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Sample records for carpathians bend insights

  1. Time-dependent thermal state of the lithosphere in the foreland of the Eastern Carpathians bend. Insights from new geothermal measurements and modelling results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetrescu, Crisan; Wilhelm, H.; Tumanian, M.

    2007-01-01

      The time-dependent heat budget, thermal evolution and rheology of the lithosphere in the last 13Myr, along a 120 km long profile in the foreland of the Eastern Carpathians bend is presented. The study area, a complex tectonic environment in the vicinity of the wellknown intermediate-depth seism......  The time-dependent heat budget, thermal evolution and rheology of the lithosphere in the last 13Myr, along a 120 km long profile in the foreland of the Eastern Carpathians bend is presented. The study area, a complex tectonic environment in the vicinity of the wellknown intermediate...... and geological information on structure, lithology and time evolution of the sedimentary pile have been used to model the thermal evolution by means of a 2-D finite element model which includes sedimentation history, sediment compaction, lateral and vertical variation of thermal properties of sediments...... and consolidated crust. Modelling results have been compared to measured temperatures, corrected for palaeoclimate effects, in a trial and error iterative approach. Sedimentation, palaeoclimate, undercompaction and heat refraction effects on one hand, and the heat generated in the upper crust, on the other...

  2. Time-dependent thermal state of the lithosphere in the foreland of the Eastern Carpathians bend. Insights from new geothermal measurements and modelling results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetrescu, Crisan; Wilhelm, H.; Tumanian, M.

    2007-01-01

    in establishing the temperature field in the depth range of geothermal measurements. The lateral variation of the palaeoclimatically corrected surface heat flux from the centre of the Focsani Depression (40 mW m-2) to its margin and the foreland platform (70 mW m-2) is mainly the result of the lateral variation...... words: Carpathians foreland, geothermics, heat flow, lithosphere rheology, sedimentation, thermal modelling.  ...

  3. Heavy rainfalls, floods and landslides in the small catchment of the Bend Carpathians and Subcarpathians (Romania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balteanu, Dan; Serban, Mihaela

    2004-01-01

    The small catchments of the Bend Carpathians and of the adjacent hilly region are affected by a great diversity of geomorphic processes differing in terms of geological structure, terrain configuration, seismic activity and human pressure. The region is developed on Paleogene flysch and Neogene molasse deposits and is characterised by an intense tectonic mobility (neotectonic uplift movements, strong earthquakes). We have chosen two catchments with a surface of 20-30 km 2 in which we tried to evaluate the sediments transfers during extreme events on the slope, from the slope downwards the channels and along the channels. The two catchments are characterised by some of the highest sediment yield in the region. Long-term measurements carried out in the region have revealed that landslides and mud flows are the most common processes of sediment transfer on the slopes. The reactivation of the mass movements is related to heavy rainfalls (over 100 mm in 24 hours) to long lasting rainy periods and to combined rainfalls and rapid snow melting. The denudation rates through mass movements were estimated in 6 experimental plots, indicating values between 1-10 mm in the years with high amount of,precipitations with a return period of 5-7 years and 40-70 mm in extreme conditions with a return period of 50 years. Sediment delivery ratios are controlled by rock erodibility and the runoff regime. A sediment yield multivariate statistical analysis of 27 third order drainage basins on flysch and molasse deposits indicates that total erosion is four times higher in the hilly region than in the flysch mountains (Ichim, Raldoane, 1987).(Author)

  4. Geodynamics of the Carpathian-Pannonian region: Insights from low temperature thermochronology of the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreucci, Benedetta; Zattin, Massimiliano; Castelluccio, Ada; Mazzoli, Stefano; Szaniawski, Rafal; Jankowski, Leszek

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the geodynamic evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region has been the subject of a heated scientific debate. This orogenic system formed between the Late Jurassic and the Neogene by the collision of the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia microplates with the European Platform, and assumed its present-day configuration mainly during the Miocene, when the extensional Pannonian Basin formed in a retro wedge position, while compression was still active along the Carpathian front. The most common and widely accepted interpretation for the Miocene evolution of this region is based on a classical back-arc extension model and subsequent astenospheric upwelling and slab break-off. Nonetheless several authors proposed other possible driving mechanisms for the formation of the Pannonian Basin, such as lithosphere delamination or lithospheric gravitational instability. Thermochronometry provides important constrains to the depths of burial and to the timing and rates of exhumation. Each geodynamic scenario proposed for the Carpathian-Pannonian region implies a different spatial distribution of burial and a different timing of exhumation. In this work we use a compilation of several low-temperature thermochronometric datasets, referred to the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians, to evaluate their compatibility with the different geodynamic models proposed so far. In order to achieve this goal we examine the spatial distribution of burial depths and of ages and rates of exhumation and we put them in relation with (i) the spatial trend of the relief, (ii) heat flow, (iii) crustal and lithospheric thickness, and (iv) structural setting. We propose a subdivision of the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians in three different tectonic domains, based on geophysical and structural parameters. Each single area is characterized also by different burial-exhumation history and requires a specific explanation in terms of driving processes. In particular, we infer that exhumation occurred

  5. Late Pleistocene dip-slip faulting along the Dunajec Fault, West Carpathians: Insights from alluvial sediments

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    Olszak, Janusz

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents vertical movement along the Dunajec Fault during the Late Pleistocene and suggests Quaternary tectonic reactivation of diagonal strike-slip faults and their transformation into dip-slip faults in the West Carpathians. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of Pleistocene alluvial sediments of the Dunajec and the Ochotnica rivers was employed to determine the time range of deposition of these sediments. Vertical and spatial distribution of the obtained OSL ages imply that the alluvial sediments were affected by the Dunajec Fault, which appears to have acted as a scissor fault during the Late Pleistocene. The results contribute to the discussion on the recent evolution of the Carpathians, and may support the concept of extensional collapse of the orogen.

  6. Late Pliocene Quaternary tectonics in the frontal part of the SE Carpathians: Insights from tectonic geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necea, Diana; Fielitz, W.; Matenco, L.

    2005-12-01

    The Romanian East Carpathians display large-scale heterogeneities along the mountain belt, unusual foredeep geometries, significant post-collisional and neotectonic activity, and major variations in topography, mostly developed in the aftermath of late Miocene (Sarmatian; ˜11 Ma) subduction/underthrusting and continental collision between the East European/Scythian/Moesian foreland and the inner Carpathians Tisza-Dacia unit. In particular, the SE corner of the arcuate orogenic belt represents the place of still active large-scale differential vertical movements between the uplifting mountain chain and the subsiding Focşani foredeep basin. In this key area, we have analysed the configuration of the present day landforms and the drainage patterns in order to quantify the amplitude, timing and kinematics of these post-collisional late Pliocene-Quaternary vertical movements. A river network is incising in the upstream a high topography consisting of the external Carpathians nappes and the Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene sediments of the foreland. Further eastwards in the downstream, this network is cross-cutting a low topography consisting of the Middle Pleistocene-Holocene sediments of the foreland. Geological observations and well-preserved geomorphic features demonstrate a complex succession of geological structures. The late Pliocene-Holocene tectonic evolution is generally characterised by coeval uplift in the mountain chain and subsidence in the foreland. At a more detailed scale, these vertical movements took place in pulses of accelerated motion, with laterally variable amplitude both in space and in time. After a first late Pliocene uplifting period, subsidence took place during the Earliest Pleistocene resulting in a basal Quaternary unconformity. This was followed by two, quantifiable periods of increased uplift, which affected the studied area at the transition between the Carpathians orogen and the Focşani foreland basin in the late Early Pleistocene and the

  7. Late Pliocene-Quaternary tectonics in the frontal part of the SE Carpathians: Insights from tectonic geomorphology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Necea, D.; Fielitz, W.; Matenco, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Romanian East Carpathians display large-scale heterogeneities along the mountain belt, unusual foredeep geometries, significant post-collisional and neotectonic activity, and major variations in topography, mostly developed in the aftermath of late Miocene (Sarmatian; ∼11 Ma)

  8. The southwestern Carpathians as an ancient centre of diversity of freshwater gammarid amphipods: insights from the Gammarus fossarum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copilaş-Ciocianu, Denis; Petrusek, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Gammarus fossarum is a diverse species complex of epigean freshwater amphipods throughout Europe. Due to their poor dispersal capabilities and ubiquity, these crustaceans may serve as a model for investigating the influence of historical factors on the contemporary distribution and diversity patterns of freshwater macrozoobenthos. Here, we investigate the fine-scale phylogeographic structure of this complex across its range in the southwestern Carpathian Mountains, which comprises two areas that are geographically isolated from its main European distribution area as well as from each other. Given the Tertiary age of many freshwater Gammarus species, we hypothesize that the southwestern Carpathian populations reflect a relict distribution pattern. We used two mitochondrial and three nuclear markers from 32 localities to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and estimate the timings of divergence among southwestern Carpathian and non-Carpathian lineages. Cryptic diversity was evaluated from mitochondrial markers by employing phylogenetic and distance-based methods. We distinguished at least 16 cryptic microendemic taxa, some of them coexisting, distributed in the southwestern Carpathians in a mosaic-like pattern. These lineages form a monophyletic group together with several lineages from southeastern Europe. Estimated divergence times indicate a Middle Miocene origin of this clade, with many deep splits dating back to more than 10 Ma. This time frame corresponds with a period of intense geological subsidence in the region that gave birth to the Pannonian Basin. We conclude that subsidence could have been an important driver of diversification in freshwater Gammarus and that the southwestern Carpathians represent an ancient centre of diversity for these crustaceans. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Kinematic evolution of the Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzer, Hans-Gert; Frisch, Wolfgang; Zweigel, Peter; Girbacea, Radu; Hann, Horst-Peter; Moser, Franz

    1998-11-01

    The regional pattern of contraction and extension directions and the evolution of the strain field from Paleogene to Neogene times enabled a reconstruction of the migration path of the Carpathian collision front. The Carpathian nappes were thrust around the Moesian Plate during Paleogene and Early Neogene times and protruded into a small oceanic embayment between the Moesian and European plates. The arc structure of the Carpathian fold-thrust belt was formed in Late Neogene times as a result of the eastward-escaping Tisza-Dacia block, due to N-directed convergence of the Adriatic plate and the retreating subduction of an oceanic slab. Brittle deformation structures in the Romanian Carpathians suggest three tectonic events related to major plate motions: (1) Paleogene to Middle Miocene NE to ENE contraction caused right-lateral curved strike-slip faults; (2) Middle Miocene to Pliocene fan-shaped orientations of contraction directions were caused by right-lateral oblique convergence in the Southern Carpathians, frontal convergence in the southern Eastern Carpathians and left-lateral convergence in the northern Eastern Carpathians; (3) Pleistocene to Holocene general E-W extension and N-S contraction in the Carpathian arc and local ESE-WNW contraction in the Vrancea area is related to the late roll back stage and break-off of the subducted slab in the bend area.

  10. Morphotectonic control of the Białka drainage basin (Central Carpathians: Insights from DEM and morphometric analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołosiewicz Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Białka river valley is directly related to a deep NNW-SSE oriented fault zone. According to the results of previous morphometric analyses, the Białka drainage basin is one of the most tectonically active zones in the Central Carpathians. It is also located within an area of high seismic activity.

  11. Monazite chemical age and composition correlations, an insight in the Palaeozoic evolution of the Leaota Massif, South Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Săbău, Gavril; Negulescu, Elena

    2015-04-01

    . On the other hand, the chemical variability of the monazite grains enables separation of discrete populations, which cluster in ternary chemical plots (LREE - Y+Nd+MREE - U+Th+Ca, LREE - Nd+MREE - Y) and display similar chondrite-normalized lanthanide patterns, quantitatively evaluated by ratios such as (La/Nd)CN, (Nd/Gd)CN, (Gd/Y)CN, (U/Th)CN, (Y/Y*)CN, and (Eu/Eu*)CN. The correspondence between age and chemical clusters endorses their geological relevance and make a case for geunuine tectonothermal events. Distinct compositional domains corresponding to well-defined age clusters have been identified in gneissic rocks of the Leaota Massif, South Carpathians, highlighting the lower Paleozoic evolution of a crustal fragment detached during the Cambrian from northern Gondwana. Relict ages of Panafrican affinity of around 530 Ma are heavily overprinted by Lower Ordovician crustal thickening followed by tectonic relaxation coeval with granitization (around 470 Ma), followed in turn by high-pressure metamorphism at the Ordovician-Silurian boundary (Negulescu et al., 2015) and final tectonic stacking associated to Variscan docking to Laurussia + Avalonia, reflected in a high-pressure overprint at 350-325 Ma. References Kelly N. M., Harley S. L., Möller A. et al. (2012) Chemical Geology 322-323, 192-208 Montel J.-M., Foret S., Veschambre M., Nicollet C., Provost A. (1996) Chemical Geology 131, 37-53 Săbău G., Negulescu E. (2013) GSTF International Journal of Geological Sciences 1/ 1, 20-29 Negulescu E., Săbău G., Massonne H.-J. (2015) EGU2015-6663

  12. Plate tectonic reconstruction of the Carpathian-Pannonian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, L.; Vörös, A.

    2003-04-01

    Plate tectonics of the Carpathian area is controlled by microcontinents between the European and African margins and the relative movements of these margins. Beside the generally accepted Apulian (Austroalpine, West Carpathian, Dinaric) microcontinents two others: the Bihor-Getic (Tisza) and Drina-Ivanjica are introduced. The first was attached to the European margin, the second to the Apulian microcontinent. During Permian a major ocean was obliquely subducted south of the Apulian microcontinents. Drina-Ivanjica rifted off the Apulian microcontinent in the Late Permian-Middle Triassic, as a consequence of back-arc rifting. Short-lived oceans subducted by the end of Jurassic, causing Drina-Ivanjica to collide with the internal Dinaric-West Carpathian and Bihor-Getic margins. An external Penninic-Váhic ocean tract began opening in the Early Jurassic, separating the East Alpine-West Carpathian microcontinent (and its fauna) from the European shelf. Further south, the Severin-Ceahlau-Magura also began opening in the Early Jurassic, but final separation of the Bihor-Getic (and its fauna) from the European shelf did not take place until the Middle-Late Jurassic. Two oroclinal bends: the Alcapa on the Dinaric margin and the Tisza-Dacia on the South Carpathian-Getic margin are essential elements of these reconstructions. Their bending (Aptian and Albian-Maastrichtian, respectively) are suggested by paleomagnetic and tectonic transport data. The two oroclinal bends are finally opposed and pushed into the Carpathian embayment by the Paleogene. In Miocene a back-arc basin develops on older tectonic elements. Differential rotations affect the wealded microcontinents.

  13. Oil/source rock correlations in the Polish Flysch Carpathians and Mesozoic basement and organic facies of the Oligocene Menilite Shales: Insights from hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, John B.; Kotarba, M.J.; Lewan, M.D.; Wieclaw, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Oligocene Menilite Shales in the study area in the Polish Flysch Carpathians are organic-rich and contain varying mixtures of Type-II, Type-IIS and Type-III kerogen. The kerogens are thermally immature to marginally mature based on atomic H/C ratios and Rock-Eval data. This study defined three organic facies, i.e., sedimentary strata with differing hydrocarbon-generation potentials due to varying types and concentrations of organic matter. These facies correspond to the Silesian Unit and the eastern and western portions of the Skole Unit. Analysis of oils generated by hydrous pyrolysis of outcrop samples of Menilite Shales demonstrates that natural crude oils reservoired in the flysch sediments appear to have been generated from the Menilite Shales. Natural oils reservoired in the Mesozoic basement of the Carpathian Foredeep appear to be predominantly derived and migrated from Menilite Shales, with a minor contribution from at least one other source rock most probably within Middle Jurassic strata. Definition of organic facies may have been influenced by the heterogeneous distribution of suitable Menilite Shales outcrops and producing wells, and subsequent sample selection during the analytical phases of the study. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New Insights on the Deflection and Internal Forces of a Bending Nanobeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-Min; Liu, Jian-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Nanowires, nanofibers and nanotubes have been widely used as the building blocks in micro/nano-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting or storage devices, and small-scaled measurement equipment. We report that the surface effects of these nanobeams have a great impact on their deflection and internal forces. A simply supported nanobeam is taken as an example. For the displacement and shear force of the nanobeam, its dangerous sections are different from those predicted by the conventional beam theory, but for the bending moment, the dangerous section is the same. Moreover, the values of these three quantities for the nanobeam are all distinct from those calculated from the conventional beam model. These analyses shed new light on the stiffness and strength check of nanobeams, which are beneficial to engineer new-types of nano-materials and nano-devices. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 11672334, 11672335 and 11611530541, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No 15CX08004A.

  15. Paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies of Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the Central Western Carpathians: new insights into paleogeographic setting and tectonic evolution of the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaniawski, R.; Jankowski, L.; Ludwiniak, M.; Mazzoli, S.; Szczygieł, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Carpathian Mountains were formed through progressive collision and amalgamation of the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia microplates with the European Platform. The Central Western Carpathians (CWC) tectonic unit analyzed in this study constitutes a fragment of the Alcapa microplate - research in this area is therefore of great importance in the context of the geotectonic evolution of the Carpathian orogen. Our paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies were focused on Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the crystalline basement. We present new results from three mountain massifs: Low Tatra, Velka Fatra and Strazovske Vrchy, comparing them with our earlier works performed in the Tatra Mts. Rockmagnetic studies reveal similar results in all four studied regions - the dominant ferromagnetic carrier in red sandstones is hematite, while the magnetic fabric is mostly controlled by paramagnetic minerals. AMS results outline a bedding parallel foliation and a tectonic lineation. This lineation lies in the bedding plane but is somewhat oblique to the present horizontal plane. The fact that the lineation is not exactly parallel to the strike of the beds is most likely due to multistage deformation: the lineation is related to bedding parallel shortening associated with the folding and thrusting stage, while present-day bedding attitude results at least partially from rotations associated with subsequent uplift and/or faulting. Paleomagnetic analysis indicate that hematite carrier records characteristic remanent component of high unblocking temperatures (680°C) and both normal (dominant) and reversed polarity. Paleomagnetic inclinations are similar to those expected from reference paleomagnetic data from the European Platform. Declination values are rather similar in all four studied areas and imply moderate counterclockwise rotations of the CWC. These results are incompatible with some of the previous paleomagnetic studies of younger rocks from the CWC

  16. Crustal Structure Within the Southeastern Carpathian Arc, Transylvanian Basin, Romania from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, A. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Munteanu, L.

    2013-05-01

    We present new measurements of receiver functions at 4 broadband stations temporarily deployed in the Transylvanian Basin within the Carpathian Arc, Romania. Receiver functions can reveal depths to sharp crustal seismic velocity boundaries, which in complex tectonic environments such as the study area provide a good diagnostic for the regional tectonics. As a result of Africa (Adria) collision with Europe and subduction of a part of Tethys Ocean, Tisza-Dacia and Alcapa blocks escaped the collision and were emplaced in an embayment of this ocean, and form today the basement of the Transylvanian Basin. The collision of these terranes with the European continent culminated in the formation, in the Romanian part, of the Eastern Carpathians at the contact between the Transylvanian Basin and the East European Platform along the Tornquist-Teisseyre Suture zone, and of Southern Carpathians at the contact with Moesian Platform. In the foreland of the Carpathian Bend Zone, connecting the two mountain chains, in a very constrained area, a high velocity seismic body was contoured by hypocenters between 70 and 200 km depth. We constructed receiver functions using teleseismic P waves generated by events located between 30 and 95 degrees epicentral angle using the method of Ligorria and Ammon (1999) for individual measurements. We used the H-K method of Zhu and Kanamori (2000) to derive boundary interfaces depths and receiver function complexity from binned stacks. Preliminary results show a relatively shallow Moho depth beneath the Transylvanian Basin.

  17. Miocene Slănic Tuff, Eastern Carpathians, Romania, in the Context of Badenian Salinity Crisis

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    Ana-Voica Bojar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available New geochronological investigations for the Slănic Formation, correlated with previous bio- and lithostratigaphical information, allow for a better succession of events for the Middle Miocene, including the absolute age of the Badenian salinity crisis in the bend sector of the Eastern Carpathians. Within the green Slănic Tuff, white tuff layers were in evidence. The main element distribution of the white and green tuffs indicates a dacitic composition, with higher SiO2 content for the white tuff. The white tuff has a distinct mineralogical composition with quartz, plagioclase, biotite and clinoptilolite. From such a tuff layer a biotite concentrate gives a 40Ar/39Ar age of 13.7 ± 0.2 Ma. As above these tuff layers discrete levels of gypsum occur, the age documents the beginning of the restrictive circulation and formation of evaporites in this sector of Carpathians during Badenian times.

  18. Shear-Wave Splitting Within the Southeastern Carpathian Arc, Transylvanian Basin, Romania

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    Stanciu, A. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Munteanu, L.

    2012-12-01

    We present 75 new measurements of shear wave splitting at 4 temporary broadband seismic stations that we deployed in the Transylvanian Basin within the Carpathian Arc, Romania. The Tisza-Dacia terranes, which form the basement of this basin, were accommodated in the space between the thick, old, rigid and cold East European Platform and the Moesian Platform during the Miocene. This movement was driven by the subduction of a part of the Tethys Ocean, which led to the formation of Carpathian orogen system. In Romania, the mountains are divided into the Eastern Carpathians, at the limit of Transylvanian Basin and the East European Platform along the Tornquist-Teisseyre Suture Zone, and the Southern Carpathians, at the limit with Moesian Platform. They connect to the West of the Carpathian Bend Zone where a very active high velocity seismic body generates intermediate depth earthquakes between 70 and 200 km beneath the Vrancea seismogenic zone. We analyzed splitting of SKS and SKKS phases recorded at epicentral distances between 87 and 150 degrees using the method of Silver and Chan (1991). We estimated splitting parameters, fast shear polarization azimuth and delay time, using both weighted averages of individual splitting measurements (Helffrich et al., 1994) and simultaneous linearization of all clearly recorded SK(K)S waves (Wolfe and Silver, 1998). For COMD, located at the contact of the Carpathian Bend Zone and Transylvanian Basin, we obtained a fast shear polarization azimuth trending NE-SW, parallel to the contact and to the strike of the Vrancea seismic body. For 10 suitable events recorded at IACB, at the contact of the Neogene Volcanic zone with the Eastern Carpathians, we did not observe any splitting; we consider the station splitting to be null. The fast shear polarization azimuth for PMAR, at the limit between Tisza-Dacia block and Southern Carpathians thrust belt, and at CHDM, within the Transylvanian Basin, is NW-SE similar to a regional splitting

  19. Interactions between Point Bar Growth and Bank Erosion on a Low Sinuosity Meander Bend in an Ephemeral Channel: Insights from Repeat Topographic Surveys and Numerical Modeling

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    Ursic, M.; Langendoen, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Interactions between point bar growth, bank migration, and hydraulics on meandering rivers are complicated and not well understood. For ephemeral streams, rapid fluctuations in flow further complicate studying and understanding these interactions. This study seeks to answer the following `cause-and-effect' question: Does point bar morphologic adjustment determine where bank erosion occurs (for example, through topographic steering of the flow), or does local bank retreat determine where accretion/erosion occurs on the point bar, or do bank erosion and point bar morphologic adjustment co-evolve? Further, is there a response time between the `cause-and-effect' processes and what variables determine its magnitude and duration? In an effort to answer these questions for an ephemeral stream, a dataset of forty-eight repeat topographic surveys over a ten-year period (1996-2006) of a low sinuosity bend within the Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed, located near Batesville, MS, were utilized in conjunction with continuous discharge measurements to correlate flow variability and erosional and depositional zones, spatially and temporally. Hydraulically, the bend is located immediately downstream of a confluence with a major tributary. Supercritical flumes on both the primary and tributary channels just upstream of the confluence provide continuous measured discharges to the bend over the survey period. In addition, water surface elevations were continuously measured at the upstream and downstream ends of the bend. No spatial correlation trends could be discerned between reach-scale bank retreat, point bar morphologic adjustment, and flow discharge. Because detailed flow patterns were not available, the two-dimensional computer model Telemac2D was used to provide these details. The model was calibrated and validated for a set of runoff events for which more detailed flow data were available. Telemac2D simulations were created for each topographic survey period. Flows

  20. Late Precambrian Balkan-Carpathian ophiolite — a slice of the Pan-African ocean crust?: geochemical and tectonic insights from the Tcherni Vrah and Deli Jovan massifs, Bulgaria and Serbia

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    Savov, Ivan; Ryan, Jeff; Haydoutov, Ivan; Schijf, Johan

    2001-10-01

    The Balkan-Carpathian ophiolite (BCO), which outcrops in Bulgaria, Serbia and Romania, is a Late Precambrian (563 Ma) mafic/ultramafic complex unique in that it has not been strongly deformed or metamorphosed, as have most other basement sequences in Alpine Europe. Samples collected for study from the Tcherni Vrah and Deli Jovan segments of BCO include cumulate dunites, troctolites, wehrlites and plagioclase wehrlites; olivine and amphibole-bearing gabbros; anorthosites; diabases and microgabbros; and basalts representing massive flows, dikes, and pillow lavas, as well as hyaloclastites and umbers (preserved sedimentary cover). Relict Ol, Cpx and Hbl in cumulate peridotites indicate original orthocumulate textures. Plagioclase in troctolites and anorthosites range from An60 to An70. Cumulate gabbro textures range from ophitic to poikilitic, with an inferred crystallization order of Ol-(Plag+Cpx)-Hbl. The extrusive rocks exhibit poikilitic, ophitic and intersertal textures, with Cpx and/or Plag (Oligoclase-Andesine) phenocrysts. The major opaques are Ti-Magnetite and Ilmenite. The metamorphic paragenesis in the mafic samples is Chl-Trem-Ep, whereas the ultramafic rocks show variable degrees of serpentinization, with lizardite and antigorite as dominant phases. Our samples are compositionally and geochemically similar to modern oceanic crust. Major element, trace element and rare earth element (REE) signatures in BCO basalts are comparable to those of MORB. In terms of basalt and dike composition, the BCO is a 'high-Ti' or 'oceanic' ophiolite, based on the classification scheme of Serri [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 52 (1981) 203]. Our petrologic and geochemical results, combined with the tectonic position of the BCO massifs (overlain by and in contact with Late Cambrian island arc and back-arc sequences), suggest that the BCO may have formed in a mid-ocean ridge setting. If the BCO records the existence of a Precambrian ocean basin, then there may be a relationship

  1. Isomer-Specific IR Spectroscopy of BENZENE-(WATER)N Clusters with N=1-8: New Insights from the Water Bend Fundamentals and Isotopically Substituted Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Ryoji; Walsh, Patrick S.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    This talk will focus on the isomer-specific IR spectra of benzene-(water)n (BWn) clusters with n = 1-8, returning to a topic studied by our group some 20 years ago, but now with higher resolution (OH stretch region), with inclusion of data from isotopically substituted clusters, and with extension into the HOH bending mode region. Spectra are recorded using resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy, an IR-UV double resonance method. Isomer-specific IR spectra in the regions of OH, OD stretches and HOH, HOD bend of benzene-H_2O, -D_2O, -HOD, -(H_2O)_2, -(D_2O)_2, -HOD-DOD were recorded in order to investigate in greater detail the intermolecular potential energy surface between water and benzene. These spectra show strong combination bands in addition to the OH/OD stretch fundamentals arising from large-amplitude "tumbling" and tunneling along internal rotation and torsion coordinates of water(s) on the surface of benzene. Interestingly, the number of extra bands and spectral patterns change dramatically depending on cluster size, the kind of deuterated isomer, and the spectral region probed. In larger clusters with n=3-8, the water HOH bending region is explored for the first time. The prominent bending mode transitions in BW1-8 are spread over a relatively small range (1610-1660 wn), and shift with cluster size in a way that reflects the known structural changes that accompany the increase in size. By comparison of experiment with calculation, it is possible to assign the experimentally observed 1614 wn transition of BW1 and 1615 wn of BW2 bands to the π-bound water molecule. The 1620-1660 wn bands of BW3-8 are due to water molecules that can be categorized as single-acceptor, single-donor (AD) hydrogen-bonded waters. In the case of single-acceptor, double-donor (ADD) water molecules, which are expected to be seen from BW6,a they show higher-frequency bending vibrations and weaker IR intensity, which would correspond to very weakly observed bands in 1660-1750 wn for

  2. Neogene deformation of thrust-top Rzeszów Basin (Outer Carpathians, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroda, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    The Rzeszów Basin is a 220 km2 basin located in the frontal part of Polish Outer Carpathians fold-and-thrust belt. Its sedimentary succession consist of ca. 600 m- thick Miocene evaporates, litoral and marine sediments. This basin developed between Babica-Kąkolówka anticline and frontal thrust of Carpathian Orogen. Rzeszów thrust-top basin is a part of Carpathian foreland basin system- wedge-top depozone. The sediments of wedge -top depozone were syntectonic deformed, what is valuable tool to understand kinematic history of the orogen. Analysis of field and 3D seismic reflection data showed the internal structure of the basin. Seismic data reveal the presence of fault-bend-folds in the basement of Rzeszów basin. The architecture of the basin - the presence of fault-releated folds - suggest that the sediments were deformed in last compressing phase of Carpathian Orogen deformation. Evolution of Rzeszów Basin is compared with Bonini et.al. (1999) model of thrust-top basin whose development is controlled by the kinematics of two competing thrust anticlines. Analysis of seismic and well data in Rzeszów basin suggest that growth sediments are thicker in south part of the basin. During the thrusting the passive rotation of the internal thrust had taken place, what influence the basin fill architecture and depocentre migration opposite to thrust propagation. Acknowledgments This study was supported by grant No 2012/07/N/ST10/03221 of the Polish National Centre of Science "Tectonic activity of the Skole Nappe based on analysis of changes in the vertical profile and depocentre migration of Neogene sediments in Rzeszów-Strzyżów area (Outer Carpathians)". Seismic data by courtesy of the Polish Gas and Oil Company. References Bonini M., Moratti G., Sani F., 1999, Evolution and depocentre migration in thrust-top basins: inferences from the Messinian Velona Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy), Tectonophysics 304, 95-108.

  3. Hieracium glabrescens (Asteraceae Rediscovered in the Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeląg Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Hieracium glabrescens (F. W. Schultz Murr in the Carpathians is confirmed after over a century by a new locality from the Apuseni Mountains in Romania. This locality, very significant from the phytogeographical point of view, is disjoined ca 500 km from the nearest Balkan localities of the species. The origin of H. glabrescens in the Apuseni Mountains is briefly discussed.

  4. Pinus cembra distribution in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A map with the distribution of the Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. in Romania was never made. However, long time ago, some poor or confused data collected from the Romanian Carpathians were inserted in a compiled at European level map; but this map do not reflects the species real geographic distribution in the Romanian Carpathians. Consequently, a initiative to build up a not to far from realitymap was made. A comprehensive literature and field survey concerning Swiss stone pine natural distribution in Romania was made. Two other sources of information were used, such as: the senior author's direct field survey to localize the species populations and information obtained from people involved in this issue. Based on the acquired data, the species digital distribution map of the Romanian Carpathians, was in premiere made. Because the distribution boundary of the species encompasses a large area, it does not mean that all hachured mountains and valley on the map are fully occupied by species.

  5. Pinus cembra distribution in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Blada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A map with the distribution of the Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. in Romania was never made. However, long time ago, some poor or confused data collected from the Romanian Carpathians were inserted in a compiled at European level map; but this map do not reflects the species real geographic distribution in the Romanian Carpathians. Consequently, a initiative to build up a not to far from reality map was made. A comprehensive literature and field survey concerning Swiss stone pine natural distribution in Romania was made. Two other sources of information were used, such as: the senior author's direct field survey to localize the species populations and information obtained from people involved in this issue. Based on the acquired data, the species digital distribution map of the Romanian Carpathians, was in premiere made. Because the distribution boundary of the species encompasses a large area, it does not mean that all hachured mountains and valley on the map are fully occupied by species.

  6. Torsion and bending in the neck and tail of sauropod dinosaurs and the function of cervical ribs: insights from functional morphology and biomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Preuschoft

    Full Text Available The long necks of sauropods have been subject to many studies regarding their posture and flexibility. Length of the neck varies among groups. Here, we investigate neck posture and morphology in several clades from a mechanical viewpoint. Emphasis is put on comparing sauropod necks and tails with structures in living archosaurs and mammals. Differences in the use made of necks and tails lead to clear-cut differences in the mechanical loads occurring in the same models. Ways of sustaining loads are identified by theoretical considerations. If the observed skeletal structures are suited to resist the estimated loading in a particular posture, this concordance is taken as an argument that this posture or movement was of importance during the life of the individual. Apart from the often-discussed bending in side view, we analyze the often overlooked torsion. Because torsional stresses in a homogenous element concentrate near the periphery, a cylindrical cross section gives greatest strength, and the direction of forces is oblique. In a vertebrate neck, during e.g. shaking the head and twisting the neck, oblique muscles, like the mm. scaleni, if activated unilaterally initiate movement, counterbalance the torsional moments and keep the joints between neck vertebrae in equilibrium. If activated bilaterally, these muscles keep the neck balanced in an energy-saving upright posture. The tendons of the mm. scaleni may have ossified as cervical ribs The long cervical ribs in brachiosaurids and mamenchisaurids seem to have limited flexibility, whereas the shorter cervical ribs in Diplodocidae allowed free movement. The tails of sauropods do not show pronounced adaptation to torsion, and seem to have been carried more or less in a horizontal, extended posture. In this respect, sauropod tails resemble the necks of herbivorous cursorial mammals. These analyses provide an improved understanding of neck use that will be extended to other sauropods in subsequent

  7. Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Priya; Wei, Annan; Welter, Elisabeth; Bamps, Yvan; Stoll, Shelley; Bukach, Ashley; Sajatovic, Martha; Sahoo, Satya S

    2015-11-01

    Insight is a Semantic Web technology-based platform to support large-scale secondary analysis of healthcare data for neurology clinical research. Insight features the novel use of: (1) provenance metadata, which describes the history or origin of patient data, in clinical research analysis, and (2) support for patient cohort queries across multiple institutions conducting research in epilepsy, which is the one of the most common neurological disorders affecting 50 million persons worldwide. Insight is being developed as a healthcare informatics infrastructure to support a national network of eight epilepsy research centers across the U.S. funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This paper describes the use of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) PROV recommendation for provenance metadata that allows researchers to create patient cohorts based on the provenance of the research studies. In addition, the paper describes the use of descriptive logic-based OWL2 epilepsy ontology for cohort queries with "expansion of query expression" using ontology reasoning. Finally, the evaluation results for the data integration and query performance are described using data from three research studies with 180 epilepsy patients. The experiment results demonstrate that Insight is a scalable approach to use Semantic provenance metadata for context-based data analysis in healthcare informatics.

  8. Structural Researches in the Eastern Carpathians (in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Balintoni

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural Researches in the Eastern Carpathians. The Alpine mesoscopic lineations in the East Carpathians metamorphics, are NW-SE orientated. A few lineations, nearly E-W orientated, could be proved as pre-Alpine in age. Within the Ditrău Massif, is conserved a pre-Alpine attitude of foliations, as frozen magmatic flow, along the metamorphic pre-Triassic fabric. The lineation directions were conditioned by the Cretaceous-Tertiary contractional elimination of the External Carpathian Flysch Basin.

  9. Bend me, shape me

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    A Japanese team has found a way to bend and shape silicon substrates by growing a thin layer of diamond on top. The technique has been proposed as an alternative to mechanical bending, which is currently used to make reflective lenses for X-ray systems and particle physics systems (2 paragraphs).

  10. Three climatic cycles recorded in a loess-palaeosol sequence at Semlac (Romania) - implications for dust accumulation in the Carpathian Basin and the northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeden, Christian; Hambach, Ulrich; Kels, Holger; Schulte, Philipp; Eckmeier, Eileen; Marković, Slobodan; Klasen, Nicole; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Recent investigations of the Semlac loess section in the Southeastern Carpathian Basin, which is situated at the Mureş River in its lower reaches (Banat region, western Romanian), are presented. Dating back to marine isotope stage (MIS) 10, the more than 10 m thick loess sequence includes four fossil sol-complexes developed in homogenous relatively fine silty loess. Because good preservation and sedimentation of fine silt Semlac is regarded as a key section for the Carpathian Basin, which offers possibilities to a) improve the understanding of the type and composition of the lowland loess sequences in the Carpathian Basin also beyond the last interglacial palaeosol complex, b) to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the local loess-palaeosol successions and c) to compare the loess of the region to loess-sequences in adjacent and dust proxy data in the northern hemisphere. A strikingly sinusoidal course of physical property data with depth/time point to relatively homogenous, quasi-continuous background sedimentation of dust, interpreted as long-range transport (LRT). An integrated age model based on correlation to reference records and luminescence dating is compiled. Applying this age model we compare climate proxy data from Semlac to both global data and to data from the very southeast of the Carpathian Basin (Vojvodina, Serbia). The obtained results provide new insight into the dust accumulation regime in the Carpathian Basin and offer new palaeoenvironmental information for the region and are an important step towards establishing a catena from the thin loess-like sediments of the Banat foothills in the East towards the thicker and seemingly more complete loess sections of the southeastern and central Carpathian Basin. Disentangling grain size data from soil formation proxies gives quantitative estimates for the contribution of original sediment and weathering (through soil formation) to the present clay fraction. Patterns of clay from direct sedimentation

  11. Characterisation of Cements From Dominantly Volcanic Raw Materials of the Carpathian Bend Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halmagy Timea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations regarding the production of cements from local raw materials, such as limestone from Varghis, gypsum from Nucsoara, basaltic scoria from Racosul de Jos, volcanic tuff from Racosul de Sus, diatomite from Filia, and red mud from Oradea. The raw mixtures, based on modified Bogue calculations, contain limestone, gypsum, and one or two of the above-mentioned materials. The cements resulted from clinker grinding in a laboratory gas furnace at 1260-1300 °C, with one hour at the peak temperatures, and were characterised for Blaine specific surface area, specific density, and mineral phases. Physico-mechanical properties, such as water content for normal consistency, setting time, soundness, and compressive strength were also determined. Results show that these cements contain belite, ferrite, calcium sulphoaluminate, anhydrite, and some minor compounds.

  12. Geologic and Isotopic Models for the Carpathian Crystalline Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Coriolan Balintoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Carpathian metamorphics protoliths have TDM model Sm/Nd ages between 1.6 and 2.0 Ga. This suggests an important episode of continental crust formation after the 2.0 Ga. The Biharia lithogroup (Apuseni Mountains and the Tulghes lithogroup (East Carpathians furnished Zircon U/Pb ages from metagranitoids and acid metavolcanics, respective, around 500 Ma; this is a sign of existence of some Lower Proterozoic protoliths among Carpathian metamorphics. The bimodal intrusions which are piercing the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Paiuseni lithogroup in Highiş Massif (Apuseni Mountains have given Permian ages on Zircon U/Pb data. The Paiuseni lithogroup probably represents the fill of a rift basin of the same age. The Arieseni, Muntele Mare and Vinta granitoid intrusions from Apuseni Mountains, with U/Pb ages between Lower Devonian and Permian, indicates some contractional and extensional processes, in connection with Variscan Orogeny.

  13. Plate girders under bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abspoel, R.; Dubina, D.; Ungureanu, V.

    2016-01-01

    In a material economy driven plate girder design, the lever arm between the flanges will increase. This leads to higher stiffness and bending moment resistance, but also to an in-crease of the web slenderness. This means that high strength steels can be used leading to a large reduction of the steel

  14. DNA Bending elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, David Alexander

    DNA bending elasticity on length scales of tens of basepairs is of critical importance in numerous biological contexts. Even the simplest models of DNA bending admit of few simple analytic results, thus there is a need for numerical methods to calculate experimental observables, such as distance distributions, forces, FRET efficiencies, and timescales of particular large-scale motions. We have implemented and helped develop a coarse-grained representation of DNA and various other covalently-linked groups that allows simple calculation of such observables for varied experimental systems. The simple freely-jointed chain (FJC) model and extremely coarse resolution proved useful in understanding DNA threading through nanopores, identifying steric occlusion by other parts of the chain as a prime culprit for slower capture as distance to the pore decreased. Enhanced sampling techniques of a finer resolution discrete wormlike chain (WLC) model permitted calculation of cyclization rates for small chains and identified the ramifications of a thermodynamically-sound treatment of thermal melts. Adding treatment of double-stranded DNA's helical nature and single-stranded DNA provided a model system that helped demonstrate the importance of statistical fluctuations in even highly-stressed DNA mini-loops, and allowed us to verify that even these constructs show no evidence of excitation-induced softening. Additional incorporation of salt-sensitivity to the model allowed us to calculate forces and FRET efficiencies for such mini-loops and their uncircularized precursors, thereby furthering the understanding of the nature of IHF binding and bending of its recognition sequence. Adding large volume-excluding spheres linked to the ends of the dsDNA permits calculation of distance distributions and thus small-angle X-ray scattering, whereby we demonstrated the validity of the WLC in describing bending fluctuations in DNA chains as short as 42 bp. We also make important connections

  15. The Middle Miocene of the Fore-Carpathian Basin (Poland, Ukraine and Moldova)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka, Anna; Radwański, Andrzej; Górka, Marcin; Bąbel, Maciej; Radwańska, Urszula; Złotnik, Michał

    2016-09-01

    Studies of Miocene sediments in the Fore-Carpathian Basin, conducted by geologists from the University of Warsaw have provided new insights on the distribution of the facies infilling the basin, particularly in the forebulge and back-bulge zones. The origin of the large-scale sand bodies, evaporitic deposits and large-scale organic buildups is discussed, described and verified. These deposits originated in variable, shallow marine settings, differing in their water chemistry and the dynamics of sedimentary processes, and are unique with regard to the fossil assemblages they yield. Many years of taxonomic, biostratigraphic, palaeoecologic and ecotaphonomic investigations have resulted in the identification of the fossil assemblages of these sediments, their age, sedimentary settings and post-mortem conditions. Detailed studies were focused on corals, polychaetes, most classes of molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms, and fishes.

  16. Climate Change Adaptation in the Carpathian Mountain Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, Saskia Elisabeth; Szalai, Sándor; Zingstra, Henk; Kőpataki, Éva; Beckmann, Andreas; Bos, Ernst; Civic, Kristijan; Hlásny, Tomas; Hulea, Orieta; Jurek, Matthias; Koch, Hagen; Kondor, Attila Csaba; Kovbasko, Aleksandra; Lakatos, M.; Lambert, Stijn; Peters, Richard; Trombik, Jiří; De Velde, Van Ilse; Zsuffa, István

    2016-01-01

    The Carpathian mountain region is one of the most significant natural refuges on the European continent. It is home to Europe’s most extensive tracts of montane forest, the largest remaining virgin forest and natural mountain beech-fir forest ecosystems. Adding to the biodiversity are semi-natural

  17. Risk and Geodynamically active areas of Carpathian lithosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomil Pospíšil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates an application of multidisciplinary data analysis to the Carpathian–Pannonian region and presents a verification of a Complex model of the Carpathian - Pannonian lithosphere by recent data sets and geophysical data analyses and its utilization for the determination of risk and active geodynamic and tectonic zones of Ist order . This model can be used for the analysing any Carpathian area from the point of view of the seismic risk, hazards and geodynamic activity, which is important to know for the building of a repository for the radioactive wasted material. Besides the traditionally used geological (sedimentological and volcanological data and geomorphological data (Remote Sensing, an emphasis was laid on geodetic, grav/mag data, seismic, seismological and other geophysical data (magnetotelluric, heat flow, paleomagnetic etc.. All available geonomic (geologic, geodetic, geophysical, geomorphological data were verified and unified on the basis of the same scale and in the Western Carpathians on the Remote Sensing data. The paper concentrates on two problematic areas – the so call “rebounding area” in the Eastern Carpathians and the Raba – Muran - Malcov tectonic systems.

  18. Western Carpathians in the territory of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skupien, P.; Vašíček, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 3/1 (2008), s. 139-149 ISSN 0138-0974 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/07/1365 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Outer Western Carpathians * nappes * localities Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  19. Contribution to the lichen biota of the Romanian Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíček, J.; Bouda, F.; Liška, Jiří; Palice, Zdeněk; Peksa, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2015), s. 713-735 ISSN 0018-0971 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV025 Keywords : The Balkans * biodiversity * Southern and Eastern Carpathians Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.821, year: 2015

  20. Ticks (Ixodidae) from passerine birds in the Carpathian region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitalska, E.; Literák, I.; Sparagano, O. A .E.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Kocianová, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 118, 23/24 (2006), 759-764 ISSN 0043-5325 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Passerine birds * Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia * Rickettsia * Ehrlichia * Carpathians Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.804, year: 2006

  1. Large carnivores in the Carpathian Mountains: status and conservation problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Okarma, H.; Dovchanych, Y.; Findo, S.; Ionescu, O.; Koubek, Petr; Szemethy, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2002), s. 33-39 ISSN 0078-3250 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : carnivores * conservation * Carpathians Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  2. AA, bending magnet, BLG

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipole (bending magnets; BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). The BLG had a steel length of 4.70 m, a good field width of 0.24 m, and a weight of about 70 t. Jean-Claude Brunet inspects the lower half of a BLG. For the BST magnets see 7811105 and 8006036.

  3. Parallel monostrand stay cable bending fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan Pawel

    This dissertation investigates the bending fatigue response of high-strength steel monostrands and multistrand stay cables to cyclic transverse deformations. Increasing bridge stock numbers and a push for longer cable-supported span lengths have led to an increased number of reported incidents...... deformations is the highest at the neutral axis of the monostrand. Moreover, the results indicate that the midspan and the anchorage of the monostrand are the two locations where the combination of tensile strains and the interwire movement is the most unfavorable. It was also shown that, in the absence...... in significant insight in the flexural behavior of a multistrand assembly in critical locations with respect to bending fatigue, i.e. guide deviator and exit of the socket. The thesis ends with an example of how the outcome of the research work can be used in the estimation of the life-cycle performance...

  4. Interdisciplinary cooperation and studies in geoscience in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field, as the more innovative studies are increasingly crossing discipline boundaries and thus benefitting from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by supporting and promoting the creation of “meeting places” able to provide a framework for researchers and scholars involved in geoscience research to find common grounds for discussion and collaboration. Most recently, this was achieved by organizing the 1st Workshop on “Interdisciplinarity in Geosciences in the Carpathian Basin” (IGCB held in the Department of Geography at the University of Suceava (Romania, between the 18th and 22nd October 2012. This event brought together both an international group of scientists and local researchers which created opportunities for collaboration in research topics such as geography, environment, geology and botany, biology and ecology in the Carpathian Basin.

  5. Renewable energy sources for sustainable tourism in the Carpathian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandryk, O. M.; Arkhypova, L. M.; Pobigun, O. V.; Maniuk, O. R.

    2016-08-01

    The use of renewable energy in sustainable tourism development of the region is grounded in the paper. There are three stages of selecting areas for projects of renewable energy sources: selection of potentially suitable area; consideration of exclusion criteria, detailed assessment of potential sites or areas. The factors of impact on spatial constraints and opportunities for building wind, solar and small hydro power plants on the parameters of sustainable tourism development in the Carpathian region were determined.

  6. Geomorphometry of the glacial lakes in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ZAMOSTEANU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to make an inventory and a database comprising of all glacial lakes in the Romanian Carpathians based on information provided by Gâştescu (1960, Pişota (1968, 1971, Decei (1981, Mindrescu (2006, and the data obtained in the field and laboratory by employing GIS techniques (ArcView, Global Mapper, Map Maker, Google Earth.

  7. Carpathian mountain forest vegetation and its responses to climate stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Tautan, Marina N.; Baschir, Laurentiu V.; Dida, Adrian I.

    2017-10-01

    Due to anthropogenic and climatic changes, Carpathian Mountains forests in Romania experience environmental degradation. As a result of global climate change, there is growing evidence that some of the most severe weather events could become more frequent in Romania over the next 50 to 100 years. In the case of Carpathian mountain forests, winter storms and heat waves are considered key climate risks, particularly in prealpine and alpine areas. Effects of climate extremes on forests can have both short-term and long-term implications for standing biomass, tree health and species composition. The preservation and enhancement of mountain forest vegetation cover in natural, semi-natural forestry ecosystems is an essential factor in sustaining environmental health and averting natural hazards. This paper aims to: (i) describe observed trends and scenarios for summer heat waves, windstorms and heavy precipitation, based on results from satellite time series NOAA AVHRR, MODIS Terra/Aqua and Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI NDVI and LAI data recorded during 2000-2016 period correlated with meteorological parameters, regional climate models, and other downscaling procedures, and (ii) discuss potential impacts of climate changes and extreme events on Carpathian mountain forest system in Romania. The response of forest land cover vegetation in Carpathian Mountains, Romania to climatic factors varies in different seasons of the years, the diverse vegetation feedbacks to climate changes being related to different vegetation characteristics and meteorological conditions. Based on integrated analysis of satellite and field data was concluded that forest ecosystem functions are responsible of the relationships between mountain specific vegetation and climate.

  8. Cladonia metacorallifera, a lichen species new to the Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Osyczka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A rare lichen Cladonia metacorallifera was found in the Bieszczady Mts. and this is the first report of the species from the Eastern Carpathians. In Poland, its occurrence is probably limited to small populations scattered in high mountain situations. The data of distribution of the species in Poland, ecological characterization of the new locality and some taxonomical remarks concerning the recorded specimen, as well as a photograph of its habit are provided.

  9. Total water content thresholds for shallow landslides, Outer Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bil, M.; Andrašík, R.; Zahradníček, Pavel; Kubeček, J.; Sedonik, J.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 337-347 ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : data quality -control * debris flows * rainfall thresholds * equivalent * depth * failures * example * europe * model * Landslides * Threshold * Snowmelt * Time series * Antecedent rainfall * Outer Western Carpathians Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.657, year: 2016

  10. The peculiarities of bear numbers dynamics in the Eastern Carpathians

    OpenAIRE

    Khoyetskyy, Pavlo

    2013-01-01

    There have been two periods of change in the dynamics of bear population in the Eastern Carpathians. The first period lasted over 50 years, starting in the late 1940s and ending in the year 2001. The second period started in the early 21st century. The bear population reached its maximum – of about 1100 individuals – in the early 1970s. Over 85% of recorded bear deaths have resulted from poaching.

  11. The peculiarities of bear numbers dynamics in the Eastern Carpathians

    OpenAIRE

    Khoyetskyy, Pavlo

    2013-01-01

    There have been two periods of change in the dynamics of bear population in the Eastern Carpathians. The first period lasted over 50 years, starting in the late 1940s and ending in the year 2001. The second period started in the early 21st century. The bear population reached its maximum- of about 1100 individuals - in the early 1970s. Over 85% of recorded bear deaths have resulted from poaching. Przemysław Szmit

  12. Heavy metal pollution and forest health in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shparyk, Y.S.; Parpan, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    The Ukrainian Carpathians are characterized by high air pollution caused by emissions from numerous industries. We have been monitoring the state of forests in this region since 1989. The highest levels of tree defoliation (>30%) are found close to industrial emission sources and in the upper mountain forests of the Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi regions. This is caused by a combination of strong anthropogenic influences (pollution, illegal uses, recreation) as well as poor site and climatic conditions. In the Ivano-Frankivsk region, Cd and Mo accumulate in forest soils; Cr, Mo and Zn soil concentrations are higher than their limit levels; and Pb concentrations exceed toxic levels close to industrial areas (10% of the region territory). Local background levels of heavy metals are greatly exceeded in snow close to industrial regions. Analysis of correlation matrices shows that the chemical elements Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn occur at pollution levels in natural ecosystems in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Maximum concentrations of toxic elements occur in the oak forest zone; the most industrially developed area of the region. Toxic heavy metals in the Ukrainian Carpathians forests enter with precipitation and dustfall, then become fixed in soil and accumulate in leaves, needles of vascular plants and mosses. Concentrations of these metals decrease with altitude: highest in the oak forests, less in beech, and lowest in the spruce forest zones. However, some chemical elements have the highest concentrations in spruce forests; V in needles, As in snow, and Ba and Al in soils. - Local industrial emissions of heavy metal pollution and the condition of Ukrainian Carpathians forests are examined

  13. Putative forest glacial refugia in the Western and Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Mitka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An examination of thermophilous species pollen deposits found in the Plenivistulian river alluvial terraces in the Polish Western Carpathians was conducted. Of the 16 palaeobotanical sites evaluated, most often noted were Alnus and Betula t. alba; Abies, Carpinus and Corylus occurred less frequently, and Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus were rare. Fagus and Fraxinus pollen were absent. Abies and Carpinus were relatively overrepresented, because their frequency of occurrence was similar to Corylus avellana, i.e. one of the most cold-resistant species. Based on a literature survey of phylogeographic studies and data regarding the forest species Aconitum moldavicum, A. variegatum, Bromus benekenii, Carpinus betulus, Lathyrus vernus, Lonicera nigra, and the moderately thermophilous Rosa pendulina, 47 cryptic refugial areas of temperate plant species are postulated. The combined analysis indicates that they could have survived the last glaciation in the W & E Carpathian microrefugia close to 650 m a.s.l., and in Podolia (north of the Eastern Carpathians along a contour of 300 m a.s.l.

  14. Environmental Challenges Related to the Acquisition of the Trans Carpathian Wide Angle Reflection and Refraction Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragut, Dorina-Alina; Schultz, Gehrig; Mocanu, Victor; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Starostenko, Vitaly

    2015-04-01

    Complex structures like the Carpathian Orogen and its neighbouring platforms and related inter-orogenic basin system can be understood only by complex integration of complementary investigative tools. Most of regional geoscientific investigations in Romania have targeted the very intricate, high intermediate-depth seismicity, clustered Carpathian Bend Zone: Vrancea. Despite huge geological and geophysical efforts, the area remains a matter of robust debate, at least from the point of view of geodynamic driving mechanisms. However, other areas outside Vrancea remained somehow "orphaned". However, a large wide angle refraction and reflection (WARR) survey was carried out in the summer of 2014 by a large international partnership in order to study the transition from the East European Platform to the northern part of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians, Transylvanian Basin and the Apuseni Mountains. The main scientific objectives of the WARR project relate to three main investigation domains: crustal architecture; affinity of crystalline basement and sedimentary basins architecture. The profile is about 700 km in total, in Ukraine and Romania. Recorders were placed at 1.75 - 2.0 km intervals along an alignment forming the Romanian segment. Recorders used were stand-alone DSS Cubes from the Helmholz Center of GFZ Potsdam and from the Institute of Geophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The seismic sources were explosives ("Riogel" and "Riodet" by Maxam), with shotpoints spaced at 20 - 65 km with a total of 800 - 1200 kg explosives/site in clusters of drill-holes loaded with 50 kg explosive/hole, average depth of 25 m. Very complicated and legally-challenging environmental permitting requirements represented a real issue for successful implementation of the project. The main concern of local and central authorities related to potential pollution of sensitive components. Here, we present the strategy, actions and results concluded in order to reach the scientific and

  15. Sheet Bending using Soft Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, J.

    2011-05-01

    Sheet bending is usually performed by air bending and V-die bending processes. Both processes apply rigid tools. These solid tools facilitate the generation of software for the numerical control of those processes. When the lower rigid die is replaced with a soft or rubber tool, the numerical control becomes much more difficult, since the soft tool deforms too. Compared to other bending processes the rubber backed bending process has some distinct advantages, like large radius-to-thickness ratios, applicability to materials with topcoats, well defined radii, and the feasibility of forming details (ridges, beads). These advantages may give the process exclusive benefits over conventional bending processes, not only for industries related to mechanical engineering and sheet metal forming, but also for other disciplines like Architecture and Industrial Design The largest disadvantage is that also the soft (rubber) tool deforms. Although the tool deformation is elastic and recovers after each process cycle, the applied force during bending is related to the deformation of the metal sheet and the deformation of the rubber. The deformation of the rubber interacts with the process but also with sheet parameters. This makes the numerical control of the process much more complicated. This paper presents a model for the bending of sheet materials using a rubber lower die. This model can be implemented in software in order to control the bending process numerically. The model itself is based on numerical and experimental research. In this research a number of variables related to the tooling and the material have been evaluated. The numerical part of the research was used to investigate the influence of the features of the soft lower tool, like the hardness and dimensions, and the influence of the sheet thickness, which also interacts with the soft tool deformation. The experimental research was focused on the relation between the machine control parameters and the most

  16. Quantitative morphotectonic analysis of the South-Eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionuţ Cristea, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    South-Eastern Carpathians (Vrancea Region) have received an increasing scientific attention during the past years, mostly resulting in a detailed reconstruction of their exumation history. Moreover structural and thermocronological data suggest that the frontal part of the SE Carpathians conserves the youngest topography in the Romanian Carpathians resulting from a deformational process occurring during the late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene. This significant tectonic activity continues to the present time as it is confirmed by the geodetic measurements and by the frequency of crustal earthquakes. The specific effects of the Quaternary deformations on the regional fluvial system were associated so far with an increased incision and the formation of the degradational (strath) terraces, downstream tiling of terraces, the establishment of local drainage divides and young longitudinal river profiles. Our study further investigates the possible influence of the recent tectonic activity on the characteristics of the drainage basins in the area and the distribution of the over-steepened stream reaches using spatial autocorrelation techniques (Getis Ord Gi* statistics and Anselin's Local Moran's I). For the first, hypsometric integrals (Hi) and transverse topographic symmetry factor were analyzed. For the last, we used locally computed normalized channel steepness index (ksn). Due to the highly variable lithology in the region (specific to the Flysch areas), additional correlations of the determined values with the geological units and rock types have been made in order to assess the effects. The results show that the geographic clustering of the high Hi and ksn values is more significant than the lithological one, and, although the rock strength have local influences, this is not sufficient to explain the regional distribution of the values, generally between 26.5o and 26.66o E (p

  17. New constraints on the tectonic and thermal evolution of the Central-Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelluccio, Ada; Andreucci, Benedetta; Grigo, Domenico; Jankowski, Leszek; Ketcham, Richard A.; Mazzoli, Stefano; Szaniawski, Rafal; Zattin, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Central-Western Carpathians have been studied for long time but they are a still matter of discussion. In addition, they are one of the principal East European targets for oil and gas exploration. Understanding the tectonic evolution and the spatial and temporal variation of the thermal regime is crucial for this purpose. This orogene formed after the collision between the European Platform and the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates from the Upper Jurassic to the Neogene. The widely accepted interpretation suggests the occurrence of the oceanic lithosphere subducting under the two microplates and the development of the oceanic suture in the Pieniny Klippen Belt area during the Paleocene. The subduction ends when the accretionary wedge reaches its present-day position on top of the southern border of the European Platform. The Carpathian arc can be subdivided into three tectonic domains: • Outer Carpathians made up of Upper Jurassic to Lower Miocene siliciclastic deposits intercalated with shales and sandstones; • Pieniny Klippen Belt formed by Mesozoic olistoliths and olistostromes in a sandy-clay Cretaceous sheared matrix; • Inner Carpathians consisting in Variscan allochthonous crystalline basement with its Mesozoic cover involved in the late Cretaceous folding and thrusting These deposits are unconformably overlain by the undeformed Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin successions. Cross-section balancing and sequential restoration integrated with low-temperature thermochronometry (apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis) can better constrain the tectonic evolution of this area and, in particular, its exhumation history. Seven balanced sections have been constructed across the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians. The sequential restoration shows a thick-skinned tectonics during the Upper Cretaceous, involving the Inner Carpathian basin. The erosion of the Mesozoic basement cover and the sedimentation of these deposits in the foreland basin

  18. Vegetation of the selected forest stands and land use in the Carpathian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grodzinska, Krystyna; Godzik, Barbara; Fraczek, Witold; Badea, Ovidiu; Oszlanyi, Julius; Postelnicu, Daniela; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    Vegetation and land use maps of forested mountain areas in central Europe are presented. - Within the framework of the project 'Effects of forest health on biodiversity with emphasis on air pollution in the Carpathian Mountains' 26 permanent study sites were established in the vicinity of the ozone monitoring sites. The study sites were located on the NW-SE transect through the Western (12 sites), Eastern (11 sites) and Southern (3 sites) Carpathians in forest ecosystems typical of each area. Some of the forest monitoring sites were located in national parks, biosphere reserves and areas of protected landscape. Each permanent site of 0.7 ha area consisted of 5 small 500m{sup 2} circular plots, arranged in the form of a cross, i.e. four placed on the cardinal points (N, E, S, W) and one in the center. Phytosociological records were done twice during the 1998 growing season using the Braun-Blanquet's method. The study sites represented various types of forest: Picea abies stands (8), beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands (10), fir (Abies alba) stands (2) and mixed beech-fir, spruce-fir and beech-spruce stands (6). Age of most stands was 80-100 years. Degree of crown damage varied greatly between sites, a percentage of damaged trees decrease in Carpathians from West to East. It corresponds well with the O{sub 3} level in these areas. Typical damage by O{sub 3} in herb layer species in several Carpathian sites were found. Land-use map for the entire Carpathian Mountains and two detailed land use maps for Tatras (Western Carpathians) and Retezat (Southern Carpathians) are presented. A little more than half of the Carpathian territory is forested. The most densely forested are Eastern Carpathians, while the most sparsely Western Carpathians. Arable lands occupy 22.6% of the Carpathians, pastures and meadows 6.2%, water bodies 1.9%, and build up areas several percent. In the highest elevation of the Carpathians alpine meadows (11.3%) and rocks (3.5%) are

  19. Evaluation of landslide monitoring in the Polish Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Baum, Rex L.; Mrozek, Teresa; Nescieruk, Piotr; Perski, Zbigniew; Raczkowski, Wojciech; Graniczny, Marek

    2011-01-01

    In response to the June 15, 2010 request from the Polish Geological Institute (PGI) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for assistance and advice regarding real-time landslide monitoring, landslide specialists from the USGS Landslide Hazard Program visited PGI headquarters and field sites in September 2010. During our visit we became familiar with characteristics of landslides in the Polish Carpathians, reviewed PGI monitoring techniques, and assessed needs for monitoring at recently activated landslides. Visits to several landslides that are monitored by PGI (the Just, Hańczowa, Szymbark, Siercza and Łasńica landslides) revealed that current data collection (monthly GPS and inclinometer surveys, hourly piezometers readings) is generally sufficient for collecting basic information about landslide displacement, depth, and groundwater conditions. Large landslides are typically hydrologically complex, and we would expect such complexity in Carpathian landslides, given the alternating shale and sandstone stratigraphy and complex geologic structures of the flysch bedrock. Consequently groundwater observations could be improved by installing several piezometers that sample the basal shear zone of each landslide being monitored by PGI. These could be supplemented by additional piezometers at shallower depths to help clarify general flow directions and hydraulic gradients. Remedial works at Hańczowa

  20. "Mediterranean volcanoes vs. chain volcanoes in the Carpathians"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivarean, Radu

    2017-04-01

    Volcanoes have always represent an attractive subject for students. Europe has a small number of volcanoes and Romania has none active ones. The curricula is poor in the study of volcanoes. We want to make a parallel between the Mediterranean active volcanoes and the old extinct ones in the Oriental Carpathians. We made an comparison of the two regions in what concerns their genesis, space and time distribution, the specific relief and the impact in the landscape, consequences of their activities, etc… The most of the Mediterranean volcanoes are in Italy, in the peninsula in Napoli's area - Vezuviu, Campi Flegrei, Puzzoli, volcanic islands in Tirenian Sea - Ischia, Aeolian Islands, Sicily - Etna and Pantelleria Island. Santorini is located in Aegean Sea - Greece. Between Sicily and Tunisia there are 13 underwater volcanoes. The island called Vulcano, it has an active volcano, and it is the origin of the word. Every volcano in the world is named after this island, just north of Sicily. Vulcano is the southernmost of the 7 main Aeolian Islands, all volcanic in origin, which together form a small island arc. The cause of the volcanoes appears to be a combination of an old subduction event and tectonic fault lines. They can be considered as the origin of the science of volcanology. The volcanism of the Carpathian region is part of the extensive volcanic activity in the Mediterranean and surrounding regions. The Carpathian Neogene/Quaternary volcanic arc is naturally subdivided into six geographically distinct segments: Oas, Gutai, Tibles, Calimani, Gurghiu and Harghita. It is located roughly between the Carpathian thrust-and-fold arc to the east and the Transylvanian Basin to the west. It formed as a result of the convergence between two plate fragments, the Transylvanian micro-plate and the Eurasian plate. Volcanic edifices are typical medium-sized andesitic composite volcanoes, some of them attaining the caldera stage, complicated by submittal or peripheral domes

  1. EFFECT OF CHANNEL BENDS ON TRANSVERSE MIXING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-06-05

    Jun 5, 2017 ... dy, where d is the flow depth, was found to vary laterally in all cross-sections. As the spiral motion due to the second bend develops it displaces the residual spiral motion from the first bend towards the outer bend causing it to decay completely around the middle of this bend. Transverse Tracer Distribution.

  2. Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Magurski National Park (Poland, Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielczyk Urszula

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper lists 337 species from Magurski National Park (MNP: 314 lichens, 18 lichenicolous fungi, four saprotrophic fungi and one lichenicolous myxomycete; 112 of them are new for MNP, 75 are reported for the first time for the Beskid Niski Mts, and two are new for Poland. Selected species are accompanied by taxonomic notes and remarks on their distribution in Poland and other Carpathian ranges. First records of Intralichen lichenicola, Burgoa angulosa and Verrucaria policensis and a second record of Epigloea urosperma are given for the whole Carpathian range, and Fuscidea arboricola was recorded for the first time in the Western Carpathians. Halecania viridescens and Mycomicrothelia confusa are new for the Polish Carpathians. The records of Absconditella pauxilla, Collema crispum, Licea parasitica and Rinodina griseosoralifera in MNP are their second known localities for the range. 93 species, mainly rare or threatened in Poland, were reported from MNP in the 20th century but were not refound.

  3. A REVIEW OF THE GENUS XORIDES LATREILLE, 1809 (HYMENOPTERA, ICHNEUMONIDAE, XORIDINAE IN THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Varga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Xorides Latreille, 1809 in the Ukrainian Carpathians are reviewed. All eight recorded species are new for the studied region. X alpestris (Habermehl, 1903, X. brachylabis (Kriechbaumer, 1889, X. csikii Clement, 1938, X. irrigator (Fabricius 1793, and X. niger (Pfeffer, 1913 are recorded as new to the Ukrainian fauna. Diagnostic features and illustrations of species are provided. Seasonal dynamics and high-altitude zone distribution of Xorides species in the Ukrainian Carpathians are discussed.

  4. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  5. Temporal properties of seismicity and largest earthquakes in SE Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Byrdina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the hazard rate distribution of the largest seismic events in Vrancea, South-Eastern Carpathians, we study temporal properties of historical and instrumental catalogues of seismicity. First, on the basis of Generalized Extreme Value theory we estimate the average return period of the largest events. Then, following Bak et al. (2002 and Corral (2005a, we study scaling properties of recurrence times between earthquakes in appropriate spatial volumes. We come to the conclusion that the seismicity is temporally clustered, and that the distribution of recurrence times is significantly different from a Poisson process even for times largely exceeding corresponding periods of foreshock and aftershock activity. Modeling the recurrence times by a gamma distributed variable, we finally estimate hazard rates with respect to the time elapsed from the last large earthquake.

  6. Gravity and magnetic modelling in the Vrancea Zone, south-eastern Carpathians: Redefinition of the edge of the East European Craton beneath the south-eastern Carpathians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Matenco, L.; Mocanu, V.

    2013-01-01

    A 2D gravity and magnetic data model has been constructed along a 71. km densely observed profile, called DACIA PLAN GRAV MAN's. The profile crosses part of the nappe pile of the south-eastern Carpathians and includes the seismically active Vrancea Zone and was acquired with the objective to

  7. Bending loss of terahertz pipe waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jen-Tang; Hsueh, Yu-Chun; Huang, Yu-Ru; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2010-12-06

    We present an experimental study on the bending loss of terahertz (THz) pipe waveguide. Bending loss of pipe waveguides is investigated for various frequencies, polarizations, core diameters, cladding thicknesses, and cladding materials. Our results indicate that the pipe waveguides with lower guiding loss suffer lower bending loss due to stronger mode confinement. The unexpected low bending loss in the investigated simple leaky waveguide structure promises variety of flexible applications.

  8. 2.5D seismic velocity modelling in the south-eastern Romanian Carpathians Orogen and its foreland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.A.; Tryggvason, A.; Panea, I; Mocanu, V.I.; Hauser, F

    2005-01-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappe system and the

  9. MIT miniaturized disk bend test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, O.K.; Lee, M.; Sohn, D.S.; Kohse, G.; Lau, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    A miniaturized disk bend test (MDBT) using transmission electron microscopy specimens for the determination of various mechanical properties is being developed at MIT. Recent progress in obtaining strengths and ductilities of highly irradiated metal alloys is reviewed. Other mechanical properties can also be obtained using the MDBT approach. Progress in fatigue testing and in determination of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is reviewed briefly. 11 figures

  10. Burial history, thermal history and hydrocarbon generation modelling of the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep and Outer Carpathians (SE Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakowski, Paweł; Wróbel, Magdalena

    2012-08-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of hydrocarbon generation were modelled for the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Carpathian Foredeep and marginal part of the Outer Carpathians. The area of investigation was bounded to the west by Kraków, to the east by Rzeszów. The modelling was carried out in profiles of wells: Będzienica 2, Dębica 10K, Góra Ropczycka 1K, Goleszów 5, Nawsie 1, Pławowice E1 and Pilzno 40. The organic matter, containing gas-prone Type III kerogen with an admixture of Type II kerogen, is immature or at most, early mature to 0.7 % in the vitrinite reflectance scale. The highest thermal maturity is recorded in the south-eastern part of the study area, where the Jurassic strata are buried deeper. The thermal modelling showed that the obtained organic matter maturity in the initial phase of the "oil window" is connected with the stage of the Carpathian overthrusting. The numerical modelling indicated that the onset of hydrocarbon generation from the Middle Jurassic source rocks was also connected with the Carpathian thrust belt. The peak of hydrocarbon generation took place in the orogenic stage of the overthrusting. The amount of generated hydrocarbons is generally small, which is a consequence of the low maturity and low transformation degree of kerogen. The generated hydrocarbons were not expelled from their source rock. An analysis of maturity distribution and transformation degree of the Jurassic organic matter shows that the best conditions for hydrocarbon generation occurred most probably in areas deeply buried under the Outer Carpathians. It is most probable that the "generation kitchen" should be searched for there.

  11. Neogene palaeogeography and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováč, Michal; Márton, Emő; Oszczypko, Nestor; Vojtko, Rastislav; Hók, Jozef; Králiková, Silvia; Plašienka, Dušan; Klučiar, Tomáš; Hudáčková, Natália; Oszczypko-Clowes, Marta

    2017-08-01

    The data on the Neogene geodynamics, palaeogeography, and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas (ALCAPA Mega-unit) are summarized, re-evaluated, supplemented, and newly interpreted. The proposed concept is illustrated by a series of palinspastic and palaeotopographic maps. The Miocene development of the Outer Carpathians reflects the vanishing subduction of the residual oceanic and/or thinned continental crust. A compression perpendicular to the front of the orogenic system led to the closing of residual flysch troughs and to accretionary wedge growth, as well as to the development of a foredeep on the margin of the European Platform. Docking of the Outer Western Carpathians accretionary wedge, together with the Central Western Carpathians and Northern Pannonian domain, was accompanied by stretching of the overriding microplate. An orogen parallel and perpendicular extension was associated with the opening and subsidence of the Early and Middle Miocene hinterland (back-arc) basin system that compensated counter-clockwise rotations of the individual crustal fragments of ALCAPA. The Late Miocene development relates to the opening of the Pannonian Basin System. This process was coupled with common stretching of both ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia Mega-units due to the pull exerted by subduction rollback in front of the Eastern Carpathians. The filling up of the hinterland basin system was associated with thermal subsidence and was followed by the Pliocene tectonic inversion and consequent erosion of the basin system margins, as well as part of the interior.

  12. Some regularities in the distribution of kenophytes in the Polish Carpathians and their foreland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zając Maria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Carpathians and their northern foreland are a rewarding object for the kenophyte distribution research. The study, using the cartogram method, showed that the number of kenophyte species decreases with increasing altitude. Only few kenophytes were found in the lower forest zone. This regularity concerns also the species that reach higher altitudes in the mountains of their native lands. A number of species migrated into the Carpathians through rivers and streams. River valleys generate many open habitats, which are easily colonized by kenophytes due to the lack of competition. In the Carpathians, towns used to be founded in the mountain valleys and this was also a favouring factor of kenophyte propagation. The arrangement of mountain ranges in the Polish Carpathians, including their foreland, hindered the migration of some species and allowed to discover the possible migration routes into the area covered by research. Tracing these migration routes was possible only for those species that have not occupied the whole available area yet. Additionally, the study indicated the most dangerous invasive species in the Polish Carpathians and their foreland.

  13. Geophysical anatomy of counter-slope scarps in sedimentary flysch rocks (Outer Western Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tábořík, P.; Lenart, J.; Blecha, V.; Vilhelm, J.; Turský, O.

    2017-01-01

    A multidisciplinary geophysical survey, consisting of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR), shallow seismic refraction (SSR) and gravity survey (GS), was used to investigate the counter-slope scarps, one of the typical manifestations of the relaxed zones of rock massifs, and the possible initial stages of deep-seated landslides (DSLs). Two upper parts of the extensive DSLs within the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mountains (Outer Western Carpathians - OWC) built by the sedimentary flysch rock were chosen as the testing sites. A combined geophysical survey on the flysch rocks was performed on both localities to enhance our present findings. The survey revealed that the ERT is able to reliably detect underground discontinuities, which are manifested at the ground surface by one of the typical landforms (tension cracks, trenches, pseudokarst sinkholes, double-crested ridges and counter-slope scarps). Previous studies suggested that bedrock discontinuities should be depicted by high-resistivity features within ERT surveying. According to SSR and GS, expected zones of weakened rock massif were not confirmed directly underneath the superficial landforms, but they were shifted. Based on the SSR and GS measurements, the depicted high-contrast transitions between high- and low-resistivity domains within the ERT profiles were newly identified as possible manifestation of bedrock discontinuities. The results of GPR measurements give only limited information on the sedimentary flysch rocks, due to shallow penetrating depth and locally strong signal attenuation. The combined results of multidisciplinary geophysical surveying confirmed an importance of employing more than one geophysical technique for integrated interpretations of measured data. Integrated interpretations of the measured geophysical data provided a new insight into massif disintegration and the geomorphic origin of the landforms related to the DSL.

  14. A Temperature Sensor Based on a Polymer Optical Fiber Macro-Bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraleda, Alberto Tapetado; García, Carmen Vázquez; Zaballa, Joseba Zubia; Arrue, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The design and development of a plastic optical fiber (POF) macrobend temperature sensor is presented. The sensor has a linear response versus temperature at a fixed bend radius, with a sensitivity of 1.92·10−3 (°C)−1. The sensor system used a dummy fiber-optic sensor for reference purposes having a resolution below 0.3 °C. A comprehensive experimental analysis was carried out to provide insight into the effect of different surrounding media on practical macro-bend POF sensor implementation. Experimental results are successfully compared with bend loss calculations. PMID:24077323

  15. A Temperature Sensor Based on a Polymer Optical Fiber Macro-Bend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba Zubia Zaballa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of a plastic optical fiber (POF macrobend temperature sensor is presented. The sensor has a linear response versus temperature at a fixed bend radius, with a sensitivity of . The sensor system used a dummy fiber-optic sensor for reference purposes having a resolution below 0.3 °C. A comprehensive experimental analysis was carried out to provide insight into the effect of different surrounding media on practical macro-bend POF sensor implementation. Experimental results are successfully compared with bend loss calculations.

  16. EOLIC SEDIMENTS IN WESTERN CARPATHIANS, THEIR CHARACTERIZATION AND CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košťálik Ján

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Loesses in Western Carpathians cover the area of 7 000 square kilometres. The difference of paleographic relations between Eastern and Western Slovakia during the course of Pleistocen is reflected in their morphology, litotype, physical, chemical, and geocnemic properties, in the composition of extraction minerals, in the content of CaCO3, in the character of malacofauna, and the typology of fossile soils. To achieve the thickness of l-5-20 m, a maximum thickness being 35 to 40 m. Eolic sands can be found in the Záhorská nížina lowlands, Podunajská rovina flatland, and East-Slovakian lowland. Morphologically, they form 5-20 m high piles of parabolic and longitudinal form. Winds from various directions were active in their formation. The association of extraction minerals proves that these had been blown out from neogene sediments of the nearby vicinity and from river sediments of the Morava, Danube, and Tisa rivers and their tributaries.

  17. Possible ecologically based ways of preserving and developing the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. І. Nikolaichuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine has transformed into one of the most environmentally dangerous countries in the world due to the high concentration of industrial production and agriculture and predatory use of natural resources. The current ecological situation in Ukraine is characterized by a deep ecological crisis, which is caused by the laws of operation of the command economy of the former USSR. The majority of the environmental and social indicators of Ukraine are among the worst in Europe. The Carpathian Mountains are among the most significant and interesting landscapes in Europe from the geological and geomorphological, scenic and biological perspectives. The giant arc of the Carpathians begins in southern Romania and passes through Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary to Austria, crosses all Eastern and Central Europe. A third of the forest reserves of Ukraine are located in the Ukrainian Carpathians, at 53.5% the percentage of forest cover of the area is among the highest in the country. About 50% of the gene pool of Ukraine’s plants, many species of trees and medicinal plants grows there. The geographical location and large area of the rich natural heritage of the Carpathians have multifaceted importance for the conservation of biological, phytocoenotic and landscape diversity and maintaining the ecological balance in the central part of our continent. As with the Alps mountain range, this is an important ecological corridor between Western, Central and Eastern Europe, which promotes the migration of species and their spread into lowland landscapes. In order to preserve biodiversity an inventory of virgin forest ecosystems should be made and strict measures for their protection should be enforced. It is necessary to continue the practice of establishing bilateral areas in cross-border protected areas in order to combine efforts to solve pressing environmental challenges. Conservation of the Carpathians Biodiversity is an urgent problem

  18. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  19. Garment-Integrated Bend Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gioberto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Garment-integrated sensors equip clothes with a smart sensing capability, while preserving the comfort of the user. However, this benefit can be to the detriment of sensing accuracy due to the unpredictability of garment movement (which affects sensor positioning and textile folds (which can affect sensor orientation. However, sensors integrated directly into garments or fabric structures can also be used to detect the movement of the garment during wearing. Specifically, a textile bend sensor could be used to sense folds in the garment. We tested a garment-integrated stitched sensor for five types of folds, stitched on five different weights of un-stretchable denim fabric and analyzed the effects of fold complexity and fabric stiffness, under un-insulated and insulated conditions. Results show that insulation improves the linearity and repeatability of the sensor response, particularly for higher fold complexity. Stiffer fabrics show greater sensitivity, but less linearity. Sensor response amplitude is larger for more complex fold geometries. The utility of a linear bending response (insulated and a binary shorting response (un-insulated is discussed. Overall, the sensor exhibits excellent repeatability and accuracy, particularly for a fiber-based, textile-integrated sensor.

  20. Current range characteristics of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) along the Carpathians revealed by chloroplast SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, Mária; Hufnagel, L; Cseke, Klára; Vendramin, G G

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the diversity pattern of nine Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) populations along the Carpathian range including the High Tatras, by using six chloroplast DNA microsatellites (cpSSR). Our aim was to detect genetically distinct regions by clustering of populations, and to tackle possible historical colonization routes. Our analysis referred to an investigated geographical range with the two most distant populations situated at about 500 air km. We found that the most diverse populations are situated at the two edges of the investigated part, in the Retezat Mts. (South Carpathians) and the High Tatras, and diversity decreases towards the populations of the Eastern Carpathians. Hierarchical clustering and NMDS revealed that the populations of the South Carpathians with the Tatras form a distinct cluster, significantly separated from those of the Eastern Carpathians. Moreover, based on the most variable chloroplast microsatellites, the four populations of the two range edges are not significantly different. Our results, supported also by palynological and late glacial macrofossil evidences, indicate refugial territories within the Retezat Mts. that conserved rich haplotype composition. From this refugial territory Pinus cembra might have colonized the Eastern Carpathians, and this was accompanied by a gradual decrease in population diversity. Populations of the High Tatras might have had the same role in the colonizing events of the Carpathians, as positive correlation was detected among populations lying from each other at a distance of 280 km, the maximum distance between neighbouring populations.

  1. Heavy Metals in Brown Bears from the Central European Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Čelechovská

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess heavy metal load in the brown bear (Ursus arctos living in the central European Carpathians. Between 2002 and 2004, fifteen bears were examined to evaluate the distribution of cadmium, lead, mercury and copper in the animals' muscles (diaphragm, spleen, liver and kidney. The highest content of cadmium, lead and mercury was found in the kidney (17.4 ± 5.2 mg kg-1, 1.16 ± 0.39 mg kg-1, 0.39 ± 0.25 mg kg-1, whereas the lowest content of the metals was observed in the muscles (0.017 ± 0.009 mg kg-1, 0.299 ± 0.308 mg kg-1, 0.013 ± 0.011 mg kg-1. Second highest concentration of cadmium, lead and mercury was detected in the liver (0.83 ± 0.24 mg kg-1, 0.99 ± 0.61 mg kg-1, 0.11 ± 0.05 mg kg-1. Copper distributions and concentrations in bear tissues were as follows (in descending order: liver (23.9 ± 6.7 mg kg-1, > kidneys (9.0 ± 3.3 mg kg-1, > muscles (1.9 ± 1.6 mg kg-1 and > spleen (1.0 ± 0.2 mg kg-1. As compared with heavy metal load observed in bear tissues between 1988 and 1990, the concentration of cadmium in the muscles and liver was significantly lower (p p p < 0.01. Lead and copper tissue concentrations did not change substantially.

  2. Grassland communities of traditional orchards in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Zarnovican

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional orchards are a valuable feature of the rural landscape and they are specific for regions with scattered settlement such as the Myjava hilly land and White Carpathians. Here, the permanent species-rich grasslands beneath trees were regularly managed in the traditional manner until some were replaced in the 1970’s and 80’s by intensively managed orchards, some of which were abandoned in the early 1990’s. Our 2011–2015 phytosociological research followed the standard Braun-Blanquet approach. We classified 178 phytosociological relevés recorded in orchard meadows (156 relevés, former intensively managed orchards (16 relevés, and two relevés from a semi-intensively grazed orchard. Traditionally managed orchard meadows were classified in the following five units: (i Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris – thermophilous variant, (ii Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris – transitional variant to Alchemillo-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, (iii Ranunculo bulbosi-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, (iv Onobrychido viciifoliae-Brometum erecti, and (v Brachypodio pinnati-Molinietum arundinaceae. Formerly intensively managed large-scale orchards were classified as Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris association and the semi-intensively grazed orchard as Lolio perennis-Cynosuretum cristati association. The species composition varies considerably due to tree-shading and different management treatments applied in the orchards, so the relevés of the delimited syntaxonomic units are not typical and have transitional character. Moisture, soil nutrients, and soil reaction were identified as the main environmental gradients influencing species composition. We tested four management treatments in direct gradient analysis and found that abandonment has the strongest effect on species composition. Comparison of grassland vegetation in the studied traditional orchards with that described in Germany reveals differences in species

  3. Breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age: Transcultural warriorhood and a Carpathian crossroad in the 16th century BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandkilde, Helle

    2014-01-01

    The breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age (NBA) c. 1600 bc as a koiné within Bronze Age Europe can be historically linked to the Carpathian Basin. Nordic distinctiveness entailed an entanglement of cosmology and warriorhood, albeit represented through different media in the hotspot zone (bronze) ...... momentous creativity that drew upon Carpathian originals, contacts and a pool of Carpathian ideas, but ultimately drawing on emergent Mycenaean hegemonies in the Aegean. This provided the incentive for a cosmology-rooted resource from which the NBA could take its starting point....

  4. Crustal investigations of the earthquake-prone Vrancea region in Romania - Part 2: Novel deep seismic reflection experiment in the southeastern Carpathian belt and its foreland basin - survey target, design, and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, V. I.; Stephenson, R. A.; Diaconescu, C. C.; Knapp, J. H.; Matenco, L.; Dinu, C.; Harder, S.; Prodehl, C.; Hauser, F.; Raileanu, V.; Cloetingh, S. A.; Leever, K.

    2001-12-01

    Seismic studies of the outer Carpathian Orogen and its foreland (Focsani Basin) in the vicinity of the Vrancea Zone and Danube Delta (Romania) forms one component of a new multidisciplinary initiative of ISES (Netherlands Centre for Integrated Solid Earth Sciences) called DACIA PLAN ("Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics"). The study area, at the margin of the European craton, constitutes one of the most active seismic zones in Europe, yet has remained a geological and geodynamic enigma within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Intermediate depth (50-220 km) mantle earthquakes of significant magnitude occur in a geographically restricted area in the south-east Carpathians bend. The adjacent, foreland Focsani Basin appears to exhibit recent extensional deformation in what is otherwise understood to be a zone of convergence. The deep seismic reflection component of DACIA PLAN comprises a ~140-km near-vertical profile across the Vrancea Zone and Focsani Basin. Data acquisition took place in August-September 2001, as part of the integrated refraction/reflection seismic field programme "Vrancea-2001" co-ordinated at Karlsruhe University (cf. Abstract, Part 1), utilising 640 independently deployed recorders provided by UTEP and IRIS/PASSCAL ("Texans"). Station spacing was every 100-m with shots every 1-km. These data are to be integrated with industry seismic as well as planned new medium-high resolution seismic reflection profiling across key neotectonically active structures in the Focsani Basin. Particular goals of DACIA PLAN include: (1) the architecture of the Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to this zone, including the foreland Focsani Basin; (2) the presence and geometry of structural detachment(s) in relation with foreland basin development, including constraints for balanced cross-sections and geodynamic modelling of basin origin and evolution; (3) the relationship between crustal

  5. Gravity and magnetic modelling in the Vrancea Zone, south-eastern Carpathians: Redefinition of the edge of the East European Craton beneath the south-eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Matenco, L.; Mocanu, V.

    2013-11-01

    A 2D gravity and magnetic data model has been constructed along a 71 km densely observed profile, called DACIA PLAN GRAV MAN's. The profile crosses part of the nappe pile of the south-eastern Carpathians and includes the seismically active Vrancea Zone and was acquired with the objective to illuminate the basement structure and affinity in this area. The modelling approach was to create an initial model from well constrained geological information, integrate it with previous seismic ray tracing and tomographic models and then alter it outside the a priori constraints in order to reach the best fit between observed and calculated potential field anomalies. The results support a realignment of the position of the TTZ (Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone), the profound tectonic boundary within Europe that separates Precambrian cratonic lithosphere of the East European Craton (EEC) from younger accreted lithosphere of Phanerozoic mobile belts to its west. The TTZ is shown to lie further to the south-west than was previously inferred within Romania, where it is largely obscured by the Carpathian nappes. The crust of the EEC beneath the south-eastern Carpathians is inferred to terminate along a major crustal structure lying just west of the Vrancea seismogenic zone. The intermediate depth seismicity of the Vrancea Zone therefore lies within the EEC lithosphere, generally supporting previously proposed models invoking delamination of cratonic lithosphere as the responsible mechanism.

  6. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  7. The Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system: correlation and evolution of tectonic units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, S.M.; Bernoulli, D.; Fügenschuh, B.; Matenco, L.C.; Schefer, S.; Schuster, R.; Tischler, M.; Ustaszewski, K.

    2008-01-01

    A correlation of tectonic units of the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic system of orogens, including the substrate of the Pannonian and Transylvanian basins, is presented in the form of a map. Combined with a series of crustal-scale cross sections this correlation of tectonic units yields a clearer

  8. Banatitic magmatic and metallogenetic belt: metallogeny of the Romanian Carpathians segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S̡erban-Nicolae Vlad

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Carpathians sector of the Late Cretaceous Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenetic belt (BMMB contains 1 plutons and volcano-plutonic complexes, i. e. calc-alkaline, I-type granitoids, with related ores; 2 shoshonitic plutons that lack economic interest. Two provinces have been delineated: the Apuseni Mts. Province in the North and the Western South Carpathians in the South. Apuseni Mts. Province is a non-porphyry environment related to more evolved (granodioritic-granitic magmatism. It is subdivided into three zones: Vlădeasa (Pb-Zn ores of restricted metallogenetic potential; Gilău-Bihor (Fe, Bi, Mo, Cu, W, Au, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Ag, U, B ores / conspicuous peri-batholitic arrangement and South Apuseni (only one minor Fe-skarn occurrence. Western South Carpathians Province occurs in Romania and extends in Eastern Serbia. It is subdivided into South Banat Mts.–Timok Zone (SBTZ and Poiana Ruscă Mts.– North Banat Mts.– Ridanj-Krepoljin Zone (PR-NB-RKZ. SBTZ is a typical porphyry environment of high metallogenetic potential (Cu, Au, Pb, Zn, while PR-NB-RKZ is a non-porphyry environment with small to medium size Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu deposits/prospects exhibiting commonly a peri-plutonic zoning. The metallogenetic model of the Romanian Carpathians segment of BMMB is conceived based on correlating magma composition/level of emplacement and ore types.

  9. A toadfish (Batrachoidiformes) from the Oligocene of the Eastern Carpathians (Piatra Neamt, Romania)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Grădianu, I.; Georgescu, V.; Carnevale, G.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 2 (2018), s. 241-248 ISSN 0077-7749 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-21523S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Batrachoidiformes * toadfish * Bituminous Marls Formation * Eastern Carpathians * Oligocene Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2016

  10. Western Carpathian mountain spruce forest after a windthrow: Natural regeneration in cleared and uncleared areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Magda; Vávrová, Eva; Cudlín, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 259, č. 1 (2010), s. 1121-1134 ISSN 0378-1127 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Carpathian spruce forest * Windthrow * Natural regeneration * Disturbances Subject RIV: GK - Forest ry Impact factor: 1.992, year: 2010

  11. Structure and diversity of small mammal communities of mountain forests in Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Čepelka, L.; Heroldová, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 3 (2014), s. 481-490 ISSN 1612-4669 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : species diversity * Rodents * Insectivores * Mountain forests * Carpathians Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.095, year: 2014

  12. [Genetic control of the isoenzymes in Cembra pine (Pinus cembra L.) in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirko, Ia V; Korshikov, I I

    2001-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, and LAP enzymes was studied in the seed megagametophytes of cembra pine (Pinus cembra L.) from the natural population of the Ukrainian Carpa-thian mountains. Efficient electrophoretic separation was obtained for 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  13. Carpathian Shear Corridor – A strike-slip boundary of an extruded crustal segment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marko, F.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Tomek, Č.; Bezák, V.; Fojtíková, Lucia; Bošanský, M.; Piovarči, M.; Reichenwalder, P.

    703-704, APR 22 (2017), s. 119-134 ISSN 0040-1951 Grant - others:Slovak Foundation Grant(SK) VEGA 2/0188/15 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : extrusion * Neo-alpine evolution * strike-slip faulting * uplift history * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2016

  14. Some new Eocene elasmobranch reports from the outer Western Carpathians (Moravia, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Skupien, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 268, č. 1 (2013), s. 113-123 ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Elasmobranchii * Leidybatis jugossus * Centrophorus * Eocene * Western Carpathian Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2013

  15. [Genetic control of Silver fir isozymes (Abies alba Mill.) of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Morozova, N N; Pirko, Ia V

    2003-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, ME, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, LAP enzymes has been studied in the seed megagametophytes of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from four natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains. The distinct electrophoretic division has been obtained for the 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in the heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  16. Rock glaciers in the Western and High Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uxa, Tomáš; Mida, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2017), s. 844-857 ISSN 1744-5647 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : rock glaciers * inventory * Western and High Tatra Mts * Carpathians * Slovakia * Poland Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016

  17. Post-glacial dispersal strategies of Orthoptera and Lepidoptera in Europe and in the Carpathian basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varga, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Post-glacial dispersal strategies of Orthoptera and Lepidoptera in Europe and in the Carpathian basin Ecologically transitional regions are characterised by high species diversity due to the overlap of species with different geographical origins caused by dispersal processes along gradients, e.g.

  18. Space-time analysis of snow cover change in the Romanian Carpathians (2001-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micu, Dana; Cosmin Sandric, Ionut

    2017-04-01

    Snow cover is recognized as an essential climate variable, highly sensitive to the ongoing climate warming, which plays an important role in regulating mountain ecosystems. Evidence from the existing weather stations located above 800 m over the last 50 years points out that the climate of the Romanian Carpathians is visibly changing, showing an ongoing and consistent warming process. Quantifying and attributing the changes in snow cover on various spatial and temporal scales have a great environmental and socio-economic importance for this mountain region. The study is revealing the inter-seasonal changes in the timing and distribution of snow cover across the Romanian Carpathians, by combining gridded snow data (CARPATCLIM dataset, 1961-2010) and remote sensing data (2001-2016) in specific space-time assessment at regional scale. The geostatistical approach applied in this study, based on a GIS hotspot analysis, takes advantage of all the dimensions in the datasets, in order to understand the space-time trends in this climate variable at monthly time-scale. The MODIS AQUA and TERRA images available from 2001 to 2016 have been processed using ArcGIS for Desktop and Python programming language. All the images were masked out with the Carpathians boundary. Only the pixels with snow have been retained for analysis. The regional trends in snow cover distribution and timing have been analysed using Space-Time cube with ArcGIS for Desktop, according with Esri documentation using the Mann-Kendall trend test on every location with data as an independent bin time-series test. The study aimed also to assess the location of emerging hotspots of snow cover change in Carpathians. These hotspots have been calculated using Getis-Ord Gi* statistic for each bin using Hot Spot Analysis implemented in ArcGIS for Desktop. On regional scale, snow cover appear highly sensitive to the decreasing trends in air temperatures and land surface temperatures, combined with the decrease in

  19. Concurrent and opposed environmental trends during the last glacial cycle between the Carpathian Basin and the Black Sea coast: evidence from high resolution enviromagnetic loess records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, Ulrich; Zeeden, Christian; Veres, Daniel; Obreht, Igor; Bösken, Janina; Marković, Slobodan B.; Eckmeier, Eileen; Fischer, Peter; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Danube Basin near to the Black Sea (Urluia quarry, Dobrogea, Romania). In order to investigate the potential of Danubian loess in recording millennial-scale palaeoclimate variability, a 22 m deep drill-core from the Titel loess plateau and a more than 15 metres thick LPSS from the Urluia quarry were contiguously sampled. Both sides provide improved insight into past climate evolution of the regions down to MIS 6. The presentation will focus on the down-core/down-section variability of χ and χfd as environmental proxy parameters. Based on these mineral magnetic proxies we can already draw the following conclusions: 1) The dust accumulation rates in both regions were relatively constant over the past c. 130 kyrs, even during full interglacial conditions. 2) In the studied sections, the pedo-complex S1 represents ± the Eemian and not the entire MIS 5, as previously assumed. 3) There are a lot of similarities between the mineral magnetic records of the Titel-Plateau (Vojvodina, South Carpathian Basin) and the Urluia quarry (Dobrogea, Lower Danube Basin) and also between these records and those from the Chinese Loess Plateau, but also fundamental differences. 4) During the early glacial (end of MIS5) we find no evidence for soil formation in the South Carpathian Basin whereas in the Dobrogea near to the Black Sea coast embryonic soils developed. On the contrary, during the younger part of MIS 3 (≤ 40 ka) near to the Black Sea coast soil humidity sharply decreased towards the LGM whereas in the South Carpathian Basin the mineral magnetic proxies indicate a relative maximum in pedogenesis/soil humidity. Sedimentological, geochemical, geochronological and palaeomagnetic investigations are in progress. They will provide further high quality data sets leading to an improved understanding of the Late Pleistocene environmental evolution in the Danube Basin.

  20. Chemical and morphological characteristics of key tree species of the Carpathian Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankovska, Blanka; Godzik, Barbara; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuri; Moravcik, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, S and Zn in the foliage of white fir (Abies alba), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) from 25 sites of the Carpathian Mts. forests (Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine) are discussed in a context of their limit values. S/N ratio was different from optimum in 90% of localities when compared with the European limit values. Likewise we found increase of Fe and Cu concentrations compared with their background levels in 100% of locations. Mn concentrations were increased in 76% of localities. Mn mobilization values indicate the disturbance of physiological balance leading to the change of the ratio with Fe. SEM-investigation of foliage waxes from 25 sites in the Carpathian Mts. showed, that there is a statistically significant difference in mean wax quality. Epistomatal waxes were damaged as indicated by increased development of net and amorphous waxes. The most damaged stomata in spruce needles were from Yablunitsa, Synevir and Brenna; in fir needles from Stoliky, and in beech leaves from Mala Fatra, Morske Oko and Beregomet. Spruce needles in the Carpathian Mts. had more damaged stomata than fir needles and beech leaves. Spruce seems to be the most sensitive tree species to environmental stresses including air pollution in forests of the Carpathian Mountains. Foliage surfaces of three forest tree species contained Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Cl, Mn, Na, Ni and Ti in all studied localities. Presence of nutrition elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, K and Mn) on foliage surface hinders opening and closing stomata and it is not physiologically usable for tree species. - Chemical composition of foliage and structure of epicuticular waxes indicated phytotoxic effects of air pollution in many forest sites of the Carpathian Mountains

  1. Chemical and morphological characteristics of key tree species of the Carpathian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankovska, Blanka; Godzik, Barbara; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuri; Moravcik, Pavel

    2004-07-01

    Concentrations of Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, S and Zn in the foliage of white fir (Abies alba), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) from 25 sites of the Carpathian Mts. forests (Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine) are discussed in a context of their limit values. S/N ratio was different from optimum in 90% of localities when compared with the European limit values. Likewise we found increase of Fe and Cu concentrations compared with their background levels in 100% of locations. Mn concentrations were increased in 76% of localities. Mn mobilization values indicate the disturbance of physiological balance leading to the change of the ratio with Fe. SEM-investigation of foliage waxes from 25 sites in the Carpathian Mts. showed, that there is a statistically significant difference in mean wax quality. Epistomatal waxes were damaged as indicated by increased development of net and amorphous waxes. The most damaged stomata in spruce needles were from Yablunitsa, Synevir and Brenna; in fir needles from Stoliky, and in beech leaves from Mala Fatra, Morske Oko and Beregomet. Spruce needles in the Carpathian Mts. had more damaged stomata than fir needles and beech leaves. Spruce seems to be the most sensitive tree species to environmental stresses including air pollution in forests of the Carpathian Mountains. Foliage surfaces of three forest tree species contained Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Cl, Mn, Na, Ni and Ti in all studied localities. Presence of nutrition elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, K and Mn) on foliage surface hinders opening and closing stomata and it is not physiologically usable for tree species. - Chemical composition of foliage and structure of epicuticular waxes indicated phytotoxic effects of air pollution in many forest sites of the Carpathian Mountains.

  2. Genetic analysis of silver-fir populations in the North Carpathian and Sudeten Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Mejnartowicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds collected from individual trees in the 16 Carpathian and 2 Sudeten silver-fir (Abies alba populations were studied with the starch gel electrophoresis in megagametophytes using 14 enzyme systems with 28 loci. The results show that the geographical distance between populations are in a small part reflected in genetic distances. There are two main groups of populations: Sudeten and Carpathian with a very big genetic distance between them. Other populations consist of a few small groups with low gene flow between them (Nm = 3.286. About 80% of genetic variation is located within populations (FST = 0.223. Average values for genetic multiplicity and diversity for Carpathian populations are as follows: number of alleles per locus: Na = 2.308, with effective number of alleles Ne = 1.552 and proportion of polymorphic loci 71.21%. The mean number of alleles per locus (Na varied from 2.107 to 2.607 in population. The mean effective number of alleles per locus (Ne ranged from 1.429 to 1.662. Average Fis for Carpathian populations was -0.021, which means that there is small excess of heterozygotes. The average observed heterozygosity amounted to Ho = 0.275 and expected heterozygosity was He = 0.269. The dendrogram structure and presence of rare alleles found in silver-fir of Czech, and Slovakian populations allow for a hypothesis that in postglaciation the silver-fir moved into the Polish Carpathians not westward from the east but from the south along river valleys from some Balkan refuges, getting North bypassing the High Tatra Range. This way, a highly diversified set of populations originated, differ in the presence of rare alleles. This differentiation is not prevented by a relatively small flow of genes between populations. The calculated gene flow Nm = 3.286 also indicates isolation between the populations. It means 3.3 immigrants per generation into the studied populations.

  3. PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT OF GIFTED STUDENTS FROM CARPATHIAN MOUNTAIN AREAS BY MEANS OF FOLK ART CRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kozlovska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, presented at the Conference Plenary the possibilities of pedagogical support of gifted students from vocational schools, living in the mountainous areas of the Carpathians. Education of talented and gifted students requires pedagogical support. The specific conditions, in which Carpathian students live, require the development of pedagogical support of their abilities. New approaches to teaching science, which led to the selection of topics of this article are described. Gifted personalities differ from their peers by same criterias. The social aspect of the problem remains in the shadow: not to be ashamed of your talent and not to compare it with cliches. And goals of educators and psychologists have to be slightly different as is common. Widespread  Carpathian crafts include: embroidery, artistic textiles producing, carpet manufacture, carving, pottery, metalworking, fabric painting, knitting, lace, artistic weaving, artistic working of  leather, stones, bones and horns. Nowadays, some detachment of mountainous regions has significantly reduced due to new means of communication, including the Internet. The possibilities of colleges in mountainous regions still cannot reach the level of the colleges in capital. In Carpathian and Prykrpattya regions there is a number of vocational schools of art direction. During the execution of creative work in class industrial training necessary for students to comply with the rules of relationships form and decoration in various ways: decorative motif obeys the functional form, enriching it artistic and creative solutions, utilitarian function obeys the decorative motif Products, the form of the product can be extremely decorative, artistic and creative product solutions focused on practical value and decorative value of the product. Pedagogical support of gifted students from art colleges in the Carpathian region has extremely wide range of opportunities. The problem of finding and nurturing

  4. Geophysical modeling across Inner and Outer Western Carpathians in Eastern Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozar, J.; Bezak, V.; Bielik, M.; Majcin, D.; Vajda, P.; Bilcik, D.

    2017-12-01

    We present a multidimensional geophysical modelling of Central and Eastern Slovakia in the area of contact zone between the Inner and Outer Western Carpathians, and the East Slovakian Basin. Our crustal and lithospheric studies are based on geophysical data collected during CELEBRATION 2000 project and project THERMES. The new magnetotelluric (MT) multidimensional modelling is combined with seismic 2D wide angle refraction profiles and gravimetric modelling. Together with thermal information gathered from the area we constructed new integrated geophysical models of structures included in the evolution of the Carpathian orogen. Preliminary results of MT modelling in Eastern Slovakia suggest more electrically conductive structures in the middle and lower crustal depths in comparison with Central Slovakia, where we observed structures dominated by resistive complexes overlaid by conductive sedimentary formations. The higher conductivities below the East Slovakian Basin restrict penetration depth of the geoelectrical images. The electrically conductive structures are connected with tectono-thermal development in Neogene and presence of volcanic activity. Another significant conductive anomaly is imaged along the contact zone between Inner and Outer Western Carpathians in depths of about 10 - 20km, which is known as the Carpathian Conductivity Anomaly (CCA). In order to improve the depth resolution of MT models we decided to combine geoelectrical images with density and velocity models of the area. We used integrated petrological and geophysical modeling code to obtain thermally consistent lithospheric scale models of the area. A possible preliminary geological interpretation of the northern segment of investigated area suggests a resistive European platform below conductive flysch sediments. The boundary between Inner and Outer Carpthians represented by the Klippen Belt on the surface is changed to the CCA in higher depths. In the direction to the south there are

  5. Discontinious Galerkin formulations for thin bending problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    A structural thin bending problem is essentially associated with a fourth-order partial differential equation. Within the finite element framework, the numerical solution of thin bending problems demands the use of C^1 continuous shape functions. Elements using these functions are challenging and

  6. Bandwidth engineering of photonic crystal waveguide bends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders

    2004-01-01

    An effective design principle has been applied to photonic crystal waveguide bends fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material using deep UV lithography resulting in a large increase in the low-loss bandwidth of the bends. Furthermore, it is experimentally demonstrated that the absolute bandwidth...... range can be adjusted in a post-fabrication thermal oxidation process....

  7. Bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides. Although the graphene waveguides are lossy themselves, we show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. We use transmission line theory...

  8. Anharmonic Bend-Stretch Coupling in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, Jörg; Vöhringer, Peter; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Cringus, Dan; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Corkum, Paul; Jonas, David M.; Miller, R.J. Dwayne.; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    Following excitation of the H-O-H bending mode of water molecules in solution the stretching mode region is monitored over its entire width. The anharmonic coupling between the two modes results in a substantial change of the transient stretch absorption that decays with the bend depopulation time.

  9. Bandwidth engineering of photonic crystal waveguide bends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders

    2004-01-01

    An effective design principle has been applied to photonic crystal waveguide bends fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material using deep UV lithography resulting in a large increase in the low-loss bandwidth of the bends. Furthermore, it is experimentally demonstrated that the absolute bandwidth...

  10. In-plane and out-of-plane bending tests on carbon steel pipe bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouard, D.; Tremblais, A.; Vrillon, B.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives of these tests were to obtain experimental results on bends behaviour in elastic and plastic regime by in plane and out of plane bending. Results were used to improve the computer model, for large distorsion of bends, to be used in a simplified beam type computer code for piping calculations. Tests were made on type ANSI B 169 DN 5 bends in ASTM A 106 Grade B carbon steel. These tests made it possible to measure, for identical bends, in elastic regime, the flexibility factors and, in plastic regime, the total evolution in opening, in closing and out of plane. Flexibility factors of 180 0 bend without flanges are approximately the same in opening and in closing. The end effect due to flanges is not very significant, but it is important for 90 0 bends. In plastic regime, collapse loads or collapse moments of bends depends also of both the end effects and the angle bend. The end effects and the angle bend are more sensitive in opening than in closing. The interest of these tests is to procure some precise evolution curves of identical bends well characterized in geometry and metal strength, deflected in large distorsions. (orig./HP)

  11. Snow line analysis in the Romanian Carpathians under the influence of winter warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micu, Dana; Cosmin Sandric, Ionut

    2013-04-01

    The Romanian Carpathians are subject to winter warming as statistically proved by station measurements over a 47 year period (1961-2007). Herein, the snow season is considered to last from the 1st of November to the 30th of April, when snowpack usually reaches the highest stability and thickness. This paper investigates the signals of winter temperature and precipitation change at 17 mountain station located above 1,000 m, as being considered the main triggering factors of large fluctuations in snow amount and duration in these mountains. Fewer snowfalls were recorded all over the Romanian Carpathians after the mid 80s and over large mountain areas (including the alpine ones) the frequency of positive temperature extremes became higher (e.g. winter heat waves). Late Fall snowfalls and snowpack onsets (mainly in mid elevation areas, located below 1,700 m) and particularly the shifts towards early Spring snowmelts (at all the sites) were statistically proved to explain the decline of snow cover duration across the Carpathians. However, the sensitivity of snow cover duration to recent winter warming is still blurred in the high elevation areas (above 2,000 m). The trends in winter climate variability observed in the Romanian Carpathians beyond 1,000 m altitude are fairly comparable to those estimated in other European mountain ranges from observational data (e.g. the Swiss Alps, the French Alps and the Tatra Mts.). In relation to the climate change signals derived from observational data provided by low density mountain meteorological network (of about 3.3 stations per km2 in the areas above 1,000 m), the paper analysis the spatial probability and evolution trends of snow line in each winter season across the Romanian Carpathians, based on Landsat satellite data (MSS, TM and ETM+), with sufficiently high spatial (30 to 60 m) and temporal resolutions (850 images), over the 1973-2011 period. The Landsat coverage was considered suitable enough to enable an objective

  12. Bending stresses in Facetted Glass Shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne; Jönsson, Jeppe; Almegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    A shell structure of glass combines a highly effective structural principle with a material of optimal permeability to light. A facetted shell structure has a piecewise plane geometry, and together the facets form an approximation to a curved surface. A distributed load on a plane-based facetted...... structure will locally cause bending moments in the loaded facets. The bending stresses are dependent on the stiffness of the joints. Approximate solutions are developed to estimate the magnitude of the bending stresses. A FE-model of a facetted glass shell structure is used to validate the expressions...

  13. Climate variability and volcanic history of the Eastern Romanian Carpathians since early MIS 3 recorded in sediments from Mohoş crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, M.; Veres, D.; Wulf, S.; Papadopoulou, M.; Panagiotopoulos, K.; Schaebitz, F.

    2015-12-01

    We present a 30m long sediment record covering the last ca. 50,000 years from the in-filled Mohoş crater (46°05' N; 25°55' E) located on Ciomadul volcano (Romania) that was retrieved in 2014. The record consists of bog and lacustrine sediments that are inter-bedded with tephra deposits. Ciomadul volcano, hosting the superimposed craters of Mohoş and Sf. Ana, is the youngest volcanic edifice in the Carpathian-Balkan region. Thus, tephra-analysis on the Mohoş sediments gives valuable insights into the volcanic history of that region, mainly arising from the younger crater of Sf Ana and several secondary domes. For investigations into the past climate history, the Mohoş sediment sequence has been analysed using a multi-proxy approach including geophysical, geochemical and sedimentological parameters. Multi-Sensor core logging and ITRAX X-ray fluorescence scanning have been performed at high-resolution, whereas grain size analysis, TOC and C/N ratios supplement the geophysical and geochemical data. Chronological control is based on radiocarbon and luminescence dating. We also present first results of the tephra-analysis on the Mohoş sediment record and their correlation to medium-distal pyroclastic deposits originating in this volcanic field. We further discuss responses of this mid-altitude site (1050 m a.s.l.) to past climate oscillations since early MIS 3. To date, the Mohoş core record provides the longest time series from the Carpathian region. This study is part of the Collaborative Research Centre 806 "Our Way To Europe; Culture-Environment Interaction and Human Mobility in the Late Quaternary" (www.sfb806.de); subproject B2.

  14. Long-term summer temperature reconstruction inferred from tree-ring records from the Eastern Carpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, Ionel [Forest Research and Management Institute, Research Station for Norway Spruce Silviculture, Campulung Moldovenesc (Romania); Kern, Zoltan [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Geochemical Research, Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-06-15

    The first 1,000 year long Carpathian tree-ring width chronology was established based on living and subfossil stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) samples from an upper timberline forest located in Calimani Mts. (Romania). Tree-ring data were standardized using the regional curve standardization method in order to preserve the low and medium frequency climate signals. The de-trended index strongly correlates with summer mean temperature both at annual and decadal scales. The Calimani summer mean temperature anomalies were reconstructed for the period ad 1163-2005 applying the rescaling method. This new climate proxy from the Carpathians shows similar fluctuations to other North Hemispheric temperature reconstructions, but with periods of distinct differences. The fingerprint of Little Ice Age in the Calimani area is visible between ad 1370 and 1630 followed by lagged cold decades in ad 1820 and 1840. The recent warming is evident only after the 1980s in our reconstruction. (orig.)

  15. Long-term summer temperature reconstruction inferred from tree-ring records from the Eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Ionel; Kern, Zoltán

    2009-06-01

    The first 1,000 year long Carpathian tree-ring width chronology was established based on living and subfossil stone pine ( Pinus cembra L.) samples from an upper timberline forest located in Calimani Mts. (Romania). Tree-ring data were standardized using the regional curve standardization method in order to preserve the low and medium frequency climate signals. The de-trended index strongly correlates with summer mean temperature both at annual and decadal scales. The Calimani summer mean temperature anomalies were reconstructed for the period ad 1163-2005 applying the rescaling method. This new climate proxy from the Carpathians shows similar fluctuations to other North Hemispheric temperature reconstructions, but with periods of distinct differences. The fingerprint of Little Ice Age in the Calimani area is visible between ad 1370 and 1630 followed by lagged cold decades in ad 1820 and 1840. The recent warming is evident only after the 1980s in our reconstruction.

  16. Bending crystals. Solid state photomechanical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    semiquinonate ligand, form as long thin needles that are observed to bend reversibly upon irradiation with NIR light. Crystallographic characterization reveals a stacked solid state lattice with planar molecules aligned with metal atoms atop one another.

  17. Big Bend National Park: Acoustical Monitoring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    During the summer of 2010 (September October 2010), the Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Big Bend National Park (BIBE) at four sites deployed for approximately 30 days each. The baseline data collected during this period will he...

  18. Slice of a LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  19. Active stress field and seismotectonic features in Intra-Carpathian region of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Eugen; Popa, Mihaela; Diaconescu, Mihai; Radulian, Mircea

    2017-04-01

    The Romanian Intra-Carpathian Region is located on the eastern half of Tisa-Dacia geodynamic block from the Neogene Carpathian-Pannonian Basin. The distribution of seismicity displays clear clusters and narrower zones with seismogenic potential confirmed by the damaging earthquakes recoded in the region, e.g. July 01, 1829 (Mw=6.2), October 10, 1834 (Mw=5.6), January 26, 1916 (Mw=6.4), July 12, 1991 (Mw=5.7), December 2, 1991 (Mw=5.5). The state of recent stress and deformation appears to be controlled by the interaction of plate-boundary and intraplate forces, which include the counterclockwise rotation and N-NE-directed indentation of the Adria microplate and buoyancy forces associated with differential topography and lithospheric heterogeneities. The stress field and tectonic regime are investigated at regional and local scales by the formal inversion of focal mechamisms. There can be observed short-scale lateral changes of i) tectonic regimes from compressive (reverse and strike-slip faultings) to pure extensive (normal faultings) and ii) variation of stress directions (SHmax) from NE-SW to EW and WNW-ESE towards Southern Carpathians and NS within Easter Carpathians. The changes in stress directions occur over a distance that is comparable to or smaller than the thickness of the lithosphere. A comparative analysis of stress tensor with GPS velocity/displacememt vectors shows variations from paralellism to orthogonality, suggesting different mechanisms of crustal deformations.The major seismic activity (Mw≥5.0) appears to be generally concentrated along the faults systems bordering de Tisa-Dacia Block, intersections of faults of different ages, internal shear zones and with the border of the former structural terrains, old rifts and neostructures.

  20. A checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of the Chornohora Mountain massif (the Ukrainian Carpathians)

    OpenAIRE

    Hirna, Anna; Gnelitsa, Valery; Zhukovets, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    The present checklist of spiders native to the Chornohora Mts of the Ukrainian Carpathians is based both on literature-derived data and on material collected by the authors in 1999, 2006 and 2011-2014. The majority of these studies (approximately 80 %) were conducted in the upper montane forests, subalpine and alpine levels on the slopes of the main ridge and adjacent spurs and mountains. The study also covers glacial cirques and river valleys. A few spiders were collected from local villages...

  1. Ichnology of the Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds (Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuláš, Radek; Skupien, P.; Bubík, M.; Vašíček, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2009), s. 233-250 ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Upper Cretaceous * Western Carpathians * hemipelagic * ichnofossils * ichnofabric * red beds Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2009 http://www.geologicacarpathica.sk/ src /main.php

  2. Climatic water deficit and surplus between the Carpathian Mountains and the Dniester River (1961-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihăilă, Dumitru; Bistricean, Petruț-Ionel; Lazurca, Liliana Gina; Briciu, Andrei-Emil

    2017-10-08

    The study addresses the climatic water deficit (WD) and surplus (WE) in the area located between the heights of the Eastern Carpathians (Romania) and the Dniester River (Moldova). The objective of this study is to discover the trend of WD/WE (past and future) and its variation in space. WD and WE were calculated as the difference between the amounts of precipitation (P) and the reference evapotranspiration (ET 0 ). The P-ET 0 trend, analyzed through Mann-Kendall and t tests, was negative for 83 and 80% of the analyzed stations and the Sen's slope had values between - 0.05 mm year -1 (t test) and - 6.73 mm year -1 (Mann-Kendall test). Seasonally, the slope values of P-ET 0 trends were negative during winter, spring, and summer and positive in autumn. The P-ET 0 index is positive (WE) only in the Carpathian and Eastern Subcarpathian areas, whereas for the rest of the investigated territory, we found negative values (WD). WD is more pronounced as we depart from the Carpathians towards the east, but also on a north to south direction, reaching the maximum in the southeastern part of the territory. In what concerns seasonal distribution, WE is identified everywhere only in winter, whereas, in spring, summer, and autumn, WD characterizes most of the territory, with the exception of the Carpathian and Subcarpathian areas. The increasing WD will have a growing negative influence on the agriculture of the studied area. For the year 2030, we anticipate a reduction in the climate water availability with 46 mm m -2 (reference period: 1961-2012).

  3. Cenozoic structural evolution, thermal history, and erosion of the Ukrainian Carpathians fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakapelyukh, Mykhaylo; Bubniak, Ihor; Bubniak, Andriy; Jonckheere, Raymond; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2018-01-01

    The Carpathians are part of the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogen surrounding the Pannonian basin. Their Ukrainian part constitutes an ancient subduction-accretion complex that evolved into a foreland fold-thrust belt with a shortening history that was perpendicular to the orogenic strike. Herein, we constrain the evolution of the Ukrainian part of the Carpathian fold-thrust belt by apatite fission-track dating of sedimentary and volcanic samples and cross-section balancing and restoration. The apatite fission-track ages are uniform in the inner―southwestern part of the fold-thrust belt, implying post-shortening erosion since 12-10 Ma. The ages in the leading and trailing edges record provenance, i.e., sources in the Trans-European suture zone and the Inner Carpathians, respectively, and show that these parts of the fold-thrust were not heated to more than 100 °C. Syn-orogenic strata show sediment recycling: in the interior of the fold-thrust belt―the most thickened and most deeply eroded nappes―the apatite ages were reset, eroded, and redeposited in the syn-orogenic strata closer to the fore- and hinterland; the lag times are only a few million years. Two balanced cross sections, one constructed for this study and based on field and subsurface data, reveal an architecture characterized by nappe stacks separated by high-displacement thrusts; they record 340-390 km shortening. A kinematic forward model highlights the fold-thrust belt evolution from the pre-contractional configuration over the intermediate geometries during folding and thrusting and the post-shortening, erosional-unloading configuration at 12-10 Ma to the present-day geometry. Average shortening rates between 32-20 Ma and 20-12 Ma amounted to 13 and 21 km/Ma, respectively, implying a two-phased deformation of the Ukrainian fold-thrust belt.

  4. Large Late Pleistocene landslides from the marginal slope of the Flysch Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, T.; Hartvich, Filip; Jankovská, Vlasta; Klimeš, Jan; Tábořík, Petr; Bubík, M.; Smolková, V.; Hradecký, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2014), s. 981-992 ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : fossil landslide * radiocarbon dating * electrical resistivity tomography * pollen analysis * Late Pleistocene * Flysch Carpathians * Marine Isotope Stage 3 Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography; EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2014

  5. Dating of retrograde metamorphism in Western Carpathians by K-Ar analysis of muscovites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, B.; Korikovskij, S.P.; Krasivskaya, I.S.; Arakelyants, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Using the K-Ar isotope dating method of muscovites it was found that many retrogradely metamorphosed rocks are the results of Variscan retrograde metamorphism and are not pre-Cambrian or Alpine metamorphites (diaphthorites). Samples for dating were taken from the Western Carpathian crystalline formation. The content of radiogenic argon was determined by mass spectrometry using the method of isotope dilution. (M.D.)

  6. Bending sound in graphene: Origin and manifestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamyan, V.M.; Bondarev, V.N.; Zavalniuk, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The origin of sound-like dispersion of graphene bending mode is disclosed. • The speed of graphene bending sound is determined. • The renormalized graphene bending rigidity is derived. • The intrinsic corrugations of graphene are estimated. - Abstract: It is proved that the acoustic-type dispersion of bending mode in graphene is generated by the fluctuation interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane terms in the free energy arising with account of non-linear components in the graphene strain tensor. In doing so we use an original adiabatic approximation based on the alleged (confirmed a posteriori) significant difference of sound speeds for in-plane and bending modes. The explicit expression for the bending sound speed depending only on the graphene mass density, in-plane elastic constants and temperature is deduced as well as the characteristics of the microscopic corrugations of graphene. The obtained results are in good quantitative agreement with the data of real experiments and computer simulations.

  7. Bending sound in graphene: Origin and manifestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamyan, V.M., E-mail: vadamyan@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Bondarev, V.N., E-mail: bondvic@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Zavalniuk, V.V., E-mail: vzavalnyuk@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Department of Fundamental Sciences, Odessa Military Academy, 10 Fontanska Road, Odessa 65009 (Ukraine)

    2016-11-11

    Highlights: • The origin of sound-like dispersion of graphene bending mode is disclosed. • The speed of graphene bending sound is determined. • The renormalized graphene bending rigidity is derived. • The intrinsic corrugations of graphene are estimated. - Abstract: It is proved that the acoustic-type dispersion of bending mode in graphene is generated by the fluctuation interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane terms in the free energy arising with account of non-linear components in the graphene strain tensor. In doing so we use an original adiabatic approximation based on the alleged (confirmed a posteriori) significant difference of sound speeds for in-plane and bending modes. The explicit expression for the bending sound speed depending only on the graphene mass density, in-plane elastic constants and temperature is deduced as well as the characteristics of the microscopic corrugations of graphene. The obtained results are in good quantitative agreement with the data of real experiments and computer simulations.

  8. The BioREGIO Carpathians project: aims, methodology and results from the “Continuity and Connectivity” analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Favilli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BioREGIO Carpathians is a transnational cooperation project, co-financed under the second call of the EU South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme, priority area “Protection and Improvement of the Environment”. BioREGIO Carpathians run for three years (2011–2013 and is a flagship project for the Carpathian Convention (article four dealing with landscape and biological diversity, its Biodiversity Protocol and the Biodiversity Working Group. The project is built on the conservation, restoration and valorisation of the Carpathians ecological continuum to enable large herbivores and carnivores to live in coexistence with modern society. The Carpathian countries are expecting a massive pressure to modernize and extend their road infrastructures. If not considering the requirements of ecological network, this run-to-development will enhance landscape fragmentation, limit dispersal and genetic exchange of wildlife species. BioREGIO applied a multi-disciplinary approach (physical, legal and socio-economic in order to identify the most influencing barriers regarding connectivity throughout the Carpathians. Using two ArcGIS 10.0 tools in a three-step approach and a series of site visits, the continuity and connectivity analysis identified not only physical barriers but also legal aspects and socio-economic behaviour that are influencing ecological connectivity and playing a major role to conserve wildlife population. The investigation on the ground together with local experts and stakeholders enabled the adaptation of the GIS results and the development of feasible solutions to overcome the detected barriers with recommended priorities for implementing appropriate measurements to maintain connectivity and to sustain large carnivores, herbivores and biodiversity in the Carpathians.

  9. Revised crustal architecture of the southeastern Carpathian foreland from active and passive seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciu, Dana M.; Knapp, Camelia C.; Knapp, James H.

    2009-08-01

    Integration of active and passive source seismic data is employed in order to study the nature of the relationships between crustal seismicity and geologic structures in the southeastern (SE) Carpathian foreland of Romania and the possible connection with the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone (VSZ) of intermediate-depth seismicity, one of the most active earthquake-prone areas in Europe. Crustal epicenters and focal mechanisms are correlated with four deep industry seismic profiles, the reprocessed Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics (DACIA PLAN) profile and the Deep Reflection Acquisition Constraining Unusual Lithospheric Activity II and III (DRACULA) profiles in order to understand the link between neotectonic foreland deformation and Vrancea mantle seismicity. Projection of crustal foreland hypocenters onto deep seismic profiles identifies several active crustal faults in the SE Carpathian foreland and suggests a mechanical coupling between the mantle located VSZ and the overlying foreland crust. The coupled associated deformation appears to take place on the Trotus Fault, the Sinaia Fault, and the newly detected Ialomita Fault. Seismic reflection imaging reveals the absence of west dipping reflectors in the crystalline crust and a slightly east dipping to horizontal Moho in the proximity of the Vrancea area. These findings argue against previously purported mechanisms to generate mantle seismicity in the VSZ including oceanic lithosphere subduction in place and oceanic slab break off, furthermore suggesting that the Vrancea seismogenic body is undetached from the overlying crust in the foreland.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activities of eleven Centaurea species occurring in the Carpathian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Dezső; Widowitz, Ute; Blazsó, Gábor; Laczkó-Zöld, Eszter; Tatsimo, Joel S N; Balogh, Agnes; Boros, Klára; Dankó, Balázs; Bauer, Rudolf; Hohmann, Judit

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed at the identification of anti-inflammatory activities of different fractions of C. sadleriana extract after per os administration in rats, the identification of the active compounds of the plant and the investigation of the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of Centaurea species native to or cultivated in the Carpathian Basin. The aerial parts of Centaurea sadleriana Janka have been used in Hungarian folk medicine to treat the wounds of sheep. Methanol extract of C. sadleriana was fractioned by solvent-solvent partitioning. The n-hexane fraction was further fractionated and the anti-inflammatory activities of certain subfractions were confirmed in vivo in rats. The n-hexane and chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of C. sadleriana exhibited remarkable COX-1 and COX-2 inhibiting effects in vitro. Chromatographic separation of the fractions led to the identification of the active subfractions and 11 compounds (α-linolenic acid, γ-linolenic acid, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, campesterol, vanillin, pectolinarigenin, salvigenin, hispidulin, chrysoeriol and apigenin). The in vitro screening for anti-inflammatory activities of further Centaurea species occurring in the Carpathian Basin (C. adjarica, C. bracteata, C. cataonica, C. cynaroides, C. dealbata, C. indurata, C. macrocephala, C. melitensis, C. nigrescens, C. ruthenica) revealed considerable COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities. Because C. sadleriana is an endangered species native only to the Carpathian Basin, the investigation of more prevalent species is reasonable. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A Late Pleistocene ice field in the Godeanu Mountains, Southern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám IGNÉCZI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The possible existence of plateau type glaciations – ice caps, ice fields or plateau glaciers - in the Godeanu Mountains, Southern Carpathians during the Late Pleistocene is the main topic of this investigation. The Godeanu Mountains is one of the westernmost mountain range of the Southern Carpathians. It is located north of the River Cerna and south of the Ţarcu and Retezat Mountains. The question about the existence of former plateau type glaciers in the Godeanu Mountains emerged due to the widespread presence of the Borăscu surface in the region. The Borăscu surface, which was described for the first time in the early 20th century by Martonne (1907, is an uplifted peneplain, which could be found in many mountain ranges in the Southern Carpathians. It’s main features are a quite small relief and a high elevation range of 1800- 2200 m a.s.l.. The most typical appearance of it is located in the Godeanu Mountains, where shallow glacial valleys surround the central plateaus.

  12. Chemical characteristics and source analysis on ionic composition of rainwater collected in the Carpathians "Cold Pole," Ciuc basin, Eastern Carpathians, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szép, Róbert; Mateescu, Elena; Nechifor, Aurelia Cristina; Keresztesi, Ágnes

    2017-12-01

    A study of precipitation chemistry was conducted for 11 years (01 January 2006-31 December 2016) in the Ciuc basin, Eastern Carpathians, Romania. The studied area is an enclosed basin, also called "the Carpathians cold pole." All collected samples were analyzed for major cations and anions. HCO 3 - concentrations were calculated based on the empirical relationship between pH and HCO 3 - . The multiannual arithmetic mean of pH values was found to be 6.57. The lowest and highest pH values were measured in 2009 and 2013, being 6.57% lower, respectively, 7.57% higher than the multiannual mean. Only 3.31% of the studied rainwater samples indicate acidic character. In descending order, the majority of the samples are as follows: NH 4 + >Ca 2+ >SO 4 2- >Cl - >HCO 3 - >NO 3 - >Na + >K + >Mg 2+ >NO 2 - >H + . Principal component analysis (PCA) showed the NH 4 + , Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+ contribution to the neutralization process and their sources. The anthropogenic origin of SO 4 2- was supported by the high non-sea-salt fraction (NSSF) (~ 91%). The results of this study suggest that rainwater chemistry is strongly influenced by local natural and anthropogenic sources (agricultural activities) rather than marine sources. The pollutants in rainwater samples were mainly derived from calcareous and dolomitic soil dust and specific local climatic conditions, long-range transport, local industry, and traffic sources.

  13. A recent petroleum-geologic evaluation of the Central Carpathian Depression, Southeastern Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klecker, R.; Bentham, P.; Jaminski, J. [BP Amoco, Houston, TX (United States); Palmer-Koleman, S.

    2001-01-01

    A subregional investigation of the Central Carpathian Depression within the Eastern Polish Carpathians provides some constraints on the character and distribution of reservoir quality sandstones, an analysis of the styles of structural deformation that can be expected and a description of oil to source correlations and some of the factors responsible for oil quality variations. The Paleocene-Upper Cretaceous lstebna Beds consist of conglomerates, sandstones and pebbly mudstones deposited by channel-fill and lobe deposits and by mudflows. The Istebna Beds are 50-1800 m thick with porosities from 10 to 20% in the conglomerates and sandstones and approximately 5% in the mudstones. The Eocene Ciezkowice Sandstones are composed of conglomerates, pebbly sandstones and sandy mudstones deposited by deep-water processes similar to those of the Istebna Beds. The Ciezkowice Sandstones are 50-500 m thick with 10-25% porosity. Both the Istebna and Ciezkowice show direct relationship between reduction in porosity and increased present-day burial depth and reduced permeability. Analysis of existing subsurface well-control and surface geologic maps facilitates the development of a new structural model for traps within the Silesian Nappe. Typical traps are complexly folded, asymmetric anticlines developed in the hanging-walls of large-displacement thrust faults. In addition, balanced cross-section construction allows the estimation of structural shortening ranging from 37 to 47% produced by an Early Miocene compressional event. Geochemical analyses indicate that the waxy oils encountered in the Carpathian overthrust and foredeep are derived from source beds containing a mixture of land-derived higher plant organic material and marine organic matter. Biomarkers within these oils suggest a Late Cretaceous or Tertiary age for the source of these oils. The higher sulfur levels and higher C{sub 29}/C{sub 30} hopane ratios of the oils derived from foredeep fields indicates the additional

  14. [Allozyme polymorphism of Swiss stone pine Pinus cembra L. in mountainous populations of the Alps and the Eastern Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokon', M M; Belokon', Iu S; Politov, D V; Altukhov, Iu P

    2005-11-01

    Swiss stone pine Pinus cembra L. is a species with fragmented range, occurring in the Alpine-East Carpathian mountain system. Seeds of P. cembra are dispersed by nutcrackers, which offers potential possibilities for gene exchange among populations. Using isozyme analysis, we have examined five samples from two parts of the Swiss stone pine range: the Alps (Switzerland and Austria) and the Carpathians (two samples from the northern macroslope of the Gorgany Ridge, Eastern Carpathians, Ivano-Frankovsk oblast and one sample from Trans-Carpathian oblast of Ukraine). The allele frequencies of 30 isozyme loci, coding for enzymes ADH, FDH, FEST, GDH, GOT, IDH, LAP, MNR, MDH, PEPCA, 6PGD, PGI, PGM, SDH, SKDH, SOD, were analyzed using cluster analysis and methods of principal components. Two clusters, corresponding to the isolated Alpine and Carpathian parts of the range, were found. The main contribution to these differences were made by loci Adh-1, Adh-2, Fest-2, Lap-3, Mdh-4, and Sod-4. The interpopulation differentiation proved to be somewhat higher than that typical for pines (F(ST) = 7.4%), but within the limits characteristic for taxonomically close species. Thus, isolation of the populations did not lead to their marked differentiation, which may be explained by gene flow and balancing selection, which equalizes gene frequencies across the fragmented species area. Interlocus F(ST) heterogeneity (from 0.003 to 0.173) suggests adaptive significance of some of the allozyme polymorphisms or linkage of some loci with adaptive genes. The Carpathian populations were shown to have higher gene diversity than the Alpine ones (expected heterozygosities 0.095-0.114 and 0.060-0.080, respectively). A deficit of heterozygotes (as compared to the Hardy-Weinberg proportions), observed in the embryo sample, was probably explained by inbreeding. The reduction in the area of Carpathian pine forests in Holocene, caused by the global climatic changes and the anthropogenic impact, is

  15. 2.5D seismic velocity modelling in the south-eastern Romanian Carpathians Orogen and its foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocin, Andrei; Stephenson, Randell; Tryggvason, Ari; Panea, Ionelia; Mocanu, Victor; Hauser, Franz; Matenco, Liviu

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappe system and the architecture of the Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the Vrancea zone, including the rapidly subsiding Focsani Basin. The DACIA-PLAN profile is about 140 km long, having a roughly WNW-ESE direction, from near the southeast Transylvanian Basin, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians and their foreland to near the Danube River. A high resolution 2.5D velocity model of the upper crust along the seismic profile has been determined from a tomographic inversion of the DACIA-PLAN first arrival data. The results show that the data fairly accurately resolve the transition from sediment to crystalline basement beneath the Focsani Basin, where industry seismic data are available for correlation, at depths up to about 10 km. Beneath the external Carpathians nappes, apparent basement (material with velocities above 5.8 km/s) lies at depths as shallow as 3-4 km, which is less than previously surmised on the basis of geological observations. The first arrival travel-time data suggest that there is significant lateral structural heterogeneity on the apparent basement surface in this area, suggesting that the high velocity material may be involved in Carpathian thrusting.

  16. Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    examples from the Carpathian Basin represent some of the most common human impacts (engineering regulation, hydropower usage, water pollution), disturbing natural river ice regimes of mid-latitude rivers with densely populated or dynamically growing urban areas along their courses. In addition simple tests are also introduced to detect not only the climatic, but also the effect of anthropogenic impacts on river ice regime. As a result of river regulation on River Danube at Budapest a vanishing trend in river ice phenomena could be detected in the Danube records. The average ice-affected season shortened from 40 to 27 days, the average ice-covered season reduced greatly, from 27 to 7 days. In historical times the ice jams on the River Danube caused many times ice floods. The relative frequency of the break-up jam also decreased; moreover no ice flood occurred over the past 50 years. The changes due to hydropower usage are different upstream and downstream to the damming along the river. On Raba River upstream of the Nick dam at Ragyogóhíd, the ice-affected and ice-covered seasons were lengthened by 4 and 9 days, in contrast, downstream of the dam, the length of the ice-covered season was shortened by 7 days, and the number of ice-affected days decreased by 8 days at Árpás. During the observation period at Budapest on Danube River, the temperature requirements for river ice phenomena occurrence changed. Nowadays, much lower temperatures are needed to create the same ice phenomena compared to the start of the observations. For ice appearance, the mean winter air temperature requirements decreased from +2.39 °C to +1.71 °C. This investigation focused on anthropogenic effects on river ice regime, eliminating the impact of climatic conditions. Different forms of anthropogenic effects cause in most cases, a shorter length of ice-affected seasons and decreasing frequency of ice phenomena occurrence. Rising winter temperatures result the same changes in river ice regime

  17. Membrane bending by protein-protein crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Schmid, Eva M; Ryan, Christopher J; Ann, Hyoung Sook; Sasaki, Darryl Y; Sherman, Michael B; Geissler, Phillip L; Fletcher, Daniel A; Hayden, Carl C

    2012-09-01

    Curved membranes are an essential feature of dynamic cellular structures, including endocytic pits, filopodia protrusions and most organelles. It has been proposed that specialized proteins induce curvature by binding to membranes through two primary mechanisms: membrane scaffolding by curved proteins or complexes; and insertion of wedge-like amphipathic helices into the membrane. Recent computational studies have raised questions about the efficiency of the helix-insertion mechanism, predicting that proteins must cover nearly 100% of the membrane surface to generate high curvature, an improbable physiological situation. Thus, at present, we lack a sufficient physical explanation of how protein attachment bends membranes efficiently. On the basis of studies of epsin1 and AP180, proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, we propose a third general mechanism for bending fluid cellular membranes: protein-protein crowding. By correlating membrane tubulation with measurements of protein densities on membrane surfaces, we demonstrate that lateral pressure generated by collisions between bound proteins drives bending. Whether proteins attach by inserting a helix or by binding lipid heads with an engineered tag, protein coverage above ~20% is sufficient to bend membranes. Consistent with this crowding mechanism, we find that even proteins unrelated to membrane curvature, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP), can bend membranes when sufficiently concentrated. These findings demonstrate a highly efficient mechanism by which the crowded protein environment on the surface of cellular membranes can contribute to membrane shape change.

  18. Stable isotope distribution in continental Maastrichtian vertebrates from the Haţeg Basin, South Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Csiki, Zoltan; Grigorescu, Dan

    2010-05-01

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of biogenic apatite from crocodiles, turtles and dinosaurs, and their relationship to climate and physiology have been evidenced by several studies (Barrick and Showers, 1995; Kolodny et al., 1996; Barrick et al., 1999; Fricke and Rogers, 2000; Stoskopf et al., 2001; Straight et al., 2004; Amiot et al., 2007). To date, few attempts have been made to correlate the enamel d13C to dietary resources of dinosaurs (Bocherens et al., 1988; Stanton Thomas and Carlson, 2004; Fricke and Pearson, 2008; Fricke, et al., 2008). One additional complication is that for dinosaurs, the d18O of enamel phosphate depends on both body water and variations in body temperature. Several studies addressed the issue of endothermy vs. ectothermy of fossil vertebrates by studying inter- and intra-bone and enamel isotopic variability (Barrick and Showers, 1994, 1995; Barrick et al., 1996; 1998; Fricke and Rogers, 2000). More recent investigations provided evidence for inter-tooth temporal variations and related them to seasonality and/or changes in physiology (Straight et al., 2004; Stanton Thomas and Carlson, 2004). The main objectives of this study are to extract palaeoclimatic information considering, beside lithofacial characteristics and the isotopic distribution of carbonates formed in paleosols, the stable isotope composition of vertebrate remains from the Haţeg Basin. We also sampled several teeth along their growth axis in order to get further information about growth rates and the amplitude of isotopic variation. Located in the South Carpathians in Romania, the Haţeg Basin contains a thick sequence of Maastrichtian continental deposits yielding a rich dinosaur and mammalian fauna. Stable isotope analyses of both calcretes and dinosaur, crocodilian and turtle remains from two localities (Tuştea and Sibişel) were integrated in order to reconstruct environmental conditions during the Maastrichtian time and to gain further insights into the metabolism

  19. Dust deposition in ventilation and air-conditioning duct bend flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ran; Li Angui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study particle deposition on the four inner surface of the duct bend. ► We analyse the effect of five ways of placements of the bend on particle deposition. ► Gravity and inertia force enhance the deposition as relaxation time rises. ► Deposition coefficient increases as air velocity or particle diameter increases. - Abstract: Particles carried by airflows in ventilation and air-conditioning systems have adverse effects on the quality of air in buildings and hence the health of building occupants. Gaining insight on particle deposition onto ventilation and air-conditioning duct bends is important for controlling pollutant dispersion. Based on the Reynolds stress transport model (RSM), this paper has taken into account the effects of drag, lift force, gravity, inertia force, turbulent diffusions, particle size and air velocity on the dimensionless deposition velocity of particles in smooth duct bends using fully developed velocity profiles. At two different air velocities of 3.0 m/s and 7.0 m/s, the aforementioned effects were predicted by Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS)-Lagrangian simulation on square shaped duct bends with different ways of placement. Preliminary results suggest that gravity and inertia force enhance the dimensionless deposition as dimensionless relaxation time rises. Change tendency of the dimensionless particle deposition velocity on different surfaces of bend duct agrees well with previous studies. As air velocity and particle diameter increase, a significant increase of particle deposition coefficient in the duct bends is observed. Particle deposition to intrados can be intensified by the combined action of gravity and inertia force in different direction.

  20. Slice through an LHC bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Slice through an LHC superconducting dipole (bending) magnet. The slice includes a cut through the magnet wiring (niobium titanium), the beampipe and the steel magnet yokes. Particle beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have the same energy as a high-speed train, squeezed ready for collision into a space narrower than a human hair. Huge forces are needed to control them. Dipole magnets (2 poles) are used to bend the paths of the protons around the 27 km ring. Quadrupole magnets (4 poles) focus the proton beams and squeeze them so that more particles collide when the beams’ paths cross. There are 1232 15m long dipole magnets in the LHC.

  1. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to

  2. Minimal Bending Energies of Bilayer Polyhedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselwandter, Christoph A.; Phillips, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on bilayer polyhedra composed of amphiphilic molecules, we study the elastic bending energies of bilayer vesicles forming polyhedral shapes. Allowing for segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges of polyhedra, we find that bilayer polyhedra can indeed have lower bending energies than spherical bilayer vesicles. However, our analysis also implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the snub dodecahedron, rather than the icosahedron, generally represents the energetically favorable shape of bilayer polyhedra. PMID:21231425

  3. Petrology and geochemistry of a peridotite body in Central- Carpathian Paleogene sediments (Sedlice, eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppa Matúš

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied representative samples from a peridotite body situated NE of Sedlice village within the Central- Carpathian Paleogene sediments in the Central Western Carpathians. The relationship of the peridotite to the surrounding Paleogene sediments is not clear. The fractures of the brecciated peridotite margin are healed with secondary magnesite and calcite. On the basis of the presented bulk-rock and electron microprobe data, the wt. % amounts of mineral phases were calculated. Most of calculated “modal” compositions of this peridotite corresponds to harzburgites composed of olivine (∼70-80 wt. %, orthopyroxene (∼17-24 wt. %, clinopyroxene ( < 5 wt. % and minor spinel ( < 1 wt. %. Harzburgites could originate from lherzolitic protoliths due to a higher degree of partial melting. Rare lherzolites contain porphyroclastic 1-2 mm across orthopyroxene (up to 25 wt. %, clinopyroxene (∼ 5-8 wt. % and minor spinel ( < 0.75 wt. %. On the other hand, rare, olivine-rich dunites with scarce orthopyroxene porphyroclasts are associated with harzburgites. Metamorphic mineral assemblage of low-Al clinopyroxene (3, tremolite, chrysotile, andradite, Cr-spinel to chromite and magnetite, and an increase of fayalite component in part of olivine, indicate low-temperature metamorphic overprint. The Primitive Mantle normalized whole-rock REE patterns suggest a depleted mantle rock-suite. An increase in LREE and a positive Eu anomaly may be consequence of interactive metamorphic fluids during serpentinization. Similar rocks have been reported from the Meliatic Bôrka Nappe overlying the Central Western Carpathians orogenic wedge since the Late Cretaceous, and they could be a potential source of these peridotite blocks in the Paleogene sediments.

  4. The effect of protected areas on forest disturbance in the Carpathian Mountains 1985-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Munteanu, Catalina; Griffiths, Patrick; Knorn, Jan; Radeloff, Volker C; Lieskovský, Juraj; Mueller, Daniel; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    Protected areas are a cornerstone for forest protection, but they are not always effective during times of socioeconomic and institutional crises. The Carpathian Mountains in Eastern Europe are an ecologically outstanding region, with widespread seminatural and old-growth forest. Since 1990, Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine) have experienced economic hardship and institutional changes, including the breakdown of socialism, European Union accession, and a rapid expansion of protected areas. The question is how protected-area effectiveness has varied during these times across the Carpathians given these changes. We analyzed a satellite-based data set of forest disturbance (i.e., forest loss due to harvesting or natural disturbances) from 1985 to 2010 and used matching statistics and a fixed-effects estimator to quantify the effect of protection on forest disturbance. Protected areas in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and the Ukraine had significantly less deforestation inside protected areas than outside in some periods; the likelihood of disturbance was reduced by 1-5%. The effectiveness of protection increased over time in these countries, whereas the opposite was true in Romania. Older protected areas were most effective in Romania and Hungary, but newer protected areas were more effective in Czech Republic, and Poland. Strict protection (International Union for Conservation of Nature [IUCN] protection category Ia-II) was not more effective than landscape-level protection (IUCN III-VI). We suggest that the strength of institutions, the differences in forest privatization, forest management, prior distribution of protected areas, and when countries joined the European Union may provide explanations for the strikingly heterogeneous effectiveness patterns among countries. Our results highlight how different the effects of protected areas can be at broad scales, indicating that the effectiveness of protected areas is

  5. Biological and Energy Productivity of Natural Spruce Forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Vasilishyn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern practice of forestry production in Ukraine, which is in the process of implementing the conceptual changes in forest management and harmonization of its basic approaches to the basics of sustainable development, requires a significant expansion of the current regulatory and informational tools used to assess the ecological functions of forests. For this purpose, during the 2012–2014, as part of an international project GESAPU, models and tables of bioproductivity for forest tree species in Ukraine were completed. The article presents the results of modeling the dynamics of the conversion coefficients for the main components of phytomass of modal natural spruce forests of the Carpathian region of Ukraine based on information from 32 plots in the database of «Forest Phytomass of Ukraine». According to the state forest accounting of Ukraine as of January 1, 2011, the spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians cover an area of 426.2 thousand ha, 45 % of which are spruce of natural origin. To evaluate the productivity of modal dynamics of pure and mixed spruce stands, the study developed models of the stock and overall productivity, derived by Bertalanffy growth function. On the basis of these models, normative reference tables of biological productivity of natural modal spruce forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians were developed. To successfully meet the challenges of evaluating the energy possibilities of forestry of Ukraine, the study used tables of energetic productivity of investigated stands. Built on the basis of the tables of bioproductivity, they reflect the dynamic processes of energy storage in the phytomass components and can be used in forest management to predict volumes of energetic woods.

  6. Head movements while steering around bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Oving, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the determinants of head motions (rotations) when driving around bends were investigated when drivers viewed the scene through a head-mounted display. The scene camera was either fixed or coupled to head motions along 2 or 3 axes of rotation. Eight participants drove around a

  7. Demonstration model of LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    To save iron and raise the flux density, the LEP bending magnet laminations were separated by spacers and the space between the laminations was filled with concrete. This is a demonstration model, part of it with the spaced laminations only, the other part filled with concrete.

  8. Design of a hydraulic bending machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. Hankel; Marshall Begel

    2004-01-01

    To keep pace with customer demands while phasing out old and unserviceable test equipment, the staff of the Engineering Mechanics Laboratory (EML) at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, designed and assembled a hydraulic bending test machine. The EML built this machine to test dimension lumber, nominal 2 in. thick and up to 12 in. deep, at spans up to...

  9. ANALYTICAL BENDING SOLUTION OF ALL CLAMPED ISOTROPIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analytical bending solution of all clamped rectangular plate on Winkler foundation using characteristic orthogonal polynomials (COPs) was studied. This was achieved by partially integrating the governing differential equation of rectangular plate on elastic foundation four times with respect to its independents x and y ...

  10. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  11. Fractional behaviour at cyclic stretch-bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, W.C.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Kazantzis, A.V.; de Hosson, J.Th.M.; Kolleck, R

    2010-01-01

    The fractional behaviour at cyclic stretch-bending has been studied by performing tensile tests at long specimens that are cyclically bent at the same time, on mild steel, dual-phase steel, stainless steel, aluminium and brass. Several types of fracture are observed, these are discussed, as are the

  12. Bending rate damping in elastic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H. T.; Wang, Y.; Fabiano, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation of the bending rate damping model for elastic structures are presented. A model for which the internal damping term is physically plausible and which can accomodate cantilevered boundary conditions is discussed. The model formulation and mathematical foundations are given, and numerical results are discussed.

  13. Challenging the limits for beam bending designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2017-01-01

    The traditional design limits of beams in bending have been challenged by testing from very under-reinforced design to over-reinforced and strengthened over-reinforced designs in order to investigate if the current limits could be abolished. The ductility of normally reinforced beam depends...

  14. Can Thermal Bending Fracture Ice Shelves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAyeal, D. R.; Sergienko, O. V.; Banwell, A. F.; Willis, I.; Macdonald, G. J.; Lin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Visco-elastic plates will bend if the temperature on one side is cooled. If the plate is constrained to float, as for sea ice floes, this bending will lead to tensile stresses that can fracture the ice. The hydroacoustic regime below sea ice displays increased fracture-sourced noise when air temperatures above the ice cools with the diurnal cycle. The McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, also displays a massive increase in seismicity during the cooling phase of the diurnal cycle, and this motivates the question: Can surface cooling (or other forcing with thermal consequences) drive through-thickness fracture leading to iceberg calving? Past study of this question for sea ice gives an upper limit of ice-plate thickness (order meters) for which diurnal-scale thermal bending fracture can occur; but could cooling with longer time scales induce fracture of thicker ice plates? Given the seismic evidence of thermal bending fracture on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, the authors examine this question further.

  15. Continental Delamination of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians: A Lower Crustal Origin of the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillerup, M. A.; Knapp, J. H.; Knapp, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    Two lithosphere-scale, explosive-source seismic reflection profiles (DRACULA I and DACIA PLAN), inclusive of the hinterland and foreland of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians, provide new evidence for the geodynamic origin of the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone (VSZ) of Romania. These data, collected to evaluate existing subduction-related and delamination geodynamic models proposed to explain the intermediate depth seismicity associated with the Vrancea zone, show evidence of continental crust extending continuously above the VSZ from the Carpathian foreland well into the Transylvanian hinterland. Crustal thicknesses inferred from these data based on reflectivity show a 40-45 km crust below the Transylvanian basin abruptly shallowing to 32 km for ~120 km beneath the fold and thrust belt of the main Carpathian orogen and thickening again to 38-42 km crust in the foreland. This thinned crust outlines an apparent lower crustal sub-orogenic cavity that is overlain by a relatively subhorizontal reflective fabric absent of dipping reflectivity. The northwest dipping Vrancea seismogenic body, a 30x70x200 km volume of intermediate depth earthquakes, is located on the eastern flank of the apparently thin crust beneath the Carpathian orogen. Amplitude decay curves show penetration of seismic energy to a depth of ~60 km in the vicinity of the sub-orogenic cavity, implying this non- reflective zone is a geologic signature. Rotation of the VSZ about a hinge beneath the foreland basin at a depth of ~50 km restores to fill the lower-crustal cavity under the orogen, suggesting the VSZ represents a portion of brittle lower crust delaminated during continental lithospheric delamination which may have caused regional uplift of the Transylvanian basin. The lack of through-going, dipping crustal-scale boundaries along this composite lithospheric transect would appear to preclude subduction as an explanation for seismicity in the VSZ, consistent with abundant surface geologic data. These

  16. Alps, Carpathians and Dinarides-Hellenides: about plates, micro-plates and delaminated crustal blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Before the onset of Europe-Africa continental collision in the Dinarides-Hellenides (around 60Ma) and in the Alps and Western Carpathians (around 35 Ma), and at a large scale, the dynamics of orogenic processes in the Mediterranean Alpine chains were governed by Europe-Africa plate convergence leading to the disappearance of large parts of intervening oceanic lithosphere, i.e. the northern branch of Neotethys along the Sava-Izmir-Ankara suture and Alpine Tethys along the Valais-Magura suture (Schmid et al. 2008). In spite of this, two major problems concerning the pre-collisional stage are still poorly understood: (1) by now we only start to understand geometry, kinematics and dynamics of the along-strike changes in the polarity of subduction between Alps-Carpathians and Dinarides-Hellenides, and (2) it is not clear yet during exactly which episodes and to what extent intervening rifted continental fragments such as, for example, Iberia-Briançonnais, Tisza, Dacia, Adria-Taurides moved independently as micro-plates, and during which episodes they remained firmly attached to Europa or Africa from which they broke away. As Europe-Africa plate convergence slowed down well below 1 cm/yr at around 30 Ma ago these pre-collisional processes driven by plate convergence on a global scale gave way to more local processes of combined roll-back and crustal delamination in the Pannonian basin of the Carpathian embayment and in the Aegean (as well as in the Western Mediterranean, not discussed in this contribution). In the case of the Carpathian embayment E-directed roll back totally unrelated to Europe-Africa N-S-directed convergence, started at around 20 Ma ago, due to the presence relict oceanic lithosphere in the future Pannonian basin that remained un-subducted during collision. Due to total delamination of the crust from the eastward rolling back European mantle lithosphere the anticlockwise rotating ALCAPA crustal block, consisting of Eastern Alps and Western Carpathian

  17. HUMAN-INDUCED CHANGES IN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE PETROŞANI DEPRESSION (SOUTHERN CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA COSTACHE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the changes in ecosystem services in the most important coal field from the Southern Carpathians (Romania. The time horizon considered is the interval 1950-2010, characterized by two major processes: intensive development of the mining industry (1950-1989 and subsequent restructuring of mining, with significant consequences since 1996. Socio-economic phenomena associated with these two stages in the evolution of the region have generated major changes in ecosystem services, leading to increased human vulnerability, both to extreme events (natural hazards and pressure from economic factors.

  18. Symmetric bends how to join two lengths of cord

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Roger E

    1995-01-01

    A bend is a knot securely joining together two lengths of cord (or string or rope), thereby yielding a single longer length. There are many possible different bends, and a natural question that has probably occurred to many is: "Is there a 'best' bend and, if so, what is it?"Most of the well-known bends happen to be symmetric - that is, the two constituent cords within the bend have the same geometric shape and size, and interrelationship with the other. Such 'symmetric bends' have great beauty, especially when the two cords bear different colours. Moreover, they have the practical advantage o

  19. 2D Seismic Velocity Modelling in the Southeastern Romanian Carpathians and its Foreland (Vrancea Zone and Focsani Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, R.; Bocin, A.; Tryggvason, A.

    2003-12-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining of new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the seismically-active Vrancea Zone, including the rapidly subsiding Focsani Basin. The DACIA-PLAN profile is about 140 km long, having a roughly NW-SE direction, from near the southeast Transylvanian Basin, across the mountainous southeastern Carpathians and their foreland to near the Danube Dalta. A high resolution 2D velocity model of the upper crust along the seismic profile has been determined from a first-arrival tomographic inversion of the DACIA-PLAN data. The shallowing of Palaeozoic-Mesozoic basement, and related structural heterogeneity within it, beneath the eastern flank of the Focsani Basin is clearly seen. Velocity heterogeneity within the Carpathian nappe belt is also evident and is indicative of internal structural complexity, including the presence of salt bodies and basement involvement in thrusting, thus favouring some current geological models over others. The presence of basement involvement implies the compressional reactivation of pre-existing basement normal faults. Members of the DACIA-PLAN/TomoSeis Working Group (see poster) should be considered as co-authors of this presentation.

  20. The significance of Gosau-type basins for the Late Cretaceous tectonic history of the Alpine-Carpathian Belt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willingshofer, E.; Neubauer, F.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    1999-01-01

    A key feature of Late Creataceous tectonics throughout the Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian (ALCAPA) region is the synchronous formation of sedimentary basins (Gosau basins) and exhumation of metamorphic domes. Initial subsidence, spatially varying in time (Cenomanian-Santonian), within Gosau-type basins

  1. Dating of speleothems in non-karst caves - methodological aspects and practical application, Polish Outer Carpathians case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, J.; Margielewski, W.; Hercman, H.; Žák, Karel; Zernitska, V.; Pawlak, J.; Schejbal-Chwastek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, Supplement 1 (2015), s. 185-210 ISSN 0372-8854 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : non- karst caves * speleothem dating * landslide * Polish Outer Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.103, year: 2015

  2. Ferrocolumbite-ferrotantalite and ferrotapiolite in the leucogranites from the Povazsky Inovec Mts., Western Carpathians, Slovakia: chemical composition and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudik, P.; Uher, P.; Kohut, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe accessory Nb-Ta oxide minerals in such non-specialized Stypepegmatitic leucogranite near Duchonka, the Povazsky Inovec Mountains, Western Carpathians, Slovakia as an example of unusual Nb-Ta fractionation in highly peraluminous environment. (authors)

  3. Understanding land cover changes in the Italian Alps and Romanian Carpathians combining remote sensing and stakeholder interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malek, Ziga; Scolobig, Anna; Schröter, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, socio-economic changes in Europe have had a significant effect on land cover changes, but it is unclear how this has affected mountain areas. We focus on two mountain areas: the eastern Italian Alps and the Romanian Curvature Carpathians. We classified land cover from Earth

  4. MEDIA ENVIRONMENT AS FACTOR OF REALIZATION OF CREATIVE POTENTIAL OF FUTURE TEACHERS` IN THE MOUNTAIN SCHOOLS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Lebedieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows up “media environment” as a factor of future teachers` creative potential realization in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The problem of using media environment as a factor of future teachers` creative potential in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians and the ways of its optimization is the main point of this research. Highlights ways to modernize social and professional orientation training of students in the creative process of nature is situates in information education and educational environment of high school. We consider the causal link use media environment as a factor of future teachers` creative potential and complexity of the teacher in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The basic function of the media environment are extensity, instrumental, communicative, interactive, multimedia. Reveals some aspects of training students to creatively active teaching process we describe subjects with objective possibilities in the formation of professional skills of future teachers` and which directly affect the realization of creative potential – “Ukrainian folk art”, “Basic recitation and rhetoric”, “The basis of pedagogical creativity”. The necessity of creating a full-fledged media environment in higher education is important condition of successful education as an important factor that allows the efficiency of the creative potential of future teachers` in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians.

  5. Integrated stratigraphy of the Jurassic-Cretaceous sequences of the Kurovice Quarry, Outer Western Carpathians: correlations and tectonic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr; Schnabl, Petr; Čížková, Kristýna; Elbra, Tiiu; Kdýr, Šimon; Svobodová, Andrea; Reháková, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120 (2017), s. 216-216 ISSN 1017-8880. [International Symposium on the Cretaceous /10./. 21.08.2017-26.08.2017, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09979S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : stratigraphy * Jurassic-Cretaceous sequences * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  6. Late-Holocene evolution of a floodplain impounded by the Smrdutá landslide, Carpathian Mountains (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, T.; Smolková, V.; Hradecký, J.; Sedláček, J.; Zernitskaya, V.; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Pazdur, A.; Řehánek, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2013), s. 218-229 ISSN 0959-6836 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Flysch Carpathians * landslide dam * late Holocene * recurrent landslide * sedimentary archive Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2013

  7. Complex local Moho topography in the Western Carpathians: Indication of the ALCAPA and the European Plate contact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubcová, Pavla; Środa, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 638, 7 January (2015), s. 63-81 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08971S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Western Carpathians * seismic modelling * crustal structure * anomalous Moho * Bohemian Massif * Pannonian Basin Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.650, year: 2015

  8. A molecular organic geochemical study of black shales associated with diatomites from the Oligocene Meinilite Shale (Flysch Carpathians, SE Poland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koster, J.; Rospondek, M.; Zubrzycki, A.; Kolouba, M.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    Black shales of the Menilite Formation, the source rock for oils in the Carpathian overthrust belt, display a large variability in their bulk and molecular geochemical parameters. Biomarker and stable carbon isotope analyses indicate a variable contribution from different algae (particularly

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE PROBLEM IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS ON THE EXAMPLE OF CARPATHIAN REGION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliia Murava

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify waste generated within the territories of tourist destinations in Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and to classify it for the use of effective waste management methods. The dynamics of municipal waste generation in tourist destinations in Carpathian region has been analyzed. The sources of waste generation in tourist activities have been identified and classified by the criterion of their further use. The methods of waste management within the tourist destinations in Carpathian region have been proposed. The problem of tourist destinations waste has been identified as one of the significant environmental aspects of tourism industry. Recommendations for implementation of the waste management methods can form the basis of waste management programs within the tourist destinations in the Carpathians. To achieve the goal and to solve the identified tasks a range of research methods have been used in the study: praximetric method (analysis of research experience and summarizing the information of printed sources on environmental aspects of the tourism industry and the problems of waste management within tourist destinations; comparative analysis has been used for identification of quantitative indicators and dynamics of municipal waste generation; specific search method has been used for identifying, selecting, theoretical analysis, classification of the waste generated in tourist destinations and calculation of their generated amount.

  10. Geodynamics and intermediate-depth seismicity in Vrancea (the south-eastern Carpathians): Current state-of-the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismael-Zadeh, A.; Matenco, L.C.; Radulian, M.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Panza, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Vrancea region of the south-eastern Carpathians is a remarkable site of intra-continental intermediate-depth seismicity. A large set of geological, geophysical, and geodetic observations has been accumulated for the last few decades and utilised to improve our knowledge of the shallow and deep

  11. Detrital events and hydroclimate variability in the Romanian Carpathians during the mid-to-late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Jack; Ersek, Vasile; Veres, Daniel; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    The Romanian Carpathians are located at the confluence of three major atmospheric pressure fields: the North Atlantic, the Mediterranean and the Siberian. Despite its importance for understanding past human impact and climate change, high-resolution palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of Holocene hydroclimate variability, and in particular records of extreme precipitation events in the area, are rare. Here we present a 7500-year-long high-resolution record of past climatic change and human impact recorded in a peatbog from the Southern Carpathians, integrating palynological, geochemical and sedimentological proxies. Natural climate fluctuations appear to be dominant until 4500 years before present (yr BP), followed by increasing importance of human impact. Sedimentological and geochemical analyses document regular minerogenic deposition within the bog, linked to periods of high precipitation. Such minerogenic depositional events began 4000 yr BP, with increased depositional rates during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and during periods of societal upheaval (e.g. the Roman conquest of Dacia). The timing of minerogenic events appears to indicate a teleconnection between major shifts in North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and hydroclimate variability in southeastern Europe, with increased minerogenic deposition correlating to low NAO index values. By linking the minerogenic deposition to precipitation variability, we state that this link persists throughout the mid-to-late Holocene.

  12. RESEARCH ON MILK PRODUCTION AT GOATS FROM CARPATHIAN BREED IN RELATION WITH BREEDING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion RĂDUCUŢĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to quantify the qualitative and quantitative parameters of milk production at goats from Carpathian breed in relation with the breeding system (extensive versus semi-intensive. To determine the total quantity of milk, the milk production control it included suckling period of kids and milking period of goats. For determining the quality of milk it was made the analysis of chemical composition of milk in the main constituents, namely water and dry matter, content of fat, protein, lactose and minerals. The biological material studied in this paper was represented by the adult goats from Carpathian breed belonging of two private farms from the south region of country. The size of the control group during the whole lactation was 25 heads for each farm. The research took into account two farms of goats differentiated by breeding system practiced, respectively extensive and semi-intensive. The obtained results showed that regarding the quantitative milk production the best performance was achieved by animals from semi-intensive farm (253.21 liters versus 208.50 liters and in terms of milk quality by the animals from extensive farm.

  13. Approaching the Sustainable Development Practices in Mountain Tourism in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Brătucu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the degree to which tourism managers who work in Romania in the area of the Carpathian Mountains have implemented sustainable development practices. It also assesses the quantification of their availability to be informed and to apply voluntary tools of sustainable development. Qualitative research based on the method of semi-structured in-depth interviews was conducted, with 34 managers who work in the accommodation units in the Romanian Carpathians. Results show that most managers are concerned with issues linked to sustainable evolution of the accommodation unit they manage. The researchers have noticed a low interest in sustainable evolution negatively correlated with the comfort level of the accommodation unit and competitiveness. Based on these results the authors recommend the adoption of measures that may allow sustainable development, and for the Romanian authorities to encourage the increase in the number of tourism units that can use sustainable management systems. This can be done through accessible rules, development of networks that may offer information about good practices and codes of conduct, as well as the possibility to participate in exchange programs.

  14. Uranium, radium and 40K isotopes in bottled mineral waters from Outer Carpathians, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, B.; Walencik, A.; Dorda, J.; Przylibski, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactivity content in commercially bottled mineral waters from Outer Carpathians was investigated on the basis of 28 samples. Activity concentration results for radium isotopes 226,228 Ra, uranium isotopes 234,238 U and isotopic ratios 234 U/ 238 U were determined. The correlations between investigated isotopes and calculated potassium 40 K ions dissolved in water were carried out. The results show a correlation between TDS (total dissolved solids) values and dissolved radionuclides. High correlation coefficients were observed between total radium content and 40 K. The isotopic ratio of 234 U/ 238 U varies in the range from 1.6 to 7 in all investigated waters which means that there is no radioactive equilibrium between the parent nuclide 238 U and its daughter 234 U. The effective radiation dose coming from studied radium and uranium radionuclides consumed with mineral water from the Outer Carpathians obtained by a statistical Pole is equal to 4.3μSv/year (58 l/year water consumption) and do not exceed the permissible limit equal to 100μSv/year. Assuming 0.5 l consumption per day, i.e. 182.5 l/year, the effective dose is equal to 13.4μSv/year, what is still below the unit

  15. Surface waves tomography and non-linear inversion in the southeast Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raykova, R.B.; Panza, G.F.

    2005-11-01

    A set of shear-wave velocity models of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in the southeast Carpathians is determined by the non-linear inversion of surface wave group velocity data, obtained from a tomographic analysis. The local dispersion curves are assembled for the period range 7 s - 150 s, combining regional group velocity measurements and published global Rayleigh wave dispersion data. The lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity structure is reliably reconstructed to depths of about 250 km. The thickness of the lithosphere in the region varies from about 120 km to 250 km and the depth of the asthenosphere between 150 km and 250 km. Mantle seismicity concentrates where the high velocity lid is detected just below the Moho. The obtained results are in agreement with recent seismic refraction, receiver function, and travel time P-wave tomography investigations in the region. The similarity among the results obtained from different kinds of structural investigations (including the present work) highlights some new features of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in southeast Carpathians, as the relatively thin crust under Transylvania basin and Vrancea zone. (author)

  16. Interaction of low-frequency axisymmetric ultrasonic guided waves with bends in pipes of arbitrary bend angle and general bend radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Bhupesh; Mishra, Tarun Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu

    2014-03-01

    The use of ultrasonic guided waves for the inspection of pipes with elbow and U-type bends has received much attention in recent years, but studies for more general bend angles which may also occur commonly, for example in cross-country pipes, are limited. Here, we address this topic considering a general bend angle φ, a more general mean bend radius R in terms of the wavelength of the mode studied and pipe thickness b. We use 3D Finite Element (FE) simulation to understand the propagation of fundamental axisymmetric L(0,2) mode across bends of different angles φ. The effect of the ratio of the mean bend radius to the wavelength of the mode studied, on the transmission and reflection of incident wave is also considered. The studies show that as the bend angle is reduced, a progressively larger extent of mode-conversion affects the transmission and velocity characteristics of the L(0,2) mode. However the overall message on the potential of guided waves for inspection and monitoring of bent pipes remains positive, as bends seem to impact mode transmission only to the extent of 20% even at low bend angles. The conclusions seem to be valid for different typical pipe thicknesses b and bend radii. The modeling approach is validated by experiments and discussed in light of physics of guided waves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Climate change in the Carpathian-Balkan Area. Advancing research and cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains are considered to be one of Europe’s last “wilderness” areas, but are nevertheless under heavy pressure from human activities. Examples range from large-scale activities (e.g. metal and coal mining and ecological disasters (e.g. tailing dam failures in the Toroiaga and Baia Mare areas to cross-border pollution (e.g. Chernobyl nuclear accident. The current political thrust for economic development is accelerating the pace of industrial activities, exploitation of natural resources and tourism. Romania has just recently been integrated into the European Union and many community-based projects were initiated to evaluate problems related to climatic and anthropogenic impacts.The diversity of landforms that characterize the Carpathian region encompassing mountain ranges and large spans of adjacent lowlands and the dynamic interplay between North Atlantic, continental, and Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns in southeastern Europe, have resulted in extremely fragmented habitats and exceptional biodiversity (Veres and Mindrescu, 2013. However, the Carpathian Mountains remain the least studied mountain environment in Europe, as reflected for example by the low number of well-dated and high-resolution paleorecords (e.g. Buczkó et al. 2009. Rose et al. (2009 published a pollution history study from a lake in the Retezat Mountains at the western extremity of the Southern Carpathians, but no paleoenvironmental studies exist for the rest of the mountain range, despite the abundance of suitable sites (Akinyemi et al., 2013.An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field (geosciences, as innovative science is increasingly stimulated by studies that cross disciplinary boundaries and thus benefit from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by creating “meeting places” where geoscience

  18. Holey fibers for low bend loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kazuhide; Saito, Kotaro; Yamada, Yusuke; Kurokawa, Kenji; Shimizu, Tomoya; Fukai, Chisato; Matsui, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Bending-loss insensitive fiber (BIF) has proved an essential medium for constructing the current fiber to the home (FTTH) network. By contrast, the progress that has been made on holey fiber (HF) technologies provides us with novel possibilities including non-telecom applications. In this paper, we review recent progress on hole-assisted type BIF. A simple design consideration is overviewed. We then describe some of the properties of HAF including its mechanical reliability. Finally, we introduce some applications of HAF including to high power transmission. We show that HAF with a low bending loss has the potential for use in various future optical technologies as well as in the optical communication network.

  19. Combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability. III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kececioglu, D.; Chester, L. B.; Nolf, C. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Results generated by three, unique fatigue reliability research machines which can apply reversed bending loads combined with steady torque are presented. AISI 4340 steel, grooved specimens with a stress concentration factor of 1.42 and 2.34, and Rockwell C hardness of 35/40 were subjected to various combinations of these loads and cycled to failure. The generated cycles-to-failure and stress-to-failure data are statistically analyzed to develop distributional S-N and Goodman diagrams. Various failure theories are investigated to determine which one represents the data best. The effects of the groove, and of the various combined bending-torsion loads, on the S-N and Goodman diagrams are determined. Two design applications are presented which illustrate the direct useability and value of the distributional failure governing strength and cycles-to-failure data in designing for specified levels of reliability and in predicting the reliability of given designs.

  20. Alternating bending-steady torque fatigue reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kececioglu, D.; Chester, L. B.; Dodge, T. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results generated by three unique fatigue reliability research machines which can apply alternating-bending loads combined with steady torque are presented. Six-inch long, AISI steel, grooved specimens with a stress concentration factor of 1.42 and Rockwell C 35/40 hardness were subjected to various combinations of these loads and cycled to failure. The generated cycles-to-failure and staircase-testing data are statistically analyzed to develop distributional S-N and Goodman diagrams. Various failure theories are investigated to determine which one best represents the data. The effect of the groove and of the various combined bending-torsion loads on the finite and endurance life strength of such components, as well as on the Goodman diagram, are determined. Design applications are presented.

  1. Torsion and transverse bending of cantilever plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissner, Eric; Stein, Manuel

    1951-01-01

    The problem of combined bending and torsion of cantilever plates of variable thickness, such as might be considered for solid thin high-speed airplane or missile wings, is considered in this paper. The deflections of the plate are assumed to vary linearly across the chord; minimization of the potential energy by means of the calculus of variations then leads to two ordinary linear differential equations for the bending deflections and the twist of the plate. Because the cantilever is analyzed as a plate rather than as a beam, the effect of constraint against axial warping in torsion is inherently included. The application of this method to specific problems involving static deflection, vibration, and buckling of cantilever plates is presented. In the static-deflection problems, taper and sweep are considered.

  2. Effect of confinements: Bending in Paramecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddins, Aja; Yang, Sung; Spoon, Corrie; Jung, Sunghwan

    2012-02-01

    Paramecium is a unicellular eukaryote which by coordinated beating of cilia, generates metachronal waves which causes it to execute a helical trajectory. We investigate the swimming parameters of the organism in rectangular PDMS channels and try to quantify its behavior. Surprisingly a swimming Paramecium in certain width of channels executes a bend of its flexible body (and changes its direction of swimming) by generating forces using the cilia. Considering a simple model of beam constrained between two walls, we predict the bent shapes of the organism and the forces it exerts on the walls. Finally we try to explain how bending (by sensing) can occur in channels by conducting experiments in thin film of fluid and drawing analogy to swimming behavior observed in different cases.

  3. Nuclear fuels accounting interface: River Bend experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This presentation describes nuclear fuel accounting activities from the perspective of nuclear fuels management and its interfaces. Generally, Nuclear Fuels-River Bend Nuclear Group (RBNG) is involved on a day-by-day basis with nuclear fuel materials accounting in carrying out is procurement, contract administration, processing, and inventory management duties, including those associated with its special nuclear materials (SNM)-isotopics accountability oversight responsibilities as the Central Accountability Office for the River Bend Station. As much as possible, these duties are carried out in an integrated, interdependent manner. From these primary functions devolve Nuclear Fuels interfacing activities with fuel cost and tax accounting. Noting that nuclear fuel tax accounting support is of both an esoteric and intermittent nature, Nuclear Fuels-RBNG support of developments and applications associated with nuclear fuel cost accounting is stressed in this presentation

  4. BENDING BEHAVIOUR OF MAGNETIC COTTON YARNS

    OpenAIRE

    LUPU Iuliana G.; GROSU Marian C; CRAMARIUC Bogdan; CRAMARIUC Oana

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic yarns are composite yarns, i.e. they combine elements of various natures and properties, with proven potential for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. In this paper, different mixtures of hard and soft magnetic powder were chosen to cover materials made of cotton yarn. The physical properties and bending behavior of the produced composite yarns were investigated in order to evaluate the yarns for further textile processing.The cotton yarn used as base material was covered w...

  5. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Chain; Priyank Seth; Namrata Rastogi; Kenneth Tan; Mayank Gupta; Richa Singh

    2015-01-01

    Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our invento...

  6. AA, assembly of wide bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets; BST, short and wide; BLG, long and narrow). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the copper coils being hoisted onto the lower half of a BST. See also 7811105, 8006050. For a BLG, see 8001044.

  7. Superconducting beam bending magnets at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows Gerhard Kesseler with the cyogenic vessels for one of the 10.8 Tesla-metre beam bending magnets. The magnet itself (not visible) is sitting inside the superinsukated helium vessel (white). The next larger shell and the biggest tubular structure (with the largest part behind the person) is the insulation vacuum tank. See CERN Courier 1970 pp. 228-229 CERN Courier 1973 pp. 144-145 Yellow Report CERN 78-03, 1978

  8. Hydrodynamic processes in sharp meander bends and their morphological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanckaert, K.

    2011-01-01

    The migration rate of sharp meander bends exhibits large variance and indicates that some sharply curved bends tend to stabilize. These observations remain unexplained. This paper examines three hydrodynamic processes in sharp bends with fixed banks and discusses their morphological implications:

  9. Characterization and study of photonic crystal fibres with bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhadj, W.; AbdelMalek, F.; Bouchriha, H.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of a photonic crystal fibre (PRCF) with bends is presented. Using the versatile finite difference time domain method, the modal characteristics of the PCFs are found. Possibilities of employing PCFs with bends in sensing are discussed. It is found that a large evanescent field is present when the bend angle exceeds 45 o

  10. Fuzzy set theory applied to bend sequencing for sheet metal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, S.K.; de Vin, L.J.; de Vin, L.J.; Nee, A.Y.C.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Brake forming is widely applied in the high variety and small batch part manufacturing of sheet metal components, for the bending of straight bending lines. Currently, the planning of the bending sequences is a task that has to be performed manually, involving many heuristic criteria. However,

  11. Effects of laser bending on the microstructural constituents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will illustrate the correlation between microstructural and microhardness changes in high-strength-low-alloy steel that occur as a result of laser-bending. Laser bending is a process of bending metal shapes using the laser beam...

  12. Low-loss adiabatic bend using minimised chip area.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; de Ridder, R.M.; Driessen, A.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Besten, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    For the increasing complexity of integrated optical structures, there is a need of bends, which occupy a chip area as small as possible. The best results with respect to loss can be obtained by adiabatic bends with decreasing radius and variable waveguide width. Detailed simulations using 2D bend

  13. First multi-bend achromat lattice consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einfeld, Dieter, E-mail: dieter.einfeld@maxlab.lu.se [Lund University, PO Box 118, Lund SE-221 00 (Sweden); Plesko, Mark [COSYLAB, Teslova ulica 30, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovakia); Schaper, Joachim [HAWK University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Hohnsen 4, D-31134 Hildesheim (Germany)

    2014-08-27

    The first proposed lattice for a ‘diffraction-limited light source’ is reported. This approach has now more or less been used for the MAX IV project. By the beginning of 1990, three third-generation synchrotron light sources had been successfully commissioned in Grenoble, Berkeley and Trieste (ESRF, ALS and ELETTRA). Each of these new machines reached their target specifications without any significant problems. In parallel, already at that time discussions were underway regarding the next generation, the ‘diffraction-limited light source (DLSR)’, which featured sub-nm rad electron beam emittance, photon beam brilliance exceeding 10{sup 22} and the potential to emit coherent radiation. Also, at about that time, a first design for a 3 GeV DLSR was developed, based on a modified multiple-bend achromat (MBA) design leading to a lattice with normalized emittance of ∊{sub x} = 0.5 nm rad. The novel feature of the MBA lattice was the use of seven vertically focusing bend magnets with different bending angles throughout the achromat cell to keep the radiation integrals and resulting beam emittance low. The baseline design called for a 400 m ring circumference with 12 straight sections of 6 m length. The dynamic aperture behaviour of the DLSR lattice was estimated to produce > 5 h beam lifetime at 100 mA stored beam current.

  14. BENDING BEHAVIOUR OF MAGNETIC COTTON YARNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUPU Iuliana G.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic yarns are composite yarns, i.e. they combine elements of various natures and properties, with proven potential for electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding. In this paper, different mixtures of hard and soft magnetic powder were chosen to cover materials made of cotton yarn. The physical properties and bending behavior of the produced composite yarns were investigated in order to evaluate the yarns for further textile processing.The cotton yarn used as base material was covered with hard (barium hexaferrite BaFe12O19 and soft (Black Toner magnetic particles. An in-house developed laboratory equipment has been used to cover the twist cotton yarns with seven mixtures having different amounts of magnetic powder (30% – 50%. The bending behavior of the coated yarns was evaluated based on the average width of cracks which appeared on the yarn surface after repeated flexural tests. The obtained results revealed that usage of a polyurethane adhesive in the coating solution prevents crack formation on the surface of hard magnetic yarns after flexural tests. At the same time, the higher the mass percentage of hard magnetic powder in the mixture, the higher was the cracks’ width. The soft magnetic yarns are more flexible and a smaller crack width is observed on their surface. Both the coating solution composition and the powder diameter are expected to influence the bending behavior of coated yarns.

  15. Forming and Bending of Metal Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebosky, Paul; Tyszka, Daniel; Niebur, Glen; Schmid, Steven

    2004-06-01

    This study examines the formability of a porous tantalum foam, known as trabecular metal (TM). Used as a bone ingrowth surface on orthopedic implants, TM is desirable due to its combination of high strength, low relative density, and excellent osteoconductive properties. This research aims to develop bend and stretch forming as a cost-effective alternative to net machining and EDM for manufacturing thin parts made of TM. Experimentally, bending about a single axis using a wiping die was studied by observing cracking and measuring springback. It was found that die radius and clearance strongly affect the springback properties of TM, while punch speed, embossings, die radius and clearance all influence cracking. Depending on the various combinations of die radius and clearance, springback factor ranged from .70-.91. To examine the affect of the foam microstructure, bending also was examined numerically using a horizontal hexagonal mesh. As the hexagonal cells were elongated along the sheet length, elastic springback decreased. This can be explained by the earlier onset of plastic hinging occurring at the vertices of the cells. While the numerical results matched the experimental results for the case of zero clearance, differences at higher clearances arose due to an imprecise characterization of the post-yield properties of tantalum. By changing the material properties of the struts, the models can be modified for use with other open-cell metallic foams.

  16. Emittance growth of bunched beams in bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.; Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1995-01-01

    Talman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1429 (1986)] has proposed a novel relativistic effect that occurs when a charged particle beam is bent in the magnetic field from an external dipole. The consequence of this effect is that the space-charge forces from the particles do not exhibit the usual inverse-square energy dependence and some part of them are, in fact, independent of energy. This led to speculation that this effect could introduce significant emittance growth for a bending electron beam. Subsequently, it was shown that this effect's influence on the beam's transverse motion is canceled for a dc beam by a potential depression within the beam (to first order in the beam radius divided by the bend radius). In this paper, we extend the analysis to include short bunch lengths (as compared to the beam pipe dimensions) and find that there is no longer the cancellation for forces both transverse to and in the direction of motion. We provide an estimate for the emittance growth as a function of bend angle, beam radius, and current, and for magnetic compression of an electron bunch

  17. Cretaceous sedimentation in the outer Eastern Carpathians: Implications for the facies model reconstruction of the Moldavide Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roban, R. D.; Krézsek, C.; Melinte-Dobrinescu, M. C.

    2017-06-01

    The mid Cretaceous is characterized by high eustatic sea-levels with widespread oxic conditions that made possible the occurrence of globally correlated Oceanic Red Beds. However, very often, these eustatic signals have been overprinted by local tectonics, which in turn resulted in Lower Cretaceous closed and anoxic basins, as in the Eastern Carpathians. There, the black shale to red bed transition occurs in the latest Albian up to the early Cenomanian. Although earlier studies discussed the large-scale basin configuration, no detailed petrography and sedimentology study has been performed in the Eastern Carpathians. This paper describes the Hauterivian to Turonian lithofacies and interprets the depositional settings based on their sedimentological features. The studied sections crop out only in tectonic half windows of the Eastern Carpathians, part of the Vrancea Nappe. The lithofacies comprises black shales interbedded with siderites and sandstones, calcarenites, marls, radiolarites and red shales. The siliciclastic muddy lithofacies in general reflects accumulation by suspension settling of pelagites and hemipelagites in anoxic (black shale) to dysoxic (dark gray and gray to green shales) and oxic (red shales) conditions. The radiolarites alternate with siliceous shales and are considered as evidence of climate changes. The sandstones represent mostly low and high-density turbidite currents in deep-marine lobes, as well as channel/levee systems. The source area is an eastern one, e.g., the Eastern Carpathians Foreland, given the abundance of low grade metamorphic clasts. The Hauterivian - lower Albian sediments are interpreted as deep-marine, linear and multiple sourced mud dominated systems deposited in a mainly anoxic to dysoxic basin. The anoxic conditions existed in the early to late Albian, but sedimentation changed to a higher energy mud/sand-dominated submarine channels and levees. This coarsening upwards tendency is interpreted as the effect of the

  18. The historical disturbance regime of mountain Norway spruce forests in the Western Carpathians and its influence on current forest structure and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Pavel; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Mikoláš, Martin; Bače, Radek; Nagel, Thomas A; Seidl, Rupert; Seedre, Meelis; Morrissey, Robert C; Kucbel, Stanislav; Jaloviar, Peter; Jasík, Marián; Vysoký, Juraj; Šamonil, Pavel; Čada, Vojtěch; Mrhalová, Hana; Lábusová, Jana; Nováková, Markéta H; Rydval, Miloš; Matějů, Lenka; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2017-03-15

    In order to gauge ongoing and future changes to disturbance regimes, it is necessary to establish a solid baseline of historic disturbance patterns against which to evaluate these changes. Further, understanding how forest structure and composition respond to variation in past disturbances may provide insight into future resilience to climate-driven alterations of disturbance regimes. We established 184 plots (mostly 1000 m 2 ) in 14 primary mountain Norway spruce forests in the Western Carpathians. On each plot we surveyed live and dead trees and regeneration, and cored around 25 canopy trees. Disturbance history was reconstructed by examining individual tree growth trends. The study plots were further aggregated into five groups based on disturbance history (severity and timing) to evaluate and explain its influence on forest structure. These ecosystems are characterized by a mixed severity disturbance regime with high spatiotemporal variability in severity and frequency. However, periods of synchrony in disturbance activity were also found. Specifically, a peak of canopy disturbance was found for the mid-19th century across the region (about 60% of trees established), with the most important periods of disturbance in the 1820s and from the 1840s to the 1870s. Current stand size and age structure were strongly influenced by past disturbance activity. In contrast, past disturbances did not have a significant effect on current tree density, the amount of coarse woody debris, and regeneration. High mean densities of regeneration with height >50 cm (about 1400 individuals per ha) were observed. Extensive high severity disturbances have recently affected Central European forests, spurring a discussion about the causes and consequences. We found some evidence that forests in the Western Carpathians were predisposed to recent severe disturbance events as a result of synchronized past disturbance activity, which partly homogenized size and age structure and made recent

  19. 77 FR 36012 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant Combined License Application; Notice of Intent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... by relocating the power block footprint and other plant components. For purposes of developing the... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant Combined License Application; Notice of Intent... its Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP) site, located west of the existing Susquehanna Steam...

  20. 78 FR 4465 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background PPL Bell Bend, LLC... Regulations (10 CFR), Subpart C of Part 52, ``Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP), in Salem County...

  1. 76 FR 81992 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background PPL Bell Bend, LLC... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP... based upon the U.S. EPR reference COL (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power...

  2. Using multi-proxy palaeoecology to test a relict status of refugial populations of calcareous-fen species in the Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Petra; Horsák, M.; Hájek, Michal; Jankovská, Vlasta; Jamrichová, Eva; Moutelíková, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2015), s. 702-715 ISSN 0959-6836 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity * calcareous fen * fossil record * Holocene extinction * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2015

  3. Variation in the chloroplast DNA of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) reflects contrasting post-glacial history of populations from the Carpathians and the Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Höhn, Mária; Gugerli, Felix; Abran, Peter; Bisztray, György; Buonamici, Anna; Cseke, Klára; Hufnagel, Levente; Quintela-Sabarís, Celestino; Sebastiani, Federico; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the genetic structure and diversity of Pinus cembra L. populations native to two disjunct geographical areas, the Alps and the Carpathians, and to evaluate the rate of genetic differentiation among populations.

  4. Paleomagnetic and AMS study of Permian and Triassic rocks from the Hronic Nappe and Paleogene rocks from the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin, Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, Emö; Madzin, Jozef; Bučová, Jana; Grabowski, Jacek; Plašienka, Dušan; Aubrecht, Roman

    2017-04-01

    The Hronic (Choč) units form the highest cover nappe system of the Central Western Carpathians which was emplaced over the Fatric (Krížna) nappe system during the Late Cretaceous. The Permian (red beds and lava flows) and Triassic (sediments) rocks, the main targets of our study, were affected only by diagenetic or very low-grade, burial-related recrystallization and were tilted and transported together. The pre-late Cretaceous sequence is overlapped by Paleogene mainly flysch sequences. Three laboratories (Bratislava, Budapest and Warsaw) were involved in standard paleomagnetic processing and AMS measurements of the samples, while Curie-points were determined in Budapest. The site/locality mean paleomagnetic directions obtained were significantly different from the local direction of the present Earth magnetic field, indicating the long term stability of the paleomagnetic signal. The magnetic fabrics varied from un-oriented to dominantly schistose with well-defined lineations. The latter were normally subhorizontal, although subvertical maxima also occurred among the Triassic sediments. Shallow inclinations, after tilt corrections, suggest near-equatorial position for most of the Permian and Lower Triassic, while around 20°N for the Middle-Upper Triassic localities. The paleomagnetic declinations are interpreted in terms of CW tectonic rotations, which are normally larger for the Permian than for the Triassic samples, although there are some differences within the same age groups. This may be attributed to differential movements during nappe emplacement or subsequent tectonic disturbances. For two localities from the Paleogene cover sequence of the Hronic units, close to the main sampling area (Low Tatra Mts) of the present study documented fairly large CCW rotations, thus obtained additional evidence for the general CCW rotation of the Central Western Carpathians during the Cenozoic. Thus, we conclude that the Cenozoic CCW rotation was pre-dated by large CW

  5. Recent developments in bend-insensitive and ultra-bend-insensitive fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, David; de Montmorillon, Louis-Anne; Provost, Lionel; Montaigne, Nelly; Gooijer, Frans; Aldea, Eugen; Jensma, Jaap; Sillard, Pierre

    2010-02-01

    Designed to overcome the limitations in case of extreme bending conditions, Bend- and Ultra-Bend-Insensitive Fibers (BIFs and UBIFs) appear as ideal solutions for use in FTTH networks and in components, pigtails or patch-cords for ever demanding applications such as military or sensing. Recently, however, questions have been raised concerning the Multi-Path-Interference (MPI) levels in these fibers. Indeed, they are potentially subject to interferences between the fundamental mode and the higher-order mode that is also bend resistant. This MPI is generated because of discrete discontinuities such as staples, bends and splices/connections that occur on distance scales that become comparable to the laser coherent length. In this paper, we will demonstrate the high MPI tolerance of all-solid single-trench-assisted BIFs and UBIFs. We will present the first comprehensive study combining theoretical and experimental points of view to quantify the impact of fusion splices on coherent MPI. To be complete, results for mechanical splices will also be reported. Finally, we will show how the single-trench- assisted concept combined with the versatile PCVD process allows to tightly control the distributions of fibers characteristics. Such controls are needed to massively produce BIFs and to meet the more stringent specifications of the UBIFs.

  6. Ab initio study on mechanical-bending-induced ferroelectric phase transition in ultrathin perovskite nanobelts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.F.; Zhang, G.H.; Zheng, Yue; Wang, Biao; Chen, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, we systematically investigated the structural, ferroelectric (FE), energetic and electronic properties of bended ultrathin PbTiO 3 and BaTiO 3 nanobelts in between flat sheet and nanotube configurations. It is found that both PbTiO 3 and BaTiO 3 ultrathin nanobelts can possess axial antiferrodistortive structural distortion (AFD distortion), and the magnitude of the AFD rotation angle is obviously determined by the bending curvature of the nanobelts. Meanwhile, spontaneous polarization can be retained in these single-unit-cell-thick nanobelts with contributions from the axial improper ferroelectricity and the radial flexoelectricity, which indicates that ultrathin perovskite nanobelts do not have a critical thickness. On the other hand, we found that the AFD distortion is stable and significant in PbTiO 3 nanobelts while it is metastable in BaTiO 3 nanobelts in comparison with the stable non-AFD structure without AFD distortion. This is due to the competition between AFD distortion and circumferential lattice extension in releasing the elastic energy in BaTiO 3 material. Moreover, we found that the electronic structure and bandgap of the nanobelts can be tuned by the bending curvature, indicating potential control of transport properties by mechanical bending. Our results gave more insight into the inherence of improper ferroelectricity in low-dimensional perovskite ferroelectrics

  7. A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2011-01-01

    service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension......This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... and flexure and show that localized cable bending has a pronounced influence on the fatigue resistance of cables under dynamic excitations....

  8. Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Lerose, Damiana [MPI fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Bochmann, Arne [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Christiansen, Silke H. [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); MPI fuer die Physik des Lichts, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Nietzsche, Sandor [Zentrum fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Ziegelmuehlenweg 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Ion beams can be used to bend or re-align nanowires permanently, after they have been grown. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with ions of different species and energy, achieving bending and alignment in various directions. We study the bending of single nanowires as well as the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires in detail. Computer simulations show that the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Dislocations are identified to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent and resistant against annealing procedures.

  9. Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Lerose, Damiana; Bochmann, Arne; Christiansen, Silke H; Nietzsche, Sandor; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-05-06

    Ion beams can be used to permanently bend and re-align nanowires after growth. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with energetic ions, achieving bending and alignment in different directions. Not only the bending of single nanowires is studied in detail, but also the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires. Computer simulations reveal how the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Detailed structural characterization identifies dislocations to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent, even surviving annealing procedures.

  10. Influence of flock coating on bending rigidity of woven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, O.; Kesimci, M. O.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of our efforts that focused on the effect of the flock coating on the bending rigidity of woven fabrics. For this objective, a laboratory scale flocking unit is designed and flocked samples of controlled flock density are produced. Bending rigidity of the samples with different flock densities are measured on both flocked and unflocked sides. It is shown that the bending rigidity depends on both flock density and whether the side to be measured is flocked or not. Adhesive layer thickness on the bending rigidity is shown to be dramatic. And at higher basis weights, flock density gets less effective on bending rigidity.

  11. Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhao-xian

    2016-01-15

    We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.

  12. Carpathian Biosphere Reserve (Ukraine): Towards Participatory Management. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 1 No. 2|

    OpenAIRE

    Hamor, Fedir D.; Geyer, Juliane; Ibisch, Pierre L.

    2009-01-01

    The Carpathian Biosphere Reserve (CBR) in Ukrainian Transcarpathia, formally recognized by UNESCO in 1992, is one of the most important protected areas in Europe. In 2007, the beech forests of Uholka were included into the UNESCO World Heritage Site Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians because of their uniqueness. In the course of the reserve’s spatial development and the potential integration of populated areas, participatory management arises as a crucial challenge. A first study of lo...

  13. Standard test methods for bend testing of material for ductility

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover bend testing for ductility of materials. Included in the procedures are four conditions of constraint on the bent portion of the specimen; a guided-bend test using a mandrel or plunger of defined dimensions to force the mid-length of the specimen between two supports separated by a defined space; a semi-guided bend test in which the specimen is bent, while in contact with a mandrel, through a specified angle or to a specified inside radius (r) of curvature, measured while under the bending force; a free-bend test in which the ends of the specimen are brought toward each other, but in which no transverse force is applied to the bend itself and there is no contact of the concave inside surface of the bend with other material; a bend and flatten test, in which a transverse force is applied to the bend such that the legs make contact with each other over the length of the specimen. 1.2 After bending, the convex surface of the bend is examined for evidence of a crack or surface irregu...

  14. Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri V. Politov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Volume 51 (1, 2008, pages 11-18Back Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians     D.V. PolitovLaboratory of Population Genetics, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences Y.V. PirkoInstitute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, Ukraine N.N. PirkoInstitute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, Ukraine E.A. MudrikDonetsk Botanical Gardens, Ukraine I.I. KorshikovDonetsk Botanical Gardens, Ukraine  contact authors by Editorial Office  SUMMARY  In natural pine populations, a mixed mating system is typical, characterized by the proportions of selfed and outcrossed seeds. Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. is one of the least studied European conifers in this respect. The mating system of six polymorphic allozyme loci were studied in haploid megagametophytes and diploid open-pollinated embryos in two stands located in the East Carpathians. In the 'Gorgany' population (24 trees, 198 seeds the mean singlelocus estimated outcrossing rate (ts was 0.731, and the multilocus estimate (tm was 0.773. In the 'Yayko' population the outcrossing rate was lower (27 trees, 213 seeds, ts=0.645, tm=0.700, suggesting 23-30% of seeds are self-pollinated. Correlation of outcrossing rate estimates among loci was less than 1, (0.300 in 'Gorgany' and 0.469 in 'Yayko' indicating biparental inbreeding occurred. Differences between tm and ts (0.042 in 'Gorgany' and 0.056 in 'Yayko' can also be influenced by consanguineous mating, indicated by the presence of spatial and genetic family structure. In small isolated populations of Pinus cembra, which are typical for the Carpathian part of the species' range, inbreeding depression may negatively affect seed quality. The high proportion of selfed seeds observed here can be expected in any seedlot of this species and should be taken into account while planning gene conservation or reforestation measures. Maternal trees in these populations

  15. Report on the 4th Conference on Environmental Science of the Carpathian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, A.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The main organizers of the conference were the Faculty of Science and Technology of the University of Debrecen and the Sapientia - Hungarian University of Transylvania, Faculty of Science and Art, Cluj-Napoca, Romania (the proposer of this series of conferences). The Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI) took part in the organization as its Hertelendi Ede Environmental Research Laboratory and the Ion Beam Application Laboratory are engaged in the study of the environment of the Carpathian Basin. Moreover the Department of Environmental Physics, run jointly by the University of Debrecen and ATOMKI, plays an important role in teaching environmental physics at the university. The conference was held on 28-29 March, 2008, in the building of the Regional Committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS) in Debrecen. The aim of the conference was to bring together scientists and students from different countries, involved in various aspects of environmental science and technology, since the common environmental problems of the Carpathian Basin to be solved make necessary the cooperation between them, living and working in different parts of the basin. The conference gave an opportunity to show the latest results in these fields, and in the same time it was an occasion for the young scientists to be introduced and to exchange experience. The scientific sections were the followings: environmental science and education, environmental chemistry, environmental physics, environmental geography, environmental protection and environmental technology, environmental biology and nature protection, landscape ecology and urban ecology. The number of registered participants (161) was the largest since the beginning (2005) of the conference series. They arrived from five countries (Hungary, Rumania, Slovakia, Croatia and Serbia), several institutions from 27 towns of the Carpathian Basin. The number of oral

  16. Characterization of the NTPR and BD1 interacting domains of the human PICH-BEND3 complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitchai, Ganesha P; Hickson, Ian D; Streicher, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome integrity depends on DNA structure-specific processing complexes that resolve DNA entanglement between sister chromatids. If left unresolved, these entanglements can generate either chromatin bridging or ultrafine DNA bridging in the anaphase of mitosis. These bridge structures...... are defined by the presence of the PICH protein, which interacts with the BEND3 protein in mitosis. To obtain structural insights into PICH-BEND3 complex formation at the atomic level, their respective NTPR and BD1 domains were cloned, overexpressed and crystallized using 1.56 M ammonium sulfate...

  17. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Catherine; Bustamante, Jorge; Kellogg, Derek W

    2014-01-01

    Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100) of subsegments (flagellomeres) that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus) with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial, and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension) does not have a lot of slack cuticle to "unfold" and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

  18. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eLoudon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100 of subsegments (flagellomeres that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension does not have a lot of slack cuticle to unfold and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

  19. Limit loads for pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending based on finite element limit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, approximate plastic limit load solutions for pipe bends under combined internal pressure and bending are obtained from detailed three-dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses based on elastic-perfectly plastic materials with the small geometry change option. The present FE results show that existing limit load solutions for pipe bends are lower bounds but can be very different from the present FE results in some cases, particularly for bending. Accordingly closed-form approximations are proposed for pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending based on the present FE results. The proposed limit load solutions would be a basis of defective pipe bends and be useful to estimate non-linear fracture mechanics parameters based on the reference stress approach

  20. Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Grimes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.

  1. Secondary turbulent flow in an infinte bend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H. Bo; Gislason, Kjartan; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The flow in an infinite circular bend is inverstigated in both the laminar and fully turbulent flow case, by use of laminar flow solver, a k-e turbulence model, and a fully Reynolds stress turbulence model. The topic of the analysis is to investigate whether a counter-rotating secondary flow cell...... is formed near the surface at the outer bank. This cell might help to stabilise the bank and hereby be an important factor for the morphology in a meandering river. In the laminar runs stability criterion related to a Dean number was estabilshed. In the simulations with the k-e model and the Reynolds stress...

  2. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  3. Can human rights law bend mass surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Frank Joergensen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing gap between the right to privacy and contemporary surveillance schemes. As a concrete example, the US surveillance operation PRISM and its impact on European citizens’ right to privacy is discussed. This paper provides a brief introduction to PRISM, continues with an outline of the right to privacy as stipulated in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR, the European Convention on Human Rights and the EU Directive on Data Protection, and moves on to discuss whether international human rights law may be used to bend mass surveillance.

  4. Economic opportunities for the exploitation of copper ore in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bostan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a synthetic analysis of the Romanian approach of an important underground resource, namely copper ore deposits. Certain elements of the international context have been introduced, highlighting the appreciation of the price of copper, as a result of increased demand from countries with emerging economies and speculative transactions on certain markets. The Romanian government, given that it can not provide funding to modernize the mining companies, is forced to choose as a solution to privatize them. The most emblematic case is the one of the company „Cupru Min”, which is based on the exploitation of ore from the Western Carpathians (Rosia Poieni. For this reason, many of our references relate to data and information on this company.

  5. DRĂGOIASA-TULGHEȘ DEPRESSION ALIGNMENT. APPROACH MODEL FOR THE SMALL DEPRESSIONS OF THE ROMANIANS CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE-BOGDAN TOFAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drăgoiasa-Tulgheș Depression Alignment. Approach Model for the Small Depressions of the Romanians Carpathians. The depressions of Romania have been studied lately from a physical-geographic perspective, as well as from a human perspective, leading to a series of aspects of theoretical and practical nature, such as: the diversity of the depression relief or its genetic and evolutionary complexity, the identification, inventory and classification of all depressions, the localisation of surface and underground water sources, the distribution and composition of plant associations and soil types, the evolution of demographic structures, the social-economic development or the geographic space’s organisation and management. All these studies combined allow for a series of general conclusions regarding their positional or morphological type or other morphographic, morphometric and even statistical aspects.

  6. REGIONAL CLIMATE MODELING STUDY FOR THE CARPATHIAN REGION USING REGCM4 EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIECZKA I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The newest model version of RegCM is adapted with the ultimate aim of providing climate projection for the Carpathian region with 10 km horizontal resolution. For this purpose, first, coarse resolution reanalysis data and global climate model outputs are used to drive 50 km resolution model experiments, from which the outputs are used to provide necessary boundary conditions for the fine scale model runs. Besides the historical runs (for the period 1981-2010, RCP4.5 scenario is also analyzed in this paper for the 21st century. These experiments are essential since they form the basis of national climate and adaptation strategies by providing detailed regional scale climatic projections and enabling specific impact studies for various sectors.

  7. Late Neolithic cultural elements from the Danube and Carpathian regions of Precucuteni – Trypillia A culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Burdo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The relations of Precucuteni – Trypillia A cultures with the cultures of the Late Neolithic/Early Eneolithic of South-Eastern Europe were primarily determined by two factors: origin and cultural contacts. Ideas about Precucuteni – Trypillia A formation appeared sixty years ago on the basis of typology and stratigraphy. The first part of the twentieth century was marked by numerous investigations of Neolithic cultures in South-Eastern Europe and excavations of Trypillia A sites in Ukraine. First, we present these materials. Precucuteni-Trypillia A complex was a multi-component formation which included components of different Southern and Western components originating from different cultures from the wide Balkan-Carpathian area. At different stages of T rypillia, some directions of contact became more important than others.

  8. A checklist of the spiders (Araneae of the Chornohora Mountain massif (the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirna, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present checklist of spiders native to the Chornohora Mts of the Ukrainian Carpathians is based both on literature-derived data and on material collected by the authors in 1999, 2006 and 2011-2014. The majority of these studies (approximately 80 % were conducted in the upper montane forests, subalpine and alpine levels on the slopes of the main ridge and adjacent spurs and mountains. The study also covers glacial cirques and river valleys. A few spiders were collected from local villages. The list of spiders includes records from the collections of the Museum of Natural History of the Wroclaw University and Museum (Poland and the Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw. A total of 252 valid species from 22 families is known from the Chornohora Mt. massif.

  9. The occurrence of, and economic losses caused by Armillaria in the Western Carpathian Mts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kaliszewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation carried out in the Western Carpathian Mountains (Ujsoły, Węgierska Górka, Ustroń and Wisła Forest Districts demonstrated a strong relationship between dieback in Norway spruce stands and the intensity of occurrence of Armillaria ostoyae. For the most endangered site types – mountain deciduous forest (LG and mountain mixed forest (LMG, analyses of losses of annual volume increment and of stand productivity were performed, and their financial dimensions determined. The greatest losses – of about 8 m3/ha/year for tree stands of the age of 100 years, and 400 m3/ha for the rotation period – were found for LG (Mountain broadleaved forest site type.

  10. THE GEOMORPHOLOGIC FEATURES OF INTRUSIVE MAGMATIC STRUCTURES FROM BÂRGĂU MOUNTAINS (EASTERN CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

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    Ioan Bâca

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Igneous intrusive structures from Bârgău Mountains belong to the group of central Neogene volcanic chain of the Eastern Carpathians of Romania. The evolution of the relief developed on these structures are three main stages: the stage of injection of structures (Pannonian, the stage of uncovering of igneous intrusive bodies from Oligo-Miocene sedimentary cover (Pliocene, and the stage of subaerial modeling of magmatic bodies (Pliocene-current.In those circumstances, the geodiversity of intrusive magmatic structures from Bârgău Mountains is represented by several types of landforms such as: polycyclic landforms (erosional levels, structural landforms (the configuration of igneous intrusive structures, petrographic landforms (andesites, lithological contact, fluvial landforms (valleys, slopes, ridges, periglacial landforms (cryogenic and crionival landforms, biogenic and anthropogenic landforms. This study highlights certain features of the landforms modeled on igneous intrusive bodies with the aim of developing some strategy for tourism recovery by local and county authorities.

  11. [Genetic variation and differentiation of Abies alba Mill. populations from Ukrainian Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Pirko, N N; Pirko, Ya V

    2005-03-01

    Using electrophoretic analysis of 11 enzyme systems, we studied the genetic structure and differentiation of eight natural populations of silver fir Abies alba Mill. in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Of 24 isozyme loci identified, 66.8% proved to be polymorphic. The mean numbers of alleles and genotypes per locus in the populations were respectively 3.1 and 4.5. Each A. alba tree was on average heterozygous at 15.9% of genes. In six populations, the genotypic distribution for all of the loci examined corresponded to Hardy-Weinberg proportions. The populations studied had low levels of subdivision (F(ST) = 0.018; GST = 0.019) and differentiation. Nei's genetic distances between the A. alba populations in the region ranged from 0.002 to 0.009, being on average 0.006.

  12. The isotopic composition of carbon in mineral waters of the Polish Flysch Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowgiallo, J.; Halas, S.; Lis, J.; Szaran, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper contains the results of carbon isotopes determinations in CO 2 , HCO 3 - and CH 4 of mineral waters occuring in the Polish Flysch Carpathians. Values of 13 C in CO 2 and HCO 3 - occuring in waters from the Magura nappe are in general higher than the corresponding values in methane-free waters from the Silesian nappe. Thus one can assume that within the former unit CO 2 is of deep origin, being probably a product of degasification of the upper mantle or produced during the metamorphism of rocks rich in carbonates. More negative values recorded within the Silesian nappe seem to show that CO 2 , at least in part, is a product of hydrocarbons oxidation, the deposits of which occur in this unit. (author)

  13. Temporal and spatial changes of radon concentration in borehole water (Little Carpathians Mts., Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Smetanová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The 222Rn activity concentration in ground water from four boreholes was investigated from January 2006 to June 2008. The boreholes are situated in the region of the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory in Modra-Piesok (Little Carpathians Mts., 40 km NW from Bratislava, Slovakia. Three boreholes have been drilled in Lower Triassic quartzite. Another borehole has been drilled in granodiorite of the Modra massif in which the quartzite is folded. Temporal and spatial differences in radon concentration were observed. Significant short-term variations were noticed in all boreholes. Precipitation caused the changes of water level and strongly affected the values of 222Rn activity concentration in less deep boreholes. The measured activities in boreholes ranged approximately over 1–240 kBq/m3.

  14. MONITORING OF THE RIVERBEDS OF RIVERS DNIESTER AND TISZA OF THE CARPATHIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Burshtynska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the causes of riverbed shifts of the rivers Dniester and Tisza of the Carpathian region. Among these reasons are mostly climate, physical and geographical, and anthropogenic factors, including frequent floods, weak rocks and soils, logging, and removal of gravel and sand materials out of the channels. The research considers the transition of the Dniester and Tisza rivers from mountaineous area into the lowland. The analysis of these shifts has been carried out on the 100 km long sections over a 100-year period. We used topographic maps and space images, as well as special geological and soil maps, as materials for this research. We have determined that the shifts of the Dniester and Tisza riverbeds can reach up to 500-1000 m in some sections. We also analyze the risks and dangers that follow such shifts.

  15. Alpine treeline and timberline dynamics during the Holocene in the Northern Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca GEANTĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High altitude environments (treeline and alpine communities are particularly sensitive to climate changes, disturbances and land-use changes due to their limited tolerance and adaptability range, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. The current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree- and timberlines upwards thus affecting alpine plant communities and causing land-cover change and fragmentation of alpine habitats. An upslope movement of some trees, shrubs and cold adapted alpine herbs as a response to the current climate warming has already been noted in many montane and subalpine regions.Four Holocene peat and lacustrine sediment sequences located between 1670 and 1918 m a.s.l. (Fig.1, in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romania, Eastern Carpathians are used with the aim to determine: i the sensitivity of high mountain habitats to climate, fire and land use changes; ii tree- and timberline shifts: and iii the influence of landscape topography on trees and shrubs.

  16. Using spatial metrics to assess the efficacy of biodiversity conservation within the Romanian Carpathian Convention area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrişor Alexandru-Ionuţ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The alpine region is of crucial importance for the European Union; as a result, the Carpathian Convention aims at its sustainable development. Since sustainability implies also conservation through natural protected areas, aimed at including regions representative for the national biogeographical space, this article aims at assessing the efficiency of conservation. The methodology consisted of using spatial metrics applied to Romanian and European data on the natural protected areas, land cover and use and their transitional dynamics. The findings show a very good coverage of the Alpine biogeographical region (98% included in the Convention area, and 43% of it protected within the Convention area and of the ecological region of Carpathian montane coniferous forests (88% included in the Convention area, and 42% of it protected within the Convention area. The dominant land cover is represented by forests (63% within the Convention area, and 70% of the total protected area. The main transitional dynamics are deforestation (covering 50% of all changes area within the Convention area and 46% from the changed area within its protected area and forestations – including afforestation, reforestation and colonization of abandoned agricultural areas by forest vegetation (covering 44% of all changes area within the Convention area and 51% from the changed area within its protected area during 1990-2000 and deforestation (covering 97% of all changes area within the Convention area and 99% from the changed area within its protected area during 1990-2000. The results suggest that the coverage of biogeographical and ecological zones is good, especially for the most relevant ones, but deforestations are a serious issue, regardless of occurring before or after achieving the protection status.

  17. Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri V. Politov

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In natural pine populations, a mixed mating system is typical,characterized by the proportions of selfed and outcrossed seeds. Swiss stone pine(Pinus cembra L. is one of the least studied European conifers in this respect. The mating system of six polymorphic allozyme loci were studied in haploid megagametophytes and diploid open-pollinated embryos in two stands located in theEast Carpathians. In the 'Gorgany' population (24 trees, 198 seeds the mean singlelocus estimated outcrossing rate (ts was 0.731, and the multilocus estimate (tm was 0.773. In the 'Yayko' population the outcrossing rate was lower (27 trees, 213 seeds, ts=0.645, tm=0.700, suggesting 23-30% of seeds are self-pollinated. Correlation ofoutcrossing rate estimates among loci was less than 1, (0.300 in 'Gorgany' and 0.469 in 'Yayko' indicating biparental inbreeding occurred. Differences between tm and ts (0.042 in 'Gorgany' and 0.056 in 'Yayko' can also be influenced by consanguineous mating, indicated by the presence of spatial and genetic family structure. In small isolated populations of Pinus cembra, which are typical for the Carpathian part of the species' range, inbreeding depression may negatively affect seed quality. The high proportion of selfed seeds observed here can be expected in any seedlot of this species and should be taken into account while planning gene conservation orreforestation measures. Maternal trees in these populations showed no heterozygote deficiency at these allozyme loci, and instead showed increased proportions of heterozygotes (inbreeding coefficient FIS = -0.200 in 'Gorgany' and -0.142 in 'Yayko'. Balancing selection may explain heterozygosity levels up to and above equilibrium proportions.

  18. ANALYSIS OF PROJECTED FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY CHANGES OF PRECIPITATION IN THE CARPATHIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIS ANNA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the major atmospheric source of surface water, thus, in order to build appropriate adaptation strategies for various economic sections related to water resources it is essential to provide projections for precipitation tendencies as exact as possible. Extreme precipitation events are especially important from this point of view since they may result in different environmental, economical, and/or even human health damages. Excessive precipitation for instance may induce floods, flash-floods, landslides, traffic accidents. On the other hand, lack of precipitation is not favorable either: long dry periods affect agricultural production quite negatively, and hence, food safety can be threatened. Several precipitation-related indices (i.e., describing drought or intensity, exceeding different percentile-based or absolute threshold values are analyzed for the Carpathian region for 1961–2100. For this purpose 11 completed regional climate model simulations are used from the ENSEMBLES database. Before the thorough analysis, a percentile-based bias correction method was applied to the raw data, for which the homogenized daily gridded CarpatClim database (1961–2010 served as a reference. Absolute and relative seasonal mean changes of climate indices are calculated for two future time periods (2021–2050 and 2071–2100 and for three subregions within the entire Carpathian region, namely, for Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. According to our results, longer dry periods are estimated for the summer season, mainly in the southern parts of the domain, while precipitation intensity is likely to increase. Heavy precipitation days and high percentile values are projected to increase, especially, in winter and autumn.

  19. Origin and genetic differentiation of pink-flowered Sorbus hybrids in the Western Carpathians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrinová, Veronika; Zozomová-Lihová, Judita; Bernátová, Dana; Paule, Juraj; Paule, Ladislav; Gömöry, Dušan

    2017-08-01

    Diversity of the genus Sorbus has been affected by interspecific hybridizations. Pink-flowered hybrid species have been insufficiently studied so far. They comprise bigenomic hybrid species derived from crosses S. aria s.l. × S. chamaemespilus and trigenomic ones, where S. aucuparia was involved as well. The main objective of the present study was to reconstruct their hybrid origins as well as to assess genetic distinction among several morphologically recognized hybrid species. Samples from putative maternal species and eight pink-flowered and two white-flowered hybrid species were collected in the Western Carpathians and the Sudetes. In total, 370 specimens were analysed. Six chloroplast microsatellites were used to infer parentage, whereas nuclear amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were employed for the identification of clones and patterns of genetic variation. Ploidy levels were estimated by flow cytometry on a subset of 140 individuals. Genetic data supported their hybrid origins proposed based on flower and leaf morphology, and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) revealed recurrent origins ( S. caeruleomontana , S. haljamovae ), even from bidirectional hybridization events ( S. zuzanae ). All bigenomic and trigenomic hybrid species (except triploid S. zuzanae ) were found to be tetraploid. In addition to polyploidy, low genetic variation and the presence of clones within and among populations were observed, suggesting predominantly apomictic reproduction of the hybrid species. Most of the described hybrid species appeared also genetically distinct. The data suggest that multiple hybridization events in the Western Carpathian Sorbus have led to the formation of separate, partially reproductively isolated genetic lineages, which may or may not be discriminated morphologically. Even bidirectional hybridization can produce individuals classified to the same taxon based on phenotype. For some hybrid taxa, hybridization pathways were proposed based on

  20. Bridge helix bending promotes RNA polymerase II backtracking through a critical and conserved threonine residue

    KAUST Repository

    Da, Lin-Tai

    2016-04-19

    The dynamics of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) backtracking process is poorly understood. We built a Markov State Model from extensive molecular dynamics simulations to identify metastable intermediate states and the dynamics of backtracking at atomistic detail. Our results reveal that Pol II backtracking occurs in a stepwise mode where two intermediate states are involved. We find that the continuous bending motion of the Bridge helix (BH) serves as a critical checkpoint, using the highly conserved BH residue T831 as a sensing probe for the 3′-terminal base paring of RNA:DNA hybrid. If the base pair is mismatched, BH bending can promote the RNA 3′-end nucleotide into a frayed state that further leads to the backtracked state. These computational observations are validated by site-directed mutagenesis and transcript cleavage assays, and provide insights into the key factors that regulate the preferences of the backward translocation.

  1. LITHOSPHERIC STRUCTURE OF THE CARPATHIAN-PANNONIAN REGION BASED ON THE GRAVITY MODELING BY INTEGRATING THE CELEBRATION2000 SEISMIC EXPERIMENT AND NEW GEOPHYSICAL RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielik, M.; Alasonati Tašárová, Z.; Zeyen, H. J.; Afonso, J.; Goetze, H.; Dérerová, J.

    2009-12-01

    Two different methods for the 3-D interpretation of the gravity field have been applied to the study of the structure and tectonics of the Carpathian-Pannonian lithosphere. The first (second) method provided a set of the different stripped gravity maps (the new lithosphere thickness map). The contribution presents the interpretation of the gravity field, which takes into account the CELEBRATION2000 seismic as well as new geophysical results. The sediment stripped gravity map is characterized by gravity minima in the Eastern Alps and Western Carpathians, and gravity maxima in the Pannonian Back-arc Basin system and the European platform. The gravity low in the Eastern Alps is produced by the thick crust (more than 45 km). The Western Carpathian gravity minimum is a result of the interference of two main gravitational effects. The first one comes from the low-density sediments of the Outer Western Carpathians and Carpathian Foredeep. The second one is due to the thick low-density upper and middle crust, reaching up to 25 km. In the Pannonian Back-arc Basin system can be observed the regional gravity high which is a result of the gravity effect of the anomalously shallow Moho. The most dominant feature of the complete 3-D stripped gravity map (crustal gravity effect map) is the abrupt change of the gravity field along the Klippen Belt zone. While the European platform is characterized by positive anomalies, the Western Carpathian orogen and the Pannonian Back-arc Basin system by relatively long-wavelength gravity low (several hundred kilometers). The lowest values are associated with the thick low-density upper and middle crust of the Inner Western Carpathians. That is why we suggest that the European Platform consists of the significantly denser crust with respect to the less dense crust of the microplates ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia. The contrast in the gravity fields over the European platform and microplates ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia reflect also their different crustal

  2. Occurrence, origin and possible accumulationsof oil in the SW part of the Carpathian Foredeep (SE Moravia - Czechia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Čížek

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The drilling exploration in the SW part of the Carpathian Foredeep, in the vicinity of the gas deposit and UGS Dolní Dunajovice encountered the influx of gas, water and oil in Carpathian, Eggenburgian sandstones and Upper Jurassic carbonates. Similar shows were observed in the region at the base of the Jurassic and Miocene in older exploration wells. The new interpretations of 3D seismic and 2D profiles provide a new geological model integrated with petrophysical properties and geochemistry. A molecular and isotopic composition of gas indicates its mixed bacterial and thermal origin. Biomarkers in the new oils suggest a close genetic relationship to the Upper Jurassic marls and economically successful oil accumulations in the southern part of the south-eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif. The new findings increase the prospects of finding new structures with oil and gas accumulations in this region.

  3. Possible causes of the recent rapid increase in the radial increment of silver fir in the Western Carpathians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bošela, Michal; Petráš, Rudolf; Sitková, Zuzana; Priwitzer, Tibor; Pajtík, Jozef; Hlavatá, Helena; Sedmák, Róbert; Tobin, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Silver fir is one of the most productive and ecologically valuable native European tree species, however, it has been experiencing decline which has periodically occurred over its natural range. This paper aims to investigate the recent climate-growth relationships of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and its temporal change along the course of its life. Long-term tree-ring databases, as well as records on climate, atmospheric SO2, NO3 and acid concentrations from four different regions in the Western Carpathians were used. The results provide clear evidence of significant increase of silver fir's radial increment over the entire Western Carpathian area since 1970-1980. The results indicated that the most probable factors behind the rapid recovery of tree radial increment were reductions in emissions of NO3 and SO2, alongside a significant increase in mean June, July and April temperatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contrasting Magnetic Fabric in Sedimentary Rocks of the Accretionary Prisms of the Western Carpathians and Eastern Rheno-Hercynian Zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrouda, F.; Chadima, Martin; Krejčí, O.; Otava, J.; Stráník, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 19, - (2005), s. 49-50 ISSN 1210-9606. [Meeting of the Central European Tectonic Studies Group /3./; Meeting of the Czech Tectonic Studies Group /10./. Felsötárkány, 14.04.2005-17.04.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : magnetic fabric * accrecionary prism * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://geolines.gli.cas.cz/fileadmin/volumes/volume19/G19-049.pdf

  5. Tectonic strain changes affecting the development of deep seated gravitational slope deformations in the Bohemian Massif and Outer Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stemberk, Josef; Hartvich, Filip; Blahůt, Jan; Rybář, Jan; Krejčí, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 289, SI (2017), s. 3-17 ISSN 0169-555X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15007; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015079 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Deep seated gravitational slope deformations * Displacement monitoring * Tectonic strain changes * Bohemian Massif * Outer Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  6. Lower Badenian coarse-grained Gilbert deltas in the southern margin of the Western Carpathian Foredeep basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehyba, Slavomír

    2018-02-01

    Two coarse-grained Gilbert-type deltas in the Lower Badenian deposits along the southern margin of the Western Carpathian Foredeep (peripheral foreland basin) were newly interpreted. Facies characterizing a range of depositional processes are assigned to four facies associations — topset, foreset, bottomset and offshore marine pelagic deposits. The evidence of Gilbert deltas within open marine deposits reflects the formation of a basin with relatively steep margins connected with a relative sea level fall, erosion and incision. Formation, progradation and aggradation of the thick coarse-grained Gilbert delta piles generally indicate a dramatic increase of sediment supply from the hinterland, followed by both relatively continuous sediment delivery and an increase in accommodation space. Deltaic deposition is terminated by relatively rapid and extended drowning and is explained as a transgressive event. The lower Gilbert delta was significantly larger, more areally extended and reveals a more complicated stratigraphic architecture than the upper one. Its basal surface represents a sequence boundary and occurs around the Karpatian/Badenian stratigraphic limit. Two coeval deltaic branches were recognized in the lower delta with partly different stratigraphic arrangements. This different stratigraphic architecture is mostly explained by variations in the sediment delivery and /or predisposed paleotopography and paleobathymetry of the basin floor. The upper delta was recognized only in a restricted area. Its basal surface represents a sequence boundary probably reflecting a higher order cycle of a relative sea level rise and fall within the Lower Badenian. Evidence of two laterally and stratigraphically separated coarse-grained Gilbert deltas indicates two regional/basin wide transgressive/regressive cycles, but not necessarily of the same order. Provenance analysis reveals similar sources of both deltas. Several partial source areas were identified (Mesozoic

  7. The northernmost occurrence of the Lower Berriasian ammonite Pseudosubplanites grandis (Štramberk Limestone, Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašíček, Zdeněk; Skupien, P.; Jirásek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2013), s. 461-466 ISSN 1335-0552 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Outer Western Carpathians * Silesian Unit * Štramberk Limestone * Berriasian, ammonite * Pseudosubplanites Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.835, year: 2013 http://www.sav.sk/index.php?lang=en&charset=&doc= journal -list&part=list_articles& journal _issue_no=11113270#abstract_9188

  8. Localized bending fatigue behavior of high-strength steel monostrands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement...... of the strain distribution in the strand and helps in identifying potential failure mechanisms along the strand and at the wedge location. Initial analysis of the deformations shows that the bending fatigue behavior of the monostrand may be controlled either by local bending deformations or by relative...... displacement (opening/closing and sliding) of the helically wound wires. Moreover, the results are a step towards understanding the bending fatigue damage mechanisms of monostrand cables....

  9. Bending Behavior of Porous Sintered Stainless Steel Fiber Honeycombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shuiping; Wan, Zhenping; Lu, Longsheng; Tang, Yong

    2017-02-01

    A novel porous honeycomb-type substrate has been developed using solid-state sintering stainless steel fibers. The porous sintered stainless steel fiber honeycombs (PSSSFH) are composed of a skeleton of sintered stainless steel fibers, three-dimensionally interconnected porous structures and multiple parallel microchannels. The bending behavior of the PSSSFH is investigated using three-point bending tests. Four stages, including an elastic stage, a yielding stage with a plateau, a hardening stage and a failure stage, are observed during the bending process of the PSSSFH. In the initial yielding stage, the bending forces increase slowly with displacement increasing, and then a yielding plateau follows, which is unique compared with other porous materials. Moreover, the structure parameters of the PSSSFH are varied to investigate the influence on the bending strength. It is determined that the multiple parallel microchannels can enhance the bending strength of porous stainless steel fiber sintered substrates (PSSFSS) and do not influence the variation trend of bending strength of PSSFSS with porosity increasing. The open ratio is conducive to increasing the bending strength, and the microchannel diameters ranging from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm have little influence on the bending strength. In addition, both the increasing of sintering temperature and sintering time can strengthen the PSSSFH.

  10. The Mythical Power of the Dual River-System of the Carpathian Basin: The Notion of a Hungarian Mesopotamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Keményfi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gyula Prinz is responsible for the notion of “Magyar Mezopotámia” [Hungarian Mesopotamia]. The natural basis for this idea is that Hungarian culture developed on the surface of an alluvial plains area. This sort of natural environment was the precondition of great civilizations based on agriculture. In other words, the intrinsic Duna-Tisza [Danubius-Tibiscus] river structure, which is similar to that of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, would elevate Hungary to the status of a mesopotamic country. This is how the central Hungarian area could become the distributing core of culture and how this culture could be radiated towards the neighboring peoples who also lived together with us in the Carpathian Basin. Our “cultural power” therefore “elevated” the cultural level of other peoples who lived with us on the edges of the Carpathian Basin. Accordingly, the end, or the borderline, of the highbrow “core culture” is located where the territory populated by Hungarians ends, or where the plains area shifts into the Carpathian Mountains.

  11. Two major groups of chloroplast DNA haplotypes in diploid and tetraploid Aconitum subgen. Aconitum (Ranunculaceae in the Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mitka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum in Europe is represented by ca. 10% of the total number of species and the Carpathian Mts. are the center of the genus variability in the subcontinent. We studied the chloroplast DNA intergenic spacer trnL(UAG-rpl32- ndhF (cpDNA variability of the Aconitum subgen. Aconitum in the Carpathians: diploids (2n=16, sect. Cammarum, tetraploids (2n=32, sect. Aconitum and triploids (2n=24, nothosect. Acomarum. Altogether 25 Aconitum accessions representing the whole taxonomic variability of the subgenus were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Both parsimony, Bayesian and character network analyses showed the two distinct types of the cpDNA chloroplast, one typical of the diploid and the second of the tetraploid groups. Some specimens had identical cpDNA sequences (haplotypes and scattered across the whole mountain arch. In the sect. Aconitum 9 specimens shared one haplotype, while in the sect. Camarum one haplotype represents 4 accessions and the second – 5 accessions. The diploids and tetraploids were diverged by 6 mutations, while the intrasectional variability amounted maximally to 3 polymorphisms. Taking into consideration different types of cpDNA haplotypes and ecological profiles of the sections (tetraploids – high‑mountain species, diploids – species from forest montane belt we speculate on the different and independent history of the sections in the Carpathians.

  12. Tracking an upper limit of the "Carnian Crisis" and/or Carnian stage in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohút, Milan; Hofmann, Mandy; Havrila, Milan; Linnemann, Ulf; Havrila, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    The Late Triassic timescale, especially the Carnian-Norian boundary, is poorly constrained mainly due to a paucity of high-precision radio-isotopic ages that can be related accurately to contradictions between the biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic correlations. LA ICP-MS dating of detrital zircons from five samples of the Lunz Formation—the Upper Triassic siliciclastic sediments from the Western Carpathians (Slovakia)—provided a wide spectrum of ages that vary from Late Archaean (ca. 2582 Ma) to Triassic (ca. 216 Ma). These marine delta sediments represent a typical product of the "Carnian Crisis"—a major climate change and biotic turnover that occurred during the Carnian stage in the Tethys Ocean within the carbonate shelf and intrashelf basins in the Northern Calcareous Alps and the Western Carpathians. The supply of clastic material in the studied Lunz Formation was derived from several sources, especially: (i) from the recycled Variscan orogen; (ii) from the remote East European Platform; and (iii) from the contemporaneous Triassic volcanic sources. Syn-sedimentary volcanic zircons with a concordia age of 221.2 ± 1.6 Ma (calculated from 12 single analyses) represent the maximum age of deposition of the Lunz Formation, and demonstrate that the upper limit of the "Carnian Crisis" and/or the Carnian stage in the Alpine-Carpathians realm is younger than the current age of the Carnian-Norian boundary at ca. 227 Ma listed on the International Chronostratigraphic Chart (International Commission on Stratigraphy 2016/12 Edition).

  13. Design Study: ELENA Bending Magnet Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Schoerling, D

    2013-01-01

    The ELENA bending magnet prototype shall prove that the proposed design meets the requirements set by the ELENA beam dynamics. The following points will be discussed in detail: (i) production process of a magnetic yoke diluted with stainless steel plates, (ii) the stability and repeatability of the field homogeneity of such a yoke over the full working range, (iii) choice of soft magnetic steel, (iv) hysteresis effects, (v) mechanical deformations, (vi) thermal insulation to intercept heat load from baking for activation of NEG coating in the vacuum chamber, (vii) end shim design. In order to verify these points the following measurements will be performed: (i) Hall probe scanning, (ii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (DC), (iii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (AC).

  14. Development of miniature bending fatigue specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.R.; Chin, B.A.; Rowcliffe, A.

    1991-01-01

    Two new miniaturized bending fatigue specimens have been designed and developed to aid in the scoping of materials for fusion first-wall and blanket structural applications. One of these is rectangular in shape with a gauge section 6.35 mm in length, while the other is cut from a 3 mm transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disk and has a gauge length of 1.5 mm. Test rules for unirradiated annealed type 316 stainless steel tested at room temperature, 550deg C and 650deg C are presented. A good correlation between miniature and standard subsize fatigue specimen results was obtained. The miniature specimen results show the same dependence of strain range on cycles to failure as the standard subsize specimens with the miniature-disk specimen results falling below all the other results. The results indicate that these specimens provide reliable data that can be used to scope fatigue properties for fusion applications. (orig.)

  15. Load tests with a pipe bend DN 425, applying slowly changing bending loads up to occurrence of leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlmann, D.; Hunger, H.

    1990-01-01

    The experimental program deals with the formation of incipient cracks and subsequent crack growth of axially oriented cracks at a pipe bend with a nominal width of DN 425. The pipe bend consists of the ferritic material 20MnMoNi55. The numerical experiments by means of 3 D-FE analyses concentrate on determining the influence of the asymmetric crack depths at the two bend halves, and of the multiple crack fields, on the effective crack strain. (DG) [de

  16. Strength tests of thin-walled elliptic duralumin cylinders in pure bending and in combined pure bending and torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Eugene E; Stowell, Elbridge Z

    1942-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the results of tests made by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on an investigation of the strength of thin-walled circular and elliptic cylinders in pure bending and in combined torsion and bending. In each of the loading conditions, the bending moments were applied in the plane of the major axis of the ellipse.

  17. First Plant Phenological Records in the Carpathians and their Possible Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekusova, M.; Horecká, V.; Mikulová, K.

    2009-04-01

    Phenological observations have a long history. The long time series come from Korea and some other parts of Asia, while wine harvest dates form the oldest phenological data sets in Europe. One of them started as early as 1457 year in Vienna, i.e. on the border of the Carpathian region. However, the first systematic phenological observations started in the south Carpathians almost four hundred years later following the establishment of the phenological network in Austria and later in the Hungarian Kingdom. A medical doctor P. Wierbitzky did first phenological observations in the Carpathian region in the beginning of thirties of the nineteenth century in Orawicza. The first systematic observations and records of plant development in this region are connected with the establishment of Austrian Institute for Meteorology and Geomagnetism since 1851. Although the historical significance of these observations is high, the data recorded are of lower quality, frequently interrupted and fragmented. Further development of phenological observations came with the introduction of the methodology of the observations introduced by Karl Fritsch in the beginning of the sixties of the nineteenth century mainly with the establishment of Hungarian Meteorological Service in 1871. These historical data were recorded and published in the yearbooks and, despite of the fragmentary character of the records, they are usable for some evaluations. This article brings the description of the data sets of systematic phenological network in the Carpathian region and considers some possible phenological evaluations. The phenological observations were done in some cases at the same localities as the climatologic observations but the number of phenological stations was quite lower in several years. The historical plant phenological records were based in many cases on the observation of four phenological phases: leafing, flowering, ripening and fall of leaves. Both the volume and the quality of the

  18. On the accuracy of analyses for in-plane bending of smooth pipe bends with end constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, G.; Spence, J.

    1985-01-01

    The accuracy of theoretical analyses for in-plane bending of smooth pipebends with end constraints is discussed and investigated with a view to explaining and reducing the differences between the major works. An earlier theory of the authors is improved to give more accurate answers for bends with rigid flanges. Flanged bends are then examined in some detail, quantifying for the first time the important influence of the flange rigidity on the bend flexibility and stresses. A summary of some finite element analyses is presented from which it is clear that further work is desirable. (orig.)

  19. Statistical mechanics of bend flexoelectricity and the twist-bend phase in bent-core liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamid, Shaikh M; Dhakal, Subas; Selinger, Jonathan V

    2013-05-01

    We develop a Landau theory for bend flexoelectricity in liquid crystals of bent-core molecules. In the nematic phase of the model, the bend flexoelectric coefficient increases as we reduce the temperature toward the nematic to polar phase transition. At this critical point, there is a second-order transition from high-temperature uniform nematic phase to low-temperature nonuniform polar phase composed of twist-bend or splay-bend deformations. To test the predictions of Landau theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to find the director and polarization configurations as functions of temperature, applied electric field, and interaction parameters.

  20. The effect of cracks on the limit load of pipe bends under in-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.E.

    1976-06-01

    The limit analysis of the in-plane bending of curved tubes had received attention previously, but the effect of defects in the tube has not been considered. A lower bound has been established which, with no defects present, is in agreement with previous theoretical work. The method of linear programming allows cracks to be introduced into analysis, and results have been obtained for various geometries of defect. The results show that the presence of cracks in the pipe bend can have a marked effect on the theoretical limit load: a part-through crack penetrating only half the wall thickness will reduce the limit moment by up to 10%. The worst possible case of a through-crack may reduce the limit load by 60%. (author)

  1. The effect of cracks on the limit load of pipe bends under in-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.E.

    1976-06-01

    The limit analysis of the in-plane bending of curved tubes had received attention previously, but the effect of defects in the tube has not been considered. A lower bound is established, which, with no defects present, is in agreement with previous theoretical work. The method of linear programming allows cracks to be introduced into the analysis. and results have been obtained for various geometries of defect. The results show that the presence of cracks in the pipe bend can have a marked effect on the theoretical limit load: a part-through crack penetrating only half the wall thickness will reduce the limit moment by up to 10%. The worst possible case of a through-crack may reduce the limit load by 60% (author)

  2. Edwards's statistical mechanics of crumpling networks in crushed self-avoiding sheets with finite bending rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balankin, Alexander S; Flores-Cano, Leonardo

    2015-03-01

    This paper is devoted to the crumpling of thin matter. The Edwards-like statistical mechanics of crumpling networks in a crushed self-avoiding sheet with finite bending rigidity is developed. The statistical distribution of crease lengths is derived. The relationship between sheet packing density and hydrostatic pressure is established. The entropic contribution to the crumpling network rigidity is outlined. The effects of plastic deformations and sheet self-contacts on crumpling mechanics are discussed. Theoretical predictions are in good agreement with available experimental data and results of numerical simulations. Thus, the findings of this work provide further insight into the physics of crumpling and mechanical properties of crumpled soft matter.

  3. Crustal structure of the Western Carpathians and Pannonian Basin: Seismic models from CELEBRATION 2000 data and geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Tomasz; Grad, Marek; Guterch, Aleksander; Vozár, Jozef; Bielik, Miroslav; Vozárova, Anna; Hegedűs, Endre; Kovács, Csaba Attila; Kovács, István; Keller, G. Randy; Celebration 2000 Working Group

    2011-08-01

    During the CELEBRATION 2000 seismic experiment, the Western Carpathians and Pannonian basin region was investigated by a dense system of deep seismic sounding profiles. In this paper, we present the results of modeling refracted and reflected waves employing 2D ray tracing for seven interlocking profiles that were jointly modeled and interpreted with the constraint that the models match at the crossing points of the profiles. The resulting P-wave velocity models reveal complex structures in the crust and large variations in the depth of the Moho discontinuity (˜25-45 km). In the southern part of the area, the relatively thin Pannonian basin crust consists of 3-7 km thick sediments and two crustal layers with velocities of 5.9-6.3 km/s in the upper crust and 6.3-6.6 km/s in the lower crust. In the central region, the upper crust of the ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) microplate contains a high velocity body of Vp ≥ 6.4 km/s, which spatially corresponds with the Bükk Composite Terrane. The total thickness of the ALCAPA crust is 1-2 km greater than in the adjacent Tisza-Dacia microplate. To the north in the area of the Trans-European suture zone (TESZ) and Carpathian foredeep, we observe a 10-20 km thick upper crust with low velocity ( Vp ≤ 6.0 km/s). Sub-Moho velocities have average values of 7.8-8.0 km/s for the Pannonian basin, while in the Western Carpathians, the TESZ and the East European Craton (EEC) area, they are slightly higher (8.0-8.1 km/s). Lower velocities beneath the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates could be caused by compositional variations and the significantly higher surface heat flow. Beneath some profiles, reflectors in the lithospheric mantle were found sub-parallel to the Moho but 10-20 km below it. Our integrated geophysical and geological analysis indicates that the observed structure was created by collision of two lithospheric plates with only a moderate degree of convergence. The northern plate consists of older European

  4. Effect of Bend Radius on Magnitude and Location of Erosion in S-Bend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quamrul H. Mazumder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particle erosion is a mechanical process that removes material by the impact of solid particles entrained in the flow. Erosion is a leading cause of failure of oil and gas pipelines and fittings in fluid handling industries. Different approaches have been used to control or minimize damage caused by erosion in particulated gas-solid or liquid-solid flows. S-bend geometry is widely used in different fluid handling equipment that may be susceptible to erosion damage. The results of a computational fluid dynamic (CFD simulation of diluted gas-solid and liquid-solid flows in an S-bend are presented in this paper. In addition to particle impact velocity, the bend radius may have significant influence on the magnitude and the location of erosion. CFD analysis was performed at three different air velocities (15.24 m/s–45.72 m/s and three different water velocities (0.1 m/s–10 m/s with entrained solid particles. The particle sizes used in the analysis range between 50 and 300 microns. Maximum erosion was observed in water with 10 m/s, 250-micron particle size, and a ratio of 3.5. The location of maximum erosion was observed in water with 10 m/s, 300-micron particle size, and a ratio of 3.5. Comparison of CFD results with available literature data showed reasonable and good agreement.

  5. Palinspastic reconstruction of the Alpine thrust belt at the Alpine-Carpathian transition - A geological Sudoku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidinger, A.; Decker, K.; Zamolyi, A.; Hölzel, M.; Hoprich, M.; Strauss, P.

    2009-04-01

    The palinspastic reconstruction of the Austroalpine thrust belt is part of the project Karpatian Tectonics, which is funded by OMV Austria. The objective is to reconstruct the evolution of the thrust belt through the Early to Middle Miocene in order to obtain information on the palaeogeographic position of the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) in the region of the present Vienna Basin. A particular goal of the study is to constrain the position of reservoir rocks within the Rhenodanubic Flysch units and the NCA with respect to the autochthonous Malmian source rocks overlying the European basement below the Alpine-Carpathian thrust wedge, and to constrain the burial history of these source rocks. Reconstruction uses regional 2D seismic lines crossing from the European foreland into the fold-thrust belt, 3D seismic data covering the external thrust sheets, and lithostratigraphic data from a total of 51 selected wells, which were drilled and provided by OMV Austria. The main criterion, whether a well was suitable for palinspastic reconstruction or not, was its penetration of Alpine thrust sheets down to the Autochthonous Molasse of the foreland. Additional wells, which do not penetrate the entire Alpine thrust complex but include the Allochthonous Molasse or the external Alpine-Carpathian nappes (Waschberg and Roseldorf thrust unit, Rhenodanubic Flysch nappes) in their well path, were also taken into account. The well data in particular comprise stratigraphic information on the youngest overthrust sediments of the different thrust units and the underlying Autochthonous foreland Molasse. These data allow constraining the timing of thrust events in the allochthonous thrust units and overthrusting of the Autochthonous Molasse. In the particular case of overthrust Autochthonous Molasse, additionally to the timing of overthrusting, which can be derived from the youngest overthrust sediments, the palaeogeographic position of the Alpine Carpathian thrust front could directly be

  6. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed waters...

  7. Kantorovich-Euler Lagrange-Galerkin's method for bending analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Euler-Lagrange differential equation is determined for this functional. The Galerkin method is then used to obtain the unknown function f(x). Bending moment curvature relations are used to find the bending moments and their extreme values. The results obtained agree remarkably well with literature. The effectiveness ...

  8. Turbulence characteristics in sharp open-channel bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanckaert, K.; De Vriend, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of its importance, little is known about the turbulence characteristics in open-channel bends. This paper reports on an experimental investigation of turbulence in one cross section of an open-channel bend. Typical flow features are a bicellular pattern of cross-stream circulation

  9. Anharmonic bend-stretch coupling in neat liquid water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, Joerg; Cringus, Dan; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Voehringer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Femtosecond mid-IR spectroscopy is used to study the vibrational relaxation dynamics in neat liquid water. By exciting the bending vibration and probing the stretching mode, it is possible to reliably determine the bending and librational lifetimes of water. The anharmonic coupling between the

  10. Gender differences in variability patterns of forward bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Morten; Madeleine, Pascal; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2016-01-01

    The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure.......The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure....

  11. Pacific plate motion change caused the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torsvik, Trond H.; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Gaina, Carmen; Spakman, Wim; Domeier, Mathew

    2017-01-01

    A conspicuous 60° bend of the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain in the north-western Pacific Ocean has variously been interpreted as the result of an abrupt Pacific plate motion change in the Eocene (∼47 Ma), a rapid southward drift of the Hawaiian hotspot before the formation of the bend, or a combination of

  12. Deposition of a fine powder in horizontal pipelines and bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuvekamp, RJ; Ray, MB; Hoffmann, AC

    The deposition of a very fine powder in a horizontal, lean-phase pneumatic conveying conduit containing a 90degrees bend has been studied experimentally. The total deposition and the deposition pattern were studied as a function of superficial gas velocity, solids loading and bend geometry: one

  13. Strength Tests on Paper Cylinder in Compression, Bending and Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard V; Lundquist, Eugene E

    1931-01-01

    Static tests on paper cylinders were conducted at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory at Langley Field, Virginia, to obtain qualitative information in connection with a study of the strength of stressed-skin fuselages. The effects of radius-thickness ratio and bulkhead spacing were investigated with the cylinders in compression, bending, combined bending and shear, and torsion.

  14. Rule bending by morally disengaged detectives : an ethnographic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Rule bending is a well-known practice in policing worldwide, often linked to 'noble cause corruption'. This ethnographic study shows how police detectives sometimes consider to creatively bend rules when rule abidance would lead to other values being jeopardized. This paper illustrates that the

  15. Disk-bend ductility tests for irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Braski, D.N.

    1984-01-01

    We modified the HEDL disk-bend test machine and are using it to qualitatively screen alloys that are susceptible to embrittlement caused by irradiation. Tests designed to understand the disk-bend test in relation to a uniaxial test are discussed. Selected results of tests of neutron-irradiated material are also presented

  16. Effect of Channel Bends on Transverse Mixing | Engmann | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Velocity and tracer concentration measurements made in a meandering channel are used to discuss the effect of bends on the transverse mixing of a conservative tracer introduced into the flow. It is shown that bend induced spiral motion greatly enhance the mixing potential of meandering channel flows; The magnitude of ...

  17. A rotary ultrasonic motor using bending vibration transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun

    2010-10-01

    A rotary ultrasonic motor using bending vibration transducers is proposed. In each transducer, two orthogonal bending vibrations are superimposed and an elliptical trajectory is generated at the driving foot. Typical output of the prototype is a no-load speed of 58 rpm and maximum torque of 9·5 Nm under an exciting voltage of 200 V(rms).

  18. Late Glacial climate and palaeoenvironment in the Southern Carpathian Mountains inferred by chironomid and pollen analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, M.; Heiri, O.; Magyari, E.; Braun, M.; Buczkó, K.; Bálint, M.; Jakab, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern Carpathian Mountains have several glacial lakes with their sediments extending back to the Late Glacial period (ca. 11,500-14,700 calibrated radiocarbon years BP). This area has so far missed quantitative palaeoclimate records that are however much needed in order to obtain a continental-scale picture of ecosystem reorganization in response to rapid climatic changes during the Late Glacial. High-resolution chironomid and pollen analyses can both provide such records. In this study these two methods are applied to the sediment sequence of a small sub-alpine lake, Taul dintre Brazi (Retezat Mts, 1740 m a.s.l., 0.5 ha). The lake is situated on base-poor, granite bedrock, within the Picea abies forest belt. Our aim was (1) to study changes in the chironomid fauna, (2) to obtain summer temperature estimates using a chironomid-mean July air temperature inference model, and finally (3) to compare the chironomid-inferred climate record with a pollen-based quantitative climate record (plant functional type method). Here we provide first results from this multi-proxy study. The Late Glacial and Early Holocene part of this core was analysed at 100-200 yr resolution. During the Oldest Dryas the chironomid fauna was dominated by Pseudodiamesa and Tanytarsini species; the start of the Lateglacial interstadial was marked by the diversification of Tanytarsini (Tanytarsus lugens-type, Tanytarsus pallidicornis-type, Paratanytarsus sp, Micropsectra insignilobus-type) and the disappearance of Pseudodiamesa suggesting a distinct increase in summer temperature. At the same time afforestation by Larix, Pinus cembra, Pinus mugo and Picea abies was signaled by the pollen, stomatal and plant macrofossil records. During the Younger Dryas reversal the chironomid fauna showed increasing abundance of Micropsectra insignilobus-type, a chironomid typical for cool, nutrient poor lakes whereas the pollen, plant macrofossil and stomatal records pointed to a decrease of Picea abies

  19. National minorities and the question of the autonomy in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Szilágyi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century is the age of globa-lisation. It is also the time of minorities, identities moving back towards nationality-consciousness, minority rights and autonomies. These factors have a significant influence on the multinational state structures in both the developed and semi-peripheral areas of the world. The transformation of the unitarian centralised states and territorial systems carried out by devolutional, decentralised and region-regulatory processes as well as the development of the local councils and self-governing systems representing territorial autonomies of different levels indicate general tendencies. In the life of national minorities living in the territories of multinational states the mother tongue is the primary representative of national identity and serves as an increasingly powerful factor in the lives of national mi-norities. On the basis of the National Censuses in 2011, the study analyses the possible frame-work, circumstances and the demographic factors in the Carpathian Basin.Keywords: National minorities, National identities, self-government, Autonomy models, Spain, Federalism, Catalonian experiences, Carpathian Basin, Seklerland, Hungarian minorities, Rumania._________________El siglo XXI es la edad de la globalización. Es también el tiempo de las minorías, las identidades de nuevo en movimiento hacia la conciencia nacional, los derechos de las minorías y las autonomías. Estos factores tienen una influencia significativa en las estructuras estatales multinacionales, tanto en las zonas desarrolladas como en las periferias del mundo. La transformación de los Estados centralizados unitarios y los sistemas territoriales, llevados a cabo por procesos evolutivos, descentralizados y de cada región reguladora, así como el desarrollo de los consejos locales y los sistemas autónomos que representan a las autonomías territoriales de diferentes niveles indican tendencias generales. En la vida de las minor

  20. Soils derived from Pieniny andesite, Wdżar hill, Outer Carpathians (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajdas, Bartlomiej; Zaleski, Tomasz; Mazurek, Ryszard

    2016-04-01

    of hydrothermal alteration, mainly the presence of clay minerals developed at the expense of primary plagioclases. In investigated soils it is possible to distinguish two generations of clay minerals. Coarse clays (R. 2012. Potassium-rich magmatism in the Western Outer Carpathians: Magmagenesis in the transitional zone between the European Plate and Carpathian-Pannonian region. Lithos, 146-147, 34-47.

  1. EVALUATION OF SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURE WITHIN THE CARPATHIANS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonel SUBIĆ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By transition process, which is presented in the Republic of Serbia for many years, rural areas are also covered in great extent. Changes in national agricultural policy, in terms of orientation towards rural development and multifunctional agriculture, have led to situation that process of development must involve all stakeholders, from governmental institutions, via local community, to population of rural areas. Such approach to rural development could initiate easier integration into international institutions and European Union, as well as to strengthening of cross-border cooperation within the mentioned area of economy. The most part of the Carpathians in the Republic of Serbia is taken by the national park „Đerdap“ and its protected zone. Within the mentioned protected area, sustainable use of agricultural land is based on traditional system of mountain agriculture that provides a high degree of ecological rationality and represents a very good foundation for development of integral and organic production.Opening toward the international community and peculiarly clear commitment of Serbia to European integrations,requires a new definition of role and importance of agricultural sector. Therefore, it is estimated that now is the perfect time for establishment of concrete conceptual framework and Strategy that will answer to key questions within the agro-food sector. In this context, authors’ intention (they are also the members of the research team of IAE Belgrade which is the holder of the project III 46006 - Sustainable agriculture and rural development in function of Republic of Serbia strategic goals achievement within the Danube region is to evaluate a social sustainability of agriculture in the area of the Carpathians in Serbia. Because of that, research is focused to administrative area of next municipalities: Golubac, Kučevo, Majdanpek, Kladovo and Negotin. Considering microeconomic character of research, it was used the

  2. A bend thickness sensitivity study of Candu feeder piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Aggarwal, M.L.; Meysner, A.; Micelotta, C.

    2005-01-01

    In CANDU reactors, feeder bends close to the connection at the fuel channel may be subjected to the highest Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) and stresses. Feeder pipe stress analysis is crucial in the life extension of aging CANDU plants. Typical feeder pipes are interconnected by upper link plates and spacers. It is well known that the stresses at the bends are sensitive to the local bend thicknesses. It is also known from the authors' study (Li and et al, 2005) that feeder inter linkage effect is significant and cannot be ignored. The field measurement of feeder bend thickness is difficult and may be subjected to uncertainty in accuracy. Hence, it is desirable to know how the stress on a subject feeder could be affected by the bend thickness variation of the neighboring feeders. This effect cannot be evaluated by the traditional 'single' feeder model approach. In this paper, the 'row' and 'combined' models developed in the previous study (Li and et al, 2005), which include the feeder interactions, are used to investigate the sensitivity of bend thickness. A series of random thickness bounded by maximum and minimum measured values were applied to feeders in the model. The results show that an individual feeder is not sensitive to the bend thickness variation of the remaining feeders in the model, but depends primarily on its own bend thickness. The highest stress at a feeder always occurs when the feeder has the smallest possible bend thickness. A minimum acceptable bend thickness for individual feeders can be computed by an iterative computing process. The dependency of field thickness measurement and the amount of required analysis work can be greatly reduced. (authors)

  3. Lithospheric bending and faulting: Application to trenches and mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supak, S. K.; Supak, S. K.; Buck, W. R.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.

    2001-12-01

    Some aspects of faulting at fast spreading ridges, such as the East Pacific Rise (EPR), are not consistent with the normal faulting traditionally attributed to lithosphere stretching (Buck 2001). After Roger Buck's analytic model predicted faulting from bending at fast spreading ridges and Del Bohnenstiehl's analysis of displacement- length (D to L) ratios showed that fast spreading ridges have substantially smaller D to L than slow spreading ridges (Bohnenstiehl & Kleinrock 2000), lithospheric unbending became a possible explanation for this inconsistency. The mechanics of lithospheric bending have been examined for many years, but analysis has yet to be done on the relationship between bending and the strain required for faulting. Strain is a measure of material deformation, such as compression when an object is squeezed, or elongation when an object is stretched. When a plate such as lithosphere is bent, the concave side is put in compression while the convex side must be put in tension. If the faults occur as a result of bending, it is important to know what strain is large enough to produce the observed fault offsets. The ability to independently estimate strain, without using the fault itself, could be very helpful in understanding fault generation. There are two reasons for trying to understand the generation of faults. First, there is curiosity to explain observed geologic structures. Second, there is the possibility that insight gained in the mechanics of fault generation may help us better understand the earthquake cycle. Due to the controversial nature of bending of lithosphere at fast spreading ridges, it was important to concentrate on an area where bending is widely accepted. Oceanic subduction zones offered the perfect environment in which to evaluate strain at the onset of faulting. The Aleutian Trench was chosen as our first place of interest because the side scan sonar data was readily available from the GLORIA survey of America's Exclusive

  4. 75 FR 71666 - Bend/Ft. Rock Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Deschutes County, OR; West Bend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ...; Deschutes County, OR; West Bend Vegetation Management Project EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... INFORMATION: Background. Forested vegetation within the West Bend project area is outside of the Historic... they have the potential to remove important habitat structure, particularly large trees that are...

  5. Bending fluidic actuator for smart structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Ming Chang, Benjamin; Berring, John; Venkataram, Manu; Menon, Carlo; Parameswaran, M.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel silicone-based, millimeter-scale, bending fluidic actuator (BFA). Its unique parallel micro-channel design enables, for the first time, operation at low working pressure while at the same time having a very limited thickness expansion during pressurization. It also enables the actuator to have the highest ratios of angular displacement over length and torque over volume among previously proposed BFAs. In this work, this parallel micro-channel design is implemented by embedding the BFA with an innovative single winding conduit, which yields a simple, single-component configuration suitable for low-cost production and reliable performance. The BFA design can be easily scaled down to smaller dimensions and can be adapted to applications in restricted space, particularly minimally invasive surgery. In this work, the actuator is manufactured in TC-silicone through poly(methyl methacrylate) molds obtained by using laser cutting technology. Repeated angular displacement measurements on multiple prototypes having different stiffness are carried out. The experimental results are compared with an analytical model, which accurately predicts the performance of the device.

  6. Effects of tanalith-e impregnation substance on bending strengths and modulus of elasticity in bending of some wood types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Keskin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of impregnation with Tanalith-E on the bending strengths and modulus of elasticity in bending of some wood types. The test samples prepared from beech, oak, walnut, poplar, ash and pine wood materials - that are of common use in the forest products industry of TURKEY - according to TS 345, were treated with according to ASTM D 1413-76 substantially. Un-impregnated samples according to impregnated wood materials, the bending strengths in beech to 6.83%, 5.12% in ash, 5.93% in pine, the elasticity module values to 7.15% in oak and ash, at a rate of 6.58% in the higher were found. The highest values of bending strengths and modulus of elasticity in bending were obtained in beech and ash woods impregnated with Tanalith-E, whereas the lowest values were obtained in the poplar wood.

  7. Genetic effects of air pollution on forest tree species of the Carpathian Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longauer, Roman; Goemoery, Dusan; Paule, Ladislav; Blada, Ioan; Popescu, Flaviu; Mankovska, Blanka; Mueller-Starck, Gerhard; Schubert, Roland; Percy, Kevin; Szaro, Robert C.; Karnosky, David F.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of air pollution on the genetic structure of Norway spruce, European silver fir and European beech were studied at four polluted sites in Slovakia, Romania and Czech Republic. In order to reduce potential effects of site heterogeneity on the health condition, pair-wise sampling of pollution-tolerant and sensitive trees was applied. Genotypes of sampled trees were determined at 21 isozyme gene loci of spruce, 18 loci of fir and 15 loci of beech. In comparison with Norway spruce, fewer genetic differences were revealed in beech and almost no differentiation between pollution-tolerant and sensitive trees was observed in fir. In adult stands of Norway spruce, sensitive trees exhibited higher genetic multiplicity and diversity. The decline of pollution-sensitive trees may result thus in a gradual genetic depletion of pollution-exposed populations of Norway spruce through the loss of less frequent alleles with potential adaptive significance to altered stressing regimes in the future. Comparison of the subsets of sensitive and tolerant Norway spruce individuals as determined by presence or absence of discolorations (''spruce yellowing'') revealed different heterozygosity at 3 out of 11 polymorphic loci. - Genetic effects of air pollution on main forest trees of the Carpathians are species- and site-specific

  8. Semiautomatic construction of isobase surfaces: A case study from the central Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlička, Karel; Sládek, Ján; Šilhavý, Jakub

    2015-05-01

    This article describes a method for semiautomated construction of isobase surfaces in the environment of a Geomorphological Information System (GmIS). The motivation to automate the process is that the manual construction of isobase surfaces involves several decision procedures, and also a lot of manual vectorization which can be time-consuming if the area of interest is large. A (semi-)automated process of isobase surface construction could accelerate the process of morphostructural analysis. Therefore, the contribution focuses on design, development and testing of such a method. The developed tools were compared to an expert driven construction of isobase surfaces. The automatically constructed data layers were compared to the layers that were constructed manually in the southwest part of the study area (Turčianska kotlina basin (Western Carpathians) and surrounding area in Slovakia). Three different statistical methods were used (correlation, linear regression and DTM volume difference checking). All three methods proved very high similarity of automatically created isobase surfaces to expert driven isobase surfaces creation. The results show that the method of semiautomated creation can be used in morphostructure analysis and save the time needed for manual isobase surface creation. The method's technological background is based on the ESRI platform. The original desktop solution has been developed for use on a client/server architecture that is able to present the capabilities of GmIS to a wider geomorphological audience.

  9. Radiocarbon dating of Sphagnum cellulose from Mohos peat bog, East Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubay, Katalin; Braun, Mihály; Harangi, Sándor; Palcsu, László; Túri, Marianna; Rinyu, László; Molnár, Mihály

    2015-04-01

    This work focuses on building a high-resolution age-depth model for quantitative paleoclimate study from the Mohos peat bog, East Carpathians. Peats are important archives for Quaternary science, because they preserve environmental changes. To study the chronology of peat profiles the key is in the precise coring and reliable dating. However, many studies dealing with coring and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits they often shown problems with the proper methods and material. With our novel coring technique we reached undisturbed and uncompressed peat cores from the Mohos bog. A 10 meter deep peat profile was drilled in 2012 using a modified technique of a piston corer. The core presents a continuous peat profile from the last 11.500 cal. yr BP. The chronology was based on AMS radiocarbon analyses of the separated Sphagnum samples from different depths of the profile. The peat samples were wet sieved (40-280 μm) to avoid contamination by rootlets. Dry Sphagnum samples for AMS dating were prepared using the classical acid-base-acid (ABA) method completed with an oxidative bleaching step to get clean cellulose. Sphagnum cellulose samples were converted to CO2 and later graphite and measured by EnvironMICADAS accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in Hertelendi Laboratory (Debrecen, Hungary). Fine peat accumulation rate changes (sections with lowest accumulation values) were observed along the profile. Based on the chronology in further studies we want to focus special intervals to investigate environmental changes in the Holocene. Key words: peat, radiocarbon, cellulose

  10. FEATURES OF INVESTMENT TO THE AGRARIAN SECTOR OF THE CARPATHIAN MACROREGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras Sus

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the modern strategy of agrarian sphere development in the Carpathian macro region. It was noted that the orientation of investments to increase the production of grain and oilseeds, the creation of a transport infrastructure for the export of low value added products will not create priorities for investing in environmentally friendly agricultural production and production of products with high added value, in particular in the processing and food industry. In modern conditions, the main task of local authorities in terms of increasing the competitive advantages of agricultural production is to use the land more effectively, the unique opportunities of the macro-region and provide the population with a sufficient quantity of high-quality food products, and the industrial sector-raw materials. The factors that determine the investment attractiveness of the agrarian sphere are considered. For many years, investment priorities have been given to crop production, in particular the cultivation of highly profitable crops: canola, sunflower, cereals and soya. The analysis of attraction of direct foreign investments into the agrarian sphere of the macro-region. The main problems, which hinder large-scale attraction of investments in agrarian sphere of macro-region and need to be solved, are outlined. Key words: investment, agrarian sphere, investment priorities, strategy, ecological production.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF LANDSCAPE AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS IN THE CARPATHIANS ON THE FORMATION OF LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Pavliuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current stage of development of our country globalization and integration processes are becoming more powerful. In these circumstances, the problem of preserving Ukrainian national identity becomes urgent. The article deals with conditions of the linguistic identity as the bearer of the Ukrainian national cultural space. Based on the analysis of current researches of individual language learning the author concludes that linguistic identity is a social phenomenon. The development and establishment of the linguistic personality arises in the process of education, training, communication, i.e. in different activities depending on the nature of the social environment in general and speech environment in particular. However, some scientific research allow to affirm the need to incorporate formative influence of the nature on the linguistic identity. The focus of the article is Carpathian region as an environment in which ethnic culture and language were almost no external influences. An important conclusion from this research is that learning the problem of linguistic identity should take into account forming impact of the environment - both natural and linguistic.

  12. Influence of selected factors on bark beetle outbreak dynamics in the Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakula Jozef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 1992 to 2013, more than 3.8 million m3 of spruce wood from an area of 55 thousand ha of forests in the Kysuce region (Western Carpathians was affected by bark beetles. This region has had the highest volume of salvage fellings in Slovakia. While before 1991, bark-beetle outbreak usually occurred after snow and wind disturbances, since 1992 they have occurred in the years with extremely warm and dry growing seasons and the years following them. These years were also characterised by high volumes of wood affected by honey fungus (Armillaria spp., which only rarely took part in the calamities before 1992. Extreme deterioration of the situation occurred after 2003. In fragmented and sparse stands, the volume of wood damaged by wind increased. Artificial origin of spruce stands, their high occurrence, high age and even-agedness are likely pre-disposing factors of spruce forest decline. Bark beetles have become the most important factor of spruce decline. The most important factors driving the bark beetle attack on forest stands in the period 1973–2013 were the amount of unprocessed wood in the previous year; the amount of wood affected by honey fungus, precipitation total, and average temperature in the current growing season. Another important factor that complicated the situation was also the inferior quality of forest management.

  13. Sharing common pool resources at the border of protected areas in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-IRINA DINCA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The common pool resources are a very actual topic a pproached by both scientists and practitioners preoccupied nowadays of gradually incr easing environmental problems. Protected areas in Romania and especially in Romanian Carpath ians of national and natural park type (IUCN II and V represent areas of particular interes t in the light of the common pool resources theory imposing conservation laws on areas meeting a n increased pressure from human communities around them. The important socio-econom ic and ownership changes that Romania met in the last decades changed its previous state unique ownership into a multiple stakeholder ownership. At the same time vulnerable human communi ties located in fragile mountain areas and depending to a high extent on natural resources met an increased stress when exploiting natural resources at the border of protected areas. Consequently sharing the common pool of resources in the buffer zone of protected areas in the Romanian Carpathians represents a very actual and important topic to be treated in the pre sent study.

  14. Wild plants used for food by Hungarian ethnic groups living in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Dénes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A list of plant species used for food in Hungary and among Hungarian ethnic groups of the Carpathian Basin during the 19th and 20th centuries was compiled from 71 ethnographic and ethnobotanical sources and a survey among contemporary Hungarian botanists. Species used as food, spice, beverage or occasional snacks were collected. Sources mention 236 plant species belonging to 68 families. Most wild fleshy fruits (mostly Rosa, Rubus, Cornus, Ribes, Vaccinium spp., dry fruits and seeds (Fagus, Quercus, Corylus, Castanea, Trapa spp., several green vegetables (e.g. Rumex, Urtica, Humulus, Chenopodiaceae spp., Ranunculus ficaria, bulbs and tubers (Lathyrus tuberosus, Helianthus tuberosus, Chaerophyllum bulbosum, Allium spp. used for food in Europe, are also known to be consumed in Hungary. A characteristic feature of Hungarian plant use was the mass consumption of the underground parts of several marsh (e.g. Typha, Phragmites, Sagittaria, Alisma, Butomus, Bolboschoenus spp., as well as the endemic Armoracia macrocarpa and steppe species (e.g. Crambe tataria, Rumex pseudonatronatus. Consuming wild food plants is still important among Hungarians living in Transylvania: even nowadays more than 40 species are gathered and used at some locations.

  15. Behavior of sandwich panels subjected to bending fatigue, axial compression loading and in-plane bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Haley Aaron

    This thesis investigates experimentally and analytically the structural performance of sandwich panels composed of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) skins and a soft polyurethane foam core, with or without thin GFRP ribs connecting skins. The study includes three main components: (a) out-of-plane bending fatigue, (b) axial compression loading, and (c) in-plane bending of sandwich beams. Fatigue studies included 28 specimens and looked into establishing service life (S-N) curves of sandwich panels without ribs, governed by soft core shear failure and also ribbed panels governed by failure at the rib-skin junction. Additionally, the study compared fatigue life curves of sandwich panels loaded under fully reversed bending conditions (R=-1) with panels cyclically loaded in one direction only (R=0) and established the stiffness degradation characteristics throughout their fatigue life. Mathematical models expressing fatigue life and stiffness degradation curves were calibrated and expanded forms for various loading ratios were developed. Approximate fatigue thresholds of 37% and 23% were determined for non-ribbed panels loaded at R=0 and -1, respectively. Digital imaging techniques showed significant shear contribution significantly (90%) to deflections if no ribs used. Axial loading work included 51 specimens and examined the behavior of panels of various lengths (slenderness ratios), skin thicknesses, and also panels of similar length with various rib configurations. Observed failure modes governing were global buckling, skin wrinkling or skin crushing. In-plane bending involved testing 18 sandwich beams of various shear span-to-depth ratios and skin thicknesses, which failed by skin wrinkling at the compression side. The analytical modeling components of axially loaded panels include; a simple design-oriented analytical failure model and a robust non-linear model capable of predicting the full load-displacement response of axially loaded slender sandwich panels

  16. Creep relaxation of fuel pin bending and ovalling stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, D.P.; Jackson, R.J.

    1979-06-01

    Analytical methods for calculating fuel pin cladding bending and ovalling stresses due to pin bundle-duct mechanical interaction taking into account nonlinear creep are presented. Calculated results are in close agreement with finite element results by MARC-CDC program. The methods are used to investigate the effect of creep on the FTR fuel cladding bending and ovalling stresses. It is concluded that the cladding of 316 SS 20% CW and reference design has high creep rates in the FTR core region to keep the bending and ovalling stresses to low levels

  17. Investigation of ion induced bending mechanism for nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Nitul S.; Tong, Zhen; Luo, Xichun

    2015-01-01

    Ion induced bending is a promising controlled technique for manipulating nanoscale structures. However, the underlying mechanism of the process is not well understood. In this letter, we report a detailed study of the bending mechanism of Si nanowires (NWs) under Ga+ irradiation. The microstructural changes in the NW due to ion beam irradiation are studied and molecular dynamics simulations are used to explore the ion-NW interaction processes. The simulation results are compared with the microstructural studies of the NW. The investigations inform a generic understanding of the bending process in crystalline materials, which we suggest to be feasible as a versatile manipulation and integration technique in nanotechnology.

  18. Advantages of customer/supplier involvement in the upgrade of River Bend`s IST program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Womack, R.L.; Addison, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    At River Bend Station, IST testing had problems. Operations could not perform the test with the required repeatability; engineering could not reliably trend test data to detect degradation; licensing was heavily burdened with regulatory concerns; and maintenance could not do preventative maintenance because of poor prediction of system health status. Using Energy`s Total Quality principles, it was determined that the causes were: lack of ownership, inadequate test equipment usage, lack of adequate procedures, and lack of program maintenance. After identifying the customers and suppliers of the IST program data, Energy management put together an upgrade team to address these concerns. These customers and suppliers made up the IST upgrade team. The team`s mission was to supply River Bend with a reliable, functional, industry correct and user friendly IST program. The IST program in place went through a verification process that identified and corrected over 400 individual program discrepancies. Over 200 components were identified for improved testing methods. An IST basis document was developed. The operations department was trained on ASME Section XI testing. All IST tests have been simplified and shortened, due to heavy involvement by operations in the procedure development process. This significantly reduced testing time, resulting in lower cost, less dose and greater system availability.

  19. Flow Patterns and Morphological Changes in a Sandy Meander Bend during a Flood—Spatially and Temporally Intensive ADCP Measurement Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Kasvi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The fluvio-geomorphological processes in meander bends are spatially uneven in distribution. Typically, higher velocities and erosion take place near the outer bank beyond the bend apex, while the inner bend point bar grows laterally towards the outer bank, increasing the bend amplitude. These dynamics maintain the meander evolution. Even though this development is found in meandering rivers independent of soil or environmental characteristics, each river still seems to behave unpredictably. The special mechanisms that determine the rate and occasion of morphological changes remain unclear. The aim of this study is to offer new insights regarding flow-induced morphological changes in meander using a novel study approach. We focused on short-term and small-spatial-scale changes by conducting a spatially and temporally (daily intensive survey during a flood (a period of nine days with an ADCP attached to a remotely controlled mini-boat. Based on our analysis, the flood duration and the rate of discharge increase and decrease seems to play key roles in determining channel changes by controlling the flow velocities and depth and the backwater effect may have notable influence on the morphological processes. We discuss themes such as the interaction of inner and outer bend processes and the longer-term development of meander bends.

  20. Monitoring Composites under Bending Tests with Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carosena Meola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The attention of the present paper is focused on the use of an infrared imaging device to monitor the thermal response of composite materials under cyclic bending. Three types of composites are considered including an epoxy matrix reinforced with either carbon fibres (CFRP or glass fibres (GFRP and a hybrid composite involving glass fibres and aluminium layers (FRML. The specimen surface, under bending, displays temperature variations pursuing the load variations with cooling down under tension and warming up under compression; such temperature variations are in agreement with the bending moment. It has been observed that the amplitude of temperature variations over the specimen surface depends on the material characteristics. In particular, the presence of a defect inside the material affects the temperature distribution with deviation from the usual bending moment trend.

  1. An analytical study on the bending of prismatic SMA beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Arghavani, Jamal; Poorasadion, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an analytical solution is presented for pure bending of shape memory alloy (SMA) beams with symmetric cross section as well as symmetric behavior in tension and compression. To this end, a three-dimensional constitutive equation is reduced to one-dimensional form and employed to study the bending response of SMA beams at high (pseudo-elasticity) and low (shape memory effect) temperatures. An analytical expression for bending stress as well as polynomial approximation for shear stress and deflection are obtained. Derived equations for bending are employed to analyze an SMA beam with rectangular cross section and results are compared with those of the finite element method. The results of this work show good agreement when compared with experimental data and finite element results. Furthermore, the existence of several zero-stress fibers during unloading of SMA beams at low temperature is demonstrated. (paper)

  2. Effect of centrifugal transverse wakefield for microbunch in bend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, G.V.

    1999-01-01

    We calculate centrifugal force for a short bunch in vacuum moving in a circular orbit and estimate the emittance growth of the beam in a bend due to this force. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  3. Computational Strategies for the Architectural Design of Bending Active Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Active bending introduces a new level of integration into the design of architectural structures, and opens up new complexities for the architectural design process. In particular, the introduction of material variation reconfigures the design space. Through the precise specification...... of their stiffness, it is possible to control and pre-calibrate the bending behaviour of a composite element. This material capacity challenges architecture’s existing methods for design, specification and prediction. In this paper, we demonstrate how architects might connect the designed nature of composites...... with the design of bending-active structures, through computational strategies. We report three built structures that develop architecturally oriented design methods for bending-active systems using composite materials. These projects demonstrate the application and limits of the introduction of advanced...

  4. Magnetically Assisted Bilayer Composites for Soft Bending Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung-Hwan; Na, Seon-Hong; Park, Yong-Lae

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically distributed them by applying a strong non-uniform magnetic field to one side of the mold during the curing process. The biased magnetic field induces sedimentation of the ferromagnetic particles toward one side of the structure. The nonhomogeneous distribution of the particles induces bending of the structure when inflated, as a result of asymmetric stiffness of the composite. The bilayer composites were then characterized with a scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The bending performance and the axial expansion of the actuator were discussed for manipulation applications in soft robotics and bioengineering. The magnetically assisted manufacturing process for the soft bending actuator is a promising technique for various applications in soft robotics. PMID:28773007

  5. Magnetically Assisted Bilayer Composites for Soft Bending Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hwan Jang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically distributed them by applying a strong non-uniform magnetic field to one side of the mold during the curing process. The biased magnetic field induces sedimentation of the ferromagnetic particles toward one side of the structure. The nonhomogeneous distribution of the particles induces bending of the structure when inflated, as a result of asymmetric stiffness of the composite. The bilayer composites were then characterized with a scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The bending performance and the axial expansion of the actuator were discussed for manipulation applications in soft robotics and bioengineering. The magnetically assisted manufacturing process for the soft bending actuator is a promising technique for various applications in soft robotics.

  6. Low Cycle Fatigue of Steel in Strain Controled Cyclic Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesa Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of the fatigue life curves based on test of 15Mo3 steel under cyclic, pendulum bending and tension-compression. These studies were analyzed in terms of a large and small number of cycles where strain amplitude is dependent on the fatigue life. It has been shown that commonly used Manson-Coffin-Basquin model cannot be used for tests under cyclic bending due to the impossibility of separating elastic and plastic strains. For this purpose, some well-known models of Langer and Kandil and one new model of authors, where strain amplitude is dependent on the number of cycles, were proposed. Comparing the results of bending with tension-compression it was shown that for smaller strain amplitudes the fatigue life for both test methods were similar, for higher strain amplitudes fatigue life for bending tests was greater than for tension-compression.

  7. Computational Strategies for the Architectural Design of Bending Active Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    with the design of bending-active structures, through computational strategies. We report three built structures that develop architecturally oriented design methods for bending-active systems using composite materials. These projects demonstrate the application and limits of the introduction of advanced......Active bending introduces a new level of integration into the design of architectural structures, and opens up new complexities for the architectural design process. In particular, the introduction of material variation reconfigures the design space. Through the precise specification...... of their stiffness, it is possible to control and pre-calibrate the bending behaviour of a composite element. This material capacity challenges architecture’s existing methods for design, specification and prediction. In this paper, we demonstrate how architects might connect the designed nature of composites...

  8. Chikungunya means 'that which bends up', and describes the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHIK virus was first isolated from patients during an epidemic in Tanzania in 1952-53. Chikungunya means 'that which bends up', and describes the symptoms caused by the severe joint pains.

  9. The relationship between torsional rigidity and bending strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    torsional buckling resistance of bending members and when members are subjected to torsional loads. This study was based on a series of laboratory experiments on actual sized timber with the focus and emphasis on mechanical properties and ...

  10. When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe April 2012 Print this issue When Blood Cells Bend Understanding Sickle Cell Disease Send us your ... Diabetes? Sound Health Wise Choices Living with Sickle Cell Disease See a sickle cell disease expert regularly. ...

  11. Localized bending fatigue behavior of high-strength steel monostrands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement of the st...... displacement (opening/closing and sliding) of the helically wound wires. Moreover, the results are a step towards understanding the bending fatigue damage mechanisms of monostrand cables....

  12. Theory of bending waves with applications to disk galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1982-01-01

    A theory of bending waves is surveyed which provides an explanation for the required amplification of the warp in the Milky Way. It also provides for self-generated warps in isolated external galaxies. The shape of observed warps and partly their existence in isolated galaxies are indicative of substantial spheroidal components. The theory also provides a plausible explanation for the bending of the inner disk (<2 kpc) of the Milky Way.

  13. Calibration of combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kececioglu, D.; Mcconnell, J. B.

    1969-01-01

    The combined bending-torsion fatigue reliability research machines are described. Three such machines are presently in operation. The calibration of these machines is presented in depth. Fatigue data generated with these machines for SAE 4340 steel grooved specimens subjected to reversed bending and steady torque loading are given. The data reduction procedure is presented. Finally, some comments are made about notch sensitivity and stress concentration as applied to combined fatigue.

  14. Analysis of heat wave occurrences in the Carpathian basin using regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartha, E. B.; Pongracz, R.; Bartholy, J.

    2012-04-01

    Human health is very likely affected by regional consequences of global warming. One of the most severe impacts is probably associated to temperature-related climatological extremes, such as heat waves. In the coming decades hot conditions in most regions of the world are very likely to occur more frequently and more intensely than in the recent decades. In order to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies on local scale, it is essential to analyze the projected changes related to warming climatic conditions including heat waves. In 2004, a Heat Health Watch Warning System was developed in Hungary on the basis of a retrospective analysis of mortality and meteorological data to anticipate heat waves that may result in a large excess of mortality. In the frame of this recently introduced Health Watch System, three levels of heat wave warning are applied. They are associated to the daily mean temperature values, and defined as follows: - Warning level 1 (advisory for internal use) is issued when the daily mean temperature exceeds 25 °C. - Warning level 2 (heat wave watch) is issued when the daily mean temperature for at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 25 °C. - Warning level 3 (heat wave alert) is issued when the daily mean temperature for at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 27 °C. In the present study, frequency of the above climatic conditions are analyzed using regional climate model (RCM) experiments are analyzed for the recent past and the coming decades (1961-2100) for the Carpathian basin. At the Dept. of Meteorology, Eotvos Lorand University two different RCMs have been adapted: RegCM (with 10 km horizontal resolution, originally developed by Giorgi et al., currently, available from the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, ICTP) and PRECIS (with 25 km horizontal resolution, developed at the UK Met Office, Hadley Centre). Their initial and lateral boundary conditions have been provided by global climate models ECHAM and HadCM3, respectively. For

  15. A cylindrical standing wave ultrasonic motor using bending vibration transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun

    2011-07-01

    A cylindrical standing wave ultrasonic motor using bending vibration transducer was proposed in this paper. The proposed stator contains a cylinder and a bending vibration transducer. The two combining sites between the cylinder and the transducer locate at the adjacent wave loops of bending vibration of the transducer and have a distance that equal to the half wave length of bending standing wave excited in the cylinder. Thus, the bending mode of the cylinder can be excited by the bending vibration of the transducer. Two circular cone type rotors are pressed in contact to the end rims of the teeth, and the preload between the rotors and stator is accomplished by a spring and nut system. The working principle of the proposed motor was analyzed. The motion trajectories of teeth were deduced. The stator was designed and analyzed with FEM. A prototype motor was fabricated and measured. Typical output of the prototype is no-load speed of 165rpm and maximum torque of 0.45Nm at an exciting voltage of 200V(rms). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Origin of natural gases in the Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Maciej

    2012-08-01

    Hydrocarbon gases from Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous reservoirs in the Paleozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep were generated mainly during low-temperature thermogenic processes ("oil window"). They contain only insignificant amounts of microbial methane and ethane. These gaseous hydrocarbons were generated from Lower Carboniferous and/or Middle Jurassic mixed Type III/II kerogen and from Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen, respectively. Methane, ethane and carbon dioxide of natural gas from the Middle Devonian reservoir contain a significant microbial component whereas their small thermogenic component is most probably genetically related to Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen. The gaseous hydrocarbons from the Upper Jurassic and the Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Mesozoic basement were generated both by microbial carbon dioxide reduction and thermogenic processes. The presence of microbial methane generated by carbon dioxide reduction suggests that in some deposits the traps had already been formed and sealed during the migration of microbial methane, presumably in the immature source rock environment. The traps were successively supplied with thermogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons generated at successively higher maturation stages of kerogen. The higher hydrocarbons of the majority of deposits were generated from mixed Type III/II kerogen deposited in the Middle Jurassic, Lower Carboniferous and/or Devonian strata. Type II or mixed Type II/III kerogen could be the source for hydrocarbons in both the Tarnów and Brzezówka deposits. In the Cenomanian sandstone reservoir of the Brzezowiec deposit and one Upper Jurassic carbonate block of the Lubaczów deposit microbial methane prevails. It migrated from the autochthonous Miocene strata.

  17. A WRB based harmonized digital soil map of the Carpathian-basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Endre; Vadnai, Péter; Pásztor, László; Micheli, Erika; Kovács, Károly; Bertóti, Diána

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing need for harmonized, cross-border soil datasets for several applications. The internationally accepted common nomenclature for soil classification is the WRB. Therefore the most typical way to derive international soil datasets is to translate the national systems into WRB. However, this approach necessarily neglects important details, such as none recorded or generalized soil information of the input soil datasets, so the output WRB class is just an expert knowledge based assumption. The geometry of the input datasets are often directly imported, taken as it is in the national datasets, regardless of the differences of the class definitions between the two systems. So the border lines are necessarily different from the ones the translated maps should use. Due to these potential problems, no accurate harmonized maps can be compiled using the traditional approaches. An alternative approach is to use derived property information required for the classification process and build a digital soil mapping based approach and a quantitative classification methodology to spatially define the different soil classes. Of course these methods require unbiased covariates like, DEM and satellite data, and several harmonized input calibration datasets. The e-SOTER project developed a novel approach to develop and present categorical information this way, using digital soil mapping tools, digital elevation modeling and remote sensing - mainly MODIS - tools together with a harmonized training-calibration dataset of soil properties. This slightly modified procedure was used to develop a soil database to support the Danube-region data development initiative. The resulting dataset covers the Carpathian-basin and has several layers of occurrence probabilities of WRB diagnostic horizons/features/properties and an additional layer of the reference soil group (RSG) of the WRB system. This paper describes this novel approach for the development of digital soil datasets

  18. Assessment of projected climate change in the Carpathian Region using the Holdridge life zone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelepcsényi, Zoltán; Breuer, Hajnalka; Kis, Anna; Pongrácz, Rita; Sümegi, Pál

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, expected changes in the spatial and altitudinal distribution patterns of Holdridge life zone (HLZ) types are analysed to assess the possible ecological impacts of future climate change for the Carpathian Region, by using 11 bias-corrected regional climate model simulations of temperature and precipitation. The distribution patterns of HLZ types are characterized by the relative extent, the mean centre and the altitudinal range. According to the applied projections, the following conclusions can be drawn: (a) the altitudinal ranges are likely to expand in the future, (b) the lower and upper altitudinal limits as well as the altitudinal midpoints may move to higher altitudes, (c) a northward shift is expected for most HLZ types and (d) the magnitudes of these shifts can even be multiples of those observed in the last century. Related to the northward shifts, the HLZ types warm temperate thorn steppe and subtropical dry forest can also appear in the southern segment of the target area. However, a large uncertainty in the estimated changes of precipitation patterns was indicated by the following: (a) the expected change in the coverage of the HLZ type cool temperate steppe is extremely uncertain because there is no consensus among the projections even in terms of the sign of the change (high inter-model variability) and (b) a significant trend in the westward/eastward shift is simulated just for some HLZ types (high temporal variability). Finally, it is important to emphasize that the uncertainty of our results is further enhanced by the fact that some important aspects (e.g. seasonality of climate variables, direct CO2 effect, etc.) cannot be considered in the estimating process.

  19. Genetic diversity of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] in Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Gheorghe Radu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of Romanian most important coniferous tree species, the Norway spruce, was estimated by means of allozyme markers. A total of 695 adult trees sampled from eleven populations grouped in six mountainous areas in the Romanian Carpathians were analyzed. In three metapopulations (Maramureş, Postăvar and Parâng, to evaluate the influence of altitudinal gradient on genetic diversity, samples were collected from populations located at high and low altitude. At other location (ApuseniMountains we compared the narrow-crown biotype (Picea abies var. columnaris and the pyramidal crown biotype (Picea abies var. pyramidalis and explored the genetic structure of peat bog ecotype. By analyzing 7 enzyme systems and 12 enzyme coding loci, a total of 38 allelic variants have been detected. The mean value of polymorphic loci for the six sites was 86.1%, ranging between 83.3% and 91.7% and the mean expected heterozygosity was 0.115, resulting in a moderate level of genetic diversity. The highest genetic diversity (He = 0.134 was found in the narrow-crown spruce population. Apuseni metapopulation showed the highest genetic diversity (He = 0.125, being the most valuable for conservation of genetic resources. The small value of fixation index (FST = 0.009 indicates a low genetic differentiation between the six sites and AMOVA test revealed a very high level of genetic diversity within population (99%. Comparative analysis of genetic parameters showed small differences between high and low altitude populations at each site, probably due to the neutral character of the markers analyzed and the effect of gene flow between gradiental populations.

  20. The response of chironomid assemblages to mineral richness gradient in the Western Carpathian helocrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Syrovátka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid assemblages of helocrene springs were investigated in the Western Carpathians in order to identify potential effect of water mineral richness on the taxonomic structure of the assemblages. A complex gradient considering water chemistry and substratum was used as a measure of basicity (mineral richness. Taxonomic structure, total abundance and abundance of most frequent taxa were related to this gradient with regards to two contrasting habitats: trickle (A and water-loged soil with standing water (B. The variance in chironomid assemblage attributable to basicity was estimated and tested via PERMANOVA as well as the possible effect of the other environmental variables. The response of individual taxa was examined using GAM. The results indicate a strong relationship between basicity and substratum characteristics, with coarser mineral substrata at basic and high amount of organic matter at acidic conditions. Although water chemistry was correlated with and inseparable from these substratum properties, it could not be substituted with them, as they discriminated well only between acidic and basic springs, but did not follow the basicity gradient in either acidic or basic group of springs. Chironomid assemblage showed a strong and systematic response to the complex gradient of mineral richness, which explained the largest portion of variance in both the habitat A and B faunal data and was projected on the first axes of both NMDS ordinations. The assemblage response could be documented by the preference of several taxa for particular mineral richness conditions, while the number of taxa seemed to be highest in the middle of the basicity gradient. As only 17 samples were analysed so far, the results are considered preliminary and, hopefully, more confident results will be available in near future.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1403.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  1. Nonlinear Curvature Expressions for Combined Flapwise Bending, Chordwise Bending, Torsion and Extension of Twisted Rotor Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaternik, R. G.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1976-01-01

    The nonlinear curvature expressions for a twisted rotor blade or a beam undergoing transverse bending in two planes, torsion, and extension were developed. The curvature expressions were obtained using simple geometric considerations. The expressions were first developed in a general manner using the geometrical nonlinear theory of elasticity. These general nonlinear expressions were then systematically reduced to four levels of approximation by imposing various simplifying assumptions, and in each of these levels the second degree nonlinear expressions were given. The assumptions were carefully stated and their implications with respect to the nonlinear theory of elasticity as applied to beams were pointed out. The transformation matrices between the deformed and undeformed blade-fixed coordinates, which were needed in the development of the curvature expressions, were also given for three of the levels of approximation. The present curvature expressions and transformation matrices were compared with corresponding expressions existing in the literature.

  2. Geology and Re-Os molybdenite geochronology of the Kurišková U-Mo deposit (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohút, M.; Trubač, J.; Novotný, L.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Demko, R.; Bartalský, B.; Erban, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2013), s. 271-282 ISSN 1802-6222 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15390S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : U–Mo ore deposit * Re–Os * molybdenite geochronology * genetic model * Gemeric Unit * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.744, year: 2013

  3. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panea, I; Stephenson, R.A.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.I.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.C.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-01-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the

  4. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces, Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-11-30

    Using a geology-based methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil and 2,643 billion cubic feet of natural gas in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces of Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland.

  5. Long-time duration of gravitaty induced caves versus landslide aktivity in the Late Glacial-Holocene. Polish Flysch Carpathians case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margielewski, W.; Urban, J.; Zernitskaya, V.; Žák, Karel; Szura, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120 (2017), s. 30-32 ISSN 0944-4122. [Central European Geomorphology Conference /4./. 09.10.2017-13.10.2017, Bayreuth] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * Late Glacial-Holocene * Polish Flysch Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  6. The evolution of the Carpathians-Pannonian system: Interaction between neotectonics, deep structure, polyphase orogeny and sedimentary basins in a source to sink natural laboratory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Matenco, L.C.; Bada, G.; Dinu, C.; Mocanu, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The Carpathians-Pannonian Basin system provides a natural laboratory for analysing lithospheric to surface controls on tectonic topography development in a coupled source-to-sink environment. To link processes taking place at depth and at the surface, recent research focused on the interplay between

  7. Siliciclastics in the Upper Triassic dolomite formations of the Krizna Unit (Maid Fatra Mountains, Western Carpathians): constraints for the Carnian Pluvial Event in the Fatric Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkora, M.; Siblík, Miloš; Soták, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2011), s. 121-138 ISSN 1335-0552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Carnian event * Upper Triassic dolomites * Western Carpathians * Krizna Unit * shaly interbeds * lingulids * conchostracans Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.787, year: 2011

  8. Some perisphinctoid ammonites of the Štramberk Limestone and their dating with associated microfossils (Tithonian to Lower Berriasian, Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašíček, Zdeněk; Reháková, D.; Skupien, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2017), s. 583-605 ISSN 1335-0552 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Ammonoidea * Calpionellids * calcareous dinoflagellates * Upper Jurassic * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2016 http://www.geologicacarpathica.com/browse-journal/volumes/68-6/article-860/

  9. DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE OF FUTURE TEACHERS ON THE BASIS OF ETHNIC AND CULTURAL VALUES INTRINSIC TO HIGHLANDERS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stakhiv

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents challenges and methods of teacher training activities aimed to develop communicative competence and prepare teachers for work in mountain area schools in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Research shows that specifics of social and cultural environment should be taken into account in the process of teaching native language and developing communicative competence of future teachers. Sociocultural approach defines language teaching strategies in the light of national culture, traditions of ethnic regions and the Ukrainian Carpathians in particular. Teacher training programs should include studies on material, cultural and spiritual values of highlanders. Such topics can be incorporated in the main native language course. Study and analysis of fiction pieces, especially those that reflect the socio-cultural peculiarities of linguistic community of the Ukrainian Carpathians can be of great value in achieving the goal. Small classes in mountain schools also place a demand upon educators to constantly upgrade approaches, forms and methods of teaching. The article offers an integral teacher training system aimed at developing communicative competence and preparing teachers to work in the mountain areas schools. A special place in this system is given to folk pedagogy, which accumulates the national and regional spiritual values. The author presents the components of communicative and socio-cultural competence of future teachers. The suggested algorithm for training primary school teachers insures reaching an appropriate level of socio-cultural, historical, linguistic and communicative competencies necessary for language teaching at primary schools in mountain regions of the Ukrainian Carpathians.

  10. Long-term monitoring of air pollution effects on selected forest ecosystems in the Bucegi-Piatra Craiului and Retezat Mountains, southern Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Badea; S. Neagu; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; D. Silaghi; I. Barbu; C. Iacoban; F. Popescu; M. Andrei; E. Preda; C. Iacob; I. Dumitru; H. Iuncu; C. Vezeanu; V. Huber

    2011-01-01

    The monitoring studies carried out in the southern Romanian Carpathians (Retezat and Bucegi - Piatra Craiului Mts) provide a scientific support for long term ecosystem research (LTER). Their general objective is to characterize the air pollution and its potential effects upon forest ecosystems' status and biodiversity in close connection with climatic changes. Two...

  11. The structure and species richness of the diatom assemblages of the Western Carpathian spring fens along the gradient of mineral richness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránková, Markéta; Bojková, J.; Poulíčková, A.; Hájek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2009), s. 355-368 ISSN 1802-5439 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : diatoms * Western Carpathians * poor-rich gradient Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.762, year: 2009

  12. Some perisphinctoid ammonites of the Štramberk Limestone and their dating with associated microfossils (Tithonian to Lower Berriasian, Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašíček, Zdeněk; Reháková, D.; Skupien, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2017), s. 583-605 ISSN 1335-0552 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Ammonoidea * Calpionellids * calcareous dinoflagellates * Upper Jurassic * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2016 http://www.geologicacarpathica.com/browse-journal/volumes/68-6/article-860/

  13. Late Neogene low-angle thrusting on the northwestern margin of the South Carpathians (Poiana Rusca, West Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczlon, Martin S.; Onescu, Dan

    2005-12-01

    Mineral exploration drillholes and geoelectric prospecting provide for the first time evidence for thrusting of the South Carpathian Paleozoic basement over northerly adjacent Middle Miocene sediments. Investigations were carried out in two locations, 30 km apart, along the northern margin of the Poiana Rusca Mountains, Romania, southwestern Carpathians. Drill holes in both locations encountered weakly consolidated Middle Miocene clay, sand, and fine gravel below Paleozoic low-grade metamorphic rocks. Intersections from various drill holes demonstrate the presence of low-angle thrusting. Kinematic indicators are so far lacking, but with a thrust direction oriented roughly normal to strike of the Poiana Rusca Mountains, minimum displacement is 1-1.4 km in northwestern or northern direction, respectively. Thrusting occurred most likely during the Late Miocene-Pliocene, whereafter Quaternary regional uplift dissected the thrust plane. In the tectonic framework of Neogene dextral translation of the Tisza-Dacia Block against the southerly adjacent Moesian Platform, transtension appears responsible for Middle Miocene basin formation along the northern margin of the Poiana Rusca region. Proceeding collision of the Tisza-Dacia Block with the East European Craton introduced stronger impingement of the Tisza-Dacia Block against the Moesian Platform, leading to a Late Miocene-Pliocene transpressional regime, in which the northern Poiana Rusca basement was thrust over its adjacent Middle Miocene sediments.

  14. Genetic Analysis of Swiss Stone Pine Populations (Pinus cembra L. subsp. cembra from the Carpathians Using Chloroplast Microsatellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÖHN, Mária

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of Swiss stone pine populations (Pinus cembra subsp. cembra native to the Carpathians was studied with chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSR. Six loci were analyzed in four populations (altogether 148 individuals and a total number of 22 size variants and 41 combinations referred to as haplotypes were detected. Diversity within populations was found to be high, whereas divergence between the populations was low (Fst= 0.02. The most variable population with the highest haplotype diversity (H=0.956 originated from the Retezat Mountains (South Carpathians. Multi-stemmed individuals were detected mainly in the Southern part of the Calimani Mountains. They were found to be genetically non-homogenous. It is assumed that these clusters of individuals are the result of plants emerging from seed caches by birds. The great haplotypic variation found in cpSSR loci makes all the populations a useful source for gene conservation purposes. Each population should be considered an important element of the local ecosystem diversity.

  15. Structure and dynamics of deep-seated slope failures in the Magura Flysch Nappe, outer Western Carpathians (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Baron

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep-seated mass movements currently comprise one of the main morphogenetic processes in the Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians of Central Europe. These mass movements result in a large spectrum of slope failures, depending on the type of movement and the nature of the bedrock. This paper presents the results of a detailed survey and reconstruction of three distinct deep-seated slope failures in the Raca Unit of the Magura Nappe, Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians in the Czech Republic. An interdisciplinary approach has enabled a global view of the dynamics and development of these deep-seated slope failures. The three cases considered here have revealed a complex, poly-phase development of slope failure. They are deep-seated ones with depths to the failure surface ranging from 50 to 110m. They differ in mechanism of movement, failure structure, current activity, and total displacement. The main factors influencing their development have been flysch-bedrock structure, lithology, faulting by bedrock separation (which enabled further weakening through deep weathering, geomorphic setting, swelling of smectite-rich clays, and finally heavy rainfall. All of the slope failures considered here seem to have originated during humid phases of the Holocene or during the Late Glacial.

  16. Plant communities with Pinus mugo (alliance Pinion mugo in the subalpine belt of the Western Carpathians - a numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Šibík

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of plant communities with dominant Pinus mugo in the Western Carpathians is presented. The data set of 341 relevés was examined and analysed using the detrended correspondence analysis and the cluster analysis. Major gradients and clusters were interpreted using Ellenberg’s indicator values. The major gradient in species composition was associated with available nutrients and moisture. The authors suggest distinguishing the dwarf pine stands of the supramontanous and subalpine belts of the Western Carpathians referred to the alliance Pinion mugo Pawłowski in Pawłowski et al. 1928 of the order Junipero-Pinetalia mugo Boşcaiu 1971 and the class Roso pendulinae-Pinetea mugo Theurillat in Theurillat et al. 1995, into three separate associations: the Cetrario-Pinetum mugo Hadač 1956, the Homogyno alpinae-Pinetum mugo (Sillinger 1933 nom. nov., and the Adenostylo alliariae-Pinetum mugo (Sillinger 1933 Šoltésová 1974. The authors also elucidated the unauthorized name of the association Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum mugo Hadač 1956, which is a younger homonym of the valid name of the association Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum montanae Morton 1927 that characterises the acidophilous dwarf pine stands on calcareous bedrocks in the Alps.

  17. Landslide activity as a threat to infrastructure in river valleys - An example from outer Western Carpathians (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuszczyńska, Katarzyna; Wistuba, Małgorzata; Malik, Ireneusz

    2017-11-01

    Intensive development of the area of Polish Carpathians increases the scale of landslide risk. Thus detecting landslide hazards and risks became important issue for spatial planning in the area. We applied dendrochronological methods and GIS analysis for better understanding of landslide activity and related hazards in the test area (3,75 km2): Salomonka valley and nearby slopes in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts., Outer Western Carpathians, southern Poland. We applied eccentricity index of radial growth of trees to date past landslide events. Dendrochronological results allowed us to determine the mean frequency of landsliding at each sampling point which were next interpolated into a map of landslide hazard. In total we took samples at 46 points. In each point we sampled 3 coniferous trees. Landslide hazard map shows a medium (23 sampling points) and low (20 sampling points) level of landslide activity for most of the area. The highest level of activity was recorded for the largest landslide. Results of the dendrochronological study suggest that all landslides reaching downslope to Salomonka valley floor are active. LiDAR-based analysis of relief shows that there is an active coupling between those landslides and river channel. Thus channel damming and formation of an episodic lake are probable. The hazard of flooding valley floor upstream of active landslides should be included in the local spatial planning system and crisis management system.

  18. Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa. It is accredited by the South African National Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) and is indexed in the International Bibliography of Social Science (IBSS). It is a multi-disciplinary journal primarily focusing on African ...

  19. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of developing xylem responding to artificial bending and gravitational stimuli in Betula platyphylla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    Full Text Available Betula platyphylla Suk (birch is a fast-growing woody species that is important in pulp industries and the biofuels. However, as an important pulp species, few studies had been performed on its wood formation. In the present study, we investigated the molecular responses of birch xylem to artificial bending and gravitational stimuli. After trunks of birch trees were subjected to bending for 8 weeks, the cellulose content was significantly greater in tension wood (TW than in opposite wood (OW or normal wood (NW, whereas the lignin content in TW was significantly lower than that in OW and NW. In addition, TW grew more rapidly than OW and generated TW-specific fibers with an additional G-layer. Three transcriptome libraries were constructed from TW, OW and NW of B. platyphylla, respectively, after the plants were subjected to artificial bending. Overall, 80,909 nonredundant unigenes with a mean size of 768 nt were assembled. Expression profiles were generated, and 9,684 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the TW, OW and NW libraries. These included genes involved in secondary cell wall structure, wood composition, and cellulose or lignin biosynthesis. Our study showed that during TW formation, genes involved in cellulose synthesis were induced, while the expression of lignin synthesis-related genes decreased, resulting in increased cellulose content and decreased lignin levels in TW. In addition, fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins play important role in TW formation. These findings may provide important insights into wood formation at the molecular level.

  20. Impact of Road Bends on Traffic Flow in a Single-Lane Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Junwei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking the characteristics of road bends as a research object, this work proposes the cellular model (CA with road bends based on the NaSch model, with which the traffic flow is examined under different conditions, such as bend radius, bend arc length, and road friction coefficiency. The simulation results show that, with the increase of the bend radius, the peak flow will be continuously increased, and the fundamental diagram will become more similar to that of the classic NaSch model; the smaller the bend radius is, the easier it is for the occurrence of blockage; for different bend lengths, all the corresponding traffic flows show that the phenomenon of go-and-stop and the bends exert slight inhibitory effect on traffic flow; under the same bend radius, the inhibition effect of the bends on the traffic flow will be weakened with the increase of the friction coefficiency.

  1. Experiment research on ratcheting of pressurized pipe subjected reversed bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Bingjun; Chen Xu; Chen Gang

    2005-01-01

    With a quasi-three point bending apparatus, ratcheting and ratcheting boundary were studied experimentally for pressurized low carbon 20 steel pipes under reversed bending on servo- electro-hydraulic axial-pressure testing system. It is found that ratcheting initiates firstly in hoop direction and that in axial direction follows with the increase of loading but less in magnitude. The circular cross section turns into ellipse as the ratcheting strain accumulates. Ratcheting strain rate grows with the increase of reversed bending load or internal pressure for both different specimen with different loading and same specimen with multi-step loading. In multi-step loading, ratcheting rate suffers from the ratcheting history, especially for that with ratcheting history at higher level loading. As different positions of the specimen endure different bending moment by the quasi-three point bending apparatus, ratcheting boundary is readily determined experimentally. By comparison with that determined by ASME, RCC-MR, it is shown both code are conservative. (authors)

  2. Investigation of span-chordwise bending anisotropy of honeybee forewings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianGuo Ning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the spanwise and chordwise bending stiffness EI of honeybee forewings were measured by a cantilevered bending test. The test results indicate that the spanwise EI of the forewing is two orders of magnitude larger than the chordwise EI. Three structural aspects result in this span-chordwise bending anisotropy: the distribution of resilin patches, the corrugation along the span and the leading edge vein of the venation. It was found that flexion lines formed by resilin patches revealed through fluorescence microscopy promoted the chordwise bending of the forewing during flapping flight. Furthermore, the corrugation of the wing and leading edge veins of the venation, revealed by micro-computed tomography, determines the relatively greater spanwise EI of the forewing. The span-chordwise anisotropy exerts positive structural and aerodynamic influences on the wing. In summary, this study potentially assists researchers in understanding the bending characteristics of insect wings and might be an important reference for the design and manufacture of bio-inspired wings for flapping micro aerial vehicles.

  3. A SENSOR AND A METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE DIRECTION AND THE AMPLITUDE OF A BEND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical based bending sensor. In particular, the present invention relates to a fibre-based bending sensor for the determination of the direction and the amplitude of a bend. The present invention further relates to fibre-based bending sensors using long...... and the cladding modes. Thereby a relative splitting of transmission peaks in the spectrum of the LPG is induced, which is used to determine the bending amplitude and direction....

  4. Multidimensionality and scale in a landscape ethnoecological partitioning of a mountainous landscape (Gyimes, Eastern Carpathians, Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, Dániel; Molnár, Zsolt

    2013-02-06

    Traditional habitat knowledge is an understudied part of traditional knowledge. Though the number of studies increased world-wide in the last decade, this knowledge is still rarely studied in Europe. We document the habitat vocabulary used by Csángó people, and determine features they used to name and describe these categories. Csángó people live in Gyimes (Carpathians, Romania). The area is dominated by coniferous forests, hay meadows and pastures. Animal husbandry is the main source of living. Data on the knowledge of habitat preference of 135 salient wild plant species were collected (2908 records, 44 interviewees). Data collected indoors were counterchecked during outdoor interviews and participatory field work. Csángós used a rich and sophisticated vocabulary to name and describe habitat categories. They distinguished altogether at least 142-148 habitat types, and named them by 242 habitat terms. We argue that the method applied and the questions asked ('what kind of place does species X like?') helped the often implicit knowledge of habitats to be verbalized more efficiently than usual in an interview. Habitat names were highly lexicalized and most of them were widely shared. The main features were biotic or abiotic, like land-use, dominant plant species, vegetation structure, successional stage, disturbance, soil characteristics, hydrological, and geomorphological features. Csángós often used indicator species (28, mainly herbaceous taxa) in describing habitats of species. To prevent reduction in the quantity and/or quality of hay, unnecessary disturbance of grasslands was avoided by the Csángós. This could explain the high number of habitats (35) distinguished dominantly by the type and severity of disturbance. Based on the spatial scale and topological inclusiveness of habitat categories we distinguished macro-, meso-, and microhabitats. Csángó habitat categories were not organized into a single hierarchy, and the partitioning was

  5. Miocene Tectonics at the Pannonian - Carpathian Transition: The Bogdan Voda - Dragos Voda fault system, northern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, M.; Gröger, H.; Marin, M.; Schmid, S. M.; Fügenschuh, B.

    2003-04-01

    Tertiary tectonics in the Pannonian-Carpathian transition zone was dominated by opposed rotations of Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia, separated by the Mid-Hungarian lineament (MHL). While in the Pannonian basin the MHL is well known from geophysical and borehole data, its northeastern continuation remains a matter of discussion. Our field based study, located in the Maramures mountains of northern Romania, provides new kinematic data from the Bogdan Voda fault, a first order candidate for the prolongation of the MHL to the northeast. In the Burdigalian, the Pienides (unmetamorphic flysch nappes) were emplaced onto the autochthonous Paleogene flysch units. Kinematic data consistently indicate top to the SE-directed thrusting of the Pienides and selected imbrications in the autochthonous units. Between Langhian and Tortonian these thrust contacts were offset by the E-W trending Bogdan Voda fault and its eastern continuation, the Dragos-Voda fault. These two faults share a common polyphase history, at least since the Burdigalian. Kinematic data derived from mesoscale faults indicate sinistral strike-slip displacement, in good agreement with kinematics inferred from map view. The NE-SW trending Greben fault, another fault of regional importance, was coevally active as a normal fault. From stratigraphic arguments major activity of this fault system is constrained to the time interval between 16.4-10 Ma. While deformation is strongly concentrated in the sedimentary units, the easterly located basement units are affected by abundant minor faults of similar kinematics covering a wide area. These SW-NE trending strike slip faults feature a normal component and resemble an imbricate fan geometry. Since Burdigalian thrusting is consistently SE-directed on either side of the Bogdan-Dragos Voda fault, major post-Burdigalian differential rotations can be excluded for the northern and southern block respectively. Hydrothermal veins within Pannonian volcanic units are aligned along the

  6. Calibration of Crustal Historical Earthquakes from Intra-Carpathian Region of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Eugen; Popa, Mihaela; Rogozea, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The main task of the presented study is to elaborate a set of relations of mutual conversion macroseismic intensity - magnitude, necessary for the calibration of the historical crustal earthquakes produced in the Intra - Carpathian region of Romania, as a prerequisite for homogenization of the parametric catalogue of Romanian earthquakes. To achieve the goal, we selected a set of earthquakes for which we have quality macroseismic data and the Mw moment magnitude obtained instrumentally. These seismic events were used to determine the relations between the Mw and the peak/epicentral intensity, the isoseist surface area for I=3, I=4 and I=5: Mw = f (Imax / Io), Mw = f (Imax / Io, h), Mw = f (A3, A4; A5). We investigated several variants of such relationships and combinations, taking into account that the macroseismic data necessary for the re-evaluation of historical earthquakes in the investigated region are available in several forms. Thus, a number of investigations provided various information resulted after revising initial historical data: 1) Intensity data point (IDP) assimilated or not with the epicentre intensity after analysis of the correlation level with recent seismicity data and / or active tectonics / seismotectonics, 2) Sets of intensities obtained in several localities (IDPs) with variable values having maxims that can be considered equal to epicentral intensity (Io), 3) Sets of intensities obtained in several localities (IDPs) but without obvious maximum values, assimilable with the epicentral intensity, 4) maps with isoseismals, 5) Information on the areas in which the investigated earthquake was felt or the area of perceptiveness (e.g. I = 3 EMS during the day and I = 4 EMS at night) or the surfaces corresponding to a certain degree of well-defined intensity. The obtained relationships were validated using a set of earthquakes with instrumental source parameters (localization, depth, Mw). These relationships lead to redundant results meaningful in

  7. How disturbances and management practices affect bird communities in a Carpathian river ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacko, Jozef; Topercer, Ján; Súľovský, Marek

    2018-04-01

    We studied how interactions between disturbances, succession, human alterations and other habitat and landscape attributes affect bird community patterns in a lower reach of a large West Carpathian river Váh with complex disturbance and alteration histories. Breeding-bird communities, their habitats (54 variables) and surrounding landscapes (11 metrics) were sampled using standardized point counts with limited distances at 40 riparian sites divided among two transects along a 12.9 km river stretch. The most frequent and abundant birds were generalists typically associated with forest edge habitats, such as Parus major, Sylvia atricapilla, Fringilla coelebs, Oriolus oriolus, Phylloscopus collybita, Sturnus vulgaris, Turdus merula and Luscinia megarhynchos. Abundances show significant increase at the lower transect responding apparently to greater size and heterogeneity of riparian habitats and more abundant food supply linked to more diverse and intense human influences in a suburban zone. Both indirect (NMDS) and direct ordination (CCA) revealed remarkably large number of evenly important factors underlying riparian bird-habitat interactions. It suggests considerable environmental heterogeneity and complexity of these interactions as a likely outcome of long and complex disturbance and alteration histories of the area. Yet structure and relative importance of first two gradients (longitudinal and lateral linkages) remains simple and stable, complying well with predictions of river continuum concept and stream ecosystem theory. Of the nine statistically significant variables most strongly correlated with first two CCA axes, percentages of Helianthus tuberosus, footpaths, fields, Calystegia sepium and steep banks uphold our hypotheses predicting significant effects of invasive species, visitor disturbances, agricultural land use and unaltered river banks/bed on bird community composition and structure. A small but significant contribution of patch size standard

  8. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Milevskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis of birch young stands in this area.The object of the study was age class I saplings growing in the mountainous part of Pokuttya, particularly in the basin of the Lutshka River. The conceptual basis of our study is the modern dynamic vision that every forest type is a consecutive series of forest plant communities within each type of homogeneous growing conditions. We apply methods of ecological-floristic research of the Brown-Blanke school in the interpretation of the Polish school phytosociology. However we also take into account both syntaxonomy generalizations of the Ukrainian scientists. The actual material comprises the original geobotanical studies with fixation of the vast majority of species in plant communities. Mainly the species having diagnostic value to separate syntaxons were taken into account in the analytical processing. Young forest stands (with the height of 8–12 m and crown cover of 70% together form the trees Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Fairly numerous admixture is formed by trees Alnus incana; besides, there are Fagus sylvatica, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Padus avium. For dominants, they can be called “grey-alder birch blackberry sedge bracken fern” – Betula pendula+Alnus incana–Rubus caesius–Carex brizoides+Pteridium aquilinum. It is rich in floristic composition of the plant communities. They contain at least 12 species of trees, 3 species of shrubs, 4 species of bushes and 89 species of herbs. Diagnostic

  9. Long-term regimes of extreme precipitation and floods across the Alpine-Carpathian Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajka, Juraj

    2010-05-01

    Kohnová, S.(2), Bálint, G. (8), Barbuc, M.(6), Borga, M.(5), Claps, P. (9), Cheval, S.(4), Gaume, E.(3), Hlavčová, K.(2), Merz, R.(1), Pfaundler, M. (7), Stancalie, G.(4), Szolgay, J.(2), Blöschl, G.(1) (2) Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovakia, silvia. kohnova@stuba.sk (3) Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, BP 4129, 44341 Bouguenais cedex, France (4) National Meteorological Administration 97, Soseaua Bucuresti-Ploiesti, 013686, Bucharest, Romania (5) Department of Land and Agroforest Environments, University of Padova, AGRIPOLIS,via dell'Università 16, Legnaro (PD), IT-35020, Italy (6) Dynamic and Experimental, Hydrology Department, P.C. 013686 P.B. 18, Sos. Bucuresti-Ploiesti 97, Bucharest, Romania (7)Sektion Gewässerbewirtschaftung Abt. Wasser BAFU, Papiermühlestrasse 172, CH-3063 Ittigen, Switzerland (8) VITUKI Environmental Protection and Water Management Institute, Kvassay út 1., H-1095 Budapest, Hungary (9) Dipartimento di Idraulica, Trasporti e Infrastrutture Civili (DITIC), Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy) The study of the seasonality of extreme precipitation and floods has recently attracted renewed interest, especially in connection with water resources management, flood and low flow regionalization, and land cover and climate change assessment studies. The aim of this contribution is to present the differences in the long-term regimes of extreme precipitation and floods across the Alpine-Carpathian range. This analysis is based on seasonality indices and a catalogue of atmospheric circulation patterns. The main investigation will focus on the understanding of main flood producing processes and on the identification of regions with similar precipitation forcing and catchment response. The study region covers the South-Eastern part of France, Switzerland, the northern part of Italy, Austria, the southern part of Germany, Slovakia, Romania and a small region

  10. The Vascular Flora of Rarău Massif (Eastern Carpathians, Romania. Note I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Oprea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the flora of the Rarău Massif, an area lying in the northeastern part of Romania, nearby the town of Câmpulung Moldovenesc. This study attempt to list all the vascular plants (i.e. ferns, conifers, and flowering plants from the whole area of Rarău Massif. Till now, there are published several papers on this area, but no paper deals with the whole surface of Rarău Massif. The research was carried out between 2000 to 2011. During the study period, 1377 taxa (1089 species and 288 subspecies, belonging to 95 families and 411 genera; 43 of the species belong to Pteridophytes, 8 belongs to Gymnosperms, and 1038 belongs to Angiosperms (835 Dicotyledons, 203 Monocotyledons subdivisions. The largest families (in terms of the number of species and subspecies included are: Asteraceae (167, Poaceae (78, Brassicaceae (53, Rosaceae and Lamiaceae (50, Scrophulariaceae and Cyperaceae (47, Caryophyllaceae and Ranunculaceae (42. The highest number of species, of a certain genus, is like the next: Carex L. (39, Centaurea L. (25, Hieracium L. (21, Festuca L. (19, Senecio L. (12, Cirsium, Pilosella, and Poa (11, etc. Since the flora of the area is analysed according to Raunkiaer’s life forms, the results are as follows: Hemicryptophytes 605 species (H=55.6%, Cryptophytes (also called Geophytes 137 species (G=12.6%, Therophytes 120 species (11.0%, Phanerophytes 84 species (Ph=7.7%, Chamaephytes 57 species (Ch=5.2%, Hemitherophytes 77 species (Ht=7.1%, Helo-hydatophytes 8 species (HH=0.7%, and Epiphytes 1 species (Ep=0.1%. The phytogeographic elements are the next ones: European=375 species (36.6%, Eurasian=349 species (34.0%, Circumboreal=148 species (14.8%, Cosmopolite=37 species (3.6%, Carpathians=31 species (3.0%, Pontics=19 species (1.9%, Mediterranean-submediterrannean=11 species (1.1%, and Adventitious=2 species (0.2%. The number of endemic and near-endemic taxa (species and subspecies within the study area is 53 (5.2%.

  11. Dynamic Electromechanical Coupling of Piezoelectric Bending Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa R. A. Nabawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromechanical coupling defines the ratio of electrical and mechanical energy exchanged during a flexure cycle of a piezoelectric actuator. This paper presents an analysis of the dynamic electromechanical coupling factor (dynamic EMCF for cantilever based piezoelectric actuators and provides for the first time explicit expressions for calculation of dynamic EMCF based on arrangement of passive and active layers, layer geometry, and active and passive materials selection. Three main cantilever layer configurations are considered: unimorph, dual layer bimorph and triple layer bimorph. The actuator is modeled using standard constitutive dynamic equations that relate deflection and charge to force and voltage. A mode shape formulation is used for the cantilever dynamics that allows the generalized mass to be the actual mass at the first resonant frequency, removing the need for numerical integration in the design process. Results are presented in the form of physical insight from the model structure and also numerical evaluations of the model to provide trends in dynamic EMCF with actuator design parameters. For given material properties of the active and passive layers and given system overall damping ratio, the triple layer bimorph topology is the best in terms of theoretically achievable dynamic EMCF, followed by the dual layer bimorph. For a damping ratio of 0.035, the dynamic EMCF for an example dual layer bimorph configuration is 9% better than for a unimorph configuration. For configurations with a passive layer, the ratio of thicknesses for the passive and active layers is the primary geometric design variable. Choice of passive layer stiffness (Young’s modulus relative to the stiffness of the material in the active layer is an important materials related design choice. For unimorph configurations, it is beneficial to use the highest stiffness possible passive material, whereas for triple layer bimorph configurations, the passive

  12. Effect of bend separation distance on the mass transfer in back-to-back pipe bends arranged in a 180° configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Le, T.; Ewing, D.; Ching, C. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The mass transfer to turbulent flow through back-to-back pipe bends arranged in a 180° configuration with different lengths of pipe between the bends was measured using a dissolving gypsum test section in water. The measurements were performed for bends with a radius of curvature of 1.5 times the pipe diameter ( D) at a Reynolds numbers of 70,000 and Schmidt number of 1280. The maximum mass transfer in the bends decreased from approximately 1.8 times the mass transfer in the upstream pipe when there was no separation distance between the bends to 1.7 times when there was a 1 D or 5 D length of pipe between the bends. The location of the maximum mass transfer was on the inner sidewall downstream of the second bend when there was no separation distance between the bends. This location changed to the inner wall at the beginning of the second bend when there was a 1 D long pipe between the bends, and to the inner sidewall at the end of the first bend when there was a 5 D long pipe between the bends.

  13. Evaluation of River Bend Station Unit 1 Technical Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.E.; Bruske, S.J.

    1985-08-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the River Bend Station Unit 1 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the requirements of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, and the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, and the SER as supplemented was performed with the River Bend T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved through discussions with the cognizant NRC reviewer, NRC staff reviewers and/or utility representatives. The River Bend Station Unit 1 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR and SER

  14. Platonic scattering cancellation for bending waves in a thin plate

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2014-04-10

    We propose an ultra-thin elastic cloak to control the scattering of bending waves in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. The cloak design makes use of the scattering cancellation technique applied, for the first time, to the biharmonic operator describing the propagation of bending waves in thin plates. We first analyze scattering from hard and soft cylindrical objects in the quasistatic limit, then we prove that the scattering of bending waves from an object in the near and far-field regions can be suppressed significantly by covering it with a suitably designed coating. Beyond camouflaging, these findings may have potential applications in protection of buildings from earthquakes and isolating structures from vibrations in the motor vehicle industry.

  15. Differential quadrature method of nonlinear bending of functionally graded beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangnian, Xu; Liansheng, Ma; Wang, Youzhi; Quan, Yuan; Weijie, You

    2018-02-01

    Using the third-order shear deflection beam theory (TBT), nonlinear bending of functionally graded (FG) beams composed with various amounts of ceramic and metal is analyzed utilizing the differential quadrature method (DQM). The properties of beam material are supposed to accord with the power law index along to thickness. First, according to the principle of stationary potential energy, the partial differential control formulae of the FG beams subjected to a distributed lateral force are derived. To obtain numerical results of the nonlinear bending, non-dimensional boundary conditions and control formulae are dispersed by applying the DQM. To verify the present solution, several examples are analyzed for nonlinear bending of homogeneous beams with various edges. A minute parametric research is in progress about the effect of the law index, transverse shear deformation, distributed lateral force and boundary conditions.

  16. Real-time resilient focusing through a bending multimode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca-Aguirre, Antonio M; Niv, Eyal; Conkey, Donald B; Piestun, Rafael

    2013-05-20

    Multimode optical fibers are attractive for biomedical and sensing applications because they possess a small cross section and can bend over small radii of curvature. However, mode phase-velocity dispersion and random mode coupling change with bending, temperature, and other perturbations, producing scrambling interference among propagating modes; hence preventing its use for focusing or imaging. To tackle this problem we introduce a system capable of re-focusing light through a multimode fiber in 37ms, one order of magnitude faster than demonstrated in previous reports. As a result, the focus spot can be maintained during significant bending of the fiber, opening numerous opportunities for endoscopic imaging and energy delivery applications. We measure the transmission matrix of the fiber by projecting binary-amplitude computer generated holograms using a digital micro-mirror device controlled by a field programmable gate array. The system shows two orders of magnitude enhancements of the focus spot relative to the background.

  17. System effects influencing the bending strength of timber beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Källsner, B.

    1998-01-01

    measurements of the strengths of a large number of shorttest pieces cut from the beams such that judgementally each test piece contains only a single defect cluster. The testpiece is spliced to stronger wood beam shafts in both ends. Due to the occurrence of a substantial number of splicefailures in the total...... test series of 197 tests a special maximum likelihood estimation procedure is applied to estimate theparameters. Assuming that the estimated parameters are applicable in the series system model for the full uncutbeams a theoretical bending strength distribution function is obtained in dependence......A stochastic model of hierarchical series system type for the bending strength of spruce beams isdefined from the anticipation that the bending failure takes place at a cross-section with a defect cluster formed by knots or grain irregularities. The parameters of the model are estimated from...

  18. Springback law study and application in incremental bending process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; He, Kai; Dang, Xiaobing; Du, Ruxu

    2018-02-01

    One incremental bending process has been proposed for manufacturing the complex and thick ship-hull plates. The accuracy and efficiency for this novel process is mainly dependent on the loading path and thus the unavoidable springback behavior should be considered in the loading path determination. In this paper, firstly, the numerical simulation method is verified by the corresponding experiment, and then the springback law during the incremental bending process is investigated based on numerical simulation, and later the loading path based on the springback law and the minimum energy method is achieved for specific machining shape. Comparison between the designed curve based on springback law and the new simulation results verifies that the springback law obtained by numerical simulation is believable, so this study provides a new perspective for the further research on incremental bending process.

  19. Yield stress determination from miniaturized disk bend test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, D.S.; Kohse, G.; Harling, O.K.

    1985-04-01

    Methodology for testing 3.0 mm diameter by 0.25 mm thick disks by bending in a punch and die has been described previously. This paper describes the analysis of load/deflection data from such miniaturized disk bend tests (MDBT) using a finite element simulation. Good simulation has been achieved up to a point just beyond the predominantly elastic response, linear initial region. The load at which deviation from linearity begins has been found to correlate with yield stress, and yield stress has been successfully extracted from disk bend tests of a number of known materials. Although finite element codes capable of dealing with large strains and large rotations have been used, simulation of the entire load/deflection curve up to fracture of the specimen has not yet been achieved

  20. Experimentation and numerical modeling of forging induced bending (FIB) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, S.; van den Boogaard, A. H.

    2016-10-01

    Accurate prediction of the final shape using numerical modeling has been a top priority in the field of sheet and bulk forming. Better shape prediction is the result of a better estimation of the physical stress and strain state. For experimental and numerical investigations of such estimations, simple benchmark processes are used. In this paper a benchmark process involving forging (flattening) of sheet metal between punch and die with negative clearance is proposed. The introduced material flow results in bending. Easy measurability of the angle of this bend makes this process suitable for validation purpose. Physical experiments are performed to characterize this bending angle due to flattening. Furthermore a numerical model is developed to capture this phenomenon. The main focus of this paper is the validation of the numerical model in terms of accurate prediction of the physical results.

  1. Finite element analysis of bending performance on polyurethane composite panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Minli; Li, Hongqiao; Wang, Xiaoming

    2017-09-01

    The finite element analysis model of polyurethane composite panel (simply named PCP) is established by using ABAQUS software. In view of the PCPs made of different thickness of surface board, their bending performance is carried out on finite element analysis, and the load-deflection curves which come from it are compared with the experimental results. The results show that the values between finite element analysis and experiment agree well with each other. It can be deduced that the established finite element model is fit to simulate the bending test of PCPs. The simulation not only has certain reference significance to the optimal design for the bending performance of PCPs, but also to the choice of PCPs in the practical project.

  2. Mineralogy and geochemistry of trace and Rare Earth Element from the Manaila massive sulphide deposit (Eastern Carpathians, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldoveanu, S.; Iancu, O. G.; Kasper, H. U.

    2012-04-01

    Keywords: Eastern Carpathians, Mănăila deposit, REE, trace elements, pyrite The present paper deal with the mineralogy and trace elements geochemistry of sulphide deposits from Mănăila mine field located in NE area of Eastern Carpathians Mountains (Romania). The mineralization occurs within metamorphic rocks of Tulgheş terrane, part of Crystalline-Mezozoic zone of the Eastern Carpathians. The metamorphic rocks in Mănăila area consist of felsic metavolcanics rocks with quartzites and quartz-feldspathic rocks as prevailing types. The P-T metamorphic conditions are typical of greenschis facies with biotite and garnet (Mn-Grt) in mineral assemblage. The mineralogical study was performed using reflected light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods. Thus, the both methods show that the main sulphides minerals are represented by pyrite and chalcopyrite, being followed by sphalerite, galena and little amount of Cu sulphosalts (tetrahedrite and bournonite) and also by gangue minerals (quartz and carbonates). Pyrite occurs as large euhedral to subhedral grains in quartz and small rounded inclusion in chalcopyrite. The trace elements analysis was achieved on whole-rock samples and involved the determination of REE, LIL (Rb, Ba, Sr) and HFS (Y, Zr, Hf, U, Th, Nb, Ta) by ICP-MS method. The concentration of LIL and HFS trace elements in mineralized rocks decrease as follows: Ba > Bi > As > Sb > Co > Ga > Ni > Cd. Even if the barium contents in Mănăila ore is high, baritina (BaSO4) was not identified throught the mineralogical analyses carried out so far. The total rare earth element content (REE) of the samples from Mănăila range from 26.84 to 246.46 ppm. Chondrite - normalized REE patterns of the mineralized rocks show that the LREE are enriched in relation to the HREE. Also a positive Ce anomalies and negative Eu anomalies are present. Y/Ho and Zr/Hf ratios are close to the chondritic ratios indicating Charge-and-Radius-Controlled (CHARAC

  3. EMISSION MEASUREMENTS OF GEOGENIC GREENHOUSE GASES IN THE AREA OF "PUSTY LAS" ABANDONED OILFIELD (POLISH OUTER CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Guzy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The emission of geogenic methane and carbon dioxide contributes to the world climate changes. The results of studies run worldwide demonstrate that the emission of geogenic gases strongly influences the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, including methane and carbon dioxide. The Outer Carpathians reveal significant hydrocarbon potential and host numerous macro- and microseepages of hydrocarbons including the natural gas. Migration of hydrocarbons from deep accumulations towards the surface is controlled by diffusion and effusion. It appears that the Carpathians may play significant role as a supplier of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.Before the World War II, oil macroseepages were the principal premises in petroleum exploration. In the Carpathians, hydrocarbons have been exploited since the XIX century. Unfortunately, most of discovered oil and gas deposits are recently only the historical objects. An example is the Sękowa-Ropica Górna-Siary oil deposit located in the marginal part of the Magura Nappe where oil has been extracted with dug wells until the mid XX century. One of such extraction sites is the "Pusty Las" oilfield. In that area, 10 methane and carbon dioxide emission measurement sites were located, among which 4 in dried dug wells and 6 in dig wells still filled with oil and/or water. Dynamics of methane and carbon dioxide concentration changes were measured with the modified static chambers method. Gas samples were collected immediately after the installation of the chamber and again, after 5 and 10 minutes. In the case of reclaimed or dry dug wells, static chamber was installed directly at the ground surface. In wells still filled with oil and/or water the chamber was equipped with an "apron" mounted on special sticks.The dynamics of concentrations changes varied from -0.871 to 119.924 ppm∙min-1 for methane and from -0.005 to 0.053 %obj∙min-1 for carbon dioxide. Average methane emission was 1

  4. Migration routes and stopover sites of the Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia between the Carpathian Basin and wintering areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pigniczki Csaba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the migration routes of the Central European Spoonbill population is important for their conservation. Here we analysed movements of 3186 individuals of Eurasian Spoonbills marked with colour rings in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary, Croatia and Serbia between 2003 and 2015, and a satellite tagged individual, which was equipped in Italy in 2013, and later moved to the Carpathian Basin. Migration routes of these Spoonbills predominantly followed the Adriatic Flyway, however, some birds were also found to both east and west from this flyway. We identified 59 stopover sites, 55 of which were located along the Adriatic Flyway. Colourringed juveniles (1cy, on average, spent 4.0±0.9 (SE days on the stopover sites along the Adriatic Flyway during autumn migration, while non-juveniles (> 1cy spent 2.6±1.0 (SE days during autumn and 2.1±0.4 (SE days during spring migration there. These durations were not significantly different. Duration of stops of the satellite tracked individual was between 7 and 15 days during autumn and between 1 and 12 days during spring migration. Our results indicate the existence of two alternative routes of the Adriatic Flyway between the Carpathian Basin and the wintering areas in southern Italy and the central part of coastal North-Africa. The North-Adriatic Flyway includes stopover sites in north-eastern Italy at the river mouth of River Isonzo, Lagunes of Venice and wetlands around River Po. The South Adriatic Flyway leads through the Balkan Peninsula, with stopover sites at the karst lakes of Bosnia and Herzegovina, mouth of the river Neretva (Croatia, Ulcinj Salinas (Montenegro and wetlands in Gulf of Manfredonia (Italy. This hypothesis was also supported by the migration of the satellite tagged individual, the paths of which was described here in detail. The average coordinates of spring and autumn stopover sites were located at different parts of the flyway: it was in south-western Italy during autumn

  5. Influence of bending test configuration on cracking behavior of FRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finazzi, Silvia; Paegle, Ieva; Fischer, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the influence of the testing configuration for Fiber Reinforced Concrete in bending and aims at evaluating the influence of the test configuration details on the characterization of the material. Two different types of FRC, Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete...... (SFRC) and Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC), were tested and are described in this study. The materials were chosen so that one of them would be strain hardening (ECC) and the other tension softening (SFRC). Notched and un-notched three- and four-point bending tests were carried out to determine...

  6. Origin of bending in uncoated microcantilever - Surface topography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmoji, K.; Prabakar, K.; Tripura Sundari, S.; Jayapandian, J.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sundar, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    We provide direct experimental evidence to show that difference in surface topography on opposite sides of an uncoated microcantilever induces bending, upon exposure to water molecules. Examination on opposite sides of the microcantilever by atomic force microscopy reveals the presence of localized surface features on one side, which renders the induced stress non-uniform. Further, the root mean square inclination angle characterizing the surface topography shows a difference of 73° between the opposite sides. The absence of deflection in another uncoated microcantilever having similar surface topography confirms that in former microcantilever bending is indeed induced by differences in surface topography

  7. Test Equal Bending by Gravity for Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    For the simplest problem of gravity - a static, non-rotating, spherically symmetric source - the solution for spacetime bending around the Sun should be evenly split between time and space. That is true to first order in M/R, and confirmed by experiment. At second order, general relativity predicts different amounts of contribution from time and space without a physical justification. I show an exponential metric is consistent with light bending to first order, measurably different at second order. All terms to all orders show equal contributions from space and time. Beautiful minimalism is Nature's way.

  8. Flagella bending affects macroscopic properties of bacterial suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potomkin, M.; Tournus, M.; Berlyand, L. V.; Aranson, I. S.

    2017-05-01

    To survive in harsh conditions, motile bacteria swim in complex environments and respond to the surrounding flow. Here, we develop a mathematical model describing how flagella bending affects macroscopic properties of bacterial suspensions. First, we show how the flagella bending contributes to the decrease in the effective viscosity observed in dilute suspension. Our results do not impose tumbling (random reorientation) as was previously done to explain the viscosity reduction. Second, we demonstrate how a bacterium escapes from wall entrapment due to the self-induced buckling of flagella. Our results shed light on the role of flexible bacterial flagella in interactions of bacteria with shear flow and walls or obstacles.

  9. Elastostatic bending of a bimaterial plate with a circular interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonna, Nkem

    2015-08-01

    The elastostatic bending of an arbitrarily loaded bimaterial plate with a circular interface is analysed. It is shown that the deflections in the composite solid are directly related to the deflection in the corresponding homogeneous material by integral and differential operators. It is further shown that, by a simple transformation of elastic constants, the Airy stress function induced in the composite by a stretching singularity can be deduced from the deflection induced by a bending singularity. This result is significant for reduction of mathematical labour and for systematic construction of solutions for more complex structures with circular geometry.

  10. Bending Mechanical Behavior of Polyester Matrix Reinforced with Fique Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoé, Giulio Rodrigues; Netto, Pedro Amoy; Barcelos, Mariana; Gomes, André; Margem, Frederico Muylaert; Monteiro, Sergio Neves

    Environmentally correct composites, made from natural fibers, are among the most investigated and applied today. In this paper, we investigate the mechanical behavior of polyester matrix composites reinforced with continuous fique fibers, through bending tensile tests. Specimens containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% in volume of fique fiber were aligned along the entire length of a mold to create plates of these composites, those plates were cut following the ASTM standard to obtained bending tests specimens. The test was conducted in a Instron Machine and the fractured specimens were analyzed by SEM, the results showed the increase in the materials tensile properties with the increase of fiber amount.

  11. The shift of segmental contribution ratio in patients with herniated disc during cervical lateral bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Haw-Chang H; Chen, Han-Yu; Kuo, Li-Chieh; You, Jia-Yuan; Li, Wei-Chun; Wu, Shyi-Kuen

    2014-08-12

    Abnormal intervertebral movements of spine have been reported to be associated with trauma and pathological conditions. The importance of objective spinal motion imaging assessment in the frontal plane was frequently underestimated. The clinical evaluation of the segmental motion contribution could be useful for detecting the motion pattern of individual vertebrae. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the shift of segmental contribution ratio in patients with herniated disc during cervical lateral bending to provide additional insights to cervical biomechanics. A total of 92 subjects (46 healthy adult subjects and 46 disc-herniated patients) were enrolled in this case-control study. The motion images during cervical lateral bending movements were digitized using a precise image protocol to analyze the intervertebral motion and contribution. Our results showed that the intervertebral angulation during cervical lateral bending for the C2/3 to C6/7 segments were 7.66°±2.37°, 8.37°±2.11°, 8.91°±3.22°, 7.19°±2.29°, 6.31°±2.11°, respectively for the healthy subjects. For the patients with herniated disc, the intervertebral angulation for the C2/3 to C6/7 segments were 6.87°±1.67°, 7.83°±1.79°, 7.73°±2.71°, 5.13°±2.05°, 4.80°±1.93°, respectively. There were significant angulation and translational differences between healthy subjects and the patients with herniated disc in the C5/6 and C6/7 segments (P=0.001-0.029). The segmental contributions of the individual vertebral segments were further analyzed. There was a significant increase in segmental contribution ratio of C3/4 (P=0.048), while a significant decrease in contribution ratio of C5/6 (P=0.037) was observed in the patients with herniated disc. Our results indicated that the segmental contribution shifted toward the middle cervical spine in the patients with herniated disc. The segmental contributions of cervical spine during lateral bending movement were first

  12. On the formation and evolution of the Pannonian basin: constraints derived from the orogenic collapse recorded at the junction between Carpathians and Dinarides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenco, L. C.; Radivojevic, D.

    2012-04-01

    Formation and evolution of back-arc basins is related to the evolution of subduction zones, resulting geometries being dependent on the interplay between the velocity of retreating slabs and boundary conditions that often limit rapid subduction systems. Classical models of evolution in the Alps-Carpathians-Dinaridic domain assume that the formation of the Pannonian back-arc basin is related to the rapid roll-back of an European slab and the invasion of Tisza-Dacia and ALCAPA upper plate blocks into the so-called Carpathians embayment starting at ~20Ma. The general mechanism assumes a gradual evolution, an initial mechanical phase of extensional detachments being recognized near the transition between the Alps and the Pannonian basin was subsequently followed by upper crustal normal faulting and a thermal phase during the Middle-late Miocene times that affected the central part of the Pannonian basin. A key area of the entire system often neglected by kinematic studies is the connection between South Carpathians and Dinarides. Here, regional seismic lines traversing the entire Serbian part of the Pannonian basin were calibrated with well data in order to derive an evolutionary model. The deformation is dominantly expressed by the formation of extensional (half-)grabens that are the brittle expression of large-scale extensional detachments. In contrast with previous interpretation restricting the syn-rift phase to the Middle Miocene, the geometry of normal faults and the associated syn-kinematic sedimentation allows the definition of a continuous Early to Late Miocene extensional evolution that was followed by the formation of isolated uplifted areas during the subsequent Pliocene - Quaternary inversion. The orientation of these (half-)grabens changes gradually from W-E to NW-SE and then to N-S, suggesting that the present-day strike of faults is the effect of a clockwise rotational mechanism of South Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains in respect to Dinarides. The S

  13. Impedance-matching acoustic bend composed of perforated plates and side pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuzhen; Jia, Han; Lu, Wenjia; Sun, Zhaoyong; Yang, Jun

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we propose a design for an impedance-matching acoustic bend. The bending structure is composed of sub-wavelength unit cells containing perforated plates and side pipes that allow the mass density and the bulk modulus of each unit cell to be tuned simultaneously. The refractive index and the impedance of the acoustic bend can therefore be modulated simultaneously to guarantee both the bending effect and high acoustic transmission. The results of simulation of the sound pressure field distribution show that the bending effect of the proposed impedance-matching acoustic bend is very good. Transmission spectra are calculated for both the impedance-matching acoustic bend and an acoustic bend composed of the perforated plates alone for comparison. The results indicate that the impedance-matching acoustic bend successfully improves the impedance ratio while also obviously increasing the transmission.

  14. ROLE OF THE TOURISM SECTOR IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CARPATHIAN REGION: SOCIAL, EDUCATIONAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Kondur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources in the Carpathian region, favorable natural and geographical conditions give preference to the development of recreational industry over other types of industrial activity that provides: employment of people in recreational region, development of Ukraine and the recognition of its economy internationally, positive impact on the formation of individual. This necessitates a systematic study of a wide range of organizational problems, recreational planning and creation of new management models for tourist activities. Modern development of the tourism industry is associated with such socio-economic factors: the growth of social welfare and the effective demand for tourist services; increasing demand for vacation and recreation; urbanization and globalization; communicational and humanitarian factors; transformation of traditions, cultures and social consciousness; changes in the structure of spiritual values; increased leisure time etc.

  15. Stakeholder perspectives on climate change effects on tourism activities in the northern Romanian Carpathians: Vatra Dornei resort case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Irina Dincă

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Less approached by scientific literature, stakeholder perspective on the effects of climate change for tourism activities is a very actual topic. As an essential part of the complex study of climate – tourism relationship, it needs to be investigated and illustrated through study cases. The present paper approaches this original topic for Vatra Dornei complex spa and mountain resort. Located in the northern part of Romanian Carpathians this destination depends to a great extent on climate resources which show a clear variability of main parameters on which its outdoor activities are based. In this context the voice of stakeholders involved in the local tourism industry is of great importance to certify and illustrate previously obtained modeling evidences. The present paper consequently outlines the main results of a survey undertaken on the topic of climate change effects on tourism in Vatra Dornei in the attempt to better characterize this complex interrelationship.

  16. Magnetic fabric overprints in multi-deformed polymetamorphic rocks of the Gemeric Unit (Western Carpathians) and its tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrouda, František; Faryad, Shah Wali

    2017-10-01

    In the Gemeric Unit of the Central West Carpathians, the magnetic fabric was investigated in Early Palaeozoic metasediments and metavolcanics, Permian to Early Triassic granites, and Late Palaeozoic (molasse) metasediments. In addition to Variscan greenschist facies metamorphism in the Early Palaeozoic basement, all rocks underwent Cretaceous (Alpine) low-grade metamorphism, which significantly modified their mineral composition and fabric; original magnetic minerals were destroyed at least partially and new, mostly paramagnetic, minerals were created. In the Early Palaeozoic metasediments, the magnetic fabric is entirely metamorphic/deformational in origin. In metavolcanics, the magnetic foliations are partly parallel to the Alpine metamorphic foliations developed in relatively incompetent lithologies such as tuffs and tuffites and partly to disjunctive foliations developed in competent rhyolites and its subvolcanic members. Their magnetic fabrics probably represent gradual transition from Variscan to Alpine fabrics. In the Permian granites, the magnetic foliations are near the Alpine mesoscopic disjunctive foliations crosscutting metamorphic schistosity in contact aureoles of granite. In the Late Palaeozoic (molasse) metasediments, the magnetic foliations are near the Alpine metamorphic foliations that are mostly parallel to the original bedding. On regional scale, the magnetic fabrics show curved pattern indicating complex interactions between the Gemeric and underlain Veporic units in the final stages of intendation and collision. The magnetic fabric pattern in the Gemeric Unit roughly resembles that in the Veporic Unit. This results from similar tectonic movements operating at least during Cretaceous collision in both the units. This tectonic process occurred subsequent to the closure of the Meliata ocean and was responsible for creation of the final structure of the Central Western Carpathians. Nevertheless, in contrast to the Veporic unit, where dominantly

  17. Geochronology of the Neogene intrusive magmatism of the Oaș—Gutâi Mountains, Eastern Carpathians (NW Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Marinel; Pécskay, Zoltán; Fülöp, Alexandrina; Jurje, Maria; Edelstein, Oscar

    2013-12-01

    Earlier geological work in the Oaș-Gutâi Mts (OG), Eastern Carpathians, has revealed the extensive presence of shallow subvolcanic intrusive bodies, both exposed on the surface and covered by Paleogene-Neogene sedimentary sequences and Neogene volcanic formations. This study is based on detailed mapping and sampling of the OG Neogene intrusive magmatic rocks. Thirty seven representative intrusions (sills, dykes, microlaccoliths, etc.) were selected for radiometric dating. These intrusions show a wide variety of petrographic rock-types: from microgabbros to microgranodiorites and from basalts to andesites. However, the intrusions consist of typical calc-alkaline, medium-K rocks, similar to the volcanic rocks which outcrop in the same areas. The K-Ar age determinations on whole-rock samples of intrusions yielded ages between 11.9 Ma and 7.0 Ma (from Late Sarmatian to Middle Pannonian). The results are in good agreement with the common assumption, based on the biostratigraphic and geological data, that large volumes of intrusions have formed during the paroxysm of the intermediate volcanic activity in the OG. Except for the Firiza basalt intrusive complex of the Gutâi Mts (8.1-7.0 Ma), the OG intrusions show similar K-Ar ages as the intrusions of the "Subvolcanic Zone" and Călimani Mts from Eastern Carpathians. The timing of the OG intrusive magmatism partially overlaps with the timing of the intrusive magmatic activity in the Eastern Moravia and Pieniny Mts. The systematic radiometric datings in the whole OG give clear evidence that the hydrothermal activity related to the epithermal systems always postdates intrusion emplacement.

  18. Cretaceous—Quaternary tectonic evolution of the Tatra Mts (Western Carpathians: constraints from structural, sedimentary, geomorphological, and fission track data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králiková Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tatra Mts area, located in the northernmost part of Central Western Carpathians on the border between Slovakia and Poland, underwent a complex Alpine tectonic evolution. This study integrates structural, sedimentary, and geomorphological data combined with fission track data from the Variscan granite rocks to discuss the Cretaceous to Quaternary tectonic and landscape evolution of the Tatra Mts. The presented data can be correlated with five principal tectonic stages (TS, including neotectonics. TS-1 (~95-80 Ma is related to mid-Cretaceous nappe stacking when the Tatric Unit was overlain by Mesozoic sequences of the Fatric and Hronic Nappes. After nappe stacking the Tatric crystalline basement was exhumed (and cooled in response to the Late Cretaceous/Paleogene orogenic collapse followed by orogen-parallel extension. This is supported by 70 to 60 Ma old zircon fission track ages. Extensional tectonics were replaced by transpression to transtension during the Late Paleocene to Eocene (TS-2; ~80-45 Ma. TS-3 (~45-20 Ma is documented by thick Oligocene-lowermost Miocene sediments of the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin which kept the underlying Tatric crystalline basement at elevated temperatures (ca. > 120 °C and < 200 °C. The TS-4 (~20-7 Ma is linked to slow Miocene exhumation rate of the Tatric crystalline basement, as it is indicated by apatite fission track data of 9-12 Ma. The final shaping of the Tatra Mts has been linked to accelerated tectonic activity since the Pliocene (TS-5; ~7-0 Ma.

  19. Secondary flow in sharp open-channel bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanckaert, K.; De Vriend, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Secondary currents are a characteristic feature of flow in open-channel bends. Besides the classical helical motion (centre-region cell), a weaker and smaller counter-rotating circulation cell (outer-bank cell) is often observed near the outer bank, which is believed to play an important role in

  20. Bending It Like Beckham: How to Visually Fool the Goalkeeper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessing, J.C.; Craig, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: As bending free-kicks becomes the norm in modern day soccer, implications for goalkeepers have largely been ignored. Although it has been reported that poor sensitivity to visual acceleration makes it harder for expert goalkeepers to perceptually judge where the curved free-kicks will

  1. A Second Look at Brian Simon's "Bending the Rules"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In this article the author revisits an important book: Brian Simon's "Bending the Rules: the Baker reform of education." Written by a key figure in the history of the journal FORUM as well as in the history of education, Simon's book documented the features of the Education Reform Bill of 1987 (the precursor to the Education Reform Act…

  2. Predicting bending stiffness of randomly oriented hybrid panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Moya; William T.Y. Tze; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a simple model to predict the bending modulus of elasticity (MOE) of randomly oriented hybrid panels. The modeling process involved three modules: the behavior of a single layer was computed by applying micromechanics equations, layer properties were adjusted for densification effects, and the entire panel was modeled as a three-...

  3. Photoelastic stress analysis in mitred bend under internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawa, Yoshiaki

    1987-01-01

    The stress analysis and stress relaxation in mitred bend subjected to internal pressure have been studied by means of the photoelastic stress freezing method. The experimental results show that stress concentration occurs in the wedge tip of the intersectional plane and it is considerably influenced by the bent angle. Then, the stress relaxation was obtained by planing the wedge tip. (author)

  4. Effect of entry bending moment on exit curvature in asymmetrical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    increasing the reduction in thickness the average pressure is increased. Keywords: Asymmetrical Rolling; Modified Slab Method; Pressure Difference; Rolling Force; Bending Moment. 1. Introduction. In practice, rolling of plate and sheet asymmetry arises due to inequality in roll radii, roll velocity and interface friction. These.

  5. The Clinch Bend Regional Industrial Site and economic development opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This effort focuses initially on the Clinch Bend site. Other sites and developable tracts of land are identified with the assistance of communities in proximity to Oak Ridge, the State of Tennessee, and others, and compared with the projected site requirements for large industrial facilities.

  6. Analysis of Bending Waves in Phononic Crystal Beams with Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing investigations on imperfect phononic crystal beams mainly concern periodic multi-span beams carrying either one or two channel waves with random or deterministic disorder in span-length. This paper studies the two channel bending waves in phononic crystal beams consisting of many phases of materials with defects introduced as one structural segment having different cross-sectional dimensions or material parameters. The method of reverberation-ray matrix (MRRM based on the Timoshenko beam theory, which can conduct high-frequency analysis, is extended for the theoretical analysis of dispersion and transmission of bending waves. The supercell technique and the Floquet–Bloch theorem are adopted for modeling the dispersion characteristics, and the whole finite structural model is used to calculate the transmission spectra. Experimental measurements and numerical calculations are provided to validate the displacement transmission obtained by the proposed MRRM, with the effect of damping on transmission spectra being concerned. The high-frequency calculation applicability of the proposed MRRM is also confirmed by comparing the present results with the corresponding ones either using the transfer matrix method (TMM or MRRM based on Euler—Bernoulli beam theory. The influences of defect size, defect form, and unit-cell number on the transmission spectra and the band structures are discussed. The drawn conclusions may be useful for designing or evaluating the defected phononic crystal beams in bending wave control. In addition, our conclusions are especially potential for identifying the defect location through bending wave signals.

  7. Bend-twist coupling potential of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, Vladimir; Berggreen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    -twist coupling magnitude of up to 0.2 is feasible to achieve in the baseline blade structure made of glass-fiber reinforced plastics. Further, by substituting the glass-fibers with carbon-fibers the coupling effect can be increased to 0.4. Additionally, the effect of introduction of bend-twist coupling...

  8. High precision optical fiber alignment using tube laser bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkersma, Ger; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Herder, Justus Laurens

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method to align optical fibers within 0.2 μm of the optimal position, using tube laser bending and in situ measuring of the coupling efficiency. For near-UV wavelengths, passive alignment of the fibers with respect to the waveguides on photonic integrated circuit chips

  9. Sediment transport in an active erodible channel bend of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and sediment transport modelling in a curved channel (Chang 1988). ... spiral motion of the flow directed normal to the main flow and the super-elevation of the water surface. The secondary current, which develops upon entering a channel bend, will eventually ... from flume studies and calibrated using the river data.

  10. Asymptotic results for bifurcations in pure bending of rubber blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Coman, Ciprian; Destrade, Michel

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The bifurcation of an incompressible neo-Hookean thick block with a ratio of thickness to length {eta}, subject to pure bending, is considered. The two incremental equilibrium equations corresponding to a nonlinear pre-buckling state of strain are reduced to a fourth-order linear eigenproblem that displays a multiple turning point. It is found that for 0 {infty} dege...

  11. Ultrathin 90-degree sharp bends for spoof surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yihao; Chen, Hongsheng; Xiao, Sanshui

    2015-01-01

    surface plasmons around 90-degree sharp bends on ultrathin metallic films in the microwave regime. We demonstrate that by judiciously engineering the structure, the dispersion relation can be designed to reduce the scattering. Furthermore, the reflection can be suppressed by proper structural decoration...

  12. Steam bending qualities of eight timber species of Ghana | Ayarkwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steam bending qualities of eight lesser used timber species of Ghana have been studied and compared with the quality of Mahogany (Khaya spp), a fast diminishing noble species, with the view to providing information for the furniture and glulam industries. Wood samples collected from three ecological forest zones of ...

  13. Flow resistance in a compound gravel-bed bend

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    centrifugal force having a lateral momentum transfer. This force disappears after leaving a bend exit. Thus, the turbulent shear stress is the resistance that the flow has to overcome in transforming from a primary flow into a secondary flow pattern and vice versa. The increase in flow resistance in a meandering path can be ...

  14. Study of sharp bends in anisotropic potassium double tungstate waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbink, T.; Sefünç, Mustafa; Pollnau, Markus; García Blanco, Sonia Maria

    Rare earth ion doped potassium double tungstate gain materials have recently shown a great promise for the development of waveguide amplifiers and lasers exhibiting excellent performance. To enable the use of this material in larger nanophotonic platforms, sharp bends are required. In this work we

  15. Reliability Analysis of Bending, Shear and Deflection Criteria of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliability analysis of the safety levels of the criteria for bending, shear and deflection of singly reinforced, concrete slabs, have been evaluated over the practical range of thicknesses 100mm to 250mm. The First Order Reliability Method was employed in the evaluation procedure for continuous slabs of equal spans as a ...

  16. Adoption of improved rice varieties by farmers in Bende local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the adoption of improved rice varieties by farmers in Bende Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select a total of 120 rice farmers. Descriptive statistics and tobit regression model were employed to analyze the data. Results showed that ...

  17. Bolted flanged connections subjected to longitudinal bending moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blach, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Flanges in piping systems and also pressure vessel flanges on tall columns are often subjected to longitudinal bending moments of considerable magnitude, be it from thermal expansion stresses in piping systems or from wind or seismic loadings on tall vertical pressure vessels. Except for the ASME Code, Section III, Subsections NB, NC, and ND, other pressure vessel and piping codes do not contain design ASME Nuclear Power Plant Code (Section III), an empirical formula is given, expressing a longitudinal bending moment in bolted flanged connections in terms of an equivalent internal pressure to be added to the design pressure of the flange. In this paper, an attempt is made to analyse the stresses on flanges and bolting due to external bending moments and to compare flange thicknesses thus obtained with thicknesses required using the equivalent design pressure specified in Subsections NB, NC, and ND. A design method is proposed, based on analysis and experimental work, which may be suitable for flange bending moment analysis when the rules of the Nuclear Power Plant Code are not mandatory. (orig.)

  18. Correlation between pipe bend geometry and allowable pressure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of allowable pressure, which is one of the important criteria to evaluate the acceptability of pipe bends with shape irregularities, is complex as the analytical solution of the problem involves solution of complex differential equations. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used in this paper to determine the ...

  19. A Note on Stress Function Discontinuities in Plane Plastic Bending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variational and differential equation formulations of the stress function problem for combined plane bending and torsion of a fully plastic material are discussed. The nature of discontinuities to be expected as well as the actual degree of correspondence between the two formulations is determined. A modification of the ...

  20. Tidal bending of glaciers: a linear viscoelastic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels; Christensen, Erik Lintz; Mayer, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    In theoretical treatments of tidal bending of floating glaciers, the glacier is usually modelled as an elastic beam with uniform thickness, resting on an elastic foundation. With a few exceptions, values of the elastic (Young's) modulus E of ice derived from tidal deflection records of floating...

  1. Magnetically assisted bilayer composites for soft bending actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jang, S.H.; Na, Seon Hong; Park, Yong Lae

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically

  2. Bending strategies of convergently-evolved, articulated coralline algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, Kyra G; Martone, Patrick T

    2018-03-05

    The evolution of uncalcified genicula in upright, calcified corallines has occurred at least three times independently, resulting in articulated corallines within Corallinoideae, Lithophylloideae, and Metagoniolithoideae. Genicula confer flexibility to otherwise rigid thalli, and the localization of bending at discrete intervals amplifies bending stress in genicular tissue. Genicular morphology must therefore be balanced between maintaining flexibility while mitigating or resisting stress. Genicula in the three articulated lineages differ in both cellular construction and development, which may result in different constraints on morphology. By studying the interaction between flexibility and morphological variation in multiple species, we investigate whether representatives of convergently evolving clades follow similar strategies to generate mechanically successful articulated fronds. By using computational models to explore different bending strategies, we show that there are multiple ways to generate flexibility in upright corallines but that not all morphological strategies are mechanically equivalent. Corallinoids have many joints, lithophylloids have pliant joints, and metagoniolithoids have longer joints - while these strategies can lead to comparable thallus flexibility, they also lead to different levels of stress amplification in bending. Moreover, genicula at greatest risk of stress amplification are typically the strongest, universally mitigating the trade-off between flexibility and stress reduction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Tidal bending of glaciers: a linear viscoelastic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels; Christensen, Erik Lintz; Mayer, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    glaciers are in the range 0.9-3 GPa. It has therefore been suggested that the elastic-beam model with a single value of E approximate to 1 GPa adequately describes tidal bending of glaciers.In contrast, laboratory experiments with ice give E =93 GPa, i.e. 3-10 times higher than the glacier-derived values...

  4. Timoshenko-Wagner-Kappus Torsion Bending Theory and Wind ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Timoshenko-Wagner-Kappus Torsion Bending. Theory and Wind Tunnel Balance Design. S P Govinda Raju and K R Y Simha. S P Govinda Raju is a. Professor at the. Aero- space Engineering. Department, Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His interests are fluid mechanics, aircraft design, testing and analysis.

  5. BENDING OF REINFORCING BARS TESTING METHOD AND INFLUENCE ON STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Warsianto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcing bars in concrete elements functions as the component carrying tensile stresses after concretecracking. This is due to that fact that concrete exhibit very high compression strength combined with avery low tensile capacity. The tensile stressed are transferred to the bars by the bond between thereinforcement and the concrete.Bars are generally produced in strands 6 to 12 meter in length so that bending for transportation andhandling purposes becomes necessary. At the site bars are straightened, and then sometimes re-bent forassembling purposes. This process will result in a loading and re-loading of steel.The ASTM E-290 mandated that bars have to pass the bending test, whereas reinforcing steel bars arebend to almost 1800 to ensure material ductility. In the past five years the Construction and MaterialLaboratory, Diponegoro University has been questioned with the issue as to how far this bending andstraightening influences the quality and what the significance of testing is.This paper will evaluate theinfluence of bending and straightening and the testing procedure involved.

  6. Multiphase fluid structure interaction in bends and T-joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cargnelutti, M.F.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Schiferli, W.; Osch, M.M.E. van

    2010-01-01

    Air-water experiments were carried out in a horizontal 1" pipe system to measure the magnitude of the forces induced by the multiphase flow. Forces and accelerations were measured on a number of bends and T-joint configurations for a wide range of operating conditions. Five different configurations

  7. Sediment transport in an active erodible channel bend of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spatial variation of sediment transport in an alluvial sand-bed river bend needs to be understood with ... Local variation of sediment transport is primarily controlled by active bank erosion, land spur and sand bar ..... of Water, Environment, Energy and Society (WEES)-2009, New Delhi, India, 1670–1676. Karmaker T, Dutta S ...

  8. Residual bending behaviour of sandwich composites after impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Weijermars, Wouter

    2018-01-01

    This work investigates the residual mechanical behaviour of composite sandwich panels in bending after impact loading conditions. The sandwich panels were made of an epoxy/glass face sheet with three different core materials: styrene acrylonitrile foam, polyethylene terephthalate foam and Balsa

  9. Bi-2212/Ag tapes and laminates: effects of bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyushechkin, A.Y.; Yamashita, T.; Williams, B.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Superconducting Bi-2212 tapes and laminates are fabricated by a combination of dip-coating and partial melt processing. The heat treated tapes have critical current densities (J c ) up to 11 kA cm -2 . We investigate the degradation of critical current (I c ) during bending experiments for both single tapes and tapes with laminate structure. Although degradation of I c is observed in both forms, the characteristics of the degradation differ. It is determined that laminated tapes perform better than single tapes when critical current is measured against bending radius, and laminated tapes tolerate a higher strain for a given reduction in critical current. It is found that increasing the number of Bi-2212 layers increases the total I c of the laminated tape, but degradation of critical current is more pronounced during bending because of the increased total thickness of the laminate structure. It is also found that addition of silver to the Bi-2212 layers reduces critical current degradation during bending for both tapes and laminates. (author)

  10. A Novel Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Using First Bending Hybrid Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel rotary piezoelectric motor using bending transducers in this work. Three transducers are used to drive a disk-shaped rotor together by the elliptical movements of their driving tips; these motions are produced by the hybrid of two first bending vibration modes. The proposed piezoelectric transducer has a simple structure as it only contains an aluminum alloy beam and four pieces of PZT plates. Symmetrical structure is the only necessary condition in the design process as it will ensure the resonance frequencies of the two orthogonal first bending modes are equal. Transducers with first bending resonance frequency of about 53 kHz were fabricated and assembled into a rotary motor. The proposed motor exhibits good performance on speed and torque control. Under a working frequency of 53.2 kHz, the maximum no-load speed and the maximum torque of the prototype are tested to be 53.3 rpm and of 27 mN·m.

  11. Timoshenko–Wagner–Kappus Torsion Bending Theory and Wind ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 10. Timoshenko–Wagner–Kappus Torsion Bending Theory and Wind Tunnel Balance Design. S P Govinda Raju K R Y Simha. General Article Volume 7 Issue 10 October 2002 pp 54-58 ...

  12. Effect of entry bending moment on exit curvature in asymmetrical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, employing a bending moment at entry of the roll gap in a symmetrical rolling process causes pressure difference on the rolls and warping at the outlet, as happens in an asymmetrical rolling process. Similarly, increasing the roll diameter ratio increases the pressure differences, but the average pressure between ...

  13. Development of vehicle model test-bending of a simple structural surfaces model for automotive vehicle sedan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, M. K. Mohd; Noordin, A.; Ruzali, M. F. S.; Hussen, M. H.; Mustapa@Othman, N.

    2017-04-01

    Simple Structural Surfaces (SSS) method is offered as a means of organizing the process for rationalizing the basic vehicle body structure load paths. The application of this simplified approach is highly beneficial in the development of modern passenger car structure design. In Malaysia, the SSS topic has been widely adopted and seems compulsory in various automotive programs related to automotive vehicle structures in many higher education institutions. However, there is no real physical model of SSS available to gain considerable insight and understanding into the function of each major subassembly in the whole vehicle structures. Based on this motivation, a real physical SSS of sedan model and the corresponding model vehicle tests of bending is proposed in this work. The proposed approach is relatively easy to understand as compared to Finite Element Method (FEM). The results prove that the proposed vehicle model test is useful to physically demonstrate the importance of providing continuous load path using the necessary structural components within the vehicle structures. It is clearly observed that the global bending stiffness reduce significantly when more panels are removed from the complete SSS model. The analysis shows the front parcel shelf is an important subassembly to sustain bending load.

  14. Protoliths of the high-pressure tectonic blocks from the South Carpathians basement units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negulescu, Elena; Săbău, Gavril; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    LMS with a similar kind of REE-patterns. Some E-MORB type eclogites and metagabbronorites from the LM are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE (Nb, Zr, Ti). The consequences of the geochemical features are also supported by relict magmatic microtextures. Many eclogites contain microdomains indicating precursor phases replaced by eclogitic assemblages: (1) idiomorphic shapes of former Ti-rich clinopyroxene phenocrystals, replaced by garnet and omphacite, marked by cloudy areas containing rutile dust; (2) prismatic garnet pseudomorphs after plagioclase (3) sharply-delimited domains in composite garnet with abundant quartz inclusions outlining former plagioclase contours; and (4) omphacite replacing magmatic pyroxenes. The geochemical, petrological and thermobaric data available for the South Carpathians HP/low-medium temperature complexes document geochemical and thermobaric contrasts among adjacent lithologies, as well as ocean-derived protoliths enclosed in upper crustal rocks, in apparent structural congruence. This structural setting indicates an intricate tectonometamorphic history involving collision-associated stacking, crustal imbrications, and amalgamation of units originating from distinct continental blocks. Negulescu E. et al. (2009) Journal of Petrology 50/1, 103-125. Niggli P. (1954) Rocks and mineral Deposits. San Francisco, Freeman, 559p. Mullen E. D. (1983) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 62, 53-62.

  15. Applications of Cs-137 and soil trapping methods for studying slope processes in the Carpathian foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelmicki, Wojciech

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Areas of soil degradation and sedimentation have been delimited within a single, representative for the Carpathian Foothills, slope profile. Two methods: Cs-137 and soil trapping have been used. Soil degradation on the slope used as a pastureland is generally small, with the most intensive degradation in the mid slope. Once the slope was cultivated the process of erosion and soil wash must have been more intensive which is evidenced by high Cs-137 content within the valley bottom deposits. High Cs-137 content within forested ecosystems results from good Cs-137 trapping efficiency of forests rather than from the soil deposition.

    [es] Aplicación del Cs-137 y de métodos de trampeo de suelo para estudiar procesos de ladera en el piedemonte de los Cárpatos. Se han delimitado las áreas afectadas por erosión y sedimentación en un perfil de ladera, representativo del piedemonte de los Cárpatos. Se han empleado dos métodos: Cesio-137 y trampas de sedimentos. Se ha demostrado que la erosión del suelo en laderas utilizadas para pastos es generalmente pequeña, apareciendo las degradaciones más intensas a media ladera. Cuando la ladera estaba cultivada, los procesos de erosión debían ser más intensos, como lo evidencia el alto contenido de Cs-137 en los depósitos de fondo de valle. El elevado contenido de Cs-137 en ecosistemas forestales se debe a la eficacia de los bosques para atrapar el Cs-137, más que a la sedimentación.
    [de] Anwendung der Cs-137 und der Fangmethode zur bestimmung der Hangvorgänge im Karpatenhügelland. Entlang eines Hangprofíls innerhalb des Karpatenhügellandes sind Stellen ermitteit worden an denen, entweder Erosion oder Deposition festgestellt wurden. Das wurde aufgrund zweier fvlethoden bestimmt: anhand des radioaktiven Cs-137 und der Menge des erodierten Materials in eigens für diesen Zweck hergestellten Auffangbehältern. Es wurde festgestellt, dass aufeinem ais Weide genutzten Han die Intensit

  16. Ligament rupture and unstable burst behaviors of axial flaws in steam generator U-bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Oh, Young-Jin; Majumdar, Saurin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ligament rupture and unstable burst pressure tests were conducted with U-bends. • In general, U-bends showed higher ligament rupture and burst pressures than straight tubes. • U-bend test data was bounded by 90% lower limit of the probabilistic models for straight tubes. • Prediction models for straight tubes could be conservatively applied to U-bends. - Abstract: Incidents of U-bend cracking in steam generator (SG) tubes have been reported, some of which have led to tube rupture. Experimental and analytical modeling efforts to determine the failure criteria of flawed SG U-bends are limited. To evaluate structural integrity of flawed U-bends, ligament rupture and unstable burst pressure tests were conducted on 57 and 152 mm bend radius U-bends with axial electrical discharge machining notches. In general, the ligament rupture and burst pressures of the U-bends were higher than those of straight tubes with similar notches. To quantitatively address the test data scatter issue, probabilistic models were introduced. All ligament rupture and burst pressures of U-bends were bounded by 90% lower limits of the probabilistic models for straight tubes. It was concluded that the prediction models for straight tubes could be applied to U-bends to conservatively evaluate the ligament rupture and burst pressures of U-bends with axial flaws.

  17. The evolution of Eastern Tornquist-Paleoasian Ocean and subsequent continental collisions: A case study from the Western Tatra Mountains, Central Western Carpathians (Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Gawęda; Jolanta Burda; Jan Golonka; Urs Klötzli; David Chew; Krzysztof Szopa; Michael Wiedenbeck

    2017-01-01

    The crystalline basement of the Tatra Mountains in the Central Western Carpathians, forms part of the European Variscides and contains fragments of Gondwanan provenance. Metabasite rocks of MORB affinity in the Tatra Mountains are represented by two suites of amphibolites present in two metamorphic units (the Ornak and Goryczkowa Units) intercalated with metapelitic rocks. They are interpreted as relics of ocean crust, with zircon δ18OVSMOW values of 4.97–6.96‰. Zircon REE patterns suggest ox...

  18. Tracing metamorphism, exhumation and topographic evolution in orogenic belts by multiple thermochronology: a case study from the Nízke Tatry Mts., Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danišík, M.; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Glotzbach, Ch.; Weisheit, A.; Dunkl, I.; Kohút, M.; Evans, N. J.; Orvošová, M.; McDonald, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 2 (2011), s. 285-298 ISSN 1661-8726 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : (U–Th–[Sm])/He dating * fission track dating * thermal modelling * exhumation * zircon * apatite * Nízké Tatry Mts. * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2011

  19. The impact of Outer Western Carpathian nappe tectonics on the recent stress-strain state in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Moravosilesian Zone, Bohemian Massif)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ptáček, Jiří; Grygar, R.; Koníček, Petr; Waclawik, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2012), s. 3-11 ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/08/1625 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Variscan orogeny * Upper Silesian Coal Basin * recent stress fields * Outer Western Carpathians * paleostress Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.143, year: 2012 http://versita.metapress.com/content/0326174t34663755/

  20. Seismic velocity model of the crust and upper mantle along profile PANCAKE across the Carpathians between the Pannonian Basin and the East European Craton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostenko, V.; Janik, T.; Kolomiyets, K.

    2013-01-01

    Results are presented of a seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction survey along a profile between the Pannonian Basin (PB) and the East European Craton (EEC) called PANCAKE. The P- and S-wave velocity model derived can be divided into three sectors: the PB; the Carpathians, including the Transca......Results are presented of a seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction survey along a profile between the Pannonian Basin (PB) and the East European Craton (EEC) called PANCAKE. The P- and S-wave velocity model derived can be divided into three sectors: the PB; the Carpathians, including...... the Transcarpathian Depression and the Carpathian Foredeep; and the south-western part of the EEC, including the Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ). Seismic data support a robust model of the Vp velocity structure of the crust. In the PB, the 22-23km thick crust consists of a 2-5km thick sedimentary layer (Vp=2...... of the lower crust towards the Ukrainian Shield, where a high velocity lower crust (Vp>7.2km/s) is observed. Two low-velocity lenses in the upper crust of the EEC are interpreted beneath major sedimentary troughs (Lviv and Volyn-Podolsk). Mantle reflectors are observed at depths of ~45km and ~75km below the PB...

  1. A Middle Triassic pachypleurosaur (Diapsida: Eosauropterygia) from a restricted carbonate ramp in the Western Carpathians (Gutenstein Formation, Fatric Unit): paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerňanský, Andrej; Klein, Nicole; Soták, Ján; Olšavský, Mário; Šurka, Juraj; Herich, Pavel

    2018-02-01

    An eosauropterygian skeleton found in the Middle Triassic (upper Anisian) Gutenstein Formation of the Fatric Unit (Demänovská dolina Valley, Low Tatra Mountains, Slovakia) represents the earliest known occurrence of marine tetrapods in the Western Carpathians. The specimen represents a partly articulated portion of the postcranial skeleton (nine dorsal vertebrae, coracoid, ribs, gastral ribs, pelvic girdle, femur and one zeugopodial element). It is assigned to the Pachypleurosauria, more precisely to the Serpianosaurus-Neusticosaurus clade based on the following combination of features: (1) small body size; (2) morphology of vertebrae, ribs and femur; (3) tripartite gastral ribs; and (4) microanatomy of the femur as revealed by μCT. Members of this clade were described from the epicontinental Germanic Basin and the Alpine Triassic (now southern Germany, Switzerland, Italy), and possibly from Spain. This finding shows that pachypleurosaur reptiles attained a broader geographical distribution during the Middle Triassic, with their geographical range reaching to the Central Western Carpathians. Pachypleurosaurs are often found in sediments formed in shallow, hypersaline carbonate-platform environments. The specimen found here occurs in a succession with vermicular limestones in a shallow subtidal zone and stromatolitic limestones in a peritidal zone, indicating that pachypleurosaurs inhabited hypersaline, restricted carbonate ramps in the Western Carpathians.

  2. A Middle Triassic pachypleurosaur (Diapsida: Eosauropterygia from a restricted carbonate ramp in the Western Carpathians (Gutenstein Formation, Fatric Unit: paleogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čerňanský Andrej

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An eosauropterygian skeleton found in the Middle Triassic (upper Anisian Gutenstein Formation of the Fatric Unit (Demänovská dolina Valley, Low Tatra Mountains, Slovakia represents the earliest known occurrence of marine tetrapods in the Western Carpathians. The specimen represents a partly articulated portion of the postcranial skeleton (nine dorsal vertebrae, coracoid, ribs, gastral ribs, pelvic girdle, femur and one zeugopodial element. It is assigned to the Pachypleurosauria, more precisely to the Serpianosaurus–Neusticosaurus clade based on the following combination of features: (1 small body size; (2 morphology of vertebrae, ribs and femur; (3 tripartite gastral ribs; and (4 microanatomy of the femur as revealed by μCT. Members of this clade were described from the epicontinental Germanic Basin and the Alpine Triassic (now southern Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and possibly from Spain. This finding shows that pachypleurosaur reptiles attained a broader geographical distribution during the Middle Triassic, with their geographical range reaching to the Central Western Carpathians. Pachypleurosaurs are often found in sediments formed in shallow, hypersaline carbonate-platform environments. The specimen found here occurs in a succession with vermicular limestones in a shallow subtidal zone and stromatolitic limestones in a peritidal zone, indicating that pachypleurosaurs inhabited hypersaline, restricted carbonate ramps in the Western Carpathians.

  3. Effects of bending and heat on the ductility and fracture toughness of flange plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Bridge fabricators for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) have occasionally experienced the : formation of cracks in flange plate during bending operations, particularly when heat is applied. Bending the : flange plate is necessary for ce...

  4. Respiratory monitoring system based on fiber optic macro bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri; Widyakinanti, Astari; Dhia, Arika; Gumelar, Muhammad Raditya; Widianto, Arif; Randy, Muhammad; Soedibyo, Harry

    2018-02-01

    We proposed a respiratory monitoring system for living activities in human body based on fiber optic macro-bending for laboratory scale. The respiration sensor consists of a single-mode optical fiber and operating on a wavelength at around 1550 nm. The fiber optic was integrated into an elastic fabric placed on the chest and stomach of the monitored human subject. Deformations of the flexible textile involving deformations of the fiber optic bending curvature, which was proportional to the chest and stomach expansion. The deformation of the fiber was detected using photodetector and processed using microcontroller PIC18F14K50. The results showed that this system able to display various respiration pattern and rate for sleeping, and after walking and running activities in real time.

  5. Coupled Torsional and Bending Vibrations of Actively Controlled Drillstrings

    Science.gov (United States)

    YIGIT, A. S.; CHRISTOFOROU, A. P.

    2000-06-01

    The dynamics of actively controlled drillstrings is studied. The equations of motion are derived using a lumped parameter model in which the coupling between torsional and bending vibrations is considered. The model also includes the dynamics of the rotary drive system which contains the rotary table, the gearbox and an armature controlled DC motor. The interactions between the drillstring and the borehole which are considered, include the impacts of collars with the borehole wall as well as bit rotation-dependent weight and torque on bit (WOB and TOB). Simulation results obtained by numerically solving the equations of motion are in close qualitative agreement with field and laboratory observations regarding stick-slip oscillations. A linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is designed based on a linearized model and is shown to be effective in eliminating this type of oscillations. It is also shown that for some operational parameters the control action may excite large bending vibrations due to coupling with the torsional motion.

  6. Unexpected decoupling of stretching and bending modes in protein gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaud, Thomas; Zaccone, Alessio; Del Gado, Emanuela; Trappe, Véronique; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2013-02-01

    We show that gels formed by arrested spinodal decomposition of protein solutions exhibit elastic properties in two distinct frequency domains, both elastic moduli exhibiting a remarkably strong dependence on volume fraction. Considering the large difference between the protein size and the characteristic length of the network we model the gels as porous media and show that the high and low frequency elastic moduli can be respectively attributed to stretching and bending modes. The unexpected decoupling of the two modes in the frequency domain is attributed to the length scale involved: while stretching mainly relates to the relative displacement of two particles, bending involves the deformation of a strand with a thickness of the order of a thousand particle diameters.

  7. Ultrasonic Motor Using Bending Modes with Single Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new ultrasonic motor using bending modes with single foot is proposed in this study. Two groups of PZT elements are clamped between two horns and two ending caps, respectively, by bolts. Two horns are connected by the driving foot in the middle of the motor. Two orthogonal 3rd bending vibrations of the motor are superimposed and generate elliptical movement at the driving foot. The structure and working principle of the proposed motor are introduced. The structure parameters of the motor are obtained via the ANSYS software. A prototype is fabricated and tested using an impedance analyzer and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. The maximum mechanical output force and power of the prototype are measured to be 23 N and 2.9 W, respectively.

  8. The oroclinal bend in the South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, N.

    2014-07-01

    Most of the South Island of New Zealand lies within an Eocene-Recent continental shear zone related to Pacific-Australia plate motion. Macroscopic finite strain in this shear zone has, in the past, been tracked through the deformation of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt. This paper identifies additional sub-vertical basement strain markers including: Buller-Takaka Terrane boundary, Darran Suite and Jurassic volcanic belt within the Median Batholith, Taieri-Wakatipu-Goulter Synform axial trace, Esk Head Melange and bedding form surfaces within the Buller, Takaka and Torlesse terranes. An analysis of the oroclinal bend over the entire Zealandia continent shows that it is a composite feature involving pre- as well as post-Eocene bending of basement structures. Satisfactory paleogeographic reconstructions of Zealandia cannot be made without the use of substantial regional scale, non-rigid intracontinental deformation.

  9. Failure mechanism of PMI foam core sandwich beam in bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymethacrylimide (PMI foams have been widely applied in aerospace engineering as the core material of sandwich structures. This paper proposes a modified model to predict the constitutive relation of PMI foams and compares it to existing testing data. The study is then applied to the investigation of the failure mechanism of PMI foam core sandwich beams in bending. Corresponding bending tests were carried out where a complex failure process was observed through a high-speed camera. Numerical model of the foregoing sandwich beam is developed, in which the maximum principal stress criteria is used to predict damage propagation in PMI foam core. Both results from tests and numerical simulation validate the reliability of the theoretical prediction of the failure of PMI foam core sandwich beam using the proposed modified model of PMI foams. This study provides a theoretic tool for the design of sandwich structures with PMI foam core.

  10. A plant-inspired robot with soft differential bending capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, A; Mondini, A; Del Dottore, E; Mattoli, V; Beccai, L; Taccola, S; Lucarotti, C; Totaro, M; Mazzolai, B

    2016-12-20

    We present the design and development of a plant-inspired robot, named Plantoid, with sensorized robotic roots. Natural roots have a multi-sensing capability and show a soft bending behaviour to follow or escape from various environmental parameters (i.e., tropisms). Analogously, we implement soft bending capabilities in our robotic roots by designing and integrating soft spring-based actuation (SSBA) systems using helical springs to transmit the motor power in a compliant manner. Each robotic tip integrates four different sensors, including customised flexible touch and innovative humidity sensors together with commercial gravity and temperature sensors. We show how the embedded sensing capabilities together with a root-inspired control algorithm lead to the implementation of tropic behaviours. Future applications for such plant-inspired technologies include soil monitoring and exploration, useful for agriculture and environmental fields.

  11. A Low Frequency FBG Accelerometer with Symmetrical Bended Spring Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fufei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the requirements for low-frequency vibration monitoring, a new type of FBG (fiber Bragg grating accelerometer with a bended spring plate is proposed. Two symmetrical bended spring plates are used as elastic elements, which drive the FBG to produce axial strains equal in magnitude but opposite in direction when exciting vibrations exist, leading to doubling the wavelength shift of the FBG. The mechanics model and a numerical method are presented in this paper, with which the influence of the structural parameters on the sensitivity and the eigenfrequency are discussed. The test results show that the sensitivity of the accelerometer is more than 1000 pm/g when the frequency is within the 0.7–20 Hz range.

  12. A thermo-viscoelastic approach for the characterization and modeling of the bending behavior of thermoplastic composites – Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ropers, Steffen; Sachs, Ulrich; Kardos, Marton; Osswald, Tim A.

    2017-01-01

    A proper description of the bending behavior is crucial to obtain accurate forming simulations, especially for continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites. These materials exhibit a highly temperature and bending-curvature dependent bending stiffness. These dependencies make the property

  13. Effect of hexane treatment and uniaxial stretching on bending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... β31, defined as the bending piezoelectric stress constant, was calculated. After hexane treatment and uniaxial stretching of the PVDF film, the value of β31 was 5.75 mV/m and 8.00 mV/m for draw ratio of 1.5 and 2.5 was recorded. Fourier transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectrophotometry was used for structural investigations.

  14. Multi layer chromosome organization through DNA bending, bridging and extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, S.

    2014-01-01

    All living cells have to master the extraordinarily extended and tangly nature of genomic DNA molecules in particular during cell division when sister chromosomes are resolved from one another and confined to opposite halves of a cell. Bacteria have evolved diverse sets of proteins, which collectively ensure the formation of compact and yet highly dynamic nucleoids. Some of these players act locally by changing the path of DNA through the bending of its double helical backbone. Other proteins...

  15. Concept for a self-correcting sheet metal bending operation

    OpenAIRE

    Damerow, U.; Tabakajew, D.; Borzykh, M.; Schaermann, W.; Homberg, W.; Trächtler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Geometrical deviations can appear in the production of plug contacts used in electrical connection technology and in fittings for the furniture industry. The reasons for this can be a variation in the properties of the semi-finished product, or wear phenomena on the forming machine itself or on the bending tools. When geometrical deviations appear, the process parameters normally have to be adjusted manually. Finding the most appropriate process parameters is currently done manually and is th...

  16. Suitability of sheet bending modelling techniques in CAPP applications

    OpenAIRE

    Streppel, A.H.; de Vin, L.J.; de Vin, L.J.; Brinkman, J.; Brinkman, J.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The use of CNC machine tools, together with decreasing lot sizes and stricter tolerance prescriptions, has led to changes in sheet-metal part manufacturing. In this paper, problems introduced by the difference between the actual material behaviour and the results obtained from analytical models and FEM simulations are discussed against the background of the required predictable accuracy in small-batch part manufacturing and FMS environments. The topics are limited to those relevant to bending...

  17. Magnetically Assisted Bilayer Composites for Soft Bending Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Sung-Hwan; Na, Seon-Hong; Park, Yong-Lae

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically distributed them by applying a strong non-uniform magnetic field to one side of the mold during the curing process. The biased magnetic field induces sedimentation of the ferromagnetic particles toward o...

  18. Orbital dynamics in a storage ring with electrostatic bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    A storage ring where electrostatic fields contribute to the bending and focusing of the orbital motion has some novel features because, unlike a magnetostatic field, an electrostatic field can change the kinetic energy of the particles. I present analytical formulas to calculate the linear focusing gradient, dispersion, momentum compaction and natural chromaticity for a storage ring with a radial electrostatic field. I solve the formulas explicitly for a weak focusing model.

  19. The proteome of Populus nigra woody root: response to bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trupiano, Dalila; Rocco, Mariapina; Renzone, Giovanni; Scaloni, Andrea; Viscosi, Vincenzo; Chiatante, Donato; Scippa, Gabriella S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Morphological and biomechanical alterations occurring in woody roots of many plant species in response to mechanical stresses are well documented; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating these important alterations. The first forest tree genome to be decoded is that of Populus, thereby providing a tool with which to investigate the mechanisms controlling adaptation of woody roots to changing environments. The aim of this study was to use a proteomic approach to investigate the response of Populus nigra woody taproot to mechanical stress. Methods To simulate mechanical perturbations, the taproots of 30 one-year-old seedlings were bent to an angle of 90 ° using a steel net. A spatial and temporal two-dimensional proteome map of the taproot axis was obtained. We compared the events occurring in the above-bending, central bending and below-bending sectors of the taproot. Key Results The first poplar woody taproot proteome map is reported here; a total of 207 proteins were identified. Spatial and temporal proteomic analysis revealed that factors involved in plant defence, metabolism, reaction wood formation and lateral root development were differentially expressed in the various sectors of bent vs. control roots, seemingly in relation to the distribution of mechanical forces along the stressed woody taproots. A complex interplay among different signal transduction pathways involving reactive oxygen species appears to modulate these responses. Conclusions Poplar woody root uses different temporal and spatial mechanisms to respond to mechanical stress. Long-term bending treatment seem to reinforce the defence machinery, thereby enabling the taproot to better overcome winter and to be ready to resume growth earlier than controls. PMID:22437664

  20. PREDICTION OF BASALT FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT BENDING STRENGTH VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayet BAYRAKTAR; Ayhan SAMANDAR; Suat SARIDEMİR

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the potential of artificial neural network (ANN) system for estimating the bending strength values of the basalt fiber reinforced concrete pavements. Three main influential parameters; namely basalt fiber ratio, density and slump value of the fresh concrete were selected as input data. The model was trained, tested using 400 data sets which were the results of on-site experiment tests. ANN system results were also compared with the experimental test results. The research r...

  1. Wooden models of an AA quadrupole between bending magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    At two points in the AA lattice, a quadrupole (QDN, defocusing, narrow) was tightly wedged between two bending magnets (BST, short, wide). This picture of wooden models lets one imagine the strong interaction between their magnetic fields. There was no way one could calculate with the necessary accuracy the magnetic effects and their consequences for the machine optics. The necessary corrections were made after measurements with a circulating beam, in a tedious iterative procedure, with corrrection coils and shims.

  2. Bending continuous structures with SMAs: a novel robotic fish design

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Claudio; Colorado Montaño, Julián; Coral Cuellar, William; Barrientos Cruz, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our research on bio-inspired locomotion systems using deformable structures and smart materials, concretely shape memory alloys (SMAs). These types of materials allow us to explore the possibility of building motor-less and gear-less robots. A swimming underwater fish-like robot has been developed whose movements are generated using SMAs. These actuators are suitable for bending the continuous backbone of the fish, which in turn causes a change in the curvature o...

  3. Viscoelastic bending model for continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites in melt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachs, U.; Akkerman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Bending of single plies or stacks of multiple plies is an essential deformation mechanism during thermoforming of thermoplastic composites. A reliable prediction of the forming process requires an accurate description of the bending behavior. To this end, a characterization method for the bending of

  4. Impact of bending speed and setup on flex cracks in multilayer ceramic capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Caroline; Kristensen, Ole; Varescon, Elise

    2017-01-01

    A comparison of bending speed and experimental setups using 3-point or 4-point bending for introduction of flex cracks into multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) in a controlled manner is presented. The impact of bending speed and corresponding strain rates on the formed flex cracks detected by X...

  5. Flow Instability and Secondary Vortex Evolution in 90 Degree Bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lin; Dou, Hua-Shu; Fluid Mechanics Research Team

    2013-11-01

    Three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are employed to simulate the laminar flow in a 90 degree bend with square cross-section. Then, the energy gradient theory is used to analyze the stability of the flow. The Reynolds number based on the channel width and the averaged velocity is 158, 394 and 790, respectively. It is found that at Re = 790, the value of the energy gradient function K increases as the fluid entering the curved section, causing flow instability and forming a pair of secondary vortices; then the secondary vortices gradually stabilizes and the value of K decreases. At the exit of the bend, the total pressure distribution in the cross-section presents serious distortion, which leads to a peak of K. As such, it promotes instability of the flow and causes a transition of two vortices to four vortices. With the flow ahead, the maximum of K in the cross section rises again, resulting in the transition of four vortices to eight vortices. While at low Re (Re = 158 and Re = 394), there is only one pair of vortices in the bend, which are stable, due to low value of K. This study shows that the occurrence of instability is closely related to the evolution of energy gradient function K. Graduate student in Fluid Mechanics.

  6. Adaptive process control for three-point bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, T.; Raggenbass, A.; Reissner, J.

    1995-08-01

    The increasing level of competition in the sheet-metal working industry requires measures to reduce costs. There is considerable potential in the simplification of process procedures. Automated handling and the further processing of bent semifinished products require a high level of manufacturing precision in bending processes. However deviations in angles of several degrees from the desired values can arise as a result of material variations within one batch. An adaptive control system is developed in order to avoid expensive further manufacturing steps. This calculates the parameters required for the correction of the process control from variations in process values measured online. These adjustment values must be communicated to the bending machine and set during the ongoing forming process. For larger series of parts the coefficients of the correction matrix are also continuously improved, so that an optimum adaptive correction can be achieved for the current scatter in the material properties. The adaptive correction procedure is particularly effective in combination with the three-point bending technology. The highest levels of angular precision can already be achieved after a short independent optimization phase. However, the current spectrum of parts for a certain manufacturing task and a defined quality requirement should provide the basis for decisions concerning the economy of this process arrangement.

  7. A missing-bending-magnet scheme for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, R.Z.; Winick, H.

    1988-01-01

    This article presents a missing-bending-magnet scheme for PEP as a modification that could be considered if PEP were available as a fully dedicated synchrotron radiation source. The scheme can be applied to one or more PEP sextants without changing the rest. By removing some bending magnets, rearranging the remaining magnets, and adding two quadrupoles, ten additional straight sections per sextant can be created, each 5 m or more in length, for insertion devices. Beam lines therefrom, plus possible beam lines from bending magnets would enter a continuous experimental hall instead of individual tunnels and halls for each beam line. This should result in construction cost savings and increased operations efficiency. The ideal beam orbit is unchanged at the two ends and the middle of the sextant. At the end of the curved part of the sextant the lattice functions match those of the long interaction region straight section in the low emittance configuration of PEP. The electron beam characteristics in the newly created straight sections are described, including the enlargement of the horizontal beam size due to the nonzero dispersion. Some disadvantages of the scheme are increased operations complexity due to the need for nine new quadrupole families, increased beam emittance (by 14.5% is one sextant is modified), and reduced dynamic aperture. However, the dynamic aperture is still about as large as the physical aperture and should be adequate for good beam lifetime and injection. (orig.)

  8. Curvature reduces bending strains in the quokka femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle McCabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how curvature in the quokka femur may help to reduce bending strain during locomotion. The quokka is a small wallaby, but the curvature of the femur and the muscles active during stance phase are similar to most quadrupedal mammals. Our hypothesis is that the action of hip extensor and ankle plantarflexor muscles during stance phase place cranial bending strains that act to reduce the caudal curvature of the femur. Knee extensors and biarticular muscles that span the femur longitudinally create caudal bending strains in the caudally curved (concave caudal side bone. These opposing strains can balance each other and result in less strain on the bone. We test this idea by comparing the performance of a normally curved finite element model of the quokka femur to a digitally straightened version of the same bone. The normally curved model is indeed less strained than the straightened version. To further examine the relationship between curvature and the strains in the femoral models, we also tested an extra-curved and a reverse-curved version with the same loads. There appears to be a linear relationship between the curvature and the strains experienced by the models. These results demonstrate that longitudinal curvature in bones may be a manipulable mechanism whereby bone can induce a strain gradient to oppose strains induced by habitual loading.

  9. Polarization sensitive beam bending using a spatially variant photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digaum, Jennefir L.; Pazos, Javier; Rumpf, Raymond; Chiles, Jeff; Fathpour, Sasan; Thomas, Jeremy N.; Kuebler, Stephen M.

    2015-02-01

    A spatially-variant photonic crystal (SVPC) that can control the spatial propagation of electromagnetic waves in three dimensions with high polarization sensitivity was fabricated and characterized. The geometric attributes of the SVPC lattice were spatially varied to make use of the directional phenomena of self-collimation to tightly bend an unguided beam coherently through a 90 degree angle. Both the lattice spacing and the fill factor of the SVPC were maintained to be nearly constant throughout the structure. A finite-difference frequency-domain computational method confirms that the SVPC can self-collimate and bend light without significant diffuse scatter caused by the bend. The SVPC was fabricated using multi-photon direct laser writing in the photo-polymer SU-8. Mid-infrared light having a vacuum wavelength of λ0 = 2.94 μm was used to experimentally characterize the SVPCs by scanning the sides of the structure with optical fibers and measuring the intensity of light emanating from each face. Results show that the SVPC is capable of directing power flow of one polarization through a 90-degree turn, confirming the self-collimating and polarization selective light-guiding properties of the structures.

  10. Flexoelectric effect on the electroelastic responses of bending piezoelectric nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z.; Jiang, L. Y.

    2013-05-01

    Flexoelectricity, referring to a spontaneous electric polarization induced by strain gradient in dielectrics, presents a strong size dependency at the nanoscale. In the current work, the influence of the flexoelectric effect on the mechanical and electrical properties of bending piezoelectric nanobeams with different boundary conditions is investigated. Based on the extended linear piezoelectricity theory and the Euler beam model, analytical solutions of the electroelastic fields in the piezoelectric nanobeams subjected to both electrical and mechanical loads are obtained with the inclusion of the flexoelectric effect. Simulation results show that the flexoelectric effect on the elastic behavior of bending beams is sensitive to the beam boundary conditions and the applied electrical load. In addition, for a cantilever piezoelectric nanobeam, an axial relaxation strain is induced from the piezoelectric and flexoelectric effects, while these effects induce a resultant axial force in both the clamped-clamped and simply supported piezoelectric nanobeams. Results also indicate that the flexoelectric effect plays a significant role in the contact stiffness and electric polarization of piezoelectric beams when their thickness is at the nanoscale. It is found that the flexoelectric effect on the electroelastic responses of piezoelectric nanobeams is more pronounced for the beams with smaller thickness. These results are useful for understanding the fundamental mechanical and physical properties of bending piezoelectric nanobeams.

  11. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panea, I.; Stephenson, R.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the experiment was to obtain new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the seismically-active Vrancea zone, including the Focsani Basin. The seismic reflection line had a WNW-ESE orientation, running from internal East Carpathians units, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians, and the foreland Focsani Basin towards the Danube Delta. There were 131 shot points along the profile, with about 1 km spacing, and data were recorded with stand-alone RefTek-125s (also known as "Texans"), supplied by the University Texas at El Paso and the PASSCAL Institute. The entire line was recorded in three deployments, using about 340 receivers in the first deployment and 640 receivers in each of the other two deployments. The resulting deep seismic reflection stacks, processed to 20 s along the entire profile and to 10 s in the eastern Focsani Basin, are presented here. The regional architecture of the latter, interpreted in the context of abundant independent constraint from exploration seismic and subsurface data, is well imaged. Image quality within and beneath the thrust belt is of much poorer quality. Nevertheless, there is good evidence to suggest that a thick (˜10 km) sedimentary basin having the structure of a graben and of indeterminate age underlies the westernmost part of the Focsani Basin, in the depth range 10-25 km. Most of the crustal depth seismicity observed in the Vrancea zone (as opposed to the more intense upper mantle seismicity) appears to be associated with this sedimentary basin. The sedimentary successions within this basin and other horizons

  12. Crustal structure of the Western Carpathians and Pannonian Basin System: seismic models from CELEBRATION 2000 data and geological implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Tomasz; Grad, Marek; Guterch, Aleksander; Vozár, Jozef; Bielik, Miroslav; Vozárova, Anna; Hegedżs, Endre; Attila Kovács, Csaba; Kovács, István.; Celebration 2000 Working Group

    2010-05-01

    During CELEBRATION 2000 experiment the area of the Western Carphathians and Pannonian Basin System on the territory of southeastern Poland, Slovak Republic and Hungary was investigated by dense system of the deep seismic sounding profiles. In this paper, we present results of modelling of refracted and reflected waves with use 2-D ray tracing technique for profiles CEL01, CEL04, CEL05, CEL06, CEL11, CEL12 and CEL28. All seven profiles were jointly interpreted with verification and control the models at crossing points. Obtained P-wave velocity models of the crust and uppermost mantle are very complex and show differentiation of the seismic structure, where the depth of the Moho discontinuity is changing from about 25 to about 45 km. In the southern part of the area the relatively thin Pannonian Basin System crust consists of 3-7 km thick sediments and two crustal layers with 5.9-6.3 km/s in the upper crust and 6.3-6.6 km/s in the lower crust. In the upper crust of ALCAPA beneath profile CEL05 a high velocity body of Vp≥ 6.4 km/s was detected in the uppermost 5 km, which corresponds to the Bükk Composite Terrane. The total thickness of the ALCAPA crust is 1-2 km bigger than in the Tisza-Dacia. In the northern part of the area we observe 10-20 km thick uppermost crust with low velocity (Vp≤6.0 km/s), connected with TESZ and Carpathian Foredeep. Together with ca. 6.2-6.5 km/s and 6.5-6.9 km/s crustal layers they have a total thickness of 30-45 km (north of the Pieniny Klippen Belt). A sub-Moho velocities have in average values of 7.8-8.0 km/s for the Pannonian basin System, while in the Western Carpathian, the Trans-European suture zone (TESZ) and the East European Craton (EEC) part they are slightly bigger, 8.0-8.1 km/s. Lower velocities beneath the microplates ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia could be caused by the different mineralogical and petrological compositions and the significant higher surface heat flow and temperature within the upper mantle. Beneath some

  13. Tensile and bending fatigue of the adhesive interface to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Renan; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso; Braem, Marc; Petschelt, Anselm; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatigue limits of the dentin-composite interfaces established either with an etch-and-rinse or an one-step self-etch adhesive systems under tensile and bending configurations. Flat specimens (1.2 mm×5 mm×35 mm) were prepared using a plexiglass mold where dentin sections from human third molars were bonded to a resin composite, exhibiting the interface centrally located. Syntac Classic and G-Bond were used as adhesives and applied according to the manufacturer's instructions. The fluorochrome Rhodamine B was added to the adhesives to allow for fractographic evaluation. Tensile strength was measured in an universal testing machine and the bending strength (n=15) in a Flex machine (Flex, University of Antwerp, Belgium), respectively. Tensile (TFL) and bending fatigue limits (BFL) (n=25) were determined under wet conditions for 10(4) cycles following a staircase approach. Interface morphology and fracture mechanisms were observed using light, confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using three-way ANOVA (mod LSD test, pTensile and bending characteristic strengths at 63.2% failure probability for Syntac were 23.8 MPa and 71.5 MPa, and 24.7 MPa and 72.3 MPa for G-Bond, respectively. Regarding the applied methods, no significant differences were detected between adhesives. However, fatigue limits for G-Bond (TFL=5.9 MPa; BFL=36.2 MPa) were significantly reduced when compared to Syntac (TFL=12.6 MPa; BFL=49.7 MPa). Fracture modes of Syntac were generally of adhesive nature, between the adhesive resin and dentin, while G-Bond showed fracture planes involving the adhesive-dentin interface and the adhesive resin. Cyclic loading under tensile and bending configurations led to a significant strength degradation, with a more pronounced fatigue limit decrease for G-Bond. The greater decrease in fracture strength was observed in the tensile configuration. Copyright © 2010 Academy of

  14. Effect of contouring on bending structural stiffness and bending strength of the 3.5 titanium SOP implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Scott; Ness, Malcolm G

    2012-11-01

    To compare the bending structural stiffness (BSS) and bending strength (BS) of the 3.5 titanium (Ti) string of pearls (SOP) plate and the 3.5 316LVM stainless steel SOP plate; and the effect of contouring on the BSS and BS of the 3.5 Ti SOP plate. In vitro experimental static 4-point bending materials testing. Twenty-five 3.5 mm Ti and five 3.5 mm 316LVM stainless steel SOP locking bone plates. Each plate was tested in 4-point bending until 10 mm of displacement was achieved. BSS and BS were then calculated for each plate. A 2-sample t-test was used to compare the mean BSS and BS of the different groups. The 3.5 Ti SOP plate had lower mean BSS (0.00263 Nm(2) ) but similar mean BS (12.8 Nm) when compared to the 3.5 316LVM SOP (0.00402 Nm(2) , 13.0 Nm). Prebending the 3.5 Ti SOP diminished its mean BSS (0.00224 Nm(2) ) and mean BS (9.4 Nm) when compared to the Ti control. Pretwisting the 3.5 Ti SOP increased its mean BSS (0.00273 Nm(2) ) but decreased its mean BS (12.4 Nm) when compared to the Ti control. The 3.5 Ti SOP is less stiff but of similar strength to the 3.5 316LVM stainless steel SOP. Prebending the Ti SOP significantly lowers its stiffness and strength. Pretwisting the SOP actually increases its stiffness but slightly lowers its strength. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. SKI AREAS AND SLOPES IN ROMANIA. REVIEWING CURRENT STATE OF WINTER SPORTS TOURISM UNFOLDING POSSIBILITIES WITHIN CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. CIANGĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ski Areas and Slopes in Romania. Reviewing Current State of Winter Sports Tourism Unfolding Possibilities within Carpathian Mountains. This study is reviewing nowadays Romania’s tourism supply (2015 – laying special emphasis on the North-West Development Region’s situation – in terms of winter sports potential (resources and material and technical base (specific infrastructure. It calls into question a highly discussed topic within the domain of interest of Tourism Geography, whose recursiveness could be justified by countinuous changes that influence the quantitative and qualitative configuration of ski areas, ski tracks and related equipment2. The existence of favourable natural support in terms of relief and climate is an indispensable prerequisite to the development of winter sports tourism within any area. From this point of view, the presence of the Carpathians is a major advantage for Romania, the more so as the proportion of the mountain sector represents 30 percent of the national area (238,391 square kilometres. By occupying different amounts of the territory belonging to 6 development regions and 19 counties, heterogeneous tourism potential values have emerged, causing unequal exploitation opportunities within the mountain area. The purpose of this paper is to provide a general framework of Romanian ski slopes, areas and corresponding facilities for assessing their current state, from regional perspective, with emphasis on North-West’s situation. On this line, the main objectives, starting from identifying and inventorising to classifying regions and ski tracks based on hierarchical categories, also deal with ranking slopes according to surface, length, width, elevation of departure point, difference in elevation, difficulty ratings, capacities of slopes and cable transportation means. In order to achieve these goals, quantitative research methods and techniques mostly refered to observation, analysis, synthesis and

  16. An Albian demise of the carbonate platform in the Manín Unit (Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekete Kamil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of platform carbonates of the Manín Unit (Manín Straits, Central Western Carpathians belonging to the Podhorie and Manín formations and formed by remains of rudists and benthic foraminifers (Urgonian-type carbonates, was previously assumed to terminate during the Aptian. First, we show that these deposits were primarily formed on the upper slope (Podhorie Formation and in a fore-reef environment (Manín Formation. Second, biostratigraphic data indicate that the shallow-water production persisted up to the Albian, just as it did in another succession of the Manín Unit. The Podhorie Fm contains colomiellids (Colomiella recta, C. mexicana and calcareous dinoflagellates (Calcisphaerula innominata that indicate the Albian age. It also contains planktonic foraminifers (Ticinella roberti, Ticinella cf. primula, Ticinella cf. madecassiana, Ticinella cf. praeticinensis of the Albian Ticinella primula Zone. The Podhorie Formation passes upwards into peri-reefal facies of the Manín Fm where we designate the Malý Manín Member on the basis of rudists shell fragments and redeposited orbitolinids. Microfacies associations share similarities with the Urgonian-type microfacies from Mediterranean Tethys and allow us to restrict the growth and the demise of the carbonate platform. δ13C and δ18O isotopes change over a broad range of both formations: δ13C is in the range +1.03 to +4.20 ‰ V-PDB and δ18O is in the range −0.14 to −5.55 ‰ V-PDB. Although a close correlation between δ13C and δ18O indicates diagenetic overprint, a long-term increase of δ13C can indicate a gradual increase in the aragonite production and/or increasing effects of oceanic water masses in the course of the Albian, prior to the final platform drowning. Carbonate platform evolution was connected with submarine slumps and debris flows leading to redeposition and accumulation of carbonate lithoclasts and bioclastic debris on the slope. Our study confirms that

  17. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF WINTER TOURISM IN THE ORIENTAL CARPATHIANS. CASE STUDY: HARGHITA MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MARIN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of weather conditions for winter tourism development in the Eastern Carpathians. Case Study: Harghita Mountains. In the context of the ongoing global and regional climate change debates, the present study intends to analyze the impact these changes have on winter tourism development in the Harghita Mountains. With a maximum altitude of 2545 m, a complex structure of the underlying surface responsible fo r local climatic particularities, as well as for a wide range of complex and elementary topoclimates, the Romanian alpine zone has a moderate potential for the development of winter sports. Our objectives consist of making correlations between annual average temperatures and the average thickness of snow, between the years 1961 and 2000, in three resorts (Bãile Tuşnad, Bãile Harghita and Homorod. In certain cases, the ski slopes’ locations were not correlated with site-specific topoclimate conditions - in such a situation, equally affected are both the users and the owners of the establishment and last but not least, the natural ecosystems they overlap. The study aims to draw attention to development opportunities for winter tourism in the Harghita Mountains area, located west of the Eastern Carpathians. At present, the Harghita Mountains are mainly exploited locally, despite having important winter sports-related assets. From November to April, in Bãile Harghita, Bãile Tuşnad and Bãile Homorod, located in the south-east and south-west of this mountainous area, there is a consistent snow cover on numerous slopes of various inclinations and orientations. The methods that were used in this study aim to determine the average dates of occurrence of the first and last layers of snow and therefore the average annual snow cover interval in the study area. The results show that there is untapped natural potential related to the average and maximum levels of snow thickness and to the number of days with snow-covered ground

  18. Reconstructed glacier geometry and inferred Equilibrium Line Altitude changes during the Late Pleistocene deglaciation in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarász, Balázs; Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Kern, Zoltán; Urdea, Petru

    2016-04-01

    Quaternary glaciations had a major imprint on the landscape and topography of the Southern Carpathians. Their transitional position between continental and Mediterranean climate zones arouses special interest concerning the timing and pattern of glaciations in this area. Probably the Retezat Mts hosted the most extended glaciation during the Late Pleistocene within this range. The peak elevations of the study area reach 2500 m asl, and the most extended glaciers descended to 1040 m in the northern and to 1130 m on the southern valleys. Major cirque floors are typically situated at 2000-2100 m asl. Glacial landforms have been mapped in order to reconstruct the past ice bodies and the elevation shifts of the paleo equilibrium line altitudes (ELA) during several deglaciation phases of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Lateglacial in the Retezat Mts. On the basis of published 10Be exposure age data on the northern valleys of the study area, deglaciation of the Retezat Mts occurred at least in five phases between ~21.0 ka and 13.5 ka [1]. Various methods (THAR, AAR, AABR) have been tested using a GIS tool to estimate the ELA of the reconstructed paleoglaciers [2] and paleo ELAs were calculated for each of the deglaciation phases. Preliminary estimates of regional LGM paleoELA employing the simplest THAR method (with a ratio of 0.5) ranged from ~1670 m during the LGM to ~2210 m for the smallest cirque glacier at 13.5 ka, respectively. The AAR and AABR methods provide somewhat higher ELAs for each phase. The obtained paleoELAs were compared to ELA reconstructions available from other Carpathian ranges and also to the Alps and Dinarides. Our data will contribute to a more accurate ELA distribution during the LGM, which may be indicative of the past state of the climate system (moisture gradient, circulation regimes). Thanks to OTKA PD83610, PD104899; NKM-96/2014, NKM-31/2015; OMAA 90öu17; LP2012-27/2012. References: [1] Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger et al. 2016 Quat. Int. (in

  19. Finite element modelling of plastic collapse of metallic single mitred pipe bends subject to in-plane bending moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochekseraii, Sadegh Babaii

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical analysis based on the finite element (FE) method for plastic collapse of metallic single mitred pipe bends of various geometries, subject to in-plane bending moment, were carried out using both ABAQUS and ANSYS structural FE programs covering both linear small displacement and non-linear large displacement analysis. Parametric surveys presented interesting features including an increase in plastic collapse in-plane bending moments after mitre angles of around 40 deg. . Results obtained using either ANSYS or ABAQUS could not be compared against any available experimental data as they differ significantly in areas like strain hardening and other features of a real material that did not exist in the FE modelling. However, single case comparison with the only reported experimental work, known to the author, showed that large displacement FE analysis led to more realistic predictions. It is, therefore, concluded that despite complex behaviour of a real material as compared to material models available in FE analysis, effective plastic collapse moments can be predicted using the small displacement FE analysis

  20. An Experimental Study of Force Involved in Manual Rebar Bending Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepu, Sasi; Vishnu, Rajendran S.; Harish, Mohan T.; Bhavani, Rao R.

    2018-02-01

    The work presents an experimental method of understanding the force applied during a manual rebar bending process. The study tracks the force with the variation of the angle of bend and the elapsed time from the start to the end of a complete manual rebar bending process. A sample of expert rebar bending labourers are used for conducting the experiment and the data processed to set a performance standard. If a simulator based rebar bending training can be provided for a novice, this standard can be used as a matrix to define how close a novice rebar bender is closing to the expertise.

  1. Agricultural land change in the Carpathian ecoregion after the breakdown of socialism and expansion of the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Patrick; Müller, Daniel; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Hostert, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Widespread changes of agricultural land use occurred in Eastern Europe since the collapse of socialism and the European Union’s eastward expansion, but the rates and patterns of recent land changes remain unclear. Here we assess agricultural land change for the entire Carpathian ecoregion in Eastern Europe at 30 m spatial resolution with Landsat data and for two change periods, between 1985-2000 and 2000-2010. The early period is characterized by post-socialist transition processes, the late period by an increasing influence of EU politics in the region. For mapping and change detection, we use a machine learning approach (random forests) on image composites and variance metrics which were derived from the full decadal archive of Landsat imagery. Our results suggest that cropland abandonment was the most prevalent change process, but we also detected considerable areas of grassland conversion and forest expansion on non-forest land. Cropland abandonment was most extensive during the transition period and predominantly occurred in marginal areas with low suitability for agriculture. Conversely, we observed substantial recultivation of formerly abandoned cropland in high-value agricultural areas since 2000. Hence, market forces increasingly adjust socialist legacies of land expansive production and agricultural land use clusters in favorable areas while marginal lands revert to forest.

  2. THE FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC COMPETENCES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE STABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CARPATHIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Khymynets

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of the formation of ecological and economic competences at modern school. The paper shows that ecological and economic education is continuous and uninterrupted psychological process which is directed towards the formation of knowledge, culture and consciousness of a person. Attention is paid to the problems of environmental and economic situation in the Carpathian region of Ukraine. Ecological and economic model of education can develop effectively only on the basis of humanistic orientation and innovation potential of the educational institution. The humanization provides increased attention to the individual as a whole, the promotion of its abilities, physical and moral qualities. Modern education aims to form environmentally and economically responsible person, that is ready for the conscious activity on the basis of the gained knowledge and formes behavioral norms and rules concerning the environment. Humanity has the ability to choose either the path of environmental and economic education, or the path of the global catastrophe and self-destruction. Civilized, cultured people are called to protect and multiply the good, by laws and authority to establish the highest spiritual values of the life in the society and public opinion. Only intelligence and environmental and economic culture, that is continuous educational training and educational activity, may generate culture of society, relevant to the permanent development, and transfer its relationships with the environment on the way of intelligent coexistence.

  3. DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN WELLS FROM AN AREA AFFECTED BY FLOOD EVENTS: CASE STUDY OF CURVATURE SUB-CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞENILĂ M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the chemical parameters (inorganic anions and metals of drinking water of twenty-four wells and the presence of Escherichia coli in ten selected wells located in two villages from Buzau and Prahova Counties, in Curvature Sub-Carpathians, Romania, a rural area frequently affected by flood events. Water samples were collected in July 2014. Concerntrations of fluorides, nitrites, chlorides and phosphates were below the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs for drinking water established by European legislation (Drinking Water Directive 98/83/CE in all the analysed samples. Concentration of nitrates exceeded MAC (50 mg L-1 in five samples, while concentration of sulphates exceeded MAC (250 mg L-1 in two samples. Among the analysed metals, Mn exceeded MAC (50 μg L-1 in two samples, while Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and As concentrations did not exceeded the corresponding MACs. E. coli (over 2000 UFC 100 mL-1 was found in six water samples. The results show that majority of the studied parameters were below the threshold limits, however in some of the studied wells the water was found to be contaminated both by some chemical pollutants and by E. coli, which prepresent a risk for local population health.

  4. Agricultural land change in the Carpathian ecoregion after the breakdown of socialism and expansion of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Patrick; Müller, Daniel; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Hostert, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Widespread changes of agricultural land use occurred in Eastern Europe since the collapse of socialism and the European Union’s eastward expansion, but the rates and patterns of recent land changes remain unclear. Here we assess agricultural land change for the entire Carpathian ecoregion in Eastern Europe at 30 m spatial resolution with Landsat data and for two change periods, between 1985–2000 and 2000–2010. The early period is characterized by post-socialist transition processes, the late period by an increasing influence of EU politics in the region. For mapping and change detection, we use a machine learning approach (random forests) on image composites and variance metrics which were derived from the full decadal archive of Landsat imagery. Our results suggest that cropland abandonment was the most prevalent change process, but we also detected considerable areas of grassland conversion and forest expansion on non-forest land. Cropland abandonment was most extensive during the transition period and predominantly occurred in marginal areas with low suitability for agriculture. Conversely, we observed substantial recultivation of formerly abandoned cropland in high-value agricultural areas since 2000. Hence, market forces increasingly adjust socialist legacies of land expansive production and agricultural land use clusters in favorable areas while marginal lands revert to forest. (letter)

  5. Long-term trends in river water temperature: a case study of the Raba River (Polish Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kędra, Mariola

    2017-10-01

    This study analyses potential trends in river water temperature (Tw) over a period of 50 years (1960-2009). The study area is located in the Raba catchment in the Polish Carpathians. The aim of the study was to evaluate long-term trends in daily Tw for each season of the year as well as to compare the direction of these trends for sites located some distance upstream and downstream from the Dobczyce Reservoir (DR), built in 1986 on the Raba River. For autumn and winter, increases in mean, median, and minimum Tw are significant for the downstream site (39 km from the DR), with a rate of change of 0.18-0.26 °C per decade. Contrasting results were obtained for the spring and summer seasons; significant increases (0.22-0.47 °C per decade) in mean, median, and maximum Tw were found for the upstream site, in concordance with seasonal air temperature trends, but a significant decrease in maximum Tw (-0.42 and -0.35 °C per decade, respectively) was identified for the downstream site. The revealed discrepancies in the direction of seasonal trends for the upstream and downstream sites studied suggest an anthropogenic impact on Tw downstream from the DR. Overall, a significant increase in summer Tw suggest the need for appropriate flowing water management that would mitigate adverse effects of climate warming on the fluvial environment.

  6. Growth of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. on originally agricultural land in the region of the White Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Simon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Ploščiny-Triangl locality belonging to the northernmost part of the CHKO Bílé Karpaty (Protected Landscape Area White Carpathians, altitude 739 m, typological unit – Nutrient Rich Fir-Beech Forest, comparative analysis was carried out of selected biometrical quantities of the time series of stands originated on former agricultural land and stands originated by the alternation of forest generations. On the basis of examinations it is possible to formulate following conclusions: - the height increment culmination occurs at stands originated on former agricultural land earlier, viz. at an age of about 20 years;- on the other hand, the culmination of volume increment related to a mean stem occurs later, at current increment at an age of 80 years, at a mean increment at an age of 140 years;- the growth curve of a mean stand height of both variants is analogical up to an age of about 20–25 years, further values of stands established on former agricultural land are lower approaching an asymptote of 30 m;- stands of both variants do not show symptoms of rot or other damage to the reference period of about 150 years.As for the current condition of natural regeneration of silver fir and succession distribution on unused agricultural land it is possible to state that it is considerably reduced on the basis of intensive pressure of particularly red deer.

  7. From nappe stacking to extensional detachments at the contact between the Carpathians and Dinarides - The Jastrebac Mountains of Central Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erak, Dalibor; Matenco, Liviu; Toljić, Marinko; Stojadinović, Uroš; Andriessen, Paul A. M.; Willingshofer, Ernst; Ducea, Mihai N.

    2017-07-01

    Reactivation of inherited nappe contacts is a common process in orogenic areas affected by back-arc extension. The amount of back-arc extension is often variable along the orogenic strike, owing to the evolution of arcuated mountain chains during stages of rapid slab retreat. This evolution creates low rates of extension near rotation poles, where kinematics and interplay with the pre-existing orogenic structure are less understood. The amount of Miocene extension recorded by the Pannonian Basin of Central Europe decreases SE-wards along the inherited Cretaceous - Paleogene contact between the Dinarides and Carpathian Mountains. Our study combines kinematic data obtained from field and micro-structural observations assisted with fission track thermochronological analysis and U-Pb zircon dating to demonstrate a complex poly-phase evolution in the key area of the Jastrebac Mountains of Serbia. A first event of Late Cretaceous exhumation was followed by latest Cretaceous - Eocene thrusting and magmatism related to a continental collision that sutured the accretionary wedge containing contractional trench turbidites. The suture zone was subsequently reactivated and exhumed by a newly observed Miocene extensional detachment that lasted longer in the Jastrebac Mountains when compared with similar structures situated elsewhere in the same structural position. Such extensional zones situated near the pole of extensional-driven rotation favour late stage truncations and migration of extension in a hanging-wall direction, while directions of tectonic transport show significant differences in short distances across the strike of major structures.

  8. Discovery of the Badenian evaporites inside the Carpathian Arc: implications for global climate change and Paratethys salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báldi, Katalin; Velledits, Felicitász; Ćorić, Stjepan; Lemberkovics, Viktor; Lőrincz, Katalin; Shevelev, Mikhail

    2017-06-01

    Massive evaporites were discovered in the Soltvadkert Trough (Great Plain, Hungary) correlating to the Badenian Salinity Crisis (13.8 Ma, Middle Miocene) on the basis of nannoplankton and foraminifera biostratigraphy. This new occurrence from Hungary previously thought to be devoid of evaporites is part of a growing body of evidence of evaporitic basins inside the Carpathian Arc. We suggest the presence of evaporites perhaps in the entire Central Paratethys during the salinity crisis. Different scenarios are suggested for what subsequently happened to these evaporites to explain their presence or absence in the geological record. Where they are present, scenario A suggests that they were preserved in subsiding, deep basins overlain by younger sediments that protected the evaporites from reworking, like in the studied area. Where they are absent, scenario B suggests recycling. Scenario B explains how the supposedly brackish Sarmatian could have been hyper/normal saline locally by providing a source of the excess salt from the reworking and dissolving of BSC halite into seawater. These scenarios suggest a much larger amount of evaporites locked up in the Central Paratethys during the salinity crisis then previously thought, probably contributing to the step-like nature of cooling of the Mid Miocene Climate Transition, the coeval Mi3b.

  9. New method to determine the optical rotatory dispersion of inorganic crystals applied to some samples of Carpathian Quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2014-10-15

    A new method to determine the optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) in the visible range, based on a channeled spectrum obtained with a uniax inorganic crystal introduced between two crossed polarizers with its optical axis parallel to the light propagation direction is detailed in this paper. When the studied inorganic crystals are transparent, this method permits the estimation of the optical rotatory dispersion in the visible range, for which the cheap polarizers are available. The speed of the measurements is very high, because the estimations are made from the channeled spectrum obtained for a single arrangement of the optical components. By using a computer, ORD is quickly determined for the visible range. The results obtained by this method for some Carpathian Quartz samples are consistent with those from literature. The proposed method can be also applied in UV and IR spectral ranges, when the anisotropic layers are transparent and the linearly polarized radiations can be obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Late quaternary Nupela taxa of Retezat Mts (S. Carpathians, with description of Nupela pocsii sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczkó Krisztina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nupela pocsii Buczkó & Wojtal, sp. nov., a new species from the Retezat Mountains (S. Carpathians, is described. High asymmetry (along apical and transapical axes and in raphe pattern and small dimensions are the most characteristic features of this taxon. Nupela pocsii was found during paleolimnological research in early Holocene sediment of Lake Brazi. Seven other representatives of the genus Nupela were detected in high-resolution diatom analyses of three lake sediment sequences of the Retezat Mts: Nupela fennica (Hustedt Lange-Bertalot, N. imperfecta (Schimanski Lange-Bertalot, N. impexiformis (Lange-Bertalot Lange-Bertalot, N. lapidosa (Krasske Lange-Bertalot, N. paludigena (R. P. Scherer Lange-Bertalot, N. vitiosa (Schimanski Siver & Hamilton and an unidentified Nupela Vyverman & Compere species. Our results suggest high diversity of oligotraphenic species in these mountain lakes during their ontogeny, which began 17,000-15,000 years ago. In addition to the newly described species this is also the first record of N. paludigena in European lakes, although its occurrence was previously documented by SEM and LM from Lake Saint Anna without correct identification.

  11. Understanding Land Cover Changes in the Italian Alps and Romanian Carpathians Combining Remote Sensing and Stakeholder Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Malek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, socio-economic changes in Europe have had a significant effect on land cover changes, but it is unclear how this has affected mountain areas. We focus on two mountain areas: the eastern Italian Alps and the Romanian Curvature Carpathians. We classified land cover from Earth observation data after 1989 by using applied remote sensing techniques. We also analyzed socio-economic data and conducted semi-structured interviews with local stakeholders. In Italy, most of the land conversion processes followed long-term trends. In Romania, they took off with the sudden political changes after 1989. In both areas, forest expansion was the biggest, but potentially not the most consequential change. More consequential changes were urbanization in Italy and small-scale deforestation in Romania, since both increased the risk of hydro-meteorological hazards. Stakeholders’ views were an added value to the spatial analysis and vice versa. For example, stakeholders’ explanations resolved the seeming contradiction of decreased economic activity and increased urbanization (Italian site, as a consequence of secondary home building. Furthermore, spatial analysis revealed that urbanization in Romania was less significant with regard to consequences for the wider human-environment system than many stakeholders thought.

  12. Mixed lipid bilayers with locally varying spontaneous curvature and bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, Guillaume; Destainville, Nicolas; Manghi, Manoel

    2014-08-01

    A model of lipid bilayers made of a mixture of two lipids with different average compositions on both leaflets, is developed. A Landau Hamiltonian describing the lipid-lipid interactions on each leaflet, with two lipidic fields ψ 1 and ψ 2, is coupled to a Helfrich one, accounting for the membrane elasticity, via both a local spontaneous curvature, which varies as C 0 + C 1(ψ 1 - ψ 2/2), and a bending modulus equal to κ 0 + κ 1(ψ 1 + ψ 2)/2. This model allows us to define curved patches as membrane domains where the asymmetry in composition, ψ 1 - ψ 2, is large, and thick and stiff patches where ψ 1 + ψ 2 is large. These thick patches are good candidates for being lipidic rafts, as observed in cell membranes, which are composed primarily of saturated lipids forming a liquid-ordered domain and are known to be thick and flat nano-domains. The lipid-lipid structure factors and correlation functions are computed for globally spherical membranes and planar ones and for a whole set of parameters including the surface tension and the coupling in the two leaflet compositions. Phase diagrams are established, within a Gaussian approximation, showing the occurrence of two types of Structure Disordered phases, with correlations between either curved or thick patches, and an Ordered phase, corresponding to the divergence of the structure factor at a finite wave vector. The varying bending modulus plays a central role for curved membranes, where the driving force κ 1 C 0 (2) is balanced by the line tension, to form raft domains of size ranging from 10 to 100 nm. For planar membranes, raft domains emerge via the cross-correlation with curved domains. A global picture emerges from curvature-induced mechanisms, described in the literature for planar membranes, to coupled curvature- and bending-induced mechanisms in curved membranes forming a closed vesicle.

  13. Geologic map of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kenzie J.; Berry, Margaret E.; Page, William R.; Lehman, Thomas M.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Scott, Robert B.; Miggins, Daniel P.; Budahn, James R.; Cooper, Roger W.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Williams, Van S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this map is to provide the National Park Service and the public with an updated digital geologic map of Big Bend National Park (BBNP). The geologic map report of Maxwell and others (1967) provides a fully comprehensive account of the important volcanic, structural, geomorphological, and paleontological features that define BBNP. However, the map is on a geographically distorted planimetric base and lacks topography, which has caused difficulty in conducting GIS-based data analyses and georeferencing the many geologic features investigated and depicted on the map. In addition, the map is outdated, excluding significant data from numerous studies that have been carried out since its publication more than 40 years ago. This report includes a modern digital geologic map that can be utilized with standard GIS applications to aid BBNP researchers in geologic data analysis, natural resource and ecosystem management, monitoring, assessment, inventory activities, and educational and recreational uses. The digital map incorporates new data, many revisions, and greater detail than the original map. Although some geologic issues remain unresolved for BBNP, the updated map serves as a foundation for addressing those issues. Funding for the Big Bend National Park geologic map was provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program and the National Park Service. The Big Bend mapping project was administered by staff in the USGS Geology and Environmental Change Science Center, Denver, Colo. Members of the USGS Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center completed investigations in parallel with the geologic mapping project. Results of these investigations addressed some significant current issues in BBNP and the U.S.-Mexico border region, including contaminants and human health, ecosystems, and water resources. Funding for the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in BBNP, and associated data analyses and

  14. Acoustic emission behavior under bending deformation of YBCO bulk superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, K.; Ye, J.; Tomita, M.

    2005-01-01

    Bending tests were conducted on U-notched specimens cut from a YBCO bulk superconductor. Acoustic emission (AE) signals obtained under loading parallel or perpendicular to the c-axis were analyzed to investigate the correlation between crack growth behavior and the AE signals. As a result of analyzing log-log plots of strength (σ B ) versus total AE energy (ΣE AE ), a linear relationship was found between ΣE AE and σ B n . Cracks could be broadly divided into two types based on the value of n as an index of crack growth behavior. One type consisted of microcracks originating from cleavage planes and gas holes; these crack propagated parallel to the c-axis and had an n index value of approximately 0.7. The other type was a main crack that originated from the U-notch and had an n index value of approximately 6.5. A sample (A) loaded parallel to the c-axis showed mean bending strength of 74.8MPa. Cracks displaying two different growth patterns of n=0.7 and 6.5 were presented in this sample. Microcracks parallel to the c-axis occurred in the vicinity of 5-10MPa. This sample was characterized by mixed crack growth of a main crack and microcracks. A sample (B) loaded perpendicular to the c-axis displayed mean bending strength of 43MPa. A main crack occurred in the vicinity of 20MPa and displayed a single growth pattern of n=6.5. By analyzing AE signals in this way in the process of conducting a strength evaluation, it was possible to evaluate the failure process of the bulk superconductor in relation to the strength level induced by the applied load

  15. Nodular cast iron fatigue lifetime in cyclic plane bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Kokavec

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue behavior of a component is strongly dependent on the material and its surface condition. Therefore, the manner in which the surface is prepared during component manufacturing (surface roughness, residual stresses etc. has a decisive role in dictating the initiation time for fatigue cracks. The fatigue behavior of the same material, a nodular cast iron, with three different surface conditions (fine ground, sand blast and as-cast has been investigated under cyclic plane bending. The results show differences in fatigue strength, which are associated with the surface conditions. The characteristics of the surface layers of the different test specimens were examined by metallography.

  16. Experimental Method for Determining Forces at Bending of Perforated Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Adrian; Oleksik, Mihaela; Avrigean, Eugen

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the method of calculating the forces which appear at the bending of perforated plates with holes of different shapes and placed in different patterns, by means of a dynamometric table which uses resistive tensometric transducers (strain gauges). It also describes an instrument for the recording of data from the dynamometric table, a tool created with the aid of the "TestPoint" software which, beneath the data recording, ensures the filtering and statistic processing of data. The obtained results are displayed in comparative graphs for six types of perforated plates, as well as for an unperforated plate.

  17. Cancellation Effects in CSR Induced Bunch Transverse Dynamics in Bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R.

    2002-01-01

    The partial cancellation between the effect of centrifugal space charge force on transverse bunch dynamics and the potential energy effect has been a long-standing controversial issue in the study of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) induced bunch dynamics in bends. In this paper, we clarify our definition of the ''centrifugal space charge force,'' and discuss the meaning of the ''cancellation effect'' and its general application. We further use simulation to demonstrate the cancellation in both steady state and transient regimes, and show the behavior of the effective transverse force

  18. Damping in coupled bending and torsion - An experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umland, Jeffrey W.; Inman, Daniel J.; Banks, H. T.

    1991-01-01

    Traditional experimental modal testing methods are used to determine the damping properties of a Euler-Bernoulli beam with offset inertial tip mass. Both viscous and strain rate damping models are considered in bending and in torsion. A partial differential equation model of the coupled system is used. Eigenfunctions are derived for the coupled system by using a Green's function approach to derive the approximate uncoupled eigenfunctions. These eigenfunctions are used in a decoupled fashion with experimental modal data to estimate the damping parameters of the coupled system. The experimental modal data were obtained from both free and impulse responses using a combined translational and rotational accelerometer.

  19. Breathing, bubbling, and bending: DNA flexibility from multimicrosecond simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeida, Ari; Machado, Matías Rodrigo; Dans, Pablo Daniel; Pantano, Sergio

    2012-08-01

    Bending of the seemingly stiff DNA double helix is a fundamental physical process for any living organism. Specialized proteins recognize DNA inducing and stabilizing sharp curvatures of the double helix. However, experimental evidence suggests a high protein-independent flexibility of DNA. On the basis of coarse-grained simulations, we propose that DNA experiences thermally induced kinks associated with the spontaneous formation of internal bubbles. Comparison of the protein-induced DNA curvature calculated from the Protein Data Bank with that sampled by our simulations suggests that thermally induced distortions can account for ˜80% of the DNA curvature present in experimentally solved structures.

  20. Bending-Torsion Flutter Calculations Modified by Subsonic Compressibility Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-05-01

    the.R’s and I’s are expressed in terms of-the nota- tion of Frazer and Skan (reference $), sind table I.I.. rcp /i-_. ^ tains values for M = 0.7...and of the modes of vibration have been omitted in the calculations. Inclusion of these effects would tend to reduce further the differ- ences...natural angular frequency of torsibnal vibrations around a in vacuum °°h —natural angular frequency of wing in bending

  1. Phipps Bend Nuclear Energy Project. Community impact assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snapp, P.C.; Teilhet, A.; Newsom, R.; Bond, M.; Garland, M.

    1977-01-01

    In late 1977, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) proposed to build a 2 unit nuclear plant at Phipps Bend on the Holston River east of Surgoinsville, Tennessee. Total estimated cost is 1.6 billion dollars, with a generating capacity of 2,600,000 kilowatts. The facility will have an impact on Hawkins, Greene and Sullivan counties with 2,500 construction employees, a permanent work force of 300, increased availability of energy to stimulate new capital investment and the local government will need to deal with these. This report analyzed the facilities of each community in the impacted area and recommended certain action for infrastructure acquisition or improvements

  2. Experimental investigations on dynamic effects in impact notch bending tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, W.

    1985-06-01

    The dynamic behaviour of three point bending samples under impact stresses is examined experimentally. Various measuring processes, above all the shadow optics etching process are used. A quasi-static analysis is made by a simple spring/mass model to describe the stress behaviour quantitatively. Based on this, the dynamic effects in model experiments are measured quantitatively with dynamic correction functions and are discussed with reference to the wave processes in the sample. A systematic view of the effect of the many system parameters on the dynamic stress behaviour is obtained. Finally, examples show that the results of this model investigation can be transferred to other experimental conditions. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Bending Under Tension Test with Direct Friction Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Chodnikiewicz, K.

    2006-01-01

    A special Bending-Under-Tension (BUT) transducer has been developed in which friction around the tool radius can be directly measured when drawing a plane sheet strip around a cylindrical tool-pin under constant back tension. The front tension, back tension and torque on the tool-pin are all...... measured directly, thus enabling accurate measurement of friction and direct determination of lubricant film breakdown for varying normal pressure, sliding speed, tool radius and tool preheat temperature. The transducer is applied in an experimental investigation focusing on limits of lubrication...... in drawing of stainless steel showing the influence of varying process conditions and the performance of different lubricants....

  4. A program to research emittance growth in bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    A research program to explore the phenomenon of emittance growth in bends due to noninertial space-charge effects has been defined and initiated. The program combines theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigations. This paper summarizes the motivation of the work and highlights CEBAF close-quote s need for immediate results. The program close-quote s key elements, some of which qualitatively differ from the standard approach used to investigate the production and effects of coherent synchrotron radiation in synchrotrons and storage rings, are enumerated and discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Four point bending setup for characterization of semiconductor piezoresistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Arnoldus, Morten Berg; Hansen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    characterization. As a proof of concept, we show measurements of the piezocoefficient pi44 in p-type silicon at three different doping concentrations in the temperature range from T=30 °C to T=80 °C. The extracted piezocoefficients are determined with an uncertainty of 1.8%. ©2008 American Institute of Physics...... bending fixture is manufactured in polyetheretherketon and a dedicated silicon chip with embedded piezoresistors fits in the fixture. The fixture is actuated by a microstepper actuator and a high sensitivity force sensor measures the applied force on the fixture and chip. The setup includes heaters...

  6. AC loss characteristics of Bi-2223 HTS tapes under bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae-Joon; Kim, J.H.; Cho, J.W.; Sim, K.D.; Kim, S.; Oh, S.S.; Kwag, D.S.; Kim, H.J.; Bae, J.H.; Seong, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    Superconductor is developed for applications in high-power devices such as power-transmission cables, transformers, motors and generators. In such applications, HTS tapes are subjected to various kinds of stress or strain. AC loss is also important consideration for many large-scale superconducting devices. In the fabrication of the devices, the critical current (I c ) of the high temperature superconductor degrades due to many reasons including the tension applied by bending and thermal contraction. These mechanical loads reduce the I c of superconducting wire and the I c degradation affects the AC loss of the wire. The I c degradation and AC loss of Bi-2223 HTS tape were measured under tension and bending conditions at 77 K and self-field. Moreover, the frequency characteristics of AC loss was measured at the 30-480 Hz. As a result, self-field penetrates the deeper into the conductor at the lower frequency, which means higher self-field losses per cycle

  7. Large Eddy Simulation of Supercritical CO2 Through Bend Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoliang; Apte, Sourabh; Dogan, Omer

    2017-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (sCO2) is investigated as working fluid for power generation in thermal solar, fossil energy and nuclear power plants at high pressures. Severe erosion has been observed in the sCO2 test loops, particularly in nozzles, turbine blades and pipe bends. It is hypothesized that complex flow features such as flow separation and property variations may lead to large oscillations in the wall shear stresses and result in material erosion. In this work, large eddy simulations are conducted at different Reynolds numbers (5000, 27,000 and 50,000) to investigate the effect of heat transfer in a 90 degree bend pipe with unit radius of curvature in order to identify the potential causes of the erosion. The simulation is first performed without heat transfer to validate the flow solver against available experimental and computational studies. Mean flow statistics, turbulent kinetic energy, shear stresses and wall force spectra are computed and compared with available experimental data. Formation of counter-rotating vortices, named Dean vortices, are observed. Secondary flow pattern and swirling-switching flow motions are identified and visualized. Effects of heat transfer on these flow phenomena are then investigated by applying a constant heat flux at the wall. DOE Fossil Energy Crosscutting Technology Research Program.

  8. Bending-Induced Giant Polarization in Ferroelectric MEMS Diaphragm

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhihong

    2016-09-09

    The polarization induced by the strain gradient, i.e. the flexoelectric effect, has been observed in a micromachined Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) diaphragms. Applying air pressure to bend a flat diaphragm which initially does not exhibit any electromechanical coupling can induce a resonance peak in its impedance spectrum. This result supposes that bending, thus the strain gradient in the diaphragm causes polarization in PZT film. We also investigated the switching behaviors of the polarization in response to an external electric field in a bent diaphragm and further quantified the polarization induced by the strain gradient. The effective flexoelectric coefficient of the PZT film has been calculated as large as 2.0 × 10−4 C/m. A giant flexoelectric polarization of the order of 1 μC/cm2 was characterized which is of the same order of magnitude as the normal remnant ferroelectric polarization of PZT film. The suggested explanation for the giant polarization is the large strain gradient in the diaphragm and the strain gradient induced reorientation of the polar nanodomains.

  9. Overall Thermal Performance of Flexible Piping Under Simulated Bending Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Demko, J. A.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Flexible, vacuum-insulated transfer lines for low-temperature applications have higher thermal losses than comparable rigid lines. Typical flexible piping construction uses corrugated tubes, inner and outer, with a multilayer insulation (MLI) system in the annular space. Experiments on vacuum insulation systems in a flexible geometry were conducted at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. The effects of bending were simulated by causing the inner tube to be eccentric with the outer tube. The effects of spacers were simulated in a controlled way by inserting spacer tubes for the length of the cylindrical test articles. Two material systems, standard MLI and a layered composite insulation (LCI), were tested under the full range of vacuum levels using a liquid nitrogen boiloff calorimeter to determine the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value). The results indicate that the flexible piping under simulated bending conditions significantly degrades the thermal performance of the insulation system. These data are compared to standard MLI for both straight and flexible piping configurations. The definition of an overall k-value for actual field installations (k(sub oafi)) is described for use in design and analysis of cryogenic piping systems.

  10. Relativity for everyone how space-time bends

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    This book, now in a revised and updated second edition, explains the theory of special and general relativity in detail without approaching Einstein's life or the historical background. The text is formulated in such a way that the reader will be able to understand the essence intuitively, and new sections have been added on time machines, the twin paradoxes, and tensors. The first part of the book focuses on the essentials of special relativity. It explains the famous equivalence between mass and energy and tells why Einstein was able to use the theory of electrodynamics as a template for his "electrodynamics of moving bodies". General relativity is then addressed, mainly with the help of thought experiments. Reference is made to the previously introduced special relativity and the equivalence principle and, using many figures, it is explained how space-time is bending under gravity. The climax of the book is the Einstein equation of gravity, which describes the way in which matter bends space-time. The read...

  11. Evaluation of bending moment and deflection of cantilever supported excavations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamid Yasrebi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In many conditions, because of several restrictions, cantilever walls are the only way to stabilize the excavations. It is no doubt that one of the most important parameters in design of such walls is wall stiffness. Therefore, in this study, a large number of case histories are collected and the most commonly used range of wall thickness and stiffness are determined based on this database. In addition, validation of limit equilibrium method (LEM in granular soils showed that this method can only estimate bending moment of rigid walls. Therefore, for more accurate estimating, a new equation is presented for the most commonly used range of wall stiffness and various types of granular soils. Moreover, LEM based equation is replaced with a modified version. The new equation was successfully validated using 70 numerical models and results lied in range of 85% to 115% times the predicted values obtained from FEM. According to the results, in loose and very loose soils, the common cantilever walls can only stabilize the excavations with depth less than 10 m. While if depth is more than 15 m, soil type should be dense or very dense with “E” more than about 70 MPa. The results also show that the effect of wall stiffness is negligible in bending moments less than 2000 kN.m.

  12. Inertia and Double Bending of Light from Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Careful examination of light paths in an accelerated reference frame, with use of Special Relativity, can account fully for the observed bending of light in a gravitational field, not just half of it as reported in 1911. This analysis also leads to a Machian formulation of inertia similar to the one proposed by Einstein in 1912 and later derived from gravitational field equations in Minkowsky Space by Sciama in 1953. There is a clear inference from equivalence that there is some type of inertial mass increase in a gravitational field. It is the purpose of the current paper to suggest that equivalence provides a more complete picture of gravitational effects than previously thought, correctly predicting full light bending, and that since the theory of inertia is derivable from equivalence, any theory based on equivalence must take account of it. Einstein himself clearly was not satisfied with the status of inertia in GRT, as our quotes have shown. Many have tried to account for inertia and met with less than success, for example Davidson s integration of Sciama s inertia into GRT but only for a steady state cosmology [10], and the Machian gravity theory of Brans and Dicke [11]. Yet Mach s idea hasn t gone away, and now it seems that it cannot go away without also disposing of equivalence.

  13. Bending continuous structures with SMAs: a novel robotic fish design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, C; Colorado, J; Coral, W; Barrientos, A

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we describe our research on bio-inspired locomotion systems using deformable structures and smart materials, concretely shape memory alloys (SMAs). These types of materials allow us to explore the possibility of building motor-less and gear-less robots. A swimming underwater fish-like robot has been developed whose movements are generated using SMAs. These actuators are suitable for bending the continuous backbone of the fish, which in turn causes a change in the curvature of the body. This type of structural arrangement is inspired by fish red muscles, which are mainly recruited during steady swimming for the bending of a flexible but nearly incompressible structure such as the fishbone. This paper reviews the design process of these bio-inspired structures, from the motivations and physiological inspiration to the mechatronics design, control and simulations, leading to actual experimental trials and results. The focus of this work is to present the mechanisms by which standard swimming patterns can be reproduced with the proposed design. Moreover, the performance of the SMA-based actuators' control in terms of actuation speed and position accuracy is also addressed.

  14. A broadband low-reflection bending waveguide for airborne sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Weiwei; Liang, Bin; Tian, Cong; Shen, Zhonghua; Cheng, Jianchun

    2017-06-01

    We design a bending waveguide capable to transmit broadband airborne sound with high efficiency while maintaining the wavefront undisturbed. Based on coordinate transformation, analytical formulae are derived to predict the parameter distribution of the required constituent materials composing the waveguide. A practical implementation is presented by employing acoustic metafluids that are formed with periodically arranged slabs of subwavelength dimensions in air-filled acoustic chambers. By studying the acoustic properties of the unit structures in the quasi-static limit, it is demonstrated that the effective mass density and bulk modulus of the proposed metamaterial can be modulated independently by tuning the geometry parameters and the temperature in the chamber. By virtue of the free-modulated features, the range of realizable effective parameters with metafluid are substantially broadened, and the corresponding acoustic impedance can be perfectly matched to the background medium. The performance of the bending waveguide is verified by demonstrating the low-reflection transmission of broadband sound and the ability of keeping the wavefront undisturbed. According to the effective medium theory, our scheme offers the flexibility to further raise the upper limit of the operating frequency with smaller size individual elements. The proposed design with the advantage of feasibility and effectiveness in broadband shows potential for a wide range of wave-steering applications.

  15. Bending continuous structures with SMAs: a novel robotic fish design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C; Colorado, J; Coral, W; Barrientos, A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our research on bio-inspired locomotion systems using deformable structures and smart materials, concretely shape memory alloys (SMAs). These types of materials allow us to explore the possibility of building motor-less and gear-less robots. A swimming underwater fish-like robot has been developed whose movements are generated using SMAs. These actuators are suitable for bending the continuous backbone of the fish, which in turn causes a change in the curvature of the body. This type of structural arrangement is inspired by fish red muscles, which are mainly recruited during steady swimming for the bending of a flexible but nearly incompressible structure such as the fishbone. This paper reviews the design process of these bio-inspired structures, from the motivations and physiological inspiration to the mechatronics design, control and simulations, leading to actual experimental trials and results. The focus of this work is to present the mechanisms by which standard swimming patterns can be reproduced with the proposed design. Moreover, the performance of the SMA-based actuators' control in terms of actuation speed and position accuracy is also addressed.

  16. Bending mode flutter in a transonic linear cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govardhan, Raghuraman; Jutur, Prahallada

    2017-11-01

    Vibration related issues like flutter pose a serious challenge to aircraft engine designers. The phenomenon has gained relevance for modern engines that employ thin and long fan blade rows to satisfy the growing need for compact and powerful engines. The tip regions of such blade rows operate with transonic relative flow velocities, and are susceptible to bending mode flutter. In such cases, the flow field around individual blades of the cascade is dominated by shock motions generated by the blade motions. In the present work, a new transonic linear cascade facility with the ability to oscillate a blade at realistic reduced frequencies has been developed. The facility operates at a Mach number of 1.3, with the central blade being oscillated in heave corresponding to the bending mode of the rotor. The susceptibility of the blade to undergo flutter at different reduced frequencies is quantified by the cycle-averaged power transfer to the blade calculated using the measured unsteady load on the oscillating blade. These measurements show fluid excitation (flutter) at low reduced frequencies and fluid damping (no flutter) at higher reduced frequencies. Simultaneous measurements of the unsteady shock motions are done with high speed shadowgraphy to elucidate the differences in shock motions between the excitation and damping cases.

  17. The lithospheric structure of the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region based on the CELEBRATION 2000 seismic experiment and gravity modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tašárová, Alasonati; Afonso, J. C.; Bielik, M.; Götze, H.-J.; Hók, J.

    2009-10-01

    The lithospheric structure of the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region was studied using 3-D modelling of the Bouguer gravity anomaly constrained by seismic models and other geophysical data. The thermal structure and density distribution in the shallow upper mantle were also estimated using a combination of petrological, geophysical, and mineral physics information (LitMod). This approach is necessary if the more complicated structure of the Pannonian Basin is to be better constrained. As a result, we have constructed the first 3-D gravity model of the region that combines various geophysical datasets and is consistent with petrological data. The model provides improved estimates of both the density distribution within the lithosphere and the depth to major density discontinuities. We present new maps of the thickness of major sedimentary basins and of the depth to the Moho and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. In our best-fitting model, the Pannonian Basin is characterised by extremely thin crust and lithospheric mantle, both of which have low density. A low-density uppermost asthenospheric mantle layer is also included at depths of 60-100 km. The Western Carpathians have only a thin crustal root and moderate densities. In contrast, the European Platform and Eastern Alps are characterised by lithosphere that is considerably thicker and denser. This inference is also supported by stripped gravity anomalies from which sediment, Moho and asthenospheric gravity contributions have been removed. These residual anomalies are characteristically low in the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region, which suggests that both the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates are 'exotic terranes' that are markedly different to the European Platform.

  18. Vegetation response to climate forcing during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation in the East Carpathians: attenuated response to maximum cooling and increased biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniko M. MAGYARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains were one of the main mountain reserves of the boreal and cool temperate flora during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM in East-Central Europe. Previous studies demonstrated late glacial vegetation dynamics in this area; however, our knowledge on the LGM vegetation composition is limited due to the scarcity of suitable sedimentary archives. Here we present a new record of vegetation, fire and lacustrine sedimentation from the youngest volcanic crater of the Carpathians (Lake St Anne, Lacul Sfânta Ana, Szent-Anna-tó to examine environmental change in this region during the LGM and the subsequent deglaciation. Our record indicates the persistence of boreal forest steppe vegetation (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Betula, Salix, Populus, Picea abies in the foreland and low mountain zone of the East Carpathians and Juniperus shrubland at higher elevation. We demonstrate attenuated response of the regional vegetation to maximum global cooling. Between ~22,870 and 19,150 cal yr BP we find increased regional biomass burning that is antagonistic with the global trend. Increased regional fire activity suggests extreme continentality likely with relatively warm and dry summers. We also demonstratexerophytic steppe expansion directly after the LGM, from ~19,150 cal yr BP, and regional increase in boreal woodland cover with Pinus and Betula from 16,300 cal yr BP. Plant macrofossils indicate local (950 m a.s.l. establishment of Betula nana and B. pubescens at 15,150 cal yr BP, Pinus sylvestris at 14,700 cal yr BP and Larix decidua at 12,870 cal yr BP. Pollen data furthermore hints at the regional presence of some temperate deciduous trees during the LGM (Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus. We also present pollen based quantitative climate reconstruction from this site and discuss its connection with other climate reconstructions and climate modeling results. 

  19. Exceptionally well-preserved giant spermatozoa in male and female specimens of an ostracod Cypria ophtalmica (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from Late Glacial lacustrine sediments of Southern Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iepure, Sanda; Namiotko, Tadeusz; Valdecasas, Antonio G.; Magyari, Enikö K.

    2012-07-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved giant spermatozoa observed between abundant decalcified carapace valves of ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) were found in Late Glacial to Holocene (14,400 to 10,000 cal years bp) lacustrine sediments in the southern Romanian Carpathians. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed good preservation of the appendages enabling specific identification as Cypria ophtalmica (Candonidae) and indication of the presence of both female and male specimens based on the sexual dimorphism of the second antenna. This record represents the oldest and richest direct evidence of virtually morphologically unaltered animal spermatozoa preserved in females after mating.

  20. Butt rot occurrence in plus trees of Silver fir Abies alba Mill. and Norway spruce Picea abies (L. from the Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chomicz-Zegar Elżbieta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its hidden character, butt rot occurrence is not commonly included in the assessment of plus trees’ health status. Thus, the trees’ varied susceptibility to wood decay is not a target of breeding efforts. The aim of the study was to determine the extent of butt rot in fir and spruce plus trees from Carpathian seed stands. We employed the novel and non-invasive diagnostic method of sonic tomography to determine presence and severity of decay at the base of 110 plus trees of silver fir and 42 of Norway spruce.