibility of a gravitational seesaw mechanism, in which several dimensional parameters of the same order of magnitude produce a hierarchy in the masses of propagating particles and make a relatively light degree of freedom detectable by frequency dependence in the gravitational light bending. It turns out that such a seesaw mechanism in the six- and more-derivative theories is unable to reduce the lightest mass more than in the simplest four-derivative model. Adding more derivatives can only make heavier masses even larger. This fact may be favorable for protecting the theory from instabilities, but makes experimental detection of higher derivatives more difficu...

  20. Factors affecting U-bend cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in pure water is assumed to be the damaging process of a large number of small radius U-bends of PWR steam generators. The possible influencing parameters are reviewed. The determining factor is a too high level of stress arising from two main origins: residual stresses; and overstresses induced by the inner pressure in deformed cross sections. The latter have been assessed by two dimensional finite elements computation and by strain gages measurements. Stress corrosion tests in boiling MgCl2 sustain the previous results for outer surface overstresses. Geometrical characterizations were performed on: in service SG tubes by internal spherical gages; and laboratory samples by internal spherical gages, LVDT and ultrasonic measurements, cross sectioning

  1. Hydraulic conditions of flood flows in a Polish Carpathian river subjected to variable human impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Czech, Wiktoria; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Mikuś, Paweł; Zawiejska, Joanna; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Channel morphology of the Czarny Dunajec River, Polish Carpathians, has been considerably modified as a result of channelization and gravel-mining induced channel incision, and now it varies from a single-thread, incised or regulated channel to an unmanaged, multi-thread channel. We investigated effects of these distinct channel morphologies on the conditions for flood flows in a study of 25 cross-sections from the middle river course where the Czarny Dunajec receives no significant tributaries and flood discharges increase little in the downstream direction. Cross-sectional morphology, channel slope and roughness of particular cross-section parts were used as input data for the hydraulic modelling performed with the 1D steady-flow HEC-RAS model for discharges with recurrence interval from 1.5 to 50 years. The model for each cross-section was calibrated with the water level of a 20-year flood from May 2014, determined shortly after the flood on the basis of high-water marks. Results indicated that incised and channelized river reaches are typified by similar flow widths and cross-sectional flow areas, which are substantially smaller than those in the multi-thread reach. However, because of steeper channel slope in the incised reach than in the channelized reach, the three river reaches differ in unit stream power and bed shear stress, which attain the highest values in the incised reach, intermediate values in the channelized reach, and the lowest ones in the multi-thread reach. These patterns of flow power and hydraulic forces are reflected in significant differences in river competence between the three river reaches. Since the introduction of the channelization scheme 30 years ago, sedimentation has reduced its initial flow conveyance by more than half and elevated water stages at given flood discharges by about 0.5-0.7 m. This partly reflects a progressive growth of natural levees along artificially stabilized channel banks. By contrast, sediments of natural

  2. Geochronological evidence for the Alpine tectono-thermal evolution of the Veporic Unit (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtko, Rastislav; Králiková, Silvia; Jeřábek, Petr; Schuster, Ralf; Danišík, Martin; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Minár, Jozef; Madarás, Ján

    2016-01-01

    Tectono-thermal evolution of the Veporic Unit was revealed by multiple geochronological methods, including 87Rb/86Sr on muscovite and biotite, zircon and apatite fission-track, and apatite (U-Th)/He analysis. Based on the new data, the following Alpine tectono-thermal stages can be distinguished: The Eo-Alpine Cretaceous nappe stacking (~ 135-95 Ma) resulted in burial of the Veporic Unit beneath the northward overthrusting Gemeric Unit and overlying Jurassic Meliata accretionary wedge. During this process the Veporic Unit reached metamorphic peak of greenschist- to amphibolite facies accompanied by orogen-parallel flow in its lower and middle crust. The subsequent evolution of this crust is associated with two distinct exhumation mechanisms related to collision with the northerly Tatric-Fatric basement. The first mechanism (~ 90-80 Ma) is associated with internal subhorizontal shortening of the Veporic Unit reflected by large-scale upright folding and heterogeneous exhumation of the Veporic lower crust in the cores of crustal-scale antiforms. This led to juxtaposition of the higher and lower grade parts of basement, all cooled down to ~ 350 °C by ~ 80 Ma. The second mechanism is associated with the overthrusting of the Veporic Unit over the attenuated Fatric crust. This led to a passive en-block exhumation of the Veporic crust from ~ 350 °C to 60 °C between ~ 80 and 55 Ma followed by erosion (~ 55-35 Ma). The erosion processes resulted in formation of planation surface before the Late Eocene transgression. After erosion and planation, a new sedimentary cycle of the Central Carpathian Palaeogene Basin was deposited with the sedimentary strata thickness of ~ 1.5-2.0 km (~ 21-17 Ma). The early to middle Miocene is characterised by destruction tectonic disintegration and erosion of this basin (~ 20-13 Ma) and formation of the Neogene Vepor Stratovolcano (~ 13 Ma). The final shaping of the area has been linked to erosional processes of the volcanic structure since

  3. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Milevskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis of birch young stands in this area.The object of the study was age class I saplings growing in the mountainous part of Pokuttya, particularly in the basin of the Lutshka River. The conceptual basis of our study is the modern dynamic vision that every forest type is a consecutive series of forest plant communities within each type of homogeneous growing conditions. We apply methods of ecological-floristic research of the Brown-Blanke school in the interpretation of the Polish school phytosociology. However we also take into account both syntaxonomy generalizations of the Ukrainian scientists. The actual material comprises the original geobotanical studies with fixation of the vast majority of species in plant communities. Mainly the species having diagnostic value to separate syntaxons were taken into account in the analytical processing. Young forest stands (with the height of 8–12 m and crown cover of 70% together form the trees Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Fairly numerous admixture is formed by trees Alnus incana; besides, there are Fagus sylvatica, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Padus avium. For dominants, they can be called “grey-alder birch blackberry sedge bracken fern” – Betula pendula+Alnus incana–Rubus caesius–Carex brizoides+Pteridium aquilinum. It is rich in floristic composition of the plant communities. They contain at least 12 species of trees, 3 species of shrubs, 4 species of bushes and 89 species of herbs. Diagnostic

  4. Light bending in f(T) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of f(T) gravity, we focus on a weak-field and spherically symmetric solution for the Lagrangian f(T) = T + αT2, where α is a small constant which parametrizes the departure from general relativity (GR). In particular, we study the propagation of light and obtain the correction to the general relativistic bending angle. Moreover, we discuss the impact of this correction on some gravitational lensing observables, and evaluate the possibility of constraining the theory parameter α by means of observations. In particular, on taking into account the astrometric accuracy in the Solar System, we obtain that |α|≤ 1.85 × 105m2; this bound is looser than those deriving from the analysis of Solar System dynamics, e.g. |α|≤ 5 × 10‑1m2 [L. Iorio, N. Radicella and M. L. Ruggiero, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 1508 (2015) 021, arXiv:1505.06996 [gr-qc].], |α|≤ 1.8 × 104m2 [L. Iorio and E. N. Saridakis, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427 (2012) 1555, arXiv:1203.5781 [gr-qc].] or |α|≤ 1.2 × 102m2 [Y. Xie and X. M. Deng, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 433 (2013) 3584, arXiv:1312.4103 [gr-qc].]. However, we suggest that, since the effect only depends on the impact parameter, better constraints could be obtained by studying light bending from planetary objects.

  5. Membrane bending by protein crowding is affected by protein lateral confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derganc, Jure; Čopič, Alenka

    2016-06-01

    Crowding of asymmetrically-distributed membrane proteins has been recently recognized as an important factor in remodeling of biological membranes, for example during transport vesicle formation. In this paper, we theoretically analyze the effect of protein crowding on membrane bending and examine its dependence on protein size, shape, transmembrane asymmetry and lateral confinement. We consider three scenarios of protein lateral organization, which are highly relevant for cellular membranes in general: freely diffusing membrane proteins without lateral confinement, the presence of a diffusion barrier and interactions with a vesicular coat. We show that protein crowding affects vesicle formation even if the proteins are distributed symmetrically across the membrane and that this effect depends significantly on lateral confinement. The largest crowding effect is predicted for the proteins that are confined to the forming vesicle by a diffusion barrier. We calculate the bending properties of a crowded membrane and find that its spontaneous curvature depends primarily on the degree of transmembrane asymmetry, and its effective bending modulus on the type of lateral confinement. Using the example of COPII vesicle formation from the endoplasmic reticulum, we analyze the energetic cost of vesicle formation. The results provide a novel insight into the effects of lateral and transmembrane organization of membrane proteins, and can guide data interpretation and future experimental approaches. PMID:26969088

  6. Dancing Discs: Bending and Twisting of Soft Materials by Anisotropic Swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Douglas; Roché, Matthieu; Sinha, Tarun; Stone, Howard

    2011-03-01

    Soft materials, e.g. biological tissues and gels, undergo morphological changes, motion, and instabilities when subjected to external stimuli. Tissues can exhibit residual internal stresses induced by growth, and generate elastic deformations to move in response to light or touch, curl articular cartilage, aid in seed dispersal, and actuate hygromorphs, such as pine cones. Understanding the dynamics of such osmotically driven movements, in the influence of geometry and boundary conditions, is crucial to the controlled deformation of soft materials. We examine how thin elastic plates undergo rapid bending and buckling instabilities after anisotropic exposure to a favorable solvent that swells the network. An unconstrained beam bends along its length, while a circular disc bends and buckles with multiple curvatures. In the case of a disc, a large-amplitude transverse travelling wave rotates azimuthally around the disc. Theoretical interpretations inspired by the complementary thermal expansion problem of transient shape changes triggered by time-dependent heating are presented and allow collapse of time-dependent data on universal curves. Understanding the dynamics of strain-driven shape changes provides new insight into natural systems and control of advanced functional materials.

  7. On the accuracy of analyses for in-plane bending of smooth pipe bends with end constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of theoretical analyses for in-plane bending of smooth pipebends with end constraints is discussed and investigated with a view to explaining and reducing the differences between the major works. An earlier theory of the authors is improved to give more accurate answers for bends with rigid flanges. Flanged bends are then examined in some detail, quantifying for the first time the important influence of the flange rigidity on the bend flexibility and stresses. A summary of some finite element analyses is presented from which it is clear that further work is desirable. (orig.)

  8. The effect of cracks on the limit load of pipe bends under in-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limit analysis of the in-plane bending of curved tubes had received attention previously, but the effect of defects in the tube has not been considered. A lower bound has been established which, with no defects present, is in agreement with previous theoretical work. The method of linear programming allows cracks to be introduced into analysis, and results have been obtained for various geometries of defect. The results show that the presence of cracks in the pipe bend can have a marked effect on the theoretical limit load: a part-through crack penetrating only half the wall thickness will reduce the limit moment by up to 10%. The worst possible case of a through-crack may reduce the limit load by 60%. (author)

  9. Mineralogy and geochemistry of trace and Rare Earth Element from the Manaila massive sulphide deposit (Eastern Carpathians, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldoveanu, S.; Iancu, O. G.; Kasper, H. U.

    2012-04-01

    Keywords: Eastern Carpathians, Mănăila deposit, REE, trace elements, pyrite The present paper deal with the mineralogy and trace elements geochemistry of sulphide deposits from Mănăila mine field located in NE area of Eastern Carpathians Mountains (Romania). The mineralization occurs within metamorphic rocks of Tulgheş terrane, part of Crystalline-Mezozoic zone of the Eastern Carpathians. The metamorphic rocks in Mănăila area consist of felsic metavolcanics rocks with quartzites and quartz-feldspathic rocks as prevailing types. The P-T metamorphic conditions are typical of greenschis facies with biotite and garnet (Mn-Grt) in mineral assemblage. The mineralogical study was performed using reflected light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods. Thus, the both methods show that the main sulphides minerals are represented by pyrite and chalcopyrite, being followed by sphalerite, galena and little amount of Cu sulphosalts (tetrahedrite and bournonite) and also by gangue minerals (quartz and carbonates). Pyrite occurs as large euhedral to subhedral grains in quartz and small rounded inclusion in chalcopyrite. The trace elements analysis was achieved on whole-rock samples and involved the determination of REE, LIL (Rb, Ba, Sr) and HFS (Y, Zr, Hf, U, Th, Nb, Ta) by ICP-MS method. The concentration of LIL and HFS trace elements in mineralized rocks decrease as follows: Ba > Bi > As > Sb > Co > Ga > Ni > Cd. Even if the barium contents in Mănăila ore is high, baritina (BaSO4) was not identified throught the mineralogical analyses carried out so far. The total rare earth element content (REE) of the samples from Mănăila range from 26.84 to 246.46 ppm. Chondrite - normalized REE patterns of the mineralized rocks show that the LREE are enriched in relation to the HREE. Also a positive Ce anomalies and negative Eu anomalies are present. Y/Ho and Zr/Hf ratios are close to the chondritic ratios indicating Charge-and-Radius-Controlled (CHARAC

  10. Migration routes and stopover sites of the Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia between the Carpathian Basin and wintering areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pigniczki Csaba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the migration routes of the Central European Spoonbill population is important for their conservation. Here we analysed movements of 3186 individuals of Eurasian Spoonbills marked with colour rings in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary, Croatia and Serbia between 2003 and 2015, and a satellite tagged individual, which was equipped in Italy in 2013, and later moved to the Carpathian Basin. Migration routes of these Spoonbills predominantly followed the Adriatic Flyway, however, some birds were also found to both east and west from this flyway. We identified 59 stopover sites, 55 of which were located along the Adriatic Flyway. Colourringed juveniles (1cy, on average, spent 4.0±0.9 (SE days on the stopover sites along the Adriatic Flyway during autumn migration, while non-juveniles (> 1cy spent 2.6±1.0 (SE days during autumn and 2.1±0.4 (SE days during spring migration there. These durations were not significantly different. Duration of stops of the satellite tracked individual was between 7 and 15 days during autumn and between 1 and 12 days during spring migration. Our results indicate the existence of two alternative routes of the Adriatic Flyway between the Carpathian Basin and the wintering areas in southern Italy and the central part of coastal North-Africa. The North-Adriatic Flyway includes stopover sites in north-eastern Italy at the river mouth of River Isonzo, Lagunes of Venice and wetlands around River Po. The South Adriatic Flyway leads through the Balkan Peninsula, with stopover sites at the karst lakes of Bosnia and Herzegovina, mouth of the river Neretva (Croatia, Ulcinj Salinas (Montenegro and wetlands in Gulf of Manfredonia (Italy. This hypothesis was also supported by the migration of the satellite tagged individual, the paths of which was described here in detail. The average coordinates of spring and autumn stopover sites were located at different parts of the flyway: it was in south-western Italy during autumn

  11. Regulation of transcription by synthetic DNA-bending agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, David; Firestine, Steven M

    2006-11-01

    Gene expression is regulated by a complex interplay between binding and the three-dimensional arrangement of transcription factors with RNA polymerase and DNA. Previous studies have supported a direct role for DNA bending and conformation in gene expression, which suggests that agents that induce bends in DNA might be able to control gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of triple-helix-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) bending agents on the transcription of luciferase in an in vitro transcriptional/translational system. We find that transcription is regulated only by a TFO that induces a bend in the DNA. Related TFOs that do not induce bends in DNA have no effect on transcription. Reporter expression can be increased by as much as 80 % or decreased by as much as 50 % depending on the phasing of the upstream bend relative to the promoter. We interpret the results as follows: when the bend is positioned such that the upstream DNA is curved toward the RNA polymerase on the same DNA face, transcription is enhanced. When the upstream DNA is curved away, transcription is attenuated. These results support the hypothesis that DNA-bending agents might have the capability to regulate gene expression, thereby opening up a previously undervalued avenue in research on the artificial control of gene expression. PMID:17004274

  12. APPLICABILITY OF THE BEND DEVELOPMENT THEORY IN NATURAL ALLUVIAL RIVERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.M.RAHMAN; M.A.HAQUE; M.M.HOQUE

    2002-01-01

    The theoretical conditions for the bend development or attenuation have been reviewed and tested for a study reach of the Meghna river.The field observations in the natural alluvial meander do not support the theories developed for bend development.The limitations of the theory to apply in the natural meandering river are discussed.

  13. A numerical investigation of the continuous bending under tension test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadoush, A.; Boogaard, van den A.H.; Emmens, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the continuous bending under tension test is analyzed by numerical simulation. The ability of achieving high strains by combined stretching and bending is considered. This deformation mode has similarities with the deformation that takes place in incremental sheet forming (ISF) and may

  14. Atmospheric Refractive Electromagnetic Wave Bending and Propagation Delay

    CERN Document Server

    Mangum, Jeffrey G

    2014-01-01

    In this tutorial we summarize the physics and mathematics behind refractive electromagnetic wave bending and delay. Refractive bending and delay through the Earth's atmosphere at both radio/millimetric and optical/IR wavelengths are discussed, but with most emphasis on the former, and with Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) applications in mind. As modern astronomical measurements often require sub-arcsecond position accuracy, care is required when selecting refractive bending and delay algorithms. For the spherically-uniform model atmospheres generally used for all refractive bending and delay algorithms, positional accuracies $\\lesssim 1^{\\prime\\prime}$ are achievable when observing at zenith angles $\\lesssim 75^\\circ$. A number of computationally economical approximate methods for atmospheric refractive bending and delay calculation are presented, appropriate for astronomical observations under these conditions. For observations under more realistic atmospheric conditions, for zenith angles $\\gtrsim 75^...

  15. Revisit the anomalous bending elasticity of sharply bent DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Peiwen; Chen, Hu; van der Maarel, Johan R C; Doyle, Patrick S; Yan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Several recent experiments have suggested that sharply bent DNA has a surprisingly high bending flexibility, but the cause is poorly understood. It has been demonstrated that excitation of flexible defects can explain the results; while whether such defects can be excited under the level of DNA bending in those experiments has remained unclear and been debated. Interestingly, due to experimental design DNA contained pre-existing nicks in nearly all those experiments, while the potential effect of nicks have never been considered. Here, using full-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show that nicks promote DNA basepair disruption at the nicked sites which drastically reduced DNA bending energy. In the absence of nicks, basepair disruption can also occur, but it requires a higher level of DNA bending. Overall, our results challenge the interpretations of previous sharp DNA bending experiments and highlight that the micromechanics of sharply bent DNA still remains an open question.

  16. Ultimate Bending Capacity of Strain Hardening Steel Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈严飞; 张娟; 张宏; 李昕; 周晶; 曹静

    2016-01-01

    Based on Hencky’s total strain theory of plasticity, ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes can be determined analytically assuming an elastic-linear strain hardening material, the simplified analytical solution is proposed as well. Good agreement is observed when ultimate bending capacities obtained from analytical solutions are compared with experimental results from full-size tests of steel pipes. Parametric study conducted as part of this paper indicates that the strain hardening effect has significant influence on the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. It is shown that pipe considering strain hardening yields higher bending capacity than that of pipe assumed as elastic-perfectly plastic material. Thus, the ignorance of strain hardening effect, as commonly assumed in current codes, may underestimate the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. The solutions proposed in this paper are applicable in the design of offshore/onshore steel pipes, supports of offshore platforms and other tubular structural steel members.

  17. Limits of stability in supported graphene nanoribbons subject to bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Topi; Koskinen, Pekka

    2016-06-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are prone to in-plane bending even when supported on flat substrates. However, the amount of bending that ribbons can stably withstand remains poorly known. Here, by using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the stability limits of 0.5-1.9-nm-wide armchair and zigzag graphene nanoribbons subject to bending. We observe that the limits for maximum stable curvatures are below ˜10 deg /nm in case the bending is externally forced and the limit is caused by buckling instability. Furthermore, it turns out that the limits for maximum stable curvatures are also below ˜10 deg /nm in case the bending is not forced and the limit arises only from the corrugated potential-energy landscape due to the substrate. Both of the stability limits lower rapidly when ribbons widen. These results agree with recent experiments and can be understood by means of transparent elasticity models.

  18. Bending Modulus Measurement of Single High Performance Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The bending modulus property of high performance fiber is an important property for both polymer science and engineering. The measurement of the bending performance is, however, difficult because of the thin size of the fiber. We have measured this property by the axial compression bending method where single fiber with suitable slenderness is compressed in the fiber axial direction to obtain the peak point of the force-displacement curve. Then the bending modulus and the flexural rigidity can be calculated by measuring the protruding length and diameter of fiber needles and the critical force, Pcr. The measured data show that the bending characteristics of all kinds of high performance fiber are dissimilar evidently.

  19. Development of modern space forms within the economic activity in Carpathian region in terms of Europe integration processes extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsenkler Natalya Ivanivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The types of new spatial forms of economic activities in the Carpathian region in the article was described. The features of their development in the light of European integration processes was defined. In the difficult situation in Ukraine the technoparks is the only form of priority development territories, that real functioning. The features the work of some existing industrial parks in the region was characterized and identified promising areas of new projects. The one of the most successful ways of development and support of business incubation is a business, or supporting a business entity, starts his own business, in order to simplify, facilitate and accelerate its entry into the market and achieve the desired effect of the business was determined.

  20. Numerical analysis of deep-seated mass movements in the Magura Nappe; Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, I.; Agliardi, F.; Ambrosi, C.; Crosta, G. B.

    2005-04-01

    Deep-seated slope failures are common features in the mountains of the Raca Unit, Magura Nappe of the Flysch Belt of Western Carpathians. Since they represent very complicated system, understanding of their evolution and triggers still remains unclear. We tried to provide a back-analysis of their development by using a finite difference code (FDM) of continua (Flac 4.0). We confirmed that such large mass movements could be triggered by water saturation of the bedrock in the three particular geological and geomorphic settings. Such situation could have been caused by heavy rainfalls in humid phases of the Holocene or permafrost melting in Late Glacial. The effects of faulting, very deep weathering of the bedrock, low geotechnical parameters of smectite-rich material and the local slope geometry have also been accounted for in numerical models, as well as the other triggering factors of slope instability. FDM modelled shear zones are in agreement with observations.

  1. Numerical analysis of deep-seated mass movements in the Magura Nappe; Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Baron

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep-seated slope failures are common features in the mountains of the Raca Unit, Magura Nappe of the Flysch Belt of Western Carpathians. Since they represent very complicated system, understanding of their evolution and triggers still remains unclear. We tried to provide a back-analysis of their development by using a finite difference code (FDM of continua (Flac 4.0. We confirmed that such large mass movements could be triggered by water saturation of the bedrock in the three particular geological and geomorphic settings. Such situation could have been caused by heavy rainfalls in humid phases of the Holocene or permafrost melting in Late Glacial. The effects of faulting, very deep weathering of the bedrock, low geotechnical parameters of smectite-rich material and the local slope geometry have also been accounted for in numerical models, as well as the other triggering factors of slope instability. FDM modelled shear zones are in agreement with observations.

  2. The influence of a drop-hydraulic structure on the mountain stream channel regime - case study from the Polish Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur RADECKI-PAWLIK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic hydraulic parameters such as shear stress, stream power, unit stream power and water velocities were calculated and measured within the region of a drop hydraulic structure erected on the Kasinczanka stream in the Polish Carpathians. Besides examining the hydrodynamics of the stream the study investigated also the distribution of grain size in the bed-load at the upstream and downstream aprons of the structure. It was revealed that grains deposited at the upstream apron were finer than those deposited at the downstream apron. At the same time, shear stresses and unit stream power values were found to be quite stable upstream of the drop structure, but to change significantly along the stream channel downstream of the structure’s energy dissipating pool

  3. Land cover classification in Ukrainian Carpathians using the MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyl Index and red edge position from ENVISAT MERIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyalko, V. I.; Shportyuk, Z. M.; Sakhatskyi, O. L.; Sybirtseva, O. M.

    We present some results of a preliminary study of the possibility to use MERIS data for land cover classification in the Ukrainian Carpathians. The ENVISAT MERIS data (16 April 2004) with a rough space resolution of 1200m are used to calculate the red edge indices: the Red Edge Position (REP), MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) and NDVI. The classification using REP and MTCI images gives better results than with reflectance by the method of minimum distance to means (MMDM). The calculation results showed that the MERIS image with a rough space resolution provided moderate classification results: only coniferous forests and snow are well classified. MTCI is sensitive to a broad range of the chlorophyll contents and much less sensitive to topographical effect in mountain region. The investigation results show a good correlation between REP and MTCI and a high potential for monitoring for the ecosystems in mountain regions using a combination of both indices.

  4. DISTRIBUTION OF THREATENED SPECIES TRIFOLIUM LUPINASTER L., HERACLEUM CARPATICUM PORCIUS AND RANUNCULUS THORA L. IN ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila BARTÓK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maramureşului Mountains Nature Park is widely known as one of the last wilderness areas in Europe and also represents a real oasis for naturalists eager to explore the flora and fauna of this special land not very researched. During a botanical trip in the area of Farcău Peak (on 19 July 2014 the authors of this paper found three very rare species (all 3 threatened, included in Romanian Red Book of Vascular Plants: Trifolium lupinaster L., Heracleum carpaticum Porcius and Ranunculus thora L. Based on field studies, analyses of herbarium material and literature data, the authors managed to record the occurrence of Trifolium lupinaster, Heracleum carpaticum and Ranunculus thora in the Romanian Carpathians and determined the threatened status of species according to criteria and categories of IUCN.

  5. Cretaceous—Quaternary tectonic evolution of the Tatra Mts (Western Carpathians: constraints from structural, sedimentary, geomorphological, and fission track data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králiková Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tatra Mts area, located in the northernmost part of Central Western Carpathians on the border between Slovakia and Poland, underwent a complex Alpine tectonic evolution. This study integrates structural, sedimentary, and geomorphological data combined with fission track data from the Variscan granite rocks to discuss the Cretaceous to Quaternary tectonic and landscape evolution of the Tatra Mts. The presented data can be correlated with five principal tectonic stages (TS, including neotectonics. TS-1 (~95-80 Ma is related to mid-Cretaceous nappe stacking when the Tatric Unit was overlain by Mesozoic sequences of the Fatric and Hronic Nappes. After nappe stacking the Tatric crystalline basement was exhumed (and cooled in response to the Late Cretaceous/Paleogene orogenic collapse followed by orogen-parallel extension. This is supported by 70 to 60 Ma old zircon fission track ages. Extensional tectonics were replaced by transpression to transtension during the Late Paleocene to Eocene (TS-2; ~80-45 Ma. TS-3 (~45-20 Ma is documented by thick Oligocene-lowermost Miocene sediments of the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin which kept the underlying Tatric crystalline basement at elevated temperatures (ca. > 120 °C and < 200 °C. The TS-4 (~20-7 Ma is linked to slow Miocene exhumation rate of the Tatric crystalline basement, as it is indicated by apatite fission track data of 9-12 Ma. The final shaping of the Tatra Mts has been linked to accelerated tectonic activity since the Pliocene (TS-5; ~7-0 Ma.

  6. Bending analysis of laminated composite box beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A.K.; Patel, H.J.; Pang, S.S. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Box beams are widely used in weight reduction structures such as aircraft wings. The use of composite box beams further reduces the weight factor for such structures with the same deflection and stress as that of isotropic box beams. The difference in the behavior of composite box beam with different fiber orientation, number of plies, and number of stringers also provides a wide range of designing parameters to achieve the required performance for a given problem. A bending analysis has been carried out for the study of deflections and stresses for box beams of different material (isotropic and laminated composites), size, and number of stringers subjected to different kinds of loading conditions. A finite element model has been developed based on the strain energy principle, and the results are compared with an available commercial code COSMOS/M.'' Experiments using aluminum and scotchply composite laminates were conducted to verify the results. An optimal design for size and number of stiffeners for a given loading condition has been achieved. Investigations have also been carried out to find the effect of transverse shear on the span-wise normal stress.

  7. Occipital bending (Yakovlevian torque) in bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney; Thomson, Richard H; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2015-01-30

    Differing levels of occipital lobe asymmetry and enlarged lateral ventricles have been reported within patients with bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy controls, suggesting different rates of occipital bending (OB). This may exert pressure on subcortical structures, such as the hippocampus, reduced among psychiatric patients. We investigated OB prevalence in 35 patients with BD and 36 healthy controls, and ventricular and occipital volumes. Prevalence was four times higher among BD patients (12/35 [34.3%]) than in control subjects (3/36 [8.3%]), as well as larger lateral ventricular volumes (LVVs). Furthermore, we found OB to relate to left-to-right ventricular and occipital lobe volume (OLV) ratios. Those with OB also had reduced left-to-right hippocampal volume ratios. The results suggest that OB is more common among BD patients than healthy subjects, and prevalent in both BD Type I and Type II patients. We posit that anomalies in neural pruning or ventricular enlargement may precipitate OB, consequently resulting in one occipital lobe twisting around the other. Although the clinical implications of these results are unclear, the study suggests that asymmetrical ventricular volume matched with a pattern of oppositely asymmetrical occipital volume is related to OB and may be a marker of psychiatric illness. PMID:25480522

  8. Product Evaluation In Elliptical Helical Pipe Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasantha Samarathunga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a computation approach to address the evaluation of end product machining accuracy in elliptical surfaced helical pipe bending using 6dof parallel manipulator as a pipe bender. The target end product is wearable metal muscle supporters used in build-to-order welfare product manufacturing. This paper proposes a product testing model that mainly corrects the surface direction estimation errors of existing least squares ellipse fittings, followed by arc length and central angle evaluations. This post-machining modelling requires combination of reverse rotations and translations to a specific location before accuracy evaluation takes place, i.e. the reverse comparing to pre-machining product modelling. This specific location not only allows us to compute surface direction but also the amount of excessive surface twisting as a rotation angle about a specified axis, i.e. quantification of surface torsion. At first we experimented three ellipse fitting methods such as, two least-squares fitting methods with Bookstein constraint and Trace constraint, and one non-linear least squares method using Gauss-newton algorithm. From fitting results, we found that using Trace constraint is more reliable and designed a correction filter for surface torsion observation. Finally we apply 2D total least squares line fitting method with a rectification filter for surface direction detection.

  9. Field measurement for large bending magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Cappuzzello, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)], E-mail: cappuzzello@lns.infn.it; Cunsolo, A.; Cavallaro, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Foti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Orrigo, S.E.A.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Winfield, J.S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2008-02-01

    The results of magnetic field measurements of the large bending magnet of the MAGNEX spectrometer are presented. The experimental values are used to build an Enge function by the least-squares method. The resulting field is compared to the measured one, showing too large deviation for application to ray reconstruction techniques. Similarly, the experimental values are compared with results from a three-dimensional finite elements calculation. Again the deviations between measured and calculated field are too large for a direct application of the latter to ray reconstruction, while its reliability is sufficient for analysis purposes. In particular, it has been applied to study the effect of the inaccuracies in the probe location and orientation on the precision of field reconstruction, and to establish the requirements for the field interpolation. These inaccuracies are found to be rather important, especially for the transversal components of the field, with the consequence that their effect on the reconstructed field should be minimized by special interpolation algorithms.

  10. The influence of river training on mountain channel changes (Polish Carpathian Mountains)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpak, Joanna

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the influence of river training on channel changes in mountain rivers. Also considered are the causes of failure of different training schemes. The research was conducted on the regulated Mszanka and Porębianka Rivers, belonging to the Raba River drainage basin in the Polish Flysh Carpathian Mountains. Channel mapping carried out in 2004 drew attention to the contemporary morphology of the channels and the development of their dynamic typology. General changes in channel morphometry and land cover were identified by comparing cartographic sources from various years. Archive material from Cracow's Regional Water Management Authority (RZGW) was used to analyse the detailed channel changes caused by each regulation structure. The material consisted of technical designs of individual training works, as well as plans, longitudinal profiles and cross-sections of trained channel reaches. A series of minimum annual water stages at the Mszana Dolna gauging station was used to determine the tendency of channel bed degradation over 53 years. During the first half of the 20th century, the middle and lower courses of the Mszanka and Porębianka Rivers had braided patterns. The slopes, mostly covered with crops, were an important source of sediment delivery to the river channels. Today, both channels are single-threaded, narrow and sinuous. Downcutting is the leading process transforming the channels. They cut down to bedrock along about 60% of their lengths. The main type of channel is an erosion channel, which occurs also in the middle and lower courses of the rivers. The channel sediment deficit is an important cause for river incision. Sediment supply to the channels was reduced after a replacement of crops on the slopes by meadows or forests. Gravel mining has also caused channel downcutting. The rapid channel changes began after 1959, as systematic training was introduced. Channel regulation seems therefore to be a major factor

  11. PROGRESS IN STUDIES ON ICE ACCUMULATION IN RIVER BENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; CHEN Pang-pang; SUI Jue-yi

    2011-01-01

    River ice is an important hydraulic element in temperate and polar environments and would affect hydrodynamic conditions of rivers through changes both in the boundary conditions and the thermal regime.The river bend has been reported as the common location for the initiation of ice jams because the water flow along a river bend is markedly affected by the channel curvature.In this article,the experimental studies about the ice accumulation in a river bend are reviewed.Based on experiments conducted so far,the criteria for the formation of ice jams in the river bend,the mechanisms of the ice accumulation in the river bend and the thickness profile of the ice accumulation in the river bend are discussed.The k- ε two-equation turbulence model is used to simulate the ice accumulation under an ice cover along a river bend.A formula is proposed for describing the deformation of the ice jam bottom.Our results indicate that all simulated thickness of the ice accumulation agrees reasonably well with the measured thickness of the ice accumulation in the laboratory.

  12. Bolted flanged connections with longitudinal bending moments: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanges in piping systems and on tall vertical pressure vessels such as columns or fractionators, are often subjected to external, longitudinal bending moments of considerable magnitude. In piping systems, such bending moments are usually caused by thermal expansion. On pressure vessel flanges, external bending moments are often the result of wind or seismic loadings. In the ASME Code, only Section III, the Nuclear Power Plant Code, Subsections NB, NC, and ND, contain design rules for external bending moments on flanges. In Subsections NB, NC, and ND, an empirical formula is given, expressing a longitudinal bending moment in bolted flanged connections in terms of an equivalent internal pressure to be added to the design pressure of the flange. Other sections of the ASME Code, in particular Section VIII, Divisions 1 and 2, also the ASME-ANSI Piping Codes, do not contain rules for such external, longitudinal bending moments. In previous papers by the same authors, it was shown that a single empirical expression to convert external bending moments to intemal pressure, cannot include the differences between the geometries of flanges of various sizes. An attempt was also made to analyse the stresses in the flange-bolt assembly due to extemal bending moments and to compare flange thicknesses thus obtained with thicknesses required using the equivalent design pressure, specified in Subsections NB, NC, and ND. The present paper reports the findings of a series of experiments on a pair of 100 mm, Class 10 (4 inch, Class 150) pipe flanges which were subjected to various combinations of intemal pressure and extemal longitudinal bending. Measured values are compared with a proposed analytic design method and with results using the empirical formula of the ASME Code, Section III

  13. Response of Flexible Risers in Bend Stiffener Area

    OpenAIRE

    Løseth, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Flexible risers is a vital part of a floating production system (FPS). In order to predict the riser life time, many procedure may be applied. In this thesis it is assumed that the pipe could be represented with help of performing two sets of global anlayis. Where in the first set it is assumed that the bending stiffness of the pipe is similar to the stick region of the flexible pipe and in the second part the bending stiffness it is assumed a bending stiffness similar to the slip regime of t...

  14. Response of Flexible Risers in Bend Stiffener Area

    OpenAIRE

    Løseth, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Flexible risers is a vital part of a floating production system (FPS). In order to predict the riser life time, many procedure may be applied.In this thesis it is assumed that the pipe could be represented with help of performing two sets of global anlayis. Where in the first set it is assumed that the bending stiffness of the pipe is similar to the stick region of the flexible pipe and in the second part the bending stiffness it is assumed a bending stiffness similar to the slip regime of th...

  15. Bends in nanotubes allow electric spin control and coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensberg, Karsten; Marcus, Charles Masamed

    2010-01-01

    fields. Device geometries that allow general rotation of single spins are presented and analyzed. In addition, capacitive coupling along bends provides coherent spin-spin interaction, including between otherwise disconnected nanotubes, completing a universal set of one- and two-qubit gates.......We investigate combined effects of spin-orbit coupling and magnetic field in carbon nanotubes containing one or more bends along their length. We show how bends can be used to provide electrical control of confined spins, while spins confined in straight segments remain insensitive to electric...

  16. Investigation of ion induced bending mechanism for nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion induced bending is a promising controlled technique for manipulating nanoscale structures. However, the underlying mechanism of the process is not well understood. In this letter, we report a detailed study of the bending mechanism of Si nanowires (NWs) under Ga+ irradiation. The microstructural changes in the NW due to ion beam irradiation are studied and molecular dynamics simulations are used to explore the ion–NW interaction processes. The simulation results are compared with the microstructural studies of the NW. The investigations inform a generic understanding of the bending process in crystalline materials, which we suggest to be feasible as a versatile manipulation and integration technique in nanotechnology. (paper)

  17. Hamiltonian system for orthotropic plate bending based on analogy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on analogy between plane elasticity and plate bending as well as variational principles of mixed energy, Hamiltonian system is further led to orthotropic plate bending problems in this paper. Thus many effective methods of mathematical physics such as separation of variables and eigenfunction expansion can be employed in orthotropic plate bending problems as they are used in plane elasticity. Analytical solutions of rectangular plate are presented directly, which expands the range of analytical solutions. There is an essential distinction between this method and traditional semi-inverse method. Numerical results of orthotropic plate with two lateral sides fixed are included to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of this method.

  18. Influence of plywood grain direction on sandwich panel bending properties

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslav Kljak; Mladen Brezović; Alan Antonović

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of plywood grain direction on bending properties of a sandwich panel, as well as on stress distribution in each layer. Experimental sandwich panels (tnom= 29 mm) were made of two three-ply plywood panels and a rigid PVC core between them. Grain directions of plywood panels were between 0° and 90°, continuously raised by 15°. Seven models of sandwich panels were made. Bending properties of a sandwich panel was determined by three point bending method and s...

  19. Damage Analysis of Rectangular Section Composite Beam under Pure Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiping; Xiao, Fan; Liu, Zejia; Tang, Liqun; Fang, Daining

    2013-02-01

    Laminated composite beams are commonly used in engineering applications involving macro to nano structures. Based on the assumption that plain sections remain plain after deformation, this paper analyzes stress distributions in cross-ply laminated composite beams with rectangular cross-sections, and formulates the basic damage equations through Kachanov's damage definition and Janson's failure criterion. The location of the neutral axis and the ultimate bending moment are obtained for pure bending cases. The effect of the elastic modulus of the two layers on the damage evolution is analyzed; a reasonable damage composite beam model is proposed to predict the ultimate bending moment.

  20. Localized bending fatigue behavior of high-strength steel monostrands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2012-01-01

    strain distribution in the strand and helps in identifying potential failure mechanisms along the strand and at the wedge location. Initial analysis of the deformations shows that the bending fatigue behavior of the monostrand may be controlled either by local bending deformations or by relative......In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement of the...

  1. Bending Analysis of Symmetrically Laminated Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouazza MOKHTAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the classical plate theory, it is assumed that the plane cross sections initially normal to the plate midsurface before deformation remain plane and normal to that surface during deformation. This is the result of neglecting the transverse shear strains. However, in thick and moderately thick laminated plates, significant transverse shear strains occur, and the theory gives inaccurate results for the plates. So, it is obvious that the shear strains have to be taken into account. There are numerous theories of plates and laminated plates that include the transverse shear strains. One of them is the Reissner and Midlin theory , known as the first-order shear deformation theory, which defines the displacement field as linear variations of midplane displacements. This theory, where the relation between the resultant shear forces and the shear strains is obtained by using shear correction factors, has some advantages due to its simplicity and low computational cost. Some other plate theories, namely the higher-order shear deformation theories, include the effect of transverse shear strains . For example, the theory developed by Reddy allows not only for the transverse shear strains, but also for parabolic variations in the strains across the plate thickness, and thus there is no need to use shear correction coefficients in computing the shear stresses. The present stud is a survey of plate bending of cross-ply laminate by using the finite element method (F.E.M. Using ANSYS, the most known software in the domain for it, two types of modeling are proposed: the first is modeling using a type of shell element, Shell 99 and the second is an approach based on a of type solid element, Solid 46. The results obtained are compared with the results of the theory of Reddy.

  2. Tracing metamorphism, exhumation and topographic evolution in orogenic belts by multiple thermochronology: a case study from the Nízke Tatry Mts., Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danišík, M.; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Glotzbach, Ch.; Weisheit, A.; Dunkl, I.; Kohút, M.; Evans, N. J.; Orvošová, M.; McDonald, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 2 (2011), s. 285-298. ISSN 1661-8726 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : (U–Th–[Sm])/He dating * fission track dating * thermal modelling * exhumation * zircon * apatite * Nízké Tatry Mts. * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2011

  3. The impact of Outer Western Carpathian nappe tectonics on the recent stress-strain state in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Moravosilesian Zone, Bohemian Massif)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ptáček, Jiří; Grygar, R.; Koníček, Petr; Waclawik, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2012), s. 3-11. ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/08/1625 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Variscan orogeny * Upper Silesian Coal Basin * recent stress fields * Outer Western Carpathians * paleostress Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.143, year: 2012 http://versita.metapress.com/content/0326174t34663755/

  4. DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE OF FUTURE TEACHERS ON THE BASIS OF ETHNIC AND CULTURAL VALUES INTRINSIC TO HIGHLANDERS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Stakhiv

    2015-01-01

    The article presents challenges and methods of teacher training activities aimed to develop communicative competence and prepare teachers for work in mountain area schools in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Research shows that specifics of social and cultural environment should be taken into account in the process of teaching native language and developing communicative competence of future teachers. Sociocultural approach defines language teaching strategies in the light of national culture, trad...

  5. Advantages of customer/supplier involvement in the upgrade of River Bend`s IST program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Womack, R.L.; Addison, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    At River Bend Station, IST testing had problems. Operations could not perform the test with the required repeatability; engineering could not reliably trend test data to detect degradation; licensing was heavily burdened with regulatory concerns; and maintenance could not do preventative maintenance because of poor prediction of system health status. Using Energy`s Total Quality principles, it was determined that the causes were: lack of ownership, inadequate test equipment usage, lack of adequate procedures, and lack of program maintenance. After identifying the customers and suppliers of the IST program data, Energy management put together an upgrade team to address these concerns. These customers and suppliers made up the IST upgrade team. The team`s mission was to supply River Bend with a reliable, functional, industry correct and user friendly IST program. The IST program in place went through a verification process that identified and corrected over 400 individual program discrepancies. Over 200 components were identified for improved testing methods. An IST basis document was developed. The operations department was trained on ASME Section XI testing. All IST tests have been simplified and shortened, due to heavy involvement by operations in the procedure development process. This significantly reduced testing time, resulting in lower cost, less dose and greater system availability.

  6. Episodic construction of the Tatra granitoid intrusion (Central Western Carpathians, Poland/Slovakia): consequences for the geodynamics of Variscan collision and Rheic Ocean closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawęda, Aleksandra; Burda, Jolanta; Klötzli, Urs; Golonka, Jan; Szopa, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    The Tatra granitoid pluton (Central Western Carpathians, Poland/Slovakia) is an example of composite polygenetic intrusion, comprising many magmatic pulses varying compositionally from diorite to granite. The U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon dating of successive magma batches indicates the presence of magmatic episodes at 370-368, 365, 360, 355 and 350-340 Ma, all together covering a time span of 30 Ma of magmatic activity. The partial resorption and recycling of former granitoid material ("petrological cannibalism") was a result of the incremental growth of the pluton and temperature in the range of 750-850 °C. The long-lasting granitoid magmatism was connected to the prolonged subduction of oceanic crust and collision of the Proto-Carpathian Terrane with a volcanic arc and finally with Laurussia, closing the Rheic Ocean. The differences in granitoid composition are the results of different depths of crustal melting. More felsic magmas were generated in the outer zone of the volcanic arc, whilst more mafic magmas were formed in the inner part of the supra-subduction zone. The source rocks of the granitoid magmas covered the compositional range of metapelite-amphibolite and were from both lower and upper crust. The presence of the inherited zircon cores suggests that the collision and granitoid magmatism involved crust of Cadomian consolidation age (c. 530 and 518 Ma) forming the Proto-Carpathian Terrane, crust of Avalonian affinity (462, 426 Ma) and melted metasedimentary rocks of volcanic arc provenance.

  7. Neotectonics of the Inner Western Carpathians: Liptovský Ján area, case study (northern slopes of the Nízke Tatry Mts., Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Littva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The neotectonic study results of the Liptovský Ján area and its implications for neotectonic development of the Inner Western Carpathians are presented. A broad spectrum of methods was used e.g., geological mapping, structural analysis, boreholes log data, morphotectonic analyses, transverse valley profiles, and orientation of cave corridors. Three groups of normal faults active during the Quaternary were identified. The youngest faults are oriented generally in the N–S direction. The older fault groups are represented by the WNWESE and NE–SW directions as well. The successive arrangement of faults suggests change of the stress field from the N–S to the E–W oriented extensional axes under the tension condition in the study area during the Pleistocene. Comparison of obtained results with other studies revealed that stress field within the Inner Western Carpathians realm was changed during the Quaternary, from tension oriented generally in N–S direction to orogen-parallel extension i.e. parallel to the Inner Western Carpathian arc.

  8. THE STRESS-AND-STRAIN STATE OF THE SOUTH-EASTERN PART OF THE SKYBA AND BORYSLAV-POKUTTYA NAPPES OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Bubniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of field studies and interpretation of tectonophysical data from profiles in the valleys of Bystritsa Nadvornyanskaya, Prut, Pistynka (the right-side tributary of the Prut river, Belyi and Chernyi Cheremosh, and Seret rivers. The stress fields reconstructed from different groups of joints and slickensides in flysch and molasse sediments of the Skyba and Boryslav-Pokuttya nappes are analyzed.A combination of the structural-paragenesis and kinematic analysis methods provided for determination of deformation modes, their sequences, and  average azimuth values of orientations of the principal axes of regional paleostress fields (σ1, σ2, σ3 which were manifested through the Alpine stage of the Ukrainian Carpathians development.The paleostress fields were reconstructed for the south-eastern part of the Skyba nappe of the Ukrainian Carpathians and the Boryslav-Pokuttya nappe of the Carpathian foretrough. The article describes similarities and differences in the stress-and-strain states, specific features of the paleostress fields, and the ratio of joints in different groups (oblique and perpendicular to the rock layers and slickensides in the area under study.

  9. Preliminary Project Investigation : Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the proposed expansion of Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge to increase the quantity and quality of wintering habitat primarily for mallards...

  10. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON FLOW CHARACTERISTICS IN RIBBED BEND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Previous research[1]by the author has proved that ribbed bend technology is a simple and efficient anti-erosion method. The present paper is a further study to unveil the mechanism of the technology by using numerical method. The flow characteristics in ribbed bend were studied. A k-ε turbulence model was used and the simulations were carried out in the body-fitted coordinates. This procedure was confirmed to be credible by showing the satisfactory agreement between the predications and experimental results. It is concluded that the character of the longitudinal flow in ribbed bend especially in the concave parts between ribs has a beneficial effect on increasing the anti-erosion ability of ribbed bend but the secondary flow will have little effect on determining the particle trajectory.

  11. Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Holla Bend NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  12. Fishery Manangement Plan : Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan describes fishery management for Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge in 1990. The plan outlines goals, objectives for fishery management for the benefit...

  13. Monitoring Composites under Bending Tests with Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carosena Meola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The attention of the present paper is focused on the use of an infrared imaging device to monitor the thermal response of composite materials under cyclic bending. Three types of composites are considered including an epoxy matrix reinforced with either carbon fibres (CFRP or glass fibres (GFRP and a hybrid composite involving glass fibres and aluminium layers (FRML. The specimen surface, under bending, displays temperature variations pursuing the load variations with cooling down under tension and warming up under compression; such temperature variations are in agreement with the bending moment. It has been observed that the amplitude of temperature variations over the specimen surface depends on the material characteristics. In particular, the presence of a defect inside the material affects the temperature distribution with deviation from the usual bending moment trend.

  14. Computational Strategies for the Architectural Design of Bending Active Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    stiffness, it is possible to control and pre-calibrate the bending behaviour of a composite element. This material capacity challenges architecture’s existing methods for design, specification and prediction. In this paper, we demonstrate how architects might connect the designed nature of composites with...... the design of bending-active structures, through computational strategies. We report three built structures that develop architecturally oriented design methods for bending-active systems using composite materials. These projects demonstrate the application and limits of the introduction of advanced......Active bending introduces a new level of integration into the design of architectural structures, and opens up new complexities for the architectural design process. In particular, the introduction of material variation reconfigures the design space. Through the precise specification of their...

  15. 1984 Deer Harvest Summary for Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the 1984 deer harvest for Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge. Tables summarize numerical findings, including bucks, does, and points.

  16. Technique cuts time and cost of bending jacketed piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J. N.

    1967-01-01

    Technique uses a stiff medium in the annular space between inner and outer pipes of jacketed piping in transfer lines. The process eliminates splitting and welding and makes possible the use of standard pipe-bending tools.

  17. Cylindrical Bending of Deformable Textile Rectangular Patch Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Freek Boeykens; Hendrik Rogier; Luigi Vallozzi

    2012-01-01

    Textile patch antennas are well known as basic components for wearable systems that allow communication between a human body and the external world. Due to their flexibility, textile antennas are subjected to bending when worn, causing a variation in resonance frequency and radiation pattern with respect to the flat state in which their nominal design is performed. Hence, it is important for textile antenna engineers to be able to predict these performance parameters as a function of the bend...

  18. Species-specific patterns of DNA bending and sequence.

    OpenAIRE

    VanWye, J D; Bronson, E C; Anderson, J N

    1991-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences in the GenEMBL database were analyzed using strategies designed to reveal species-specific patterns of DNA bending and DNA sequence. The results uncovered striking species-dependent patterns of bending with more variations among individual organisms than between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The frequency of bent sites in sequences from different bacteria was related to genomic A + T content and this relationship was confirmed by electrophoretic analysis of genomic DNA. How...

  19. Theory of bending waves with applications to disk galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1982-01-01

    A theory of bending waves is surveyed which provides an explanation for the required amplification of the warp in the Milky Way. It also provides for self-generated warps in isolated external galaxies. The shape of observed warps and partly their existence in isolated galaxies are indicative of substantial spheroidal components. The theory also provides a plausible explanation for the bending of the inner disk (<2 kpc) of the Milky Way.

  20. Theory of bending waves with applications to disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theory of bending waves is surveyed which provides an explanation for the required amplification of the warp in the Milky Way. It also provides for self-generated warps in isolated external galaxies. The shape of observed warps and partly their existence in isolated galaxies are indicative of substantial spheroidal components. The theory also provides a plausible explanation for the bending of the inner disk (<2 kpc) of the Milky Way

  1. Dynamics of fast charged particle beam rotation in bended crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of fast charged particle beam rotation in a bended monocrystal is considered. Face and volume mechanisms of capture in channels are taken into account simultaneously in the model presented. Functions of distribution in transverse energies (φ) of channeled and dechanneled particles are obtained. Charge-energy ''scale invariance'' in ion channeling with charge Z in a bended crystal determined by scale parameter W=pv/Z (p and v are pulse and velocity local to transverse planes) follows from the model presented

  2. FLUENT modeling of ultrasonic flow meters in feedwater flow profiles associated with two out of plane 90 degree bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an analysis of Ultrasonic Flow Meters (UFMs), The Ohio State Univ. has utilized the FLUENT 6.1 and Virtual UFM (VFUM) computer codes to model the feedwater velocity profiles and compute the Profile Factor (PF) that would be obtained by a 4-chord time of flight ultrasonic flow meter. The geometry used in the simulation was designed to be similar to that found in the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant. The effect of variation in the length between two out of plane 90 degree bends was investigated. Swirl was detected in all cases reviewed. The profile factors are greater than 1.0 in all cases. In most cases, the profile factor does not decrease monotonically as the distance downstream from the second bend increases. It appears that the numerical techniques used here give added insight to where a UFM ought to be placed in a plant. (authors)

  3. Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

    2000-01-01

    A study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize the effects of laminate orthotropy and anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all laminates considered, the results show that the differences between results obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that, in some cases, neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and, in other cases, results in an overestimation.

  4. Power monitor miter bends for high-power microwave transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doane, John, E-mail: doane@fusion.gat.com; Anderson, James; Grunloh, Howard; Wu, Wen

    2015-04-15

    Two miter bends are described for monitoring the power transmitted in an oversized corrugated wave-guide. One has an array of holes in its mirror that couples a small fraction of the incident power to a rectangular waveguide directly machined into the mirror. Millimeter-wave detectors on the outputs of this miter bend can respond very rapidly to the transmitted power, but the coupling is sensitive to the mode purity in the oversized waveguide. The other miter bend monitors the power by measuring the rise in temperature of the cooling water passing through the mirror. The mirror is well isolated from the miter bend housing to prevent heat from neighboring waveguides from reaching the mirror. The measurement requires about 200 s to reach steady state, but it is relatively insensitive to mode purity. The measurement does require knowledge of the input polarization. Thermo-mechanical analyses of the miter bends indicate that they are capable of reliable operation with 1.5 MW transmitted through them. High-power long-pulse 170 GHz tests of these miter bends at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are described.

  5. Influence of plywood grain direction on sandwich panel bending properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Kljak

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of plywood grain direction on bending properties of a sandwich panel, as well as on stress distribution in each layer. Experimental sandwich panels (tnom= 29 mm were made of two three-ply plywood panels and a rigid PVC core between them. Grain directions of plywood panels were between 0° and 90°, continuously raised by 15°. Seven models of sandwich panels were made. Bending properties of a sandwich panel was determined by three point bending method and stress in each layer was determined by using finite element method. Simulation models were developed with equal load conditions as applied during empirical measurement of bending properties of the sandwich panel. The research results show that grain direction has a great influence on bending properties of the sandwich panel, as well as on stress values in each layer. Results also indicate the importance of analyzing stress in each layer of plywood for the purpose of avoiding stress concentration in respective layers and for optimizing structural construction of the sandwich panel. Such stress analyses are not covered by standardized empirical methods for determining bending properties of sandwich panels.

  6. Tunable characteristics of bending resonance frequency in magnetoelectric laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Li, Ping; Wen, Yu-Mei; Zhu, Yong

    2013-07-01

    As the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminated composites is mediated by mechanical deformation, the ME effect is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of resonance frequency. The bending resonance frequency (fr) of bilayered Terfenol-D/PZT (MP) laminated composites is studied, and our analysis predicts that (i) the bending resonance frequency of an MP laminated composite can be tuned by an applied dc magnetic bias (Hdc) due to the ΔE effect; (ii) the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite can be controlled by incorporating FeCuNbSiB layers with different thicknesses. The experimental results show that with Hdc increasing from 0 Oe (1 Oe=79.5775 A/m) to 700 Oe, the bending resonance frequency can be shifted in a range of 32.68 kHz bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite gradually increases from 33.66 kHz to 39.18 kHz. This study offers a method of adjusting the strength of dc magnetic bias or the thicknesses of the FeCuNbSiB layer to tune the bending resonance frequency for ME composite, which plays a guiding role in the ME composite design for real applications.

  7. Tunable characteristics of bending resonance frequency in magnetoelectric laminated composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Lei; Li Ping; Wen Yu-Mei; Zhu Yong

    2013-01-01

    As the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminated composites is mediated by mechanical deformation,the ME effect is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of resonance frequency.The bending resonance frequency (fr) of bilayered Terfenol-D/PZT (MP) laminated composites is studied,and our analysis predicts that (i) the bending resonance frequency of an MP laminated composite can be tuned by an applied dc magnetic bias (Hdc) due to the △E effect; (ii) the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite can be controlled by incorporating FeCuNbSiB layers with different thicknesses.The experimental results show that with Hdc increasing from 0Oe (1 Oe=79.5775 A/m)to 700 Oe,the bending resonance frequency can be shifted in a range of 32.68 kHz ≤ fr ≤ 33.96 kHz.In addition,with the thickness of the FeCuNbSiB layer increasing from 0 μm to 90 μm,the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite gradually increases from 33.66 kHz to 39.18 kHz.This study offers a method of adjusting the strength of dc magnetic bias or the thicknesses of the FeCuNbSiB layer to tune the bending resonance frequency for ME composite,which plays a guiding role in the ME composite design for real applications.

  8. Optimal Orthogonal Graph Drawing with Convex Bend Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Bläsius, Thomas; Wagner, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, the quality of orthogonal planar drawings is quantified by either the total number of bends, or the maximum number of bends per edge. However, this neglects that in typical applications, edges have varying importance. Moreover, as bend minimization over all planar embeddings is NP-hard, most approaches focus on a fixed planar embedding. We consider the problem OptimalFlexDraw that is defined as follows. Given a planar graph G on n vertices with maximum degree 4 and for each edge e a cost function cost_e : N_0 --> R defining costs depending on the number of bends on e, compute an orthogonal drawing of G of minimum cost. Note that this optimizes over all planar embeddings of the input graphs, and the cost functions allow fine-grained control on the bends of edges. In this generality OptimalFlexDraw is NP-hard. We show that it can be solved efficiently if 1) the cost function of each edge is convex and 2) the first bend on each edge does not cause any cost (which is a condition similar to the posi...

  9. Contrasting Permo - Carboniferous Evolution of Resita and Sirinia - Presacina Basins (South Carpathians, Romania); an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, M.; Seghedi, I.; Nutu, L. M.; Nicolae, I.

    2009-04-01

    Two important Permo-Carboniferous molasses basins Resita and Sirinia - Presacina occur in Romanian Banat (south-western part of Carpathian chain), unconformable overlie the Getic and Danubian domains with different pre-Variscan and Variscan geodynamic history. They show differences in their lithology reflecting various geotectonic settings and evolutions. In the Resita domain the Upper Carboniferous deposits (Westphalian - Stephanian in age, according to the previous paleobotanic and palynological data) are important in volume and they contain terrigeneous siliciclastic rocks represented by sandy - conglomerate and argillaceous - sandy rocks variable in thickness with siltstone, carbonaceous shale and coal beds interlayering. There are not volcanic rocks present in Upper Carboniferous of Resita domain. In contrast with Resita in the Sirinia - Presacina basins the Upper Carboniferous deposits are volumetrically more restrictive. These deposits transgresively overlie pre-Sudetian formations and consist of continental - lacustrine terrigeneous formations, rarely associated with limnic carbonatic rocks. In this association the alternating conglomerate, siliceous sandstone, siltstone and clay with lens - like coal inter-layers prevails. In two small areas Dragosela - Tulinecea - Camenita (in the western part) and Baia Noua - Cucuiova (in the eastern part) the terrigeneous deposits are associated with basaltic andesite and andesite rocks with alkaline affinity. In both of these basins the Lower Permian deposits (according to the paleobotanic data) unconformably overlie the Upper Carboniferous formations and/or pre-Sudetian basements. The Lower Permian deposits in the Resita basin occur in two superposed formations (Nastaseanu, 1987): (1) Walchia Beds dominated by black argillaceous shales, slightly bituminous with rare sandy-conglomerate interlayers and (2) Red Beds composed by sandy-conglomerate deposits with some argillaceous intercalations, all red in color, with

  10. Pollution of the stream waters and sediments associated with the Crucea uranium mine (East Carpathians, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, L.; Bilal, E.; Iatan, E. L.

    2009-04-01

    Uranium and thorium are omnipresent in our environment. Various anthropogenic activities involving the processing or use of materials rich in uranium may modify the natural abundance of uranium in water. The study is related to uranium mineralization located within Crucea ore deposit, in the East Carpathians, Romania. The Crucea uranium ore deposit is located in the eastern part of the Bistrita Mountains (40 Km southeast of the town of Vatra Dornei) in the headwaters of Crucea, Lesu and Livezi valleys. At present, this is the largest uranium mine in the country. In the past, the mining area covered 18 km2, but was gradually overtaken by logging activities. The exploration and mining facilities include thirty-two galleries, situated between 780 and 1040 m above sea level. Radioactive waste resulted from mining are disposed next to the mining facilities. The waste rock was disposed in piles of variable size that are spread over an area of 364,000 m2. Older dumps (18) have been already naturally reclaimed by forest vegetation. The vegetation cover played an important role in stabilizing the waste dump cover and in slowing down the uranium migration processes. A number of 46 water samples were taken in order to evaluate the impact of ore deposit (including its exploitation process) on the chemical composition of waters down to the exploitation galleries. The sediment samples were collected at 16 sampling points from the bottom of the studied stream waters. ICP-OES, XRF and IC methods was used to evaluate the impact of uranium mine dumps on the surface waters from Crucea region. According to the analytical data the stream waters showed a Ca - carbonate character. In relation to salinity, the pH and the anion NO3-, CO32-and SO42- contents display generally non-linear relationships with chloride. Uranium is the most significant trace element in the river waters nearby the waste rock dumps, sometimes reaching levels up to 1-mgṡL-1, well in excess of the Romanian

  11. 78 FR 77724 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption From the Requirement To Submit an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... as described in 78 FR 4465 (January 22, 2013). On April 12, 2013, PPL submitted Revision 4 to the COL... Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP), in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania (Agencywide Documents Access...

  12. Examples of Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations in the central part of the Lower Beskids, (the Polish Flysch Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorski, Michał

    2016-04-01

    The Lower Beskids are located between the western and eastern parts of the Carpathian flysch belt, whereas the low altitudes of passes and ridges in this region have until now been identified mainly with the differences in bedrock resistance. In the light of contemporary information regarding the geology of this area, the hypothesis of the gravitational placement of large tectonic elements has become topical again. A particularly interesting area is the ridge and foreland of the Magura Wątkowska, bordering in the north with the Sanok-Jasło Pits (a denudation valley). This edge zone of the Lower Beskids has a complicated geological structure, i.e. it constitutes a tectonic contact of the Magura Unit and the Central Carpathian Depression (the depressed part of the Silesian nappe). During the field research and analyses regarding the identification of morphostructural elements, the important role of various kinds of lineaments was observed. Some of the inventoried lineaments were, e.g. large size faults or effects of the impact of tectonic processes on bedrock. Structures in the rock (cracks, faults) accompanying them are important in determining the type of macro scale gravitational movements. The outer part of fold structures in the foreland of the Magura Wątkowska shows the rotation around the longitudinal syncline axis, and is an excellent research field for a comprehensive analysis of gravitational movements, both of the basin type and the DSGSD (Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations) type. Determining the types of tectonic lineaments was based on a review of selected directions in the context of the course of tectonic structures in the study area. On that basis, lineaments were classified into two morphogenetic groups, i.e. structures that do not result in visible movements relative to the analyzed rock massif (cracks), and those causing the displacement of the rock massif (faults, overthrust). Using the directional and contour diagrams generated by

  13. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the

  14. Reconstruction of a Holocene average catchment denudation from the landslide-dammed lakes in the Outer Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáå.¡; Smolková, Veronika; Hradecký, Jan

    2010-05-01

    In the mid-mountain region of the Outer Western Carpathians, fossil landslide-dammed lakes with preserved sedimentary sequences are the key sources of information about the Holocene geomorphological conditions. Importance of the landslide-dammed lakes as data sources lies particularly in i) dating of the related landslides, ii) study of the palaeoenvironmental conditions, iii) quantification of the sediment budgets and iv) understanding risks connected with landslides. Most of the studied sedimentary records contain frequent variations in sediment genetic type (e.g. lacustrine anorganic clay and silt, organic gyttja and peat of swampy facies with often minerogenic intercalations, fluvial sub-rounded gravel, etc.), which well document dynamic changes in the type of geomorphic processes in the contributing catchments. Radiocarbon dating together with the palynological and sedimentological analyses detect the repeated changes in the depositional conditions connected with the palaeoenvironmental changes during the Holocene. Results of the radiocarbon dating of the lake sediments' basal parts show that landslides causing the valley damming originated throughout the whole Holocene with significant increase of landslide activity in the Subatlantic chronozone. For the understanding of the relief development dynamics throughout the Holocene, linear lake sedimentation rates and minimum average catchment denudation for selected contributing catchments in different time spans were calculated. Minimum mean mechanical denudation of landslide-dammed catchments varies between 2.5-13.4 mm.ky-1. Obtained denudation rates well correspond with the other researches on erosion rates in the studied region: mean total denudation rates = 39-79 mm.ky-1, 79-158 mm.ky-1, 120 mm.ky-1, 280 mm.ky-1 for the Outer Western Carpathians; mean mechanical denudation rate = 15-30 mm.ky-1 for the Central Europe, respectively. This research was supported by a project from the Grant Agency of the Czech

  15. Reconstructed glacier geometry and inferred Equilibrium Line Altitude changes during the Late Pleistocene deglaciation in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarász, Balázs; Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Kern, Zoltán; Urdea, Petru

    2016-04-01

    Quaternary glaciations had a major imprint on the landscape and topography of the Southern Carpathians. Their transitional position between continental and Mediterranean climate zones arouses special interest concerning the timing and pattern of glaciations in this area. Probably the Retezat Mts hosted the most extended glaciation during the Late Pleistocene within this range. The peak elevations of the study area reach 2500 m asl, and the most extended glaciers descended to 1040 m in the northern and to 1130 m on the southern valleys. Major cirque floors are typically situated at 2000-2100 m asl. Glacial landforms have been mapped in order to reconstruct the past ice bodies and the elevation shifts of the paleo equilibrium line altitudes (ELA) during several deglaciation phases of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Lateglacial in the Retezat Mts. On the basis of published 10Be exposure age data on the northern valleys of the study area, deglaciation of the Retezat Mts occurred at least in five phases between ~21.0 ka and 13.5 ka [1]. Various methods (THAR, AAR, AABR) have been tested using a GIS tool to estimate the ELA of the reconstructed paleoglaciers [2] and paleo ELAs were calculated for each of the deglaciation phases. Preliminary estimates of regional LGM paleoELA employing the simplest THAR method (with a ratio of 0.5) ranged from ~1670 m during the LGM to ~2210 m for the smallest cirque glacier at 13.5 ka, respectively. The AAR and AABR methods provide somewhat higher ELAs for each phase. The obtained paleoELAs were compared to ELA reconstructions available from other Carpathian ranges and also to the Alps and Dinarides. Our data will contribute to a more accurate ELA distribution during the LGM, which may be indicative of the past state of the climate system (moisture gradient, circulation regimes). Thanks to OTKA PD83610, PD104899; NKM-96/2014, NKM-31/2015; OMAA 90öu17; LP2012-27/2012. References: [1] Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger et al. 2016 Quat. Int. (in

  16. SKI AREAS AND SLOPES IN ROMANIA. REVIEWING CURRENT STATE OF WINTER SPORTS TOURISM UNFOLDING POSSIBILITIES WITHIN CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. CIANGĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ski Areas and Slopes in Romania. Reviewing Current State of Winter Sports Tourism Unfolding Possibilities within Carpathian Mountains. This study is reviewing nowadays Romania’s tourism supply (2015 – laying special emphasis on the North-West Development Region’s situation – in terms of winter sports potential (resources and material and technical base (specific infrastructure. It calls into question a highly discussed topic within the domain of interest of Tourism Geography, whose recursiveness could be justified by countinuous changes that influence the quantitative and qualitative configuration of ski areas, ski tracks and related equipment2. The existence of favourable natural support in terms of relief and climate is an indispensable prerequisite to the development of winter sports tourism within any area. From this point of view, the presence of the Carpathians is a major advantage for Romania, the more so as the proportion of the mountain sector represents 30 percent of the national area (238,391 square kilometres. By occupying different amounts of the territory belonging to 6 development regions and 19 counties, heterogeneous tourism potential values have emerged, causing unequal exploitation opportunities within the mountain area. The purpose of this paper is to provide a general framework of Romanian ski slopes, areas and corresponding facilities for assessing their current state, from regional perspective, with emphasis on North-West’s situation. On this line, the main objectives, starting from identifying and inventorising to classifying regions and ski tracks based on hierarchical categories, also deal with ranking slopes according to surface, length, width, elevation of departure point, difference in elevation, difficulty ratings, capacities of slopes and cable transportation means. In order to achieve these goals, quantitative research methods and techniques mostly refered to observation, analysis, synthesis and

  17. In vivo assessment of forearm bone mass and ulnar bending stiffness in healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, K. H.; Zhou, L. J.; Steele, C. R.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    The cross-sectional bending stiffness EI of the ulna was measured in vivo by mechanical resistance tissue analysis (MRTA) in 90 men aged 19-89 years. MRTA measures the impedance response of low-frequency vibrations to determine EI, which is a reflection of elastic modulus E and moment of inertia I for the whole ulna. EI was compared to conventional estimates of bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW), and BMC/BW, which were all measured by single-photon absorptiometry. Results obtained from the nondominant ulna indicate that BW increases (r = 0.27, p = 0.01) and ulnar BMC/BW decreases (r = -0.31, p < or = 0.005) with age. Neither BMC nor EI declined with age. The single best predictor of EI was BW (r2 = 0.47, p = 0.0001), and further small but significant contributions were made by BMC (r2 = 0.53, p = 0.0001) and grip strength (r2 = 0.55, p = 0.0001). These results suggest that the resistance of older men to forearm fracture is related to age-associated changes in the moment of inertia achieved by redistributing bone mineral farther from the bending axis. We conclude that the in vivo assessment of bone geometry offers important insights to the comprehensive evaluation of bone strength.

  18. Impact of Road Bends on Traffic Flow in a Single-Lane Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Junwei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking the characteristics of road bends as a research object, this work proposes the cellular model (CA with road bends based on the NaSch model, with which the traffic flow is examined under different conditions, such as bend radius, bend arc length, and road friction coefficiency. The simulation results show that, with the increase of the bend radius, the peak flow will be continuously increased, and the fundamental diagram will become more similar to that of the classic NaSch model; the smaller the bend radius is, the easier it is for the occurrence of blockage; for different bend lengths, all the corresponding traffic flows show that the phenomenon of go-and-stop and the bends exert slight inhibitory effect on traffic flow; under the same bend radius, the inhibition effect of the bends on the traffic flow will be weakened with the increase of the friction coefficiency.

  19. Advances and Trends on Tube Bending Forming Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG He; LI Heng; ZHANG Zhiyong; ZHAN Mei; LIU Jing; LI Guangjun

    2012-01-01

    As one kind of key components with enormous quantities and diversities,the bent tube parts satisfy the increasing needs for lightweight and high-strength product from both materials and structure aspects.The bent tubes have been widely used in many high-end industries such as aviation,aerospaee,shipbuilding,automobile,energy and health care.The tube bending has become one of the key manufacturing technologies for lightweight product forming.Via the analysis of bending characteristics and multiple defects,advances on exploring the common issues in tube bending are summarized regarding wrinkling instability at the intrados,wall thinning (cracking) at the extrados,springback phenomenon,cross-section deformation,forming limit and process/tooling design/optimization.Some currently developed bending techniques are reviewed in terms of their advantages and limitations.Finally,in view of the urgent requirements of high-performance complex bent tube components with difficult-to-deform and lightweight materials in aviation and aerospace fields,the development trends and corresponding challenges are presented for realizing the precise and high-efficiency tube bending deformation.

  20. DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN WELLS FROM AN AREA AFFECTED BY FLOOD EVENTS: CASE STUDY OF CURVATURE SUB-CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞENILĂ M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the chemical parameters (inorganic anions and metals of drinking water of twenty-four wells and the presence of Escherichia coli in ten selected wells located in two villages from Buzau and Prahova Counties, in Curvature Sub-Carpathians, Romania, a rural area frequently affected by flood events. Water samples were collected in July 2014. Concerntrations of fluorides, nitrites, chlorides and phosphates were below the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs for drinking water established by European legislation (Drinking Water Directive 98/83/CE in all the analysed samples. Concentration of nitrates exceeded MAC (50 mg L-1 in five samples, while concentration of sulphates exceeded MAC (250 mg L-1 in two samples. Among the analysed metals, Mn exceeded MAC (50 μg L-1 in two samples, while Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and As concentrations did not exceeded the corresponding MACs. E. coli (over 2000 UFC 100 mL-1 was found in six water samples. The results show that majority of the studied parameters were below the threshold limits, however in some of the studied wells the water was found to be contaminated both by some chemical pollutants and by E. coli, which prepresent a risk for local population health.

  1. THE FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC COMPETENCES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE STABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CARPATHIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Khymynets

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of the formation of ecological and economic competences at modern school. The paper shows that ecological and economic education is continuous and uninterrupted psychological process which is directed towards the formation of knowledge, culture and consciousness of a person. Attention is paid to the problems of environmental and economic situation in the Carpathian region of Ukraine. Ecological and economic model of education can develop effectively only on the basis of humanistic orientation and innovation potential of the educational institution. The humanization provides increased attention to the individual as a whole, the promotion of its abilities, physical and moral qualities. Modern education aims to form environmentally and economically responsible person, that is ready for the conscious activity on the basis of the gained knowledge and formes behavioral norms and rules concerning the environment. Humanity has the ability to choose either the path of environmental and economic education, or the path of the global catastrophe and self-destruction. Civilized, cultured people are called to protect and multiply the good, by laws and authority to establish the highest spiritual values of the life in the society and public opinion. Only intelligence and environmental and economic culture, that is continuous educational training and educational activity, may generate culture of society, relevant to the permanent development, and transfer its relationships with the environment on the way of intelligent coexistence.

  2. IN-FLIGHT ICING CHARACTERISTICS OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES DURING SPECIAL ATMOSPHERIC CONDITION OVER THE CARPATHIAN-BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZSOLT BOTTYÁN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-flight aerial icing phenomena is very important for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV because it causes some serious problems such as reduced lift and increased drag forces, significantly decreased angle of attack, increased weight, structural imbalances and improper radio communications. In order to increase flight safety of UAV’s we develop an integrated meteorological support system for the UAV pilots, mission controllers and decision makers, too. In our paper we show the in-flight structural icing estimation method as a part of this support system based on a simple 2D ice accretion model predictions. We point out the role of the ambient air temperature, cloud liquid water content, airfoil geometry and mainly the true airspeed in the icing process on the wings of UAVs. With the help of our model we made an estimation of geometry and amount of ice accretion on the wing of a short-range and a high-altitude and long-endurance UAVs during a hypothetical flight under a typical icy weather situation with St clouds over the Carpathian-basin (a cold-pool situation case study. Finally we point out that our icing estimation system can easily be adapted for supporting the missions of UAVs.

  3. The influence of the physico-geographical factors which determine floods in small basins from the Romanian Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present the influence of the climatic, physical and geographical factors (precipitations,geology, soil, vegetation, anthropogenic impact) to the maximum discharge, factors that generate the floods in small basins situated in the west part of Oriental Carpathians, Romania. For the period of study (1 975 - 2000), is very important to analyse: - the maximum discharge which are produced; - the more important elements of floods; - the characteristics of the precipitations and runoff coefficients which are produced in the basins considered.(Gurghiu, Tarnave, Sovata, Bistra, Hodos, Homorodul Mare si Homorodul Mic, Rastolita.) Tables and graphics are coming to illustrate with accuracy the relationships between the characteristics of the rainfalls and geographical conditions of the main floods produced in these basins. The reason of these analyse is to determine useful parameters for the prediction and forecast of the floods in small basins, because these basins have a high-speed reaction to the inputs elements (precipitations and its characteristics).(Author)

  4. Fossil invertebrates records in cave sediments and paleoenvironmental assessments - a study of four cave sites from Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, O. T.; Constantin, S.; Panaiotu, C.; Roban, R. D.; Frenzel, P.; Miko, L.

    2016-01-01

    Fossil invertebrates from cave sediments have been recently described as a potential new proxy for paleoenvironment and used in cross-correlations with alternate proxy records from cave deposits. Here we present the results of a fossil invertebrates study in four caves from two climatically different regions of the Romanian Carpathians, to complement paleoenvironmental data previously reported. Oribatid mites and ostracods are the most common invertebrates in the studied cave sediments. Some of the identified taxa are new to science, and most of them are indicative for either warm and/or cold stages or dry and/or wetter oscillations. In two caves the fossil invertebrates records indicate rapid climate oscillations during times known for a relatively stable climate. By corroborating the fossil invertebrates' record with the information given by magnetic properties and sediment structures, complementary data on past vegetation, temperatures and hydraulic regimes could be gathered. This paper analyzes the potential of fossil invertebrate records as a paleoenvironmental proxy, potential problems and pitfalls.

  5. Flowage differentiation in an andesitic dyke of the Motru Dyke Swarm (Southern Carpathians, Romania) inferred from AMS, CSD and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkono, Collin; Féménias, Olivier; Diot, Hervé; Berza, Tudor; Demaiffe, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    Two dykes of different thickness (5.5 m for TJ31 and 23 m for TJ34) from the late Pan-African calc-alkaline Motru Dyke Swarm (S. Carpathians, Romania) have been studied by electron microprobe (mineral chemistry), crystal size distribution (CSD), anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and whole-rock geochemistry. All the physical and chemical variations observed across the dyke's width point to concordant results and show that the variations of both modal abundance and size of the amphibole and biotite microphenocrysts inside the dykes (deduced from the classical CSD measurements) are the result of a mechanical segregation of suspended crystals during magmatic transport. Despite a pene-contemporaneous regional tectonic, the flow-induced differentiation in the thicker dyke is characterized by the concentration of pre-existing Ti-rich pargasite-tschermakite, clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystals in the core of the dyke and of the extracted differentiated liquid near the walls. This mechanical differentiation induces a chemical differentiation with a basaltic andesite composition for the core of the dyke whereas the margins are andesitic. Thus the chilled margins appear as a slightly more evolved liquid with a Newtonian behaviour when compared to the average composition of the dyke. The localization of the liquid on both sides of the dyke has certainly facilitated the ascent of the central part of the dyke that behaved as a Binghamian mush.

  6. Provenance of Permian Malužiná Formation sandstones (Hronicum, Western Carpathians: evidence from monazite geochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vozárová Anna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Permian Malužiná Formation and the Pennsylvanian Nižná Boca Formation are Upper Paleozoic volcano- sedimentary complexes in the Hronicum nappe system. Sandstones, shales and conglomerates are the dominant lithological members of the Malužiná Formation sequence. Detrital monazites were analysed by electron microprobe, to obtain Th-U-Pb ages of the source areas. The majority of detrital monazites showed Devonian-Mississippian ages, ranging from 330 to 380 Ma with a weighted average of 351 ± 3.3 (2σ, that correspond well with the main phase of arcrelated magmatic activity in the Western Carpathians. Only a small portion of detrital monazites displayed Permian ages in the range of 250-280 Ma, with a significant maximum around 255 Ma. The weighted average corresponds to 255 ± 6.2 Ma. These monazites may have been partially derived from the synsedimentary acid volcanism that was situated on the margins of the original depositional basin. However, some of the Triassic ages (230-240 Ma, reflect, most likely, the genetic relationship with the overheating connected with Permian and subsequent Triassic extensional regime. Detrital monazite ages document the Variscan age of the source area and also reflect a gradual development of the Hronicum terrestrial rift, accompanied by the heterogeneous cooling of the lithosphere.

  7. Agricultural land change in the Carpathian ecoregion after the breakdown of socialism and expansion of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widespread changes of agricultural land use occurred in Eastern Europe since the collapse of socialism and the European Union’s eastward expansion, but the rates and patterns of recent land changes remain unclear. Here we assess agricultural land change for the entire Carpathian ecoregion in Eastern Europe at 30 m spatial resolution with Landsat data and for two change periods, between 1985–2000 and 2000–2010. The early period is characterized by post-socialist transition processes, the late period by an increasing influence of EU politics in the region. For mapping and change detection, we use a machine learning approach (random forests) on image composites and variance metrics which were derived from the full decadal archive of Landsat imagery. Our results suggest that cropland abandonment was the most prevalent change process, but we also detected considerable areas of grassland conversion and forest expansion on non-forest land. Cropland abandonment was most extensive during the transition period and predominantly occurred in marginal areas with low suitability for agriculture. Conversely, we observed substantial recultivation of formerly abandoned cropland in high-value agricultural areas since 2000. Hence, market forces increasingly adjust socialist legacies of land expansive production and agricultural land use clusters in favorable areas while marginal lands revert to forest. (letter)

  8. Understanding Land Cover Changes in the Italian Alps and Romanian Carpathians Combining Remote Sensing and Stakeholder Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Malek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, socio-economic changes in Europe have had a significant effect on land cover changes, but it is unclear how this has affected mountain areas. We focus on two mountain areas: the eastern Italian Alps and the Romanian Curvature Carpathians. We classified land cover from Earth observation data after 1989 by using applied remote sensing techniques. We also analyzed socio-economic data and conducted semi-structured interviews with local stakeholders. In Italy, most of the land conversion processes followed long-term trends. In Romania, they took off with the sudden political changes after 1989. In both areas, forest expansion was the biggest, but potentially not the most consequential change. More consequential changes were urbanization in Italy and small-scale deforestation in Romania, since both increased the risk of hydro-meteorological hazards. Stakeholders’ views were an added value to the spatial analysis and vice versa. For example, stakeholders’ explanations resolved the seeming contradiction of decreased economic activity and increased urbanization (Italian site, as a consequence of secondary home building. Furthermore, spatial analysis revealed that urbanization in Romania was less significant with regard to consequences for the wider human-environment system than many stakeholders thought.

  9. Agricultural land change in the Carpathian ecoregion after the breakdown of socialism and expansion of the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Patrick; Müller, Daniel; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Hostert, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Widespread changes of agricultural land use occurred in Eastern Europe since the collapse of socialism and the European Union’s eastward expansion, but the rates and patterns of recent land changes remain unclear. Here we assess agricultural land change for the entire Carpathian ecoregion in Eastern Europe at 30 m spatial resolution with Landsat data and for two change periods, between 1985-2000 and 2000-2010. The early period is characterized by post-socialist transition processes, the late period by an increasing influence of EU politics in the region. For mapping and change detection, we use a machine learning approach (random forests) on image composites and variance metrics which were derived from the full decadal archive of Landsat imagery. Our results suggest that cropland abandonment was the most prevalent change process, but we also detected considerable areas of grassland conversion and forest expansion on non-forest land. Cropland abandonment was most extensive during the transition period and predominantly occurred in marginal areas with low suitability for agriculture. Conversely, we observed substantial recultivation of formerly abandoned cropland in high-value agricultural areas since 2000. Hence, market forces increasingly adjust socialist legacies of land expansive production and agricultural land use clusters in favorable areas while marginal lands revert to forest.

  10. Anomalously heavy monthly and seasonal precipitation in the Polish Carpathian Mountains and their foreland during the years 1881-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardosz, Robert; Cebulska, Marta; Walanus, Adam

    2015-08-01

    The paper addresses the frequency, amount and geographic coverage of anomalously heavy precipitation in southern Poland in relation to atmospheric circulation at the monthly and seasonal scales between 1881 and 2010. The Carpathian Mountains and their foreland were selected for the study as an area known for its high precipitation totals and frequent precipitation-triggered natural disasters, such as floods and landslides. Records from 18 stations were used to identify anomalously heavy precipitation (AHP) defined for the purposes of the study, as the top quartile (Q 75 %) plus 1.5 times the interquartile gap (H) of the precipitation total (P ≥ Q 75 % + 1.5H). The study found that most cases of AHP were recorded at one single station each. This suggests that, in addition, to the influence of circulation, local factors also play a major role in the formation of particularly heavy precipitation. The greatest absolute anomalously high precipitation totals were recorded in two disparate parts of the study area: (i) its western part exposed to wet air masses from over the Atlantic Ocean brought in by the dominant western circulation in the temperate zone and (ii) elevated parts of its south-eastern part. Two months with AHP (AHP months) occurred over the entire area (18 stations) in May 1940 and 2010. The latter case had both the greatest absolute totals (over 500 mm) and relative totals defined as their ratio to the long-term average (500 %), and it triggered a catastrophic flood in the Upper Vistula basin.

  11. Temperature Induced Instabilities in Macro-bend Fiber Based Wavelength Measurement Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Wang, Pengfei; Farrell, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of temperature-induced instabilities in a wavelength measurement system based on macro-bend fiber filter used in the ratiometric scheme are presented. Two wavelength measurement systems based on macro-bend fiber, a standard low bend loss single-mode fiber filter based system and a high bend loss fiber filter based system are considered. In the case of a low bend loss fiber filter based system, the oscillatory variation in the ratio response with temperature and the difference...

  12. Segmental Bridges under Combined Torsion, Bending and Shear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄真; 刘西拉

    2003-01-01

    Segmental bridges with unbonded prestressed tendons have some advantages, such as the weather independence and the corrosion protection of prestressing tendons. This paper analyzed the behavior of a prestressed segmental bridge with unbonded tendons under combined loading of torsion, bending and shear. According to the experiment research, a modified skew bending model was developed to calculate the bearing capacity of segmental bridges subjected to combined bending, shear and torsion. The finite element method was used to investigate the deflection behaviors of such structure, also to check the theoretical model. The theoretical and FEM research resuits were compared favorably with the test results from Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. Finally, suggestion for the design and construction of segmental bridges with external prestressing was made.

  13. Validity of fracture toughness determined with small bend specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers the validity of fracture toughness estimates obtained with small bend specimens in relation to fracture toughness estimates obtained with large specimens. The study is based upon the analysis and comparison of actual test results. The results prove the validity of the fracture toughness determined based upon small bend specimens, especially when the results are only used to determine the fracture toughness transition temperature To. In this case the possible error is typically less than 5 deg C and at most 10 deg C. It can be concluded that small bend specimens are very suitable for the estimation of fracture toughness in the case of brittle fracture, provided the results are corrected for statistical size effects. (orig.). (20 refs., 17 figs.)

  14. Strain localization and damage development in 2060 alloy during bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Jin; Bao-qin Fu; Cheng-lu Zhang; Wei Liu

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure evolution and damage development of the third-generation Al–Li alloy 2060 (T8) were studied using in situ bending tests. Specimens were loaded with a series of punches of different radii, and the microstructure evolution was studied by scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and digital image correlation (DIC) methods. The evolution of the microscopic fracture strain distribution and microstructure in 2060 alloy during bending was characterized, where the dispersion distribution of precipitates was recorded by backscattered electron imaging and later inputted into a DIC system for strain calculations. The experimental results showed that strain localization in the free surface of bent specimens induced damage to the microstructure. The region of crack initiation lies on the free surface with maximum strain, and the shear crack propagates along the macro-shear band in the early stages of bending. Crack propagation in the later stages was interpreted on the basis of the conventional mechanism of ductile fracture.

  15. Platonic scattering cancellation for bending waves in a thin plate

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, M.

    2014-04-10

    We propose an ultra-thin elastic cloak to control the scattering of bending waves in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. The cloak design makes use of the scattering cancellation technique applied, for the first time, to the biharmonic operator describing the propagation of bending waves in thin plates. We first analyze scattering from hard and soft cylindrical objects in the quasistatic limit, then we prove that the scattering of bending waves from an object in the near and far-field regions can be suppressed significantly by covering it with a suitably designed coating. Beyond camouflaging, these findings may have potential applications in protection of buildings from earthquakes and isolating structures from vibrations in the motor vehicle industry.

  16. Single crystal plasticity with bend-twist modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhodary, Khalil I.; Bakr, Mohamed A.

    2015-06-01

    In this work a formulation is proposed and computationally implemented for rate dependent single crystal plasticity, which incorporates plastic bend-twist modes that arise from dislocation density based poly-slip mechanisms. The formulation makes use of higher order continuum theory and may be viewed as a generalized micromechanics model. The formulation is then linked to the burgers and Nye tensors, showing how their material rates are derivable from a newly proposed third-rank tensor Λp, which incorporates a crystallographic description of bend-twist plasticity through selectable slip-system level constitutive laws. A simple three-dimensional explicit finite element implementation is outlined and employed in three simulations: (a) bi-crystal bending; (b) tension on a notched single crystal; and (c) the large compression of a microstructure to induce the plastic buckling of secondary phases. All simulation are transient, for computational expediency. The results shed light on the physics resulting from dynamic inhomogeneous plastic deformation.

  17. Contact and Bending Durability Calculation for Spiral-Bevel Gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakar, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to extend the capabilities of the gear contact analysis solver Calyx, and associated packages Transmission3D, HypoidFaceMilled, HypoidFaceHobbed. A calculation process for the surface durability was implemented using the Dowson-Higginson correlation for fluid film thickness. Comparisons to failure data from NASA's Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue rig were carried out. A bending fatigue calculation has been implemented that allows the use of the stress-life calculation at each individual fillet point. The gears in the NASA test rig did not exhibit any bending fatigue failure, so the bending fatigue calculations are presented in this report by using significantly lowered strength numbers.

  18. What bends wide-angle tailed radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the mechanism responsible for bending WAT sources. The actual bending of the radio tails results from an interaction between the intracluster medium (ICM) and the extended radio plasma. Pressure gradients within the ICM will distort the plasma flow from linearity. Such pressure gradients could be seen as asymmetries in the X-ray emission produced by the hot cluster gas. Unlike the large-scale structure, the inner X-ray emission has an anisotropic, egg-shape near the cD with the excess between the radio tails. The origin of this gas anisotropy and its implications for the bending of the 3C465 tails are briefly considered using four models. (Auth.)

  19. Flow resistance of ice slurry in bends and elbow pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezgoda-Żelasko, B.; Żelasko, J.

    2014-08-01

    The present paper covers the flow of ice slurry made of a 10.6% ethanol solution through small-radius bends and elbow pipes. The paper presents the results of experimental research on the flow resistances of Bingham-fluid ice slurry in bends and elbows. The research, performed for three pipe diameters and a relative bend radius of 1<=D/di<=2, has made it possible to take into consideration the influence of friction resistances as well the of the flow geometry on the total local resistance coefficients. The study attempts to make the local resistance coefficient dependent on the Dean number defined for a generalized Reynolds number according to Metzner-Reade

  20. Bending failure of laminated fibrous composite plates with a hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Y.W.; Yang, S.T. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-08-01

    This study investigates failure modes and failure strengths of laminated fibrous composite plates with stress concentration and subjected to bending loads. Graphite/epoxy composites are used for the present study. Lamina material properties, such as stiffness and strength, of the composite are determined from experiments. A series of four-point bending tests are conducted for laminated, graphite/epoxy composite plates with and without a hole to examine their failure modes and strengths. The paper compares different failure modes and strengths of various composite specimens. In addition, finite element analyses are performed to compute stress distributions around holes of the composite plates subjected to bending loads. Numerically predicted failure loads agree well with experimental results.

  1. Bend-twist coupling potential of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, Vladimir; Berggreen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    and tested on small-scale coupled composite beams. In the proposed method the coupling coefficient for a generic beam is introduced based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam formulation. By applying the developed method for analysis of a commercial wind turbine blade structure it is demonstrated that a bend......In the present study an evaluation of the potential for bend-twist coupling effects in wind turbine blades is addressed. A method for evaluation of the coupling magnitude based on the results of finite element modeling and full-field displacement measurements obtained by experiments is developed......-twist coupling magnitude of up to 0.2 is feasible to achieve in the baseline blade structure made of glass-fiber reinforced plastics. Further, by substituting the glass-fibers with carbon-fibers the coupling effect can be increased to 0.4. Additionally, the effect of introduction of bend-twist coupling into a...

  2. Photomechanical Bending of Azobenzene-Based Photochromic Molecular Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riku Matsui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microfibers composed of azobenzene-based photochromic amorphous molecular materials, namely low molecular-mass photochromic materials with a glass-forming property, could be fabricated. These fibers were found to exhibit mechanical bending motion upon irradiation with a laser beam. In addition, the bending direction could be controlled by altering the polarization direction of the irradiated light without changing the position of the light source or the wavelength of the light. In-situ fluorescence observation of mass transport induced at the surface of the fiber doped with CdSe quantum dots suggested that the bending motions were related with the photoinduced mass transport taking place near the irradiated surface of the fiber.

  3. Qualification of a motorized scanner for feeder bend inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will review the qualification of the Inspection System based on the motorized feeder bend-cracking crawler designed by IREQ and the inspection procedure COG-JP-4107- V43 developed by Hydro-Quebec and New-Brunswick Power. The mechanization of the inspection was necessary to address new concerns found after the discovery in 2003 of cracks on second bends and also the finding that several removed cracked bends had additional incipient OD cracks on the extrados. This document describes the apparatus, procedure and test-results that support the adequacy of the inspection system to meet the inspection specifications and the CSA N285.4 Standard. A review of the qualification process is included. A particular aspect of the work is the emphasis set on detecting OD flaws. Field results from PLGS and G-2 outages will be addressed. (author)

  4. In situ heat treatment of U-bends: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Row 1 nuclear steam generator tubes of mill annealed Alloy 600 tubing were stress relief annealed at 14500F for 15 minutes using a special internally placed flexible electrical resistance heater. The U-bends were strained to simulate differential thermal expansion stresses and tested for primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) resistance in two reference accelerated test environments (6800F high purity water and 7500F superheated steam), both of which contained hydrogen partial pressures. Prototypical axial throughwall cracking at the extrados of the irregular U-bend transition tangent was produced in base line, non-stress relieved U-bends, while no throughwall cracking occurred in any stress relieved sample. An improvement in PWSCC resistance due to this stress relief of at least a factor of 30 can be inferred for the 7/8 in. tubing material that was of a highly PWSCC susceptible heat. The 3/4 in. tubing material, which was more resistant to PWSCC in the mill annealed condition, exhibited an inferred factor in PWSCC resistance, due to the 14500F stress relief, or at least 11. The program identified and qualified a lower temperature, shorter time, stress relief cycle of 13000F for five minutes. Accelerated PWSCC testing in 7500F steam indicated that 7/8 in. OD U-bends stress relieved at 13000F for five minutes exhibit a resistance to PWSCC that is at least 100 times greater than as-bent samples that were readily cracked in the steam exposures. It is concluded that in-situ stress relief of mill annealed Alloy 600 nuclear steam generator U-bends is highly beneficial in reducing, or possibly eliminating, PWSCC at the U-bend tangent points where instances of PWSCC have been documented in operating plants. 10 refs., 44 figs., 16 tabs

  5. Bending of light in modified gravity at large distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2012-04-01

    We discuss the bending of light in a recent model for gravity at large distances containing a Rindler-type acceleration proposed by Grumiller [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 211303 (2010)10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.211303PRLTAO0031-9007]. We consider the static, spherically symmetric metric with cosmological constant Λ and Rindler-like term 2ar presented in this model, and we use the procedure by Rindler and Ishak [W. Rindler and M. Ishak, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 76, 043006 (2007).10.1103/PhysRevD.76.043006] to obtain the bending angle of light in this metric. Earlier work on light bending in this model by Carloni, Grumiller, and Preis [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 83, 124024 (2011)10.1103/PhysRevD.83.124024], using the method normally employed for asymptotically flat space-times, led to a conflicting result (caused by the Rindler-like term in the metric) of a bending angle that increases with the distance of closest approach r0 of the light ray from the centrally concentrated spherically symmetric matter distribution. However, when using the alternative approach for light bending in nonasymptotically flat space-times, we show that the linear Rindler-like term produces a small correction to the general relativistic result that is inversely proportional to r0. This will in turn affect the bounds on Rindler acceleration obtained earlier from light bending and casts doubts on the nature of the linear term 2ar in the metric.

  6. Bruce NGS B U-bend support stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam generators at Bruce NGS B have experienced a degree of tube fretting at the U-bend scalloped bar support locations. Investigation attributed the tube fretting to flow induced vibration induced wear as a result of U-bend supports which were too widely spaced (compared to current criteria), and insufficiently rigid. The paper describes the problem, the development of a stabilization configuration, its qualification, its installation tooling and procedures, and the installation of the initial trial assemblies. 4 refs., 9 figs

  7. Bending of solitons in weak and slowly varying inhomogeneous plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Abhik, E-mail: abhik.mukherjee@saha.ac.in; Janaki, M. S., E-mail: ms.janaki@saha.ac.in; Kundu, Anjan, E-mail: anjan.kundu@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2015-12-15

    The bending of solitons in two dimensional plane is presented in the presence of weak and slowly varying inhomogeneous ion density for the propagation of ion acoustic soliton in unmagnetized cold plasma with isothermal electrons. Using reductive perturbation technique, a modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation is obtained with a chosen unperturbed ion density profile. The exact solution of the equation shows that the phase of the solitary wave gets modified by a function related to the unperturbed inhomogeneous ion density causing the soliton to bend in the two dimensional plane, while the amplitude of the soliton remains constant.

  8. Solution structure of an A-tract DNA bend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D; Herbert, K; Zhang, X; Pologruto, T; Lu, P; Polgruto, T

    2001-03-01

    The solution structure of a DNA dodecamer d(GGCAAAAAACGG)/d(CCGTTTTTTGCC) containing an A-tract has been determined by NMR spectroscopy with residual dipolar couplings. The structure shows an overall helix axis bend of 19 degrees in a geometry consistent with solution and gel electrophoresis experiments. Fourteen degrees of the bending occurs in the GC regions flanking the A-tract. The remaining 5 degrees is spread evenly over its six AT base-pairs. The A-tract is characterized by decreasing minor groove width from the 5' to the 3' direction along the A strand. This is a result of propeller twist in the AT pairs and the increasing negative inclination of the adenine bases at the 3' side of the run of adenine bases. The four central thymine bases all have negative inclination throughout the A-tract with an average value of -6.1 degrees. Although this negative inclination makes the geometry of the A-tract different from all X-ray structures, the proton on N6 of adenine and the O4 of thymine one step down the helix are within distance to form bifurcated hydrogen bonds. The 5' bend of 4 degrees occurs at the junction between the GC flank and the A-tract through a combination of tilt and roll. The larger 3' bend, 10 degrees, occurs in two base steps: the first composed of tilt, -4.1 degrees, and the second a combination of tilt, -4.2 degrees, and roll, 6.0 degrees. This second step is a direct consequence of the change in inclination between an adjacent cytosine base, which has an inclination of -12 degrees, and the next base, a guanine, which has 3 degrees inclination. This bend is a combination of tilt and roll. The large change in inclination allows the formation of a hydrogen bond between the protons of N4 of the 3' cytosine and the O6 of the next 3' base, a guanine, stabilizing the roll component in the bend. These structural features differ from existing models for A-tract bends.For comparison, we also determined the structure of the control sequence, d

  9. Four point bending setup for characterization of semiconductor piezoresistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Arnoldus, Morten Berg; Hansen, Ole;

    2008-01-01

    We present a four point bending setup suitable for high precision characterization of piezoresistance in semiconductors. The compact setup has a total size of 635 cm3. Thermal stability is ensured by an aluminum housing wherein the actual four point bending fixture is located. The four point...... characterization. As a proof of concept, we show measurements of the piezocoefficient pi44 in p-type silicon at three different doping concentrations in the temperature range from T=30 °C to T=80 °C. The extracted piezocoefficients are determined with an uncertainty of 1.8%. ©2008 American Institute of Physics...

  10. Elastostatic bending of a bimaterial plate with a circular interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonna, Nkem

    2015-08-01

    The elastostatic bending of an arbitrarily loaded bimaterial plate with a circular interface is analysed. It is shown that the deflections in the composite solid are directly related to the deflection in the corresponding homogeneous material by integral and differential operators. It is further shown that, by a simple transformation of elastic constants, the Airy stress function induced in the composite by a stretching singularity can be deduced from the deflection induced by a bending singularity. This result is significant for reduction of mathematical labour and for systematic construction of solutions for more complex structures with circular geometry.

  11. Axisymmetrical bending of circular plates with eccentric stiffeners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small deflection bending theory of stiffened circular plates with uniformly spaced radial and circunferential ribs is presented. Equilibrium differential equations for the axisymmetric case, in terms of the displacements u and w of the middle surface of the plate are derived, and their general solutions are found. Closed form solutions for the circular plate with uniformly distributed bending moments along its edge are given for the special case in which geometrical and elastic properties of the ribs are constant and equal along both radial and circunferential directions. (Author)

  12. Ballistic thermoelectric properties in double-bend graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballistic thermoelectric properties in double-bend graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are investigated by using the nonequilibrium Green's function. We find that due to the elastic scattering caused by the interface mismatching, the thermal conductance contributed by phonons is greatly reduced, while ballistic transport behaviors for electrons are dramatically demolished, and even some gaps can be opened at antiresonance energies. Near these antiresonance gaps, the maximum value of ZT (ZTmax) can be observed, much larger than that for straight GNRs. Moreover, this ZTmax can be effectively tuned by modulating the length or width of double-bend GNRs.

  13. Origin of bending in uncoated microcantilever - Surface topography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide direct experimental evidence to show that difference in surface topography on opposite sides of an uncoated microcantilever induces bending, upon exposure to water molecules. Examination on opposite sides of the microcantilever by atomic force microscopy reveals the presence of localized surface features on one side, which renders the induced stress non-uniform. Further, the root mean square inclination angle characterizing the surface topography shows a difference of 73° between the opposite sides. The absence of deflection in another uncoated microcantilever having similar surface topography confirms that in former microcantilever bending is indeed induced by differences in surface topography

  14. Quasimolecular Dynamic Simulation for Bending Fracture of Laminar Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recently, quasimolecular dynamics has been successfully used to simulate the deformation characteristics of actual size solid materials. In quasimolecular dynamics, which is an attempt to bridge the gap between atomistic and continuum simulations, molecules are aggregated into large units, called quasimolecules, to evaluate large scale material behavior. In this paper, a 2-dimensional numerical simulation using quasimolecular dynamics was performed to investigate laminar composite material fractures and crack propagation behavior in the uniform bending of laminar composite materials. It was verified that under bending deformation laminar composite materials deform quite differently from homogeneous materials

  15. Influence of bending test configuration on cracking behavior of FRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finazzi, Silvia; Paegle, Ieva; Fischer, Gregor;

    2014-01-01

    (SFRC) and Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC), were tested and are described in this study. The materials were chosen so that one of them would be strain hardening (ECC) and the other tension softening (SFRC). Notched and un-notched three- and four-point bending tests were carried out to determine......This paper describes an investigation of the influence of the testing configuration for Fiber Reinforced Concrete in bending and aims at evaluating the influence of the test configuration details on the characterization of the material. Two different types of FRC, Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete...

  16. Test Equal Bending by Gravity for Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    For the simplest problem of gravity - a static, non-rotating, spherically symmetric source - the solution for spacetime bending around the Sun should be evenly split between time and space. That is true to first order in M/R, and confirmed by experiment. At second order, general relativity predicts different amounts of contribution from time and space without a physical justification. I show an exponential metric is consistent with light bending to first order, measurably different at second order. All terms to all orders show equal contributions from space and time. Beautiful minimalism is Nature's way.

  17. Nonstandard bending mechanism in Bi2Te3 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonstandard bending mechanism for layered Bi2Te3 single crystals is studied by their three-point loading in the direction perpendicular to the cleavage planes (0001). It is shown that the Bi2Te3 sample under the influence of external load acquires complex internal substructure analogous to the known mechanism two-dimensional plane-parallel spring-actuated suspension. Change in form of the sample bend from the V-type regular one for monolithic solid bodies to the Ω-type nonstandard from. 7 refs.; 5 figs

  18. Vegetation response to climate forcing during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation in the East Carpathians: attenuated response to maximum cooling and increased biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniko M. MAGYARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains were one of the main mountain reserves of the boreal and cool temperate flora during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM in East-Central Europe. Previous studies demonstrated late glacial vegetation dynamics in this area; however, our knowledge on the LGM vegetation composition is limited due to the scarcity of suitable sedimentary archives. Here we present a new record of vegetation, fire and lacustrine sedimentation from the youngest volcanic crater of the Carpathians (Lake St Anne, Lacul Sfânta Ana, Szent-Anna-tó to examine environmental change in this region during the LGM and the subsequent deglaciation. Our record indicates the persistence of boreal forest steppe vegetation (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Betula, Salix, Populus, Picea abies in the foreland and low mountain zone of the East Carpathians and Juniperus shrubland at higher elevation. We demonstrate attenuated response of the regional vegetation to maximum global cooling. Between ~22,870 and 19,150 cal yr BP we find increased regional biomass burning that is antagonistic with the global trend. Increased regional fire activity suggests extreme continentality likely with relatively warm and dry summers. We also demonstratexerophytic steppe expansion directly after the LGM, from ~19,150 cal yr BP, and regional increase in boreal woodland cover with Pinus and Betula from 16,300 cal yr BP. Plant macrofossils indicate local (950 m a.s.l. establishment of Betula nana and B. pubescens at 15,150 cal yr BP, Pinus sylvestris at 14,700 cal yr BP and Larix decidua at 12,870 cal yr BP. Pollen data furthermore hints at the regional presence of some temperate deciduous trees during the LGM (Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus. We also present pollen based quantitative climate reconstruction from this site and discuss its connection with other climate reconstructions and climate modeling results. 

  19. Vegetation and environmental responses to climate forcing during the Last Glacial Maximum and deglaciation in the East Carpathians: attenuated response to maximum cooling and increased biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, E. K.; Veres, D.; Wennrich, V.; Wagner, B.; Braun, M.; Jakab, G.; Karátson, D.; Pál, Z.; Ferenczy, Gy; St-Onge, G.; Rethemeyer, J.; Francois, J.-P.; von Reumont, F.; Schäbitz, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Carpathian Mountains were one of the main mountain reserves of the boreal and cool temperate flora during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in East-Central Europe. Previous studies demonstrated Lateglacial vegetation dynamics in this area; however, our knowledge on the LGM vegetation composition is very limited due to the scarcity of suitable sedimentary archives. Here we present a new record of vegetation, fire and lacustrine sedimentation from the youngest volcanic crater of the Carpathians (Lake St Anne, Lacul Sfânta Ana, Szent-Anna-tó) to examine environmental change in this region during the LGM and the subsequent deglaciation. Our record indicates the persistence of boreal forest steppe vegetation (with Pinus, Betula, Salix, Populus and Picea) in the foreland and low mountain zone of the East Carpathians and Juniperus shrubland at higher elevation. We demonstrate attenuated response of the regional vegetation to maximum global cooling. Between ˜22,870 and 19,150 cal yr BP we find increased regional biomass burning that is antagonistic with the global trend. Increased regional fire activity suggests extreme continentality likely with relatively warm and dry summers. We also demonstrate xerophytic steppe expansion directly after the LGM, from ˜19,150 cal yr BP, and regional increase in boreal woodland cover with Pinus and Betula from 16,300 cal yr BP. Plant macrofossils indicate local (950 m a.s.l.) establishment of Betula nana and Betula pubescens at 15,150 cal yr BP, Pinus sylvestris at 14,700 cal yr BP and Larix decidua at 12,870 cal yr BP. Pollen data furthermore support population genetic inferences regarding the regional presence of some temperate deciduous trees during the LGM (Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana, Fraxinus excelsior). Our sedimentological data also demonstrate intensified aeolian dust accumulation between 26,000 and 20,000 cal yr BP.

  20. INSIGHT, PSYCHOPATHOLOGY & SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrongh, K.P. Lincoln; Chandrasekaran, R.; Perme, Bojir

    2002-01-01

    25 inpatients with schizophrenia were examined to explore the relationship between insight and psychopathology and illness severity over a four-week period. The average degree of insight improved irrespective of the type of recovery. There was no consistent relationship between the changes in insight and changes in psychopathology. The severity of mental illness and awareness of mental disorder showed a semi-independent pattern of association. It is concluded that insight operates to some ext...

  1. Magnetic fabrics as markers of emplacement strain in shallow magma chambers and lava domes, Štiavnica volcano-plutonic complex, Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomek, Filip; Žák, J.; Chadima, Martin; Holub, F. V.; Verner, K.

    Prague : Czech Geological Survey, 2015 - (Hasalová, P.; Lexa, O.; Jeřábek, P.). s. 93-93 ISBN 978-80-7075-880-9. [CETEG 2015. Meeting of the Central European Tectonic Groups /13./. Meeting of the Czech Tectonic Studies Group /20./. 22.04.2015-25.04.2015, Kadaň] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : magnetic fabric * magma * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://petrol.natur.cuni.cz/ceteg/sites/default/files/images/pdf/abstract-volume-CETEG2015_online.pdf

  2. Bending strength model for internal spur gear teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Michael; Rubadeux, K. L.; Coe, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    Internal spur gear teeth are normally stronger than pinion teeth of the same pitch and face width since external teeth are smaller at the base. However, ring gears which are narrower have an unequal addendum or are made of a material with a lower strength than that of the meshing pinion may be loaded more critically in bending. In this study, a model for the bending strength of an internal gear tooth as a function of the applied load pressure angle is presented which is based on the inscribed Lewis constant strength parabolic beam. The bending model includes a stress concentration factor and an axial compression term which are extensions of the model for an external gear tooth. The geometry of the Lewis factor determination is presented, the iteration to determine the factor is described, and the bending strength J factor is compared to that of an external gear tooth. This strength model will assist optimal design efforts for unequal addendum gears and gears of mixed materials.

  3. Photoacoustic elastic bending in thin film—Substrate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical model for optically excited two-layer elastic plate, which includes plasmaelastic, thermoelastic, and thermodiffusion mechanisms, is given in order to study the dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) elastic bending signal on the optical, thermal, and elastic properties of thin film—substrate system. Thin film-semiconductor sample (in our case Silicon) is modeled by simultaneous analysis of the plasma, thermal, and elastic wave equations. Multireflection effects in thin film are included in theoretical model and analyzed. Relations for the amplitude and phase of electronic and thermal elastic bending in the optically excited two-layer mechanically-supported circular plate are derived. Theoretical analysis of the thermodiffusion, plasmaelastic, and thermoelastic effects in a sample-gas-microphone photoacoustic detection configuration is given. Two normalization procedures of the photoacoustic elastic bending signal in function of the modulation frequency of the optical excitation are established. Given theoretical model can be used for various photoacoustic detection configurations, for example, in the study of optical, thermal, and elastic properties of the dielectric-semiconductor or metal-semiconductor structure, etc., Theoretical analysis shows that it is possible to develop new noncontact and nondestructive experimental method—PA elastic bending method for thin film study, with possibility to obtain the optical, thermal, and elastic parameters of the film thinner than 1 μm

  4. Enhanced resolution of long-period grating bend sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Lars; Gao, S; Cook, K; Canning, J; Skipper, BF; Luo, Y; Peng, G; Kristensen, M

    2013-01-01

    We present an optical fiber bend sensor with enhanced resolution based on the principle of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in transmission. The sensor is based on two identical Long-Period Gratings separated by approximately 100 mm in a D-shaped single-mode optical fiber. The sensor provides a narrow...

  5. Electrical Reliability of a Film-Type Connection during Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Mitsui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the escalating demands for downsizing and functionalizing mobile electronics, flexible electronics have become an important aspect of future technologies. To address limitations concerning junction deformation, we developed a new connection method using a film-type connector that is less than 0.1 mm thick. The film-type connector is composed of an organic film substrate, a UV-curable adhesive that deforms elastically under pressure, and electrodes that are arranged on the adhesive. The film-type connection relies on a plate-to-plate contact, which ensures a sufficient contact area. The electrical reliability of the film-type connection was investigated based on changes in the resistance during bending at curvature radii of 70, 50, 25, 10, 5, and 2.5 mm. The connection was bent 1000 times to investigate the reproducibility of the connector’s bending properties. The tests showed that no disconnections occurred due to bending in the vertical direction of the electrode, but disconnections were observed due to bending in the parallel direction at curvature radii of 10, 5, and 2.5 mm. In addition, the maximum average change in resistance was less than 70 milliohms unless a disconnection was generated. These results support the application of the new film-type connection in future flexible devices.

  6. A Second Look at Brian Simon's "Bending the Rules"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In this article the author revisits an important book: Brian Simon's "Bending the Rules: the Baker reform of education." Written by a key figure in the history of the journal FORUM as well as in the history of education, Simon's book documented the features of the Education Reform Bill of 1987 (the precursor to the Education Reform Act…

  7. Multiphase fluid structure interaction in bends and T-joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cargnelutti, M.F.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Schiferli, W.; Osch, M.M.E. van

    2010-01-01

    Air-water experiments were carried out in a horizontal 1" pipe system to measure the magnitude of the forces induced by the multiphase flow. Forces and accelerations were measured on a number of bends and T-joint configurations for a wide range of operating conditions. Five different configurations

  8. Ultrathin 90-degree sharp bends for spoof surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yihao; Chen, Hongsheng; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger; Zhang, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    surface plasmons around 90-degree sharp bends on ultrathin metallic films in the microwave regime. We demonstrate that by judiciously engineering the structure, the dispersion relation can be designed to reduce the scattering. Furthermore, the reflection can be suppressed by proper structural decoration...

  9. A theoretical model for suspended sediment transport in river bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    A two dimensional depth-averaged model for the concentration field of suspended sediment in river bend flow is formulated. Transport of suspended sediment in horizontal and vertical directions is modelled. Convection by the main and secondary flow and turbulent diffusion are incorporated. The model

  10. A COMBINED HYBRID FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR PLATE BENDING PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-xiao Zhou; Xiao-ping Xie

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a combined hybrid method is applied to finite element discretization ofplate bending problems. It is shown that the resultant schemes are stabilized, i.e., theconvergence of the schemes is independent of inf-sup conditions and any other patch test.Based on this, two new series of plate elements are proposed.

  11. Optimal semi-active damping of cables with bending stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, C.; Weber, F.; Guzzella, L.

    2011-05-01

    The problem of optimal semi-active damping of cables with bending stiffness is investigated with an evolutionary algorithm. The developed damping strategy is validated on a single strand cable with a linear motor attached close to the anchor position. The motor is operated in force feedback mode during free decay of cable vibrations, during which time the decay ratios of the cable modes are measured. It is shown from these experiments that the damping ratios predicted in simulation are close to those measured. The semi-active damping strategy found by the evolutionary algorithm is very similar in character to that for a cable without bending stiffness, being the superposition of an amplitude-dependent friction and negative stiffness element. However, due to the bending stiffness of the cable, the tuning of the above elements as a function of the relevant cable parameters is greatly altered, especially for damper positions close to a fixed end anchor, where the mode shape depends strongly on bending stiffness. It is furthermore demonstrated that a semi-active damper is able to dissipate significantly more energy for a cable with simply supported ends compared to fixed ends due to larger damper strokes and thereby increased energy dissipation in the device.

  12. Cylindrical Bending of a Plate on an Elastic Foundation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gronát, Petr

    Ostrava : VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, 2011, C376-C393. ISBN 978-80-248-2257-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : elastic foundation * cylindrical bending Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  13. Basic Characteristics of a New Flexible Pneumatic Bending Joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Tiefeng; ZHANG Libin; BAO Guanjun; LUO Xinyuan; YANG Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Several typical flexible pneumatic actuators (FPA) and different mechanical models describing their behaviors have been proposed, however, it is difficult to balance compliance and load capacity in conventional designs, and these models still have limitations in predicting behavior of FPAs. A new flexible pneumatic bending joint (FPBJ) with special anisotropic rigidity structure is proposed. The FPBJ is developed as an improvement with regard to existing types of FPA, and its principal characteristic is derived from the special anisotropic rigidity structure. With this structure, the load capacity in the direction perpendicular to bending plane is strengthened. The structure of the new FPBJ is explained and a mathematical model is derived based on Euler-Bernoulli beam model and Hook’s law. To obtain optimum design and usage, some key structure parameters and input-output characteristics are simulated. The simulation results reveal that the relationship between the structure parameters and FPBJ’s bending angle is nonlinear. At last, according to the simulation results, the FPBJ is manufactured with optional parameters and tested. The experimental results show that the joint’s statics characteristics are reflected by the mathematical model accurately when the FPBJ is deflated. The maximum relative error between simulation and experimental results is less than 6%. However, the model still has limitations. When the joint is inflated, the maximum relative error reaches 20%. This paper proposes a new flexible pneumatic bending joint which has sufficient load capacity and compliance, and the mathematical model provides theoretical guidance for the FPBJ’s structure design.

  14. A Novel Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Using First Bending Hybrid Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel rotary piezoelectric motor using bending transducers in this work. Three transducers are used to drive a disk-shaped rotor together by the elliptical movements of their driving tips; these motions are produced by the hybrid of two first bending vibration modes. The proposed piezoelectric transducer has a simple structure as it only contains an aluminum alloy beam and four pieces of PZT plates. Symmetrical structure is the only necessary condition in the design process as it will ensure the resonance frequencies of the two orthogonal first bending modes are equal. Transducers with first bending resonance frequency of about 53 kHz were fabricated and assembled into a rotary motor. The proposed motor exhibits good performance on speed and torque control. Under a working frequency of 53.2 kHz, the maximum no-load speed and the maximum torque of the prototype are tested to be 53.3 rpm and of 27 mN·m.

  15. Tidal bending of glaciers: a linear viscoelastic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels; Christensen, Erik Lintz; Mayer, Christoph;

    2003-01-01

    glaciers are in the range 0.9-3 GPa. It has therefore been suggested that the elastic-beam model with a single value of E approximate to 1 GPa adequately describes tidal bending of glaciers.In contrast, laboratory experiments with ice give E =93 GPa, i.e. 3-10 times higher than the glacier-derived values...

  16. Space charge effects in a bending magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to examine problems and phenomena associated with space charge in a beam bending system, the beam dynamics code HICURB has been written. Its principal features include momentum variations, vertical and horizontal envelope dynamics coupled to the off-axis centroid, curvature effect on fields, and images. Preliminary results for an achromatic lattice configuration are presented

  17. Paleo-geomorphic evolution of the Ciomadul volcano (East Carpathians, Romania) using integrated volcanological, stratigraphical and radiometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karátson, Dávid; Wulf, Sabine; Veres, Daniel; Gertisser, Ralf; Telbisz, Tamás; Magyari, Enikö

    2016-04-01

    Ciomadul volcano is the youngest eruptive center of the Carpatho-Pannonian Region (CPR), located at the southernmost end of the Intra-Carpathian Volcanic Range, and within this, the Harghita Mountains in the East Carpathians. As a result of multi-disciplinary, ongoing studies (Karátson et al. 2013 and in review; Magyari et al. 2014; Veres et al. in prep.; Wulf et al. in review), we have obtained a number of constraints on the paleo-geomorphic evolution of the volcano. Our studies clarified that this volcano, a lava dome complex with a twin-crater (i.e. the older Mohos peat bog and the younger St. Ana lake), produced frequent explosive eruptions between 50 and 29 ky. As a result, a set of superimposed volcanic landforms were created, the chronology of which in some cases can be well constrained, in other cases further studies are required to infer their timing. Ciomadul evolved as a moderately explosive dacitic dome complex possibly for several hundred ka (see controversial chronology in Karátson et al. 2013, Harangi et al. 2015 and Szakács et al. 2015), resulting in a set of adjoining lava domes and a central complex. There is no evidence for crater-forming eruptions during that time, although the possibility of moderate explosions cannot be ruled out. Field relations show that the first exposive products are phreatomagmatic tuff series, called Turia type, dated at ca. 50 ka. These tephra units could be linked to the formation of a "Paleo-Mohos" crater, and possibly to the northern half-caldera rim which consists of massive lava dome rock and hosts Ciomadul Mare, the highest point of the volcano (1300 m). After this first explosive activity, volcanism seems to have migrated toward the W, at the site of the later St. Ana crater. Following plinian eruption(s) at ca. 47-43 ka, the explosive activity went dormant, and a lava dome might have grown up in a possibly small "Proto-St. Ana" crater. At 31-32 ka, a succession of violent magmatic explosive eruptions occurred

  18. Recent and past Saharan dust deposition in the Carpathian Basin and its possible effects on interglacial soil formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, György

    2016-04-01

    Several hundred tons of windblown dust material are transported every year from Saharan dust source areas into direction of Europe, modifying important climatic and other environmental processes of distant areas. North African aerosols have been also identified several times a year in the Carpathian Basin, where under the influence of certain synoptic meteorological conditions Saharan dust accumulation can clearly be observed. Previous satellite based studies were suitable to estimate the frequency and magnitude of Saharan dust episodes in the investigation area, however, the assessment of North African dust deposition can be done with model simulations. In this study, calculations were made by using the data of BSC-DREAM8b (Barcelona Supercomputing Center's Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) v1.0 and v2.0 database. Simulation results of the BSC-DREAM8b v1.0 are available from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2012, while the results of the updated v2.0 calculations are ready for the period between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2014. BSC DREAM8b v1.0 model simulations for the period between 2000 and 2012 provided an annual mean of 0.0285 g/m2/y dry and 0.034 g/m2/y wet deposition values in the Carpathian Basin, which is equivalent to a total of 0.0636 g/m2/y. The updated v2.0 version for the period of 2006-2014 gave significantly larger values: 0.133 g/m2/y dry; 0.085 g/m2/y wet and 0.219 g/m2/y total annual dust deposition. By comparing the results of the overlapping period between 2006 and 2012 of the v1.0 and v2.0 simulations, the updated depositional scheme of the newer version provided ˜3.7-fold values in case of dry deposition and ˜1.9-fold increase in results of the wet deposition. Information available from individual events showed that the simulated wet and dry dust deposition rates are significantly underestimated. This is also suggested by previous model calculations which reported values between 5 and 10 g/m2/y for modern dust flux in the investigated area

  19. Study of transmission properties for waveguide bends by use of a circular photonic crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Sanshui; Qiu, Min

    2005-01-01

    We study the transmission properties for the waveguide bends composed by a circular photonic crystal. Two types (Y and U type) of the waveguide bends utilizing the circular photonic crystal are studied. It has been shown, compared with the conventional photonic crystal waveguide bends, transmission properties for these bends can be significantly improved. Over a 6.4% bandwidth, less than 1-dB loss/bend are observed. U bent waveguide, i.e., $180^o$ bend, can be easily realized with low loss us...

  20. Carbonate cements and grains in submarine fan sandstones—the Cergowa Beds (Oligocene, Carpathians of Poland) recorded by cathodoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszonka, Joanna; Wendorff, Marek

    2016-03-01

    The cathodoluminescence (CL) observations with cold cathode, supplemented by reconnaissance scanning electron microscope analyses, bring new data on petrology, provenance and diagenesis of the Oligocene-age Cergowa sandstones from the Outer Carpathians (SE Poland). The sandstones represent a variety of mass gravity flow sediments deposited on a submarine fan, which now forms a lenticular lithosome—a part of the Menilite Beds-Krosno Beds suite important for the hydrocarbons industry. The most common components of the Cergowa sandstones observed under the CL are carbonates—cement and grains that are mainly represented by lithoclasts. Carbonate cement is represented by five generations: brown (Cb), orange (Co), yellow (Cy), zoned (Cz) and black (Ck). Pore-filling Cb and Co calcite cements are interpreted as genetically related to eo- and mesodiagenetic phases. The mesodiagenetic phase is characterised by randomly distributed relatively large monocrystalline-zoned rhombs of dolomite cement (Cz) and ankerite/ferroan dolomite (Ck). The telodiagenetic phase is represented by pore-filling yellow calcite (Cy) that crystallised under the influence of suboxic meteoric waters. Lithoclasts represent six microfacies of carbonate rocks eroded in the source area, i.e. microbreccia, tectonised immature calcarenite/wacke, microsparite, sparite, biomicrosparite/packstone and dolostone. Pronounced indentations of terrigenous sand grains into intraclasts of packstone/biomicrosparite, coupled with commonly present similar packstone-type matrix, suggest that a significant part of matrix resulted from compaction of soft biomicrosparite grains. Terrigenous grains bound by calcite cement are commonly corroded by acidic diagenetic fluids, and partial or even complete replacement of silicates by calcite and clay minerals is illustrated here by feldspar grains. Substantial carbonate cementation has resulted in both the significant hardness and abrasion resistance of the Cergowa sandstones

  1. Subsolidus alkali metasomatism in the metamorphosed Ordovician acid volcanics and volcaniclastics of the Gelnica Group (Gemeric Superunit, Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Šimurková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Early Paleozoic Gelnica Group (Gemeric Superunit, Western Carpathians is composed of low-grade metamorphosed flysch-like sedimentary complexes alternated with volcanogenic complexes built up mostly by acid volcaniclastic rocks. Volcaniclastic rocks and small rhyolite bodies Ordovician in age underwent subsolidus alkali metasomatism locally overprinted by multiple stages of younger metamorphic and hydrothermal alterations. The observed variability in chemical compositions indicates that the most of acid volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks experienced potassic or sodium metasomatic alteration, the unaltered or Mg-metasomatised rocks occur less frequently. The dominating K-metasomatism is related mainly to the K-feldspar, partly also biotite and muscovite/sericite formation at the expense of matrix or original feldspar phenocrysts. The Na-metasomatism is connected with albite formation. The highest concentrations of alkalies (up to 13.52 wt. % K2O and 7.08 wt. % Na2O respectively have been found in rocks originally represented by glassy dacites. The elements like Al, Ti and Zr remain immobile in alkaline metasomatic processes in contrast to Rb or metals. Based on the results from areas with analogical geological structure and evolution, especially the Bergslagen area in Sweden, we suppose that alkali metasomatism in the Gelnica Group is a product of hydrothermal system caused by the infiltration and circulation of sea water. The areas with K-, Na- or Mg-metasomatism represent different parts of the original hydrothermal system, where the K-metasomatism was probably its lower temperature section. This hydrothermal system probably mobilised some metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn for the formation of stratiform sulfide and oxide mineralizations or served as the metal pre-concentrator for younger siderite-sulfide vein deposits.

  2. Distribution, Morphology, and Chemical Composition of Fe-Mn Nodules in Albeluvisols of the Carpathian Foothills, Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.SZYMA(N)SKI; M.SKIBA

    2013-01-01

    Iron and manganese oxides are common components of soils.They frequently occur in nodules constituting important soil sorbents and play a crucial role in a number of chemical reactions in the soil environment.In addition,the oxides are very sensitive to environmental changes (moisture,pH,Eh) constituting important indicators of soil-forming processes and water movement in the landscape.The objectives of the study were:i) to examine the distribution and size of Fe-Mn nodules in Albeluvisols containing a fragipan horizon; ii) to determine the morphology and chemical composition of the nodules,and iii) to estimate the effect of the fragipan horizon on water movement within the soil profile.An investigation was carried out on five soil profiles containing a fragipan horizon and classified as Fragic Albeluvisols within the Carpathian Foothills in Poland.In the Albeluvisols studied,the maximum concentration of Fe-Mn nodules occurred in the horizon lying directly on the fragipan horizon.This suggests that the pan acts as a natural barrier restricting water infiltration and leads to the seasonal development of a perched water table promoting redox processes.The most common are coarse (1-0.5 mm) and medium (0.5-0.25 mm) irregular Fe-Mn nodules showing a gradual boundary and undifferentiated internal fabric.Eluvial horizons contained also larger amounts of round and dense nodules with a sharp boundary,suggesting frequent oxidation and reduction.The fragipan horizon contained mainly irregular and soft nodules,suggesting longer saturation with water during the year.Concentrations of trace elements (Cu,Zn) and P were higher within Fe-Mn nodules than in the surrounding soil materials,showing that iron and manganese oxides adsorbed and immobilised these elements.

  3. Natural radioactivity in underground water from the Outer Carpathians in Poland with the use of nuclear spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations of natural radioactivity in underground mineral water and spring water in health resorts in the Outer Carpathians were performed. Samples from 40 water springs were collected 3-4 times over a period of 10 years (1997-2007). In order to obtain necessary data, two different nuclear spectrometry techniques were applied: WinSpectral α/β 1414 liquid scintillation counter from Wallac and α-spectrometer 7401 VR from Canberra-Packard, USA with the silicon surface barrier detector. The activity concentrations of 222Rn in the investigated samples varied from below 1 to 50 Bq/l. For radium isotopes the concentrations were in a range from below 10 to 490 mBq/l for 226Ra and from 29 to 397 mBq/l for 228Ra. The highest concentrations for both radium isotopes were obtained for medicinal water Zuber III from Krynica spa. The activity concentrations for uranium isotopes varied from below 0.5 to 16 mBq/l for 238U and from below 0.5 to 162 mBq/l for 234U with the highest values obtained for water Zuber IV. The highest annual effective dose arising from mainly radium isotopes was obtained for Zuber III water and was equal to 75 μSv/yr. Additionally, the annual effective doses due to 222Rn consumed with water were also estimated. The isotopic ratios between isotopes originating from the same decay chain (234U/238U, 226Ra/238U) and from different radioactive decay chains (226Ra/228Ra) were determined. The correlations between different isotopes were presented.

  4. Soil and saproxylic species (Coleoptera, Collembola, Araneae in primeval forests from the northern part of South-Easthern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Nitu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006-2007 we carried out faunal investigations in the vernal, estival and autumnal seasons in the scientific reserve "Codrul Secular Giumalãu" using quantitative sampling methods. We identified 189 species of Coleoptera, 70 of Collembola and 20 of Araneae. Of these, 11 phytophagous, 18 myceto/xylo-mycetophagous,9 mixophagous, 18 xylo- and cambio-xylemophagous, 38 saproxylophagous,125 (55 Coleoptera, 70 Collembola detritivorous (sapro-, copro- andnecrophagous, 60 (40 Coleoptera, 20 Aranea predators/parasitoids. Hymenaphorura polonica Pomorski, 1990 (Collembola, and Leiodes rhaeticus Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, are recorded for the first time in the Romanian fauna. The rare species and characteristic species for the old primeval spruce forests are analysed for each studied taxonomic group. The species richness and faunal diversity from the Giumalãu primeval spruce forest are compared with those of other very well preserved forests from the Carpathians scientific reserves (Codrul Secular Slãtioara,Pietrosul Rodnei. The species abundances were used to compute the similarity indexes between the sampled sectors of forest and to perform Cluster Analysis. We observed that the dead wood in the 2nd-6th phases of decomposition has a great influence not only on the saproxylic species but also on the soil fauna like ground beetles(Carabidae that use the logs as ecologic microrefuges (winter refugees or diurnal refugees. The structure of the soil fauna is influenced by wood extraction from the forest ecosystem or by natural perturbations, this consisting in the appearance of opportunistic species as Orchesella pontica (Collembola and in decreasing ofspecies richness of Carabidae (Coleoptera.

  5. Interglacial-glacial cycles recorded in the deposit sequence at Kruzhyky on the Dniester River (East Carpathian Foreland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łanczont, Maria; Boguckyj, Aandrij; Mroczek, Przemysław; Zieliński, Paweł; Jacyszyn, Andrij; Pidek, Agnieszka I.; Urban, Danuta; Kulesza, Piotr; Hołub, Beata

    2010-01-01

    Palaeogeographic investigations were carried out in the Kruzhyky site, which is situated in the East Carpathian Foreland, in the Dniester River valley, on the terrace 5 composed of the Mesopleistocene fluvial, glacigenic and aeolian deposits (Figs 1 and 2). These deposits are exposed along the section about 150 m long of the 15-17-metre-high river bank. In the undercutting of the Dniester River high bank the following five deposit complexes were described (Figs 3 and 4): 1. Fluvial complex-gravelly-sandy fining-up sequence. The Carpathian gravels with massive structure or faint horizontal stratification are covered by gravelly sands and sands with trough cross-stratification. They are overlain by sands and silts with ripple lamination merging into flaser lamination. These sediments were deposited as a result of rapid fall of flood in gravel-bed braided river. Gravel fractions represent deposition in longitudinal bars during high-energy flood flows, and sandy-gravelly and sandy-silty fractions-in channels between bars during waning flow (in the lower flow regime), at low river stages. 2. Fluvial-flood complex-package of alternating deformed clays with massive structure or faint lamination and silts with horizontal lamination. A lens, separated by erosion surface, occurs laterally. It is mostly composed of non-carbonate clays with numerous plant macroremnants, strongly gleyed, with interbeddings of sand. The silty-clayey complex was deposited from suspension, most probably after floods in depressions on floodplain. The lens of organogenic material (Fig. 5, Tables 3 and 4) is probably the result of deposition in cut off shallow channel (a kind of muddy depression) with periodically active weak flow. Based on the palaeobiological (pollen, macroremnants, Ostracoda) analyses of the deposits filling the reservoir, we find that it existed in cold climate and was surrounded with scarce sedge vegetation. 3. Proglacial complex-sandy-silty rhythmite composed of sands with

  6. Minor counterclockwise rotation of the Tatra Mountains (Central Western Carpathians) as derived from paleomagnetic results achieved in hematite-bearing Lower Triassic sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaniawski, Rafał; Ludwiniak, Mirosław; Rubinkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    Paleomagnetic studies accompanied with tectonic fieldworks have been carried out within hematite-bearing Lower Triassic red beds from the Tatra Mountains (Central Western Carpathians) in order to determine tectonic rotations of regional scale. The studied rocks contain primary remanent magnetization recorded by hematite and display both polarities. The obtained inclination is slightly lower than expected for stable Europe, which could imply either minor latitudinal separation or come from the inclination error. The results from six sampling sites representing rocks situated in autochthonous cover of the crystalline basement and inclined only during the Neogene uplift imply 19° counterclockwise rotation. Considering the tectonic position of the studied rocks, this rotation could be attributed to the entire Tatra Block. In turn, results from rocks tilted in two tectonic events: during Late Cretaceous compression and further in Neogene uplift requires double tectonic correction as normal unfolding procedure results in spurious declination. It is suggested that the latter mechanism together with local rotations of allochthonous nappes may explain part of variable rotations reported in previous paleomagnetic studies of Mesozoic rocks from the Central Western Carpathians.

  7. EDUCATIONAL AUTHENTIC VIDEO RESOURCES AS AN ESSENTIAL METHOD OF STUDYING ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION AND INTONATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Sydoriv

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of teaching and learning the English language for young pupils at mountainous areas of Ukrainian Carpathians. During the first two decades of the third millennium the decline of educational and social services financing is seen in Ukraine. The results of this is very noticeable in the mountains schooling: closure of schools, lack of school buses, poor supply of equipment and studying materials, extra-long winter holidays because of low temperature in classrooms. The demographic factor is also important: many parents are forced to migrate abroad in order to support their children in the Eastern Carpathian villages. At the same time there is a growth in the use of ICT. The internet coverage leaves much to be desired but the situation is expected to be gradually improved. The schools are still use outdated computing and video equipment, although some enthusiastic teachers and students are willing to use own portable video devices in order to study English and learn to communicate effectively at school and home. The article emphasizes some important aspects of using authentic video resources to teach pronunciation and intonation.

  8. Conception of ecological strategy «Olympic sport for maintainance of nature» during leadthrough of winter Olympic Games 2022 in Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsyganenko O.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is conducted scientific and to scientifically-methodical literatures on issue of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiads. Conception of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiad is developed 2022 (Ukraine, Carpathians. It was offered, that ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of Olympiad had an ecological motto «Olympic sport for the maintainance of nature». Strategy included the ways of decision of problem of negative influence of global change of climate on the olympic winter types of sport. The problems of providing of ecological safety of sporting activity are considered in relation to a man and wild-life. Solution is offered questions of the ecological marketing, management and ecological inlightening. The ecological ground of choice of Lvov is conducted as a city of organizer of winter Olympiad 2022. As a mountain-skier center a mountain-skier complex Borzhava, located in the area Carpathians of Ukraine, is offered.

  9. Magnetic fabric and petrology of Miocene sub-volcanic sills and dykes emplaced into the SW Flysch Belt of the West Carpathians (S Moravia, Czech Republic) and their volcanological and tectonic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrouda, F.; Buriánek, D.; Krejčí, O.; Chadima, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 290, č. 1 (2015), s. 38. ISSN 0377-0273 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Miocene volcanics * Outer Western Carpathian Flysch belt * magnetic fabric Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.543, year: 2014

  10. Influence of Additional Tensile Force on Springback of Tube Under Rotary Draw Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Daxin; Guan, Zhiping; Chen, Jisheng

    2012-11-01

    According to the characteristics of tube under rotary draw bending, the formulae were derived to calculate the springback angles of tubes subjected to combined bending and additional tension. Especially, as the neutral layer (NL) moves to the inner concave surface of the bend, the analytical values agree very well with the experimental results. The analysis shows that the additional tensile force causes the movement of the NL toward the bending center and makes the deformation behavior under rotary draw bending or numerically controlled (NC) bending different with that under pure bending, and also it could enlarge the springback angle if taking the movement of the NL into consideration. In some range, the springback angle would increase slightly with larger wall thickness/diameter ratio and decrease with wall thinning. The investigation could provide reference for the analysis of rotary draw bending, the design of NC tube bender and the related techniques.

  11. Analytical insights into optimality and resonance in fish swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohannim, Saba; Iwasaki, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides analytical insights into the hypothesis that fish exploit resonance to reduce the mechanical cost of swimming. A simple body-fluid fish model, representing carangiform locomotion, is developed. Steady swimming at various speeds is analysed using optimal gait theory by minimizing bending moment over tail movements and stiffness, and the results are shown to match with data from observed swimming. Our analysis indicates the following: thrust-drag balance leads to the Strouhal number being predetermined based on the drag coefficient and the ratio of wetted body area to cross-sectional area of accelerated fluid. Muscle tension is reduced when undulation frequency matches resonance frequency, which maximizes the ratio of tail-tip velocity to bending moment. Finally, hydrodynamic resonance determines tail-beat frequency, whereas muscle stiffness is actively adjusted, so that overall body-fluid resonance is exploited. PMID:24430125

  12. Optimization of Bending Process Parameters for Seamless Tubes Using Taguchi Method and Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Chang Lin; Kingsun Lee

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional tube (or pipe) is manufactured by CNC tube bending machine. The key techniques are determined by tube diameter, wall thickness, material, and bending radius. The obtained technique through experience and the trial and error method is unreliable. Finite element method (FEM) simulation for the tube bending process before production can avoid wasting manpower and raw materials. The computer-aided engineering (CAE) software ABAQUS 6.12 is applied to simulate bending characte...

  13. An All-fiber Temperature Sensor Based on a Macro-bend Singlemode Fiber Loop

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    An all-fibre temperature sensor is proposed based on a macro-bend singlemode fibre loop using a ratiometric power measurement scheme. The sensor has a linear characteristic with temperature at a fixed wavelength and bend radius. A direct linear relationship between the bend loss of the singlemode fibre and temperature is reported for the first time. By measuring the change in bend loss of the system a change in temperature can be measured assuming the system is calibrated. The proposed sensor...

  14. Novel low-loss 60° bends in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Morten; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Harpøth, Anders; Zhuang, Y. X.; Kristensen, Martin; Bogaerts, W; Dumon, P; Baets, Roel; Wiaux, V; Wouters, J; Beckx, S

    2004-01-01

    A novel type of 60 degree photonic crystal waveguide bend has been designed, simulated and fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material utilizing deep ultraviolet lithography. Loss-free bending has been observed in certain wavelength regions.......A novel type of 60 degree photonic crystal waveguide bend has been designed, simulated and fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material utilizing deep ultraviolet lithography. Loss-free bending has been observed in certain wavelength regions....

  15. Local and Global Light Bending in Einstein's and Other Gravitational Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, J.; Rindler, W.

    1997-01-01

    To remedy a certain confusion in the literature, we stress the distinction between local and global light bending. Local bending is a purely kinematic effect between mutually accelerating reference frames tracking the same signal, and applies via Einstein's equivalence principle exactly and equally in Newton's, Einstein's, Nordström's and other gravitational theories, independently of all field equations. Global bending, on the other hand, arises as an integral of local bending and depends cr...

  16. Oedipus and insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, R

    1986-10-01

    Insight is a core concept in psychoanalytic theory. The Oedipus myth has been a central metaphor in the evolution of psychoanalytic theory, particularly the psychoanalytic theory of development. Similarly, Sophocles' drama, its relation to the myth, and its repeated reinterpretation throughout the ages provide a valuable metaphor for our understanding of the role of insight in psychoanalysis and in development. We may have underestimated the importance of insight in normal development while oversimplifying its significance as an agent of therapeutic change. PMID:3797556

  17. Dreaming and insight

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Christopher L; Perrine Marie RUBY; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to ...

  18. Emittance dilution through coherent energy spread generation in bending systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a bunched beam, coherent energy spread generated within a bending system may couple to the transverse (bending) plane coordinates through the chromatic transfer functions of the particular beamline - even an achromatic beamline. The resulting transverse emittance dilution is dependent on the magnitude of the energy spread, its generation rate along the beamline, and the beamline's chromatic transfer functions. The coherent energy spread may be due to resistive-wall wakefields or coherent synchrotron radiation. For specific beamlines, such as a periodic arc or wiggler, the longitudinal-to-transverse coupling is minimal and, in ideal cases, completely suppressed resulting in reduction or cancellation of all transverse emittance dilution effects. This is of particular interest for micro-bunch transport or compression systems such as exist in future FEL or linear collider projects

  19. Effect of Accelerated Global Expansion on Bending of Light

    CERN Document Server

    Aghili, Mir Emad; Bombelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 Rindler and Ishak showed that, contrary to previous claims, the value of the cosmological constant does have an effect on light deflection by a gravitating object in an expanding universe, modeled by a Schwarzschild-de~Sitter spacetime. In this paper we consider light bending in the more general situation of a gravitating object in a cosmological background with varying expansion rate $H(t)$. We calculate numerically the null geodesics representing light rays deflected by a black hole in an accelerating Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker universe, modeled by a McVittie metric. Keeping the values of the distances from the observer to the lensing object and to the source fixed, we plot the dependence of the bending angle measured by two different sets of observers in this spacetime on the rate of change of $H(t)$.

  20. Elasticity solutions for functionally graded plates in cylindrical bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo; DING Hao-jiang; CHEN Wei-qiu

    2008-01-01

    The plate theory of functionally graded materials suggested by Mian and Spencer is extended to analyze the cylindrical bending problem of a functionally graded rectangular plate subject to uniform load. The expansion formula for displacements is adopted. While keeping the assumption that the material parameters can vary along the thickness direction in an arbitrary fashion, this paper considers orthotropic materials rather than isotropic materials. In addition, the traction-free condition on the top surface is replaced with the condition of uniform load applied on the top surface. The plate theory for the particular case of cylindrical bending is presented by considering an infinite extent in the y-direction. Effects of boundary conditions and material inhomogeneity on the static response of functionally graded plates are investigated through a numerical example.

  1. Transfer matrices of dipoles with bending radius variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing demand of high brightness in light source, the uniform dipole can not meet the needs of low emittance, and thus the dipole with bending radius variation is introduced in this paper. The transfer matrix of a non-uniform dipole whose bending radius is linearly changed is chosen as an example and a very simple calculation formula of non-uniform dipole transfer matrices is given. The transfer matrices of some common profile non-uniform dipoles are also listed. The comparison of these transfer matrices and the matrices calculated with slices method verifies the numerical accuracy of this formula. This method can make the non-uniform beam dynamic problem simpler, very helpful for emittance research and lattice design with non-uniform dipoles.

  2. Coupled Torsional and Bending Vibrations of Actively Controlled Drillstrings

    Science.gov (United States)

    YIGIT, A. S.; CHRISTOFOROU, A. P.

    2000-06-01

    The dynamics of actively controlled drillstrings is studied. The equations of motion are derived using a lumped parameter model in which the coupling between torsional and bending vibrations is considered. The model also includes the dynamics of the rotary drive system which contains the rotary table, the gearbox and an armature controlled DC motor. The interactions between the drillstring and the borehole which are considered, include the impacts of collars with the borehole wall as well as bit rotation-dependent weight and torque on bit (WOB and TOB). Simulation results obtained by numerically solving the equations of motion are in close qualitative agreement with field and laboratory observations regarding stick-slip oscillations. A linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is designed based on a linearized model and is shown to be effective in eliminating this type of oscillations. It is also shown that for some operational parameters the control action may excite large bending vibrations due to coupling with the torsional motion.

  3. An approach to the hot bending process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to the simulation of the thermal shaping or bending of large steel sheets, by ABAQUS/Standard code, will be presented. A thermal source representation, which can produce a temperature distribution, adequate to the processes which must be considered, has been set up. Some problems connected with the hot sheet shaping or bending process simulation have been approached and calculations have been executed in order to single out how to perform the sheet heating, so that the required sheet shape may be obtained. The results for one reference model for different source situations and one heating line, object of the first phase of the analyses performed, will be presented and discussed. The work will be presented at the 8th International Abaqus Users' Conference at Paris, 31 May - 2 June 1995

  4. Bending and rotational behaviour of semi-continuous composite beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Stresses and deflections were measured in various semi-continuous composite beams.The bending and rotational capacities of the composite connections were measured in terms of beam curvatures and deflections by using two full-scale semi-rigid composite frames with monotonic loadings.The effect of semi-rigid connections on the performance of composite beams with various loadings was compared with predictions and codes.The tests show that the semi-continuous composite beams are more economic and effective than the simple or continuous composite beams.The semi-rigid connections affect the bending capacities and beam deflections,so the connection behavior should be considered in the design of composite beams.Yielding analysis of the steel beam bottom flange has some influence on the deflection calculation of composite beams.

  5. Flow resistance in a compound gravel-bed bend

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein Afzalimehr; Manouchehr Heidarpour; Alireza Salimi

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of a gravel-bed in a compound bend (similar to sinusoidal top view) of a natural river (Zayandehrud River flowing through Isfahan, Iran) has been investigated for flow resistance analysis, measuring the velocity with a micro current meter. The data were analysed and the following observations were made. In a compound bend, the law of the wall can be valid for up to 66% of the flow depth from the bed. The parabolic law is the most effective method for the determination of shear velocity. Based on the existing criteria for verifying the equilibrium boundary layer, the flow cannot be in equilibrium. The shear stress distribution and the sediment transport parameters have considerable influence on resistance to flow. Froude number and the flow depth relative to the representative gravel size have little effect on the flow resistance estimation.

  6. Pure Bending Characteristic of Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Liu; Yin-Ping Miao; Hai-Bin Zhou; Qi-Da Zhao

    2008-01-01

    a novel structure of the pure macro-bending sensor based on the tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is proposed. The TFBG located in the half circle with the different diameters is bent at a constant angle with respect to the tilted grating planes. With the variations of the curvature, the core-mode resonance is unchanged and the transmission power of cladding modes detected by the photodiodes varies linearly with curvature, while the ghost mode changes by the form of two-order polynomial. So we can use the transmission power of ghost mode or other cladding modes to detect bending curvature as shape sensor. From a practical point of view, the sensor proposed here is simple, low cost and easy to implement. Moreover, it is possible to make a temperature-insensitive shape sensor due to the same temperature characteristic between the core mode and the cladding modes.

  7. NUMERICAL MODELING OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN CHANNEL BENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Sui-liang; JIA Y. F.; WANG Sam S. Y.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm to compute three-dimensional sediment transport effect was proposed in this paper to enhance the capability of depth-averaged numerical models. This algorithm took into account of non-uniform distributions of flow velocities and suspended sediment concentrations along water depth, it significantly enhanced the applicability of 2D models in simulating open channel flows, especially in channel bends. Preliminary numerical experiments in a U-shaped and a sine-generated experimental channel indicate that the proposed method performs quite well in predicting the change of bed-deformation in channel bends due to suspended sediment transport. This method provides an effective alternative for the simulations of channel morphodynamic changes.

  8. Analytical dynamic modeling of fast trilayer polypyrrole bending actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical modeling of conjugated polymer actuators with complicated electro-chemo-mechanical dynamics is an interesting area for research, due to the wide range of applications including biomimetic robots and biomedical devices. Although there have been extensive reports on modeling the electrochemical dynamics of polypyrrole (PPy) bending actuators, mechanical dynamics modeling of the actuators remains unexplored. PPy actuators can operate with low voltage while producing large displacement in comparison to robotic joints, they do not have friction or backlash, but they suffer from some disadvantages such as creep and hysteresis. In this paper, a complete analytical dynamic model for fast trilayer polypyrrole bending actuators has been proposed and named the analytical multi-domain dynamic actuator (AMDDA) model. First an electrical admittance model of the actuator will be obtained based on a distributed RC line; subsequently a proper mechanical dynamic model will be derived, based on Hamilton's principle. The purposed modeling approach will be validated based on recently published experimental results

  9. About resonance frequencies of aluminium alloy bending vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using ultrasonic method resonance frequencies of bending vibrations and elastic moduli of aluminium alloy SAV-1 samples are investigated. On the base of spectra of bending vibrations in low-frequency range data on values of a number of elastic properties are obtained as well as dispersion characteristics of main moduli for number of frequencies before and after ionizing irradiation (60Co, 5x103-1.6x107 Gy) of samples. Considerable stability of sample elastic moduli during common storage conditions and nonlinear dose dependence of these parameters within wide range of absorbed doses are pointed out. Possible causes of revealed effects of radiation modification of elastic properties of SAV-1 alloy are analyzed

  10. BENDING-SHEAR INTERACTION OF LONGITUDINALLY STIFFENED GIRDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Beg, Darko; Sinur, Franc

    2011-01-01

    To understand behaviour of longitudinally stiffened plated girders subjected to high bending moments and shear forces, four tests on large scale test specimens were performed. The results of these tests were used to verify the numerical model, which was employed for further parametric studies. With a verified simplified numerical model a parametric nonlinear analysis was systematically carried out to determine the resistance of longitudinally stiffened plated girders. Based on 630 numerical s...

  11. Bend loss in surface plasmon polariton band-gap structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Volkov, V.S.; Leosson, Kristjan;

    2001-01-01

    Using near-field optical microscopy, we investigate propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) excited in the wavelength range of 720-830 nm at a corrugated gold-film surface with areas of 200-nm-wide and 45-nm-high scatterers arranged in a 410-nm-period triangular lattice containing line...... the bend angle. We also demonstrate splitting and combining of two SPP line-defect modes in a 20-mum-long Y junction....

  12. GFRP Bar: Determining Tensile Strength with Bending Test

    OpenAIRE

    Almerich Chulia, Ana Isabel; Fenollosa Forner, Ernesto Jesús; Cabrera Fausto, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain GFRP reinforcement bars it is necessary to undertake tests regulated code which require important mechanical tools. This paper presents a method which allows for determining GFRP rebars tensile strength value from their flexural strength value which has been obtained with a simple, inexpensive and reliable test. This method results will be verified by applying it to values obtained in a series of bending tests and comparing these results with values obtained in tensile test...

  13. Problems with cryogenic operation of piezoelectric bending elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, C. L.; Moreland, John; Fickett, F. R.

    1986-05-01

    Piezoelectric bimorphs constructed from lead titanate-zirconate (PZT) ceramic bonded to a brass sheet have been tested at cryogenic temperatures to determine their suitability for use in a low-temperature micropositioner. Experimental data are presented on bimorph sensitivity (displacement per volt) as a function of the number of temperature cycles. Results indicate that bimorphs of this type cannot be calibrated because of irreversible changes in the bending characteristics that occur while cycling from room temperature to 4 K.

  14. Predicting the static bending behavior of pallets with panel decks

    OpenAIRE

    Mackes, Kurt H.

    1998-01-01

    With increased use of pallets constructed utilizing structural panel decks, there is a need for a standardized, reliability-based design system, PDS-PANEL, to assist in the design and manufacture of panel-deck pallets. The primary objective of this research was to develop finite element models which predict the static bending behavior of pallets with at least one panel deck. stringer and block pallets were modeled using plate elements to simulate deck behavior and were...

  15. Analysis of the optical Viscometer utilizing bend lost of fiber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Stachiv, Ivo

    Perth : Technical Digest, 2010 - (Wlodarsky, W.; Faraone, L.; Kalantar-Zadeh, K.; Matthews, G.), s. 67-68 ISBN 978-1-74052-208-3. [International meeting on Chemical Sensors /13./ IMC -13. Perth (AU), 11.07.2010-14.07.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : viscosity * bend loss of the fibe * resonance Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  16. Buoyancy, bending, and seismic visibility in deep slab stagnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Craig R.; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Suetsugu, D.; Bina, C.; Inoue, T.; Wiens, D.; Jellinek, M.

    2010-11-01

    The petrological consequences of deep subhorizontal deflection ("stagnation") of subducting slabs should affect both apparent seismic velocity structures and slab morphology. We construct kinematic thermal models of stagnant slabs and perform thermodynamic modeling of the consequent perturbation of high-pressure phase transitions in mantle minerals, focusing upon Japan as our study area. We calculate associated thermo-petrological buoyancy forces and bending moments which (along with other factors such as viscosity variations and rollback dynamics) may contribute to slab deformation. We consider effects of variations in depth of stagnation, post-stagnation dip angle, phase transition sharpness, transition triplication due to multiple intersection of geotherms with phase boundaries, and potential persistence of metastable phases due to kinetic hindrance. We also estimate seismic velocity anomalies, as might be imaged by seismic tomography, and corresponding seismic velocity gradients, as might be imaged by receiver-function analysis. We find that buoyant bending moment gradients of petrological origin at the base of the transition zone may contribute to slab stagnation. Such buoyancy forces vary with the depth at which stagnation occurs, so that slabs may seek an equilibrium slab stagnation depth. Metastable phase bending moment gradients further enhance slab stagnation, but they thermally decay after ∱/4600•700 km of horizontal travel, potentially allowing stagnant slabs to descend into the lower mantle. Stagnant slabs superimpose zones of negative velocity gradient onto a depressed 660-km seismic discontinuity, affecting the seismological visibility of such features. Seismologically resolvable details should depend upon both stagnation depth and the nature of the imaging technique (travel-time tomography vs. boundary-interaction phases). While seismic tomography appears to yield images of stagnant slabs, discontinuity topography beneath Japan resolved by

  17. Mathematical aspects of bending of plates with transverse shear deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boundary integral equation method is applied to investigate the existence and uniqueness of regular solutions of a two-dimensional theory of bending of plates with transverse shear deformation. The stress function technique is then used to obtain the general analytic solution of the equilibrium equations and to elucidate the physical meaning of the mathematical restrictions arising in the analysis of the model. (orig.)

  18. Bending and Deformation of Sandwich Panels Due to Localized Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang K. Hadi; Fajar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Bending and deformation of sandwich panels due to localized pressure were analyzed using both Rayleigh-Ritz and finite element methods. The faces were made of laminated composite plates, while the core was a honeycomb material. Carbon fiber and glass fiber reinforced plastics were used for composite plate faces. In the case of Rayleigh-Ritz method, first the total energy of the system was calculated and then taking the variations of the total energy, the sandwich panel deflections could be co...

  19. Strength of arch-shaped members in bending and shear

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Stefano; Fernández Ruiz, Miguel; Muttoni, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    Arch-shaped members are widely used for construction of tunnels, bridges, silos and shells. These members are not typically provided with transverse reinforcement and may thus have a brittle behaviour at failure. When subjected to bending or shear, traditional design methods used for straight members are not applicable due to deviation forces developing at the curved chords carrying compression and tension, which is not always accounted in design codes. In this paper, two experimental series ...

  20. [On fatigue bending strength of PMMA-specimen (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojczyk, M; Rojczyk-Pflüger, J

    1980-01-01

    The fatigue response of PMMA-specimen was tested under cyclic bending of 1.5 Hz in a particularly designed testing device. Specimen were tested that a "Wöhler" curve and the corresponding fatigue strength could be evaluated. The fatigue strength was reached after a comparatively short time and ranged in the order of 33 per cent of static breaking strength. PMID:7447658

  1. Bending and compressive behaviours of a new cement composite

    OpenAIRE

    P. Rossi; ARCA, A; PARANT, E; FAKHRI, P

    2005-01-01

    The Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées (LCPC) has recently developed and patented a new cement composite, the CEMTECmultiscale, which is stress hardening in tension and has a very high uniaxial tensile strength, more than 20 MPa. This paper is about the determination of the compressive and bending behaviors of the CEMTECmultiscale used in the frame of ribbed slabs. The principal results obtained are the following: - the characteristic modulus of rupture is equal to 42 MPa for the "sla...

  2. Bending resistance of composite steel truss and concrete beam

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mickael; Piloto, P.A.G.; Roque, Sérgio; VILA REAL Paulo; Plizzari, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the numerical simulation of the bending resistance of CSTCB in stage 1 (element made only by the self-supported steel truss and base plate). Two different base plates were considered (Steel and Concrete) and two different types of steel trusses (Type I and II). The numerical results are also compared with analytical results, assuming the full interaction between steel truss and concrete, neglecting the tensile strength of concrete, considering the effective area of concret...

  3. BENDING ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE PLATES USING HIGHER ORDER THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    N UPENDRA; B. Sidda Reddy; K TIRUPATI REDDY; AJAY KUMAR REDDY K

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an analytical formulation and solutions are developed to investigate the bending characteristics of laminated composite plates based on higher order shear deformation theory. The equation ofmotion of laminated plates is deduced using Hamilton’s principle. Closed-form solutions are obtained by using the Navier’s technique for simply supported boundary conditions. The effect of side to thickness ratio, aspect ratio, degree of orthotropic, stacking sequence ad no of layers on defl...

  4. Wooden models of an AA quadrupole between bending magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    At two points in the AA lattice, a quadrupole (QDN, defocusing, narrow) was tightly wedged between two bending magnets (BST, short, wide). This picture of wooden models lets one imagine the strong interaction between their magnetic fields. There was no way one could calculate with the necessary accuracy the magnetic effects and their consequences for the machine optics. The necessary corrections were made after measurements with a circulating beam, in a tedious iterative procedure, with corrrection coils and shims.

  5. Bending and Focusing with Plasmas and Crystals - Potential and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    This talk review the potential of plasmas and crystals for focusing and bending high-energy charged particle beams. It covers topics like plasma lenses, plasma wigglers, plasma dipoles, crystal channeling & reflection, radiation in crystals, crystal accelerators, crystalline beams and ultimate limitations. Past, ongoing or required R&D efforts are highlighted. Invited presentation at EuCARD'13 "Visions for the Future of Particle Accelerators," CERN, 11 June 2013.

  6. Bending instability in galactic discs. Advocacy of the linear theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rodionov, S A

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that in N-body simulations of isolated disc galaxies there is numerical vertical heating which slowly increases the vertical velocity dispersion and the disc thickness. Even for models with over a million particles in a disc, this heating can be significant. Such an effect is just the same as in numerical experiments by Sellwood (2013). We also show that in a stellar disc, outside a boxy/peanut bulge, if it presents, the saturation level of the bending instability is rather close to the value predicted by the linear theory. We pay attention to the fact that the bending instability develops and decays very fast, so it couldn't play any role in secular vertical heating. However the bending instability defines the minimal value of the ratio between the vertical and radial velocity dispersions $\\sigma_z / \\sigma_R \\approx 0.3$ (so indirectly the minimal thickness) which could have stellar discs in real galaxies. We demonstrate that observations confirm last statement.

  7. Stress intensity factors under combined bending and torsion moments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al Emran ISMAIL; Ahmad Kamal ARIFFIN; Shahrum ABDULLAH; Mariyam Jameelah GHAZALI; Mohammed ABDULRAZZAQ; Ruslizam DAUD

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses stress intensity factor (SIF) calculations for surface cracks in round bars subjected to combined torsion and bending loadings.Different crack aspect ratios,a/b,ranging from 0.0 to 1.2 and relative crack depths,a/D,ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 were considered.Since the loading was non-symmetrical for torsion loadings,a whole finite element model was constructed.Then,the individual and combined bending and torsion loadings were remotely applied to the model.The equivalent SIF method,F* EQ,was then used explicitly to combine the individual SIFs from the bending and torsion loadings.A comparison was then carried out with the combined SIE F* FE,obtained using the finite element analysis (FEA) under similar loadings.It was found that the equivalent SIF method successfully predicted the combined SIF for Mode (I).However,discrepancies between the results determined from the different approaches occurred when FⅢ was involved.It was also noted that the predicted F* FE using FEA was higher than the F* EQ predicted through the equivalent SIF method due to the difference in crack face interactions.

  8. Effects of large bending deflections on blade flutter limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallesoee, Bjarne Skovmose; Hartvig Hansen, Morten

    2008-04-15

    The coupling of bending and torsion due to large blade bending are assumed to have some effects of the flutter limits of wind turbines. In the present report, the aeroelastic blade model suggested by Kallesoee, which is similar to a second order model, is used to investigate the aeroelastic stability limits of the RWT blade with and without the effects of the large blade deflection. The investigation shows no significant change of the flutter limit on the rotor speed due to the blade deflection,whereas the first edgewise bending mode becomes negatively damped due to the coupling with blade torsion which causes a change of the effective direction of blade vibration. These observations are confirmed by nonlinear aeroelastic simulations using HAWC2. This work is part of the UpWind project funded by the European Commission under the contract number SES6-CT-2005-019945 which is gratefully acknowledged. This report is the deliverable D2.3 of the UpWind project. (au)

  9. Bamboo Taper Effect on Third Point Loading Bending Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresworo Nugroho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Geometrical shape of bamboo usually assumed as tapered hollow pipe. This study proved that the dimensional changes along the bamboo stem significantly affected to its Modulus of Rupture (SR value which measured from third point loading bending test. Therefore if the bending test applied using third point loading configuration, the SR value should be adjusted by strength ratio of taper (Ct. Ct is theratio between (SR calculated in the center span and the maximum bending stress along the bamboo beam. This study resulted mathematical formulae to calculate the Ct value for overall range of bamboo taper based on six species namely Tali (Gigantochloa apus (Bl.Ex Schult.f Kurz, Hitam (Gigantochloa atroviolaceae Widjaja, Andong (Gigantochloa psedorundinaceae, Ampel (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad, Gombong (Gigantochloa verticillata (Willd Munro, and Mayan (Gigantochloa robusta Kurz. The first tree species were obtained from the Bogor market, while the others were harvested from bamboo clumps in Arboretum Bamboo – Bogor Agricultural University. Then the formula was applied to sketch the graphical style in order to simplify the result.

  10. Bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in germanium nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Perea, Daniel E; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong-Min

    2014-08-13

    From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions, regulating these biological and physiochemical processes. The coupled effect is particularly evident in the electrochemical lithiation/delithiation cycling of high-capacity electrodes, such as silicon (Si), where on the one hand lithiation-generated stress mediates lithiation kinetics and on the other the electrochemical reaction rate regulates stress generation and mechanical failure of the electrodes. Here we report for the first time the evidence on the controlled lithiation in germanium nanowires (GeNWs) through external bending. Contrary to the symmetric core-shell lithiation in free-standing GeNWs, we show bending the GeNWs breaks the lithiation symmetry, speeding up lithaition at the tensile side while slowing down at the compressive side of the GeNWs. The bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in GeNWs is further corroborated by chemomechanical modeling. In the light of the coupled effect between lithiation kinetics and mechanical stress in the electrochemical cycling, our findings shed light on strain/stress engineering of durable high-rate electrodes and energy harvesting through mechanical motion. PMID:25025296

  11. Bending-induced Symmetry Breaking of Lithiation in Germanium Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Perea, Daniel E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-08-01

    From signal transduction of living cells to oxidation and corrosion of metals, mechanical stress intimately couples with chemical reactions, regulating these biological and physiochemical processes. The coupled effect is particularly evident in electrochemical lithiation/delithiation cycling of high-capacity electrodes, such as silicon (Si), where on one hand lithiation-generated stress mediates lithiation kinetics, and on the other electrochemical reaction rate regulates stress generation and mechanical failure of the electrodes. Here we report for the first time the evidence on the controlled lithiation in germanium nanowires (GeNWs) through external bending. Contrary to the symmetric core-shell lithiation in free-standing GeNWs, we show bending GeNWs breaks the lithiation symmetry, speeding up lithaition at the tensile side while slowing down at the compressive side of the GeNWs. The bending-induced symmetry breaking of lithiation in GeNWs is further corroborated by chemomechanical modeling. In the light of the coupled effect between lithiation kinetics and mechanical stress in the electrochemical cycling, our findings shed light on strain/stress engineering of durable high-rate electrodes and energy harvesting through mechanical motion.

  12. A rotary piezoelectric actuator using longitudinal and bending hybrid transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A rotary piezoelectric actuator using bolt-clamped type transducer with double driving feet is proposed in this study. The first-order longitudinal and fourth-order bending vibration modes are superimposed in the actuator to produce elliptical movements on the driving tips. Longitudinal PZT and bending PZT are clamped between the exponential shape horns and the flange by bolts. The vibration shape changes of the actuator are presented to give a clear explanation of its working principle. Several structural parameters of the exponential shape horn are selected and adjusted to accomplish the tuning process of the longitudinal and bending resonance frequencies. The input impedance and vibration characteristics are calculated by using FEM method; the gained results verify the feasibility of the proposed actuator. After the fabrication of a prototype, its vibration characteristics are measured by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer; the tested results are in good agreement with the FEM calculated results. The mechanical output performance experiments state that the prototype achieves a maximum speed of 129 r/min and a maximum torque of 1.5 Nm.

  13. Bending light on demand by holographic sculpturing its wavefront

    CERN Document Server

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    A classical light beam propagates along a straight line and does not bend unless in a medium of variable refractive index. It is well known that by modifying the wavefront in a certain manner, the light intensity can be turned into a certain shape. Examples are optical lenses or Fresnel Zone Plates for focusing an incident wave to a point at the focal plane. Another example are Airy beams created by modifying the phase distribution of the wavefront into an Airy function resulting in a bending of the light intensity while propagating. A further example is holography, where the phase of the wavefront passing through a hologram is changed to mimic the object wavefront, thus providing the illusion that the original object is present in space. However, all these known techniques allow for limited light modifications: either focusing within a limited region in space2 or shaping a certain class of parametric curves along the optical axis or creating a bend in a quadratic-dependent declination as in the case of Airy ...

  14. Modeling of a cracked beam section under bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulations are widely used to study the dynamical behaviour of turbines cracked shaft as this event is rare and then doesn't enable to have an useful industrial feedback. A new method, which enables to calculate the constitutive law of a cracked beam subjected to bending was previously proposed. Based on three-dimensional computations taking into account the unilateral contact between both lips of the crack, it consists in defining a (non-linear) behaviour relation between the bending moment applied to the cracked section and the resulting field of displacements, compatible with the beam theory so that it can be used in rotor-dynamics software. The aim of this paper is to complete this first model by adding shear effects. For some crack geometries, a simpler model can be derived, based on the recognition that bending moments and shear forces are uncoupled and the dependence of the behaviour law with respect to the shear forces becomes linear. Developments have been achieved in this case and some results of the validation tests are shown. (authors)

  15. A missing-bending-magnet scheme for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a missing-bending-magnet scheme for PEP as a modification that could be considered if PEP were available as a fully dedicated synchrotron radiation source. The scheme can be applied to one or more PEP sextants without changing the rest. By removing some bending magnets, rearranging the remaining magnets, and adding two quadrupoles, ten additional straight sections per sextant can be created, each 5 m or more in length, for insertion devices. Beam lines therefrom, plus possible beam lines from bending magnets would enter a continuous experimental hall instead of individual tunnels and halls for each beam line. This should result in construction cost savings and increased operations efficiency. The ideal beam orbit is unchanged at the two ends and the middle of the sextant. At the end of the curved part of the sextant the lattice functions match those of the long interaction region straight section in the low emittance configuration of PEP. The electron beam characteristics in the newly created straight sections are described, including the enlargement of the horizontal beam size due to the nonzero dispersion. Some disadvantages of the scheme are increased operations complexity due to the need for nine new quadrupole families, increased beam emittance (by 14.5% is one sextant is modified), and reduced dynamic aperture. However, the dynamic aperture is still about as large as the physical aperture and should be adequate for good beam lifetime and injection. (orig.)

  16. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from undulators and bending magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the maximum of the Wigner distribution (WD) of synchrotron radiation (SR) fields as a possible definition of SR source brightness. Such figure of merit was originally introduced in the SR community by Kim. The brightness defined in this way is always positive and, in the geometrical optics limit, can be interpreted as maximum density of photon flux in phase space. For undulator and bending magnet radiation from a single electron, the WD function can be explicitly calculated. In the case of an electron beam with a finite emittance the brightness is given by the maximum of the convolution of a single electron WD function and the probability distribution of the electrons in phase space. In the particular case when both electron beam size and electron beam divergence dominate over the diffraction size and the diffraction angle, one can use a geometrical optics approach. However, there are intermediate regimes when only the electron beam size or the electron beam divergence dominate. In this asymptotic cases the geometrical optics approach is still applicable, and the brightness definition used here yields back once more the maximum photon flux density in phase space. In these intermediate regimes we find a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and the approximation for undulator brightness currently used in literature. We extend the WD formalism to a satisfactory theory for the brightness of a bending magnet. We find that in the intermediate regimes the usually accepted approximation for bending magnet brightness turns out to be inconsistent even parametrically.

  17. Changes to channel sediments resulting from complex human impacts in a gravel-bed river, Polish Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiejska, Joanna; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Hajdukiewicz, Hanna; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Mikuś, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    During the second half of the twentieth century, many sections of the Czarny Dunajec River, Polish Carpathians, were considerably modified by channelization as well as gravel-mining and the resultant channel incision (up to 3.5 m). This paper examines changes to the longitudinal pattern of grain size and sorting of bed material in an 18-km-long river reach. Surface bed-material grain size was established on 47 gravel bars and compared with a reference downstream fining trend of bar sediments derived from the sites with average river width and a vertically stable channel. Contrary to expectations, the extraction of cobbles from the channel bed in the upper part of the study reach, conducted in the past decades, has resulted in the marked coarsening of bed material in this river section. The extraction facilitated entrainment of exposed finer grains and has led to rapid bed degradation, whereas the concentration of flood flows in the increasingly deep and narrow channel has increased their competence and enabled a delivery of the coarse particles previously typical of the upstream reach. The middle section of the study reach, channelized to prevent sediment delivery to a downstream reservoir, now transfers the bed material flushed out from the incising upstream section. With considerably increased transport capacity of the river and with sediment delivery from bank erosion eliminated by bank reinforcements, bar sediments in the channelized section are typified by increased size of the finer fraction and better-than-average sorting. In the wide, multi-thread channel in the lower part of the reach, low unit stream power and high channel-form roughness facilitate sediment deposition and are reflected in relatively fine grades of bar gravels. The study showed that selective extraction of larger particles from the channel bed leads to channel incision at and upstream of the mining site. However, unlike bulk gravel mining, selective extraction does not result in sediment

  18. Tree and timberline shifts in the northern Romanian Carpathians during the Holocene and the responses to environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Gałka, Mariusz; Tanţău, Ioan; Geantă, Anca; Hutchinson, Simon M.; Hickler, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    High altitude environments are experiencing more rapid changes in temperature than the global average with the risk of losing essential ecosystem services in mountain environments. The Carpathians Mountains are regarded as hosting Europe's most pristine mountain ecosystems, yet the paucity of past environmental records limits our understanding of their sensitivity to the various drivers of change. A multi-proxy palaeoecological approach (plant macro-remains, pollen, charcoal) applied to three Holocene sediment sequences (between 1540 and 1810 m a.s.l.) in the Rodna Mountains documents past treeline and timberline shifts in response to climate change and human impact to anticipate the likely future responses. Our results indicate that forest reacted sensitively to past climate conditions. The timberline had exceeded an elevation of 1540 m a.s.l. by 10,200 cal. yr BP, when summers were warmer than today. The treeline remained below 1810 m a.s.l. at this time and reached its maximum elevation after 8500 cal. yr BP, when winter temperatures became milder. Cool summer conditions probably caused a lowering of the timberline and an extension of the treeline ecotone from 4900 cal. yr BP, a process accentuated by human impact from the Bronze Age (3500 cal. yr BP) onwards. The anticipated upslope tree movements as a consequence ongoing global warming are not yet clearly visible in our records, but will more probably take place in abandoned agricultural areas and be counter-balanced by re-enforced anthropogenic pressure elsewhere. Pinus sylvestris was the dominant tree species in the timberline under a warm and dry climate, when fires were frequent, during the early Holocene (11,250-10,200 cal. yr BP), while Picea abies became dominant in the timberline and Pinus mugo in the treeline ecotone, respectively from 10,200 cal. yr BP to the present. Abies alba became a significant component of the timber over the last four millennia. The anticipated future warmer and moister

  19. Dating of pollen samples from the sediment core of Lake St Anne in the East Carpathian Mountains, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubay, Katalin; Katalin Magyari, Enikö; Braun, Mihály; Schabitz, Frank; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    Lake St Anne (950 m a.s.l.) is situated in the Ciomadul volcano crater, the youngest volcano in the Carpathians. Aims driving forward the studies there are twofold, one is dating the latest eruption of the Ciomadul volcano and the other is the multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of this region. The sediment of Lake St Anne was sampled several times already, but never reached the bottom of the lake before. During the winter of 2013 at a new core location drilling started at 600 cm water depth and finally reached the bottom of the lake sediment at approximately 2300 cm including water depth. As for all multi-proxy studies essential requirement was to build a reliable chronology. Sediments were dated by radiocarbon method. Previous radiocarbon dates were measured on plant macrofossils, charcoal, Cladocera eggs, chironomid head capsules and bulk lake sediments. Lake St Anne has volcanic origin and there is intensive upwelling of CO2it is important to study and take into consideration, whether there is any local reservoir effect at the case of samples where it could be problematic. Furthermore the late part of the sediment section (between 15,000 and 30,000 cal. yr BP) has low organic matter content (less than 2-4%) with scarcity of datable plant macrofossil material. In this review a different fraction of pollen samples with terrestrial origin was tested and studied as a novel sample type for the radiocarbon dating. Pollen samples were extracted from the lake sediment cores. This type of organic material could be an ideal candidate for radiocarbon based chronological studies as it has terrestrial source and is present in the whole core in contrast with the terrestrial macrofossils. Although the pollen remains were present in the whole core, in many cases their amount give a challenge even for the AMS technic. Samples were measured with EnvironMICADAS AMS and its gas ion source in the HEKAL laboratory (Debrecen, Hungary). We examine the reliability the

  20. Effect of Bend Curvature Ratio on Flow Pattern at a Mixing Tee after a 90 Degree Bend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Hashizumeh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Many nuclear power plants report high cycle thermal fatigue in their cooling system, caused by temperature fluctuation in a non-isothermal mixing area. One of these areas is the T-junction, in which fluids of various temperatures and velocities blend. The objective of this research is to classify turbulent jet mechanics in order to examine the flow-field structure under various operating conditions. Furthermore, this research discovers the optimum operating conditions of the mixing tee in this piping system. An experimental model, including the T-junction with a 90 degree bend upstream, is operated to analyze this mixing phenomenon based on the real operation design of the Phenix Reactor. The temperature and velocity data show that a 90 degree bend has a strong effect on the fluid mixing mechanism and the momentum ratio between the main velocity and the branch velocity of the T-junction, which could be an important parameter for the classification of the fluid mixing mechanism. By comparing their mean velocity distributions, velocity fluctuations and time-series data, the behavior of the branch jet is categorized into four types of turbulent jets; sorted from the highest to the lowest momentum ratios, the jets are categorized as follows: the wall jet, the re-attached jet, the turn jet, and the impinging jet. Ultimately, the momentum ration of the turn jet was selected as the optimum operating condition as it has the lowest velocity and the lowest temperature fluctuations near the wall of the mixing tee. By changing the bending ratio from 1.41 to 1.0 the results show that most of data are in the turn jet region. Therefore, with the sharpened bend, the re-attached region is compressed.