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Sample records for carp opsariichthys bidens

  1. Habitat-specific locomotor variation among Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens along a river.

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    Shi-Jian Fu

    Full Text Available The Wujiang River is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River that shows great variations in its flow regime and habitat condition. Dams have been built along the Wujiang River and have altered the habitats profoundly enough that they may give rise to reproductive isolation. To test whether the swimming performance and morphology of the Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens, varied among habitats and whether the possible differences had a genetic basis, we measured the steady and unsteady swimming performance, external body shape and genetic distance among fish collected from both the main and tributary streams of the upper, middle and lower reaches along the river. We also measured the routine energy expenditure (RMR, maximum metabolic rate (MMR, cost of transport (COT and calculated the optimal swimming speed. The steady swimming capacity, RMR, MMR and optimal swimming speed were all higher and the COT was lower in the upper reach or tributary streams compared with the lower reach or main stream. However, unsteady swimming performance showed no variation among collecting sites. Flow regimes as suggested by river slope and water velocity were positively correlated with steady swimming performance but not with unsteady swimming performance. Predation stress were significantly related with body morphology and hence energy cost during swimming but not U(crit value. The fish from only one population (Hao-Kou showed relatively high genetic differentiation compared with the other populations. Fish from the upper reach or tributary streams exhibited improved steady swimming performance through improved respiratory capacity and lower energy expenditure during swimming at the cost of higher maintenance metabolism. There was no correlation between the steady and unsteady swimming performance at either the population or the individual levels. These results suggest that a trade-off between steady and unsteady swimming does not occur in O. bidens.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese hook snout carp Opsariichthys bidens (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) and an alternative pattern of mitogenomic evolution in vertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xuzhen; Wang, Jun; He, Shunping

    2007-01-01

    , and a noncoding control region. We use these data and homologous sequence data from multiple other ostariophysan fishes in a phylogenetic evaluation to test hypothesis pertaining to codon usage pattern of O. bidens mitochondrial protein genes as well as to re-examine the ostariophysan phylogeny. The mitochondrial...... and Otophysi and results in a robust estimate of the otophysan phylogeny....

  3. 马口鱼消化道的形态及组织学结构特征%Morphological and Histological Structural Feature of Digestive Tract in Opsariichthys bidens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母丹利; 袁思平; 薛聪顺; 吴仲宁; 王建平; 竺俊全

    2016-01-01

    为了解马口鱼消化道的形态结构特点,采用解剖学、石蜡切片-显微技术及扫描电镜技术观察研究了马口鱼消化道的形态及组织学结构特征.结果显示:马口鱼消化道由口咽腔、食道、肠道组成,无胃;口咽腔无颌齿,具咽齿;舌短小,被覆复层扁平上皮,具少量味蕾及较多圆形粘液细胞.食道及肠道均由粘膜层、粘膜下层、肌层及外膜构成.食道粘膜层主要由复层扁平上皮构成,杯状细胞较多,肌层发达,内层环肌、外层纵肌.肠道分前、中、后三段,呈“S”形盘曲,肠长指数0.86~1.50;肠内面皱褶发达,粘膜上皮为单层柱状上皮,其游离面有微绒毛密集排列形成的纹状缘,后肠微绒毛密集程度略小于前中肠;上皮细胞间分布有杯状细胞,杯状细胞的数量前、中肠较多,后肠后段较少,肠管直径、肠绒毛数量及其高度由前到后渐减.马口鱼消化道的结构特征与其肉食性相适应.%In order to study the morphological and histological features of the digestive tract inOpsariichthys bidens,we observed the structure of the digestive tract using methods of anatomy, paraffin secyion- photomicrography and scanning electron microscope. The results show that the digestive tract is composed of orol-pharyngeal cavity, esophagus and intestines, but without stomach. There is no jaw teeth found, but instead pharyngeal teeth in orol-pharyngeal cavity. A small number of taste buds and a large number of mucous cells are identified in stratified squamous epithelium on short tongue. The esophagus and intestine consist of mucous membrane layer, submucosa, muscular and the outer membrane. The mucous membrane of the esophagus with numerous mucous cells is composed of the stratified squamous epithelium cells. The thick muscle layer is composed of ring muscle and longitudinal muscle. The bent ‘S’-shaped intestine can be divided into foregut, midgut and

  4. Reproductive biology in species of Bidens L. (Asteraceae Biologia reprodutiva em espécies de Bidens L. (Asteraceae

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    Maria Tereza Grombone-Guaratini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about reproductive biology of weed species can have implications on the establishment of controlling practices that minimize the effects of these weed populations on agricultural fields. The pollination biology of Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L., and Bidens subalternans DC., was studied at different sites and climatic seasons. Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans are widely distributed in agricultural areas, in disturbed habitats, and along road sides. Bidens alba occur only along the coast. The three species are self-compatible and non agamospermous. The composition of the pollinator community changes during the year and between sites. Hymenopterans and lepidopterans are the most frequent visitors to Bidens species in both areas studied. Although the species are self-compatible, the presence of pollinators may affect the levels of inbreeding. The attraction of insects by Bidens species may be benefical to agricultural crop and may also have important implications for conservation biology.Estudos de biologia reprodutiva de espécies invasoras podem ter implicações sobre o estabelecimento de práticas de controle que minimizem o efeito das populações destas espécies em áreas agrícolas. A biologia da polinização de Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L. e Bidens subalternans DC. foi estudada em diferentes locais e estações climáticas. Bidens pilosa e B. subalternans são espécies amplamente distribuídas em áreas agrícolas, em habitats perturbados e em margens de estradas. Bidens alba ocorre somente em regiões litorâneas. As três espécies são auto-compatíveis e não são agamospérmicas. A composição da comunidade de polinizadores apresenta diferenças durante o ano e entre locais. Himenópteros e lepidópteros são os visitantes mais freqüentes nas espécies de Bidens. Embora as espécies sejam auto compatíveis, a presença de polinizadores pode afetar os níveis de endocruzamento. A atração de insetos por esp

  5. Compilation of secondary metabolites from Bidens pilosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fabiana Lima; Fischer, Dominique Corinne Hermine; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Silva, Marcelo Sobral; de Athayde-Filho, Petronio Filgueiras; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria

    2011-01-26

    Bidens pilosa L. is a cosmopolitan annual herb, known for its traditional use in treating various diseases and thus much studied for the biological activity of its extracts, fractions and isolated compounds. Polyacetylenes and flavonoids, typical metabolite classes in the Bidens genus, predominate in the phytochemistry of B. pilosa. These classes of compounds have great taxonomic significance. In the Asteraceae family, the acetylene moiety is widely distributed in the Heliantheae tribe and some representatives, such as 1-phenylhepta-1,3,5-triyne, are noted for their biological activity and strong long-wave UV radiation absorbance. The flavonoids, specifically aurones and chalcones, have been reported as good sub-tribal level markers. Natural products from several other classes have also been isolated from different parts of B. pilosa. This review summarizes the available information on the 198 natural products isolated to date from B. pilosa.

  6. Compilation of Secondary Metabolites from Bidens pilosa L.

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    Petronio Filgueiras de Athayde-Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa L. is a cosmopolitan annual herb, known for its traditional use in treating various diseases and thus much studied for the biological activity of its extracts, fractions and isolated compounds. Polyacetylenes and flavonoids, typical metabolite classes in the Bidens genus, predominate in the phytochemistry of B. pilosa. These classes of compounds have great taxonomic significance. In the Asteraceae family, the acetylene moiety is widely distributed in the Heliantheae tribe and some representatives, such as 1-phenylhepta-1,3,5-triyne, are noted for their biological activity and strong long-wave UV radiation absorbance. The flavonoids, specifically aurones and chalcones, have been reported as good sub-tribal level markers. Natural products from several other classes have also been isolated from different parts of B. pilosa. This review summarizes the available information on the 198 natural products isolated to date from B. pilosa.

  7. Potted Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 4 silver carp of about 200 grams each, mushrooms, winter bamboo shoots, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, broth, salt and MSG (optional). Method: 1. After cleaning the carp place them in a pot; add in all other ingredients and some broth, Seal the opening of the pot with kraft paper

  8. Aspectos biológicos de Sceloenopla bidens, praga de filodendros Biological aspects of Sceloenopla bidens, pest of philodendron spp.

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    André Luiz Lourenção

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Há cerca de dez anos vem sendo observada a presença de Sceloenopla bidens (F., 1792 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Hispinae em folhas de Philodendron spp., em Campinas e outras localidades paulistas. O adulto permanece na face inferior das folhas, onde se alimenta, causando injúrias características. As larvas criam-se nas folhas, minando-as e comprometendo o aspecto ornamental da planta. Em condições de laboratório, o desenvolvimento do inseto desde ovo até emergência do adulto durou aproximadamente 48 dias. Em Campinas, efetuaram-se observações de seus danos na Floricultura Campineira, em cinco espécies de filodendros presentes - P. melinoni, P. bipinnatifidum, P. erubescens, P. selhom e P. wilsoni e no parque do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, onde a maioria das espécies não se encontra identificada. Em ambos os locais, verificou-se comportamento diferenciado de algumas espécies de filodendros em relação a S. bidens. Não se observou sua alimentação ou presença em outras epífitas dessa família (Araceae, situadas próximo a filodendros infestados, sugerindo possível especificidade da espécie com o gênero Philodendron.The occurrence of Sceloenopla bidens (F., 1792 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Hispinae on Philodendron spp. has been observed in Campinas and other cities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The adults stay in the lower surface of the leaves, where they feed, causing typical leaf injury. The larvae are leaf miners and, therefore, impair the ornamental effect of the plant. Under laboratory conditions, the insect development from egg to adult emergence lasted 48 days. In the philodendron germplasm of the Instituto Agronômico, a variation of performance among the species in relation to injury caused by this insect was verified. Two species showed leaves without damage, adults or larvae while others, as P. renauxii, exhibited highly damaged leaves and many adults. The presence or feeding of S. bidens in other epiphytes

  9. Bidens meyeri (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae: a new critically endangered species from Rapa, Austral Islands

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    Vicki Funk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bidens meyeri (Asteraceae/Compositae is described and illustrated from Rapa, Austral Islands, (French Polynesia. This new species is presumed to be most closely related to Bidens saint-johniana from nearby Marotiri Island. Bidens meyeri may be distinguished from B. saint-johniana based on the length of the peduncle (3 cm versus 10 cm, apex of the inner involucral bracts (glabrous vs. puberulent, smaller leaves (2.0–2.3 cm vs. 5–6 cm, and the general smaller size of the new species. Known from less than 50 individuals and restricted to one remote location, Bidens meyeri falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR category. The new species is named in honor of Dr. Jean-Yves Meyer, Délégation à la Recherche, Polynésie Française,

  10. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  11. One carp, two carp: are there more carp in the Wailoa River?

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    Mundy, Bruce C; Nico, Leo; Tagawa, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The February, 2015 issue of Hawaii Fishing News included the annual list of Hawai`i records for the largest fish of various species caught in the state. Among the new records was one for a 15-pound grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) caught by Avery Berido in the Wailoa River at Hilo on September 13, 2013. A photograph taken by Mr. Berido of the record grass carp garnered our attention because pictured fish looked quite similar to another Asian carp species, the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). Mr. Berido informed us that he also captured a 10-pound grass carp from the same river in June, 2013. After close examination of all of the photographs provided by Mr. Berido, we concluded that both fish from the Wailoa River were unusually dark grass carp, not black carp.

  12. Composition and Antidiarrheal Activity of Bidens odorata Cav.

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    Daniel Zavala-Mendoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiarrheal effects of chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Bidens odorata Cav. were investigated at doses of 200 mg/kg on castor-oil-induced diarrhea. The chloroform extract of B. odorata (CBO reduced diarrhea by 72.72%. The effect of CBO was evaluated on mice with diarrhea induced by castor oil, MgSO4, arachidonic acid, or prostaglandin E2. CBO inhibited the contraction induced by carbachol chloride on ileum (100 µg/mL and intestinal transit (200 mg/kg in Wistar rats. The active fraction of CBO (F4 at doses of 100 mg/kg inhibited the diarrhea induced by castor oil (90.1% or arachidonic acid (72.9% but did not inhibit the diarrhea induced by PGE2. The active fraction of F4 (FR5 only was tested on diarrhea induced with castor oil and inhibited this diarrhea by 92.1%. The compositions of F4 and FR5 were determined by GC-MS, and oleic, palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids were found. F4 and a mixture of the four fatty acids inhibited diarrhea at doses of 100 mg/kg (90.1% and 70.6%, resp.. The results of this study show that B. odorata has antidiarrheal effects, as is claimed by folk medicine, and could possibly be used for the production of a phytomedicine.

  13. Composition and Antidiarrheal Activity of Bidens odorata Cav.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Mendoza, Daniel; Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Pérez-Gutierrez, Salud; Escobar-Villanueva, M. Carmen; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The antidiarrheal effects of chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Bidens odorata Cav. were investigated at doses of 200 mg/kg on castor-oil-induced diarrhea. The chloroform extract of B. odorata (CBO) reduced diarrhea by 72.72%. The effect of CBO was evaluated on mice with diarrhea induced by castor oil, MgSO4, arachidonic acid, or prostaglandin E2. CBO inhibited the contraction induced by carbachol chloride on ileum (100 µg/mL) and intestinal transit (200 mg/kg) in Wistar rats. The active fraction of CBO (F4) at doses of 100 mg/kg inhibited the diarrhea induced by castor oil (90.1%) or arachidonic acid (72.9%) but did not inhibit the diarrhea induced by PGE2. The active fraction of F4 (FR5) only was tested on diarrhea induced with castor oil and inhibited this diarrhea by 92.1%. The compositions of F4 and FR5 were determined by GC-MS, and oleic, palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids were found. F4 and a mixture of the four fatty acids inhibited diarrhea at doses of 100 mg/kg (90.1% and 70.6%, resp.). The results of this study show that B. odorata has antidiarrheal effects, as is claimed by folk medicine, and could possibly be used for the production of a phytomedicine. PMID:24282432

  14. Emergência de Bidens pilosa em diferentes profundidades de semeadura Seed emergence of Bidens pilosa at different sowing depths

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    M.C. Souza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa é uma das mais importantes plantas daninhas que ocorrem em lavouras anuais e perenes da região Centro-Sul do Brasil. A grande capacidade de produção de aquênios é uma das suas principais estratégias de sobrevivência, e o conhecimento das condições fundamentais para germinação e emergência das plântulas é essencial para predição do crescimento populacional e para a elaboração de plano de manejo de suas infestações e de seus biótipos resistentes aos herbicidas. Foram conduzidos ensaios em condições de casa de vegetação, onde foi avaliada a emergência de aquênios de B. pilosa em diferentes profundidades (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 cm. Os experimentos foram conduzidos nos meses de maio, agosto e novembro de 2006 e em março de 2007. Os resultados mostraram que a emergência de plântulas de picão-preto foi bastante afetada pela localização do aquênio no perfil do solo, ocorrendo expressiva redução a partir de 2 cm de profundidade. Essa característica da biologia reprodutiva do picão-preto é importante para a formação de densos bancos de sementes em solos submetidos ao preparo convencional, onde grande parte da chuva de sementes é nele incorporada.Bidens pilosa is one of the major weeds in annual and perennial crops in midsouthern Brazil. High seed production is one of its most important survival strategies and the knowledge of the fundamental conditions for seedling germination and emergence is essential to establish prediction models of its population growth and to elaborate management models for control and prevention of herbicide resistant populations. This research aimed to understand the importance of B. pilosa seed depth in the soil profile to enhance its germination and seedling emergence potential. Thus, four assays were carried out under greenhouse conditions and the seeds were sown at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm from the soil surface. The emergence of B. pilosa seedlings was reduced as sowing depth

  15. Malheur - Common Carp Movement Control

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  16. Cytogenetics and DNA barcoding of the Round-eared bats, Tonatia (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: a new karyotype for Tonatia bidens

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    Jaqueline R. Tavares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are two species of Neotropical Round-eared bats, Tonatia bidens Spix, 1823 and Tonatia saurophila Koopman & Williams, 1951, which present highly similar morphological characteristics that can lead to errors of identification. Specimens originally identified as T. bidens have recently been reclassified as T. saurophila, and the only karyotype documented previously for these species was 2n = 16, FN = 20. In the present study, specimens of Tonatia collected in the municipality of Barra do Garças, in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, were analyzed morphologically, using conventional cytogenetic techniques (C-banding, Ag-NOR, and CMA3, and through sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene. In the specimens morphologically identified as T. bidens, the diploid number (2n was 26, and the fundamental number (FN, 38, while in T. saurophila, 2n = 16 and FN = 20, which is the karyotype also described previously for T. bidens. The dendograms obtained with sequences of the COI marker resulted in the formation of two distinct groups between T. bidens and T. saurophila, consistent with the two species, with a high sequence divergence value (14.22%. Distinct clades were also observed between T. bidens and the other phyllostomines analyzed in this study, with T. bidens also close to Phyllostomus hastatus (14.18% of sequence divergence.

  17. Allelopathy of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa on the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X F; Hassani, D; Cheng, Z W; Wang, C Y; Wu, J

    2014-12-12

    Five gradient concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/mL) of leaching liquors from the roots, stems, and leaves of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa were used as conditioning fluid to examine its influence on seed germination conditions of the native plant Geum japonicum var. chinense in Huangshan. All leaching liquors of organs suppressed the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense and reduced the final germination percentage and rate, and increased the germination inhibition rate, with a bimodal dependence on concentration. The leaching liquor inhibited the seed germination significantly at the concentration of 0.02 g/mL respectively. The seed germination was also inhibited as the concentration reached to 0.04 g/mL and beyond. Hence the allelopathic effects of the organs were significantly enhanced respectively. This phenomenon represented the presence of allelopathy substances in the root, stem and leaf of Bidens frondosa.

  18. Micronutrients evaluation in Bidens pilosa L., a plant applied in diabetes treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: rdmrg89@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease that has increasingly affected individuals over the last years. World Health Organization estimates that the worldwide number of diabetes cases will rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. Besides the therapy with pharmaceutical drugs, many diabetic patients use medicinal plants to control the glycemic levels. This herb has anti-diabetic action due to the presence of organic compounds and micronutrients. Among the plants applied in diabetes treatment, Bidens pilosa L., popularly known in Brazil as picao preto, belongs to the family of Asteraceaes, grows fast and is globally distributed. The aim of this study was evaluate the concentration of Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn in aerial parts of Bidens pilosa samples, as well as its growth substrate by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were separated into two groups named control and treatment. During the plant development, micronutrient solution, containing Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn, was added to the treatment group. It was observed that micronutrient solution added to the Biden pilosa samples may had contributed to the preferentially absorption of Fe, Mg and V, as well as to decrease Zn absorption. (author)

  19. Koi herpesvirus disease in carp

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    Jeremić Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A disease in the koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi and the common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, caused by the herpesvirus and accompanied by a high mortality rate, has spread across numerous fish ponds all over the world since 1998, resulting in massive mortality and significant financial losses. The herpesvirus-like virus, called the koi herpesvirus (KHV has been isolated and identified from the koi and the common carp in the course of the incidences of massive mortalities. The first appearance of a disease with a high mortality in the common and the koi carp caused by the koi herpesvirus (KHV was described in 1998 in Israel and the United States of America (USA. Since that time, a large number of cases of outbreaks of this disease have been confirmed throughout the world, including the USA, Israel, and a large number of European countries. The deaths occurred seasonally, in late spring or early autumn, when the water temperature was from 18-28ºC. The most important factor of the environment that affects the occurrence and gravity of this disease is the water temperature. This disease is currently considered one of the factors that present the biggest threat to populations of the common and the koi carp. Diseased fish are disoriented, their movements uncoordinated, their breathing rapid, gills swollen, and they have local skin lesions. The virus was isolated from tissue of diseased fish and cultivated on a KF-1 (koi fin cells cell line. Electronic microscopy examinations revealed virus identical viral particles of the Herpesviridae family. Analyses of the virion polypeptide and DNA established differences between the KHV and the previously known herpesvirus of the Cyprinida family, Herpesvirus cyprini (CHV, and the virus of the channel catfish (Channel catfish virus - CCV. In the years 2004 and 2005, high mortality was established among one-year and two-year carp fry on three fish ponds. At two ponds, the deaths occurred among one year and two

  20. Utilisation of vegetable leaves for carp production

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The results of two sets of experiments on mono-culture of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and mixed culture of carps (grass carp 50 : catla 20 : rohu 15 : mrigal 15) fed exclusively with vegetable leaves are reported. The experiments were conducted with two replicates each in 0.02 ha ponds of Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara during 1991-93. Monoculture of grass carp stocked at 1000/ha demonstrated an average net production of 21.0...

  1. Subchronic toxicity study of GH transgenic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ling; Liu, Yu-Mei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Wen-Zhong

    2012-11-01

    A subchronic toxicity study of GH (growth hormone) transgenic carp was carried out with 60 SD rats aged 4 weeks, weight 115∼125 g. Ten male and 10 female rats were allotted into each group. Animals of the three groups (transgenic carp group (GH-TC), parental carp group (PC) and control group) were fed soy- and alfalfa-free diet (SAFD) with 10% GH transgenic carp powder, 10% parental carp powder or 10% common carp powder for 90 consecutive days, respectively. In the end of study, animals were killed by exsanguination via the carotid artery under diethyl ether anesthesia, then weights of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, brain, ovaries and uterus/testis were measured. Pathological examination of organs was determined. Endocrine hormones of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid hormone (T4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) levels were detected by specific ELISA kit. Parameters of blood routine and blood biochemical were measured. The weights of the body and organs of the rats, food intake, blood routine, blood biochemical test and serum hormones showed no significant differences among the GH transgenic carp-treated, parental carp-treated and control groups (P>0.05). Thus, it was concluded that at the dose level of this study, GH transgenic carp showed no subchronic toxicity and endocrine disruption to SD rats.

  2. Alguns efeitos do fluometuron sobre o crescimento inicial de Bidens pilosa L. Some effects of fluometuron on early growth of Bidens pilosa L.

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    G. de Marinis

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. foram germinadas em placas de petri sobre papel de filtro molhado com diferentes concentrações de fluometuron (0, 5, 25, 125 e 625 ppm. O ensaio foi conduzido em condições de laboratório, com variação de temperatura entre 24°C e 28°C e intensidade luminosa máxima de 600 lux e foi encerrado após sete dias (168 horas. O fluometuron diminuiu a germinabilidade e o comprimento da radídula e do hipocótilo, afetou o formato dos cotilédones e, nas concentrações mais elevadas, impediu a rejeição do pericarpo. Os efeitos observados não são atribuíveis a lesões bioquímicas do processo fotossintético.Seeds of Bidens pilosa L. (Compositae were germinated in Petri dishes on filter paper wetted with aqueous suspensions of fluometuron at different concentrations (0, 5, 25, 125 and 625 ppm. The experiment was conducted during 7 days, under room conditions; the temperature range was 24°C - 28°C and the maximum light intensity was 600 lux. Fluometuron reduced germination percentage, radicle and hypocotyl lenght, affected cotyledon shape and, at the higher concentrations, prevented the pericarp rejection. The observed effects can not be attributed to biochemical lesions of the photosynthetic process.

  3. Reproductive condition and occurrence of intersex in bighead carp and silver carp in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.M.; Chapman, D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive biology of the exotic bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the Missouri River. In order to fill this gap in understanding, herein is described the reproductive condition of these Asian carps. Evidence is presented which indicates that bighead and silver carp in the Missouri River have a protracted spawning period that extends from early spring through fall and some individual bighead and silver carp are spawning multiple times during a reproductive season. Although bighead and silver carps are successfully maturing and spawning in the Missouri River some reproductive abnormalities such as intersex, atresia, and sterility were observed. Knowledge of the reproductive activity of these invasive carps may be useful to resource managers tasked with their control. Furthermore, the reproductive abnormalities observed should be considered when evaluating the environmental condition of the Missouri River relative to supporting a healthy fish fauna. ?? Springer 2006.

  4. 鬼针草的研究进展%Research advances of Bidens L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婷妮; 余长柱; 李荣; 李俊

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews the main chemical compositions and pharmacological action of anti -inflammation ,antihypertension ,antihy-perlipidemia,hepatoprotection,anti-tumor and anti-calculus.,which provides reference for development and utilization of Bidens L..%该文综述了鬼针草的主要化学成分和抗炎、抗高血压、抗高血脂、保肝护肝、抗肿瘤、抗结石方面的药理作用,为鬼针草的综合开发利用提供参考。

  5. Malheur - Telemetry Targeted Carp Movement and Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  6. Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

  7. Sensitivity of Bidens laevis L. to mutagenic compounds. Use of chromosomal aberrations as biomarkers of genotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, D.J. [Laboratorio de Genetica, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Balcarce (INTA), Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNMdP, CC 276, 7620 Balcarce (Argentina); Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lukaszewicz, G. [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Menone, M.L., E-mail: lujanm@mdp.edu.a [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Camadro, E.L. [Laboratorio de Genetica, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Balcarce (INTA), Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNMdP, CC 276, 7620 Balcarce (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    The wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis possesses suitable cytological characteristics for genotoxicity testing. To test its sensitivity as compared to terrestrial plants species currently in use in standardized assays, Methyl Methanesulfonate (MMS), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and Maleic Hydrazide (HM) were used. On the other hand, the insecticide Endosulfan (ES) - an environmentally relevant contaminant - was assayed in seeds and two-month old plants. Mitotic Index (MI), frequency of Chromosome Aberrations in Anaphase-Telophase (CAAT) and frequency of Abnormal Metaphases (AM) were analyzed. MH, MMS and ENU caused a significant decrease of the MI. MMS was aneugenic whereas MH and ENU were both aneugenic and clastogenic. ES caused a significant concentration-dependent increase of total- and aneugenic-CAAT in roots and a significant high frequency of AM at high concentrations. Because of its sensitivity to mutagenic substances, B. laevis can be regarded as a reliable and convenient species for genotoxicity assays especially if aquatic contaminants are evaluated. - The wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis is sensitive to genotoxic compounds similarly to terrestrial standardized species.

  8. EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil by Bidens maximowicziana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potential cleanup technology for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Bidens maximowicziana is a new Pb hyperaccumulator, which not only has remarkable tolerance to Pb but also extraordinary accumulation capacity for Pb. The maximum Pb concentration was 1509.3 mg/kg in roots and 2164.7 mg/kg in above ground tissues. The Pb distribution order in the Bidens maximowicziana was: leaf > stem > root. The effect of amendments on phytoremediation was also studied. The mobility of soil Pb and the Pb concentrations in plants were both increased by EDTA application. And compared with CK (control check), EDTA application promoted translocation of Pb to above ground parts of the plant. The Pb concentrations in aboveground parts of plants was increased from 24.23-680.56 mg/kg to 29.07-1905.57 mg/kg. This research demonstrated that B. maximowicziana appeared to be suitable for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil, especially, combination with EDTA.

  9. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  10. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  11. Inactivation of koi-herpesvirus in water using bacteria isolated from carp intestines and carp habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, N; Sasaki, R-K; Kasai, H; Yoshimizu, M

    2013-12-01

    Since its first outbreak in Japan in 2003, koi-herpesvirus (KHV) remains a challenge to the carp Cyprinus carpio L. breeding industry. In this study, inactivation of KHV in water from carp habitats (carp habitat water) was investigated with the aim of developing a model for rapidly inactivating the pathogen in aquaculture effluent. Experiments with live fish showed that, in carp habitat water, KHV lost its infectivity within 3 days. Indications were that inactivation of KHV was caused by the antagonistic activity of bacteria (anti-KHV bacteria) in the water from carp habitats. Carp habitat water and the intestinal contents of carp were therefore screened for anti-KHV bacteria. Of 581 bacterial isolates, 23 showed anti-KHV activity. An effluent treatment model for the disinfection of KHV in aquaculture effluent water using anti-KHV bacteria was developed and evaluated. The model showed a decrease in cumulative mortality and in the number of KHV genome copies in kidney tissue of fish injected with treated effluent compared with a positive control. It is thought that anti-KHV bacteria isolated from the intestinal contents of carp and from carp habitat water can be used to control KHV outbreaks.

  12. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the extracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tomczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the extracts, subextracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita flowers and herbs. In the study, twelve extracts and two essential oils were investigated for activity against different Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, E. coli (beta-laktamase+, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL+, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some fungal organisms Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. terreus using a broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The results obtained indicate antimicrobial activity of the tested extracts (except butanolic extracts, which however did not inhibit the growth of fungi used in this study. Bacteriostatic effect of both essential oils is insignificant, but they have strong antifungal activity. These results support the use of B. tripartita to treat a microbial infections and it is indicated as an antimicrobial and antifungal agent, which may act as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.

  13. EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil by Bidens maximowicziana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-qi; Lu, Si-jin; Li, Hua; Yao, Zhi-hua

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potential cleanup technology for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Bidens maximowicziana is a new Pb hyperaccumulator, which not only has remarkable tolerance to Pb but also extraordinary accumulation capacity for Pb. The maximum Pb concentration was 1509.3 mg/kg in roots and 2164.7 mg/kg in overground tissues. The Pb distribution order in the B. maximowicziana was: leaf > stem > root. The effect of amendments on phytoremediation was also studied. The mobility of soil Pb and the Pb concentrations in plants were both increased by EDTA application. Compared with CK (control check), EDTA application promoted translocation of Pb to overground parts of the plant. The Pb concentrations in overground parts of plants was increased from 24.23-680.56 mg/kg to 29.07-1905.57 mg/kg. This research demonstrated that B. maximowicziana appeared to be suitable for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil, especially, combination with EDTA.

  14. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the past few years the two pools at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge have become heavily infested with Carp. These fish enter the pools over the tops of...

  15. Rapid establishment of pure lines of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molirix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongwei; YE Yuzhen; ZHOU Jianfeng; WU Qingjiang

    2004-01-01

    The diversity of gynogenetic, artificial sex reversal and natural silver carp and bighead carp is examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method.All of the 187 bands are obtained and 19 (10.16%) of them are polymorphic in gynogenetic silver carp.Meanwhile 32 (15.61%) out of 205 bands are polymorphic in control group.In gynogenetic bighead carp a total of 232 bands are identified and 11 (4.74%) out of them are polymorphic, while 25 (10.37%) out of 241 bands are polymorphic in control group.The genetic distance of four populations is calculated and it is 0.102 and 0.023 for gynogenetic silver carp and gynogenetic bighead carp respectively.The values of natural silver carp and bighead carp are 0.161 and 0.104.From the UPGMA trees constructed based on genetic distance, the sex reversal individuals that match with the gynogenetic female individuals are picked out.A new breeding process of establishing a pure line is developed.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES CONCERNING PARASITIC DIVERSITY OF COMMON CARP AND KOI CARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA RADU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments carried on ponds of CCDP Nucet, researches being axled on comparative and comprehensive analysis of pathologic incidences on common and Japanese carp. This researches present theoretical and empirical convenience, because allow to elaborate of prophylaxis and disease control on. The ichthyo-pathologic exam was carried on for 271 exemplars of common carp, subspecies Cyprinus carpio carpio and 31 exemplars of ornamental carp (koi carp. There were identified 30 species of allogenic parasites, 9 species of parasites characteristic for carp as well as some common species of parasites with broad dissemination on cultured fish. All analyzed exemplars of showed parasitic infestation, but with a different extent of extensively and intensively. The most important epidemiologic factors from the analyzed ponds that increase the parasitic invasions were represented by the presence of infested fish, rearing in policulture of species and ages, as well as by the high density, water quality, thermic and flow fluctuations.

  17. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Carp Control in refuge pools has been an important project during the last three years on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. The necessity for curtailing the carp...

  18. Full-length sequence analysis of a distinct isolate of Bidens mottle virus infecting sunflower in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, J Y; Hu, Chung-Chi; Chen, C C; Chang, C H; Deng, T C

    2009-01-01

    The full-length genome of a potyvirus, previously known as sunflower chlorotic spot virus isolate SF-1 (SCSV-SF-1) which causes novel symptoms on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus), was sequenced and analyzed. The genome of SCSV-SF-1 is 9,741 nucleotides long, encoding a polyprotein of 3,071 amino acids containing the consensus motifs of potyviruses. Sequence comparison revealed that the 3'-terminus of SCSV-SF-1 shared over 96% similarities with isolates of Bidens mottle virus (BiMoV). However, SCSV-SF-1 has a very narrow host range, excluding the diagnostic host species for BiMoV, Bidens pilosa and Zinnia elegans. Therefore, SCSV-SF-1 is a distinct isolate of BiMoV. This is the first report of the full-length nucleotide sequence of BiMoV infecting sunflower in Taiwan.

  19. Two unisexual artificial polyploid clones constructed by genome addition of common carp (Cyprinus carp) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qingjiang; (吴清江); YE; Yuzhen; (叶玉珍); DONG; Xinhong; (董新红)

    2003-01-01

    A polyploid hybrid fish with natural gynogenesis can prevent segregation and maintain their hybrid vigor in their progenies. Supposing the reproduction mode of induced polyploid fish being natural gynogenesis, allopolyploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp into allopolyploid was performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe a lineage from sexual diploid carp transforming into allotriploid and allotetraploid unisexual clones by genome addition. The diploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp reproduces an unreduced nucleus consisting of two parental genomes. This unreduced female pronucleus will fuse with male pronucleus and form allotriploid zygote after penetration of related species sperms. Allotriploid embryos grow normally, and part of female allotriploid can produce unreduced mature ova with three genomes. Mature ova of most allotriploid females are provided with natural gynogenetic trait and their nuclei do not fuse with any entrance sperm. All female offspring are produced by gynogenesis of allotriploid egg under activation of penetrating sperms. These offspring maintain morphological traits of their allotriploid maternal and form an allotetraploid unisexual clone by gynogenetic reproduction mode. However, female nuclei of rare allotriploid female can fuse with penetrating male pronuclei and result in the appearance of allotetraploid individuals by means of genome addition. All allotetraploid females can reproduce unreduced mature eggs containing four genomes. Therefore, mature eggs of allotetraploid maintain gynogenetic trait and allotetraploid unisexual clone is produced under activation of related species sperms.

  20. Contribución al conocimiento de la Papunga, Bidens pilosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastidas P. Pedro Iván

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio preliminar del hábitat natural de Bidens pilosa L. y de la asociación con micorrizas e insectos. Se evaluó el efecto de la luz, la longitud de los aquenios y el tiempo de almacenamiento sobre la germinación. Se estudió el crecimiento y desarrollo de la especie, se hizo análisis bromatológico de las hojas y se halló un método no destructivo para estimar el área foliar. La planta se encontró entre los 1000 y los 1800 msnm, en todos los sitios se encontró la raíz asociada con hongos micorrizogenos; la planta es frecuentemente visitada por insectos benéficos especialmente en floración. Los aquenios largos en la luz germinaron en 98% y 96 % en oscuridad los cortos alcanzaron 77 y 69 %. A los 4 meses de almacenamiento los aquenios largos tuvieron germinaciones de 89 % y de 78% los cortos. El área foliar se incrementó hasta la novena semana, en este período las hojas aportaron un alto porcentaje de la biomasa total, después el aporte principal se debió a los tallos. Las hojas contenían 16.8% de proteínas. El modelo para estimar el área foliar fue AF = 23.3 + 0.349 (LA-54.3 con un R2 de 93.5%.The natural habitat for Papunga Bidens pilosa and the associated mycorriza were the subject of this study. The effects of dayligh, achenia lenghts and seed storage time were evaluated. Growth curve and plant development data were recorded. A proximal analysis is given and a nont–destructive method to estimate foliar area is described. Papunga grows al 1000-1800 meter altitudes and every where is associated with mycorrhiza. Pollination insects are frequently found. Long achenia germinate up to 96% in the dark and 98% in the light. Foliar area incremented up to the 9 the week; then decreases while culm weight increases, leaves showed 16.8010 protein. Foliar area model used was FA = 23.3 + 0.349 (LA - 54.3 with 93.5 % R2.

  1. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G3), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G2) of red crucian carp × common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G3, G2×scatter scale carp and G2×allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G2 with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G3 with 100 chromosomes. Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G1 and G2), G3 was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G2 with scatter scale carp and crossing G2 with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G2 ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G2. The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G1, G2 and G3) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gyno- genetic progeny of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp had important signifi- cances in both biological evolution and production application.

  2. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ShaoJun; DUAN Wei; TAO Min; ZHANG Chun; SUN YuanDong; SHEN JiaMin; WANG Jing; LUO KaiKun; LIU Yun

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G3), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G2)of red crucian carp × common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G3, G2×scatter scale carp and G2×allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G2 with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G3 with 100 chromosomes.Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G1 and G2), G3 was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G2 with scatter scale carp, and crossing G2 with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G2 ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G2. The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G1, G2 and G3) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gynogenetic progeny of allotetrapioid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp had important significances in both biological evolution and production application.

  3. Description of sounds associated with Sowerby's beaked whales (Mesoplodon bidens) in the western North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewiak, Danielle; Baumann-Pickering, Simone; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2013-11-01

    Several groups of Sowerby's beaked whales (Mesoplodon bidens) were encountered on July 4, 2011, during a shipboard cetacean survey conducted off the eastern seaboard of the United States. Acoustic recordings were collected using a three-element towed hydrophone array. Many echolocation clicks were recorded during the encounter, but no tonal sounds were detected. A total of 2969 echolocation clicks were included in analyses of frequency and temporal characteristics. A Gaussian mixture model with four mixtures was fitted to the histogram of peak frequencies; four subsets of clicks were designated. The majority of clicks (n = 2048) contained a median peak frequency of 33 kHz, while the others contained a median peak frequency of 25 kHz (n = 324), 51 kHz (n = 304), or 67 kHz (n = 293). Most clicks did not contain a clear frequency-modulated upsweep, though some clicks exhibited a slight sweep from 30-36 kHz. Seven burst pulses were detected in the encounter, two of which were of high enough quality for detailed analysis. The acoustic characteristics of Sowerby's beaked whales have not previously been described; the current study will facilitate incorporation of these data into passive acoustic monitoring programs in the North Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Allelopathic effect of essential oils of medicinal plants in Bidens pilosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.S. Alves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the inhibitory allelopathic effects of the volatile extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness, Lippia sidoides Cham. and Cymbopogum nardus L. on seed germination and root growth of seedlings of Bidens pilosa. The experiment was conducted at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Ceará. For this end, we used oils at the concentrations of 0.01, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08% (v/v. Five treatments were used for each of the oils arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications of 25 seeds. The seeds were sown in Petri dishes lined with filter paper moistened with distilled water and, aiming at the indirect contact with each oil, two sheets of filter paper were placed on top of the lid, in which three (3 mL of each oil solution were added. Then, the dishes were incubated in a germination chamber at 25°C. The pH did not contribute to alter the results; the volatile extracts of essential oils of C. zeylanicum, L. sidoides and C. nardus inhibited seed germination and root growth of seedlings of B. pilosa, which shows allelopathic potential; and the concentration of 0.08% of oils caused the overall deterioration of the roots and death of seedlings of B. pilosa.

  5. Bioactive compounds in Bidens pilosa L. populations: a key step in the standardization of phytopharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Cortés-Rojas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The total flavonoid content (TFC, total polyphenols content (TPC, and in vitro antioxidant activity (AA of six Bidens pilosa L., Asteraceae, populations harvested from different localities were evaluated in this work. The plants were separated in roots, stems, and leaves/flowers, and the influence of extraction methods was investigated.Areversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC was developed and employed to obtain characteristic HPLC fingerprints of the bioactive compounds present in the extractive solutions, which were correlated with the TFC, TPC, and AA. Extractive solutions of leaves/flowers presented a higher AA when compared with those obtained from other parts of the plant (IC50 of 35.35±0.10 µg/mL. The stem extracts presented the lowest AA (IC50 117.2±1.96 µg/mL. A direct correlation of AA with TFC and TPC was evidenced. The highest AA was obtained by dynamic maceration and was statistically different from the AA presented by the extractive solutions obtained by other extraction methods. The results of this work evidenced differences that can be found at different stages of development of phytopharmaceutical preparations from B. pilosa and highlighted the importance of using the concentration of marker compounds as well as HPLC fingerprints as quality control parameters.

  6. Bioactive compounds in Bidens pilosa L. populations: a key step in the standardization of phytopharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Cortés-Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The total flavonoid content (TFC, total polyphenols content (TPC, and in vitro antioxidant activity (AA of six Bidens pilosa L., Asteraceae, populations harvested from different localities were evaluated in this work. The plants were separated in roots, stems, and leaves/flowers, and the influence of extraction methods was investigated.Areversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC was developed and employed to obtain characteristic HPLC fingerprints of the bioactive compounds present in the extractive solutions, which were correlated with the TFC, TPC, and AA. Extractive solutions of leaves/flowers presented a higher AA when compared with those obtained from other parts of the plant (IC50 of 35.35±0.10 µg/mL. The stem extracts presented the lowest AA (IC50 117.2±1.96 µg/mL. A direct correlation of AA with TFC and TPC was evidenced. The highest AA was obtained by dynamic maceration and was statistically different from the AA presented by the extractive solutions obtained by other extraction methods. The results of this work evidenced differences that can be found at different stages of development of phytopharmaceutical preparations from B. pilosa and highlighted the importance of using the concentration of marker compounds as well as HPLC fingerprints as quality control parameters.

  7. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV.

  8. Resposta à qualidade de luz como estratégia para estabelecimento de Bidens gardneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimara Nolasco Rondon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o envolvimento do fitocromo na germinação de aquênios do Bidens gardneri Baker., conhecido como picão preto. Os aquênios foram separados em curtos, médios e longos. Dois experimentos utilizaram apenas aquênios médios devido às diferenças quanto à resposta de germinação na ausência de luz, quando foram armazenados artificialmente no solo de cerrado, em um estudo anterior. A resposta dos aquênios curtos, médios e longos ao aumento da fluência de luz branca foi verificada sob um gradiente de luz branca entre 0 e 46,44 mmol m-2 s-1 de fluência. A reversão do fitocromo vermelho extremo (Fve em fitocromo vermelho (Fv no escuro em aquênios médios recém coletados e os armazenados por 14 meses a 4 ºC, que foram embebidos em água por 24 horas e incubados a 35 °C durante 24, 48 e 72 horas no escuro e a germinação foi a 25 ºC no escuro e observada após 15 e 30 dias. Por ultimo, foi construído um gradiente de fotoequilíbrio para cada tamanho e idade de aquênio em placas de petri umedecidos com água destilada, na qual a germinação foi observada a cada dois dias. Em irradiâncias de 0 a 46,44 mmol m-2 s-1, a germinabilidade dos aquênios longos e médios aumentou com a irradiância, porém os aquênios curtos sempre tiveram baixa germinabilidade. Aquênios médios armazenados, pré-embebidos por 24h e incubados no escuro por 24 h, 48 h e 72 h a 35 ºC mantiveram resposta fotoblástica quando a germinação foi observada a cada dois dias e após 15 e 30 dias, portanto não apresentaram reversão de Fve para Fv no escuro. No entanto, aquênios médios recém coletados e submetidos aos mesmos tratamentos tiveram o Fve removido quando incubados por 48 e 72 horas. Estes aquênios mostraram a resposta de fluência muito baixa de luz, quando a germinação foi observada a cada dois dias, sob luz verde. Os resultados indicam que heteroblastismo pode conferir à espécie estratégias diferentes

  9. Isolation of Brucella ceti from a Long-finned Pilot Whale (Globicephala melas) and a Sowerby's Beaked Whale (Mesoploden bidens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Geoffrey; Whatmore, Adrian M; Dagleish, Mark P; Baily, Johanna L; Deaville, Rob; Davison, Nicholas J; Koylass, Mark S; Perrett, Lorraine L; Stubberfield, Emma J; Reid, Robert J; Brownlow, Andrew C

    2015-10-01

    Brucella ceti is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that has been recovered from several species of cetaceans in the world's oceans over the past 20 yr. We report the recovery of B. ceti from a Sowerby's beaked whale (Mesoploden bidens) and a long-finned pilot whale (Globicehala melas). Recovery from the testis of a long-finned pilot whale provides further evidence of potential for B. ceti infection to impact the reproductive success of cetaceans, many of which are threatened species. The addition of another two cetacean species to the growing number from which B. ceti has been recovered also further emphasizes the concern for human infections with this organism.

  10. Multiple resistance to atrazine and imazethapyr in hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Kagueyama Takano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Resistance to herbicides is a serious threat to crop production worldwide, especially in agronomic crops and cereals. This research evaluated the possible occurrence of Bidens pilosa resistant to imazethapyr and atrazine in Brazil. The resistant biotype was collected from an area with a history of repeated application of photosystem II (PSII and ALS inhibitor herbicides. The susceptible biotype was collected from an area with no history of herbicide application. Resistance verification experiments were carried out in the greenhouse. The treatments were arranged in a 3 x 8 factorial scheme, where the first factor was populations [susceptible (S, parent resistant (PR, and resistant F1 (RF1]; and the second factor was herbicide dose (0, 375, 750, 1500, 3000, 6000, 12000 and 24000 g ha-1 for atrazine; or 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 g ha-1 for imazethapyr. The resistance factor to atrazine was 2.83 for PR and 5.55 for RF1. This population was more resistant to imazethapyr (>21-fold than it was to atrazine. The recommended maximum dose of the herbicides did not control this B. pilosa population adequately. The data support the claim that B. pilosa population from this field in Quarto Centenário, Parana is resistant to two herbicide modes of action - PSII inhibitor (i.e. atrazine and ALS inhibitor (i.e. imazethapyr. This is the first report of such case for this species, globally. Cross-resistance to other ALS inhibitors and other PS II inhibitors as well as the respective mechanisms of resistance to each herbicide are being investigated.

  11. Phytochrome controls achene germination in Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae by very low fluence response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amaral-Baroli

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Achene without ornament of the tegument were light insensitive with germination under all tested light conditions. Achene with verrucose ornament of the tegument presented low germination under darkness and high germination under light conditions. By pre-incubation at 36° C for remotion of pre-existing Pfr and by comparison of results of counting of dark germinating achenes at the end of experiment and daily under dim green safe light (0.001mumol m-2 s-1 nm-1 we concluded that germination was controlled by phytochrome through very low fluence response.Aquênios sem ornamento do tegumento são insensíveis à luz com ocorrência de germinação sob todas as condições de luz testadas. Aquênios com ornamento verrucoso do tegumento apresentou baixa germinação sob escuro e alta germinação sob luz. A pré-incubação a 36° C para a remoção de Fve pré-existente e pela comparação dos resultados de contagem no final do experimento de aquênios que germinam no escuro e diárias sob luz verde de segurança (0.001mimol m-2s-1nm-1 concluimos que a germinação de Bidens pilosa é controlada pelo fitocromo através da resposta de fluência baixa.

  12. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation. Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp. PMID:26666689

  13. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-12-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation.Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp.

  14. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  15. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  16. The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

    2014-02-25

    It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host.

  17. 76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., 2007 (72 FR 59019), the Service added black carp to this list. The Service published a Federal Register notice of inquiry on bighead carp (68 FR 54409; September 17, 2003) and provided a 60-day public comment... 2009 supported the petitioned action for bighead carp. The Asian Carp Prevention and Control Act...

  18. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish's utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  19. Innate immune receptors in carp: recognition of protozoan parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, C.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis reports on pattern recognition receptors involved in the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to two protozoan parasites Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. The immune responses of carp are fundamentally different when comparing these two extracellular blood

  20. A Study of the Carpe Diem in Two Literary Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万彰劼

    2011-01-01

    Carpe diem expresses a philosophy of recognizing the brevity of life and seizing an opportunity in time.Poems then breathe wit and wisdom with the carpe diem theme running through,on the basis of which many distinguished Cavalier poets have created a numb

  1. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  2. In vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant and antiviral effects of Pterocaulon alopecuroides and Bidens segetum extracts Efeitos citotóxico, antioxidante e antiviral in vitro de extratos de Pterocaulon alopecuroides e Bidens segetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Silva Silveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lamark De Candolle and Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla are two species belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts from those two species were evaluated to their cytotoxic, antioxidant and antiviral activities. All the extracts assayed have shown a very high cytotoxity against RBL-2H3 cell line. The antioxidant assay pointed out a really high activity of the ethyl acetate extracts for B. segetum and P. alopecuroides. This can be partially explained due to the high content of coumarins, at least for P. alopecuroides. None of the total ethanol extracts from B. segetum showed significant activity against the two strains of Herpes simplex virus (Types 1 and 2 resistant to acyclovir. P. alopecuroides ethanol extract was also inactive against the Herpes simplex virus type 1 resistant to acyclovir. However, this extract presented inhibitory activity against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 resistant to acyclovir. From the ethanol crude extract of P. alopecuroides, it was possible to isolate 7-(2',3'-dihidroxy-3'-methylbutyloxy-6-methoxycoumarin, which was tested in the same conditions, showing a viral inhibitory rate almost twice bigger than the P. alopecuroides sample for HSV-2-ACVr. The coumarin was also active against HSV-1-ACVr. Those results provide further evidence of the importance of Pterocaulon alopecuroides and Bidens segetum as medicinal plants.Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lamark De Candolle e Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla são duas espécies pertencentes à família Asteraceae. Os extratos dessas duas espécies foram avaliados quanto às suas atividades citotóxica, antioxidante e antiviral. Todos os extratos analisados apresentaram citotoxidade muito alta contra linhagens de células RBL-2H3. O ensaio de atividade antioxidante demonstrou uma alta atividade das frações em acetato de etila de B. segetum e P. alopecuroides. Isso pode ser parcialmente explicado pelo alto conteúdo de cumarinas, ao menos para P

  3. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  4. Histopathological changes induced by environmental stress in common carp, Japanese coloured carp, European eel, and African catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakolczai, J

    1997-01-01

    Histopathological changes caused by stress during catching and transport were examined in four fish species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the Japanese coloured carp (koi, the coloured variant of the Asian carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus), the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In all species, the goblet cells of the gills and skin were decreased in number and slight detachment of the epithelium of the secondary gill lamellae was seen. Loss of goblet cells and detachment of the columnar epithelial cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of common carp and coloured carp. It is supposed that these lesions may affect ion transport and respiration in the gills and disturb normal intestinal function, thus serving as a starting point for different diseases.

  5. Common Carp Abundance, Biomass, and Removal from Dewey and Clear Lakes on the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Does Trapping and Removing Carp Payoff?

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a nonnative invasive nuisance species to North America. Many authors have documented the detrimental affects of common carp invasions...

  6. USGS science and technology help managers battle invading Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cynthia S.; Morrison, Sandra S.

    2016-09-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts Asian carp research focused on early detection, risk assessment, and development of control tools and strategies. The goals are to prevent the establishment of invasive Asian carp in the Great Lakes and to reduce their impacts in the Ohio River and Mississippi River Basins and elsewhere. Managers can use the information, tools, and strategies for early detection of Asian carp and to control them when their presence is first evident. New detection and control tools are designed to accommodate expansion to other invasive species and application in geographically diverse areas.This USGS focus complements goals of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI), a multi-agency collaboration started in 2010 to protect and restore the Great Lakes. As a member of the Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee, which guides Asian carp efforts, the USGS works closely with Federal and State agencies, Canada, and others to address high-priority Asian carp issues and provide science to inform management decisions.The USGS has gained extensive knowledge of Asian carp biology and life history over the past 30 years. That knowledge guides the design, development, and application of control strategies, and is essential for developing approaches in line with modern principles and practices of integrated pest management (IPM). IPM is a process used to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment.

  7. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided int...

  8. Dynamics of algae growth and nutrients in experimental enclosures culturing bighead carp and common carp:Phosphorus dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suiliang Huang; Baoyan Liu; Shaoming Wang; Yang Luo; Adam Szymkiewicz; Romuald Szymkiewicz; Min Wu; Changjuan Zang; Shenglan Du; Joseph Domagalski; Magdalena Gajewska; Feng Gao; Chao Lin; Yong Guo

    2016-01-01

    This is the third paper of the series about “Dynamics of algae growth and nutrients in experimental enclosures culturing bighead carp and common carp”. In this paper, phosphorus dynamics were inves-tigated under the condition of culturing bighead carp and common carp with added fish food (nitrogen dynamics is discussed in the second paper because their behaviors are so different from each other). Nearly fifty days’ observation results indicated that the reservoir water was typical of “phosphorus limited” water, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was the main constituent of measured total phosphorus (TP). The presence of fish food resulted in significantly higher SRP, dissolved total phos-phorus (DTP) and TP concentrations in contrast with the reservoir water. Moreover, continuous supply of fish food led to the decline of total nitrogen to total phosphorus (TN:TP) from more than 100 to less than 5. Variations in the ratio of TN to TP favored the growth of blue-green algae. Fish species affected phosphorus concentrations, and culturing bait-eating common carp contributed more to reducing the SRP, DTP and TP concentrations than culturing planktivorous bighead carp. 0.5%, 4.1%and 3.1%TP can be removed in enclosures with culturing bighead carp, common carp and mixed bighead carp and common carp, respectively. Abundant phosphorus in the fish culturing activities may be present as the uneaten food, algae cells, and within the water column and sediment, which should be taken into serious con-sideration for the target of future water eutrophication prevention and safety of the drinking water supply.

  9. Potencial alelopático de extratos aquosos de genótipos de canola sobre Bidens pilosa Allelopathic potential of aqueous extracts of canola genotypes on Bidens Pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rizzardi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas de genótipos de canola na germinação e comprimento da radícula de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa. Os tratamentos estudados foram constituídos dos genótipos de canola Hyola 420, Hyola 401, Hyola 43, Hyola 60, Hyola 61, Y 3000, H 1432, Dln 03-02, Dln 03-04, Sdh 03-01, Sdh 03-07, Sw-2797 e Sw-Eclipse, nas concentrações de extrato aquoso a 100, 75, 50, 25 e 0%. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial com dois fatores 12 x 4 (genótipos e concentração do extrato, com quatro repetições. O experimento foi conduzido em caixas gerbox com papel de germinação embebido nos extratos das plantas de canola, sobre os quais foram dispostos aquênios de picão-preto. Sete dias após a semeadura, avaliou-se o número de aquênios germinados e o comprimento das radículas. Os resultados revelaram que os extratos de canola influenciam negativamente a germinação de aquênios e o comprimento da radícula de Bidens pilosa. Para alguns genótipos, as baixas concentrações de extratos estimularam tanto o crescimento da radícula quanto a porcentagem de germinação dos aquênios; em altas concentrações, os genótipos não diferiram na germinação dos aquênios e no comprimento da radícula.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of plants of canola genotypes on the germination and radicle length of hairy beggartick (Bidens pilosa. The treatments consisted of genotypes of canola Hyola 420, Hyola 401, Hyola 43, Hyola 60, Hyola 61, Y 3000, H 1432, Dln 03-02, Dln 03-04, Sdh 03-01, Sdh 03-07, sw-2797, and Sw-Eclipse. The concentrations of aqueous extract of 100, 75, 50, 25 and 0 % were tested. A completely randomized experimental design was used in a factorial 12 x 4 (genotypes and extract concentrations with four replications. The experiment was carried out in plastic boxes containing ot the bottom blotter

  10. Potencial alelopático de plantas de cobertura no controle de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. Cover plants allelopathic potential in Bidens pilosa L. control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Monti Teixeira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Extratos aquosos da parte aérea de mucuna-preta (Stilozobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy, mucuna rajada (Stilozobium sp., Crotalaria juncea L., Crotalaria spectabilis Roth, guandu e guandu anão (Cajanus cajan (L. Druce foram preparados com o objetivo de se determinar a potencialidade alelopática dessas espécies, largamente utilizadas como plantas de cobertura, sobre sementes de alface (planta-teste e aquênios de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L.. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes da Universidade Federal de Lavras, durante o mês de abril de 2003. Foram avaliados o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e a germinação final. No experimento com alface, houve redução significativa da germinação apenas para o extrato aquoso de crotalária juncea. Para as outras espécies, houve uma tendência de redução na germinação, porém, não diferindo da testemunha com água destilada. O IVG apresentou redução significativa nos tratamentos com extratos aquosos de crotalária juncea, guandu comum, mucuna-rajada e mucuna-preta. As outras espécies tiveram uma tendência em reduzir o IVG, porém, não diferindo da testemunha. No experimento com picão-preto, a germinação apresentou comportamento semelhante ao experimento com alface, com redução significativa apenas para o tratamento com crotalária juncea, porém, para o IVG, houve redução significativa apenas para a mucuna-preta, com uma tendência de redução para os tratamentos com as outras espécies, mas não diferindo da testemunha.Aqueous extracts from aerial part of black mucuna (Stilozobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy, striped mucuna (Stilozobium sp, Crotalaria juncea L., Crotalaria spectabilis Roth., guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Druce and dwarf guandu (Cajanus cajan were prepared with the objective of studying the allelopathic potential of these species, broadly used as cover plants, on lettuce seeds (test plant and aquenes of Bidens pilosa L.. The

  11. Use of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) and Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) to treat intestinal mucositis in mice: Toxico-pharmacological evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Caroline Cunha Bastos; Paulo Henrique Marcelino de Ávila; Edvande Xavier dos Santos Filho; Renato Ivan de Ávila; Aline Carvalho Batista; Simone Gonçalves Fonseca; Eliana Martins Lima; Ricardo Neves Marreto; Elismauro Francisco de Mendonça; Marize Campos Valadares

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies towards the development of an effective treatment for intestinal mucositis have been reported, since this condition represents a major problem in clinical oncology practice due to cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. However standardized protocols and universally accepted treatment options are yet to be established. Objectives: Given above, this study evaluated the protective effects of a mucoadhesive formulation containing both Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) (BP...

  12. Phytoplankton, especially diatoms, in the gut contents and feces of two plantivorous cyprinids—Silver carp and bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Liu, Jiankang

    1994-12-01

    In order to clarify whether the planktivorous silver carp and bighead carp can collect phytoplankton as small as Cyclotella(intestine, the average valve diameter of Cyclotella changed little. The average ratio of empty frustule of Cyclotella to total Cyclotella in the foregut contents of the fishes were 1.8 1.9 times higher than that in the lake water, but changed little from foregut to feces. The aquarium experiment showed that both carps could collect particles as small as 8 10 μm, which was obviously narrower than the distance between their gill rakers. Probably, secretion of mucus plays an important role in collecting such small particles.

  13. Isolation of Proteins which Interact with Phospholipase A2 (IIA from Human Serum after Myocardial Infarction. Flavonoids from Bidens tripartita Extract as Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors

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    Anna Król

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to isolate proteins which interact with phospholipase A2 (PLA2 from human serum after myocardial infarction. During this study, the effect of flavonoid inhibitors from the extract of Bidens Tripartita was examined. First, the paper describes phytochemical characterisation of compounds found in the plant Bidens tripartita.  Plant material was harvested at different vegetation stages, and extracts of each were studied for presence of flavonoids by methods such as spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Six different flavonoids were identified in extracts. The largest amount of phenolic compounds (mainly rutin and quercetin was found in the intensive growth vegetation stage, and antioxidant activity corresponds with this result. The conducted analysis shows the dependence of phytochemical composition on the vegetation stage when the plant was collected. These results support the use of bur marigold extracts in pharmaceutical or food industry as a potential source of natural inhibitors of PLA2. Biochemistry analysis using the pull-down method shows that 7 proteins which bind sPLA2 were found in healthy blood serum and after myocardial infarction. The biggest fraction was albumins. According to the variant of the sample, different proteins are bound to PLA2. The data of the pull-down analysis correspond with phytochemical analysis, i.e., they support the presence of natural inhibitors of PLA2 in Bidens tripartita extract.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.72.4.16494

  14. Estratégias de manejo de inverno e verão visando ao controle de Conyza bonariensis e Bidens pilosa Winter and summer management strategies for Conyza bonariensis and Bidens pilosa control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Oliveira Neto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conyza bonariensis é uma das principais plantas daninhas da região Sul do País; com a seleção de biótipos tolerantes e resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, demandas são crescentes por alternativas de manejo para essa espécie. Com esse intuito, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes estratégias de manejo de inverno e de verão sobre o controle de Conyza bonariensis, utilizando a mistura em tanque de glyphosate+2,4-D associada ou não com herbicidas residuais. As combinações de manejo foram realizadas após a colheita do milho safrinha (manejo de inverno, associadas a manejos antecedendo a semeadura da soja (manejo de verão, totalizando 15 tratamentos. Os manejos de inverno avaliados foram eficientes na dessecação das plantas daninhas e mantiveram excelentes níveis de controle residual até a pré-semeadura da cultura da soja. A semeadura da aveia após o manejo de inverno com posterior manejo de verão com glyphosate+2,4-D+diclosulam mostrou-se eficiente no controle de Bidens pilosa. Em todos os manejos em que o herbicida 2,4-D foi associado ao glyphosate houve controle total de Conyza bonariensis.Conyza bonariensis is one of the most important weeds in southern Brazil. The selection of biotypes tolerant and resistant to the herbicide glyphosate has led to increasing demand for alternatives of management strategy to control this species. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different winter and summer management strategy for the control of Conyza bonariensis, by using glyphosate + 2,4-D tank mixtures combined or not with residual herbicides. The different burndown alternatives were applied after corn harvest (winter burndown, associated to applications before soybean sowing (summer burndown with a total of 15 treatments. Winter burndown options evaluated in this research were efficient in weed desiccation and provided excellent levels of residual weed control up to the next summer soybean

  15. Malheur - Efficacy of Electrofishing to Reduce Recruitment of Common Carp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our goal is to investigate the efficacy of using a portable electrofishingsystem to help control common carp by killing their eggs and embryos at Malheur...

  16. Resposta à qualidade de luz como estratégia para estabelecimento de Bidens gardneri Response to the quality of light as a strategy for establishment of Bidens gardneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimara Nolasco Rondon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o envolvimento do fitocromo na germinação de aquênios do Bidens gardneri Baker., conhecido como picão preto. Os aquênios foram separados em curtos, médios e longos. Dois experimentos utilizaram apenas aquênios médios devido às diferenças quanto à resposta de germinação na ausência de luz, quando foram armazenados artificialmente no solo de cerrado, em um estudo anterior. A resposta dos aquênios curtos, médios e longos ao aumento da fluência de luz branca foi verificada sob um gradiente de luz branca entre 0 e 46,44 mmol m-2 s-1 de fluência. A reversão do fitocromo vermelho extremo (Fve em fitocromo vermelho (Fv no escuro em aquênios médios recém coletados e os armazenados por 14 meses a 4 ºC, que foram embebidos em água por 24 horas e incubados a 35 °C durante 24, 48 e 72 horas no escuro e a germinação foi a 25 ºC no escuro e observada após 15 e 30 dias. Por ultimo, foi construído um gradiente de fotoequilíbrio para cada tamanho e idade de aquênio em placas de petri umedecidos com água destilada, na qual a germinação foi observada a cada dois dias. Em irradiâncias de 0 a 46,44 mmol m-2 s-1, a germinabilidade dos aquênios longos e médios aumentou com a irradiância, porém os aquênios curtos sempre tiveram baixa germinabilidade. Aquênios médios armazenados, pré-embebidos por 24h e incubados no escuro por 24 h, 48 h e 72 h a 35 ºC mantiveram resposta fotoblástica quando a germinação foi observada a cada dois dias e após 15 e 30 dias, portanto não apresentaram reversão de Fve para Fv no escuro. No entanto, aquênios médios recém coletados e submetidos aos mesmos tratamentos tiveram o Fve removido quando incubados por 48 e 72 horas. Estes aquênios mostraram a resposta de fluência muito baixa de luz, quando a germinação foi observada a cada dois dias, sob luz verde. Os resultados indicam que heteroblastismo pode conferir à espécie estratégias diferentes

  17. Using mitochondrial nucleotide sequences to investigate diversity and genealogical relationships within common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, B T; Burridge, C P; Pham, T A; Austin, C M

    2005-02-01

    Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop (745 bp) and MTATPase6/MTATPase8 (857 bp) regions was used to investigate genetic variation within common carp and develop a global genealogy of common carp strains. The D-loop region was more variable than the MTATPase6/MTATPase8 region, but given the wide distribution of carp the overall levels of sequence divergence were low. Levels of haplotype diversity varied widely among countries with Chinese, Indonesian and Vietnamese carp showing the greatest diversity whereas Japanese Koi and European carp had undetectable nucleotide variation. A genealogical analysis supports a close relationship between Vietnamese, Koi and Chinese Color carp strains and to a lesser extent, European carp. Chinese and Indonesian carp strains were the most divergent, and their relationships do not support the evolution of independent Asian and European lineages and current taxonomic treatments.

  18. Carp Control Project in the Main Pool at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Over the past several years carp have become an increasing problem in the management of the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge for Waterfowl. Carp compete directly...

  19. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF THE USE OF GALICIAN CARP IN AQUACULTURE (A REVIEW

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    І. Hrytsyniak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. It is know that first attempts of cap culture in ponds started as early as in XIII century. One of oldest strain is Galician carp. Therefore, it is important to highlight the historical development and conditions of the distribution of Galician carp across the territory of Western Ukraine and in European countries. Findings. We determined the main periods in the development of pond fish culture and its one of main object — carp. Galician carp was first presented at the Agricultural Exhibition in Berlin in 1880 by the farm Kanov, which was located on the territory of Galicia. These carp was characterized by nice flesh properties and relatively early maturation that caused interest in fish farmers. Galician carp was reared in ponds during early stages of aquaculture development, therefore we examined historical information on the use of this group in fish culture. Few-scaled (mirror Galicia carp were used not only as a commercial fish as a pure line but also for crossing with other groups of carps for obtaining higher productivity values due to heterozygosis. Throughout centuries, low level of selection, fish diseases, damages caused by wars resulted in the virtual disappearance of this carp group. Therefore, currently, Galician carp remained in few fish farms of Ukraine and they need further studies in order to be preserved as a native species, which became rare and vanishing. Originality. This work is a generalization of historical information on the development and establishment of fish culture on the territories, which belonged to Galicia. A special attention is given to Galician carp, which is currently rare and vanishing on the territory of Ukraine. This carp played an important role taking into account their effect when forming Ukrainian strains of carp. Practical value. This review of historical information on Galician carp can be used during further study of a complex of technical and biological properties of this group of carp

  20. Extraction of Antioxidant Components from Bidens pilosa Flowers and Their Uptake by Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells

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    Charng-Cherng Chyau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata (BPR, Asteraceae is a commonly used folk medicine for treating various disorders such as diabetes, inflammation and hypertension. Recent studies to determine its chemical composition have revealed three di-O-caffeoylquinic acids (DiCQAs and three polyacetylene glucosides (PGAs to be among the major bioactive markers. To obtain the major compounds of these two chemical classes, the ethyl acetate fraction (EM obtained using liquid-liquid partition from the methanol extract resulted in a fraction with the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities in radical scavenging and ferric reducing power assays. To assess the bioavailability of EM, we examined the in vitro uptake using the Caco-2 human colonic cell line. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp for each of the compounds within PGAs measured in both apical (AP to basolateral (BL and BL to AP was found to preferentially appear BL to AP direction, indicated that a basolateral to apical efflux system was detected in the study. DiCQAs had a lower efflux ratio than those from PGAs (2.32–3.67 vs. 6.03–78.36. Thus, it strongly implies that most of the DiCQAs are better absorbed than the PGAs.

  1. Constituents of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Moringa oleifera Lam., Heliotropium indicum L. and Bidens pilosa L. from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbinu, Akinola O; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier L; Adebayo, Muritala A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2009-04-01

    The essential oils of four plant species from Nigeria have been extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of Cajanus cajan were comprised of sesquiterpenes (92.5%, 81.2% and 94.3% respectively in the leaves, stem and seeds). The major compounds identified were alpha-himachalene (9.0-11.5%), beta-himachalene (8.0-11.0%), gamma-himachalene (6.9-8.1%), alpha-humulene (7.1-8.7%) and alpha-copaene (4.5-5.6%). However, monoterpenoid compounds (81.8%) dominated the oil of Moringa oleifera with an abundance of alpha-phellandrene (25.2%) and p-cymene (24.9%). On the other hand, aldehydes (52.8%) occurred in the highest amount in Heliotropium indicum, represented by phenylacetaldehyde (22.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (8.3%) and (E, Z)-2-nonadienal (6.1%), with a significant quantity of hexahydrofarnesylacetone (8.4%). The leaf and stem oils of Bidens pilosa were dominated by sesquiterpenes (82.3% and 59.3%, respectively). The main compounds in the leaf oil were caryophyllene oxide (37.0%), beta-caryophyllene (10.5%) and humulene oxide (6.0%), while the stem oils had an abundance of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (13.4%), delta-cadinene (12.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.0%). The observed chemical patterns differ considerably from previous investigations.

  2. Forecasting the impacts of silver and bighead carp on the Lake Erie food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Rutherford, E.S.; Mason, D.M.; Breck, J.T.; Wittmann, M.E.; Cooke, R.M.; Lodge, D.M.; Rothlisberger, J.D.; Zhu, Z.; Johnson, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Nonindigenous bigheaded carps (Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix; hereafter, “Asian carps” [AC]) threaten to invade and disrupt food webs and fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes through their high consumption of plankton. To quantify the potential effects of AC

  3. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  4. Population genetics of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in coastal drainages in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Moran, C; Nicholas, F W

    2010-10-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio introduced in two drainages in eastern Australia are largely descended from European common carp, and in a third drainage they descend largely from East Asian common carp. The partial genetic differentiation among the species in those drainages is consistent with their origins.

  5. A common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocyte cell line shares morphological and functional characteristics with macrophages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyts, F.A.A.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Flik, G.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    1997-01-01

    A carp leucocyte cell line (CLC), originating from peripheral blood, was characterised to assess its suitability for studies into carp macrophage functions. The cells reacted with a monoclonal antibody raised against carp head kidney macrophages. Other macrophage characteristics observed were: bindi

  6. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals the genetic basis of skin color variation in common carp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Jiang

    Full Text Available The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied.In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains.In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values.

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of Skin Color Variation in Common Carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains. Conclusions In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values. PMID:25255374

  8. Embebição e germinação de sementes de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa Imbibition and germination of hairy beggartick seeds (Bidens pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Adegas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido no laboratório da Embrapa Soja, Londrina-PR, com o objetivo de avaliar as correlações entre períodos de embebição, níveis de absorção de água e germinação das sementes da planta daninha Bidens pilosa (picão-preto. As sementes de picão-preto, colhidas em março de 1997, foram colocadas para embeber em água por períodos de 6, 12, 18, 24 e 48 horas. Em seguida, foi determinado o teor de água nas sementes e a condutividade elétrica dos seus exsudatos. A germinação foi avaliada em germinador com ciclo de 14/10 horas de luz fluorescente difusa e escura, respectivamente, com temperaturas respectivas de 30º/20 ºC e umidade relativa constante de 90±5%. Foi usado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, de 100 sementes. A porcentagem de germinação média foi de 87,5%. A absorção de água teve aumento significativo com maiores períodos de embebição. Não houve correlação entre a germinação, os períodos de embebição de água e a condutividade elétrica. A capacidade de absorção de água e a condutividade elétrica apresentaram médio grau de correlação entre si. A germinação iniciou-se no terceiro dia, após início da embebição, e o pico foi alcançado no quinto dia. Os maiores índices de velocidade de germinação foram obtidos pelos maiores períodos de embebição das sementes.An experiment was carried out at Embrapa Soja, in Londrina-PR, Brazil to determine the relationships between imbibition periods, water absorption levels and seed germination of the weed hairy beggartick (Bidens pilosa. Seeds were harvested from field plants in March 1997, and were set to imbibe for periods of 06, 12, 18, 24 and 48 hours. The water content of the seeds and the electric conductivity of their exudates were determined. Germination was also determined using a germinator set for cycles of 14/10 hours of diffuse fluorescent light and dark, respectively, at 30º/20 º

  9. Resistência de Bidens subalternans aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase utilizados na cultura da soja Resistance of Bidens subalternans to the acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicides used in soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Gelmini

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso contínuo e prolongado de produtos com o mesmo mecanismo de ação pode provocar a manifestação de biótipos resistentes. Para verificar possíveis novos casos de resistência, bem como alternativas para prevenção e manejo, foram coletadas sementes de Bidens subalternans na região de São Gabriel D' Oeste-MS, em plantas que sobreviveram a tratamentos em que inibidores da ALS foram sistematicamente utilizados. Em experimento conduzido em vasos em casa de vegetação, o biótipo com histórico de resistente foi comparado ao suscetível quando submetido aos diversos herbicidas com diferentes mecanismos de ação usados em pós-emergência, os quais foram aplicados nas doses de zero, uma, duas, quatro e oito vezes a recomendada. Decorridos 20 dias, foram avaliadas a porcentagem de controle e a produção da fitomassa verde, visando estabelecimento de curvas de dose-resposta e obtenção dos fatores de resistência. O biótipo oriundo de área com histórico de aplicações repetidas de inibidores da ALS apresentou elevado nível de resistência aos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr, demonstrando ser portador de resistência cruzada aos inibidores da ALS dos grupos das sulfoniluréias e imidazolinonas. Entretanto, esse biótipo foi eficientemente controlado pelos herbicidas fomesafen, lactofen, bentazon, glufosinato de amônio e glyphosate.The continuous and prolonged use of products with the same mechanism of action can provoke the manifestation of resistant biotypes. In horder to verify possible new cases, as well as alternatives for prevention and control, seeds of Bidens subalternans were collected at São Gabriel D' Oeste (MS region at plants that survived continuous treatments which sistematically ALS inhibitors. Through an experiment performed in pots inside a greenhouse, a resistant biotype was compared to a susceptible one when submitted to herbicides with different mechanisms of action and applied at post emergence

  10. Germination and morphology of diaspores and seedlings of Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla=Germinação e morfologia de diásporos e plântulas de Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiela Bruzamarello Tognon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of new ornamental plants from native species such as Bidens segetum has great potential for the floriculture market, however, this depends on studies that enable its propagation for commercial purposes. This research aimed to define conditions from germination and to describe and illustrate the morphology of diaspores and seedlings of B. segetum. The germination study was performed with freshly harvested diaspores using a paper substrate at three temperatures (15, 20, and 25°C and diaspores stored with two substrates (paper and sand at three temperatures (20, 25, and 30°C. The variables analyzed were: number of diaspores per gram, moisture content, germination percentage, and germination speed index. For morphology, measurements were made to characterize the seedlings and their structures. Based on the results, it is concluded that the germination test of diaspores of B. segetum can be performed at temperatures of 20 to 25°C, using paper as substrate, in the presence of constant light. The first count should be performed the fourth day after sowing, and end fifteen days after the start of the test. The dispersion unit of B. segetum is the fruit of cypsela type, monospermic, containing a straight, axial, and hyaline embryo. Germination is epigeous=A prospecção de novas plantas ornamentais a partir de espécies nativas como Bidens segetum apresenta grande potencial para o mercado da floricultura, entretanto dependem de estudos que viabilizem sua propagação com fins comerciais. Assim, objetivou-se determinar condições para germinação, descrever e ilustrar a morfologia de diásporos e plântulas de B. segetum. Os testes da germinação foram realizados com diásporos recém colhidos, usando papel mata-borrão como substrato, em três temperaturas (15, 20 e 25°C e com diásporos armazenados, em dois substratos (papel mata-borrão e areia e três temperaturas (20, 25 e 30°C. As variáveis analisadas foram: número de di

  11. Evaluation of environmental contaminants and elements in bigheaded carps of the Missouri River at Easley, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazio, Carl E.; Chapman, Duane C.; May, Thomas W.; Meadows, John C.; Walther, Michael J.; Echols, Kathy R.; Deters, Joseph E.; Dierenfeld, S; Chapman, Duane C.; Hoff, MIchael H.

    2011-01-01

    Grass carp, black carp, bighead carp, and silver carp are native to Asia, and in North America are referred to as Asian carps. These fishes have been popular aquaculture species for more than a thousand years. After their importation to the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, all of these species have escaped confinement. There is concern about the ecological and economic damage consequences of introducing these environmental engineers into North America.

  12. 三叶鬼针草中的黄酮类成分%Flavonoids from the herb of Bidens pilosa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田昕; 周思祥; 魏荷琳; 胡南; 代志; 刘志刚; 韩正洲; 屠鹏飞

    2011-01-01

    Chemical constituents of the whole herb of Bidens pilosa L.were investigated.By using various column chromatography (CC) and spectroscopic methods,13 flavonoids were isolated and identified as follows:2′-hydroxy-4,4′-dimethoxy-chalcone (1),isoliquiritigenin (2),3,2′,4′-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-chalcone (3),licochalcone A (4),4′-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2′,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-chalcone (5),butein (6),apigenin (7),luteolin (8),diosmetin (9),chrysoeriol (10),3,5,6,7,3′,4′,5′-heptamethoxyflavone (11),7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5,3′-dihydroxy-3,6,4′-trimethoxyflavone (12),and sulfuretin (13).Compounds 1-5,9,11 were obtained from the genus Bidens for the first time.%研究了三叶鬼针草Bidens pilosa L.全草的化学成分.利用各种色谱和波谱方法分离并鉴定了13个黄酮类化合物,分别:2′-hydroxy-4,4′-dimethoxy-chalcone (1),isoliquiritigenin (2),3,2′,4′-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-chalcone (3),licochalcone A (4),4 ′-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2′,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-chalcone (5),butein (6),apigenin (7),luteolin (8),diosmetin (9),chrysoeriol (10),3,5,6,7,3′,4′,5′-heptamethoxyflavone (11),7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5,3′-dihydroxy-3,6,4′-trimethoxyflavone (12),sulfuretin (13).化合物1-5,9,11均为首次从鬼针草属植物中分离得到.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

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    Takahiko Aoki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2 using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth.

  14. In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Bidens Pilosa L. (Asteraceae) Leaf Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts on Primed-Oestrogenized Rat Uterine Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Frida, Longo; Rakotonirina, Silvíre; Rakotonirina, Alice; Savineau, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Bidens pilosa L. is an Asteraceae growing in tropical zones, and traditionally utilized worldwide in herbal medicine. The present work is based on its traditional use during child birth as a labour facilitator. In vivo tests of acute toxicity showed a weak toxic effect for both extracts but the toxicity of the ethanol extract (LD50=6.15g/kg) was upper than that of the aqueous extract (LD50=12.30g/kg). The three-days uterotrophic assay on immature mice showed body weight gain followed by a con...

  15. Mucoadhesive formulation of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae reduces intestinal injury from 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis in mice

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    Paulo Henrique Marcelino de Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal mucositis induced during cancer treatment is considered a serious dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Frequently, interruption of the cancer treatment due to this pathology leads to a reduction in cure rates, increase of treatment costs and decrease life quality of the patient. Natural products such as Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae, represent a potential alternative for the treatment of mucositis given its anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, B. pilosa glycolic extract was formulated (BPF with poloxamer, a mucoadhesive copolymer, was used for treatment of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced mucositis in mice. As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg presented marked weight loss, reduction of intestinal villi, crypts and muscular layer, which was associated with severe disruption of crypts, edema, inflammatory infiltrate and vacuolization in the intestinal tissue, as compared to the control group and healthy animals only treated with BPF. On the other hand, the treatment of intestinal mucositis-bearing mice with BPF (75, 100 or 125 mg/kg managed to mitigate clinical and pathologic changes, noticeably at 100 mg/kg. This dose led to the restoration of intestinal proliferative activity through increasing Ki-67 levels; modulated the expression of Bax, Bcl2 and p53 apoptotic markers protecting intestinal cells from cell death. Moreover, this treatment regulated lipid peroxidation and inflammatory infiltration. No acute toxic effects were observed with this formulation. This work demonstrated that BPF was safe and effective against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice. Additional studies are already in progress to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the protective effects of this technological formulation toward the development of a new medicine for the prevention and treatment of intestinal injury in patients undergoing chemotherapy/radiotherapy.

  16. Target and Non-target Site Mechanisms Developed by Glyphosate-Resistant Hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) Populations from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Ozuna, Carmen V.; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo E.; Domínguez-Valenzuela, José A.; Barro, Francisco; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2) and one susceptible (S) were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20.4 and 2.8-fold less glyphosate sensitive, respectively, than the S population. The resistant populations showed a lesser shikimic acid accumulation than the S population. In the latter one, 24.9% of 14C-glyphosate was translocated to the roots at 96 h after treatment; in the R1 and R2 populations only 12.9 and 15.5%, respectively, was translocated. Qualitative results confirmed the reduced 14C-glyphosate translocation in the resistant populations. The EPSPS enzyme activity of the S population was 128.4 and 8.5-fold higher than the R1 and R2 populations of glyphosate-treated plants, respectively. A single (Pro-106-Ser), and a double (Thr-102-Ile followed by Pro-106-Ser) mutations were identified in the EPSPS2 gene conferred high resistance in R1 population. Target-site mutations associated with a reduced translocation were responsible for the higher glyphosate resistance in the R1 population. The low-intermediate resistance of the R2 population was mediated by reduced translocation. This is the first glyphosate resistance case confirmed in hairy beggarticks in the world. PMID:27752259

  17. Changes in gametophyte physiology of Pteris multifida induced by the leaf leachate treatment of the invasive Bidens pilosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Mei; Shen, Yu; Fang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ying

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the response of fern gametophytes to environment has raised much attention. However, studies on the influence of plant invasion to fern gametophytes are scarce. Allelopathy plays an important role in biological invasion. Hence, it is necessary to study the allelopathic effects of invasive plants on fern gametophytes and elucidate the mechanisms by which invasive plants cause phytotoxicity. As one of the main invasive plants in China, Bidens pilosa exhibits allelopathic effects on spermatophyte growth. Field investigation shows that many ferns are threatened by the invasion of B. pilosa. The distribution of Pteris multifida overlaps with that of B. pilosa in China. To examine the potential involvement of allelopathic mechanisms of B. pilosa leaves, changes in the physiology in P. multifida gametophytes are analyzed. We found that cell membrane and antioxidant enzyme activities as well as photosynthesis pigment contents of the gametophytes were affected by B. pilosa leachates. Gametophytes of P. multifida exposed to B. pilosa had increased damages to cell membranes, expressed in thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (membrane permeability), and degree of injury. Enzyme activities, assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) enhanced with the increase in leachate concentration after 2-day exposure. Meanwhile, lower chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), carotenoid (Car), and the total chlorophyll were measured as leachate concentrations increased. At day 10, leaf leachates of B. pilosa exhibited the greatest inhibition. These results suggest that the observed inhibitory or stimulatory effects on the physiology studied can have an adverse effect on P. multifida and that allelopathic interference seems to have involved in this process.

  18. [Effect of glyphosate on the energy exchange in carp organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidenko, A A; Bibchuk, E V; Barbukho, E V

    2013-01-01

    The use of glyphosate as a herbicide in agriculture can lead to the presence of its residues and metabolites (aminomethylphosphonic acid) in food for human consumption and pose a threat to health. The effect of these herbicides on the fish organism at the biochemical level has been insufficiently studied. We studied changes in the content of adenine nucleotides, enzyme activity, quantitative indexes of energy metabolism substrates in carp under the action of glyphosate. It has been found that proteins are the major energy substrate under the influence of glyphosate in the liver, brain, white muscle of carp yearlings. Glyphosphate decreases energy metabolism in the brain of carp and increases it in the white muscles. The growth of activity of catabolic enzymes in the liver under the influence of glyphosate can be attributed to the adaptive remodelling of metabolic pathways for homeostasis and enantiostasis in response to herbicides.

  19. Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

    2003-09-01

    Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus.

  20. Efectos de Purines de Chipaca (Bidens pilosa L. y de Microorganismos en la Incidencia y Severidad de Phytophthora infestans (Mont. De Bary en Papa Criolla (Solanum phureja Cultivada en Tenjo (Cundinamarca, Colombia / Effects of Chipaca (Bidens pilosa

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    Tomas Enrique León Sicard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En una finca ecológica del municipio de Tenjo(Cundinamarca-Colombia se estudió el efecto de variosmateriales preparados a partir de chipaca (Bidens pilosa y deaislamientos microbianos, sobre la incidencia y severidad deP. infestans en un cultivo de papa criolla (Solanum phureja,utilizando un diseño completamente al azar (DCA consubmuestreo y ocho tratamientos: purín de flores; purín mezcla; actinomiceto AC 12 (Streptomyces sp.; mezcla de actinomicetos; aislamiento bacteriano (Bacillus subtilis; mezcla bacterias (Bacillus subtilis y Burkholderia cepacia; Hongo (Geotrichum sp. y un control (agua destilada estéril. Los resultados mostraron rápida incidencia de la enfermedad, que fue evidente a los 36 días después de la siembra (dds y alcanzó 100% de afectacióna los 52 dds sin diferencias entre tratamientos. La severidadfue estadísticamente diferente únicamente en el tratamientode “purín de flores”, que se diferenció significativamente deltratamiento control entre los 56 y 70 dds (27,8% menos lo que fortalece resultados de ensayos anteriores sobre su potencial como posible producto biocontrolador de la Gota. Resultados menores de severidad frente al control (no significativos también se obtuvieron con los tratamientos “purín mezcla” y “mezcla de actinomicetos”, entre los 60 y 87 dds / In an organic farm of Tenjo (Cundinamarca, Colombiathe effect of various materials prepared from chipaca (Bidenspilosa and microbial isolates, on the incidence and severity ofP. infestans in potato (Solanum phureja were studied usinga completely randomized design (CRD with subsampling andeight treatments: flowers slurry, mixed slurry; actinomyceteAC 12 (Streptomyces sp., mix actinomycetes; isolationbacterial (Bacillus subtilis ; mixed bacteria (Bacillus subtilisand Burkholderia cepacia; fungus (Geotrichum sp. and acontrol (sterile distilled water. The results showed rapid disease incidence, which was evident at 36 days after planting (dap

  1. Protective roles of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Mx isoforms against grass carp reovirus.

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    Limin Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myxovirus resistance (Mx proteins are crucial effectors of the innate antiviral response against a wide range of viruses, mediated by the type I interferon (IFN-I signaling pathway. However, the antiviral activity of Mx proteins is diverse and complicated in different species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, two novel Mx genes (CiMx1 and CiMx3 were identified in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. CiMx1 and CiMx3 proteins exhibit high sequence identity (92.1%, and low identity with CiMx2 (49.2% and 49.5%, respectively from the GenBank database. The predicted three-dimensional (3D structures are distinct among the three isoforms. mRNA instability motifs also display significant differences in the three genes. The spatial and temporal expression profiles of three C. idella Mx genes and the IFN-I gene were investigated by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR following infection with grass carp reovirus (GCRV in vivo and in vitro. The results demonstrated that all the four genes were implicated in the anti-GCRV immune response, that mRNA expression of Mx genes might be independent of IFN-I, and that CIK cells are suitable for antiviral studies. By comparing expression patterns following GCRV challenge or poly(I:C treatment, it was observed that GCRV blocks mRNA expression of the four genes. To determine the functions of Mx genes, three CiMx cDNAs were cloned into expression vectors and utilized for transfection of CIK cells. The protection conferred by each recombinant CiMx protein against GCRV infection was evaluated. Antiviral activity against GCRV was demonstrated by reduced cytopathic effect, lower virus titer and lower levels of expressed viral transcripts. The transcription of IFN-I gene was also monitored. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate all three Mx genes can suppress replication of grass carp reovirus and over-expression of Mx genes mediate feedback inhibition of the IFN

  2. The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp × common carp hybrids by androgenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A0) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (♂) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A0 became sexually mature at the age of 2 years, and they fertilized with each other to form their offspring (A1). In this study, we observed the chromosomal number, gonadal structure and appearance of A1 fish. The results are as follows: (1) In A1, there were 85% tetraploids (A1-4n), 10% triploids (A1-3n) and 5% diploids (A1-2n), suggesting that diploid A0 could produce diploid gametes. It was concluded that the formation of diploid gametes generated from diploid A0 was probably related to the mechanism of pre-meiotic endoreduplication. (2) Among A1, only A1-4n possessed normal ovaries and testes. The mature males of A1-4n produced white semen. Under the electron microscope, the head of diploid sperm generated by A1-4n was bigger than that of haploid sperm generated by red crucian carp. In the testes of the A1-4n, there were many mature normal spermatozoa with a head bearing plasma membrane and a tail having the typical structure of "9+2" microtubules. Between the head and the tail, there were some mitochondria. The ovaries of A1-4n developed well and mainly contained Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ-stage oocytes. The Ⅳ-stage oocytes were surrounded by inner and outer follicular cells. The micropyle was observed on the oolemma of follicular cells. There were abundant yolks and plenty of endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of Ⅳ-stage oocytes. Because A1-2n and A1-3n were distant crossing diploid hybrids and triploid hybrids respectively, they possessed abnormal gonads, and no mature semen and eggs were observed. (3) Compared with allotetraploids, the A1-4n fish not

  3. The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp x common carp hybrids by androgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chun; Sun, YuanDong; Liu, Yun

    2007-12-01

    Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A(0)) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (male) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A(0) became sexually mature at the age of 2 years, and they fertilized with each other to form their offspring (A(1)). In this study, we observed the chromosomal number, gonadal structure and appearance of A(1) fish. The results are as follows: (1) In A(1), there were 85% tetraploids (A(1)-4n), 10% triploids (A(1)-3n) and 5% diploids (A(1)-2n), suggesting that diploid A(0) could produce diploid gametes. It was concluded that the formation of diploid gametes generated from diploid A(0) was probably related to the mechanism of pre-meiotic endoreduplication. (2) Among A(1), only A(1)-4n possessed normal ovaries and testes. The mature males of A1-4n produced white semen. Under the electron microscope, the head of diploid sperm generated by A(1)-4n was bigger than that of haploid sperm generated by red crucian carp. In the testes of the A(1)-4n, there were many mature normal spermatozoa with a head bearing plasma membrane and a tail having the typical structure of "9+2" microtubules. Between the head and the tail, there were some mitochondria. The ovaries of A(1)-4n developed well and mainly contained II, III and IV-stage oocytes. The IV-stage oocytes were surrounded by inner and outer follicular cells. The micropyle was observed on the oolemma of follicular cells. There were abundant yolks and plenty of endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of IV-stage oocytes. Because A(1)-2n and A(1)-3n were distant crossing diploid hybrids and triploid hybrids respectively, they possessed abnormal gonads, and no mature semen and eggs were observed. (3) Compared with

  4. Analysis of koi herpesvirus latency in wild common carp and ornamental koi in Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Rong; Bently, Jennifer; Beck, Linda; Reed, Aimee; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R; Kent, Michael L; Rockey, Daniel D; Jin, Ling

    2013-02-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection is associated with high mortalities in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. Although acute infection has been reported in both domestic and wild common carp, the status of KHV latent infection is largely unknown in wild common carp. To investigate whether KHV latency is present in wild common carp, the distribution of KHV latent infection was investigated in two geographically distinct populations of wild common carp in Oregon, as well as in koi from an Oregon-based commercial supplier. Latent KHV infection was demonstrated in white blood cells from each of these populations. Although KHV isolated from acute infections has two distinct genetic groups, Asian and European, KHV detected in wild carp has not been genetically characterized. DNA sequences from ORF 25 to 26 that are unique between Asian and European were investigated in this study. KHV from captive koi and some wild common carp were found to have ORF-25-26 sequences similar to KHV-J (Asian), while the majority of KHV DNA detected in wild common carp has similarity to KHV-U/-I (European). In addition, DNA sequences from IL-10, and TNFR were sequenced and compared with no differences found, which suggests immune suppressor genes of KHV are conserved between KHV in wild common carp and koi, and is consistent with KHV-U, -I, -J.

  5. Macrophage polarisation: immune responses of carp against parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joerink, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the studies described in this thesis we used a natural host-parasite model of two parasites ( Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii ) infecting common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), to obtain more knowledge about the phenomenon of macrophage polarisation in 'the evolutionary older' teleosts

  6. Biological characteristics of an improved triploid crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An improved triploid crucian carp(ITCC) was produced by crossing improved tetraploids(G1×AT,) with improved red crucian carp(IRCC,),which were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis.The biological characteristics of ITCC,including the number and karyotype of chromosomes,gonadad and pituitary structures,phenotype,and growth rate are reported.ITCC possessed 150 chromosomes with the karyotype 33m+51sm+33st+33t.In the breeding season,both ovary-like and testis-like gonads of ITCC were unable to produce normal mature gametes.The ultrastructure of the pituitary of ITCC showed that most of the endocrine granules in gonadotrophic hormone(GTH) cells had not been released,providing endocrinological evidence for the sterility of ITCC.Compared with triploid crucian carp(TCC) produced by mating Japanese crucian carp with allotetraploid hybrids,ITCC not only retained the excellent traits of fast growth rate and sterility,but also acquired improved morphological characteristics,including higher body,shorter tail and smaller head.

  7. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  8. Function of the opioid system during inflammation in carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Chadzinska, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    The opioid system is involved in modulation of both innate and acquired immune responses, thus altering resistance to a variety of infectious agents. We sequenced and characterized carp opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR) and found their regulated expression in piscine leukocytes. Moreover, both in

  9. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some

  10. The Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Bidens Pilosa L. on Androgen Deficiency Dry Eye in Rats

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    Chuanwei Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bidens pilosa L. (Bp is widely distributed in China and has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the extract of Bp on androgen deficiency dry eye and determine its possible mechanisms. Methods: Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group Con (control, Group Sal (physiological saline, Group Fin (oral finasteride, and Group Bp (oral finasteride and Bp. The dry eye model was established in group Fin and group Bp. Aqueous tear quantity was measured with phenol red-impregnated cotton threads with anesthesia. Tear film breakup time (BUT and corneal epithelial damage were evaluated by fluorescein staining. Animals were sacrificed at 28 days, and ocular tissues (lacrimal gland and cornea were evaluated with light microscopy; gene microarray analysis for inflammatory cytokines and Western blot were also performed. Results: Finasteride administration effectively induced dry eye in rats by 14 days after administration. Group Fin rats had significantly higher fluorescein staining scores and lower aqueous tear quantity and BUT than the group Con rats, and notable inflammatory cell infiltrates were observed in the lacrimal gland of group Fin rats. The fluorescein staining score, aqueous tear quantity and BUT significantly improved with Bp treatment in the group Bp rats, and the structures of the lacrimal gland were well maintained without significant lymphocyte infiltration. Cytokine antibody array data identified the cytokines B7-2/Cd86, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, MMP-8, FasL, TNF-α and TIMP-1 as candidates for validation by Western blot. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, in group Fin were upregulated compared with group Con. Levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-10, in group Fin were also upregulated compared with those in group Con. Compared with group Fin, IL-1β, FasL, and TNF

  11. Trypanosomiasis-induced Th17-like immune responses in carp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M S Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In mammalian vertebrates, the cytokine interleukin (IL-12 consists of a heterodimer between p35 and p40 subunits whereas interleukin-23 is formed by a heterodimer between p19 and p40 subunits. During an immune response, the balance between IL-12 and IL-23 can depend on the nature of the pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP recognized by, for example TLR2, leading to a preferential production of IL-23. IL-23 production promotes a Th17-mediated immune response characterized by the production of IL-17A/F and several chemokines, important for neutrophil recruitment and activation. For the cold blooded vertebrate common carp, only the IL-12 subunits have been described so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Common carp is the natural host of two protozoan parasites: Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. We found that these parasites negatively affect p35 and p40a gene expression in carp. Transfection studies of HEK293 and carp macrophages show that T. carassii-derived PAMPs are agonists of carp TLR2, promoting p19 and p40c gene expression. The two protozoan parasites induce different immune responses as assessed by gene expression and histological studies. During T. carassii infections, in particular, we observed a propensity to induce p19 and p40c gene expression, suggestive of the formation of IL-23. Infections with T. borreli and T. carassii lead to an increase of IFN-γ2 gene expression whereas IL-17A/F2 gene expression was only observed during T. carasssii infections. The moderate increase in the number of splenic macrophages during T. borreli infection contrasts the marked increase in the number of splenic neutrophilic granulocytes during T. carassii infection, along with an increased gene expression of metalloproteinase-9 and chemokines. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study that provides evidence for a Th17-like immune response in fish in response to infection with a protozoan parasite.

  12. Construction and Characterization of Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)Fosmid Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhen-hu; LIN Chang-you; YANG Tian-yao; JIANG Yi-nan; XIA Chun

    2010-01-01

    Grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)genomic fosmid library cotaining 129014 clones was constructed and characterized from one diploid grass carp.The average insert size of the fosmid library was determined to be 35 kb by pulsed field gel electrophoresis,which is 4.1-fold coverage of the grass carp genome.To demonstrate the probability of picking the functional genes from the library,eleven functional genes were screened by three-dimensional PCR technique.The number of positive clones of these genes was from 1 to 6.So,this library may screen any useful genes from grass carp.This grass carp genome fosmid library will be integrated in the presently ongoing efforts to determine the sequence of the grass carp genome.

  13. Molecular cloning of the MARCH family in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and their response to grass carp reovirus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Mi; Huang, Rong; Xiong, Lv; Luo, Lifei; Chen, Geng; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; He, Libo; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2017-02-20

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an economical aquaculture species in China, and the Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV) that causes hemorrhagic disease seriously affects the grass carp cultivation industry. Substantial evidence indicates that there is an association between the membrane-associated RING-CH family of E3 ligase (MARCH) family and immune defense in mammals, while functional studies on non-mammalian MARCH proteins are limited. In order to know the characteristics of the MARCH genes in C. idellus, eight MARCH genes (MARCH1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11) were cloned and the open reading frames (ORF) were identified in grass carp. All MARCH proteins in grass carp contained an RING-CH domain, which is characteristic of the MARCH protein. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that different MARCH proteins gathered into their separate clusters. All eight members of the MARCH gene family were detected in all tissues sampled, but the relative expression level differed. In addition, the mRNA expression of all the MARCHs was regulated at different levels in the immune organs after a GCRV challenge, and they responded robustly in both the intestine and liver. The mRNA expression of MARCH8, MHC II, TfR, IL1RAP, EGR1, and DUSP1 in the intestine after GCRV infection was analyzed, and the results showed that MARCH8 could negatively regulate TfR, IL1RAP, EGR1, and DUSP1, which signaled via the MAPK or NF-κB-activation pathways that play vital roles in immunity. Our findings identified a novel gene family in C. idellus and provided novel evidence that MARCH genes are inducible and involved in the immune response. Moreover, MARCH8 might function to negatively regulate immune receptors in C. idellus. Therefore, the MARCH might play a vital role in regulating the immune response of C. idellus.

  14. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  15. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio carpio L. POPULATIONS IN REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Tomljanović

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study common carp populations from Croatian fish ponds (Draganići, Končanica, Našička Breznica, Orahovica (Grudnjak and Poljana, and three carp populations from open waters (Sava and Danube rivers and Vransko lake were analyzed, with total of 295 specimens. All populations were checked for 20 morphometric and 13 meristic parameters. The analysis was conducted using Principal component analysis (PCA and Constrained linear analysis of canonical redundancy (RDA. According to the number gill rakers the most distinguished are carps from Sava river and Vransko lake, and some individuals from the Danube river, while the fish pond populations do not emphasize by this parameter. Fish pond populationes Grudnjak, Draganići, Končanica and Našice are overlapping. The Danube population is divided into two groups: one group is closely associated with fish pond populations, while another group is closely link with populations of carp in open waters. Specimens of carp from the Danube, which are morphologically similar to fish pond carps are considered to have recently entered into open water and still have the external characteristics of domestic carps. By this research a significant separation of domestic and open waters carp was revealed which has proven Monte Carlo test (F=347.191; p=0.002, however, a clear separation of domestic strains of common carps is not noticeable.

  17. Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Harwanto, Dicky; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-12-01

    The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of 0.5 mg/10 μL/g body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [105±18 s (Pleather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts.

  18. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  19. Antimalarial activity of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) ethanol extracts from wild plants collected in various localities or plants cultivated in humus soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Neto, Valter F; Brandão, Maria G L; Oliveira, Francielda Q; Casali, Vicente W D; Njaine, Brian; Zalis, Mariano G; Oliveira, Luciana A; Krettli, Antoniana U

    2004-08-01

    Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), a medicinal plant used worldwide, has antimalarial activity as shown in previous work. This study tested ethanol extracts from wild plants collected in three different regions of Brazil and from plants cultivated in various soil conditions. The extracts were active in mice infected with P. berghei: doses of humus enriched soil, were active; but the wild plants were the most active. Analysis using thin layer chromatography demonstrated the presence of flavonoids (compounds considered responsible for the antimalarial activity) in all plants tested, even though at different profiles. Because B. pilosa is proven to be active against P. falciparum drug-resistant parasites in vitro, and in rodent malaria in vivo, it is a good candidate for pre-clinical tests as a phytotherapeutic agent or for chemical isolation of the active compounds with the aim of finding new antimalarial drugs.

  20. HPLC method development and validation of cytotoxic agent phenyl-heptatriyne in Bidens pilosa with ultrasonic-assisted cloud point extraction and preconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Priyanka; Kumar, Jonnala Kotesh; Negi, Arvind Singh; Shanker, Karuna

    2011-06-01

    Extraction and pre-concentration of a bioactive marker compound, phenyl-1,3,5-heptatriyne from Bidens pilosa, prior to HPLC has been demonstrated using both organic and ecofriendly solvents. Non-ionic surfactants, viz. Triton X-100, Triton X-114 and Genapol X-80, were used for extraction. No back-extraction or liquid chromatographic steps were required to remove the target phytochemical from the surfactant-rich extractant phase. The optimized cloud point extraction procedure has been shown to be a potentially useful methodology for the preconcentration of the target analyte, with a preconcentration factor of 4-99. Moreover, the method is simple, sensitive, rapid and consumes lesser solvent than traditional methods. An isocratic chromatographic separation and quantitation was accomplished on a C(18) column with acetonitrile-acidified aqueous as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, UV detection at 254 nm and specificity with photo diode-array detector (PDA) and MS. Under the optimum experimental conditions recovery was satisfactory (99.18-100.33%) without interference from the surfactant. The method seems to be reliable with intraday precision and interday precision below 2.0%. Good linearity was obtained in the working range from 7.5 to 30 µg/mL with correlation coefficient >0.99. The limits of detection and quantitation were 1.84 and 6.13 µg/mL, respectively. The method was validated following international guidelines and successfully applied for quantitative assays of cytotoxic compound phenyl-1,3,5-heptatriyne in Bidens pilosa.

  1. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Ghosal

    Full Text Available Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups and shoal (form tight social groups, this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate strongly (P0.05 on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed.

  2. Potential reproduction of invasive Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton: pro and contra evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Mozsár

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis × silver carp H. molitrix had been introduced into Lake Balaton (Hungary from 1972 to increase fishery yields and as a biological control of algal blooms. Although the stocking was stopped by 1983, the biomass of Asian carps is still high in the lake, constituting about one-third of the total fish biomass. Our analyses revealed that the present Asian carp stock cannot have originated directly from the last official stockings. The origin of the present stock is undefined, and there are two potential explanations for the source of recruitment. First, it is possible that Asian carps escape from the nearby fishery ponds and get into Lake Balaton periodically. The second explanation is that Asian carps spawn in the lake. However, preceding studies suggested that Asian carps are not able to reproduce in lacustrine environments. In this study, our aim was to contrast the pro and contra evidences of natural Asian carp reproduction in Lake Balaton. We studied the reproductive parameters and genetic pools of 58 Asian carps, sampled between March−November 2011 and 2013. Mature vitellogenic oocytes and post-ovulatory follicles were found in the posterior segments of gonads. This suggests that a fraction of mature eggs was released from the ovaries during the year, but does not necessary imply successful reproduction. Considerable seasonal variations in gonado-somatic indexes (GSI were observed, fluctuating between 6−28% in 2011 and 12−29% in 2013. However, the within-year dynamics of GSI changes suggest that fish do not release significant amounts of milt during the potential spawning period. Rather, the resorption of nutrients allocated to eggs seems probable during autumn. Genetic analyses showed remarkable deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within the stock, which indicates that Asian carps do not constitute a closed, self-sustaining population in Lake Balaton.

  3. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed.

  4. FEATURES OF PONDS ECOSYSTEM WHEN ECHINACEA PURPUREA (ECHINACEA PURPUREA L. MOENCH WERE USING IN CARP FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dobrjanska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition fish productivity of the experimental ponds, fixed set of chemical parameters, that are specific to the environmental condition of water, which is the process of growing fish in a certain relation to it, and the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different organs and tissues of carp. Methodology. The ponds was three breed groups one-years carp average weight 39,7 g (hybrid of carp and wild carp, crossbreed frames carp, lyubin scaly carp with planting density 1000 ind./ha. Control group of carp was fed extruded feed containing 20 % protein, and research group ― the same feed, which was added in the manufacturing process, chopped dried Echinacea purpurea in the amount of 1 %. The duration of the experiment was 86 days. Definition of hydro-chemical parameters was performed by standard methods in analytical chemistry. Quantitative determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water and the organs and tissues of fish was performed by direct absorption solution in propane-butane air flames using absorption spectrophotometer C-115-M1. Findings. It was reviewed ecological status of water bodies. Found that when used in feeding carp Echinacea purpurea increased fish productivity, reduced cost of feed for growing. Chemical composition of experimental ponds water, while virtually unchanged. The comparative characteristics of heavy metals in organs and tissues carp in this part of the diet. Originality. At first time investigated the influence of Echinacea purpurea by adding it to feed on fish productivity, accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of carp. Practical value. Fish productivity in the experimental ponds was higher by 20,4 % relative to control. Costs of feed per pound of gain decreased by 13,3 % when was used in fish feeding chopped dried Echinacea purpurea. Almost all metals accumulated in the organs and tissues of experimental groups of carp in a somewhat lesser extent.

  5. Macrophage polarisation: immune responses of carp against parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Joerink, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the studies described in this thesis we used a natural host-parasite model of two parasites ( Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii ) infecting common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), to obtain more knowledge about the phenomenon of macrophage polarisation in 'the evolutionary older' teleosts and the consequences of differential activation for the individual host.The general aspects of the teleost immune system are very similar to those of the mammalian immune system. Polarisation of m...

  6. CARPS An integrated proposal and data collection system

    CERN Document Server

    Brister, K

    2002-01-01

    Modern scripting languages and database tools combined provide a new framework for developing beam-line control and data management software. The CARPS system supports data collection by storing low level beam-line control commands in a database and playing these commands back to collect data sets. This system is combined with proposal and data management tools for support of both local and remote users.

  7. THE PREVALENCE OF LERNAEID ECTOPARASITES IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. TASAWAR, S. ZAFAR, M. H. LASHARI AND C. S. HAYAT1

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of lernaeid ectoparasites in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For this purpose, 597 fishes (Ctenopharyngodon idella were examined for lernaeid ectoparasites at a private fish farm located in Multan, Pakistan. Four species of the genus Lernaea i.e. L. cyprinacea, L. polymorpha, L. oryzophila, and L. lophiara were recorded. It was observed that L. polymorpha had the highest (P20 cm.

  8. Gut melatonin response to microbial infection in carp Catla catla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Palash Kumar; Hasan, Kazi Nurul; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of present study was to demonstrate the response of gut melatoninergic system to Aeromonas hydrophila infection for 3 or 6 days and search for its correlation with the activity of different antioxidative and digestive enzymes to focus their interplay under pathophysiological conditions in carp (Catla catla). Microscopic study of gut in infected fish revealed degenerative changes in the tunica mucosa and lamina propria layers with sloughed off epithelial cells in the lumen. The activity of each digestive enzyme was reduced, but the levels of melatonin, arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase protein, the key regulator of melatonin biosynthesis, and different enzymatic antioxidants in gut were gradually and significantly increased with the progress of infection. Gut melatonin concentrations in A. hydrophila challenged carp by showing a positive correlation with the activity of each antioxidative enzyme, and a negative correlation with different digestive enzymes argued in favor of their functional relation, at least, during pathological stress. Moreover, parallel changes in the gut and serum melatonin titers indicated possible contribution of gut to circulating melatonin. Collectively, present carp study provided the first data to suggest that endogenous gut melatonin may be implicated to the mechanism of response to microbial infections in any fish species.

  9. Hierarchical structure of the otolith of adult wild carp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhuo; Gao Yonghua [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-04-30

    The otolith of adult wild carp contains a pair of asterisci, a pair of lappilli and a pair of sagittae. Current research works are mainly restricted to the field of the daily ring structure. The purpose of this work is to explore the structural characteristics of carp's otolith in terms of hierarchy from nanometer to millimeter scale by transmission election microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on the observation, carp's lapillus is composed of ordered aragonite crystals. Seven hierarchical levels of the microstructure were proposed and described with the scheme representing a complete organization in detail. SEM studies show not only the clear daily growth increment, but also the morphology within the single daily increment. The domain structure of crystal orientation in otolith was observed for the first time. Furthermore, TEM investigation displays that the lapillus is composed of aragonite crystals with nanometer scale. Four hierarchical levels of the microstructure of the sagitta are also proposed. The asteriscus which is composed of nanometer scale vaterite crystals is considered to have a uniform structure.

  10. WATER BLOOM OF BLUEGREEN ALGE IN CARP FISHPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Mihaljević

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The massive development of bluegreen algae (Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria, the so--called water bloom, is a frequent phenomenon in fishpond ecosystems. This study analyses water bloom development in three carp fishponds owned by a fishbreeding company at Donji Miholjac (Croatia, where one-year-old carps (Cyprinus carpio , were bred in defferent fishstock densities. Analyses of physicallychemical properties of water and phytoplankton biomass were per- formed in fortnight intervals from May till October, 1992. In all there investigated fishponds the water bloom of bluegreen algae developed, but at a different time and showing a different qualitative composition. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 250 kg/ha water bloom consisted of the species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and the biggest biomass (131.92 mg/I was found in August. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 437 kg/ha a water bloom consisting of species from the genues Anabaena and species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae developed at the end of July. In the fishpond with the so--called intensive breeding (fishstock density of 750 kg/ha water bloom of the species Microcystis aeruginosa developed as late as September. The beginning of water bloom development was caused by the low value (lower than 7 of the ratio between the quantities of total phosphorus and total nitrogen. However, the qualitative composition of water bloom was influenced by one-year-old carp fingerlings density.

  11. Caracterização isozimática e atividade de peroxidase em folhas de plantas hiperídrica, intermediária e normal de Bidens pilosa L. mantidas in vitro Isoezymatic characterization and peroxidase activity in leaves of hyperhydric, intermediary and normal plants of Bidens pilosa L. grown in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Emílio Zanzirolani de Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizadas as plantas: hiperídrica, intermediária e normal de um clone de Bidens pilosa mantido em cultivo in vitro por meio de isozimas e da atividade de peroxidase. Empregando-se a eletroforese em géis de amido a 12%, testou-se seis isozimas, sendo detectado polimorfismo em peroxidase e fosfatase ácida, permitindo caracterizar cada tipo de planta. Não houve polimorfismo em fosfogluco isomerase, fosfoglucomutase, glutamato oxaloacetato transaminase e malato desidrogenase. A atividade da peroxidase foi maior nas plantas hiperídricas e intermediárias. Conclui-se que a variabilidade enzimática tem potencial como marcador de hiperidricidade em plantas mantidas in vitro.Activity of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7 and isozymes analysis of a Bidens pilosa clone maintained in vitro culture were characterized in hyperhydric, intermediary and normal plants. Electrophorese in starch gels (12% of six isozymes systems was tested, polymorphisms in peroxidase and acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2 were detected. There was absence of polymorphism in phosphoglucoisomerase (EC 5.3.1.9, phosphoglucomutase (EC 5.4.2.2, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.1 and malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37. Comparing the activity of peroxidase enzyme, it was higher in hyperhydric and intermediary plants in relation to normal ones. Enzymatic variability is a potential tool as hyperhydricity marker in plants grown in vitro.

  12. More than Carpe Diem On the Theme of To his Coy Mistress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金凤

    2008-01-01

    Andrew Marvell's famous poem To his Coy Mistress is commonly considered a seduction poem with the theme of carpe diem.The poet's massive dependence on the sexual imagery,the images of time,eternity,and the decomposition,however,transcends the tradition of the usual carpe diem theme of seduction poem,unfolding the pessimism clad in the erotic overcoat.

  13. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, R.M.; Wittmann, M.E.; Lodge, D.M.; Rothlisberger, J.D.; Rutherford, E.S.; Zhang, H.; Mason, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called

  14. History of introductions and governmental invovlement in promoting the use of Asian carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This chapter traces the chronology associated with introductions of Asian carps and discusses the likeliest pathways of their introduction to th...

  15. Immune-relevant thrombocytes of common carp undergo parasite-induced nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, I.R.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Forlenza, M.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wiegertjes, G.

    2015-01-01

    Common carp thrombocytes account for 30–40% of peripheral blood leukocytes and are abundant in the healthy animals' spleen, the thrombopoietic organ. We show that, ex vivo, thrombocytes from healthy carp express a large number of immune-relevant genes, among which several cytokines and Toll-like rec

  16. Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Grou, C.P.O.; Bergsma, J.; Saeij, J.P.J.; Nakayasu, C.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ontogeny of the teleost innate immune system was studied in carp using cellular, histological and quantitative molecular techniques. Carp myeloid cells first appeared ventro-lateral of the aorta at 2 days post fertilization (the start of hatching), and subsequently around the sinuses of the vena

  17. Carp macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes secrete an interleukin-1-like factor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Weyts, F.A.A.; Debets, R.; Flik, G.

    1995-01-01

    Carp, Cyprinus carpio L, macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes obtained from pronephros were cultured. Supernatant was harvested after 48 h and tested for interleukin-1 (IL-1) bioactivity. A concentration-dependent stimulation of proliferation was found of carp Ig− lymphocytes as well as of the

  18. Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

    2013-01-01

    1. Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2. We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3. Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4. Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

  19. Major histocompatibility complex genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van S.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The molecules encoded by Mhc genes play an essential role in the specific immune response, by presenting antigens to T lymphocytes. Knowledge of the Mhc of carp, therefore, cont

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Izvorni znanstveni članak THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L. Debeljak, Lj. Turk, M. Fašaić, K. Sotjić, B. Puni tekst (Hrvatski Str. 83 - 94 (pdf, 2.21 MB downloads: 471 Sažetak This research was carried out on 8 experimental fish-pounds with individual sizes of 0,1 ha-1 on fish farm Draganići during 1990 culturing season. Carp was reared under conditions of polyculture with total stock density 3250 ind × ha-1. (77 % carp, 2500 ind × ha-1 ; 23% -- 250 ind × ha-1 each species of herbivorous fish – silver carp, bighead, grass carp. The influence of fertilization and different feeding of fish was researched through these parameters: yield and increment of fish, individual weight, losses, food conversion, Fultons and Clark’s coefficient of carp. The hydrochemical conditions in individual pounds where researched too (tabl 2. The total increment of fish was 703 ind × ha-1 (I variant, without fertilization, feeding of carp with cereals, 1302 ind × ha-1 (variant II, fertilization, 500 kg × ha-1 NPK 17: 8: 9, feeding with cereals and 2537 kg × ha-1 (variant III, without fertilization, feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin. The increment of carps was 611.4; 897.8 and 1923.5 kg × ha-1 resp. The results of production are shown on tables 3, 4 and 5. The losses of carp were similar in all variants of fish-pounds (tabl. 4. The average individual weight of carp was 30% bigger in the fish pond with fertilization, and 154% in fish pond with feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin in compare to control variant 1. Food conversion was lower for 26% in the variant which was fertilized, and for 13% in the variant fed with protein pellets, in compare to control variant l. The Fulton's and Clark's condition coefficient of carp was similar in all experimental ponds except in the variant III. In this variant the Fulton's condition coefficient was

  1. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  2. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer,; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  3. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The improved tetraploids (G1×AT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G1×AT. After mating with each other, the high-body in- dividuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), im- proved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromo- some numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  4. Suitability of Lake Erie for bigheaded carps based on bioenergetic models and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karl R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Wynne, Timothy; Masagounder, Karthik; Paukert, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Algal blooms in the Great Lakes are a potential food source for silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis; together bigheaded carps). Understanding these blooms thus plays an important role in understanding the invasion potential of bigheaded carps. We used remote sensing imagery, temperatures, and improved species specific bioenergetics models to determine algal concentrations sufficient for adult bigheaded carps. Depending on water temperature we found that bigheaded carp require between 2 and 7 μg/L chlorophyll or between 0.3 and 1.26 × 105cells/mL Microcystis to maintain body weight. Algal concentrations in the western basin and shoreline were found to be commonly several times greater than the concentrations required for weight maintenance. The remote sensing images show that area of sufficient algal foods commonly encompassed several hundred square kilometers to several thousands of square kilometers when blooms form. From 2002 to 2011, mean algal concentrations increased 273%–411%. This indicates Lake Erie provides increasingly adequate planktonic algal food for bigheaded carps. The water temperatures and algal concentrations detected in Lake Erie from 2008 to 2012 support positive growth rates such that a 4 kg silver carp could gain between 19 and 57% of its body weight in a year. A 5 kg bighead carp modeled at the same water temperatures could gain 20–81% of their body weight in the same period. The remote sensing imagery and bioenergetic models suggest that bigheaded carps would not be food limited if they invaded Lake Erie.

  5. Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Duan, Wei; Liu, JinHui; Zhang, Chun; Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Yun

    2008-06-01

    The improved tetraploids (G(1)xAT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G(1)xAT. After mating with each other, the high-body individuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), improved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromosome numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding.

  6. Data on the parasite fauna of the European common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio and Asian common carp Cyprinus carpio haematopterus support an Asian ancestry of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Molnár

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The common carp subspecies (Cyprinus carpio carpio has been regarded as an autochtonous species of Europe. Evidence obtained by comparing the parasite fauna of the European and the Asian subspecies (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus establish that such fish in the Far East harbour a significantly richer array of parasite species, and were the exclusive hosts of most of the specific parasites, including all monogenean and myxosporean spp., until recent intensive fish translocations from the Far East. I therefore propose that the common carp originated in the Far-East. The commoncarp would have originally inhabited only the Far East freshwaters, arriving in Europe in the Middle Ages by anthropogenic transfers. During the long trip from China to Europe, the common carp lost its original parasite fauna. In its new habitat, it acquired some parasite from the crucian carp, Carassius carassius, a closely related fish. Infection of the European subspecies with the Asian parasites that had been lost in Europe recommenced only in the middle of the last century, when the Amur wild carp and the coloured carp variations became introduced to Europe. The examination of the parasite fauna of fishes is an excellent tool for surveying the origin of fishes.

  7. Effects of growth hormone over-expression on reproduction in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Trudeau, Vance L; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interaction between growth and reproduction we have established lines of transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) transgene. The GH-transgenic fish showed delayed gonadal development compared with non-transgenic common carp. To gain a better understanding of the phenomenon, we studied body growth, gonad development, changes of reproduction related genes and hormones of GH-transgenic common carp for 2years. Over-expression of GH elevated peripheral gh transcription, serum GH levels, and inhibited endogenous GH expression in the pituitary. Hormone analyses indicated that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary and serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH). Among the tested genes, pituitary lhβ was inhibited in GH-transgenic fish. Further analyses in vitro showed that GH inhibited lhβ expression. Localization of ghr with LH indicates the possibility of direct regulation of GH on gonadotrophs. We also found that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by co-treatments with a salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Together these results suggest that the main cause of delayed reproductive development in GH transgenic common carp is reduced LH production and release.

  8. Carbon dioxide as a tool to deter the movement of invasive bigheaded carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Donaldson,; Amberg, Jon; Shivani Adhikari,; Cupp, Aaron R.; Jensen, Nathan; Romine, Jason G.; Adam Wright,; Gaikowski, Mark; Cory D. Suski,

    2016-01-01

    Nonnative bigheaded carps are established in the Mississippi River and there is substantial concern about their potential entry into the interconnected Laurentian Great Lakes. While electrical barriers currently exist as a preventative measure, there is need for additional control mechanisms to promote barrier security through redundancy. We tested the effectiveness of infused carbon dioxide gas (CO2) as a tool to influence the movement and behavior invasive bigheaded carps, namely Bighead CarpHypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix, as well as native Bigmouth BuffaloIctiobus cyprinellus, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Paddlefish Polyodon spathula, and Yellow Perch Perca flavescens in an experimental pond. Individuals were monitored with acoustic telemetry before, during, and after CO2 addition to the pond. We noted distinct changes in fish behavior following CO2 addition. Each species except Paddlefish maintained farther distances from the CO2 infusion manifold relative to controls. Both bigheaded carp species had slower persistence velocities (persistence of a movement in a given direction) following CO2 infusion and Bighead Carp used a smaller area of the pond immediately after CO2 addition. Pond pH progressively decreased up to 1.5 units following CO2 infusion. This work provides evidence that could inform future research to enhance existing control measures used to deter high-risk invasive fishes, such as bigheaded carps.

  9. Predictive Management of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Bruce C.; Carlson, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Prolific non-native organisms pose serious threats to ecosystems and economies worldwide. Nonnative bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), collectively referred to as Asian carps, continue to colonize aquatic ecosystems throughout the central United States. These species are r-selected, exhibiting iteroparous spawning, rapid growth, broad environmental tolerance, high density, and long-distance movement. Hydrological, thermal, and physicochemical conditions are favorable for establishment beyond the current range, rendering containment and control imperative. Ecological approaches to confine Asian carp populations and prevent colonization characterize contemporary management in the United States. Foraging and reproduction of Asian carps govern habitat selection and movement, providing valuable insight for predictive control. Current management approaches are progressive and often anticipatory but deficient in human dimensions. We define predictive management of Asian carps as synthesis of ecology and human dimensions at regional and local scales to develop strategies for containment and control. We illustrate predictive management in the Upper Mississippi River System and suggest resource managers integrate predictive models, containment paradigms, and human dimensions to design effective, socially acceptable management strategies. Through continued research, university-agency collaboration, and public engagement, predictive management of Asian carps is an auspicious paradigm for preventing and alleviating consequences of colonization in the United States.

  10. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Jingou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: gold crucian carp [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gold crucian carp Carassius auratus auratus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_L.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_NL.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_S.png Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NS ...

  12. ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AMUR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO HAEMATOPTERUS REPRODUCED USING CRYOPRESERVED SPERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolisnyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To reproduce Amur carp population using cryopreserved sperm and analyze some biological and fish culture peculiarities of the reproduced fish stock. Methodology. Generally accepted methods for fish culture [1]. Experimental reproduction was carried out in pond conditions of «Carpathian vodogray» LTD (Lisnevychi village, Pustomytivsky district, Lviv region. Hydrochemical analysis was carried out classically by O. Alуokin (1970 [2], hydrobiological studies in the fatting ponds according to V. Zhadin (1956, 1960 [3, 4]. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by hemocyanin method of G. Dervis, A. Vorobiov [5]. Blood for this method was collected from fish heart with the use of Pasteur pipettes in Eppendorf tubes with heparin. Following exterior morphometric parameters were analysed: body weight (m, g, standard fish body length (l, cm, largest body height (H, cm and body circumference (O cm. Following exterior indices were calculated based on these parameters: body depth index (l/H, body circumference index (l/O and Fulton’s condition factor (Kv. The study was carried out using two groups of carp: control and experimental. The first group was reproduced from the native sperm, the second from the cryopreserved sperm. Findings. Carp reproduction and growing was carried out using native and cryopreserved sperm. This work contains the results of growing 1+ Amur carp of experimental and control groups. Hydrochemical and hydrobiological parameters of the fattening ponds were studied. Peculiarities of the exterior and some hematological parameters of the carp of different origin were characterized. Originality. For the first time we performed a comparison of some biological parameters of Amur carp reproduced using native and cryopreserved sperm. Practical Value. Considering the economic importance of Amur carp due to its use in hybridization, reproduction of its population plays an important role in the development of the stocks of the pure

  13. Effects of co-cropping Bidens pilosa (L.) and Tagetes minuta (L.) on bioaccumulation of Pb in Lactuca sativa (L.) growing in polluted agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Carolina Vergara; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Salazar, María Julieta; Blanco, Andrés; Pignata, María Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Polluted agricultural soils are a serious problem for food safety, with phytoremediation being the most favorable alternative from the environmental perspective. However, this methodology is generally time-consuming and requires the cessation of agriculture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate two potential phytoextractor plants (the native species Bidens pilosa and Tagetes minuta) co-cropped with lettuce growing on agricultural lead-polluted soils. The concentrations of Pb, as well as of other metals, were investigated in the phytoextractors, crop species, and in soils, with the potential risk to the health of consumers being estimated. The soil parameters pH, EC, organic matter percentage and bioavailable lead showed a direct relationship with the accumulation of Pb in roots. In addition, the concentration of Pb in roots of native species was closely related to Fe (B. pilosa, r = 0.81; T. minuta r = 0.75), Cu (T. minuta, r = 0.93), Mn (B. pilosa, r = 0.89) and Zn (B. pilosa, r = 0.91; T. minuta, r = 0.91). Our results indicate that the interaction between rhizospheres increased the phytoextraction of lead, which was accompanied by an increase in the biomass of the phytoextractor species. However, the consumption of lettuce still revealed a toxicological risk from Pb in all treatments.

  14. Antiageing Mechanisms of a Standardized Supercritical CO2 Preparation of Black Jack (Bidens pilosa L. in Human Fibroblasts and Skin Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Dieamant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of topical retinoids to treat skin disorders and ageing can induce local reactions, while oral retinoids are potent teratogens and produce several unwanted effects. This way, efforts to explore complementary care resources should be supported. Based on this, we evaluate the antiageing effects of a supercritical CO2 extract from Bidens pilosa L. (BPE-CO2A containing a standardized multicomponent mixture of phytol, linolenic, palmitic, linoleic, and oleic acids. BPE-CO2A was assessed for its effects on human dermal fibroblasts (TGF-β1 and FGF levels using ELISA; collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by colorimetric assays, and mRNA expression of RXR, RAR, and EGFr by qRT-PCR and human skin fragments (RAR, RXR, collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by immunohistochemical analysis. Levels of extracellular matrix elements, TGF-β1 and FGF, and EGFr gene expression were significantly increased by BPE-CO2A. The modulation of RXR and RAR was positively demonstrated after the treatment with BPE-CO2A or phytol, a component of BPE-CO2A. The effects produced by BPE-CO2A were similar to or better than those produced by retinol and retinoic acid. The ability to stimulate extracellular matrix elements, increase growth factors, and modulate retinoid and rexinoid receptors provides a basis for the development of preparation containing BPE-CO2A as an antiageing/skin-repair agent.

  15. Ontogenetic development of adipose tissue in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin; Ji, Hong; Li, Chao; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Yifei; Yu, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the adipose tissue development process during the early stages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) development, samples were collected from fertilized eggs to 30 days post-fertilization (dpf) of fish. Paraffin and frozen sections were taken to observe the characteristics of adipocytes in vivo by different staining methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Oil red O, and BODIPY. The expression of lipogenesis-related genes of the samples at different time points was detected by real-time qPCR. In addition, protein expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPAR γ) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the neutral lipid droplets accumulated first in the hepatocytes of 14-dpf fish larvae, and visceral adipocytes appeared around the hepatopancreas on 16 dpf. As grass carp grew, the adipocytes increased in number and spread to other tissues. In 20-dpf fish larvae, the intestine was observed to be covered by adipose tissue. However, there was no significant change in the average size (30.40-40.01 μm) of adipocytes during this period. Accordingly, the gene expression level of PPAR γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBP α) was significantly elevated after fertilization for 12 days (p adipose tissue is caused by active recruitment of adipocytes as opposed to hypertrophy of the cell. In addition, our study indicated that lipogenesis-related genes might regulate the ongoing development of adipose tissue.

  16. Hydrodynamic Analysis of C-start in Crucian Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jing; Xiezhen Yin; Xiyun Lu

    2004-01-01

    The kinematics of turning maneuvers of startled Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) are presented. All escape responses observed are C-type fast-starts. The position of the center of mass and the moment of inertia of the fish are calculated.The results show that the position of the center of mass is always at 35 % of the length of the fish from the head and the position of the center of mass and moment of inertia can be considered unchanged during C-start of Crucian Carp. Hydrodynamic analysis of the C-start is given based on the kinematics data from our experiments. The C-start consists of three stages. In stage 1, the tail fin of fish rapidly flaps in one direction, and a large moment acts on the fish's body, which rotates around the center of mass with an angular acceleration. In stage 2, the tail fin flaps more slowly in the opposite direction at slower speed, the fish's body rotates around the center of mass with angular deceleration and the center of mass of the fish moves along an arc. In stage 3, the moment approximately equals zero, the fish's body stops rotating and the center of mass the moves along a straight line.

  17. Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jintu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3

  18. The dynamics of the plankton for the second summer of carp polyculture with phytoplankton consumer species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GHEORGHE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The biologic processes in water are strictly dependent on physical-chemical factors. By maintaining the balances of the environmental factors, it can ensures the micro and macro fauna development with direct implication on breeding and developing the fishy material.The aim of this article was to monitor and register the plankton dynamics in six rearing ponds for the polyculture of carp (Cyprinus carpio with Asian complex species: silver carp (H. molitrix, grass carp (Ct. idella and bighead carp (A. nobilis. The experiment took place in six ponds of C.C.D.P. Nucet, during a period of 120 days.At the end of the experiment one determined that the evolution of both phytoplankton and zooplankton was in a close correlation with both the variation of physical-chemical factors as well as with thetechnology of the fishy material in these ponds.

  19. FEEDING AND GROWHT OF CARP YEARLINGS AT THE DIRECTIONAL FORMATION OF NATURAL FOOD BASE

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    S. Koba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Feeding and growth of carp yearlings in nursery ponds of the experimental farm “Nyvka” at the directional formation of natural food base have been studied. It was found that application of methods of directional formation of natural food base, including fertilization of nursery ponds with different organic fertilizers, resulted in supplying juvenile carp with natural food. The content of live feed objects (zooplankton, zoobenthos in carp gut in the experiment was 48.3?50.4% versus 32.6% in the control. Survival of carp yearlings from stocked non?grown larvae was higher in the experiment and composed 31.5 - 48.6% versus 21.0 in the control; fish productivity was 326.0 - 736.3 kg/ha and 232.1 kg/ha, respectively.

  20. Carp Control Study - Control Methods and Their Application to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study grew out of a need for information regarding alternative solutions to chemical control of carp in Malheur Lake. Of particular concern has been the...

  1. Assessment of microcystin concentration in carp and catfish: a case study from Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to analyse microcystin concentrations in Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India, as well as in carp and catfish of the pond. The concentrations of microcystin were found well above the WHO guidelines (1 µg/L) both for the dissolved and particulate fractions of bloom samples. The microcystin concentrations in different organs of carp and catfish were in the following sequence; liver > gut > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles and gut > liver > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles, respectively. The bioaccumulation of microcystin in carp and catfish was negatively correlated with body weight, and showed species specificity. The higher bioaccumulation of microcystin in muscles of catfish (>tenfold) over carp indicates a possible threat to human beings on consumption of catfish. Therefore, to avoid animal and human intoxication, routine analyses of microcystin in pond water as well as fishes are strongly recommended.

  2. Radio Telemetry Study of Common Carp in Clear Lake, Iowa, To Guide Future Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a highly competitive freshwater fish capable of rapidly establishing populations in new, unexploited and disturbed habitats...

  3. [Studies on the ploymorphic of sperm of F2 hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian Zhong; Liu, Shao Jun; Zhang, Xuan Jie; Feng, Hao; Liu, Yun

    2004-08-01

    AThe ultrastructures of the sperm of F2 hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp were studied by using scanning and transmission electron microscope. The sperm of the F2 hybrids consisted of head, mid-piece and tail. There was no acrosome at the anterior end of the nuclears, whereas there was a vesicle. The results revealed that there existed obviously ploymorphic in the sperm of F2 hybrids. In the water-like semen from males of F2 hybrids, different sizes of the head of the sperm including haploid, diploid, tetraploid, and aneuploid sperm were observed. The head diameter of the smallest sperm was only 1.32 microm, but that of the biggest one was about 18.39 microm, and most of them varied from 1.85 to 2.15 microm. The haploid sperm was normal, while the a-neuploid, diploid, tetraploid and multiploid sperm were abnormal. Among the abnormal sperm, there was a super sperm with about 20 tails, whose head volume was much bigger than that of any other sperm. From the results of the transmission electron microscope, 3 sperm with two nucleus and 1 sperm with two tails were found. This study provided an useful evidence for the mechanism that the formation of tetraploid in F3 hybrids was due to the fertilization of the diploid eggs and diploid sperm produced by F2 hybrids.

  4. SOME HEMATOLOGICAL VALUES OF TWO-YEAR OLD CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Krešimir Fašaić

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out in three variants of experimental fish ponds in which different technologies were applied (l - without fertilizing, feeding of carp with cereals; II - fertilizing, feeding of carp with cereals; III - without fertilizing, feeding of carp with pellets containing 20% of protein. Carp was reared under conditions of policulture with total stock density 3250 ind. ha-1 (2500 ind•ha-1 carp 250 ind•ha-1 silver carp, 250 ind•ha-1 bighead and 250 ind•ha-1 grass carp. Average weights of fishes were from 29 to 77 g. The values of some hematological and biochemical indices of carp were estimated (hematocrit, hemoglobin, MCHC, total protein and total lipids. The mean value of concentration of hemoglobin was 111,80±18,38 gl-1 (variant I; 121,60±15,86 gl-1 (variant II and 122,00±15,61 gl-1 (variant III. Hematocrit value was 0,25±0,03 L˙L-1 0,30±0,03 L˙L-1 0,28±0,02 L˙L-1, and MCHC 0,23±0,01 L˙L-1; 0,23±0,01 L˙L-1; 0,25±0,01 L˙L-1 resp. The concentration of total protein in blood plasma of carp was 27,00±0,32 g˙L-1 (variant 1, 32,00±0,52 g˙L-1 (variant II and 34,00±1,02 g˙L-1 (variant III. The concentration oftotallipids was 10,1O±0,29 g˙L-1,11,20±1,60 g˙L-1 and 1l,20±1,60 g˙L-1 resp. The differences between means values of these indices found in carp of different variants were significant (P>0.05 only for values of total protein (table 3 in variant III where carp was fed with protein of animal origin.

  5. Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder poisoning-report of four cases in a single family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Rashmi; Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Ray, Rajib; Mahapatro, Samarendra

    2011-06-01

    The ingestion of Indian carp gallbladder may result in transient hepatitis with subsequent acute renal failure. This case series also illustrates the importance of understanding the use and potential serious complications of alternative medicines. So fish gallbladder poisoning should be considered in unexplained acute renal failure in Chinese and Asian patients. We report four family members who developed acute renal failure and toxic hepatitis at the same time following ingestion of raw Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder.

  6. Contaminant concentrations in Asian carps, invasive species in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, D L; Soucek, D J; Levengood, J M; Johnson, S R; Chick, J H; Dettmers, J M; Pegg, M A; Epifanio, J M

    2009-10-01

    Populations of invasive fishes quickly reach extremely high biomass. Before control methods can be applied, however, an understanding of the contaminant loads of these invaders carry is needed. We investigated differences in concentrations of selected elements in two invasive carp species as a function of sampling site, fish species, length and trophic differences using stable isotopes (delta (15)N, delta (13)C). Fish were collected from three different sites, the Illinois River near Havana, Illinois, and two sites in the Mississippi River, upstream and downstream of the Illinois River confluence. Five bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and five silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from each site were collected for muscle tissue analyses. Freshwater mussels (Amblema plicata) previously collected in the same areas were used as an isotopic baseline to standardize fish results among sites. Total fish length, trophic position, and corrected (13)C, were significantly related to concentrations of metals in muscle. Fish length explained the most variation in metal concentrations, with most of that variation related to mercury levels. This result was not unexpected because larger fish are older, giving them a higher probability of exposure and accumulation of contaminants. There was a significant difference in stable isotope profiles between the two species. Bighead carp occupied a higher trophic position and had higher levels of corrected (13)C than silver carp. Additionally bighead carp had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic and selenium than silver carp. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen in Asian carp were at levels that are more commonly associated with higher-level predators, or from organisms in areas containing high loads of wastewater effluent.

  7. Massive Production of All-female Diploids and Triploids in the Crucian Carp

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    KaiKun Luo, Jun Xiao, ShaoJun Liu, Jing Wang, WeiGuo He, Jie Hu, QinBo Qin, Chun Zhang, Min Tao, Yun Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200 by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ♀ and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ♂. We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100. We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-α-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100 and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150, respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry.

  8. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and its evolutionary future as a biological control agent for carp in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth A. McColl; Sunarto, Agus; Holmes, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions are a major threat to global biodiversity. Australia has experienced many invasive species, with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) a prominent example. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) has been proposed as a biological control (biocontrol) agent for invasive carp in Australia. Safety and efficacy are critical factors in assessing the suitability of biocontrol agents, and extensive host-specificity testing suggests that CyHV-3 is safe. Efficacy depends on the relationshi...

  9. Navigation Effects on Asian Carp Movement Past Electric Barrier, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The potential migration of Asian carp through the Illinois River, Des Plaines River, and Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) is one risk facing the...The potential migration of Asian carp through the Illinois River, Des Plaines River, and Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) is one severe risk...ecological risk to U.S. waters. They are voracious eaters, and thus are in direct competition with native planktivores, juvenile fishes, and mussels

  10. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella based on microsatellites and SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs. The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

  11. Isozyme Analysis of Jin Silver Carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Var Jin)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang YANG; Jun HAO; Di BAO; Aijun LIANG; Wankun JIN; Chongwen LI; Xinghua ZHANG; Shi DONG

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] The aim was to carry out isozyme analysis of jin silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys mofitrix Var Jing). [Method] The isozyme of AAT, EST, cc-GPD, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and PROT of muscles and liver in two populations of the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix): Jin silver carp (a breed through se- lective breeding) and artificially propagated population bought from Jingzhou city, Hubei Province were examined by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. [Result] Eigh- teen loci were observed in two populations. Two loci of GPI and PGM in Jing sil- ver carp population and the locus of GPI in Jingzhou population were polymorphic. The proportions of polymorphic loci (maximum allele frequency-〈0.99) of Jing silver carp and Jingzhou populations were 11.11% and 5.56% respectively, expected het- erozygosity were 0.015 0 and 0.001 1 respectively. The Nei's genetic distances were 0.000 59 between two populations. The result of chi-square test of the GPI gene in two populations showed that their genetic structure has very significant dif- ference. [Conclusion] This study provided a theoretical basis for large-scale extension of Jing silver carp.

  12. Water-quality sampling plan for evaluating the distribution of bigheaded carps in the Illinois Waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, James J.; Terrio, Paul J.

    2017-02-27

    The two nonnative invasive bigheaded carp species (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) that were accidentally released in the 1970s have spread widely into the rivers and waterways of the Mississippi River Basin. First detected in the lower reaches of the Illinois Waterway (IWW, the combined Illinois River-Des Plaines River-Chicago Area Waterway System) in the 1990s, bighead and silver carps moved quickly upstream, approaching the Chicago Area Waterway System. The potential of substantial negative ecological and economic impact to the Great Lakes from the presence of these species is a concern. However, since 2006, the population front of bigheaded carps has remained in the vicinity of Joliet, Illinois, near river mile 278. This reach of the IWW is characterized by stark changes in habitat, water quality, and food resources as the waterway transitions from a primarily agricultural landscape to a metropolitan and industrial canal system. This report describes a 2015 plan for sampling the IWW to establish water-quality conditions that might be contributing to the apparent stalling of the population front of bigheaded carps in this reach. A detailed description of the study plan, Lagrangian-style sampling approach, selected analytes, sampling methods and protocols are provided. Hydrographs from streamflow-gaging stations show IWW conditions during the 2015 sampling runs.

  13. Complete mitogenome sequence of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) and its use for molecular phylogeny of leuciscine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Jun; Yang, Jinquan; Lu, Guoqing; Song, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Xu, Jiawei; Yang, Qinling; Li, Sifa

    2012-05-01

    The black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (Cyprinidae), native to eastern Asian, is a large, commercially important fish, and has been introduced to many other countries for variable reasons. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences from three specimens of black carp were first determined and were used to evaluate the sister relationship between black carp and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Two individuals had a mitogenome of 16,609 bp, while the other was 16,611 bp in length. Similar to most vertebrates, the black carp contains the same gene order and an identical number of genes or regions, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 putative control region. Phylogenetic analyses using three different computational algorithms (Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian analysis) revealed two distinct clades in subfamily Leuciscinae. However, the sister taxonomic relationship of black carp and grass carp was not observed using sequences of nearly complete mitochondrial genomes, which suggests more nuclear gene markers are needed to resolve the phylogenetic relationship between black carp and grass carp.

  14. Serum biochemical parameters of farmed carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanţi Patriche

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in ichthyo-pathology of recent years, interpretation of fish serum biochemical parameters is often difficult by lack of reference values. That is why to know the value of the serum biochemical parameters can be a useful tool for monitoring health status, detecting illnesses and responses to therapy. This paper provides data concerning biochemical composition of carp serum (Cyprinus carpio bred at Brateş Farm of Institute of Research and Development for Aquatic Ecology, Fishing and Aquaculture from Galaţi and Pleaşa Farm from Ploieşti, Romania. In research conducted onCyprinus carpio were determined following serum biochemical parameters: glucose (GLU, total proteins (TP, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, cholesterol (CHOL, triglyceride (TRIG, sodium (Na, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, phosphorus (P, iron (Fe.

  15. Otter (Lutra lutra L. damage in commercial carp ponds of southern Poland

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    Lidia Wisniowska

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the otter Lutra lutra was studied at 198 commercial carp Cyprinus carpio ponds (total area 811.9 ha located near Zator, an Experimental Fish Farm in southern Poland. The food habits of the otter were determined by the analysis of 344 spraints collected monthly from December 2000 to December 2001. Data were expressed as frequency of occurrence and per cent of biomass. Fish represented the main food resource of otters, occurring in 97.4% of faecal samples. Carp occurred in 9.3% of faecal samples. Percentage share of carp in biomass of food consumed by otters averaged 14.2% per year. The 97.6% of eaten carp was classified as carp fry production, ranging between 3.0 cm and 7.9 cm in body length (mean: 5.7± 0.92 SD. The economic consequences of otter predation on fish are discussed. Riassunto Danni causati dalla Lontra (Lutra lutra sulla produzione di carpe allevate in bacini idrici della Polonia meridionale La dieta della Lontra Lutra lutra è stata studiata in 198 bacini idrici (superficie totale 811,9 ha; Polonia meridionale utilizzati per l’allevamento di carpe Cyprinus carpio, tramite l’analisi di 344 feci, raccolte mensilmente da dicembre 2000 a dicembre 2001. I dati ottenuti sono stati espressi sia come frequenza percentuale (F% sia come percentuale di biomassa (B%. La principale categoria alimentare è costituita dai pesci (F%: 97,4%, di cui le carpe rappresentano il 9,3% e il 14,2% in F% e B% rispettivamente. Il 97,6% delle carpe mangiate è costituito da avannotti di lunghezza compresa tra 3 e 7,9 cm (media: 5,7± 0,92 SD. L’impatto economico della Lontra sulla produzione delle carpe è discusso.

  16. Brazilian Bidens pilosa Linné yields fraction containing quercetin-derived flavonoid with free radical scavenger activity and hepatoprotective effects

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    Maicon Roberto Kviecinski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa is a plant used by Amazonian and Asian folks for some hepatopathies. The hydroethanol crude extract and three fractions were assessed for antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. Higher levels of scavenger activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, inhibition of deoxyribose oxidation and lipid peroxidation in vitro were detected for the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50∼4.3–32.3 µg/ml followed by the crude extract (IC50∼14.2–98.0 µg/ml. The ethyl acetate fraction, again followed by the crude extract, showed high contents of total soluble polyphenols (3.6±0.2 and 2.1±0.2 GAE/mg, respectively and presence of a quercetin-derived flavonoid identified as quercetin 3,3′-dimethyl ether 7-O-β-d-glycopyranoside. Both products were assayed for hepatoprotector effects against CCl4-induced liver injury in mice. Markers of oxidative stress and hepatic injury were evaluated. The results showed that the 10-day pretreatments (15 mg/kg, p.o. protected the livers against injury by blocking CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation and the DNA fragmentation was decreased (∼60%. The pretreatments avoided the loss of the plasma ferric reducing/antioxidant power and the elevation of serum transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase activities. The results suggest that the main constituents responsible for the hepatoprotective effects with free radical scavenger power associated are well extracted by performing fractionation with ethyl acetate. The findings support the Brazilian traditional use of this plant and justify further evaluations for the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the constituents of the ethyl acetate fraction to treat some liver diseases.

  17. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: ndatta@med.wayne.edu [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSMISSION AND SPREAD OF THE VIRUS SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

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    N. Kharkavlyuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Spring viremia of carp (SVC is a viral disease of cyprinids, the causative agent of which is a RNA-containing virus. The virus is represented by one serotype. This disease was firstly described in Yugoslavia by N.Fijan (1968, in Russia – by N.N. Rudykov (1971. The virus has similar morphology as viruses, which are causative agents of a number of salmonid diseases (VHS, IHN, differing from them by cultural properties. Avirulent strains are among field isolates. Outbreaks of spring viremia of carp are common in carps cultivated in fish farms but they can be observed in fish from different types of water bodies. Manifestations of the disease are related to stress factors. The extensity of infection in unfavorable ecological and zoohygienic conditions can reach 20-40% and is accompanied with the death of the affected fish. The main concern of nowadays is the prevention of the virus penetration into specialized fish farms. The aim of the present study was to conduct the analytical research on factors influencing the transmission and spread of the virus of spring viremia of carp. Methodology. The theoretical basis of the study are the works of foreign and domestic scientists regarding ihtiopathology, including the spread of the virus of spring viremia of carp. The study was conducted using a monographic method and the results of personal analytical observations. Findings. A literature review on the factors that affect the spread of the virus of spring viremia of carp is presented. The factors, which affect the vertical and horizontal transmission of the virus, have been examined. For a long period of time, the geographic range of SVC was limited to European continent that is explained by low water temperatures in the winter. Accordingly, this disease was reported in the majority of European countries. However, in 1998 the disease was registered in Brazil, in 2002 in North Carolina, Wisconsin and Illinois. Outbreaks were reported in

  19. MORE ON THE APPROVAL OF ANTONINSKO-ZOZULENETSKIY CARPS OF UKRAINIAN BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oleksiyenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform an analysis the fish breeding, biological, productive, exterior indicators of Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy carps of Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds, their genetic characteristics as well as to provide the methods of the creation of these carps as a selective achievement. Methodology. The works were carried out in accordance with conventional techniques in fish farming and breeding. Carp breeding was conducted by the method of mass continuously improving selection of fish the aim of which is that a complex of fish breeding and management activities create conditions contributing to the development of productive qualities in the selected carp, while selection and breeding activities form and reproduce the leading pedigree group of the stock. Findings. In the conditions of the development of fisheries industry, especially important are the problems of selection and breeding works aimed at improving the biological and economic features of fish farming objects by improving the existing and developing new breeds, inbreeding, zonal types, lines, etc., creating a progressive heterotic structure of breeds and forming highly productive pedigree stocks of fish breeding objects. The main object of commercial fish farming in Ukraine, as in many countries, is carp, so his selection is given much attention. The starting material for producing the Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds was carp population of Antoninskiy State fish hatchery (Khmelnytsky region, which was a cross between native carp with mirror Galician carp. The principal method of carp breeding was a massive, continuously improving selection with high intensity among younger age groups. An importance during the selection was given to the growth rate of the fish, their exterior and constitutional "strength." For the brood, individuals with the highest body weight, scaly cover of which corresponded to accepted standards, beautiful high

  20. Comparison of rearing performances and intermuscular bone number in the mirror and nude genotypes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in a controlled field test in Madagascar

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    Diana Edithe Andria-Mananjara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nude carps, a genotype of common carp which are devoid of scales, have been banned from farmed populations of carp in Europe due to both the lethal effect of the N (nude gene when in homozygous state, and to the negative pleiotropic effects on growth and survival (especially in harsh conditions of this same gene in the heterozygous state, which produces the nude phenotype. In Madagascar, where climatic variations are less extreme than in Eastern Europe, the nude phenotype is valued both by farmers and consumers, for its good growth and supposed low number of intermuscular bones. We performed an on-farm experiment using a “common garden” design to control environmental variation, in order to compare the growth and survival, as well as the number of intermuscular bones of nude carp to two other common scale cover phenotypes of the same species, the mirror and scaly carps. We found that survival of nude carps was lower or equal to that of mirror carps at all stages of the farming process, while growth performance was lower than that of mirror carps in some ponds only. Globally, the biomass production per fish stocked was always lower in nude carp compared to mirror carp. The number of intermuscular bones was the same in nude, mirror and scaly carps. We conclude that as in Europe, it would be valuable to farm mirror rather than nude carps, as the supposed benefits of the latter are not supported by our experiment in typical Malagasy farming conditions.

  1. Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

  2. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  3. Comparative Proteomic, Physiological, Morphological, and Biochemical Analyses Reveal the Characteristics of the Diploid Spermatozoa of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Kang; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Ming; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Luo, Kaikun; Zhao, Rurong; Qin, Qinbo; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    The generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. The DNA content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. We performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 21 protein spots that changed in abundance were analyzed. As the common carp and the allotetraploid hybrids are not fully sequenced organisms, we identified proteins by Mascot searching against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NR) protein database for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and verified them against predicted homologous proteins derived from transcriptomes of the testis. Twenty protein spots were identified successfully, belonging to four gene ontogeny categories: cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and other functions, indicating that these might be associated with the variation in diploid spermatozoa. This categorization of variations in protein composition in diploid spermatozoa will provide new perspectives on male polyploidy. Moreover, our approach indicates that transcriptome data are useful for proteomic analyses in organisms lacking full protein sequences.

  4. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Komen, H.; Jobling, S.; Sumpter, J.; Bowmer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17β-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp

  5. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  6. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Mahon

    Full Text Available In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish (Carassius auratus. All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  7. Minor effect of depletion of resident macrophages from peritoneal cavioty on resistance of common carp Cyprinus carpio to blood flagellates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeij, J.P.J.; Groeneveld, A.; Rooijen, van N.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2003-01-01

    Carp Cyprinus carpio macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clodronate-liposomes for the in vivo study of the effect of macrophage depletion on the resistance of carp to infection with blood flagellate parasites. Clodronate released inside the cell induces apoptosis of (mur

  8. Physicochemical Process, Crustacean, and Microcystis Biomass Changes In Situ Enclosure after Introduction of Silver Carp at Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjie Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to control cyanobacteria blooms with silver carp in Lake Taihu, an in situ experiment was carried out by stocking silver carp at a biomass of 35, 70, and 150 g m-3 and no carp control in waterproof enclosures. Physicochemical water parameters and biomass of plankton were measured in enclosures to evaluate the suitable stocking density of silver carp for relieving internal nutrients and constraining cyanobacteria growth in Lake Taihu. It is found that the 35 g m-3 silver carp group and 70 g m-3 silver carp group presented lower total phosphorus, lower chlorophyll-a, and higher water transparency. Increased nitrogen to phosphorus ratio, which indicated the result of algae decline in fish presence enclosures, was attributed to decline of phosphorus. Phosphorus decline also exerted limitation on reestablish of cyanobacteria bloom. Crustacean zooplankton biomass and Microcystis biomass decreased significantly in fish presence enclosures. Silver carp could be more effective to regulate algae bloom in enclosures with dense cyanobacteria. Therefore, nonclassic manipulation is supposed to be appropriate method to get rid of cyanobacteria blooms in Lake Taihu by stocking 35 to 70 g m-3 silver carp in application.

  9. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  10. Análise comparativa do crescimento de biótipos de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa resistente e suscetível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Growth analysis of Bidens pilosa biotypes resistant and susceptible to ALS inhibitor herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Christoffoleti

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de biótipos de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS é causada pela insensibilidade desta enzima aos herbicidas que inibem sua atividade catalítica. A insensibilidade da enzima é decorrente de uma alteração estrutural, resultado da substituição de certos aminoácidos no sítio de ação do herbicida. Esta alteração na enzima pode eventualmente resultar, além da resistência ao herbicida, em modificações na taxa de crescimento da planta, fato este comprovado para os biótipos resistentes aos herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II, os quais apresentam taxa de crescimento prejudicada pela alteração no sítio de ação sofrida pelo herbicida. Esta possível diminuição na taxa de crescimento da planta resistente tem conseqüências diretas na competitividade do biótipo e, portanto, na sua dinâmica dentro da população, afetando diretamente as estratégias de manejo da resistência. A presente pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de comparar a taxa de crescimento de dois biótipos da planta daninha picão-preto (Bidens pilosa, sendo um resistente e um suscetível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS. Um experimento foi montado em casa de vegetação, em vasos com capacidade de 5 L, sendo uma planta de cada biótipo por vaso, coletando-se a biomassa seca destas plantas e a área foliar semanalmente, iniciando-se 14 dias após o plantio. Os resultados de crescimento da biomassa e área foliar foram ajustados utilizando-se a função de Richards (log-logística. Desta análise, foram derivadas a taxa de crescimento absoluto (TCA, a taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR e a taxa de assimilação fotossintética líquida (TAL. O biótipo suscetível apresentou peso de biomassa seca superior ao resistente nas primeiras fases do crescimento, porém no final do ciclo o biótipo resistente igualou-se em tamanho de área foliar, pois apresentou, principalmente no início do ciclo de crescimento

  11. Experimental transmission of malacosporean parasites from bryozoans to common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and minnow ( Phoxinus phoxinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, D S; El-Matbouli, M

    2010-04-01

    To address whether a fish host is involved in the life cycles of malacosporeans of the genus Buddenbrockia, cohabitation experiments with different bryozoan and fish species were conducted. Samples were analysed by malacosporean-specific PCR, partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA, and light and electron microscopy. Co-habitation challenges with bryozoans resulted in malacosporean infections detected mainly in the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). Sequences of the minnow parasite and of worm-like Buddenbrockia stages in Plumatella repens were identical and showed 99.5% similarity to Buddenbrockia plumatellae and 96.3% similarity to the sequence obtained from carp. One sample, comprising 4-5 zooids of statoblast-raised bryozoans cohabitated with infected carp was PCR-positive, but no overt infection could be observed in the remaining colony. Light and electron-microscopy of kidney samples of infected minnows revealed single cells within kidney tubules, whereas in carp, sporogonic stages were found in kidney tubules. Phylogenetic analysis of the Buddenbrockia spp. known to date placed the carp-infecting species at the base of the B. plumatellae clade, but low posterior probability makes this node questionable. The present study showed that Buddenbrockia spp. were able to infect cyprinid fish, showing stages in kidney-tubules strikingly similar to those of T. bryosalmonae.

  12. A review of introduction of common carp Cyprinus carpio in Pakistan: origin, purpose, impact and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammd Naeem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Common carp Cyprinus carpio was introduced from Thailand to Pakistan in 1964 for the purpose of aquaculture. Due to its high tolerance to temperature and turbidity, and prolific pond breeding habit, it was established promptly in most of natural inland waters, including rivers, lakes, streams, canals, wetlands and even village ponds of the country. Although common carp became one of the most abundant cyprinid species in inland waters and important food fish in Pakistan, its impact is not well documented. Fish farming of common carp has been carried out in Pakistan since 1970; initially it grew slowly but now it is playing an important role in the economy of the country by employing more than 400,000 people. Nowadays, farming of freshwater carps is present throughout Pakistan, especially in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. There is a huge potential in common carp farming and it could help increase the livelihood of people and gross domestic product (GDP of the country as well. Still, there is a need to improve the fish farming practice to meet the world-class demands that could only be possible by the keen interest of policy makers and stake holders with better management.

  13. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and its evolutionary future as a biological control agent for carp in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kenneth A; Sunarto, Agus; Holmes, Edward C

    2016-12-08

    Biological invasions are a major threat to global biodiversity. Australia has experienced many invasive species, with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) a prominent example. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) has been proposed as a biological control (biocontrol) agent for invasive carp in Australia. Safety and efficacy are critical factors in assessing the suitability of biocontrol agents, and extensive host-specificity testing suggests that CyHV-3 is safe. Efficacy depends on the relationship between virus transmissibility and virulence. Based on observations from natural outbreaks, as well as the biology of virus-host interactions, we hypothesize that (i) close contact between carp provides the most efficient transmission of virus, (ii) transmission occurs at regular aggregations of carp that favour recrudescence of latent virus, and (iii) the initially high virulence of CyHV-3 will decline following its release in Australia. We also suggest that the evolution of carp resistance to CyHV-3 will likely necessitate the future release of progressively more virulent strains of CyHV-3, and/or an additional broad-scale measure(s) to complement the effect of the virus. If the release of CyHV-3 does go ahead, longitudinal studies are required to track the evolution of a virus-host relationship from its inception, and particularly the complex interplay between transmission, virulence and host resistance.

  14. Identification of housekeeping genes suitable for gene expression analysis in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong-kai; Yu, Ju-hua; Xu, Pao; Li, Jian-lin; Li, Hong-xia; Ren, Hong-tao

    2012-10-01

    Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. jian) is an important economic fish species cultured in China. In this report, we performed a systematic analysis to identify an appropriate housekeeping (HK) gene for the study of gene expression in Jian carp. For this purpose, partial DNA sequences of four potential candidate genes (elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1α), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH), beta-actin (ACTB), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were isolated, and their expression levels were studied using RNA extracted from nine tissues (forebrain, hypothalamus, liver, fore-intestine, hind-intestine, ovary, muscle, heart, kidney) in juvenile and adult Jian carp. Gene expression levels were quantified by quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and expression stability was evaluated by comparing the coefficients of variation (CV) of the Ct values. The results showed that EF-1α was the most suitable HK gene in all tissues of juvenile and adult Jian carp. However, at distinct juvenile and adult developmental stages, there was not a single optimal gene for normalization of expression levels in all tissues. EF-1α was the most stable gene only in forebrain, hypothalamus, liver, heart, and kidney. These results provide data that can be expected to aid gene expression analysis in Jian carp research, but underline the importance of identifying the optimal HK gene for each new experimental paradigm.

  15. CARP-1 / CCAR1: A biphasic regulator of cancer cell growth and apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Rishi, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapy using small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) has been useful in targeting the tumor cells while sparing the normal cells. Despite clinical success of many targeted therapies, their off-target effects and development of resistance are emerging as significant and challenging problems. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify targets to devise new means to treat cancers and their drug-resistant phenotypes. CARP-1/CCAR1 (Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1), a peri-nuclear phospho-protein, plays a dynamic role in regulating cell growth and apoptosis by serving as a co-activator of steroid/thyroid nuclear receptors, β-catenin, Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase, and tumor suppressor p53. CARP-1/CCAR1 also regulates chemotherapy-dependent apoptosis. CARP-1/CCAR1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel SMIs of CARP-1/CCAR1 interaction with APC/C. CFMs promote apoptosis in a manner independent of p53. CFMs are potent inhibitors of a variety of cancer cells including the drug (Adriamycin or Tamoxifen)-resistant breast cancer cells but not the immortalized breast epithelial cells, while a nano-lipid formulation of the lead compound CFM-4 improves its bioavailability and efficacy in vivo when administered orally. This review focuses on the background and pleiotropic roles of CARP-1/CCAR1 as well as its apoptosis signaling mechanisms in response to chemotherapy in cancer cells. PMID:25894788

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of rock carp Procypris rabaudi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) and phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong; Jiang, Wanxiang; Song, Zhaobin

    2009-05-01

    Rock carp, Procypris rabaudi (Tchang), is an endemic fish species in China. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of it by high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction with conserved primers and primer walking sequencing method. The complete mitochondrial genome of rock carp is 16595 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region, with an identical order to that of most other vertebrates. The origin of L-strand replication (OL) in rock carp mitochondrion is located in a cluster of five tRNA genes (WANCY region) with 35 nucleotides in length. The control region is located between the tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe genes and is 943 bp in length. Three conserved sequence blocks (CSB), an extended termination associated sequence (ETAS), an AT-repeat microsatellite sequence and a putative promoter sequence for H-strand transcription (HSP) were identified within this region. The microsatellite sequence has a very low variation, with only one repeat alteration in 50 checked individuals (from 12 to 13 repeats). The phylogenetic analysis for rock carp was performed with Bayesian and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods based on the concatenated nucleotide sequence of 12 protein-coding genes on the heavy strand. The result suggested that traditional taxonomic barbines possibly originated more early than cyprininaes; rock carp was placed at the position between barbines and cyprininaes, while has a closer relationship with cyprininaes than barbines.

  17. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  18. Intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and its origin as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan-Gong; Tian, Jing-Yun; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Li, Wen-Xiang; Zou, Hong; Yang, Bao-Juan; Wang, Gui-Tang

    2013-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention, as it influences growth, feed conversion, epithelial development, immunity as well as the intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms in the intestinal tract. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to explore the bacterial community of the intestine in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), and the origin of these microorganisms. The results disclosed great bacterial diversities in the carp intestines and cultured environments. The gibel carp harbored characteristic intestinal microbiota, where Proteobacteria were predominant, followed by Firmicutes. The analysis on the 10 most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed a majority of Firmicutes in the intestinal content (by decreasing order: Veilonella sp., Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus sp., and Lactobacillus sp.). The second most abundant OTU was Rothia sp. (Actinobacteria). The most likely potential probiotics (Lactobacillus sp., and Bacillus sp.) and opportunists (Aeromonas sp., and Acinetobacter sp.) were not much abundant. Bacterial community comparisons showed that the intestinal community was closely related to that of the sediment, indicating the importance of sediment as source of gut bacteria in gibel carp. However, 37.95 % of the OTUs detected in feed were retrieved in the intestine, suggesting that food may influence markedly the microbiota of gibel carp, and therefore may be exploited for oral administration of probiotics.

  19. Acoustic deterrence of bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) to a broadband sound stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke J. Vetter,; Murchy, Kelsie A.; Cupp, Aaron R.; Amberg, Jon J.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Mensinger, Allen F.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the potential of acoustic deterrents against invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). This study examined the phonotaxic response of the bighead carp (H. nobilis) to pure tones (500-2000 Hz) and playbacks of broadband sound from an underwater recording of a 100 hp outboard motor (0.06-10 kHz) in an outdoor concrete pond (10 × 5 × 1.2 m) at the U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Science Center in La Crosse, WI. The number of consecutive times the fish reacted to sound from alternating locations at each end of the pond was assessed. Bighead carp were relatively indifferent to the pure tones with median consecutive responses ranging from 0 to 2 reactions away from the sound source. However, fish consistently exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) greater negative phonotaxis to the broadband sound (outboard motor recording) with an overall median response of 20 consecutive reactions during the 10 min trials. In over 50% of broadband sound tests, carp were still reacting to the stimulus at the end of the trial, implying that fish were not habituating to the sound. This study suggests that broadband sound may be an effective deterrent to bighead carp and provides a basis for conducting studies with wild fish.

  20. A refined electrofishing technique for collecting Silver Carp: Implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouska, Wesley W.; Glover, David C.; Bouska, Kristen; Garvey, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Detecting nuisance species at low abundance or in newly established areas is critical to developing pest management strategies. Due to their sensitivity to disturbance and erratic jumping behavior, Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix can be difficult to collect with traditional sampling methods. We compared catch per unit effort (CPUE) of all species from a Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) electrofishing protocol to an experimental electrofishing technique designed to minimize Silver Carp evasion through tactical boat maneuvering and selective application of power. Differences in CPUE between electrofishing methods were detected for 2 of 41 species collected across 2 years of sampling at 20 sites along the Illinois River. The mean catch rate of Silver Carp using the experimental technique was 2.2 times the mean catch rate of the LTRM electrofishing technique; the increased capture efficiency at low relative abundance emphasizes the utility of this method for early detection. The experimental electrofishing also collected slightly larger Silver Carp (mean: 510.7 mm TL versus 495.2 mm TL), and nearly four times as many Silver Carp independently jumped into the boat during experimental transects. Novel sampling approaches, such as the experimental electrofishing technique used in this study, should be considered to increase probability of detection for aquatic nuisance species.

  1. Comparative investigation on spindle behavior and MPF activity changes during oocyte maturation between gynogenetic and amphimictic crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGZHONGAN; QUNHUALI; 等

    1999-01-01

    The spindle behavior and MPF activity changes in the progression of oocyte maturation were investigated and compared with cytological observation and kinase assay between gynogenetic silver crucian carp and amphimictic colored crucian carp.MPF activity was measured by using histone H1 as phosphorylation substrate.There were two similar oscillatory MPF kinase activity changes during oocyte maturation in two kinds of fishes with different reproductive modes,but there existed some subtle difference between them.The subtle difference was that the first peak of MPF kinase activity was kept to a longerlasting time in the gynogenetic silver crucian carp than in the amphimictic colored crucian carp.It was suggested that the difference may be related to the spindle behavior changes,such as tripolar spindle formation and spindle rearrangement in the gynogenetic crucian carp.

  2. Feeding behavior of black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (Pisces: Cyprinidae) on fry of other fish species and trematode transmitting snail species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen Manh; The, Dang Tat; Stauffer, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    Fish raised in aquaculture ponds may get infected with fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) during the nursing stage. Freshwater snails serve as intermediate hosts for FZT and we wanted to explore the possibility of controlling snails by stocking nursery ponds with a few juvenile specimens...... offered snails as food; the odds of survival of fry from tanks with medium sized and large black carp was 5.6% and 39.9%, respectively of that of fry in tanks with small sized black carp. Since the large black carp also consumed fewer snails than medium sized fish, we believe that large specimens were...... stressed in the experimental aquaria. Under semi-field conditions, presence of the black carp had no effect on survival of fry of Oreochromis niloticus and C. carpio both in the absence and presence of snails as alternative food. The black carp consumed most snails offered with the exception of some...

  3. Antioxidant activities of essential oil of Bidens pilosa (Linn. Var. Radita) used for the preservation of food qualities in North Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudoum, Augustin; Abdou, Armand B; Ngamo, Léonard Simon T; Ngassoum, Martin Benoît; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the total antioxidant capacity of the essential oil (EO) of leaves of Bidens pilosa (Linn. Var. Radita) used as protectant of stored grains in Northern Cameroon. EO was characterized by GC-FID, antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by combining: evaluation of radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (RP) and co-oxidation of β-carotene methods. Tests were carried out on crude and stored EO kept for two weeks at 31.48 ± 2.88°C and 58.56 ± 6.78% relative humidity. These conditions are the same as those of grain storage. GC analyses enabled the identification of 27 compounds, representing around 97.57% of the total oil contents. The major constituents of the EO were α-pinene (14.7%), ε-caryophyllene (13.5), and β-ocimene (12.8%). The AA of the crude and stored EO are proportional to the concentrations and time of exposition. Exposed at the day light, this EO inhibit 77.4-18.69% for the DPPH system, 59.55-19.14% for RP method and 91.88-21.8% for β-carotene-linoleate model system, respectively, from crude and 15 days storage EO at 20 mg L(-1). For the EC50 values, β-carotene method is excellent and in the decreasing order of DPPH method, PR with 2.52 mg L(-1), 2.77 mg L(-1) and 4.13 mg L(-1), respectively, for the crude oil. The ET50 were 1.59 days for the RP method and 2.88 days DPPH system and β-carotene-linoleate model system at 20 mg L(-1). These results showed that the EO of B. pilosa leaves exhibits AA that might be an added value for this EO preventing stored products from pest attacks.

  4. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-09-01

    Biological invasions represent a serious threat for aquaculture because many of introduced parasites may negatively affect the health state of feral and cultured fish. In the present account, the invasive tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), which was originally described from North America and has been introduced to Europe including the British Isles with its specific host, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), is reported from Africa for the first time. Its recent introduction to South Africa, where it was found in four localities where common carp is cultured, is another evidence of insufficient prophylactic measures and inadequate veterinary control during transfers of cultured fish, especially common carp, between continents. Together with the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, A. huronensis is another fish tapeworm with ability to spread throughout the globe as a result of man-made introductions of its fish hosts.

  5. Property Prediction of Dry Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio During Storage by Kinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is an important food resource in European and Asian countries. Nowadays, common carp after drying process is appreciated by the transportation agency and food industry because of its low transportation cost. Changes of acid value (AV, total bacterial count (TBC, and peroxide value (PV were reported in this study. We found that the changes of AV, TBC and PV of dry common carp fitted the first order reaction model and the reaction energies of changes of AV, TBC, and PV during storage were 4.56 kJ/mol, 2.21 kJ/mol, and 2.33 kJ/mol, respectively. This study will provide theoretical knowledge to food factories relating with dry fish storage and transportation.

  6. REARING EFFICIENCY AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR CARP SAPLING (CYPRINUS CARPIO LINNE, 1758 FROM RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELPIDA PALTENEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. of 8 months older, rearing in recirculation system during 107 days period - he has been analysed from the point of view of feeding efficiency and nutritional quality of carp carcass. The stocking of breeding ponds has been made at 12.17 kg/m3 density, the initial average weight of fishes has been 82.2 g/ex., biochemical composition of carp carcass has been following: protein 14.35%, fat 1.10%, ash 1.67% and moisture 82.22%. Weekly, there has been analysed biochemical composition of meat and protein efficiency coefficient (PER, protein using efficiency (PUE, retained protein (RP. The nutritional quality of fish meat and appreciation coefficients of fish rearing they indicate a good capitalization of delivered food.

  7. Accumulation of Mercury in The Tissues of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) From Common Carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tomas; Blahova, Jana; Doubkova, Veronika; Farkova, Dagmar; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to assess mercury content in the great cormorant in the Třeboň region pond systems (Czech Republic) in terms of its potential to accumulate mercury from common carp. Selected tissues samples were taken from 51 cormorants and 30 common carp. In the food chain the cormorant was found to have the potential to accumulate mercury, where the muscle total mercury was roughly 35 times higher compared to the total mercury content in the carp muscle as its food. A statistically significantly higher overall mercury content (p mercury content of the cormorant was within the range 64.3%-87.3%. The results can help us to gain a better understanding of how mercury is distributed and accumulated in the aquatic food chain.

  8. Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2013-06-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV.

  9. Improving efficiency and reliability of environmental DNA analysis for silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Monroe, Emy; Lance, Richard; Baerwaldt, Kelly; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource agencies have established surveillance programs which use environmental DNA (eDNA) for the early detection of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix before they establish populations within the Great Lakes. This molecular monitoring technique must be highly accurate and precise for confident interpretation and also efficient, both in detection threshold and cost. Therefore, we compared two DNA extraction techniques and compared a new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay with the conventional PCR (cPCR) assay used by monitoring programs. Both the qPCR and cPCR assays were able to amplify the DNA of silver carp present in environmental samples taken from locations where mixed populations of bigheaded carps existed. However, the qPCR assay had substantially fewer PCR positive samples which were subsequently determined not to contain DNA of bigheaded carps than the cPCR assay. Additionally, the qPCR assay was able to amplify the DNA of bigheaded carps even in the presence of inhibitors that blocked amplification with cPCR. Also, the selection of an appropriate DNA extraction method can significantly alter the efficiency of eDNA surveillance programs by lowering detection limits and by decreasing costs associated with sample processing. The results reported herein are presently being incorporated into eDNA surveillance programs to decrease the costs, increase DNA yield and increase the confidence that assays are amplifying the target DNA. These results are critical to enhancing our ability to accurately and confidently interpret the results reported from monitoring programs using eDNA for early detection of invasive species.

  10. Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

    2015-02-01

    Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available.

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC ATTRIBUTES OF DIFFERENT CARP KOI FORMS (CYPRINUS CARPIO KOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Lysak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Japanese carp or carp koi ( Cyprinus carpio koi – is a freshwater, partially saltwater fish which is a decorative subspecies of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. namely a primary black form of carp koi that has its domestic name Magoi. Constant complex activity of abiotic and biotic factors together with husbandry and selectional activity of human caused significant changes in water ecosystems that impacted on the biology of carp koi subspecies (Cyprinus carpio koi and as a result caused the species-specific morphological adaptations in fish.  Collection of materials was conducted from ornamental water ponds at the territory of Nemishaievo state agrotechnical college in the spring 2012. Author selected 3000 units of this year fish offsprings of carp koi with different colors. All the studied fish was divided into groups according to external indexes ( among them color in the following way: group I (sample – grey and white form (Hikarimuji which is the most similar to Magoi, group II – black and white form (Kumonryu, group III – black and yellow form ( Utsurimono, group IV – red and white form (Kohaku. For further researches scientists selected 25 exemplars of carp koi for each group. It is necessary to have a starting point (sample for statistical research of differences in carp koi forms. Sample or optimal form was determined by distances of deviations of scalar sums of form vectors of carp koi from nyvkivskyi carp. Morphometric study of carp koi was conducted according to 30 plastic attributes, in accordance with method proposed by I. F. Pravdin. In contrast with generally accepted relative magnitudes of indexes of plastic attributes of carp koi body were calculated from zoological (not standard length of the body of the fish that is connected with using koi as an object of decorative aquaculture. Statistic processing was conducted with using of average arithmetical discrepancy, root-mean-square error and variability index. Actuality of

  12. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp,Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. ALAM; M. A. KHAN; M. A. HUSSAIN; D. MOUMITA; A. G. MAZLAN; K. D. SIMON

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp,Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh.However,its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality.The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H.molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City,Bangladesh.Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus,Dactylogyrus vastator,Ichthyophthirius multifilis,Gyrodactylus elegans,Lernaea sp.,Apiosoma sp.,Myxobolus rohitae,Camallanus ophiocephali,and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill,skin,stomach,and intestine of host fish.The highest level of infection was observed for host skin,while lower levels were observed for host gill,stomach,and intestine.The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H.molitrix varied with the season.In particular,the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February),when fish are most susceptible to parasites.The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H.molitrix.

  13. Rosie Carpe and the Virgin Mary: Modelling Modern Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Eaton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie NDiaye’s 2001 novel, Rosie Carpe, incorporates, as one of its several instances of parenting failure, the narrative of the decline of a single mother from adequacy to abuse. This narrative, which is the focus of this article, might be said to put flesh on the bones of Julia Kristeva’s deconstruction of the Virgin Mary in her 1980s essay ‘Stabat Mater’. Kristeva saw the Marian model as out of date but she interrogated its enduring power and its continuing influence on our cultural perceptions of maternity. NDiaye’s eponymous Rosie realises she is pregnant but has no idea how this has come about. Rosie is not represented as a woman who has a religious faith but she decides to accept her child as a holy miracle. This article analyses how the ‘mythology’ of the Virgin Mary, and other biblical intertext, is woven into the narrative of Rosie’s experience of motherhood, so as to counterpoint and illuminate Rosie’s bleak and raw inner experience of maternity, an experience which, while confirming that Rosie is not, and never could have been, a modern Virgin Mary nevertheless refreshes the human stories at the root of the Christian narrative.

  14. Effect of Nitrobenzene on the Embryo Development of Bighead and Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jingjie; GUAN Qingzhi; CHEN Weixing; ZHU Lei; FAN Zhaoting

    2008-01-01

    The effect of various concentrations of nitrobenzene on the mortality and abnormality rate of bighead and silver carp embryos were studied to provide reference for the evaluation of the effect of nitrobenzene to aquatic organisms and aquatic environment.The results showed that the development of bighead and silver carp embryos was delayed, the mortality and abnormality rates were raised when the embryos were treated with ≥0.010 mg·L-1 nitrobenzene,and with ≥0.085 mg·L-1 nitrobenzene,the mortality rates showed 100%.

  15. The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    González-Segura, Lilian; Cárdenas-Reygadas, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH) in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH) and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the com...

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC ATTRIBUTES OF DIFFERENT CARP KOI FORMS (CYPRINUS CARPIO KOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysak O. O.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Japanese carp or carp koi ( Cyprinus carpio koi – is a freshwater, partially saltwater fish which is a decorative subspecies of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. namely a primary black form of carp koi that has its domestic name Magoi. Constant complex activity of abiotic and biotic factors together with husbandry and selectional activity of human caused significant changes in water ecosystems that impacted on the biology of carp koi subspecies (Cyprinus carpio koi and as a result caused the species-specific morphological adaptations in fish. Collection of materials was conducted from ornamental water ponds at the territory of Nemishaievo state agrotechnical college in the spring 2012. Author selected 3000 units of this year fish offsprings of carp koi with different colors. All the studied fish was divided into groups according to external indexes ( among them color in the following way: group I (sample – grey and white form (Hikarimuji which is the most similar to Magoi, group II – black and white form (Kumonryu, group III – black and yellow form ( Utsurimono, group IV – red and white form (Kohaku. For further researches scientists selected 25 exemplars of carp koi for each group. It is necessary to have a starting point (sample for statistical research of differences in carp koi forms. Sample or optimal form was determined by distances of deviations of scalar sums of form vectors of carp koi from nyvkivskyi carp. Morphometric study of carp koi was conducted according to 30 plastic attributes, in accordance with method proposed by I. F. Pravdin. In contrast with generally accepted relative magnitudes of indexes of plastic attributes of carp koi body were calculated from zoological (not standard length of the body of the fish that is connected with using koi as an object of decorative aquaculture. Statistic processing was conducted with using of average arithmetical discrepancy, root-mean-square error and variability index. Actuality of

  17. Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur.

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of common carp anterior kidney during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection: Immunoglobulin repertoire and homologue functional divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Matthew J; Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A

    2017-02-02

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infects koi and common carp and causes widespread mortalities. While the virus is a significant concern for aquaculture operations in many countries, in Australia the virus may be a useful biocontrol agent for pest carp. However, carp immune responses to CyHV-3, and the molecular mechanisms underpinning resistance, are not well understood. Here we used RNA-Seq on carp during different phases of CyHV-3 infection to detect the gene expression dynamics of both host and virus simultaneously. During acute CyHV-3 infection, the carp host modified the expression of genes involved in various immune systems and detoxification pathways. Moreover, the activated pathways were skewed toward humoral immune responses, which may have been influenced by the virus itself. Many immune-related genes were duplicated in the carp genome, and often these were expressed differently across the infection phases. Of particular interest were two interleukin-10 homologues that were not expressed synchronously, suggesting neo- or sub-functionalization. The carp immunoglobulin repertoire significantly diversified during active CyHV-3 infection, which was followed by the selection of high-affinity B-cells. This is indicative of a developing adaptive immune response, and is the first attempt to use RNA-Seq to understand this process in fish during a viral infection.

  19. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF CARP REARING DURING WINTER PERIOD IN THE CONDITIONS OF A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. STEFAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of carp culture are highly diversified, ranging from the extensive production in pond or open water with no fertilization or supplemental feeding to highly intensive systems in concrete tanks or cages. Among the different carp species, common carp is the best species reared in intensive monoculture, the others (Chinese and Indian carps being usually cultivated in polyculture (P. Kestemont, 1995. An experiment was conducted in inside recirculation system conditions to identify the technological performances on carp growth and survival at the Fishing and Aquaculture Department, Galati, during winter period (February, 2007 – March, 2007. The 1-year-old carp (Cyprinus carpio 4792g; 4594 g; 4561 g and 4525 g (total weight grew to 7384g; 7017g; 6924g and 7125 g in 44 days in aquarium 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In all aquariums, the fish appeared healthy and no mortality was observed. Feed conversion efficiencies (FCE had similar values among all aquariums, the highest FCE being found in B4 aquarium with 1, 57 value. Water quality parameters were acceptable range for fish culture. Results show that the carp rearing during winter period in the inside recirculation system is a very good economic solution.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of common carp anterior kidney during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection: Immunoglobulin repertoire and homologue functional divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Matthew J.; Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infects koi and common carp and causes widespread mortalities. While the virus is a significant concern for aquaculture operations in many countries, in Australia the virus may be a useful biocontrol agent for pest carp. However, carp immune responses to CyHV-3, and the molecular mechanisms underpinning resistance, are not well understood. Here we used RNA-Seq on carp during different phases of CyHV-3 infection to detect the gene expression dynamics of both host and virus simultaneously. During acute CyHV-3 infection, the carp host modified the expression of genes involved in various immune systems and detoxification pathways. Moreover, the activated pathways were skewed toward humoral immune responses, which may have been influenced by the virus itself. Many immune-related genes were duplicated in the carp genome, and often these were expressed differently across the infection phases. Of particular interest were two interleukin-10 homologues that were not expressed synchronously, suggesting neo- or sub-functionalization. The carp immunoglobulin repertoire significantly diversified during active CyHV-3 infection, which was followed by the selection of high-affinity B-cells. This is indicative of a developing adaptive immune response, and is the first attempt to use RNA-Seq to understand this process in fish during a viral infection. PMID:28148967

  1. Efecto Antagónico in vitro de Actinomicetos Aislados de Purines de Chipaca (Bidens pilosa L. Frente a Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary In vitro Antagonistic Effect of Actinomycetes Isolated from Chipaca (Bidens pilosa L. Purins Against Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudy Astrid Fonseca Ardila

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto inhibidor de los actinomicetos presentes en purines o extractos fermentados de plantas de chipaca (Bidens pilosa L., sobre el crecimiento de Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary, causante del tizón tardío de la papa. Se elaboraron cuatro purines de flores, raíces, hojas-tallos y su mezcla. De estos purines se obtuvieron 25 aislamientos de actinomicetos, cada uno de los cuales se enfrentó con P. infestans en placas de medio de cultivo, utilizando la técnica de anillos de Gauze y estableciendo las concentraciones iniciales de esporas mediante conteos microscópicos en cámara de Neubauer. Los actinomicetos no crecieron en el purin de flores debido, posiblemente, a que en él no se utiliza suelo rizosférico o porque su pH (9 es mayor que el rango normal de crecimiento de estos microorganismos ( pH 6 -; 8. Se evidenció inhibición del crecimiento del oomycete por parte de 8 aislamientos de actinomicetos con porcentajes de inhibición entre 33,3 - 77,8%, provenientes de los purines de raíces, tallos-hojas y mezcla de partes de la planta. La mayor inhibición se obtuvo en los aislamientos AC001, AC010, AC011 y AC025 con conteos de 0,4, 6,0, 3,0, y 3,6 x10(5 esporas mL-1.Purins or liquid fermented extracts of chipaca (Bidens pilosa L. were prepared to establish the inhibitory effect of the actinomycetes found in such biopharmaceutical preparations on the growth of Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary, the causative of potato late blight disease. Four purins made from flowers, roots, leaf-steams and a mixture of them were prepared; 25 actinomycete isolates were obtained from these purins and their ability to resist challenge by P. infestans was ascertained in medium plates using the ring Gauze technique and establishing initial concentrations of spores by microscopic counting in Neubauer chamber. Actinomycetes did not grow in flower purin as rhizosphere soil was not used in its preparation or because this particular pH (9

  2. Avaliação de pontas de jato plano na deposição da calda de pulverização com diferentes combinações de plantas de feijão, Brachiaria plantaginea e Bidens pilosa Evaluation of flat fan nozzles in spray deposition on different combinations of bean blants, Brachiaria plantaginea and Bidens pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.P. Rodrigues-Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a ponta XR na deposição da calda de pulverização com diferentes combinações de plantas de feijão, Brachiaria plantaginea e Bidens pilosa, em dois volumes de aplicação, com e sem a adição de surfatante Silwet. Foi utilizado como traçador o corante Azul Brilhante FDC -1 na concentração de 500 ppm para quantificar a deposição. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de sete combinações de plantas: (feijão, (B. plantaginea, (B. pilosa, (feijão + B. plantaginea, (feijão + B. pilosa, (B. plantaginea + B. pilosa e (feijão + B. plantaginea + B. pilosa. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado. Foram avaliadas as pontas de jato plano XR 110015 VS e XR 11002 VS com volumes de aplicação de 150 e 200 L ha-1, respectivamente, com e sem a presença do Silwet a 0,05% v v-1. Após a aplicação, as plantas foram imediatamente coletadas e, em seguida, lavadas em 100 mL de água destilada, para posterior quantificação do traçador em espectrofotômetro. As pontas XR apresentaram comportamento distinto na deposição das gotas de pulverização nas espécies estudadas; a adição de um surfatante à calda de pulverização aumentou a uniformidade da deposição nos alvos e contribuiu para a redução do volume de aplicação.The objective of this study was to evaluate flat fan nozzle spray deposition on different combinations of the common bean plants, Brachiaria plantaginea and Bidens pilosa, in two volumes of application, with and without the addition of surfactant. Brilliant blue FDC -1 was used as tracer solution at the concentration of 500 ppm to evaluate the deposition. The treatments consisted of 7 combinations of plants: (common bean; (B. plantaginea; (B. pilosa; (common bean + B. plantaginea; (common bean + B. pilosa; (B. plantaginea + B. pilosa and (common bean + B. plantaginea + B. pilosa. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. The flat fan nozzles XR 110015 VS

  3. An acqueous extract of Bidens pilosa L. protects liver from cholestatic disease: experimental study in young rats Um extrato aquoso de Bidens pilosa L. protege o fígado da doença colestática: estudo experimental em ratos jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Izabel Suzigan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test the hepatoprotective effect of water extract from Bidens Pilosa L. (BPE in cholestatic liver disease induced by ligature and resection of the common bile ducts (LRBD in young rats. METHODS: We studied four groups of ten 21 days old (P21 Wistar rats, Group SW: sham operation and water; Group SD: sham operation and BPE (160 mg of fresh leaves/100 g of body weight/day; Group LW: LRBD and water and Group LD: LRBD and BPE daily. Pentobarbital sleeping time (PST and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT were determined after the sacrifice (P70. A Ruwart's score for hepatic fibrosis (RS was given to each animal. Were employed two way ANOVA and the test of Tukey or a non-parametric test for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between LW and LD in the measurements of the PST ((means LW=390; LD=173, AST (means LW=8, LD=5, ALT (medians LW=2; LD=1 e RS (medians LW=2; LD=1. CONCLUSION: BPE could be used in the phytotherapy of the hepatic damage induced by chronic obstructive cholestasis, because protects liver function, decreases the rate of necrosis and liver fibrosis in cholestatic liver disease.OBJETIVO: Testar o efeito hepatoprotetor do extrato aquoso de Bidens pilosa L. (EBP na doença hepática induzida pela ligadura e ressecção do ducto biliar comum (LRDBC em ratos jovens. MÉTODOS: Estudamos ratos Wistar com 21º. dia de vida (P21 divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais, Grupo SA: operação simulada e água; Grupo SD: operação simulada e EBP (160mg de folhas frescas/100g de peso corporal/dia; Grupo LA: LRDBC e água e Grupo LD: LRDBC e EBP diariamente. O tempo de sono por pentobarbital (TSP, aspartato (AST e alanina (ALT aminotransferase foram determinadas após o sacrifício (P70. O Score de Ruwart (SR para fibrose hepática foi atribuído para cada animal. Foi realizada análise de variância com dois fatores e pelo teste de Tukey

  4. Curvas de dose-resposta de biótipos resistente e suscetível de Bidens pilosa L. aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS Rate-response curves of resistant and susceptible Bidens pilosa L. biotypes to ALS-inhibitor herbicides

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    Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas é um fenômeno de ocorrência mundial, sendo caracterizada como uma redução na resposta de uma população a produtos químicos, em sua dose recomendada, como resultado de sua aplicação sucessiva. O número de casos de resistência registrados no Brasil tem aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos, porém poucos estudos científicos têm sido feitos para elucidar este fenômeno. Sendo assim, foram conduzidos experimentos com o objetivo de elaboração de curvas de dose-resposta comparativa entre dois biótipos da planta daninha picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., sendo um resistente (R e outro suscetível (S aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS. Para isso, foram utilizados três herbicidas do grupo químico das sulfoniluréias e um do grupo químico das imidazolinonas. No estádio de três a quatro pares de folhas, as plantas R e S de B. pilosa foram pulverizadas com os herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl, metsulfuron-methyl, nicosulfuron e imazethapyr, em doses correspondentes a múltiplos de 0,0; 0,001; 0,01; 0,1; 1,0; 10; 100 e 1000 vezes a dose recomendada para aplicação de campo. A partir dos resultados da porcentagem de fitotoxicidade foi feito o ajuste das curvas de dose-resposta. As relações entre o C50 do biótipo resistente e o C50 do biótipo suscetível (R/S foram de 40,92; 173,84; 57,47 e 57,16 para os herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl, nicosulfuron, metsulfuron-methyl, e imazethapyr, respectivamente. O biótipo R de B. pilosa apresenta elevado nível de resistência cruzada aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, do grupo químico das sulfoniluréias e imidazolinonas.Weed herbicide resistance is a phenomenon defined as a response reduction of a population to a chemical product sprayed at a recommended rate, as a result of its continuous application. The incidence of herbicide-resistant weeds in Brazil has increased lately, but few scientific studies have been conducted to elucidate the

  5. Manejo químico das plantas daninhas Euphorbia heterophylla e Bidens pilosa em sistema de plantio direto da cultura de soja Chemical management of the weeds Euphorbia heterophylla and Bidens pilosa under no-tillage system of soybean (glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.T. Carvalho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a eficácia agronômica e os efeitos fitotóxicos de herbicidas aplicados em pré-plantio no manejo de Euphorbia heterophylla e Bidens pilosa, em sistema de plantio direto da cultura de soja. O experimento foi desenvolvido na safra 2000/2001, na FEP-UNESP, no município de Selvíria-MS. A variedade de soja utilizada foi a 'Conquista', e o delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, com oito linhas da cultura, totalizando 20 m² cada parcela. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: glyphosate (720 e 960 g ha-1, chlorimuron-ethyl + glyphosate (10 g + 720 e 960 g ha-1, glyphosate + 2,4-D (960 + 868 g ha-1 e testemunhas no mato e no limpo. As aplicações foram realizadas com pulverizador de pressão constante (CO2 de 45 lb pol-2, com barra equipada com quatro bicos do tipo leque Teejet 110.03 XR, espaçados de 0,5 m, e volume de calda de 250 L ha-1. Concluiu-se que os tratamentos testados são eficientes na dessecação de E. heterophylla e B. pilosa e seletivos às plantas de soja. O herbicida chlorimuron-ethyl (10 g ha-1 aplicado juntamente com o glyphosate, no manejo, proporciona ao tratamento um efeito residual significativo para E. heterophylla e B. pilosa, reduzindo a infestação das plantas daninhas durante o ciclo da cultura da soja.The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic efficacy and selectivity of the phytotoxic effects of post-emergent herbicides, applied in pre-planting, in the control of Euphorbia heterophylla and Bidens pilosa under no tillage system of soybean. The experiment was conducted during the growing season of the crop 2000/2001, in FEP-UNESP, in Selvíria-MS, Brazil. The soybean variety used was 'Conquista', and the experimental design was a randomized block, with seven treatments, and four replications, with eight rows, totaling 20 m², for each replication. The treatments were the following: glyphosate (720 and 960

  6. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas: II - Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides e Sonchus asper Leaf anatomical studies in weed species: II - Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides and Sonchus asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de estudar a anatomia das folhas das espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides e Sonchus asper, visando aprofundar o conhecimento sobre as barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas e, assim, fornecer subsídios para a busca de estratégias para superar esses obstáculos. As folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região central mediana, com aproximadamente 1 cm². Foram realizados estudos de estrutura e clarificação e observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. As principais barreiras potenciais foliares à penetração de herbicidas constatadas na planta daninha B. pilosa foram a alta densidade tricomática, a baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial e o alto teor de cera epicuticular, principalmente na face adaxial. Alto teor de cera epicuticular, grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial e baixa densidade estomática nas duas faces foram os obstáculos constatados nas folhas de E. sonchifolia. Já em relação a A. conizoides, a baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial foi o principal obstáculo detectado. S. asper apresentou como principais barreiras foliares à penetração de herbicidas a baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial e a grande espessura da epiderme da face adaxial.This research aimed to study leaf anatomy in the widely common Brazilian weed species Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides and Sonchus asper, to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes upon herbicide penetration, and provide information on how to overcome these obstacles. The completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth nodes were collected from plants

  7. Relationship between gill raker morphology and feeding habits in filter-feeding Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton (Hungary

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    Zoltán Vitál

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp (H. molitrix are freshwater planktivorous fish originated from Eastern Asia, which were introduced all over the world. Previous studies suggested that bighead carp with comb-like gill rakers feeds mainly on zooplankters, while silver carp with sponge-like filtering apparatus filters smaller particles and the majority of its diet is composed of phytoplankton. In Lake Balaton, however, the Asian carp stock is formed by the hybrids of these two species, whose filtering apparatus varies within the whole range from comb-like to spongious structures. Since there is no information on how hybridization affects the feeding efficiency of Asian carps, we analysed the relationship between gill raker morphology and food size-distribution in hybrid Asian carps, in Lake Balaton. Filtering apparatus of each sampled fish (n=26 was characterized by two morphological indexes, assumed to be indicative of feeding efficiency. First, the effective area of the filtering apparatus was measured relative to the respiration organ; the width of the gill raker relative to the width of the gill-filaments was determined at the centre of the gill-arch. Second, density of pores on the outer surface of the spongy gill raker areas was counted, while zero scores were given to comb-like areas. Feeding of fish was determined from the filtrate suspension collected directly from the inner surface of gill rakers. Diet items were identified, counted and classified into three phyto- (> 40 μm, 40−10 μm, 1.3 mm, 1.3−0.4 mm, < 0.4 mm size groups. Contrary to our expectations, no significant relationship was found between the gill raker morphology and phyto- and zooplantonic food size distribution in hybrid Asian carps. Thus, the Asian carp stock, consisting of hybrids with variously mixed phenotypes, consumes similar food, but seasonality has a significant impact on their diet.

  8. A dense genetic linkage map for common carp and its integration with a BAC-based physical map.

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    Lan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. RESULTS: The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. CONCLUSION: We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for

  9. THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF SILVER (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND BIGHEAD (ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS CARPS FROM FISH FARM LIMANSKE

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    Т. Nagorniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Studying the peculiarities of the genetic structure of different age groups of silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Methodology. The methods of vertical polyacrylamide and horizontal starch electrophoresis with our own modifications have been used for the study. Sampling of the biological material and histochemical staining of gel plates were carried out using the generally accepted methods. Statistical analysis of the obtained data were performed in "Biosys-I". Findings. We analyzed the genetic structure of age-1, age-1+ and age-2 of silver and bighead carps with the use of genetic-biochemical markers - Рralb, EST, MDH, МЕ, СА. We demonstrated the peculiarities of allele frequencies and genotypic composition of protein system loci. A high level of heterozygosity in the examined was detected loci for age-1 silver carp – 66.7-88.9% and age-1 bighead carp – 65.4-77.8%. A significantly higher level of the observed average heterozygosity compared to the expected heterozygosity of age-1 as silver carp (Ho = 75.9%, He = 49,6%, and bighead carp (Ho = 73,6%, He = 47,9% was observed. This fact indicated on the necessity for performing a stabilization of their genetic structure. The calculated Wright's F index in different age groups showed a predominance of the observed level of the average heterozygosity over the expected one for 22.7–53% in silver carp and 24.5-53.7% in bighead carp. A stabilization of the genetic structure in age-2 silver carp (Ho = 57.8%; He = 47.1% by the heterogeneity level was observed. Originality. For the first time we analyzed the genetic structure and the level of heterogeneity of the breeding groups of age-1, age-1+, age-2 silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Practical value. The results of the study can be used in selection and breeding works aimed at creating the breeding stocks of silver and

  10. 草鱼出血病%Grass carp bleeding disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱并生

    2011-01-01

    @@ 草鱼Ctenopharyngodon idella是我国重要的淡水鱼类养殖品种,但养殖过程极易发生出血病导致草鱼大量死亡,给草鱼养殖业带来巨大损失。我国在20世纪70年代开始进行病原的研究,1980年发现病毒颗粒并确认为草鱼出血病病原,1991年国际病毒分类委员会将其命名为草鱼呼肠孤病毒(Grass carp reovirus,GCRV)。一直以来除呼肠孤病毒感染草鱼引起出血病外,未见有病毒和细菌混合感染的报道。本刊2009年8期介绍了邓国成、叶星等发表的文章“草鱼出血病混合感染的嗜水气单胞菌的分离、鉴定与理化特性”[1]。作者采集广东、福建等省部分地区的病鱼进行病原分析,发现所检病鱼样本存在病毒和细菌合并感染的情况,细菌性病原为嗜水气单胞菌Aeromonas hydrophila。研究结果为草鱼病害的有效防治提供了新的思路与科学依据。

  11. Electro-mechanical noise in atrial muscle fibres of the carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akselrod, S; Richter, J; Landau, E M; Lass, Y

    1977-08-15

    Steady membrane voltage fluctuations have been observed in atrial muscle fibres of the carp. These voltage fluctuations produce minute mechanical escillations, as revealed by an interference contrast microscope. The steady voltage fluctuations may be related to abnormal automaticity in the heart.

  12. Characterization of macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes from the pronephros of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Groeneveld, A.; Rens, van B.T.T.M.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    To analyse the functional activity of different leucocyte types, carp pronephros cells were separated on Percoll density gradients and by use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Cell populations were characterised by light and electron microscopy and by flow cytometry. Fractions enriched in macr

  13. Differential transcription of multiple forms of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onara, Dalia F; Forlenza, Maria; Gonzalez, Santiago F; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Pilarczyk, Andrzej; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and beta chain of which the first includes the bioactive regions. Previously, three a2M alpha chain sequences were reported for East-Asian common carp. We studied a2M alpha chain variability in European common carp and report the cloning of a fourth a2M alpha chain with distinct sequence diversity in the bait region. The role of a2M in the immune response to parasites was studied in the liver of carp infected with Trypanoplasma borreli or with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Quantitative gene transcription analysis showed a differential regulation of the four isoforms, most clearly seen in infections with I. multifiliis. A2M3 was the only a2M isoform with a highly upregulated transcription during infection, suggesting that this particular isoform is of foremost biological importance.

  14. Differential transcription of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onara, D.F.; Forlenza, M.; Gonzalez, S.F.; Rakus, K.L.; Pilarczyk, A.; Irnazarow, I.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and

  15. Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

  16. ENTRAINMENT OF THE BREATHING RHYTHM OF THE CARP BY IMPOSED OSCILLATION OF THE GILL ARCHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGRAAF, PJF; ROBERTS, BL

    1991-01-01

    Artificial oscillation imposed onto the gill arches could modify the respiratory rhythm in the carp Cyprinus carpio. The degree of modification depended upon the frequency and amplitude of the applied movement. Oscillation at frequencies close to the spontaneous respiratory rhythm and at amplitudes

  17. Clones of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. New perspectives in fish research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, J.

    1990-01-01

    The absence of well defined inbred lines is an important problem associated with scientific research on fish. Inbred lines can be produced by conventional full-sib mating, but at least 10-15 generations are needed to produce homozygous inbred lines. Using common carp, which reach maturity at 1.5 yea

  18. Asian Carp Survivability Experiments and Water Transport Surveys in the Illinois River, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    ECORP 3914 Murphy Canyon Rd, Ste A232 San Diego, CA 92123 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) 11. Contract or Grant No. Contract HSCG32-10-D-R00021... sport fishes. Asian Carp Survivability Experiments and Water Transport Surveys in the Illinois River, Volume I 2 UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC

  19. THERMAL AND OXYGEN CONDITIONS IN CARP PONDS DURING THE SUMMER PERIOD

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    Magdalena Wiśnios

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The work presents changes of oxygen indices in carp ponds during the summer season. The basis of the research were regular water tests conducted in two ponds: Mydlniki II intended for carp farming in the second year of fish production cycle and Bocian used for carp farming in the third (final year of breeding. The temperature of pond water in July and August was optimal for development and farming of cyprinid fish and ranged from 16.6 to 30.5 °C. The lowest value of oxygen dissolved in water (6.4 mg·dm-3 was registered in Mydlniki II pond and was higher than the oxygen optimum for carp (5 mg·dm-3. Oxygen saturation in water of fish ponds exceeded the optimum upper limit value (168% on a few dates, however, it posed no lethal threat for fish. In August in Bocian pond oxygen saturation fell within the range of optimal values, creating better conditions for fish development. In the secondary pond (Mydlniki II it was found that oxygen saturation in water on 12 dates was lower than the low optimal value (96%.

  20. Insulin alone can lead to a withdrawal of meiotic arrest in the carp oocyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Dasgupta; D Basu; L Ravi Kumar; S Bhattacharya

    2001-09-01

    Meiotic arrest of oocyte in an Indian carp, Labeo rohita Ham. has been found for the first time to be withdrawn by insulin only. Addition of insulin to oocytes in vitro caused germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), one of the first visual markers to determine initiation of the final maturational process. Under the influence of insulin the germinal vesicle (GV) of the oocyte migrated towards the animal pole, reached the micropyle and then dissolved (GVBD). By using different concentrations of insulin i.e., 0.063, 0.63, 6.3 and 12.6 M, optimum amount required was found to be 6.3 M. Induction of GVBD by insulin could be blocked by cycloheximide (Chx), a translation inhibitor, while actinomycin D (AcD) had no effect suggesting non-involvement of transcriptional activity in this process. Addition of the maturation-inducing steroid 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) stimulated ( < 0.01) GVBD of carp oocytes and its combination with insulin showed an additive effect. Gonadotropin (GtH) caused GVBD but its effect was greatly augmented by insulin. Our results demonstrate that not only can insulin alone induce GVBD in carp oocytes, but it also augments the stimulatory effect of DHP or IGF-I or GtH on GVBD. This information will be important in hormonal manipulation during induced breeding of carp.

  1. Expression of major histocompatibility complex genes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, P.N.S.

    1996-01-01

    The common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) has been the experimental animal of choice because many features of the immune system of this Cyprinid fish have been well characterized. The immune system consists of an integrated set of organs containing cells such as Ig + 

  2. Storage of unfertilized eggs of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, in artificial media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Safarzadenia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two separate experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of artificial storage media, temperature and holding duration on the percentage of eyed embryos, hatching and malformed larvae of grass carp eggs, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Grass carp ova, outside the ovary cavity, were stored in GCACF (Grass Carp Artificial Coelomic Fluid and Dettlaff extender at 4°C and 20°C for 30, 60, 120 and 180 min. GCACF medium was made base on composition of grass carp coelomic fluid. For this work and designing the GCACF medium, ova were collected from ten females and they were filtered and coelomic fluid was separated for chemical composition analysis. This study was done with 16 treatments and one control group in three replicates. The results shown that storage duration and artificial media had significant effects on eyed embryos rate and hatching percentage (P0.05. Also, temperature had significant effects on the percentage of eyed embryos and hatching (P0.05. Eyed embryo and hatching rates decreased with increasing storage duration. Highest eyed embryo and hatching rate between treatments were observed in GCACF, 30 min storage and 4°C and lowest of them were observed in Dettlaff extender at 20°C and 180 min storage.

  3. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  4. Molecular cloning and polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex class I genes from grass carp (Ctenophayngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Chun; XU Guangxian; LIN Changyou; HU Tuanjun; YAN Ruoqian; George F GAO

    2004-01-01

    In order to clarify the molecular sequences,allelic polymorphism and the tertiary structure of grass carp (Ctenophayngodon idellus) MHC class I,and to further study their relationship with disease resistances,grass carp MHC class I gene (Ctid-MHC I) was cloned from a cDNA library and the allelic polymorphism in the population was investigated.The results showed that most of the variations exist in the peptide-binding domain (PBD) and high polymorphism was identified in the Ctid-MHC I allelic genes from 12 individuals.Based on the genetic distance,Ctid-MHC class I can be classified into 6 types (from Ctid-MHC I-UA to Ctid-MHC I-UF) which were subdivided into 9 lineages (from A to I).Comparison of the Ctid-MHC I among animals and humans showed that the key amino acids of the peptide binding sites are conserved.Analysis of the tertiary structure of the PBD between Grass carp and human crystallographic data of HLA-A2,the variation with insertion or deletion was found in eight regions (A~H).The phylogenetic tree of MHC class I indicates the evolution of MHC class I among grass carp,fish,amphibian,birds,higher vertebrates and humans.

  5. Respiratory Neuron Activity in the Mesencephalon, Diencephalon and Cerebellum of the Carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, C.M.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Jüch, P.J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The functional properties, localization and connections of neurons with a respiratory-rhythmic firing pattern in the mesencephalon, diencephalon and cerebellum of the carp were studied. Some neurons acquire respiratory rhythm only as a side effect of respiration via sensory stimulation by movements

  6. Hepatic Histopathological Characteristics and Antioxidant Response of Phytoplanktivorous Silver Carp Intraperitoneally Injected with Extracted Microcystins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI; PING XIE

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the hispathological characteristics and antioxidant responses in liver of silver carp after intraperitoneal administration of microcystins (MCs) for further understanding hepatic intoxication and antioxidation mechanism in fish. Methods Phytoplanktivorous silver carp was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracted hepatotoxic microcystins (mainly MC-RR and-LR) at a dose of 1000μg MC-LReq./kg body weight, and liver histopathological changes and antioxidant responses were studied at 1, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively, after injection. Results The damage to liver structure and the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ghitathione peroxide (GPX) were increased in a time-dependent manner. Conclusion In terms of clinical and histological signs of intoxication and LD50 (i.p.) dose of MC-LR, silver carp appears rather resistant to MCs exposure than other fishes. Also, the significantly increased SOD activity in the liver of silver carp suggests a higher degree of response to MCs exposure than CAT and GPX.

  7. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  8. Response to Stress in 17 alpha-hydroxylase Deficient Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nematollahi, M.A.; Pelt, van H.; Komen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the stress response during 3 hours net confinement stress and recovery period of 22 hours in normal (STD) and in 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficient common carp (E5). Fish were raised for 6 months and sampled at T-0 (control, unstressed), 5 minutes, 20 minutes, 1 hour

  9. Stress and innate immunity in carp: corticosteroid receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, H.H.; Nabuurs, S.B.; Bury, N.R.; Sturm, A.; Flik, G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is deeply involved in immune regulation in all vertebrates. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) express four corticoid receptors that may modulate immune responses: three glucocorticoid receptors (GR); GR1, with two splice variants (GR1a and GR1b), GR2 and a single mineraloc

  10. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, H.B.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, C.C.A.W. van; Taverne-Thiele, A.J.; Rombout, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  11. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Ribeiro, A.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, van C.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  12. Seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of common carp in Clear Lake, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penne, C.R.; Pierce, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and subadult common carp in Clear Lake during 2005-2006 in an effort to guide future control strategies. Over a 22-month period, we recorded 1,951 locations of 54 adults and 60 subadults implanted with radio transmitters. Adults demonstrated a clear tendency to aggregate in an offshore area during the late fall and winter and in shallow, vegetated areas before and during spring spawning. Late-fall and winter aggregations were estimated to include a larger percentage of the tracked adults than spring aggregations. Subadults aggregated in shallow, vegetated areas during the spring and early summer. Our study, when considered in combination with previous research, suggests repeatable patterns of distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection that should facilitate common carp reduction programs in Clear Lake and similar systems. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  13. Afferent and Efferent Connections of the Optic Tectum in the Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The afferent and efferent connections of the tectum opticum in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied with the HRP method. Following iontophoretic peroxidase injections in several parts of the rectum anterograde transport of the enzyme revealed tectal projections to the lateral geniculate nucleu

  14. Isolation,Identification and Purification of Allergens in Bidens Alba Pollen%白花鬼针草花粉过敏原的分离鉴定与纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 肖小军; 柴文戍; 何韶衡; 杨平常; 刘志刚

    2014-01-01

    目的:提取和分离纯化白花鬼针草花粉主要过敏原,并鉴定主要过敏原的致敏性。方法提取白花鬼针草花粉蛋白粗提液,十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)分离粗提液蛋白组分并测定其分子质量,经离子交换层析法分离纯化几类主要的蛋白,Western blotting分别检测其与花粉过敏患者血清 IgE结合情况及10位正常人阴性混合血清结合情况,对比鉴定每种主要蛋白质致敏原的致敏性。结果 SDS-PAGE 结果示:在12.5~120 ku之间广泛分布了20余条蛋白条带,其中主带7条,分子质量在35~70 ku和10~15 ku的区带蛋白含量最为丰富,余下的范围内还有约10余条次带。Westen-blotting检测示:白花鬼针草花粉变应原的致敏性强,与花粉过敏患者血清特异性 IgE结合大。离子交换层析出6类主要变应原蛋白,其分子质量分别为70、65、54、49、39及33 ku;阴性对照组 Westen-blotting在70 ku处有弱显色。结论白花鬼针草花粉的主要过敏原为70、65、54、49、39及33 ku;70 ku变应原致敏性最强。%Objective To isolate and purify the allergens from Bidens alba pollen,and to identi-fy the allergenicity of maj or allergens.Methods Pollen extracts from Bidens alba were prepared and analyzed by SDS-PAGE.The antigens were purified by ion-exchange chromatography.The binding of allergens to serum IgE was detected and the allergenicity of maj or allergens was identi-fied in patients with pollen allergy and 1 0 normal controls.Results SDS-PAGE analysis showed more than 20 protein bands at 12.5-120 ku,including 7 major bands.The 35-70 ku and 10-15 ku proteins were the most abundant proteins.Western blotting showed a strong allergenicity of Bi-dens alba pollen allergens with a extraordinary binding to serum IgE in patients with pollen aller-gy.Ion-exchange chromatography indicated that the 70,65,54,49,39 and 33 kDu proteins were the major

  15. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Garcia, Marcelo H

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  16. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Garcia

    Full Text Available Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this

  17. Development and use of genetically uniform strains of common carp in experimental animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, A B; Sukkel, M; Gort, G; Komen, J; Richter, C J

    1998-10-01

    Fish are widely used in numerous fields of basic and applied research. Currently, they are the third laboratory animal group in numbers, and will become increasingly important. Common carp is a major species in both aquaculture and research. Inbred strains of carp by gynogenetic (only female inheritance) and androgenetic (only male inheritance) reproduction techniques were developed at our university. With these methods, homozygous animals are produced in one generation and we present the production of homozygous inbred and F1 hybrid strains of common carp. As in mammalian research, using genetically well defined fish is a methodological necessity since in outbred stocks: (1) repeatability between experiments is low, (2) high levels of inbreeding may have accumulated and (3) high intrastrain variability might obscure treatment effects. Within inbred strains, the variation is reduced and as a result, less animals (compared to outbreds) are necessary to obtain statistically significant results. We illustrate this with experimental data from an F1 hybrid and partly outbred strain of common carp, both subjected to an antibiotic treatment resulting in reduced gonadal growth. Results obtained from a single inbred strain should be generalized with the use of a panel of inbred strains. We show that optimal allocation of animals between and within inbred strains depends on the ratio (variation between strains): (variation within strains). When selecting a panel of inbred strains, attention has to be paid to genetic relations between strains to avoid testing within a limited genetic range. It should be considered that in inbred strains, (genic) dominance and interaction effects are absent, due to the absence of heterozygous genotypes. In general, variation within inbred strains will be reduced for traits with a high degree of genetic determination. However, in inbred strains of carp produced by gynogenesis or androgenesis, the chromosome manipulation treatment induces

  18. The effects of phosphate supply on growth of plants from the Brasilian Cerrado: experiments with seedlings of the annual weed, Bidens gardneri Baker (Compositeae) and the tree, Qualea grandiflora (Mart.) (Vochysiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippe, G M; Dale, J E

    1990-01-01

    Plants of the cerrado tree species Qualea grandiflora and the annual herb Bidens gardneri were grown from seed in controlled environment rooms at 30/20° C and 12 hour photoperiod. Seedlings were grown in pots or small tubes containing sand and provided with various amounts of mineral solutions based on the formulation of Hoagland and Arnon but with the phosphate content modified in some cases. In a long-term experiment lasting 213 days, plants supplied with full strength Hoagland's solution all died but plants of Qualea given 1/10 strength solution survived, although they grew very slowly. Low relative growth rates (0.008-0.036 d(-1)) were also a feature of other experiments with Qualea and calculated rates of net assimilation rate gave values of 3-7 mg CO2 dm(-2) h(-1). Expansion of the photosynthetic surface proceeded slowly and the cotyledons were the main site of photosynthesis for more than 40 days. The low rates of growth occurred despite significant uptake of phosphorus by young plants and in shortterm experiments growth was independent of the amount of phosphate supplied and accumulated. In contrast, the values of R found for plants of Bidens reached 0.24 d(-1). Growth of young plants was dependent on the external supply of phosphorus, being reduced when this was low and also when it was very high. Growth of the photosynthetic surface was also much more rapid than for Qualea and also varied with supply of phosphorus. The results are discussed in the context of the occurrence of these species in the Cerrado.

  19. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of melanocortin-4 receptor in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Yang, Z; Zhang, Y-P; He, S; Liang, X-F; Tao, Y-X

    2017-04-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a pivotal role in the mediation of leptin action on food intake and energy expenditure in mammals. The MC4R has also been identified in several teleosts, and its importance in the regulation of fish energy homeostasis is emerging. We herein reported on the molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of MC4R in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an economically and ecologically important fish. We showed that grass carp MC4R (ciMC4R) consisted of a 981 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 326 amino acids, highly homologous (>95%) to several teleost MC4Rs. Phylogenetic and synteny analysis further indicated ciMC4R was closely related to piscine MC4Rs. Using reverse transcription PCR, we found that mc4r messenger RNA was expressed in the brain as well as various peripheral tissues in grass carp. The pharmacological properties of ciMC4R were investigated using 4 agonists, including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), β-MSH, [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-MSH (NDP-MSH), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We showed that all 4 ligands could bind to ciMC4R and initiate dose-dependent intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation. Grass carp MC4R had the highest affinity for NDP-MSH. Both NDP-MSH and ACTH (1-24) exhibited higher potencies compared to the other 2 endogenous agonists. The ciMC4R was constitutively active, with significantly increased basal cAMP level compared with that of human MC4R (P < 0.01). The availability of ciMC4R and its pharmacologic characteristics provide a basis for future investigation of its functional roles in regulating diverse physiological processes and novel insights into understanding the mechanism of food habit transition in grass carp.

  20. Ecological impacts of filter-feeding Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Boros

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (H. molitrix and their hybrids (collectively referred as Asian carps−AC are primarily planktivorous cyprinid fishes that have been introduced into more than 30 countries around the world, including Hungary. However, recent studies demonstrated that AC can adversely affect the water quality and native fish populations. In this study, we report on the rate of hybridization, growth parameters and feeding habits of AC, to assess their ecological impacts and life history traits in the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Balaton. We found that the majority of the investigated AC (n=116 were hybrids. In general, hybrid AC with silver carp characteristics dominated the stock (90%, but 10% of individuals exhibited bighead carp phenotype and the proportion of bighead carp genes exceeded 98% in 4 individuals. However, the variance in phenotypes and the rate of hybridization did not influence significantly the feeding habits. Rather, the food composition was determined by the availability of different food resources and the concentration of suspended inorganic particles in the ambient water. Stable isotope analyses and microscopic analyses of gut contents revealed that the vast majority (>99% of the ingested and metabolised food was zooplankton (mainly Rotifers, Cladocerans and Copepods. Despite the low proportions of algae in the food, we identified 155 phytoplankton taxa in the foregut-contents, among which there were several species (e.g., Scenedesmus spp. and Microcystis spp. that survived the passage through the guts. Growth rates of AC were intermediate in Lake Balaton, while their condition factors were relatively high compared with other ecosystems. The relatively high condition factors were particularly interesting in the light of the high inorganic matter content of ingested food (43±9% in dry mass. We conclude that the presence of AC is an ecological threat to Lake Balaton, because AC can be important

  1. Genome wide identification, phylogeny and expression of zinc transporter genes in common carp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc is an essential trace element in organisms, which serves as a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes that are involved in many pivotal biological processes including growth, development, reproduction and immunity. Therefore, the homeostasis of zinc in the cell is fundamental. The zinc transporter gene family is a large gene family that encodes proteins which regulate the movement of zinc across cellular and intracellular membranes. However, studies on teleost zinc transporters are mainly limited to model species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified a set of 37 zinc transporters in common carp genome, including 17 from SLC30 family (ZnT, and 20 from SLC39 family (ZIP. Phylogenetic and syntenic analysis revealed that most of the zinc transporters are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. Through examining the copy number of zinc transporter genes across several vertebrate genomes, thirteen zinc transporters in common carp are found to have undergone the gene duplications, including SLC30A1, SLC30A2, SLC30A5, SLC30A7, SLC30A9, SLC30A10, SLC39A1, SLC39A3, SLC39A4, SLC39A5, SLC39A6, SLC39A7 and SLC39A9. The expression patterns of all zinc transporters were established in various tissues, including blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, and showed that most of the zinc transporters were ubiquitously expressed, indicating the critical role of zinc transporters in common carp. CONCLUSIONS: To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis could verify the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. The gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp zinc transporters provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of zinc

  2. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmiller, Jessica J; Bajer, Przemyslaw G; Sorensen, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp'), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart.

  3. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J Eichmiller

    Full Text Available Although environmental DNA (eDNA has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp', an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA, in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5, indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart.

  4. Alteration in the cytokine levels and histopathological damage in common carp induced by glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junguo; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most frequently used herbicides, and it has been demonstrated to generate a series of toxicological problems in animals and humans. However, relatively little is known about the effects of glyphosate on the immune system of fish. In the present study, the acute toxicity of glyphosate on common carp was first determined; then, the contents of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α) and histopathological alterations in the liver, kidneys, and spleen of common carp exposed to 52.08 or 104.15 mg L(-1) of glyphosate for 168 h were also determined and evaluated. The results of the acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h LC50 of glyphosate for common carp was 520.77 mg L(-1). Moreover, sub-acute exposure of glyphosate altered the contents of IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α in fish immune organs. For example, there was a remarkable increase in the IFN-γ content in the kidneys, while there was a decrease in the liver and spleen. The IL-1β content increased in liver and kidneys, but it decreased in the spleen, and TNF-α mainly increased in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. In addition, glyphosate-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damage in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. These results suggest that glyphosate-caused cytokine alterations may result in an immune suppression or excessive activation in the treated common carp as well as may cause immune dysfunction or reduced immunity. In conclusion, glyphosate has immunotoxic effects on common carp.

  5. Growth performance of fingerlings of the Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.) fed with feeds supplemented with different seaweeds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kotnala, S.; Dhar, P.; Das, Partha; Chatterji, A.

    The growth performance of Indian major carp (Catla catla, Ham.) was assessed over a period of six months through formulated feeds consisting of three seaweeds, namely Chlorodesmis fastigiata, Padina tetrastomatica and Stoechospermum marginatum. A...

  6. Development and evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for diagnosis of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mortezaei, Seyed Reza

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture has been expanded rapidly to become a major commercial and food-producing sector worldwide in recent decade. In parallel, viral diseases rapidly spread among farms causing enormous economic losses. The accurate detection of pathogens at early stages of infection is a key point for disease control in aquaculture. Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) is a very severe pathogen of carp fishes in different parts of the world and is categorized as a reportable listed disease in the annu...

  7. Transcriptome analysis of food habit transition from carnivory to herbivory in a typical vertebrate herbivore, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Li, Ling; Sun, Jian; Wen, Zheng-Yong; Cheng, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ai-Xuan; Cai, Wen-Jing; He, Yu-Hui; Wang, Ya-ping; Tao, Ya-Xiong; Yuan, Xiao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although feeding behavior and food habit are ecologically and economically important properties, little is known about formation and evolution of herbivory. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an ecologically appealing model of vertebrate herbivore, widely cultivated in the world as edible fish or as biological control agents for aquatic weeds. Grass carp exhibits food habit transition from carnivory to herbivory during development. However, currently little is known about the ...

  8. MANIFESTATION OF THE EFFECT OF CRYOSELECTION IN CARP OFFSPRINGS OBTAINED FROM DEFROSTED SPERM SUSPENSION WITH MODIFIED CRYOPROTECTIVE SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    V. Cherepnin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effect of the cryoselection of carp sperm of multiple age groups depending on the quality of thawed sperm after modification of the composite cryoprotective medium, which was used for the dilution of native sperm before freezing. Methodology. Coenzyme B12 (cobamamide), blood plasma of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio), which was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, and purified protein antifreeze tmAFP isolated from larval mealwo...

  9. Determination of LC50 of Copper Sulfate and Lead(II Nitrate and Behavioral Responses of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed NEKOUBIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella were exposed to copper and lead for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Experimental fishes which measured an average length of 8.2 ± 0.44 cm and weighed 4.3 ± 0.5 g. Seven groups (with three replicates of experimental fish were exposed to seven concentrations of each metal. The grass carps were kept in 21 tanks each stocked with 30 fishes were used in our experiments for each metal. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of copper to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 2.422 mg/L, 2.222 mg/L, 2.006 mg/L, and 1.717 mg/L respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of lead to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 293.747 mg/L, 278.019 mg/L, 260.324 mg/L, and 246.455 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the behavioral changes of grass carp at different metal concentrations were determined. LC50 increased as mean exposure times decreased for both metals. Physiological responses like rapid opercular movement and frequent gulping of air was observed during the initial stages of exposure after which it became occasional. All these observations can be considered to monitor the quality of aquatic ecosystem and severity of pollution. In conclusion, copper is more toxic than lead for grass carp.

  10. HEMATOLOGICAL BLOOD PARAMETERS OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARPS (CYPRINIDAE REARED USING FISH RANCHING TECHNOLOGY IN THE SOUTHERN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Volichenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the hematological characteristics of blood young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology in the southern Ukraine and to establish certain correlations between the main fish technical features of the studied groups of the young-of-the-year fish. Methodology. The studies were based on field and experimental methods adopted for fisheries, biochemical and statistical studies. Findings. The paper contains the data on mean fish weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of serum of young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology. Based on a comparative analysis of the obtained data, we detected significant peculiarities and qualitative difference in the absence of foam cells and basophils, which distinguish carp from the group of herbivorous fish, established significant correlations between mean fish weight and hematologic indices of blood. Marked by fish-breeding relationships with signs like weight and some parameters of blood components in all studied fish: hemoglobin in the range from 0.7858 to 0.9943, number of erythrocytes from 0.7843 to 0.9942, lymphocytes from 0.7848 to 0.9949, сholеsterol from 0.7640 to 0.9616 and triglycerides of 0.7499 in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and 0.9616 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio. To show these relationships graphically, we used regression analysis and the obtained regression equations can give an accurate assessment of the quality of fish seeds through hematological blood parameters and mean weight. Originality. The analysis of hematological parameters of blood of young-of-the-year carps: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella reared using fish ranching technology in the south of Ukraine was performed for the first time. Practical value. The obtained data allow scientifically recommending them as a component of

  11. Bioatividade de extratos hidroalcoólicos de Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. sobre picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. e alface (Lactuca sativa L. Bioactivity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. on germination and early growth of beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Lousada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar a bioatividade de extratos hidroalcoólicos de capim-limão sobre germinação e crescimento inicial da planta daninha picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. e da planta teste alface (Lactuca sativa L.. A partir de maceração hidroalcoólica de folhas secas e rasuradas (127,46 g de capim-limão em 1L de álcool de cereais (70%, foram preparados os tratamentos como extratos hidroalcoólicos (HA pela diluição (v/v do macerado filtrado em água deionizada na proporção 1:1 (HA1:1 e 1:2 (HA1:2; dos quais foram obtidos os respectivos extratos secos (ES, a partir da evaporação da fase líquida de duas alíquotas de 50 mL de cada extrato HA, que após re-suspendidas em igual volume de água, sendo uma autoclavada (1 atm por 15 minutos, resultando nos extratos secos de HA1:1 e HA1:2 autoclavados (ES1:1A e ES1:2A e nos extratos secos não autoclavados (ES1:1 e ES1:2; e água (AG como controle. No primeiro dia dos bioensaios, foram aplicados 2 mL dos tratamentos, em DIC, com cinco repetições. Avaliou-se a porcentagem de germinação (G%, Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG, altura da parte aérea (AA e comprimento de radícula (CR de aquênios (25 de picão-preto e de alface distribuídos em placas de Petri e mantidos em câmara de germinação (B.O.D. por duas semanas. Os extratos HA1:1 e HA1:2 inibiram a G%, AA e CR das duas espécies. Todos os extratos secos reduziram a G%, IVG e o CR da alface. Para o picão preto, apenas o extrato ES1:1 reduziu a G% e o IVG foi reduzido por todos os extratos, a exceção do ES1:1A, mas nenhum extrato influenciou o crescimento inicial desta espécie.This study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of hydroalcoholic extract of lemongrass on the germination and early growth of the weed plant beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and the test plant lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. From the hydroalcoholic maceration of dried and cut leaves of lemon grass (127.46 g in 1 L grain alcohol (70%, the following

  12. Effect of heavy metals induced toxicity on metabolic biomarkers in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the pathological effects of a sub-lethal concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Total protein and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the liver tissue were measured. Compared with the control group a significant decrease of total protein (p < 0.001 was ascertained in the experimental group. The ALP on the other hand was significantly higher (p < 0.001. The values of ALT, AST, and LDH significantly decreased in the first day and then progressively increased afterwards (p < 0.001. The above results on the biochemical profile indicate marked hepatotoxic effects of heavy metals in common carp.

  13. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-10-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1-2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness.

  14. Detecting the movement and spawning activity of bigheaded carps with environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Rees, Christopher B.; Coulter, Alison A.; Merkes, Christopher; McCalla, Sunnie; Touzinsky, Katherine F; Walleser, Liza R.; Goforth, Reuben R.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Bigheaded carps are invasive fishes threatening to invade the Great Lakes basin and establish spawning populations, and have been monitored using environmental DNA (eDNA). Not only does eDNA hold potential for detecting the presence of species, but may also allow for quantitative comparisons like relative abundance of species across time or space. We examined the relationships among bigheaded carp movement, hydrography, spawning and eDNA on the Wabash River, IN, USA. We found positive relationships between eDNA and movement and eDNA and hydrography. We did not find a relationship between eDNA and spawning activity in the form of drifting eggs. Our first finding demonstrates how eDNA may be used to monitor species abundance, whereas our second finding illustrates the need for additional research into eDNA methodologies. Current applications of eDNA are widespread, but the relatively new technology requires further refinement.

  15. Enhancement of Hsp70 synthesis protects common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., against lethal ammonia toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Y Y; Roberts, R J; Bossier, P

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to TEX-OE®, a patented extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) containing chaperone-stimulating factor, was shown to protect common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings against acute ammonia stress. Survival was enhanced twofold from 50% to 95% after exposure to 5.92 mg L(-1) NH(3) , a level determined in the ammonia challenge bioassay as the 1-h LD50 concentration for this species. Survival of TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish was enhanced by 20% over non-exposed controls during lethal ammonia challenge (14.21 mg L(-1)  NH(3) ). Increase in the levels of gill and muscle Hsp70 was evident in TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish but not in the unexposed controls, indicating that application of TEX-OE® accelerated carp endogenous Hsp70 synthesis during ammonia perturbation. Protection against ammonia was correlated with Hsp70 accretion.

  16. Effects of sediment burial on grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes,1844), eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Hayer, Cari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) eggs must remain suspended in the water column in order to hatch successfully. Using sand, the effects of varying sediment levels on grass carp eggs were tested at different developmental states and temperatures. Survival was high (15–35%, depending on temperature and trial) in the unburied treatment where eggs rested on a sand bed but were not covered by sediment. Survival was lower in the partial burial (5–10%) and very low (0–4%) in the full burial treatment. In all treatments, delayed hatching (organisms remaining in membranes past the stage of hatching competence) was noted. Deformities such as missing heads and pericardial edema occurred at high rates in the partial and full burials. Eggs that come in contact with the benthos and are resuspended in the water column should be considered in embryonic drift models.

  17. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  18. Magnetic alignment in carps: evidence from the Czech christmas fish market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hart

    Full Text Available While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential.

  19. Beta-Glucan induced immune modulation of wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera

    but not in animals. β-glucans are commonly used as immune modulators, but the mechanisms through which the modulation is achieved remains to be understood. Wound healing and tissue regeneration are essential mechanisms to ensure the survival and health of any organism. Studies based in mammalian systems have shown...... the importance of fibroblasts, macrophages, reactive oxygen species (especially hydrogen peroxide) and certain cytokines during wound healing processes. In fish however, only a few studies have been devoted tissue regeneration and modulation of cell proliferation during wound healing, even though mechanical...... to measure hydrogen peroxide, and allowed the monitoring of the ROS kinetics. Second, an in vivo study was performed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of β-glucan during wound healing in carp. Mechanically wounded carps were bath treated with β-glucans or left untreated. The wound healing process...

  20. Histological Alterations in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Gills as Potential Biomarkers for Fungicide Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Stoyanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to investigate the histological alterations in common carp gills caused by a fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide tested in laboratory conditions at 30, 38 and 50 mg/L concentration. In general, all the tested concentrations activated compensatory-adaptive mechanisms, which caused pathological changes in the fish gills. Results showed different histological alterations in the gill structure, which included lamellar lifting, edema, proliferation of the glandular cells and epithelium, covering the gill filament, fusion and degenerative alterations. Blood circulatory system showed vasodilatation of the secondary lamellae and aneurysms. Overall, there was enhancement of the gill histological changes, which was dose-dependent, i.e., proportional to the increasing fungicide concentrations. Thus, based on the results, it was concluded that the histological alterations in common carp gills could be applied as possible biomarkers in risk assessment and monitoring programs for pesticide contamination of aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Histopathological Alterations in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Gills Caused by Thiamethoxam

    OpenAIRE

    Elenka Georgieva; Stela Stoyanova; Iliana Velcheva; Vesela Yancheva

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to study the effect of new neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on the histological structure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) gills. Three experimental groups of fish were treated with 6.6, 10 and 20 mg/l thiamethoxam in laboratory conditions. Results showed different histological changes in the gill epithelium, which included lamellar lifting, edema, proliferation of the glandular cells and epithelium, covering the gill filament, fusion and degenerative alterations. The blood circ...

  2. Experimental susceptibility of Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum to Spring viraemia of carp virus

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, H.; Ghasemi, M.; Hosseini, S.M.; Haghighi Karsidani, S.

    2013-01-01

    Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) is a fish of the family Cyprinidae, which is commercially harvested from the Caspian Sea. Experimental infection with Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) was conducted in order to examine susceptibility of caspian White Fish and clinical impacts of infection. Fingerling fish were injected intra-peritoneally or waterborne-exposed with SVCV and were monitored daily for 7 weeks. Dead fish and those survived at the end of experimental period were collect...

  3. An anatomical and histochemical examination of the pituitary gland of carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    EKİCİ, Aygül; TİMUR, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out for the purpose of studying the anatomical and the histochemical structure of the pituitary gland of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Anatomically, the shape of the gland has been observed to be round-oval, looking like an acorn. The pituitary gland consists of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis parts. Microscopically, the adenohypophysis consists of anterior (pars distalis) and posterior (pars intermedia) parts. The second lobe of the gland, called the...

  4. Genetic potential analysis of German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning HOU; Xiaoshu HOU; Yong LI; Dayu LI; Fujun LIU; Ruixin MAO; Xiaowen SUN

    2008-01-01

    Using 30 microsatellite markers and combin-ing quantifiable characteristics such as body weight, body length and body width, we evaluated the genetic potential of 3 German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) popula-tions. Number of effective alleles (Ae), observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity values and polymorphic information contents (PIC) were all calculated. Two hun-dred and eighty-seven alleles and 559 genotypes were detected. The DNA fragment length was 109-400 bp. The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was checked and the phenomenon of some disequilibrium was studied accord-ing to the χ2test. The results showed that the level of genetic variability was moderate, but genetic potential of Shuanglai population was much lower than that of Huanxin and Songpu breeding populations. PIC of the three populations of German mirror carp were between 0.08787 and 0.5377, both highly and moderately poly-morphic markers were 13. The number of the Ae was between 1.1014 and 6.4665. The Ho and He heterozygos-ity values were 0.0968-0.9892 and 0.0926-0.8554, respect-ively. The linkage correlation was analyzed using the data of body weight, body length and body width, and 30 loci. The result showed that there existed 2 loci, HLJ319 and HLJ693, associated with body length. The HLJ693 locus was significantly correlated with body weight trait. The HLJ677 locus was linked with body width. And then the result was verified in Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) of common carp. It showed that the HLJ319 locus was sig-nificantly linked with body length, the same as the result of quantitative trait loci (QTL) location for common carp.

  5. Genetic analysis shows that morphology alone cannot distinguish asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinid species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; McCalla, Sunnie; Chapman, Duane C.; Rees, Christopher B.; Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jon; George, Amy E.; Richardson, William B.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Fish eggs and embryos (hereafter collectively referred to as “eggs”) were collected in the upper Mississippi River main stem (~300 km upstream of previously reported spawning by invasive Asian carp) during summer 2013. Based on previously published morphological characteristics, the eggs were identified as belonging to Asian carp. A subsample of the eggs was subsequently analyzed by using molecular methods to determine species identity. Genetic identification using the cytochrome-c oxidase 1 gene was attempted for a total of 41 eggs. Due to the preservation technique used (formalin) and the resulting DNA degradation, sequences were recovered from only 17 individual eggs. In all 17 cases, cyprinids other than Asian carp (usually Notropis sp.) were identified as the most likely species. In previously published reports, a key characteristic that distinguished Asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinids was size: Asian carp eggs exhibited diameters ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 mm and were thought to be much larger than the otherwise similar eggs of native species. Eggs from endemic cyprinids were believed to rarely reach 3.0 mm and had not been observed to exceed 3.3 mm. However, many of the eggs that were genetically identified as originating from native cyprinids were as large as 4.0 mm in diameter (at early developmental stages) and were therefore large enough to over- lap with the lower end of the size range observed for Asian carp eggs. Researchers studying the egg stages of Asian carp and other cyprinids should plan on preserving subsets of eggs for genetic analysis to confirm morphological identifications.

  6. Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

  7. Integrated assessment of biomarker response in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to clomazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara; Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Guerra, Luciana; Lópes, Thais; Severo, Eduardo; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2015-05-01

    Clomazone is considered a potential contaminant of groundwater and is persistent in the environment. To verify the effects of clomazone in Cyprinus carpio and Rhamdia quelen, a method that combines biomarker responses into an index of "integrated biomarker response" (IBR) was used for observed biological alterations in these species. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver of carp and silver catfish decreased at both concentrations tested. However, in muscle it increased in carp at 3 mg/L and silver catfish at 6 mg/L. Protein carbonyl increased in liver (3 and 6 mg/L) and muscle (6 mg/L) of carp. In carp, superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased at 3 mg/L and catalase at 6 mg/L. In silver catfish, SOD in liver decreased at 3 mg/L. Glutathione-S-transferase increased at 3 mg/L in muscle of carp. Nonprotein thiol levels decreased at both concentrations in liver of silver catfish and muscle of carp. In silver catfish, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) decreased in brain at 6 mg/L. Nevertheless, AChE in muscle of both species increased at 3 and 6 mg/L. IBR was standardized scores of biomarker responses and was visualized using star plots. The IBR values shown that in carp there was predominantly an induction of parameters, whereas in silver catfish there was inhibition of these responses. In this way, IBR may be a practical tool for the identification of biological alterations in fish exposed to pesticides. In the present study, IBR was efficient for comparisons of fish species using clomazone. This study may serve as a base for evaluation of other pesticides in the rice field, environment, or laboratory experiment.

  8. Effects of adding various oils to the diet on growth, feed conversion and chemical composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, W; Wirth, M; Rennert, B

    1995-01-01

    The suitability of various vegetable and fish oils was tested as feed components for one-summer-old carp fingerlings. Five diets were used: a basal diet, which served as control feed, was supplemented with 10% corn-germ oil, 10% sunflower oil, 10% fish oil or 10% rapeseed oil, respectively. By means of the lipid supplementation the crude protein content decreased from 35.5% in the basal diet to 31.9% in the test diets, whereas the gross energy level increased from 16.3 to 18.9 MJ/kg. The diets were fed over a period of 84 feeding days and water temperature was 23 degrees C. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein utilization were superior in all groups of carp which received the fat-enriched high energy diets. Considering the gain in % of the initial weight, the control fish reached less than 400% whereas all carp in the test groups, which consumed the oil-enriched diets, reached 455 to 485%. A significant influence of the kind of lipid on growth and feed conversion could not be recognized. The lipid-enriched diets with higher energy content resulted in increased fat levels of the carp. Fatty acid composition of the carp reflected that of the diets. In the control group and the fish oil group the levels of palmitic, palmitoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were especially high corresponding to the fatty acid profile of the diets. In carp fed the diets supplied with corn-germ oil and sunflower oil linoleic acid was dominant whereas the carp fed the rapeseed diet were characterized by a high level of oleic acid.

  9. Effects of Light and Temperature on Germination of Heteromorphic Achenes of Bidens frondosa L%光照和温度对入侵植物大狼耙草异型瘦果萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超群; 唐赛春; 潘玉梅; 韦春强

    2015-01-01

    为了解大狼耙草(Bidens frondosa)的入侵机理,对其中央瘦果和外围瘦果的形态特征和萌发特性进行了研究。结果表明,大狼耙草果序中的中央瘦果和外围瘦果在颜色、长度、宽度和芒刺长度等方面均存在明显差异。在周期性光照下,两种瘦果在15℃/10℃下不萌发;在20℃/15℃和25℃/20℃下中央瘦果的萌发率显著高于外围瘦果;而在30℃/25℃、35℃/30℃和40℃/35℃下两种瘦果的萌发率无显著差异。在全黑暗条件下,中央瘦果在低于35℃/30℃时萌发受到抑制,外围瘦果在低于40℃时萌发受到抑制。光照和瘦果类型除对大狼耙草的萌发率有显著影响外,对萌发指数和萌发速率也有明显影响。大狼耙草通过异形瘦果间的萌发差异减少同胞后代间的相互竞争,增强其对不同环境的适应性,使后代获得更多的生存机会,有利于瘦果在适宜的环境条件下萌发及入侵种群的存留与扩张。%Bidens frondosa L. (Asteraceae), native to North America, is an annual invasive species with heteromorphic achenes. In order to understand its invasive mechanism, the achene morphology was observed, and the effects of light and temperature on germination of achene were studied. The results showed that central and peripheral achenes had signiifcant difference in color, length, width and prick length. Under 12 h d–1 photoperiod, the achenes did not germinate at 15℃/10℃, and the germination rate of central achene was signiifcantly higher than that of peripheral achene at 20℃/15℃and 25℃/20℃, while that of the two achenes had no difference at 30℃/25℃, 35℃/30℃and 40℃/35℃. Under full dark, the germination of central and peripheral achenes were all inhibited below 35℃/30℃and 40℃. Both of light and achenes type had signiifcant inlfuences on the germination rate, germination index and germination speed. Therefore, Bidens frondosa could reduce

  10. Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos

    2014-04-01

    This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 μg/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 μg/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids.

  11. Responses of invasive silver and bighead carp to a carbon dioxide barrier in outdoor ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, Aaron R.; Erickson, Richard A.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Swyers, Nicholas M.; Hatton, Tyson; Amberg, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Resource managers need for effective methods to prevent the movement of silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) from the Mississippi River basin into the Laurentian Great Lakes. In this study, we evaluated dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) as a barrier and deterrent to silver (278 ± 30.5 mm) and bighead (212 ± 7.7 mm) carp movement in continuous-flow outdoor ponds. As a barrier, CO2 significantly reduced upstream movement but was not 100% effective at blocking fish passage. As a deterrent, we observed a significant shift away from areas of high CO2 relative to normal movement before and after injection. Carbon dioxide concentrations varied across the pond during injection and reached maximum concentrations of 74.5±1.9 mg/L CO2; 29 532 – 41 393 µatm at the site of injection during three independent trials. We conclude that CO2 altered silver and bighead carp movement in outdoor ponds and recommend further research to determine barrier effectiveness during field applications.

  12. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2016-06-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of diff erent dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no diff erences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with diff erent protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly aff ected by the diff erent diets (Pdiet than those fed the low-corn starch diet (P0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  13. Identification and characterization of alpha-I-proteinase inhibitor from common carp sarcoplasmic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriangkanakun, Siriphon; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Yongsawadigul, Jirawat

    2016-02-01

    Purification of proteinase inhibitor from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sarcoplasmic proteins resulted in 2.8% yield with purification fold of 111. Two inhibitors, namely inhibitor I and II, exhibited molecular mass of 47 and 52 kDa, respectively, based on non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both inhibitors I and II were identified to be alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) based on LC-MS/MS. They were glycoproteins and molecular mass after peptide-N-glycosidase F treatment was 38 and 45 kDa, respectively. The N-glycosylation sites of both inhibitors were determined to be at N214 and N226. The inhibitors specifically inhibited trypsin. The common carp α1-PI showed high thermal stability with denaturation temperatures of 65.43 and 73.31 °C, which were slightly less than those of ovomucoid. High stability toward NaCl was also evident up to 3M. The common carp α1-PI effectively reduced autolytic degradation of bigeye snapper surimi at the concentration as low as 0.025%.

  14. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2017-03-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of different dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no differences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with different protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly affected by the different diets ( Pconversion ratio were not different in fish fed the different dietary treatments. Protein efficiency ratio increased significantly as corn starch level increased ( Pphosphate (G6Pase) activity decreased with increasing dietary corn starch level ( P 0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  15. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: a lakewide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stong, Todd; Alvarado Osuna, Claudia; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; Díaz Torres, José de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River.

  16. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idellus,from two different habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Jiajia; YU Yuhe; ZHANG Tanglin; GAO Lei

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host.External and internal conditions of the host,including its habitat,affect the intestinal bacterial community.Similarly,the intestinal bacterial community can,in turn,influence the host,particularly with respect to disease resistance.We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake.We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes,from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified.Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination,we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish,except for DF-7,and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities(Mantel one-tailed test,R=0.157,P=0.175).Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond.A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  17. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  18. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC CADMIUM INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULA MARIOARA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic cadmium intoxication on liver, gill, kidney, intestine and striated muscle in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 25 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimated to laboratory conditions. After a 21 days exposure to a sublethal cadmium concentration (1.625 ppm from a Cd (CH3COO2 x2H2O stock solution, liver, gill, kidney, small intestine and striated muscle were sampled and processed for histological examination. Histopathological alterations induced by studied heavy metal in the tissues of silver crucian carp specimenes were: nephrocite hypertrophic processes, distruction of intercellular jonctions, stratification of epitelium and congestions both in renal glomerulis and in interstitium; hyalinizations, congestions of blood vassels and vacuolations associated with lipid accumulation at the hepatic level; into intestinal mucosa revealed rich leucocyte infiltrates, with numerous leucocytes situated intraepithelial; branchial lamelles with disordered aspect and multilayered epithelium, vascular ectasias and leucocyte infiltrates into subepithelial connective tissue at the gill level; miolisis processes in peripheral muscular fibers manifested by contractile apparatus alteration on large areas.

  19. Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls to carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Juliette; Banas, Damien; Thomas, Marielle; Fournier, Agnès; Feidt, Cyril

    2014-06-01

    The relative bioavailability of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 138, 153, and 180) from a local contaminated site was examined using an in vivo carp model. Surface sediment from the PCB-contaminated site and spiked canola oil containing equivalent masses of PCBs were respectively incorporated in the sediment-dosed diets and oil-dosed diets at 3 dose levels resulting in 6 experimental diets. Juvenile carps (n = 90) were divided in 18 tanks (5 fish × 6 treatments × 3 tanks). Fish were fed the control diet during the adaptation period (15 d). Next, 1 fish was sampled in each tank and muscle tissues were combined in control groups. During the exposure period (15 d), the remaining fish were fed with 1 of the 6 experimental diets. At the end of the experiment, fish were sampled and muscle tissues were combined for each tank. The PCBs were monitored in feed and fish muscle. For both the contaminated sediment and spiked canola oil groups, concentrations of PCBs 138, 153, and 180 in muscle linearly increased with concentrations in food, with similar intercepts and slopes. In the present study, the sediment-bound PCBs were as bioavailable as those spiked into canola oil and fed to carp in a standard diet.

  20. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp.

  1. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Richterová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g L-1 on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg L-1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg L-1 gamma-cyhalothrin. All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg L-1 died soon after hatching; at 25 μg L-1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg L-1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes.

  2. Respiratory adaptations in carp blood. Influences of hypoxia, red cell organic phosphates, divalent cations and CO2 on hemoglobin-oxygen affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Lykkeboe, G.

    1978-01-01

    This study concerns the adaptation of oxygen transporting function of carp blood to environment hypoxia, tracing the roles played by erythrocytic cofactors, inorganic cations, carbon dioxide and hemoglobin multiplicity. Carp acclimated to hypoxia ( 30 mmHg) display striking increases in blood...

  3. Substrate mobilization and hormonal changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, L) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L) during deep hypoxia and subsequent recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanRaaij, MTM; VandenThillart, GEEJM; Vianen, GJ; Pit, DSS; Balm, PHM; Steffens, B

    1996-01-01

    Common carp (at 20 degrees C) and rainbow trout (at 15 degrees C) were fitted with an indwelling cannula in the dorsal aorta. The fish were exposed to a controlled decline of water pO(2) followed by 90 min deep hypoxia at 0.3 kPa (carp) or 4.8 kPa (trout). Thereafter, normoxic recovery was monitored

  4. Effects of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and feed addition in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) ponds on nutrient partitioning among fish, plankton and benthos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Milstein, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of introducing common carp (CC) and of adding artificial feed to fertilized rohu ponds on water quality and nutrient accumulation efficiency were studied. All ponds were stocked with 15 000 rohu ha¿1. Treatments included ponds with rohu alone, rohu plus 5000 common carp ha¿1 and rohu plu

  5. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam on reproduction of four major Chinese carps species in the middle reaches of the Changjiang River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzheng; Duan, Zhonghua; Gao, Xin; Cao, Wenxuan; Liu, Huanzhang

    2016-09-01

    Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella), and black carp ( Mylopharyngodon piceus) are the four major Chinese carps and are commercially important aquaculture species in China. Reproduction of these carp has declined since the construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) due to an altered water flow and thermal regime in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. However, details of the changes in reproduction of the four species are not well understood. To assess the impact of the TGD on reproduction of the four carp, we investigated their eggs and larvae at Yidu City, which is 80 km below the TGD, during 2005-2012. We examined diff erences in larval abundance of the four species in the Jianli section (350 km downstream of the TGD) before (1997-2002) and after (2003-2012) construction of the TGD. Based on these observations, the first spawning date of the four species was delayed a mean of about 25 days after the dam was constructed. Mean egg abundance in the Yidu section of the river was 249 million and mean larval abundance was 464 million, which were significant decreases since the 1980s. Moreover, larval abundance in the Jianli section after the dam was constructed was significantly lower than that before construction (ANCOVA, Pconserve these four major Chinese carps species.

  6. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, R.B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  7. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Evolutionary analysis of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp,based on ISSR,AFLP molecular markers and cloning of cyclins genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU LiangGuo; YAN JinPeng; LIU ShaoJun; LIU Dong; YOU CuiPing; ZHONG Huan; TAO Min; LIU Yun

    2009-01-01

    The allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp × common carp are the first reported artificially cultured polyploid fish with bisexual fertility and stable inheritance in vertebrate.Using ISSR and AFLP markers and the cyclins genes,the genomes and cyclin gene sequence changes were analyzed between the allotetraploid hybrids and their parents.The results indicated that the allotetraploids inherited many genetic characteristics from their parents and the genetic characteristics were stable after 15 generations.However,the allotetraploids had a closer genetic relationship with their original female parents and represented a bias toward the maternal progenitor.DNA fingerprinting analysis showed that the allotetraploids had undergone sequences deletion from their original parents and that the deleted sequences were mostly from the male parent's genome.Some non-parental bands were found in the allotetraploid hybrids.Sequences analysis of the cyclin A1 and B1 genes showed nonsynonymous substitutions of single nucleotides in codons that were different from their original parents,leading to non-parental amino acid loci.We speculate that the non-additivity in the allotetraploids,compared with their progenitors,could be an adjustment to the genomic shock from heterozygosity and polyploidy, allowing maintenance of genetic stability.

  9. Upgrading food wastes by means of bromelain and papain to enhance growth and immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    The fast growing of global aquaculture industry accompanied with increasing pressure on the supply and price of traditional feed materials (e.g., fish meal and soy bean meal). This circumstance has urged the need to search alternative sources of feed stuff. Food waste was used as feed stuff in rearing fish which possess substantial protein and lipid. Grass carp are major species reared in Hong Kong with lower nutritional requirements; it is also an ideal species for investigating the feasibility of using food waste as fish feeds for local aquaculture industry. The growth and immunity, reflected by total protein, total immunologlobulin (IgI), and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity of grass carp blood, were depressed when feeding with food waste feeds without enzymes. However, the supplementation of bromelain and papain in fish feed enhanced the efficient use of food waste by grass carp, which in turn improved the fish immunity. The present results indicated that the addition of those enzymes could enhance the feed utilization by fish and hematological parameters of grass carp, and the improvement on growth and immunity superior to the control (commercial feed) was observed with the addition of bromelain and papain supplement. Addition of 1 and 2 % mixture of bromelain and papain could significantly enhance the lipid utilization in grass carp.

  10. Melanomacrophage centers in kidney, spleen and liver: A toxic response in carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to mercury chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahjaningsih, Wahju; Pursetyo, Kustiawan Tri; Sulmartiwi, Laksmi

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to determine the potential of melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) as a bioindicators of environment polluted with mercury chloride. This study used the carp fish that were kept in an environment that contained mercury chloride with a concentration of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 ppm for 21 days. The rate of accumulation of macrophages in the tissue of kidney, spleen and liver were measured by the activity of N-acetylglucosaminidase. The results showed that the MMCs in the spleen and liver tissue of the carp fish potential as the bio-indicators of polluted environment ≥0.1 ppm of mercury chloride. The increased in accumulation of macrophages found in the kidney tissue of carp fish exposed to mercury chloride concentration of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 ppm, although no significant difference with control (0 ppm). The suppressive effect of the accumulation of immune response showed at the carp fish liver tissue macrophages which were exposed to mercury chloride lower than carp fish that were not exposed.

  11. Transmission of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) from goldfish to naïve common carp by cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Matbouli, Mansour; Soliman, Hatem

    2011-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) has spread worldwide and has had a major impact on koi and common carp production. Previous studies on the host range of the CyHV-3 found that fish species other than koi and common carp are fully resistant to natural virus exposure. Recently, CyHV-3 was detected in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) that were in contact with CyHV-3 infected koi. In the present study, a specific RT-PCR product was amplified from the viral thymidine kinase gene in gills, intestine and brain tissues of CyHV-3 infected goldfish. This implied that CyHV-3 replicated in these goldfish. Also, in the presence of a stress factor such as temperature fluctuation, the CyHV-3 infected goldfish transmitted the virus to cohabitated naïve SPF common carp. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in the cohabitated naïve carp tissues by PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that goldfish is a carrier for CyHV-3, permit virus propagation, and disseminate the virus to susceptible carp causing the disease.

  12. The transcriptomes of the crucian carp complex (Carassius auratus) provide insights into the distinction between unisexual triploids and sexual diploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2014-05-27

    Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

  13. The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yan Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

  14. Feeding and swimming modulate iono-and-hormonal regulation differently in goldfish, Carassius auratus and common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Hon Jung; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Mauro, Nathalie; Diricx, Marjan; Darras, Veerle M; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-05-01

    Feeding and swimming can influence ion balance in fish. Therefore we investigated their impact on ionoregulation and its hormonal control in goldfish and common carp. As expected due to the osmorespiratory compromise, exhaustive swimming induced increases in gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) activity in both species, resulting in stable levels of plasma ions. In contrast to our expectations, this only occurred in fed fish and feeding itself increased NKA activity, especially in carp. Fasting fish were able to maintain ion balance without increasing NKA activity, we propose that the increase in NKA activity is related to ammonia excretion rather than ion uptake per se. In goldfish, this increase in NKA activity coincided with a cortisol elevation whilst no significant change was found in carp. In goldfish, high conversion of plasma T4 to T3 was found in both fed and fasted fish resulting in low T4/T3 ratios, which increased slightly due to exhaustive swimming. In starved carp the conversion seemed much less efficient, and high T4/T3 ratios were observed. We propose that thyroid hormone regulation in carp was more related to its role in energy metabolism rather than ionoregulation. The present research showed that both species, whether fed or fasted, are able to sufficiently adapt their osmorepiratory strategy to minimise ions losses whilst maintaining gas exchange under exhaustive swimming.

  15. Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality

  16. Effect of water hardness and dissolved-solid concentration on hatching success and egg size in bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is an Asian species that has been introduced to the United States and is regarded as a highly undesirable invader. Soft water has been said to cause the bursting of Asian carp eggs and thus has been suggested as a factor that would limit the spread of this species. To evaluate this, we subjected fertilized eggs of bighead carp to waters with a wide range of hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations. Hatching rate and egg size were not significantly affected by the different water qualities. These results, combined with the low hardness (28–84 mg/L) of the Yangtze River (the primary natal habitat of Hypophthalmichthys spp.), suggest that managers and those performing risk assessments for the establishment of Hypophthalmichthys spp. should be cautious about treating low hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations as limiting factors.

  17. Description of Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Lake Balaton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Csaba; Molnár, Kálmán; Cech, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. was detected in the gill filaments of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. collected in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Its oval plasmodia measuring 600-800 × 300-400 µm were located intravasally in the filamental arteries. The spores measured 11.2 ± 0.92 × 9.5 ± 0.41 × 7.4 ± 0.33 µm and had two equal polar capsules with six filamental turns. Both morphology and DNA sequence analysis revealed that M. balatonicus n. sp. is distinct from the ten species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 described from the European common carp and the 21 species described from the Asian common carp subspecies. Phylogenetic analysis placed M. balatonicus n. sp. in a clade of gill-infecting myxobolids.

  18. Analysis of Phospholipids in Crucian Carp(Carassius auratus) Muscle by Offiine HPLC-MALDI-TOF MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-chen; WANG Yan-hong; WU Ren-an; WANG Shi-cheng

    2011-01-01

    The interest in the analysis of phospholipids(PLs), especially phosphatidylcholine(PC), has been increasing due to the importance of them in biochemistry as well as in industry. A method was reported based on the offiine combination of MALDI-TOF MS and normal-phase HPLC for analyzing PLs extracted from crucian carp. Total PLs of crucian carp were extracted and then separated by HPLC before the collected subfractions were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. The mass spectra obtained show peaks of H+, Na+ and K+ adducts of PC molecules. It is shown that the prior separation of PLs by HPLC is highly necessary to remove the signal suppressing and to avoid the possible overlapping. With this method, 9 possible PC molecules in crucian carp and the corresponding fatty acid compositions were given from the well-resolved mass spectra.

  19. Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; JIA Lai-Bing; YIN Xie-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments.The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming.We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp(carassius auratus).A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well.With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force.Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small.

  20. Histochemical Effects of “Verita WG” on Glycogen and Lipid Storage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Georgieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed in the present work is to study the effects of fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide (“Verita WG” on glycogen storage and expression of lipid droplets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. liver. Concentrations of the test chemical were 30 mg/L, 38 mg/L and 50 mg/L under laboratory conditions. We used PAS-reaction for detection of glycogen storage and Sudan III staining for detection of lipid droplets in common carp hepatocytes. Hence, we found that the amount of glycogen and the fat storage in the liver increased proportionally with the increased fungicide concentrations. We also found conglomerates of accumulated glycogen in certain hepatocytes at all used concentrations. Overall, the results demonstrated enhanced glyconeogenesis and fat accumulation in the common carp liver, exposed to the test chemical.

  1. Characterization of the microbiota in lightly salted bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fillets stored at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaochang; Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Dapeng; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-04-01

    The microbiota of unsalted and salted (dry-cured with 2% salt) bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fillets during storage at 4 °C were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Eleven genera were present in the initial microbiota of bighead carp fillets, where Acinetobacter, Aeromonas and Kocuria were the dominant bacteria. As storage time progressed, the microbial composition of both unsalted and salted fillets became less diverse. Additionally, differences in microbiota were observed between these two treatments. For unsalted bighead carp fillets, Aeromonas became the dominant genus at the end of storage and Pseudomonas was found less commonly. For salted fillets, Pseudomonas was the only bacteria identified at the end of storage.

  2. Prey species and size choice of the molluscivorous fish, black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, N. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Madsen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    ponds in northern Vietnam. Furthermore, shell strength of common snails was assessed. Average daily consumption as percentage of fish weight ranged from 8.12% for smaller fish (100-250 g) to 4.68% in the larger fish (610-1250 g). Bithynia fuchsiana, the intermediate host of Clonorchis sinensis, and some...... intestinal trematodes were readily consumed by even the smallest black carp tested. The proportion of Melanoides tuberculata, an important host for intestinal trematodes, declined with an increase in its shell height. The same was observed for two viviparid snail species, Angulyagra polyzonata and Sinotaia......, to control snails serving as first intermediate hosts. However, the use of large juvenile (>2 kg) black carp in nursery ponds could be problematic and we decided to determine consumption rates by black carp of various sizes and their choice of different sizes of selected snail species found in aquaculture...

  3. Type II SOCS as a feedback repressor for GH-induced Igf1 expression in carp hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue; Xiao, Jia; He, Mulan; Ma, Ani; Wong, Anderson O L

    2016-05-01

    Type II suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) serve as feedback repressors for cytokines and are known to inhibit growth hormone (GH) actions. However, direct evidence for SOCS modulation of GH-induced insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) expression is lacking, and the post-receptor signaling for SOCS expression at the hepatic level is still unclear. To shed light on the comparative aspects of SOCS in GH functions, grass carp was used as a model to study the role of type II SOCS in GH-induced Igf1 expression. Structural identity of type II SOCS, Socs1-3 and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (Cish), was established in grass carp by 5'/3'-RACE, and their expression at both transcript and protein levels were confirmed in the liver by RT-PCR and LC/MS/MS respectively. In carp hepatocytes, GH treatment induced rapid phosphorylation of JAK2, STATs, MAPK, PI3K, and protein kinase B (Akt) with parallel rises in socs1-3 and cish mRNA levels, and these stimulatory effects on type II SOCS were shown to occur before the gradual loss of igf1 gene expression caused by prolonged exposure of GH. Furthermore, GH-induced type II SOCS gene expression could be negated by inhibiting JAK2, STATs, MEK1/2, P38 (MAPK), PI3K, and/or Akt respectively. In CHO cells transfected with carp GH receptor, over-expression of these newly cloned type II SOCS not only suppressed JAK2/STAT5 signaling with GH treatment but also inhibited GH-induced grass carp Igf1 promoter activity. These results, taken together, suggest that type II SOCS could be induced by GH in the carp liver via JAK2/STATs, MAPK, and PI3K/Akt cascades and serve as feedback repressors for GH signaling and induction of igf1 gene expression.

  4. Influence of Organic Selenium (SelPlex) on the Reproduction on Males Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Lausitz Variety

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel Şara; Alina Rodica Ani (Toma); Erol Gabor; Mihai Benţea

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex) on the reproductive function in 3 summer old males common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Lausitz variety. The researches were carried out on two groups on a total 12 males carp in 3 summers old (6 in each group). Experimental period was 39 day and organic Selenium (SelPlex) at a dose of 0.03 mg/kg feed was added in the feed for the experimental group. The use of SelPlex significantly influenced the concentration of spe...

  5. Only small fractions of soluble ß-glucan modulate the mucosal immune system in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    For decades the ability of β-glucans to modulate immunity through activation of innate cellular components has been observed. However, toxicological effects associated with the systemic administration and dose-related immune-suppression has also been described. The superior aim of this study...... is to understand the effect of β-glucan induced modulation in carp in relation to tissue regeneration, mucosal immunity and host-pathogen interactions. Expression profiles of immune related genes will be measured in fresh water specie – common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The methodology of the project involves...

  6. Detection of Grass Carp Hemorrhage Virus (GCHV) from Vietnam and Comparison with GCHV Strain from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Grass carp plays an important role in small-scale aquaculture in Vietnam. However, a severe disease, known in Vietnam as "Red Spot Disease", is causing significant economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In this study, the tissue samples isolated from the grass carp with Red Spot Disease in Vietnam are investigated and comparied with the control GCHV isolated in China by experimental infection, culture cell infection, serological cross reactivity, and RT-PCR amplification. Infected grass carp exhibits hemorrhage symptoms about 5 days after experimental injection with GCHV-V (Vietnam) strain. The symptoms and lethality induced by the GCHV-V strain are identical to that induced by the Chinese GCHV-9014 strain. The Chinese GCHV-873 strain induces typical cytopathogenic effects in 4 cell lines, such as CIK, CAB, FHM and GCO, from the 6 fish cell lines examined. No cytopathogenic effects are observed in all the 6 examined cell lines, including CAB, FHM, CIK, EPC, CCO and GCO, infected by the GCHV-V strain and GCHV-9014 strain. Immunodiffusion assays demonstrate an obvious cross-reactivity among three GCHV strains. Precipitin lines are clearly observed not only between the anti-GCHV-873 serum and the two strains GCHV-873 and GCHV-9014, but also between the anti-GCHV-873 serum and the GCHV-V strain. GCHV can be detected by immunodiffusion assays after three generations of blind propagations in the cell lines inoculated by GCHV-V strain. This implicates that GCHV-V viruses have been replicated and amplified despite there being no cytopathogenic effects observed in these examined cell lines. Three genome segments of GCHV, including S8, S9 and S10, are amplified by three sets of PCR primers designed according to the segment sequences published recently. The Q8fp and Q8rp primer set specific for genome segment S8 amplifies a 955 bp fragment from the extracted sample of diseased fish with Red Spot Disease, and the fragment size is identical to that amplified by the same

  7. Induction of gynogenesis in red crucian carp using spermatozoa of blunt snout bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuandong; LIU Yun; TAO Min; LIU Shaojun; ZHANG Chun; DUAN Wei; SHEN Jiamin; WANG Jing; ZENG Chen; LONG Yu

    2007-01-01

    Gynogenetic diploid was induced in red crucian carp (RCC) ( Carassius auratus Red Variety) eggs using UV-irradiated spermatozoa from blunt snout bream (B) (Megalobrama amblycephala ) or from mirror carp (C) (Cyprinus carpio. L). Spermatozoa were genetically inactivated by an appropriate UV dosage, and then the maternal DNA was duplicated with cold shock at 0-4 ℃. When using the spermatozoa of B, the fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival at first feeding were 52.6 ± 3.0 %, 23.6 ± 4.1 % and 15.7 ± 3.4 %, respectively, and the survival at first feeding was significantly higher than that ( 11.3 ± 2.2 % ) when using the spermatozoa of C (Cyprinus carpio. L). According to the morphological characteristics, the chromosome number and the degree of gonadal development, gynogenetic RCC could be distinguished from the control hybrids of RCC♀ × B ♂ . The individuals with red body color, 100 chromosomes and normal gonadal development were successful gynogenetic RCC, while the individuals with 124 or 148 chromosomes and delayed gonadal development were hybrids of (RCC × B). The triploid hybrids (RCC × B) (2 years old) were sterile, but the tetraploid hybrids (RCC × B) were sexually mature age of two. In the present study, compared to the spermatozoa of C, the advantages of spermatozoa of B as the activation source were that could increase the survival at first feeding of gynogenetic individuals and simplify the confirmation of gynogenetic status, which suggested that the spermof B was an effective activation source for inducing gynogenesis in crucian carp.

  8. Estrogenic potencies of several environmental pollutants, as determined by vitellogenin induction in a carp hepatocyte assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, J M; van Holsteijn, I; Giesy, J P; Seinen, W; van den Berg, M

    1999-08-01

    Estrogenic potencies of several xenoestrogens were determined in vitro, using cultured hepatocytes from a genetically uniform male carp strain (Cyprinus carpio). Estrogenicity was measured as induction of the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (Vtg), and compared to Vtg induction by 17beta-estradiol (E2). The order of estrogenic potency was: methoxychlor (MXCL) > o,p-DDT > chlordecone approximately/= bisphenol-A approximately/= 4-t-pentylphenol. Estrogenic potencies of these compounds varied from 1 x 10(-3) to 1 x 10(-4) relative to E2. The synthetic estrogen DES had a relative estrogenic potency of 0.5, whereas dieldrin, beta-endosulfan, o,p-DDE, and toxaphene (technical mixture) did not induce vitellogenesis at concentrations up to 100 microM. Experiments in which cells were simultaneously exposed to E2 and these xenoestrogens showed that the Vtg-inducing activities of E2 and 4-t-pentylphenol or bisphenol-A were (partially) additive, whereas E2 antagonized the estrogenic effects of MXCL and o,p-DDT. The effect of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-induction on the estrogenicity of MXCL was studied by co-exposing cells to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD (10 pM) caused a greater than 50-fold induction of CYP1A, measured as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, but Vtg induction by MXCL was not significantly affected. This indicates that CYP1A is not involved in the bioactivation of MXCL to more potent estrogenic metabolites in carp. The CARP-HEP (hepatocyte) assay can detect xenoestrogens with a potency > or = 2 x 10(-5) relative to E2. It allows simultaneous testing of more than 10 compounds for both estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects, which makes it a promising tool for the screening of suspected xenoestrogens.

  9. Selective breeding programme of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in Serbia: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Milan M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations between weight, length and height of common carp in Serbia (Cyprinus carpio L. during 3-year growth period. The 50 families of common carp were produced in 2007 and used for the estimation of genetic parameters. The fish were measured at tagging for weight, length and height (W0, L0, H0, then during the first autumn (W1, L1, H1 and during the second autumn (W2, L2, H2. Based on univariate models heritability estimates were high for all traits (0.39, 0.34 and 0.45 for W1, L1 and H1, respectively and also for the second production year (0.49, 0.47 and 0.44 for W2, L2 and H2, respectively. The genetic correlations were estimated using multivariate models and they were high between W1 and L1 and H1 (0.81 ± 0.06 and 0.91 ± 0.03 for L1 and H1, respectively, while between H1 and L1 were moderately correlated (0.54 ± 0.12. In the second production year genetic correlations were also high, between W2 and L2 and H2 (0.64 ± 0.09 and 0.74 ± 0.06, respectively, while between length and height they were lower (0.24 ± 0.15. Based on the current results improving growth rate of common carp through genetic selection is expected to be effective.

  10. Cytochrome p450 induction and gonadal status alteration in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) associated with the discharge of dioxin contaminated effluent to the Hikiji River, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Nakai, Kiyotaka; Aoto, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Aiko; Ushikoshi, Ryoko; Hirose, Hitomi; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Kazusaka, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi

    2003-05-01

    Accumulations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls were analyzed in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected in the Hikiji River, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan in which dioxin contaminated effluent was released during the period starting from November 1992 to March 2000. Higher levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents were observed in carps collected downstream to the dioxin release site (contaminated site) than the reference site. Modulations of cytochrome p450 (CYP) enzyme in liver, serum estrogen concentration and gonadal somatic index (GSI) were also measured as biomarkers for the contaminants. Total CYP content in livers was markedly higher in male and female carps from the contaminated site relative to the reference site fish. The expression level of the cytochrome p450 1A and Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity were significantly higher in female carps from the contaminated site than from the reference site. A lower level of plasma estrogen was observed in carps from the contaminated site. The GSI in female carps from the contaminated site was smaller than that recorded at the reference site. The present study indicates that dioxins released to the Hikiji River might induce the CYP enzyme and inhibit the reproductive functions in common carps dwelling downstream from the release site.

  11. Human consumption as an invasive species management strategy. A preliminary assessment of the marketing potential of invasive Asian carp in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varble, Sarah; Secchi, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, Asian carp have invaded rivers and lakes in the Midwest and southern United States, with large negative impacts, such as encroachment on the habitat of native fish and mass die-off. They also respond to boat motors by jumping out of the water, which can cause harm to boaters and fishermen. Policymakers in the Great Lakes region between the US and Canada are worried about possible expansion of the Asian carp to their region and its effects on their fishing industry. A potential solution to the problem is to harvest Asian carp for human consumption. This study analyzes the results of the first national survey on the attitudes of US fish consumers towards Asian carp. We find that this is a potentially promising strategy. Most respondents would be willing to try a free sample of Asian carp and would be willing to pay for it. Because of the negative connotation attached to carp in general, this figure is encouraging. Creating demand for Asian carp could be a market based, cost-effective solution for a problem (invasive species) that is typically dealt with through command and control policies, if it is coupled with appropriate policies and safeguards to ensure the fish is eventually eradicated and not cultivated for profit after removal from US rivers and lakes.

  12. Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälinen Mervi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR to carbacholine (CCh and isoprenaline (Iso were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA temperatures. Results Inhibitory action of CCh was much stronger on atrial contractility than HR. CCh reduced force of atrial contraction at an order of magnitude lower concentrations (EC50 2.75-3.5·10-8 M in comparison to its depressive effect on HR (EC50 1.23-2.02·10-7 M (P -8 M and 10-7 M CCh, respectively (P + current, IK,CCh, with an EC50 value of 3-4.5·10-7 M and inhibited Ca2+ current (ICa by 28 ± 8% and 51 ± 6% at 10-7 M and 10-6 M, respectively. These currents can explain the shortening of AP. Iso did not elicit any responses in crucian carp sinoatrial preparations nor did it have any effect on atrial ICa, probably due to the saturation of the β-adrenergic cascade in the basal state. Conclusion In the crucian carp, HR and force of atrial contraction show cardio-depressive responses to the cholinergic agonist, but do not have any responses to the β-adrenergic agonist. The scope of inhibitory regulation by CCh is increased by the high basal tone of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP cascade. Higher concentrations of CCh were required to induce IK,CCh and inhibit ICa than was needed for CCh's negative inotropic effect on atrial muscle suggesting that neither IK,CCh nor ICa alone can mediate CCh's actions but they might synergistically reduce AP duration and atrial force production. Autonomic responses were similar in CA winter fish and WA summer fish indicating that cardiac sensitivity to external modulation by the autonomic nervous system is not involved in seasonal acclimatization of the crucian carp heart to cold and anoxic

  13. Ontogeny of the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system: Gene expression and experimental limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    , 3 and 7 post-wounding and samples were stored in RNA later for isolation of RNA. The physical tissue damage was performed using a sterile needle, which penetrated the skin and the underlying musculature in an area above the lateral line of the left side of fish. Carps at the age of 10, 16 and 24...... days post-hatch were stored and processed whole, whereas just the muscle (the left (wound area) and right filet (internal control)) was sampled for the two latter time-points. mRNA was extracted from the samples, cDNA was synthesised and gene expression was quantified using real-time RT...

  14. A refined electrofishing technique for collecting Silver Carp: Implications for management. Supporting data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouska, Wesley W.; Bouska, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    The table provides all fish collected using two different electrofishing methods at Illinois River sites in 2012 and 2013. Length and weights were taken on most species and gender was taken from Silver Carp. Fishes were categorized whether they were netters (caught by nets) or jumpers (jumped in the boat while sampling) and only netters were used in analyses. Large numbers of shad were collected in 2013 and an additional spreadsheet includes abundance data in an aggregated form for those sites. The data is not sensitive/classified and there are no legal restrictions on who may obtain or use the data.

  15. Fish culture in heated effluents (eastern Europe). [Growth increase in carp and rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backiel, T.; Gay, B.; La Croix, M.J.B.; Ophel, I.L. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Dependence of growth and reproduction of cultivated fishes on temperature are briefly reviewed. Experiments with and commercial-size operations of various methods of fish culture with the use of heated effluents are exemplified. Cage culture, earthen ponds, flowing water culture have demonstrated possibilities of growth increase in carp and rainbow trout and of controlled reproduction of the former. Problems involved in utilization of various systems and several points of view on the use of low-grade heat for fish culture are considered.

  16. The Effect of Washing and Inhibitor on Cathepsin Activity of Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effect of washing and temperature on the activity of cathepsins of Silver carp was studied.The result showed that the activity of cathepsin L was higher than those of cathepsin B and H.The total catalysis activity of these three enzymes was the highest at 55℃ after washing.The inhibiting effect of soybean protein and potato starch on cathepsin L also had been studied,the results showed that soybean protein and potato starch could decrease activity of cathepsins L significantly.

  17. Muscle characteristics comparison between grass carp and crisped grass carp%普通草鱼与脆化草鱼的肌肉特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关磊; 朱瑞俊; 李小勤; 冷向军

    2011-01-01

    以9尾体重为(1 295.7±37.2)g的普通草鱼和9尾体重为(706.8±6.5)g脆化草鱼(脆肉鲩)为实验对象,对其肌肉理化及质构特性进行比较研究。结果显示:脆化草鱼肌肉粗蛋白含量高于普通草鱼(P〈0.05),粗脂肪和铁含量比普通草鱼低(P〈0.05),二者肌肉水分、粗灰分及钙、铬含量无显著差异;脆化草鱼肌肉pH、肌纤维密度和胶原蛋白含量均大于普通草鱼(P〈0.05);脆化草鱼在2 h和4 h的肌肉滴水损失低于普通草鱼(P〈0.05),但8 h后差别不大;脆化草鱼肌肉硬度和咀嚼力均比普通草鱼高(P〈0.05)。对肉质性状指标分析表明,在一定范围内,肌纤维密度、pH、胶原蛋白有提高肉质品质的作用趋势;肌肉脂肪含量与肌肉硬度,肌纤维密度与肌肉滴水损失之间均呈显著负相关(P〈0.05)。研究亮点:脆化草鱼是鱼类肉品研究热点之一;本研究较全面的分析普通草鱼和脆化草鱼的肌肉特点,其中无机元素、质构参数、pH和滴水损失对其肉质的影响,在鱼类肉品研究中较少;同时探求了多因子对肉品影响及其相互作用关系,为鱼类肌肉品质评价提供依据。%The differences in physical and chemical characteristics and textural mechanical properties in muscles between 9 grass carps(body weight of 1295.7 ± 37.2 g) and 9 crisped grass carps(body weight of 706.8 ± 6.5 g) were investigated in the present study.The results indicated that the content of protein in crisped grass carp muscle was higher,while the contents of crude lipid and ferrum were lower than those in grass carp(P〈0.05),and there were no significant differences in muscle moisture,crude ash,calcium and chromium contents in both groups.Crisped grass carp had higher pH value,muscle fiber density and collagen content in muscle than those of grass carp(P〈0.05).Compared with grass carp,muscle drip loss of crisped grass carp at 2 h,4 h

  18. Molecular cloning of growth hormone receptor (GHR) from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. ) and identification of its two forms of mRNA transcripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaofeng; GUO Qionglin; HU Wei; WANG Yaping; ZHU Zuoyan

    2006-01-01

    The cDNA of growth hormone receptor (GHR) was cloned from the liver of 2-year common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. ) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). Its open reading frame (ORF) of 1806 nucleotides is translated into a putative peptide of 602 amino acids, including an extracellular ligand-binding domain of 244 amino acids (aa), a single transmembrane domain of 24 aa and an intracellular signal-transduction domain of 334 aa. Sequence analysis indicated that common carp GHR is highly homologous to goldfish (Carassius auratus) GHR at both gene and protein levels. Using a pair of gene-specific primers, a GHR fragment was amplified from the cDNA of 2-year common carp, a 224 bp product was identified in liver and a 321 bp product in other tissues. The sequencing of the products and the partial genomic DNA indicated that the difference in product size was the result of a 97 bp intron that alternatively spliced. In addition, the 321 bp fragment could be amplified from all the tissues of 4-month common carp including liver, demonstrating the occurrence of the alternative splicing of this intron during the development of common carp. Moreover, a semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed to analyze the expression level of GHR in tissues of 2-year common carp and 4-month common carp. The result revealed that in the tissues of gill, thymus and brain, the expression level of GHR in 2-year common carp was significantly lower than that of 4-month common carp.

  19. Caffeoylquinic acid derivatives from Bidens parviflora and their antihistamine release activites%小花鬼针草中咖啡酰奎宁酸类成分及其抑制组胺释放活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 王乃利; 姚新生; 北中進

    2006-01-01

    目的研究小花鬼针草Bidens parviflora全株的化学成分,并通过抑制组胺释放活性方法寻找生物活性化合物.方法采用硅胶、Sephadex LH-20和ODS柱色谱分离化合物,运用1D NMR,2D NMR等波谱法鉴定了化学结构,通过组胺抑制实验探讨抗炎活性.结果分离鉴定6种咖啡酰奎宁酸类化合物及其甲酯,分别是3,5-二氧咖啡酰奎宁酸(3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid,Ⅰ)、3,4-二氧咖啡酰奎宁酸(3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid,Ⅱ)、4,5-二氧咖啡酰奎宁酸(4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid,Ⅲ)、4-氧-咖啡酰奎宁酸(4-O-caffeoylquinic acid,Ⅳ)、5-氧-咖啡酰奎宁酸(5-O-caffeoylquinic acid,Ⅴ)、4-[3-(3,4-二羟基苯基)-丙烯酰氧基]-2,3-二羟基-2-甲基-丁酸{4-[3-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-acryloyloxy]-2,3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butyric acid,Ⅵ}.结论所有化合物均为首次从该植物中分得,化合物Ⅵ为新化合物.这些化合物显示一定的抑制组织胺释放活性.%Objective Based on the activities of antihistamine release to study the compounds from Bidens parvi-flora and find biological active compounds. Methods The chemical constituents from B.parviflora were isolated by silica gel and Sphadex LH-20 column chromatographies and purified by preparative HPLC. The chemical structures had been identified by physiochemical properties and spectroscopic methods. Results Six caffeoylquinic acid derivatives were identified as 3, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( Ⅰ ),3, 4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( Ⅱ ), 4, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( Ⅲ ), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( Ⅳ ), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( Ⅴ ), 4-[3-(3, 4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-acryloyloxy]-2, 3-dihydroxy-2-methyl-butyric acid ( Ⅵ ). Conclusion Compounds Ⅰ - Ⅵ are first obtained from B. parviflora and Ⅵ is new one. Some of the compounds exhibit the activities in antiallergic assays. Moreover, the structure-activity relationships of these compounds have been also discussed in this paper.

  20. Major histocompatibility (MH) class II ß gene polymorphism influences disease resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakus, K.L.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Jurecka, P.M.; Walker, P.D.; Pilarczyk, A.; Irnazarow, I.

    2009-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are crucial elements of adaptive immunity. High polymorphism renders the MHC genes highly suitable for studies on association with disease resistance. In common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), there are two paralogous groups of MH class II B genes, Cyca

  1. Extending the Use of Spanish Computer-Assisted Anomia Rehabilitation Program (CARP-2) in People with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Jose A.; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Buiza, Juan J.; Sage, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To extend the use of the Spanish Computer-assisted Anomia Rehabilitation Program (CARP-2) for anomia from a single case to a group of 15 people with aphasia. To evaluate whether the treatment is active (Phase 1) for this group (Robey & Schultz, 1998), providing potential explanations as to why. Methods: Fifteen participants with chronic…

  2. Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás

    2009-10-14

    The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements.

  3. Trypanoplasma borreli cystein proteinase activities support a conservation of function with respect to digestion of host proteins in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruszczyk, A.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Jurecka, P.M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanoplasma borreli is an extracellular parasite that is transmitted by a leech vector and is naturally found in the blood of cyprinid fish. High parasitemia and associated severe anemia together with splenomegaly are typical of infection of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Papain-like cysteine pro

  4. The induction of nitric oxide response of carp macrophages by transferrin is influenced by the allelic diversity of the molecule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurecka, P.M.; Irnazarow, I.; Stafford, J.L.; Ruszczyk, A.; Taverne, N.; Belosevic, M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    The central role of transferrin (Tf) as an iron transporting protein has been extended by observations that modified versions of Tf also participate in the regulation of innate immunity. We report on the isolation of two carp Tf proteins (alleles D and G) to purity using rivanol precipitation and io

  5. Segregation of microsatellite alleles and residual heterogosity at single loci in homozygous androgenetic common carp (Cyprino carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, M.W.T.; Palstra, A.P.; Weerd, van de M.; Leffering, C.P.; Poel, van der J.J.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-three androgenetic progeny groups of common carp were analysed using 11 microsatellite markers to (i) verify the homozygous status of the 566 androgenetic individuals, (ii) analyse the microsatellite allele segregation, and (iii) study the possible association of microsatellite alleles with p

  6. Expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in mucosal tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Tuin, van der S.J.L.; Yang Guiwen,; Schopman, N.; Mroczek, A.; Hermsen, G.J.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The mucosal immune system seems to be an important defence mechanism for fish but the binding of IgM in mucosal organs is poorly described in fish. In this study the gene encoding the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in carp has been isolated and sequenced from a liver cDNA-library and align

  7. Rag expression identifies B and T cell lymphopoietic tissues during the development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Huising, M.O.; Meulen, van der T.; Oosterhoud, van C.N.; Alvarez Sánchez, N.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Stroband, H.W.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The generation of lymphoid cells during carp development was studied by analyzing expression of the recombination activating genes (rag) using in situ hybridization and real time quantitative PCR. These data were combined with immunohistochemistry using the mAb's WCL9 (cortical thymocytes) and WCI12

  8. Experimental study on the possibilities of direct transfer of caesium 137 from sediment to the carps (Cyprinus carpio L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrechts, A.; Foulquier, L.

    1983-06-01

    The exchanges of caesium 137 with the Rhone river water and deposits and its direct transfer from water and deposits to the carp are studied. The sediments have a high retention capacity for radiocaesium associated with fine particles and certain clays (illite). Caesium desorption from sediment to water is always very weak (less than 5% of the initial activity of the sediments; it varies with the agitation and salinity of the water. The transfer of caesium from the water to the carps is characterized by a regular increase of activity in the fish. After 63 days of experimentation, equilibrium has not been reached, the carp have retained only 1% of the water activity, and their concentration factor is about 4. The transfer of caesium from sediment to the fish is weak but regular. After 79 days of experimentation, equilibrium has not been reached. Less than 1% of the sediments activity is found in the fish; the transfer factor is about 10/sup -3/. Because of the high content of caesium 137 in sediments, the activity of the carp is increased and the concentration factor, calculated in relation to the surface water, is greater than 60.

  9. Effects of food type on diel behaviours of common carp Cyprinus carpio in simulated aquaculture pond conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Meyer, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand behaviour patterns of common carp Cyprinus carpio in aquaculture ponds, their diel grazing, swimming, resting and schooling behaviours were observed in six 1 m(2) tanks under simulated pond conditions. Each tank was fertilized to stimulate natural food production before

  10. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yanbo Wang, Xuxia Yan, Linglin Fu Marine Resources and Nutrition Biology Research Center, Food Quality and Safety Department, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nano-selenium (Se, with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. Keywords: selenium nanoparticle, intestinal epithelial cell, crucian carp, primary culture

  11. Interaction between the blood fluke, Sanguinicola inermis and humoral components of the immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.L.; Lewis, J.W.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Sanguinicola inermis on serum antibody and complement activity in Cyprinus carpio was assessed using an ELISA and haemolytic assays. Possible immune evasion strategies were assessed using immunodetection of host proteins on the surface of the parasite. Carp acclimatized to 20 or 25 °C

  12. Influence of Organic Selenium (SelPlex on the Reproduction on Males Carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lausitz Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Şara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex on the reproductive function in 3 summer old males common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lausitz variety. The researches were carried out on two groups on a total 12 males carp in 3 summers old (6 in each group. Experimental period was 39 day and organic Selenium (SelPlex at a dose of 0.03 mg/kg feed was added in the feed for the experimental group. The use of SelPlex significantly influenced the concentration of spermatozoa of the three summers carp. Analyzing the results obtained shows that the addition of organic selenium in the nutrition of carp breeders caused a slight increase in protein, and fat decreased slightly from sperm, the differences between groups were non-significant (p>0.05%. The slight increase in the amount of protein in milt is due to the positive effect of organic selenium over glutathione peroxidase activity of sperm cores (SN-GSH-Px, which is an integral part of sperm chromatin with the possibility of amino-acid uptake. Researches regarding viability, meristically and somatic measurements of breeders were carried out and significant differences were recorded in the experimental group compared to the control.

  13. Transcriptional analysis of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) immune response to the fish louse Argulus japonicus Thiele (Crustacea: Branchiura)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forlenza, M.; Walker, P.; Vries, de B.J.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we investigated changes in transcription levels of a panel of selected immune relevant genes in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and skin samples collected from carp exposed to larval Argulus japonicus. We show that in skin up-regulation of gene transcription of the chemokine C

  14. β-glucan enriched bath directly stimulates the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera;

    2013-01-01

    day 14. The results for the β-glucan treated wounds were more complex. The images showed significantly faster wound contraction in both treated groups compared to the control. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that a β glucan enriched bath promotes the closure of wounds in common carp...

  15. New type of pathogenicity of Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 infecting the skin of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao; Guo, Qingxiang; Wu, Zizhen; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 is a common parasite infecting the intestine of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., resulting in mass mortality or loss of economic value of cultured carp. In the present study, T. kitauei infecting host skin was detected. The morphological, molecular and histological data of this parasite in the new organ record are presented. Morphological analysis showed the current specimen morphologically similar to T. kitauei from the intestine. Despite the spore length and polar capsule length of the current specimen larger than those of T. kitauei from the intestine, ranges of dimensions overlap, which is more suggestive of intraspecific variation than distinct species. BLAST search revealed that the present small subunit ribosomal DNA gene sequence is identical to those of T. kitauei. Histologically, most of spores distributed in the stratum spongiosum of dermis, and some spores in the strata compactum of host skin were also observed. Above all, both morphology and molecular analysis indicated that the current species from the skin of common carp is conspecific with T. kitauei from the intestine of carp and organ habitats transfer of T. kitauei from host intestine to skin may have occurred.

  16. Chemical Cues which Include Amino Acids Mediate Species-Specific Feeding Behavior in Invasive Filter-Feeding Bigheaded Carps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2017-03-15

    This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P < 0.01) and over 35-fold when planktonic food was added (P < 0.001). Next, we showed that of nine food filtrates, the one containing chemicals released by spirulina, a type of cyanobacterium, was the most potent planktonic component for both species. The potency of filtrates varied between species in ways that reflected their different chemical compositions. While L-amino acids could explain about half of the activity of food filtrate, other unknown chemical stimuli were also implicated. Finally, occlusion experiments showed the olfactory sense has a very important, but not exclusive, role in bigheaded carp feeding behaviors and this might be exploited in both their control and culture.

  17. MANIFESTATION OF THE EFFECT OF CRYOSELECTION IN CARP OFFSPRINGS OBTAINED FROM DEFROSTED SPERM SUSPENSION WITH MODIFIED CRYOPROTECTIVE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cherepnin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effect of the cryoselection of carp sperm of multiple age groups depending on the quality of thawed sperm after modification of the composite cryoprotective medium, which was used for the dilution of native sperm before freezing. Methodology. Coenzyme B12 (cobamamide, blood plasma of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio, which was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, and purified protein antifreeze tmAFP isolated from larval mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, which also was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, were sued as modifiers. Findings. The results of the study demonstrated that qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the defrosted sperm, results of the incubation, rearing of embryos and larvae of Nyvky scaled carp (NLC, as well as fish culture parameters of produced young-of-the-year depended from on the composition of cryoprotective medium. The best results were demonstrated for the experimental groups, obtained with the use of the cryoprotective solution supplemented with purified antifreeze protein tmAFP. The larvae obtained from the sperm cryopreserved with the addition of cryoprotective medium TmAFP had better resistance to dehydration, surpassing the experimental groups obtained from the modifiers of Prussian carp plasma and cobamamide. There is a consolidation in the action of the related extracellular cryoprotectors, which were isolated from the cold-resistant organisms. And carp produced with their used demonstrated better performance during their rearing. The fact can be established that the manifestation of cryoselective effect depends on the integrity of sperm hereditary material and does not depend on the effect of extremely low temperatures on the cell membranes. Originality. There were the first experiments, where Prussian carp plasma and antifreeze protein tmAFP were used as extracellular cryoprotectors. Practical value. The modifications of composite

  18. THE LIPID COMPOSITION OF TISSUE OF SCALY CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L. IN THE CONDITIONS OF ARTIFICIAL CARBON HIBERNATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sysolyatin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Establish and compare the content of the total lipids in the liver, skeletal muscle, gill and brain pond carp active life condition and under artificial hibernation carbon. Methodology. The experiments were conducted on the Ukrainian scaly carp breed (Cyprinus caprio L. weighing 250–270 g. To conduct research to form two groups (control — 5 copies of the fish and an experimental — each point hypobiosis exposure to 5 copies of the fish. Introduction of fish hypobiotically state conducted for the use of a patented model artificial hibernation. The selection of material performed by opening the first and second fish group on the 3, 6 and 24 hours of exposure, then it is frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen. Lipid extraction after homogenization of brain tissue, liver, skeletal muscle and gills was performed according to Folch. The content of the total lipids (from the weight of the dry residue after extraction was determined using the gravimetric method. The separation into individual lipid fractions were determined thin layer chromatography by plates "Silufol". Quantitative determination of total phospholipids — hydroxamate method; cholesterol — colorimetric method with three ferric chlorides. All the results are treated variation-statistical method using the Student's t-tests. Findings. These results suggest that the content of total lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol in the tissues of the carp pond in the active state of life is significantly different. The content of the total lipids in the liver, skeletal muscle, gill and brain in a carp pond introducing carbon dioxide into a state of artificial hibernation (hypercapnic hypoxia-medium is reduced in comparison with the control. Under these conditions, noted a slight increase in tissue phospholipids, as well as a significant increase in cholesterol and the coefficient (CL/PL, especially in the liver, indicating that the use of lipids in energy and adaptation processes

  19. Dynamics of microcystins-LR and -RR in the phytoplanktivorous silver carp in a sub-chronic toxicity experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Liqiang; Xie Ping; Ozawa, Kazuhiko; Honma, Takamitsu; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Park, Ho-Dong

    2004-02-01

    A sub-chronic toxicity experiment was conducted to examine tissue distribution and depuration of two microcystins (microcystin-LR and microcystin -RR) in the phytoplanktivorous filter-feeding silver carp during a course of 80 days. Two large tanks (A, B) were used, and in Tank A, the fish were fed naturally with fresh Microcystis viridis cells (collected from a eutrophic pond) throughout the experiment, while in Tank B, the food of the fish were M. viridis cells for the first 40 days and then changed to artificial carp feed. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure MC-LR and MC-RR in the M. viridis cells, the seston, and the intestine, blood, liver and muscle tissue of silver carp at an interval of 20 days. MC-RR and MC-LR in the collected Microcystis cells varied between 268-580 and 110-292 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW, respectively. In Tank A, MC-RR and MC-LR varied between 41.5-99.5 and 6.9-15.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW in the seston, respectively. The maximum MC-RR in the blood, liver and muscle of the fish was 49.7, 17.8 and 1.77 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW, respectively. No MC-LR was detectable in the muscle and blood samples of the silver carp in spite of the abundant presence of this toxin in the intestines (for the liver, there was only one case when a relatively minor quantity was detected). These findings contrast with previous experimental results on rainbow trout. Perhaps silver carp has a mechanism to degrade MC-LR actively and to inhibit MC-LR transportation across the intestines. The depuration of MC-RR concentrations occurred slowly than uptakes in blood, liver and muscle, and the depuration rate was in the order of blood>liver>muscle. The grazing ability of silver carp on toxic cyanobacteria suggests an applicability of using phytoplanktivorous fish to counteract cyanotoxin contamination in eutrophic waters. - Silver carp are tolerant of cyanobacterial toxins, and might be used to control toxic algal blooms in highly eutrophic lakes.

  20. EFFECT OF FEEDING AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS ON AQUACULTURAL AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AGE-2 CARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palamarchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Methodology. The study was conducted at Lviv Experimental Station of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS according to generally accepted aquacultural rules of experiments and repeats. The object of the study were age-2 carp. The weight part of protein was determined acc. to Kjeldahl method, fat content acc. to S. Rushkovsky method. Hemoglobin content in fish blood was determined using hemoglobin-cyanide method (with atsetonninhidryn. The number of red blood cells was counted in a Goryaev chamber. The obtained data were processed statistically using standard statistical package of Microsoft EXCEL. Findings. The use of amaranth in the feeding of age-2 carp has positive effect on their growth and survival, nutritional value of fish flesh, and results in an increase of hemoglobin in blood. It was found that the addition of 10% ground amaranth seeds and 5% amaranth oil during the entire growing season resulted in an increase of mean weight of carp by 4.2 and 5.2% and in an increase of fish productivity by 5.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Feeding of carp with a feed supplemented by amaranth contributed to an increase in protein content in fish muscles by 2.07% (P <0.01 and 1.30% (P <0.05, respectively. The number of red blood cells in the blood of carp fed with ground amaranth seeds increased by 10.2%, while in those fed by amaranth oil - by 3.7% compared to the control group of fish. Hemoglobin content after feeding of fish with amaranth oil increased by 6.79%. Amaranth is added to the fish feed mixture to replace cereal component after heat treatment. Originality. Despite high nutritional, food and medicinal properties, amaranth is not used in fish farming as a feed additive. According to the obtained results, we developed the norms and methods of supplementing the basic diet of age-2 carp with this additive. Practical value. Implementation of the obtained results will provide an opportunity to increase fish productivity in ponds through feeding of fish

  1. PATHOLOGICAL TISSUE LESIONS INDUCED BY CHRONIC MERCURY INTOXICATION IN SILVER CRUCIAN CARP CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIOARA NICULA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to describe the histopathological effects of chronic inorganic mercury intoxication on liver, gills, kidneys, small intestine and skin in silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. 20 immature 1+-year-old crucian carp were obtained from a private fishfarm and acclimatized to laboratory conditions. After a 3 weeks exposure to a sublethal mercury concentration (0.25 ppm from a HgCl2 stock solution, liver, gills, kidney, small intestine and skin were sampled and processed for histological examination.The main effects observed: numerous interstitial leukocytar infiltrates, followed by glomerulonephritis and tubulonephritis there are at the renal level; fibrosation of peri- and interlobular conjunctive tissue, including ectasiated blood vessel and numerous limphocytar infiltrates enlarged both in perilobular and intralobular conjunctive tissue at the liver level; an disorganization process of gill lamellae by superficial layer alteration, at the gill level; cells of skin epiderma exhibit hiperplazic hypertrophy, epithelial desquamation, intraepithelial edema and citoplasmatic vacuolization; light epithelial distrophic processes and an abundant leukocytar infiltrate both in vilositaire chorion and basal chorion at the small intestine level.

  2. Assessment of the sublethal toxicity of organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Lígia M; Bainy, Afonso C D; Ventura, Eliana C; Marques, Maria R F; Silva, José Roberto M C; Klemz, Cláudio; Silva de Assis, Helena C

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the sublethal effects of endosulfan (EDS) in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). For this purpose, fish were exposed for 15 days to the technical EDS (95% pure) diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 0.1% of the total volume in water solution in a semi-static system at sublethal concentration (1 μg/L). Subsequently, the liver somatic index (LSI) and factor condition (K) were determined. The total cytocrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A isoform, and the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were determined from the hepatic microsomal fraction as well as the activity of the oxidative stress enzyme system such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GP(X)), glutathione reductase (GR), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). Among the parameters assessed, EDS at the sublethal concentration in subchronic exposure caused significant changes in liver somatic indices as well as induction of the phase I biotransformation system and oxidative stress in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Thus, it is seen that the use of biochemical biomarkers of environmental contamination in this study proved to be an extremely important tool for detecting the adverse effects of xenobiotics in the aquatic environment, even at low concentration.

  3. Carbofuran promotes biochemical changes in carp exposed to rice field and laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Bárbara; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Murussi, Camila; Pretto, Alexandra; Menezes, Charlene; Dalabona, Fabrícia; Marchezan, Enio; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2014-03-01

    Effects of carbofuran commercial formulation on oxidative stress parameters were studied in carps (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to 50µg/L for 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were increased in the brain of fish after 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. In the liver and muscle, TBARS levels increased after 7 and 30 days under laboratory conditions, whereas in rice field the levels increased only after 30 days. Protein carbonyl content in the liver increased after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was decreased in the brain and muscle after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions evaluated. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in the liver after 7 and 30 days under rice field condition, whereas under laboratory condition this enzyme increased only after 30 days. The catalase (CAT) activity in the liver decreased after 30 days under rice field condition, whereas no changes were observed under laboratory conditions. In rice field, glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreased after 7 days but increased after 30 days, whereas no change was observed in fish exposed to carbofuran under laboratory conditions. These results suggest that environmental relevant carbofuran concentrations may cause oxidative stress, affecting biochemical and enzymatic parameters on carps. Some parameters could be used as biomarkers to carbofuran exposure.

  4. Effects of growth hormone (GH) transgene and nutrition on growth and bone development in common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tingbing; Zhang, Tanglin; Wang, Yaping; Chen, Yushun; Hu, Wei; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2013-10-01

    Limited information is available on effects of growth hormone transgene and nutrition on growth and development of aquatic animals. Here, we present a study to test these effects with growth-enhanced transgenic common carp under two nutritional conditions or feeding rations (i.e., 5% and 10% of fish body weight per day). Compared with the nontransgenic fish, the growth rates of the transgenic fish increased significantly in both feeding rations. The shape of the pharyngeal bone was similar among treatments, but the transgenic fish had relatively smaller and lighter pharyngeal bone compared with the nontransgenic fish. Calcium content of the pharyngeal bone of the transgenic fish was significantly lower than that of the nontransgenic fish. Feeding ration also affected growth rate but less of an effect on bone development. By manipulating intrinsic growth and controlling for both environment (e.g., feeding ration) and genetic background or genotype (e.g., transgenic or not), this study provides empirical evidence that the genotype has a stronger effect than the environment on pharyngeal bone development. The pharyngeal bone strength could be reduced by decreased calcium content and calcification in the transgenic carp.

  5. Transgene for growth hormone in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) promotes thymus development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qionglin; WANG Yaping; JIA Weizhang; ZHU Zuoyan

    2003-01-01

    The transgenic carp were produced by microinjection of CAgcGHc into the fertilized eggs. Observation of the thymus development between the transgenics and non- transgenic controls was carried out. The thymus of one-year- old transgenics F1 showed a great increase in both size and weight. The unilateral thymus of the transgenics weighed from 190 to 295 mg with average 218.6 mg, whereas the unilateral thymus of the controls weighed 20-81 mg with average 42.5 mg; i.e. the thymus weight in the transgenics was 5.14 fold over that in the controls. The index of thymus/body weight in the transgenics was 2.97 fold over the controls. Light microscopy observation indicated that the thymus of the transgenics well developed with the thickened outer region and compactly arranged thymocytes, while the thymus in the controls were degenerating with the thinned outer region, scattered thymocytes and groups of fatty cells. Further analysis with the electron microscopy revealed that proliferous cells in the transgenics were mainly small lymphocytes and no pathological changes were found. The results confirmed that the "All-fish" GH-transgene promotes thymus development and thymocyte proliferation, and retards thymus degeneration. The study has laid a foundation for further analysis of the immunobiological function in GH- transgenic carp.

  6. Transgenic common carp do not have the ability to expand populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lian

    Full Text Available The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of "all-fish" growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1∶1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear.

  7. Rapid growth cost in "all-fish" growth hormone gene transgenic carp: Reduced critical swimming speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DeLiang; FU CuiZhang; HU Wei; ZHONG Shan; WANG YaPing; ZHU ZuoYan

    2007-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that there is a trade-off between benefits and costs associated with rapid growth. A trade-off between growth rates and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) had been also reported to be common in teleost fish. We hypothesize that growth acceleration in the F3 generation of "all-fish"growth hormone gene (GH) transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) would reduce the swimming abilities. Growth and swimming performance between transgenic fish and non-transgenic controls were compared. The results showed that transgenic fish had a mean body weight 1.4-1.9-fold heavier,and a mean specific growth rate (SGR) value 6%-10% higher than the controls. Transgenic fish,however, had a mean absolute Ucrit (cm/s) value 22% or mean relative Ucrit (BL/s) value 24% lower than the controls. It suggested that fast-growing "all-fish" GH-transgenic carp were inferior swimmers. It is also supported that there was a trade-off between growth rates and swimming performance, i.e.faster-growing individuals had lower critical swimming speed.

  8. Cue-based and algorithmic learning in common carp: A possible link to stress coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Borcato, Fabio Luiz; Huntingford, Felicity Ann

    2015-06-01

    Common carp that had been screened for stress coping style using a standard behavioural test (response to a novel environment) were given a learning task in which food was concealed in one of two compartments, its location randomised between trials and its presence in a given compartment signalled by either a red or a yellow light. All the fish learned to find food quickly, but did so in different ways. Fifty five percent learned to use the light cue to locate food; the remainder achieved the same result by developing a fixed movement routine. To explore this variation, we related learning strategy to stress coping style. Time to find food fell identically with successive trials in carp classified as reactive or proactive, but reactive fish tended to follow the light cue and proactive fish to adopt a fixed routine. Among fish that learned to follow the light, reactive individuals took fewer trials to reach the learning criterion than did proactive fish. These results add to the growing body of information on within-species variation in learning strategies and suggest a possible influence of stress coping style on the use of associative learning as opposed to algorithmic searching during foraging.

  9. Expression pattern and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yongyan; Lu, Xiaonan; He, Libo; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Aidi; Li, Yongming; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Noxa, a pro-apoptotic protein, plays an important role in cell apoptosis. The researches about noxa gene were concentrated in mammalians, whereas the role and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa in fish were still unclear. In this study, the expression pattern and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa gene in grass carp were analyzed. Noxa was constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues but the relative expression level differed. After exposure to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), mRNA expression level of noxa was down-regulated at the early phase whereas up-regulated at the late phase of infection. Luciferase assays showed that the promoter region -867 ∼ +107 of noxa had high activity and the region -678 ∼ -603 was important in the response to GCRV infection. By deleting the predicted transcription factor binding sites, transcription factors FOXO1 and CEBPβ were found important for noxa in response to GCRV infection. Moreover, the noxa promoter was biotin-labeled and incubated with nuclear extracts from GCRV infected cells. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that transcription factors FOXO1 and CEBPβ were also enriched in the combined proteins. Therefore, the results suggested that transcription factors FOXO1 and CEBPβ may play an important role in the regulation of noxa. Our study would provide new insight into the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa in teleost fish.

  10. The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Terbuthylazine on Early Developmental Stages of Common Carp

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    Stanislava Štěpánová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of terbuthylazine in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test. The exposure to terbuthylazin showed no effect on mortality, but significant differences (P<0.0001 were revealed on weight and growth parameters at concentrations of 520 and 820 μg/L. The inhibition of specific growth rate at concentrations of 520 and 820 μg/L was 14% compared to the control group. No significant negative effects on total body length and body weight were observed at lower concentrations (0.9 and 160 μg/L. The concentrations 520 and 820 μg/L were associated with a delay in development compared to other experimental groups and controls. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and determination of developmental stages, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC of terbuthylazine was estimated at 160 μg/L and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC was 520 μg/L. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of terbuthylazine in Czech rivers does not impact growth, development, morphology, or histology of carp embryos and larvae.

  11. Bioconcentration and excretion of diazinon, IBP, malathion and fenitrothion by carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, T; Aoki, S; Kojima, M; Harada, H

    1990-01-01

    1. Bioconcentration and excretion of diazinon, IBP, malathion and fenitrothion were studied for carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). 2. The concentrations of these pesticides in muscle and viscera of the carp reached plateaus in 12-48 hr exposure. 3. The average values of bioconcentration factors (BCF) for diazinon were 20.9 in muscle, 60.0 in liver, 111.1 in kidney and 32.2 in gallbladder over the 168 hr exposure period. Similarly, those values were 4.3-26.7 for IBP, 2.7-17.3 for malathion, and 36.0-157.1 for fenitrothion. 4. The excretion rate constants of malathion (hr-1) were 0.13 for muscle, 0.12 for liver, 0.08 for kidney and 0.06 for gallbladder. Those of diazinon, IBP and fenitrothion (g.ng-1.hr-1) were 0.002-0.024 for muscle, 0.001-0.020 for liver, 0.0004-0.004 for kidney and 0.002-0.023 for gallbladder, respectively.

  12. Suppression of RNA Interference Pathway in vitro by Grass Carp Reovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuai Guo; Dan Xu; Hong-xu Xu; Tu Wang; Jia-le Li; Li-qun Lu

    2012-01-01

    The means of survival of genomic dsRNA of reoviruses from dsRNA-triggered and Dicer-initiated RNAi pathway remains to be defined.The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) replication on the RNAi pathway of grass carp kidney cells (CIK).The dsRNA-triggered RNAi pathway was demonstrated unimpaired in CIK cells through RNAi assay.GCRV-specific siRNA was generated in CIK cells transfected with purified GCRV genomic dsRNA in Northern blot analysis; while in GCRV-infected CIK cells,no GCRV-specific siRNA could be detected.Infection and transfection experiments further indicated that replication of GCRV correlated with the increased transcription level of the Dicer gene and functional inhibition of in vitro synthesized egfp-siRNA in silencing the EGFP reporter gene.These data demonstrated that although only the genomic dsRNA of GCRV was sensitive to the cellular RNAi pathway,unidentified RNAi suppressor protein(s) might contribute to the survival of the viral genome and efficient viral replication.

  13. Invasive Carassius Carp in Georgia: Current state of knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella JAPOSHVILI, Levan MUMLADZE, Fahrettin KÜÇÜK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758 was known from only one locality after Kesslers record (1877–1878 with no new findings until 1985. Since then C. carassius rapidly and simultaneously invaded almost all water bodies of Georgia. In 2004, it was for the first time noted that this invasive Carassius sp. could not be a C. Carassius, but was a form of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1792. However no further data is available about this invasive species in Georgia. The aim of the present study was to investigate taxonomic status of Carassius sp. in Georgia using mtDNA phylogenetic analyses and morphometric study of truss network system. Genetic analysis revealed that invasive Carassius sp. is closely related to the C. gibelio from Turkey and other countries. In contrast, morphometrically Carassius sp. from Georgia can be easily differentiated from those of Turkey indicating high intraspecific variability. This is the first time discussion on the current knowledge of the present distribution of invasive carp in Georgia with identifying current problems and future research directions needed [Current Zoology 59 (6: 732–739, 2013].

  14. ENU-induced mutagenesis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus by treating mature sperm.

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    Xia-Yun Jiang

    Full Text Available N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutagenesis is a useful approach for genetic improvement of plants, as well as for inducing functional mutants in animal models including mice and zebrafish. In the present study, mature sperm of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus were treated with a range of ENU concentrations for 45 min, and then wild-type eggs were fertilized. The results indicated that the proportion of embryos with morphological abnormalities at segmentation stage or dead fry at hatching stage increased with increasing ENU dose up to 10 mM. Choosing a dose that was mutagenic, but provided adequate numbers of viable fry, an F1 population was generated from 1 mM ENU-treated sperm for screening purposes. The ENU-treated F1 population showed large variations in growth during the first year. A few bigger mutants with morphologically normal were generated, as compared to the controls. Analysis of DNA from 15 F1 ENU-treated individuals for mutations in partial coding regions of igf-2a, igf-2b, mstn-1, mstn-2, fst-1 and fst-2 loci revealed that most ENU-treated point mutations were GC to AT or AT to GC substitution, which led to nonsense, nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations. The average mutation rate at the examined loci was 0.41%. These results indicate that ENU treatment of mature sperm can efficiently induce point mutations in grass carp, which is a potentially useful approach for genetic improvement of these fish.

  15. Isolation and analysis of membrane lipids and lipid rafts in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Graham; Propsting, Marcus; Adamek, Mikolaj; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2014-03-01

    Cell membranes act as an interface between the interior of the cell and the exterior environment and facilitate a range of essential functions including cell signalling, cell structure, nutrient uptake and protection. It is composed of a lipid bilayer with integrated proteins, and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer comprises of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains. Lo microdomains, also named as lipid rafts are enriched in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and certain types of proteins, which facilitate cell signalling and nutrient uptake. Lipid rafts have been extensively researched in mammals and the presence of functional lipid rafts was recently demonstrated in goldfish, but there is currently very little knowledge about their composition and function in fish. Therefore a protocol was established for the analysis of lipid rafts and membranous lipids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues. Twelve lipids were identified and analysed in the Ld domain of the membrane with the most predominant lipids found in all tissues being; triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphoethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Four lipids were identified in lipid rafts in all tissues analysed, triglycerides (33-62%) always found in the highest concentration followed by cholesterol (24-32%), phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Isolation of lipid rafts was confirmed by identifying the presence of the lipid raft associated protein flotillin, present at higher concentrations in the detergent resistant fraction. The data provided here build a lipid library of important carp tissues as a baseline for further studies into virus entry, protein trafficking or environmental stress analysis.

  16. Carp neutrophilic granulocytes form extracellular traps via ROS-dependent and independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijanowski, L; Golbach, L; Kolaczkowska, E; Scheer, M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L; Chadzinska, M

    2013-05-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been described as an important innate defense mechanism that leads to immobilization and killing of invading pathogens. NETs have been identified in several species, but the mechanisms involved in NET formation and their role in infection have not been well determined yet. Here we show that upon in vitro stimulation with different immunostimulants of bacterial, fungal or viral origin, carp neutrophilic granulocytes rapidly release NET structures. We analyzed the composition of these structures and the kinetics of their formation by confocal microscopy, by quantifying the levels of extracellular DNA and the release of enzymes originating from neutrophilic granules: myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Profiles of NET release by carp neutrophils as well as their enzyme composition are stimulus- and time-dependent. This study moreover provides evidence for a stimulus-dependent selective requirement of reactive oxygen species in the process of NET formation. Collectively the results support an evolutionary conserved and strictly regulated mechanism of NET formation in teleost fish.

  17. Winter Growth of Carps under Different Semi-Intensive Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Nazish* and Abdul Mateen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was planned to observe the influence of different semi intensive culture conditions i.e. organic and inorganic fertilizer with rice polish on the growth of carps during winter season. Two earthen ponds were selected and each pond was stocked with Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Rohu (Labeo rohita and Mori (Cirrhinus mrigala at the ratio of 1:2:1 respectively with a total number of 44 fishes. Pond 1 was treated with poultry dropping and urea while pond 2 was treated with poultry dropping, urea and rice polish. The ponds were treated with at the rate of 0.2 g N/100g of wet body weight of fish. Fertilizers were added on weekly basis while rice polish was added daily. Total net fish production of pond 1 and pond 2 was remained 797.3 and 1033.0 kg/ha/year. The pond treated with fertilizer and artificial feed (rice polish showed 3.6% more fish production than the pond treated only with fertilizer. The physico-chemical parameters were measured on weekly basis. Temperature, light penetration, pH and planktonic biomass showed non-significant difference in both ponds. Pond 2 which was treated with poultry dropping, urea and rice polish showed 1.26 times greater fish growth than pond 1 which was treated with poultry dropping and urea.

  18. Improved methods for capture, extraction, and quantitative assay of environmental DNA from Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron R Turner

    Full Text Available Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp., an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species.

  19. Improved methods for capture, extraction, and quantitative assay of environmental DNA from Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Cameron R; Miller, Derryl J; Coyne, Kathryn J; Corush, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species.

  20. Expression of the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in mucosal tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombout, J H W M; van der Tuin, S J L; Yang, G; Schopman, N; Mroczek, A; Hermsen, T; Taverne-Thiele, J J

    2008-05-01

    The mucosal immune system seems to be an important defence mechanism for fish but the binding of IgM in mucosal organs is poorly described in fish. In this study the gene encoding the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in carp has been isolated and sequenced from a liver cDNA-library and aligned with other species. The pIgR of carp consists of 2 Ig domains, a transmembrane and an intracellular region, together 327 amino acids. In situ hybridisations with sense and anti-sense DIG-labelled pIgR RNA probes were performed on liver, gut and skin of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and in these organs only anti-sense probes were found to hybridise. In liver the majority of hepatocytes was stained around the nucleus. In gut and skin, staining could be detected around the nucleus of the epithelial cells, but in gut also a subpopulation of lymphoid cells was stained in epithelium and lamina propria. The specific in situ hybridisation of the epithelia and hepatocytes coincides with the in situ binding of FITC-labelled carp IgM to the same cells. RT-PCR results indicate the expression of the pIgR gene in all lymphoid organs of carp, but not in muscle. Macrophages/neutrophils enriched by adherence or sorted B cells (MACS) did not show expression of the pIgR gene and are excluded as the pIgR expressing lymphoid cells in the intestine. The relevance of pIgR staining and gene expression in mucosal organs is discussed.

  1. THE OPTIMAL RATIO OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus AND COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY ON DEEP WATER POND

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    Imam Taufik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pond productivity can be increased by applied polyculture system in the deep pond. The purpose of this experiment is to examine the optimal ratio between nile tilapia and common carp, in order to increase the productivity. Nine concrete tanks (15 m2 with water depth of 2.2 m and were completed by water inlet, water outlet, and aeration. Both of nile tilapia and common carp with size ranging of 5-8 cm in total length were used. Stock density was 150 ind./m2. The difference ratio of both fish tilapia and carp of fish stocked as a treatment. The fish ratio this experiment were as followed: A 100%; B 80%:20%; C 60%:40%. Fish fed by pellet until at ad libitum. The duration of experiment was 100 days. Parameters such as survival, growth, and productivity were observed every ten days during the experiment period. Water quality parameters were also periodically observed. The results showed that survival of nile tilapia among the treatments were not significantly different (P>0.05 where survival of common carp at B treatment was better than C treatment (P<0.05. The highest of growth of absolute weight (94.86±2.85 g and total length (14.71±1 cm of nile tilapia at B treatment was found (P<0.05 where the best of growth of absolute weight (106.52±10.47 g and total length (11.57±1.78 cm of common carp was also found at B treatment (P<0.05. Biomass productivity at B treatment was the highest compared with A treatment (P<0.05. Combination between polyculture and the deep water pond technology could increase productivity. The polyculture system and the deep water pond technology would be able to keep constant water quality within in the threshold accordance with the regulation for fish culture.

  2. Studies of ribonucleotide reductase in crucian carp-an oxygen dependent enzyme in an anoxia tolerant vertebrate.

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    Guro K Sandvik

    Full Text Available The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the precursors for DNA. RNR requires a thiyl radical to activate the substrate. In RNR of eukaryotes (class Ia RNR, this radical originates from a tyrosyl radical formed in reaction with oxygen (O(2 and a ferrous di-iron center in RNR. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius is one of very few vertebrates that can tolerate several months completely without oxygen (anoxia, a trait that enables this fish to survive under the ice in small ponds that become anoxic during the winter. Previous studies have found indications of cell division in this fish after 7 days of anoxia. This appears nearly impossible, as DNA synthesis requires the production of new deoxyribonucleotides and therefore active RNR. We have here characterized RNR in crucian carp, to search for adaptations to anoxia. We report the full-length sequences of two paralogs of each of the RNR subunits (R1i, R1ii, R2i, R2ii, p53R2i and p53R2ii, obtained by cloning and sequencing. The mRNA levels of these subunits were measured with quantitative PCR and were generally well maintained in hypoxia and anoxia in heart and brain. We also report maintained or increased mRNA levels of the cell division markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and Ki67 in anoxic hearts and brains. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR measurements on in vitro expressed crucian carp R2 and p53R2 proteins gave spectra similar to mammalian RNRs, including previously unpublished human and mouse p53R2 EPR spectra. However, the radicals in crucian carp RNR small subunits, especially in the p53R2ii subunit, were very stable at 0°C. A long half-life of the tyrosyl radical during wintertime anoxia could allow for continued cell division in crucian carp.

  3. Fish as aquatic “sniffer dogs”: Olfactory-mediated behaviors and conditioning of common carps to cadaver odors

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    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even with the aide of modern technology, the search for cadaver or human remains underwater is still assisted by sniffer dogs mainly because of their superior sense of olfaction. However, dogs rely on volatile organic compounds in the air and that this may constraint their ability when searching for submerged cadavers. On the other hand, it has long been recognized that fishes use olfaction to sample odors from their surroundings to accomplish a task and are capable of acquiring new skills through training or conditioning. Despite decades of experimental and observational studies of the olfactory sensitivities of fishes, its potential application to forensic sciences has never been truly explored. In this pioneering research, we explore the possibility of using fish olfaction in detecting cadaver odors (porcine origin, using common carps Cyprinus carpio as model species in a series of experiments under laboratory conditions. We first observed the innate behavior of carps towards cadaver odors. Afterwards, the carps were trained in two-choice chamber experimental tanks by appetitive olfactory conditioning and odor masking methods. We also experimented on the effects of cadaver odors by early exposure using eggs and larval impregnation techniques, and observing the behaviors when they develop to early juveniles. In general, we found out that common carps are naturally repelled to cadaver odors. However using our devised conditioning protocol, results show that the conditioned carps were able to learn to be attracted to cadaver odors despite their innate aversion. The development of fish for cadaver detection is a simple but innovative idea and that it may present a cost-effective and reliable solution for the shortcomings of the existing methods in underwater cadaver search. We anticipate that this research will open up a variety of different studies in pursuit of developing fishes as biosensors and its application to forensic sciences.

  4. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Azolla microphylla based gold nanoparticles against acetaminophen induced toxicity in a fresh water common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Selvaraj Kunjiappan

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized GNaP protects liver against oxidative damage and tissue damaging enzyme activities and could be used as an effective protector against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in fresh water common carp fish.

  5. Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a safe and effective method for intestinal anastomoses following left-sided colonic resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhjalmsson, Dadi; Appelros, Stefan; Toth, Ervin;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a novel procedure for creating colonic anastomoses. The surgical procedure allows perioperative quantification of the compression pressure between the intestinal ends within the anastomosis and postoperative monitoring of the an...

  6. Microbial succession of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) filets during storage at 4°C and its contribution to biogenic amines' formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang; Huang, Heping; Xu, Qian

    2014-11-03

    Investigation on the microbial succession of grass carp filets during storage at 4°C was carried out. For identification, 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Acinetobacter was dominant in fresh grass carp. Species from the genera Brevundimonas, Empedobacter, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Shewanella and Soonwooa were also detected at the initial day. The communities were dominated by Aeromonas and Acinetobacter after 6days. Aeromonas followed by Pseudomonas was the predominant genera at the end of shelf-life of grass carp, while other genera such as Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Flavobacteriaceae and Psychrobacter were present in smaller numbers. We investigated biogenic amines' (BAs) production by six strains isolated from spoiled grass carp filets. Shewanella putrefaciens showed significantly higher abilities to produce putrescine, than those from other genera. Aeromonas veronii revealed a strong ability to produce putrescine and cadaverine. However, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter showed little ability to produce BAs.

  7. The growth characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio in the northern part of the Small Island of Brăila Natural Park

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    Daniela C. Gheorghe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper are presented the results of the growth parameters for the carp population. The study was realized in the 2006-2009 period on a total number of 367 carp specimens caught into the Danube river km 170-196 (the arms: Cravia, Calia, and Fundu Mare Island. In order to estimate the population growth characteristic of the carp population the following relationship was determined: length - weight (L-W using equation W = a * Lb . The value of the coefficient b indicates an allometric increase, meaning the length increases faster than weight. Moreover, the good value of this coefficient, considered also as a condition factor (b = 2.845, shows us good growth conditions for this species in the researched area. Estimation of the growth parameters (von Bertalanffy L∞, k, to, led to obtaining of comparable values with other nearby regions carp populations.

  8. Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen M.; Duc, Nguyen V.; Stauffer, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam....... Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10-12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Methods. Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations....... In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). Results: The results showed...

  9. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing generates high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing hybridization between bighead and silver carp in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, James T; Sass, Greg G; Boone, Jason Q; Arbieva, Zarema H; Green, Stefan J; Epifanio, John M

    2014-01-01

    Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are invasive species and listed as US federally injurious species under the Lacy Act. They have established populations in much of the Mississippi River Basin (MRB; Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri rivers) and are capable of producing fertile hybrids and complex introgression. Characterizing the composition of this admixture requires a large set of high-quality, evolutionarily conserved, diagnostic genetic markers to aid in the identification and management of these species in the midst of morphological ambiguity. Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of 45 barcoded bighead and silver carp from the United States and China produced reads that were aligned to the silver carp transcriptome yielded 261 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with fixed allelic differences between the two species. We selected the highest quality 112 SNP loci for validation using 194 putative pure-species and F1 hybrids from the MRB and putative bighead carp and silver carp pure species from China (Amur, Pearl and Yangtze rivers). Fifty SNPs were omitted due to design/amplification failure or lack of diagnostic utility. A total of 57 species-diagnostic SNPs conserved between carp species in US and Chinese rivers were identified; 32 were annotated to functional gene loci. Twenty-seven of the 181 (15%) putative pure species were identified as hybrid backcrosses after validation, including three backcrosses from the Amur River, where hybridization has not been documented previously. The 57 SNPs identified through RAD sequencing provide a diagnostic tool to detect population admixture and to identify hybrid and pure-species Asian carps in the United States and China.

  10. DAR, Land Reform-Related Agencies and the CARP: A Study of Government and Alternative Approaches to Land Acquisition and Distrib

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano, Lourdes S.

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the land acquisition and distribution process of the CARP by analyzing the nature and extent of participation of the various government agencies. Attempts are also made in identifying the areas where land reform can be hastened. While there are opportunities for change, the overall impact of these changes on land reform may not be as large in terms of area coverage, by mid-June 1998, the scheduled completion of CARP. Generally, there are many agencies involved in land refo...

  11. Differential screening and characterization analysis of the egg envelope glycoprotein ZP3 cDNAs between gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Gynogenetic silver crucian carp,Carassius auratus gibelio,is an intriguing model system.In the present work,a systemic study has been initiated by introducing suppression subtractive hybridization technique into this model system to identify the differentially expressed genes in oocytes between gynogenetic silver crucian carp and its closely related gonochoristic color crucian carp.Five differential cDNA fragments were identified from the preliminary screening,and two of them are ZP3 homologues.Moreover,the full length ZP3 cDNAs were cloned from their oocyte cDNA libraries.The length of ZP3 cDNAs were 1378 bp for gyno-carp and 1367 bp for gono-carp,and they can be translated into proteins with 435 amino acids.Obvious differences are not only in the composition of amino acids,but also in the number of potential O-linked oligosaccharide sites.In addition,gyno-carp ZP3 amino acid sequence has an unexpected higher identity value with common carp (83.5%) than that with the closely related gono-carp (74.7%).The unique homology may be originated from the ancient hybridization.Northern blot analysis confirmed that expression of the ZP3 gene occurred exclusively in the oocytes.Because O-linked oligosaccharides on ZP3 have been demonstrated to play very important roles in fertilization,it is suggested that the extra O-linked glycosylation sites may be related to the unique sperm-egg recognition mechanism in gynogenesis.

  12. Using silver and bighead carp cell lines for the identification of a unique metabolite fingerprint from thiram-specific chemical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Joel G; Nelson, Justine E; Leis, Eric M; Erickson, Richard A; Hubert, Terrance D; Amberg, Jon J

    2017-02-01

    Conservation biology often requires the control of invasive species. One method is the development and use of biocides. Identifying new chemicals as part of the biocide registration approval process can require screening millions of compounds. Traditionally, screening new chemicals has been done in vivo using test organisms. Using in vitro (e.g., cell lines) and in silico (e.g., computer models) methods decrease test organism requirements and increase screening speed and efficiency. These methods, however, would be greatly improved by better understanding how individual fish species metabolize selected compounds. We combined cell assays and metabolomics to create a powerful tool to facilitate the identification of new control chemicals. Specifically, we exposed cell lines established from bighead carp and silver carp larvae to thiram (7 concentrations) then completed metabolite profiling to assess the dose-response of the bighead carp and silver carp metabolome to thiram. Forty one of the 700 metabolomic markers identified in bighead carp exhibited a dose-response to thiram exposure compared to silver carp in which 205 of 1590 metabolomic markers exhibited a dose-response. Additionally, we identified 11 statistically significant metabolomic markers based upon volcano plot analysis common between both species. This smaller subset of metabolites formed a thiram-specific metabolomic fingerprint which allowed for the creation of a toxicant specific, rather than a species-specific, metabolomic fingerprint. Metabolomic fingerprints may be used in biocide development and improve our understanding of ecologically significant events, such as mass fish kills.

  13. Using silver and bighead carp cell lines for the identification of a unique metabolite fingerprint from thiram-specific chemical exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Joel G.; Nelson, Justine; Leis, Eric M; Erickson, Richard A.; Hubert, Terrance D.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation biology often requires the control of invasive species. One method is the development and use of biocides. Identifying new chemicals as part of the biocide registration approval process can require screening millions of compounds. Traditionally, screening new chemicals has been done in vivo using test organisms. Using in vitro (e.g., cell lines) and in silico (e.g., computer models) methods decrease test organism requirements and increase screening speed and efficiency. These methods, however, would be greatly improved by better understanding how individual fish species metabolize selected compounds.We combined cell assays and metabolomics to create a powerful tool to facilitate the identification of new control chemicals. Specifically, we exposed cell lines established from bighead carp and silver carp larvae to thiram (7 concentrations) then completed metabolite profiling to assess the dose-response of the bighead carp and silver carp metabolome to thiram. Forty one of the 700 metabolomic markers identified in bighead carp exhibited a dose-response to thiram exposure compared to silver carp in which 205 of 1590 metabolomic markers exhibited a dose-response. Additionally, we identified 11 statistically significant metabolomic markers based upon volcano plot analysis common between both species. This smaller subset of metabolites formed a thiram-specific metabolomic fingerprint which allowed for the creation of a toxicant specific, rather than a species-specific, metabolomic fingerprint. Metabolomic fingerprints may be used in biocide development and improve our understanding of ecologically significant events, such as mass fish kills.

  14. Use of food waste as fish feeds: effects of prebiotic fibers (inulin and mannanoligosaccharide) on growth and non-specific immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Wing Y; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai M; Lun, Clare H I; Man, Yu B; Wong, James T F; Chen, Xun W; Lau, Stanley C K; Wong, Ming H

    2015-11-01

    The effects of inulin and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth performance and non-specific immunity of grass carp were studied. Two doses of prebiotic fiber with 0.2 or 2% of the fibers are being mixed into fish feed pellets. Fish growth as well as selected non-specific immune parameters of grass carp were tested in a feeding trial, which lasted for 8 weeks. Fish was fed at 2.5% body mass per day. INU02, INU2, and MOS2 significantly improved relative weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, and food conversion ratio of grass carp fed with food waste-based diet. In terms of non-specific immune response, grass carp showed significant improvement in all three tested parameters (total serum immunoglobin, bactericidal activity, and anti-protease activity). Adding 2% of inulin (INU2) into food waste diets seemed to be more preferable than other supplemented experimental diets (INU02, MOS02, MOS2), as it could promote growth of grass carp as well as improving the non-specific immune systems of grass carp.

  15. Field and Laboratory Studies on Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Liver and Kidney Damage in the Phytoplanktivorous Bighead Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Field and experimental studies were conducted to investigate pathological characterizations and biochemical responses in the liver and kidney of the phytoplanktivorous bighead carp after intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of microcystins (MCs and exposure to natural cyanobacterial blooms in Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu. Bighead carp in field and laboratory studies showed a progressive recovery of structure and function in terms of histological, cellular, and biochemical features. In laboratory study, when fish were i.p. injected with extracted MCs at the doses of 200 and 500 μg MC-LReq/kg body weight, respectively, liver pathology in bighead carp was observed in a time dose-dependent manner within 24 h postinjection and characterized by disruption of liver structure, condensed cytoplasm, and the appearance of massive hepatocytes with karyopyknosis, karyorrhexis, and karyolysis. In comparison with previous studies on other fish, bighead carp in field study endured higher MC doses and longer-term exposure, but displayed less damage in the liver and kidney. Ultrastructural examination in the liver revealed the presence of lysosome proliferation, suggesting that bighead carp might eliminate or lessen cell damage caused by MCs through lysosome activation. Biochemically, sensitive responses in the antioxidant enzymes and higher basal glutathione concentrations might be responsible for their powerful resistance to MCs, suggesting that bighead carp can be used as biomanipulation fish to counteract cyanotoxin contamination.

  16. Coexistence of diploid, triploid and tetraploid crucian carp (Carassius auratus in natural waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Cuiping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crucian carp (abbreviated CC belongs to the genus of Carassius within the family of Cyprinidae. It has been one of the most important freshwater species for Chinese aquaculture and is especially abundant in the Dongting water system of Hunan province. CC used to be considered as all diploid forms. However, coexistence of diploid (abbreviated 2nCC, triploid (abbreviated 3nCC and tetraploid crucian carp (abbreviated 4nCC population of the Dongting water system was first found by our recently researches. Results We examined the ploidy level and compared biological characteristics in different ploidy CC. In reproductive mode, 2nCC was bisexual generative and 4nCC generated all-female offspring by gynogenesis. However, 3nCC generated progenies in two different ways. 3nCC produced bisexual triploid offspring fertilized with 3nCC spermatozoa, while it produced all-female triploid offspring by gynogenesis when its ova were activated by heterogenous spermatozoa. The complete mitochondrial DNA of three different ploidy fishes was sequenced and analyzed, suggesting no significant differences. Interestingly, microchromosomes were found only in 3nCC, which were concluded to be the result of hybridization. Allogenetic DNA fragments of Sox genes were obtained in 3nCC and 4nCC, which were absent in 2nCC. Phylogenetics analysis based on Sox4 gene indicated 3nCC and 4nCC formed a separate group from 2nCC. Conclusions In summary, this is the first report of the co-existence of three types of different ploidy crucian carps in natural waters in China. It was proved that the coexistence of different ploidy CC was reproductively maintained. We further hypothesized that 3nCC and 4nCC were allopolyploids that resulted from hybridization. The different ploidy CC population we obtained in this study possesses great significance for the study of polyploidization and the evolution of vertebrates.

  17. Efeito alelopático de sabugueiro e capim-limão na germinação de picão-preto e soja = Allelophatic effect of Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. in the germination of Bidens pilosa L. and soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As plantas invasoras são constantes e diminuem a produtividade das culturas por competirem por espaço, nutrientes e água. Dessa forma, os agricultores adotam, em grande escala, produtos químicos eficientes no controle da lavoura e com alta toxicidade ao meioambiente. Existem, no entanto, formas alternativas para o controle de invasoras, por meio de aleloquímicos presentes em algumas plantas, dentre elas, as medicinais. Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as propriedades alelopáticas dos extratos das plantas medicinais Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. e Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl. em inibir a germinação de Bidens pilosa L., sem interferir na germinação de Glycine max L. Merrill. Os extratos foram obtidos triturandose 200 g de folhas com 1 L de água destilada. As sementes foram mantidas em B.O.D. à temperatura de 25°C, com fotoperíodo de 12h de luz. Nas condições em que foram realizados os experimentos, constatou-se que o extrato de capim-limão inibiu a germinação de picão-preto sem que este inibisse a germinação da soja, enquanto o extrato de sabugueiro inibiu a germinação de picão-preto e a germinação da soja. Assim, indica-se a utilização do capim-limão, como um herbicida natural para o picão-preto.Agriculture has been suffering adaptations throughout time, from hard hand labor to the most advanced sowing and harvesting techniques. Invasive plants are a constant, diminishing productivity by competing for space, nutrients, and water. Therefore, farmers have adopted, on alarge scale, the use of efficient synthetic chemicals, which are highly toxic to the environment, in order to control plant production. However, there are other alternative means to control those competitors: using allelochemicals present in some plants, such as medicinal ones. The objective of this paper is to analyze allelophatic properties of the medicinal plants Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. and Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl

  18. ONTOGENY OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACTS IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS), YELLOWCHECK CARP(ELOPICHTHYS BAMBUSA) AND TOPMOUTH CULTER(CULTER ALBURNUS)%草鱼、鳡和翘嘴鲌消化道组织的早期发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮国良; 杨代勤; 王卫民

    2012-01-01

    研究仔稚鱼消化机能的发育变化对于掌握鱼类早期发育阶段的消化特点、营养需要及提高仔稚鱼成活与生长等均有重要意义.采用HE、PAS等染色方法,对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)、鳡(Elopichthys bambusa)和翘嘴鲌(Culter alburnus)消化道组织的早期发育进行了研究,结果表明:(1)初孵仔鱼卵黄囊的相对体积以鳡的最大; (2)均在孵后2d和3d分别出现肠管和口裂,在孵后3d、4d和2d分别出现肠腔; (3)在孵后4d、7-9d和4d其肠腔内分别出现食物团,表明此时草鱼、鳡和翘嘴鲌已分别开始外源性摄食; (4)在孵后5d、6d和6d其肠道内表面分别出现黏膜褶,随后在稚鱼中其黏膜褶的高度和数量不同程度的发育; (5)草鱼和鳡的肠道分别在孵后14d和30d出现盘曲,而在翘嘴鲌的切片图中未发现其肠道的盘曲; (6)草鱼、鳡和翘嘴鲌的肠道分别于孵后17-23d、30d和24-29d出现数量较多的黏液细胞,此时标志着食性的转换和分化过程基本完善.%A thorough understanding of the temporal process of structure and function of larval and juvenile digestive systems has important values for investigating the digestive characteristics, nutritional needs of larva and juveniles, and enhancing their survival and growth. In inland aquaculture in China, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, yellowcheck carp Elopichthys bambusa and topmouth culter Culter albumus are economically important freshwater species that belong to the family Cyprinidae, with entirely different nutritional needs. Using the methods of histology, a comparative study among the above species in early developmental stages was conducted in our study to examine the ontogeny of digestive tracts. The results of the three species in different days post hatching (dph) showed the following: (1) yellow-check carp had the maximum relative bulk of yolk sac in newly hatched larva in the three species; (2) the intestinal tubes and oral fissures

  19. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Christoph, E-mail: steinbach@frov.jcu.cz [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Fedorova, Ganna [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Prokes, Miroslav [Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L{sup −1} to μg L{sup −1}. In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC{sub 50} values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L{sup −1} for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L{sup −1}. Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L{sup −1} of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of

  20. The Influence of Probiotics on Results of Common carp,Crucian Carp,and Grass Carp Culture%微生态制剂对鲤、鲫和草鱼养殖池塘效益的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍戊; 王荻; 尹家胜; 卢彤岩

    2011-01-01

    The effects of probiotics I containing primarily Bacillus subtilis and probiotics II containing a mixture of various microorganisms on weight gain,food conversion ratio and drug cost of common carp(Cyprinus carpio),Crucian carp(Carassius auratus) and grass carp(Ctenophyargodon idellus) in culture ponds in Heilongjiang and Liaoning provinces.The probiotics,alone or together,were showed to have influence on weight gain,the food conversion ratio and the drug cost in the fish culture.There were 423.57% higher weight gain in Heilongjiang province and 90% higher weight gain in Liaoning province in the ponds treated with the probiotics used together,than that in the control ponds with lower drug production cost of 29% in Heilongjiang province and 56.25% in Liaoning province.The food conversion ratio was found to be decreased by 0.35 and 0.05 in the ponds treated with probiotics used together,indicating that the probiotics have important influence on the profit of grass carp culture in Liaoning province and of common carp farming in Heilongjiang and have a promotion of green aquaculture with less drugs,less feed and more profits.%以枯草芽孢杆菌为主的主要用于促进鱼类消化生长的微生态制剂I、多种混合微生物主要用于调节水质的微生态制剂II,或是两者混合使用的方法,比较研究了黑龙江省及辽宁省池塘养殖的鲤(Cyprinus carpio)、鲫(Carassius auratus)和草鱼(Ctenophyargodon idellus)的增重率、饲料系数及药价等效益。结果表明,单种或者混合使用微生态制剂均对池塘养殖鲤及草鱼的增重率、饵料系数及用药价格有一定影响,同时使用两种微生态制剂提高鱼类增重率最显著,辽宁省和黑龙江省分别提高了423.57%和90%;而两省养殖池塘的药价也分别降低了29%和56.25%。微生态制剂I及混合同时使用两种微生态制剂均能显著降低饲料系数,辽宁及黑龙江分别降低0.35及0.05。结果可

  1. 小花鬼针草中的苯丙苷类成分及抑制组胺释放活性%Phenolic glucosides from Bidens parviflora and their anti-histamine activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 王乃利; 姚新生; 北中進

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究小花鬼针草Bidens parviflora全株的化学成分,并通过组胺抑制实验寻找活性成分.方法 采用硅胶、Sephadex LH-20和ODS柱色谱分离化合物,运用1D NMR、2D NMR波谱学方法鉴定了化合物的结构,通过组胺抑制实验测定化合物抗过敏活性.结果 分离鉴定了4个苯丙苷类及1个苯甲醇苷成分:4-羟基-3-甲氧基苯丙三醇8-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(guaiacyl glycerol 8-O-β-D-glucoside Ⅰ)、丁香酚苷(syringin,Ⅱ)、4-烯丙基-2-甲氧基苯酚-O-(6-O-β-D-芹糖基)-β-D-葡萄糖苷[4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol-O-(6-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl)-β-D-glucoside,Ⅲ]、5,7-二羟基色原酮-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(5,7-dihydroxy chromone 7-O-β-D-glucoside,Ⅳ)、苄醇-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(benzyl alcohol-O-β-D-glucoside,Ⅴ).化合物Ⅰ~Ⅴ抑制组胺释放,IC50分别为70、61、>100、52、>100 μg/mL.结论 化合物Ⅰ~Ⅴ首次从本植物中分得,Ⅲ为未见文献报道的新化合物,命名为鬼针草酚葡萄糖苷(bidenphenol glucoside).化合物Ⅰ~Ⅴ具有抑制组胺释放的活性.

  2. Response of Growth Characteristics of Bidens piolsa L.to Soil Nitrogen Level%三叶鬼针草生长特征对土壤氮素水平的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘玉梅; 唐赛春; 韦春强; 刘明超

    2012-01-01

    利用温室盆栽试验法,研究入侵植物三叶鬼针草生长特征对不同土壤氮素水平的响应.结果表明,氮素的增加能够促进三叶鬼针草叶片数、总叶面积、分枝数及生物量的增加,提高其相对生长速率.在物质分配方面,氮肥的施用能促进该植物向地上部分分配较多的物质,显著增加生殖器官(花)生物量的投入,降低向地下部分(根)的物质投入.同时,可塑性指数表明,三叶鬼针草在形态、生物量分配及生殖器官等方面对土壤氮素响应的表型可塑性较大.以上结果充分体现了三叶鬼针草具有较强的入侵性和对土壤氮素环境较高的适应性,预警人们对其预防和管理工作应加以重视.%Soil nitrogen effects on the growth characteristics of alien invasive plant Bidens pilosa L. were studied by greenhouse pot experiment. The result indicated that added definite soil nitrogen were favorable to increase the number of leaf and branch, total leaf area (TLA), total biomass and relative growth rate ( RGR) of B. pilosa. In the meantime, increased soil nitrogen could facilitate the weed assign more material to the organs on the ground, especially enhance the flower biomass rate significantly,and decrease the material assigned to the roots under ground. Phenotypic plasticity index indicated that in the case of morphological parameters, biomass allocation parameters and reproduction organ more phenotypic plasticity the weed presented on response to the soil nitrogen. All results above demonstrated that the weed B. pilosa had more grater invasion and adaptability to the soil nitrogen,which suggested that definite attention should be paid to the work of the weed prevention and management.

  3. 假臭草等12种植物对白花鬼针草幼苗的化感作用%Allelopathy of 12 Species Including Eupatorium catarium on Bidens alba Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志云; 梁水凤; 李东文; 冯卓森; 李伟华; 彭长连; 田兴山; 周先叶

    2011-01-01

    用具有化感作用或潜在抑草活性的12种植物的叶片水浸液对白化鬼针草(Bidens alba)幼苗进行处理,对其幼苗的生长进行研究,以期筛选出对白花鬼针草生长有较强抑制作用的植物种类.结果表明,12种供体植物叶片水浸液(0.05 g DW mL-1)均能显著抑制白花鬼针草幼苗的生长(P<0.05),综合化感效应(SE)均为负值(≤-0.2),抑制强度依次为假臭草(Eup atorium catarium)>胜红蓟(Ageratum conyzoides>海芋(Alocasia macrorrhiza)>水茄(Solanum torvum)>马缨丹(Lantana camara)>薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha)>构树(Broussonetia papyrifera)>南美蟛蜞菊(Wedelia trilobata)>三裂叶薯(Ipomoea triloba)>葛藤(Pueraria lobata)>鸡矢藤(Paederia scandens)>五爪金龙(lpomoea cairica),其中假臭草叶水浸液浓度仅为0.04 g DW mL-1时就可以使白花鬼针草死亡.假臭草和胜红蓟的茎水浸液也可以显著抑制白花鬼针草的生长(P<0.05),抑制效果略低于叶水浸液.回归分析表明,假臭草叶水浸液浓度与白花鬼针草的生物量等指标之间有线性回归关系(R2> 0.85,P<0.001),随着水浸液浓度的增加,白花鬼针草的生物量等指标下降.防除白花鬼针草时使用假臭草和胜红蓟的茎、叶水浸液,其有效浓度低且资源丰富,可作为白花鬼针草天然除草剂的主要资源植物.

  4. 大孔吸附树脂纯化鬼针草总黄酮的工艺优选%Optimization of Purification Technology for Total Flavonoids in Bidens bipinnata by Macroporous Adsorption Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿慧; 曹园; 方祝元; 刘志辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize purification technology of total flavonoids in Bidens bipinnata by macroporous resin. Method With adsorption rate and desorption rate of total flavonoids as indexes, adsorption property of six different kinds of macroporous resins for total flavonoids in B. bipinnata was compared by static adsorption and desorption experiments, in order to select optimum macroporous resin. Single factor test was used to investigate adsorption and elution conditions of macroporous resin. Result HPD400 macroporous resin presented the best effect of purification. Its optimum purification parameters were as followings:the sample concentration 0.5 g/L,pH 4,sample flow rate 2 BV/h,eluted with 9 BV 60%ethanol at 3 BV/h. After purification by macroporous resin, purity of total flavonoids in ethanol extract of B. bipinnata would be increased from 24.47%to 62.33%. Conclusion HPD400 macroporous resin was among the most suitable one for purification of total flavonoids in B. bipinnata. Optimized purification technology was stable and feasible.%目的:优选大孔树脂纯化鬼针草总黄酮的工艺条件。方法以鬼针草总黄酮的吸附率和洗脱率为指标,通过静态吸附试验比较不同种大孔树脂对鬼针草总黄酮的吸附能力,筛选出合适的大孔树脂型号;通过单因素试验优选鬼针草总黄酮的纯化工艺参数。结果 HPD400型大孔树脂纯化效果最好,其最佳工艺参数为药液中质量浓度0.5 mg/mL,pH=4.0,吸附速率2 BV/h,用9 BV 60%乙醇洗脱,洗脱速率3 BV/h,经大孔树脂纯化后鬼针草提取液中总黄酮纯度由原来的24.47%提高至58.41%。结论 HPD400型大孔树脂适用于鬼针草总黄酮的纯化,优选的纯化工艺稳定可行。

  5. Comparison of dark- and light-adapted carp retinas with NADPH diaphorase staining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶冰; 杨雄里

    1996-01-01

    The carp retina was examined by NADPH diaphorase histochemistry to determine if the staining pattern of retinal cells was changed depending on the adaptation state of the retina. When dark-adapted for 5 h, ellipsoids of inner segments of both rods and cones and some horizontal cells were heavily stained. Staining was also found in subpopulations of amacrine cells and ganglion cells. In addition, Muller cells were strongly positive for NADPH diaphorase. When light-adapted for 5h, ellipsoids of photoreceptors and ganglion cells were less intensely stained, whereas Muller cells and horizontal cells became negative for NADPH diaphorase. Furthermore, rod ON-center bipolar cells were clearly stained. The difference of staining of amacrine cells between dark- and light-adapted retinas was not significant. The differences in diaphorase-staining pattern between dark- and light-adapted retinas suggest that Muller cells, some horizontal cells and rod ON-center bipolar cells contain inducible nitric oxide synthase,

  6. Antioxidant Activity of Protein Hydrolysates Obtained from Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Discarded Roe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús;

    Lipid oxidation represents a severe challenge in food engineering because it deteriorates quality of foods, especially those containing high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). One way to overcome this barrier is application of synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole...... (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), propyl gallate (PG), and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in PUFA-rich foods. However, recently there have been concerns over health-related risks posed by these synthetic agents. Therefore, obtaining safe antioxidants from natural sources, especially those which...... are discarded with no use, with potency to retard lipid oxidation has gained sizable attention. Therefore, the present study aimed at obtaining “green” antioxidants from discarded common carp roe via the so-called hydrolysis process by using alcalase and determining their antioxidant activity both in vitro...

  7. Comparison of multiple genes of spring viremia of carp viruses isolated in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warg, Janet V; Dikkeboom, Audrey L; Goodwin, Andrew E; Snekvik, Kevin; Whitney, John

    2007-08-01

    Five spring viremia of carp viruses (SVCV), Rhabdovirus carpio, were isolated in the United States (US) between 2002 and 2004. Single tube reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to generate overlapping cDNA fragments from the US isolates of SVCV. Multiple pairs of specific primers were designed to amplify a portion of the phosphoprotein gene, the matrix gene, and the glycoprotein gene of SVCV genogroup Id (corresponding to nucleotides 2174-4942 of GenBank accession NC_002803). Sequences were proofread and aligned to generate a consensus sequence for each isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of the 2705 nucleotide consensus sequence revealed that all five US isolates belong to SVCV genogroup Ia, Asian origin isolates, and a PCR primer binding site unique to SVCV genogroup Ia was identified.

  8. Biogenic amine accumulation in silver carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaohua; Zhang, Qilin; Lin, Shengli

    2014-06-15

    The effect of an amine-negative mixed starter culture (Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae JM19) on biogenic amine accumulation in fermented silver carp sausage was studied. Microbial counts, pH, titratable acid and free amino acids were also determined. Putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine were the main amines formed during sausage fermentation. The contents of putrescine and cadaverine were greatly reduced by the addition of L. plantarum ZY40 plus S. cerevisiae JM19, whereas tyramine accumulation was enhanced as compared to the control batch. Histamine and spermidine were not affected by the mixed starter culture, and their levels varied slightly throughout the fermentation. Besides, no positive correction between pH, free amino acid content and biogenic amine accumulation were found.

  9. Proteolytic characterisation in grass carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaohua; Lin, Shengli; Zhang, Qilin

    2014-02-15

    The proteolysis in grass carp sausages inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 and Pediococcus pentosaceus GY23 was investigated. As fermentation progressed, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins in both sausages were obviously degraded, and the proteolytic process was more intense in sausages inoculated with P. pentosaceus GY23. The increases in α-amino nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptides and free amino acids were also detected in both sausages. The differences in α-amino nitrogen content and free amino acids concentration were due to the activity of inoculated lactic acid bacteria, while endogenous enzymes contributed to the release of TCA-soluble peptides. Our findings indicate that lactic acid bacteria influence proteolytic characterisation in fermented fish sausage, with strain-dependent activity.

  10. Differential effects of nitric oxide on rod and cone pathways in carp retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶冰; 杜久林; 杨雄里

    1997-01-01

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on electroretinograms and light responses of horizontal cells intra-cellularly recorded from isolated, superfused carp retinas were studied. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, suppressed scotopic b wave, while enhancing photopic b wave, and the effects could be blocked by hemoglobin, an NO chelator. Furthermore, following SNP application, light responses of rod horizontal cells were reduced in size and those of cone horizontal cells were increased. These results suggest that NO suppresses the activity of rod pathway, but enhances that of cone pathway in the outer retina. Moreover, the effects of methylene blue, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, on rod and cone horizontal cells were just opposite to those of SNP, implying that the effects of NO may be mediated by cGMP.

  11. Effects of dimethoate (30% EC), an organophosphate pesticide on liver of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Nayan

    2013-05-01

    Organ histopathology and changes in biochemical parameters in fish are good biomarkers of aquatic pollution. This study is an attempt to assess the effects of dimethoate, an organophosphate insecticide on the liver of common carp (C. carpio). Healthy individual fish were exposed to 0.40 mg l(-1) (25% of 96 hr LC50) concentration of dimethoate, for short term (96 hr). Liver of the exposed fish exhibited alterations like disruption of regular arrangement of hepatocytes, congestion and rupture of vessels; hemorrhage, cytoplasmic vacuolization, pyknotic nuclei and necrosis. Biochemical parameters viz. total liver protein (p < 0.001) and liver glycogen (p < 0.001) registered a significant decrease and blood glucose (p < 0.001) exhibited significant increase throughout exposure.

  12. Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Håkan Olsén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40 mM alanine, 20 mM glycine, 20 mM arginine, 8 mM serine, 8 mM leucin gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40 mM Ala, 20 mM Gly, 20 mM Arg and finally with only alanine (128 mM. Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of

  13. Preliminary Validation of High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Detection of Methyltestosterone Residue in Carp Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jie; LIN Hong; FU Xiaoting; LI Mingming

    2005-01-01

    The use of synthetic anabolic steroid methyltestosterone (MT) as growth promoter is prohibited in China. Validations of analytical methods for MT residue in food and the results obtained have become indispensable. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection of MT with liquid-liquid extraction by trichloromethanemethanol in carp muscle tissue was preliminarily validated with reference to the following parameters: recovery (accuracy)at the 1, 5 and 10 mgkg-1 level, between-run and within-run CV values (repeatability, also called relative standard deviation(RSD)) and limit of detection. The recoveries were above 80% and the between-run and within-run CV values below 10%for muscle tissue. The limit of detection was 0.05 mgkg-1.

  14. [Hybridization of crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758), in Ukrainian reservoirs and genetic structure of hybrids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhzheryn, S V; Kokodyĭĭ, S V; Kulysh, A V; Verlat'iĭĭ, D B; Fedorenko, L V

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization of crucian carps Carassius carassius in polyspecific crucian populations of reservoirs of Ukraine and genetic structure of the hybrids were investigated using biochemical gene marking and cytometric procedure. The fact of wide hybridization between C. auratus and C. carassius was proved to be true by large number of hybrids which can form populations consisting only from hybrid individuals. Hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius were diploid, tryploid and in exceptional cases tetraploid; females and males which most likely breed by hybridogenesis. Besides, some clonal hybrids C. carassius x C. gibelio-1 appearing as tetraploid females, and one triploid female C. carassius x Tinca tinca were revealed. It is supported that hybridization of alien C. auratus with endemic C. carassius became one of mechanisms of replacement and depressions of populations of the last.

  15. Two-Way Selection for Growth Rate in the Common Carp (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moav, R.; Wohlfarth, G.

    1976-01-01

    The domesticated European carp was subjected to a two-way selection for growth rate. Five generations of mass selection for faster growth rate did not yield any response, but subsequent selection between groups (families) resulted in considerable progress while maintaining a large genetic variance. Selection for slow growth rate yielded relatively strong response for the first three generations. Random-bred control lines suffered from strong inbreeding depression and when two lines were crossed, the F1 showed a high degree of heterosis. Selection was performed on pond-raised fish, but growth rate was also tested in cages. A strong pond-cage genetic interaction was found. A theoretical explanation was suggested involving overdominance for fast growth rate and amplification through competition of intra-group but not inter-group variation. PMID:1248737

  16. Toxicity, distribution, accumulation and cooking loss of malathion in tissues of tilapia and common carp fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan, I. M.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of malathion as an organophosphorus pesticide to both of the tested fish species, i.e. Tilapia nilotica (tilapia and cyprinus carpio (Common carp was followed by estimating the LC50 at intervals from 24h up to 96h. Tilapia was much more susceptible to malathion toxicity when compared with carp and the available data proved that the LG50 of malathion to common carp fish was 5-7 times the LC50 for tilapia. Accumulation of malathion pesticide in some organs (muscles, gills, intestine and liver of both fish species was studied after application of 200, 300 and 400 ppb malathion in water for 28 days. A proportional relation was found in the two fish species between exposure time and the applied concentrations. The rate of malathion accumulation was higher in liver followed by intestine and gills whereas the lowest concentration was found in muscles. Accumulated malathion in tilapia muscles was higher than carp; while a reversible trend was observed in most other organs. Cooking of the same fish species reduced effectively malathion content in their muscles. Frying of fish in oil lead to a higher loss percent of malathion than did the other methods of cooking.

    La toxicidad aguda de malatión, pesticida organofosforado, para las dos especies de pescado analizadas, Tilapia nilotica (tilapia y Cyprinus carpio (carpa común, fue seguida por estimación de la CL50 a intervalos desde las 24h hasta las 96h. Tilapia fue mucho más susceptible a la toxicidad del malatión cuando se comparó con carpa, y los datos disponibles proporcionaron que la CL50 del malatión para carpa común fue de 5-7 veces la GL50 para tilapia. La acumulación del pesticida malatión en algunos órganos (músculos, agallas, intestino e hígado de ambas especies de pescado fue estudiada después de la aplicación de concentraciones de 200, 300 y 400 ppb de malatión en agua durante 28 días. Se encontró una relaci

  17. Βeta-glucans promote wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    weight, water solubility, degree of branching and polymer length [3]. In vitro studies in mammals have shown that β-glucans directly activate leukocytes by increasing phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antiviral activity and reactive oxygen production. In addition, β-glucans affect the wound...... healing process [1, 4]. Previous studies have shown that β-glucans stimulate production of pro-inflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines like e.g. IL-8, IL-1b, or IL-6 [5]. Studies in higher vertebrates clearly show that both PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular pattern) and DAMPs (danger......-associated molecular pattern) cause inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate capability to modulate immune parameters during the wound healing processes of two commercially available β–glucans. In in vivo study, carps of ~50g were anaesthetised and wounded with 5mm biopsy punches. During the extent...

  18. Beta-glucan bath promote wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    weight, water solubility, degree of branching and polymer length [3]. In vitro studies in mammals have shown that β-glucans directly activate leukocytes by increasing phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antiviral activity and reactive oxygen production. In addition, β-glucans affect the wound...... healing process [1, 4]. Previous studies have shown that β-glucans stimulate production of pro-inflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines like e.g. IL-8, IL-1b, or IL-6 [5]. Studies in higher vertebrates clearly show that both PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular pattern) and DAMPs (danger......-associated molecular pattern) cause inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate capability to modulate immune parameters during the wound healing processes of two commercially available β–glucans. In in vivo study, carps of ~50g were anaesthetised and wounded with 5mm biopsy punches. During the extent...

  19. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Liu, Guiming; Kuang, Youyi; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Xianhu; Ren, Lufeng; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Linhe; Zhao, Zixia; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Li, Chao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Zhanjiang; Fan, Zhonghua; Shan, Guangle; Li, Xingang; Wu, Shuangxiu; Song, Lipu; Hou, Guangyuan; Jiang, Yanliang; Jeney, Zsigmond; Yu, Dan; Wang, Li; Shao, Changjun; Song, Lai; Sun, Jing; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Xu, Liming; Sun, Fanyue; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Baosen; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yaping; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jintu; Gu, Ying; Lv, Weihua; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species.

  20. Β-glucan-induced stimulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during tissue regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    The response to pathogens and damage in vertebrates involves a series of organized and highly evolved molecular mechanisms leading to pathogen specific immune reactions and tissue regeneration as the wound healing process. Pathogen and damage‐associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs) rely...... administration and dose‐related immune‐suppression has also been described. The superior aim of this study is to understand the effect of β‐glucan induced modulation in carp in relation to tissue regeneration and the subsequent effects relating to the filet as a product. A comparison in modulation between immune...... cells (Macrophages) and tissue related cells (Fibroblasts) will be evaluated. Parameters as respiratory burst activity and expression profiles of immune related genes will be measured in cell cultures and in in vivo experiments. The methodology of the project involves the creation of protocols...

  1. Downstream movement of lampreys and fish in the Carp Lake River, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Vernon C.

    1961-01-01

    An inclined-screen trap was installed on the Carp River, Emmett County, Michigan, in the spring of 1948 and has been in almost continuous operation since that time. The major goal of this project--a precise determination of the length of the larval life of sea lamprey--was not attained because of the contamination of the stream above the dam with spawning lampreys. The lampreys and other fishes collected in the trap did, however, provide extensive and valuable biological information. The present report documents much of the information, largely in tabular form, accumulated over the operating seasons, 1948-49 through 1957-58; the amount of detail has been varied according to the importance of the topic under consideration or the amount required to bring out a particular point.

  2. Tools for assessing kinship, population structure, phylogeography, and interspecific hybridization in Asian carps invasive to the Mississippi River, USA: isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA loci in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA markers for the invasive silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and provide the results of cross-species amplification for three additional invasive carp species: bighead (H. nobilis), grass (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and black (Mylopharyngodon piceus). In the target species these markers yielded levels of allelic diversity (average 4.4 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 54.7%) sufficient to: (1) provide unique multilocus genotypes; (2) delineate kinship relationships; (3) differentiate populations/species; (4) estimate effective population sizes; and (5) provide unique demographic perspectives for control or eradication. Currently these markers are being utilized to determine the degree of introgressive hybridization between H. molitrix and H. nobilis, to quantify gene flow between different sub-basins established in the central United States, and to assess the demographic status of sub-basin groups. This information will be critically important in the management/control of these invasive species.

  3. THE ANALYSIS OF THE FLOW INTENSITY OF FREE-RADICAL PROCESSES IN HEPATOPANCREAS TISSUES OF AND SKELETAL MUSCLES OF AGE-2 CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO OF DIFFERENT GENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Osoba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform determination of the content of individual lipid peroxidation products in hepatopancreas tissues and skeletal muscle of carp of different genesis. Methods. Determination of free radical products of lipid peroxidation in hepatopancreas tissues of and skeletal muscle of carp was performed by spectrophotometric analysis. In particular, the content of malondialdehyde was determined by reaction with thiobarbituric acid, which at high a temperature in acidic medium proceeds with the formation of colored trimethine complex. The intensity of the formation of lipid hydroperoxides was determined after precipitation of proteins by a solution of trichloroacetic acid and lipid extraction by ethanol with following interaction of the studied extracts of ammonium thiocyanate. To determine the content of diene conjugates in tissues, we used a method, which is based on the formation of conjugated double bonds accompanied by the appearance of a new absorption maximum in the spectrum range of λmax = 233 nm. The results. As a result of the studies it was found that the content of malondialdehyde in skeletal muscle of two-year scaly and framed carp of Nesvich zonal type is likely lower in comparison with that of skeletal muscle of Amur wild carp and the carp hybrid grows relatively group - hybrid carp .It was marked the growth in the content of diene conjugates in skeletal muscle of Lyubin Nesvich scaly carp compared to framed ones.It was shown the tissue specificity savings to individual products of lipid peroxidation in experimental groups of fish. The scientific novelty. For the first time, a comparative analysis of the contents of individual products of free radical oxidation in tissues of age-2 scaly carp and framed Nesvich zonal and Lyubin interbreed type with groups such as the Amur wild carp and carp hybrid has been perfomed. Factors providing such intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in tissues of the studied age-2 groups of fish

  4. Hematological profile in juvenile carp reared under a recirculating system condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Docan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the influence the density of population and fish sizehas on the physiological condition of Cyprinus carpio in the light of the hematological coefficient and theerythrocyte constants. The physiology of the blood is an important parameter in order to define thegeneral condition of the organism for all teleostean fish. The investigations of the metabolic profile of theblood aimed at determining the hematologic answer of the carp under the conditions of its exposure tothe controlled modification of the following technological factors: size class, stocking density. The lowvalue of the hematocrit (27% in both experiments suggests a condition of anemia or the dehydration ofthe organism. The values registered by the hemoglobin were different, according to the size of the fish,varying between 5.22 and 5.34 g/dL blood for fish with size 65-66 g/fish, respectively 6.7-7.02 g/dLblood for fish with size 150-152 g, being with 29.92% higher in the case of fish with a larger size. Theaverage number of red blood cell counts is constant for both experiments and these values are fallinginto the normal physiological gap. Erythrocyte constants (MCV, MCH and MCHC vary according to thetwo size classes: MCH grows by 31.53% and MCHC by 28.60% with the individual growth of the carp.MCV presents values between 186.48 and 199.73 (μm3, normal value for the studied species. Thepresent study outlines the fact that the main hematological parameters vary according to the size class,the results being related to the results obtained following the investigation of the metabolic profile in thelight of the technological parameters.

  5. Immunomodulatory Effects of a Bioactive Compound Isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated effects of compound kaempferol 3-a-L-(4-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside-7-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (SA isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma during immune-related gene expression in Ctenopharyngodon idella head kidney macrophages (CIHKM. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, MyD88, and Mx1 were investigated using real-time PCR at 2 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after incubation with 1, 10, and 50 μg mL−1 of SA. Furthermore, fish were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μL of SA, and immune parameters such as lysozyme activity, complement C3, SOD, phagocytic activity, and IgM level were examined at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after injection. The differential expression of cytokines was observed after exposure to SA. IL-1β genes displayed significant expression at 2 and 8 h after exposure to 1–10 μg mL−1 of SA. SA also induced gene expression of cytokines such as MyD88, Mx1, and TNF-α. Furthermore, enhanced immune parameters in grass carp confirmed the immunomodulatory activity of SA. Interestingly, this compound has no toxic effect on CIHKM cells as tested by MTT assay. In addition, fish immunised with 10 μg mL−1 of SA exhibited maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. These results suggest that SA has the potential to stimulate immune responses in grass carp.

  6. Assessing consumption of bioactive micro-particles by filter-feeding Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Nathan R.; Amberg, Jon J.; Luoma, James A.; Walleser, Liza R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (SVC) and bighead carp H. nobilis (BHC) have impacted waters in the US since their escape. Current chemical controls for aquatic nuisance species are non-selective. Development of a bioactive micro-particle that exploits filter-feeding habits of SVC or BHC could result in a new control tool. It is not fully understood if SVC or BHC will consume bioactive micro-particles. Two discrete trials were performed to: 1) evaluate if SVC and BHC consume the candidate micro-particle formulation; 2) determine what size they consume; 3) establish methods to evaluate consumption of filter-feeders for future experiments. Both SVC and BHC were exposed to small (50-100 μm) and large (150-200 μm) micro-particles in two 24-h trials. Particles in water were counted electronically and manually (microscopy). Particles on gill rakers were counted manually and intestinal tracts inspected for the presence of micro-particles. In Trial 1, both manual and electronic count data confirmed reductions of both size particles; SVC appeared to remove more small particles than large; more BHC consumed particles; SVC had fewer overall particles in their gill rakers than BHC. In Trial 2, electronic counts confirmed reductions of both size particles; both SVC and BHC consumed particles, yet more SVC consumed micro-particles compared to BHC. Of the fish that ate micro-particles, SVC consumed more than BHC. It is recommended to use multiple metrics to assess consumption of candidate micro-particles by filter-feeders when attempting to distinguish differential particle consumption. This study has implications for developing micro-particles for species-specific delivery of bioactive controls to help fisheries, provides some methods for further experiments with bioactive micro-particles, and may also have applications in aquaculture.

  7. ARTIFICIAL SPAWNING OF EUROPEAN CATFISH (Silurus glanis L. USING SMALL DOSES OF CARP PITUITARY GLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stević

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 and 1998 in the “Ribnjak 1905”•d. d. Našice hatchery artificial spawing of European catfish (Silurus glanis L. was researched under productive conditions using small doses of carp pituitary (CP. Befiwe dosing the carp pituitary glands female catfish were marked, weighed out, grouped according-to their maturity and devided in 5 categories based on grade of their maturity (MC. We used our own criteria. In the controlled group (n=21 female catfish received a single CP shot dosed at 4.5 mg. kg -1 of the body weight (b. w., while in the experimental group (n=62 female fish were treated with single low dosed CP on three levels. It was found out that the minimal CP dosage for the artificial spawning on the 3rd MG is 2.04+-0.15, on the 4th MG 1.59+-0.16 and on the 5th MG 1.25+-0.10 mg. kg-1 of the b. m. Simultaneously, the efficiency of spawning compared to the controlled group was not reduced because it ranged between 92-100% (p<0.0.5, while relative fertility on the 3rd, 4th and 5th maturity grade totalled 9.9+-2.1, 10.4+-1.6 and 11.5+-1.3%, (p<0.05 adequately. The established minimal CP dosages for spawning of European catfish are two to three times lower than relevant data from the reference literature. It is assumed that they will have positive influence on final harmonic maturing process of the oocytes oocita, and by that on better quality of ovulated eggs.

  8. Short-term storage of Prussian carp ova in artificial media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehdi Taati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of storage media and time of storage on the viability ofunfertilized eggs of Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782, the ova of this fish, outside the ovary(ex situ storage, were stored in Dettlaff extender (111.3 NaCl + 3.3 KCl + 2.1 CaCl2 + 23.8 NaHCO3and PCACF (Prussian carp Artificial Coelomic Fluid medium at 4°C and 21°C for 20, 30, 60 and 120 min.For mimicking of ovarian fluid and designing the PCACF medium, obtained ova from 15 female, werefiltered and coelomic fluid was separated for chemical composition analysis of ovarian fluid and thePC ACF medium was formulated. This study was done with 16 treatments and 1 control group in 3replicate. The results shown that maintain duration and storage medium had significant effect on eyedembryos rate, hatching success (P0.05. Also, temperature had significant effects on percentage of eyed embryos and hatching rate(P0.05. Eyed embryo and hatchingrates decreased with increasing time. Interactions between time of storage and storage medium andtemperature and the resulting effects on eye embryos and hatching rates were significant (P<0.05.Highest eyed embryo and hatching rate between treatments was observed in PCACF, 20 min storage and4 °C (PCACF + 20 min + 4 °C and lowest eyed embryo and hatching rates was observed in Dettlaff +120 min + 21 °C.

  9. Genomic incompatibilities in the diploid and tetraploid offspring of the goldfish × common carp cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaojun; Luo, Jing; Chai, Jing; Ren, Li; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Feng; Liu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Yubao; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Wei; Lin, Guoliang; Mai, Chao; Yuan, Shuo; Wang, Jun; Li, Tao; Qin, Qinbo; Feng, Hao; Luo, Kaikun; Xiao, Jun; Zhong, Huan; Zhao, Rurong; Duan, Wei; Song, Zhenyan; Wang, Yanqin; Wang, Jing; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Ding, Zhaoli; Du, Zhenglin; Lu, Xuemei; Gao, Yun; Murphy, Robert W; Liu, Yun; Meyer, Axel; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-02-02

    Polyploidy is much rarer in animals than in plants but it is not known why. The outcome of combining two genomes in vertebrates remains unpredictable, especially because polyploidization seldom shows positive effects and more often results in lethal consequences because viable gametes fail to form during meiosis. Fortunately, the goldfish (maternal) × common carp (paternal) hybrids have reproduced successfully up to generation 22, and this hybrid lineage permits an investigation into the genomics of hybridization and tetraploidization. The first two generations of these hybrids are diploids, and subsequent generations are tetraploids. Liver transcriptomes from four generations and their progenitors reveal chimeric genes (>9%) and mutations of orthologous genes. Characterizations of 18 randomly chosen genes from genomic DNA and cDNA confirm the chimera. Some of the chimeric and differentially expressed genes relate to mutagenesis, repair, and cancer-related pathways in 2nF1. Erroneous DNA excision between homologous parental genes may drive the high percentage of chimeric genes, or even more potential mechanisms may result in this phenomenon. Meanwhile, diploid offspring show paternal-biased expression, yet tetraploids show maternal-biased expression. These discoveries reveal that fast and unstable changes are mainly deleterious at the level of transcriptomes although some offspring still survive their genomic abnormalities. In addition, the synthetic effect of genome shock might have resulted in greatly reduced viability of 2nF2 hybrid offspring. The goldfish × common carp hybrids constitute an ideal system for unveiling the consequences of intergenomic interactions in hybrid vertebrate genomes and their fertility.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of crucian carp (Carassius auratus, an important aquaculture and hypoxia-tolerant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liao

    Full Text Available The crucian carp is an important aquaculture species and a potential model to study genome evolution and physiological adaptation. However, so far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of four cDNA libraries representing brain, muscle, liver and kidney tissues respectively, each with six specimens. The removal of low quality reads resulted in 2.62 million raw reads, which were assembled as 127,711 unigenes, including 84,867 isotigs and 42,844 singletons. A total of 22,273 unigenes were found with significant matches to 14,449 unique proteins. Around14,398 unigenes were assigned with at least one Gene Ontology (GO category in 84,876 total assignments, and 6,382 unigenes were found in 237 predicted KEGG pathways. The gene expression analysis revealed more genes expressed in brain, more up-regulated genes in muscle and more down-regulated genes in liver as compared with gene expression profiles of other tissues. In addition, 23 enzymes in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway were recovered. Importantly, we identified 5,784 high-quality putative SNP and 11,295 microsatellite markers which include 5,364 microsatellites with flanking sequences ≥50 bp. This study produced the most comprehensive genomic resources that have been derived from crucian carp, including thousands of genetic markers, which will not only lay a foundation for further studies on polyploidy origin and anoxic survival but will also facilitate selective breeding of this important aquaculture species.

  11. Alternations in the liver enzymatic activity of Common carp, Cyprinus carpio in response to parasites, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastiannasab, Abulhasan; Afsharmanesh, Shiva; Rahimi, Ruhollah; Sharifian, Iman

    2016-12-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of parasites, monogenea, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp. on some enzymatic and biochemical components of liver in healthy and infected common carp, Cyprinus carpio. For this purpose, 10 healthy and 10 infected fish were collected from farm. The blood samples were taken and after separation of serum, the values of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes activities as well as Creatinine and Urea were measured. Based on obtained results, the values of AST, ALT enzymes activities as well as Creatinine and Urea were higher in the infected fish compared to non-infected fish. In conclusion; our results reveals that infection with external parasites, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp. can causes some dysfunctions in liver and kidney of common carp.

  12. Nitric oxide formation from the reaction of nitrite with carp and rabbit hemoglobin at intermediate oxygen saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2008-01-01

    The nitrite reductase activity of deoxyhemoglobin has received much recent interest because the nitric oxide produced in this reaction may participate in blood flow regulation during hypoxia. The present study used spectral deconvolution to characterize the reaction of nitrite with carp and rabbit...... hemoglobin at different constant oxygen tensions that generate the full range of physiological relevant oxygen saturations. Carp is a hypoxia-tolerant species with very high hemoglobin oxygen affinity, and the high R-state character and low redox potential of the hemoglobin is hypothesized to promote...... NO generation from nitrite. The reaction of nitrite with deoxyhemoglobin leads to a 1 : 1 formation of nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin in both species. At intermediate oxygen saturations, the reaction with deoxyhemoglobin is clearly favored over that with oxyhemoglobin, and the oxyhemoglobin reaction...

  13. Effects of antalarmin, a CRF receptor 1 antagonist, on fright reaction and endocrine stress response in crucian carp (Carassius carassius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lastein, Stine; Höglund, Erik; Overli, Oyvind

    2008-01-01

    and stress reactions in non-mammalian vertebrates are largely unknown. Crucian carp displays the olfactory-mediated fright reaction, a stereotypic behavioral response to waterborne cues from damaged skin of conspecifics. This reaction shows several similarities to basic components of avoidance behavior......The corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors show striking homogeneity throughout the vertebrate subphylum. In mammals, the CRF1 receptor (CRFR1) plays an important role in mediating behavioral and endocrine responses to fear and stress. The specific roles of this receptor subtype in fear...... in mammals. In the present study, we applied the non-peptide CRFR1 antagonist, antalarmin, to crucian carp 1 h before exposure to conspecific skin extract. This treatment resulted in a suppression of the fright reaction. After skin extract exposure, antalarmin treatment also lead to lower plasma cortisol...

  14. Expression of immune system-related genes during ontogeny in experimentally wounded common carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2014-01-01

    they were microscopically indistinguishable from normal tissue by day 3 post-wounding in all but the juvenile carp wounded on day 49 post-fertilization. In these juveniles the wounded area was still visible even 7days post-wounding. On the transcriptional level a very limited response was observed......We investigated the effect of full-thickness incisional wounding on expression of genes related to the immune system in larvae and juveniles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The wounds were inflicted by needle puncture immediately below the anterior part of the dorsal fin on days 7, 14, 28 and 49...... after fertilization. We followed the local gene expression 1, 3 and 7days after wounding by removing head and viscera before extracting RNA from the remaining part of the fish, including the wound area. In addition, we visually followed wound healing. Overall the wounds had regenerated to a point where...

  15. Combined effects of ammonia and microcystin on survival, growth, antioxidant responses, and lipid peroxidation of bighead carp Hypophthalmythys nobilis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongjie; Lü, Kai; Minter, Ewan J A; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou; Montagnes, David J S

    2012-06-30

    Hazardous materials, such as ammonia and microcystin, are released into lakes during cyanobacterial bloom degradation and may severely impact aquatic organisms. To assess the combined effects of ammonia and microcystin on survival, growth, and oxidative stress of larval fish, 14-day-old larvae of bighead carp Hypophthalmythys nobilis were exposed to solutions with different combined concentrations of ammonia (0, 0.06, 0.264mgL(-1)) and microcystin (0, 2, 10, 30μgL(-1)) for 10 days. Microcystin significantly decreased body length, while ammonia significantly increased body weight, specific growth rate, and condition factor, but there was no significant interaction between ammonia and microcystin on them. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and malondialdehyde significantly changed with microcystin concentration, whereas glutathione was not affected by microcystin. Ammonia significantly affected the antioxidant system. There were significant interactions between ammonia and microcystin on superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde. Our data clearly demonstrate that ammonia and microcystin adversely affect bighead carp larvae.

  16. Protection against atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by oral administration of humus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hiroshi; Denso; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2007-04-01

    Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. In the present study, oral administration of humus extract to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) induced effective protection against experimental atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection. Mortality of fish and development of skin lesions such as hemorrhages and ulcers were significantly suppressed in carp treated with 10%, 5% or 1% humus extract adsorbed on dry feeding pellets. The median surviving days was also greater in fish treated with 10% or 5% humus extract than in untreated fish. Atypical A. salmonicida was isolated from ulcerative lesions of part of dead fish, but Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium sp. were also isolated from these fish, verifying bacterial population changes during the progression of skin lesions. These results clearly show that treatment of fish with humus extract is effective in preventing A. salmonicida disease.

  17. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of two new C-reactive protein genes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, A.; Cartwright, J.R.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2012-01-01

    C-Reactive protein (CRP) plays an important role in the acute phase response. Transcripts encoding two new CRP-like molecules (ccCRP1 and ccCRP2) from European common carp have been characterized which has enabled seven CRP-like genes to be identified in zebrafish. 79.3% (ccCRP1) and 74.5% (ccCRP2)

  18. Histopathological alterations in the vital organs of Indian Major Carps with parasitic infestation in fish farms West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kurva Raghu Ramudu; Gadadhar Dash

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the histological changes of vital organs such as kidney, gills and brain with the mixed infestation of parasites in Indian Major Carps (IMC). The parasites such as Myxobolus spp., Thelohanellus spp., Trichodina spp., Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus spp. and Nematodes were observed in three IMC. Several histological alterations were observed in the kidney of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala, which includes vacuolar degeneration in the epith...

  19. Antimicrobial effects of guava leaf (Psidium guajava Linn.) extract against Aeromonas hydrophila in fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Tangtongpirot, J.; Aroonseang, S.; Chansue, N.; Assawawongkasem, N.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of guava leaves in treatment or prevention of bacterial infection using methanol extracted guava leaves. Three hundred and eighty four fancy carps (Cyprinus carpio) with average weight of 25.5 g. were acclimated for 14 days before the experiment. Fish were divided into 32 groups of two replicates each with 6 fish. All experiments were done in replicate. Guava leaves were macerated and extracted by methanol distillation and evaporation t...

  20. Life Cycle Assessment for environmentally sustainable aquaculture management : a case study of combined aquaculture systems for carp and tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with two-net cage aquaculture systems of common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Cirata reservoir, Indonesia. The studied system included fingerling production in hatcheries, fish rearing in cages, and transport of fry and feed as well as that of harvested fish to markets. The environmental impact indicators were calculated based on the annual production i...

  1. Researches on Evaluating the Efficiency of Hormonal Stimulation with Silver Carp Pituitary Extract in Order to Optimize Controlled Reproductive Technology at Asian Cyprinids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Popescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Large requirements of fish larvae, led the specialists at the Carja 1 farm to experience injection with pituitary extract from other species of cyprinids, silver carp pituitary. The experiment took place in the period from 2-25 June 2008. To verify the effectiveness of injections of silver carp pituitary suspension were used two experimental groups of 30 exemplars (1:1, the first group of females received a total dose of 2.9 mg/kg, and the second batch a dose of 4.5 mg/kg. The total dose used for breeding male is 2 mg/kg pituitary. During the Asian cyprinid reproductive guided aimed to determine: the proportion of breeding maturation, fertilization rates and survival during embryonic development index and the index of survival to hatch from eggs to larvae of 3-5 days (most representative for the whole process of reproduction. Determining the number of larvae from each batch of fertilized eggs, the ultimate goal of action is guided by reproductive hormonal stimulation with silver carp pituitary. The number of larvae obtained from experimental plots 3-5 days silver carp injected with silver carp pituitary extract (63,96 and 64,67 thousand comparable with those obtained in experimental groups grass carp (36,21 and 31,14 thousand and bighead carp (39,36 and 41, 34 thousand was approximately 58% higher.

  2. Effect of feeding carp with fat-supplemented pelleted diets on histological appearance of the intestine and hepatopancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Epler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty two-year-old carps, Cyprinus carpio L. were kept in a closed water circulation system for five months. Fish were assigned to five groups (12 fish per group and fed ad libitum on Aller Classic pelleted feed for carp: standard or standard pelleted mixture supplemented with 6% oils. The control group (IK received standard pellets, group IIS+Rz – sunflower oil + rapeseed oil (50% : 50%; group IIIS+L – sunflower oil + linseed oil (80% : 20%; group IVR – fish oil; and group VSK – pork scratchings at the level of 6%. At the end of the experiment, 10 carps from each group were slaughtered and their body length and weight were measured to calculate mean body weight gains and mean individual gains. Fragments of intestine and hepatopancreas were histologically and morphometrically analyzed. The mean weight gains of fish at the end of the experiment, which were the highest for diet IIIS+L, and the lowest for VSK and IK diets, were fully confirmed by histological analysis, which showed that the lowest gains in biomass and mean individual weight were due to digestive disturbances associated mainly with lipid metabolism. These disturbances did not occur in groups IIS+Rz, IIIS+L and IVR.

  3. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of two new C-reactive protein genes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Alberto; Cartwright, Jamie R; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Hoole, David

    2012-05-01

    C-Reactive protein (CRP) plays an important role in the acute phase response. Transcripts encoding two new CRP-like molecules (ccCRP1 and ccCRP2) from European common carp have been characterized which has enabled seven CRP-like genes to be identified in zebrafish. 79.3% (ccCRP1) and 74.5% (ccCRP2) identity to CRP from East-Asian common carp occurs and fish CRP genes form a distinct clade. ccCRP2 gene organization comprises four exons and three introns, in contrast to the two exons/one intron organization of mammalian CRP genes. Gene expression assays showed both ccCRP-like molecules are constitutively expressed in liver, skin, gill, gut, muscle, kidney, spleen and blood. Protein levels of ccCRP in serum and spleen were significantly different from other organs analyzed, and levels were greatest in the liver. It is proposed that the two carp CRP genes defined differ in their expression profiles which may suggest differences in their biological activities.

  4. Characterization of transgene integration pattern in F4 hGH-transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo WU; Yong Hua SUN; Yan Wu WANG; Ya Ping WANG; Zuo Yan ZHU

    2005-01-01

    The integration pattern and adjacent host sequences of the inserted pMThGH-transgene in the F4 hGH-transgenic common carp were extensively studied. Here we show that each F4 transgenic fish contained about 200 copies of the pMThGH-transgene and the transgenes were integrated into the host genome generally with concatemers in a head-totail arrangement at 4-5 insertion sites. By using a method of plasmid rescue, four hundred copies of transgenes from two individuals of F4 transgenic fish, A and B, were recovered and clarified into 6 classes. All classes of recovered transgenes contained either complete or partial pMThGH sequences. The class Ⅰ, which comprised 83% and 84.5% respectively of the recovered transgene copies from fish A and B, had maintained the original configuration, indicating that most transgenes were faithfully inherited during the four generations of reproduction. The other five classes were different from the original configuration in both molecular weight and restriction map, indicating that a few transgenes had undergone mutation, rearrangement or deletion during integration and germline transmission. In the five types of aberrant transgenes, three flanking sequences of the host genome were analyzed. These sequences were common carp β-actin gene, common carp DNA sequences homologous to mouse phosphoglycerate kinase-1 and human epidermal keratin 14, respectively.

  5. Place product in the promotion of communes – the case of the Milicz carp and the Barycz Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Glinka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The constant competitiveness for the interest of entrepreneurs, tourists, students makes that local government units put effort into creating their image. However, the limited capital and organizational resources make that these units initiate multilateral promotion actions. Preparing its offer they repeatedly use attractive place products. The main aim of the article is to answer the question whether, if so in what ways, the Milicz carp, treated as a place product, is used in the promotion of the Local Action Group “Partnership for the Barycz Valley” created by the eight communes of Lower Silesia and Wielkopolskie province. Especially while taking into account two elements: first, the premises of the official strategic documents adopted within ‘the Barycz Valley’, second, the conducted in practice promotion actions. The use of two methods: content analysis and comparative analysis allows to state that the Milicz carp, against the goals in the given documents, plays a significant role in the promotion of the cooperating communes. Actions in the field of public relations have the greatest importance. On the other hand, the actions concerning the promotion of the Milicz carp do not accompany all the enterprises shaping the image of ‘the Barycz Valley’.

  6. Functional analysis of membrane-bound complement regulatory protein on T-cell immune response in ginbuna crucian carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Indriyani; Abdelkhalek, Nevien K; Motobe, Shiori; Nakamura, Ryota; Tsujikura, Masakazu; Somamoto, Tomonori; Nakao, Miki

    2016-02-01

    Complements have long been considered to be a pivotal component in innate immunity. Recent researches, however, highlight novel roles of complements in T-cell-mediated adaptive immunity. Membrane-bound complement regulatory protein CD46, a costimulatory protein for T cells, is a key molecule for T-cell immunomodulation. Teleost CD46-like molecule, termed Tecrem, has been newly identified in common carp and shown to function as a complement regulator. However, it remains unclear whether Tecrem is involved in T-cell immune response. We investigated Tecrem function related to T-cell responses in ginbuna crucian carp. Ginbuna Tecrem (gTecrem) proteins were detected by immunoprecipitation using anti-common carp Tecrem monoclonal antibody (mAb) and were ubiquitously expressed on blood cells including CD8α(+) and CD4(+) lymphocytes. gTecrem expression on leucocyte surface was enhanced after stimulation with the T-cell mitogen, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Coculture with the anti-Tecrem mAb significantly inhibited the proliferative activity of PHA-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes, suggesting that cross-linking of Tecrems on T-cells interferes with a signal transduction pathway for T-cell activation. These findings indicate that Tecrem may act as a T-cell moderator and imply that the complement system in teleost, as well as mammals, plays an important role for linking adaptive and innate immunity.

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase is an endogenous inhibitor to myofibril-bound serine proteinase of crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Le-Chang; Zhou, Li-Gen; Du, Cui-Hong; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Hara, Kenji; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2009-06-24

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) was purified to homogeneity from the skeletal muscle of crucian carp ( Carassius auratus ) by ammonium sulfate fractionation, column chromatographies of Q-Sepharose, SP-Sepharose, and Superdex 200 with a yield of 8.0%, and purification folds of 468. The molecular mass of GPI was 120 kDa as estimated by gel filtration, while on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two subunits (55 and 65 kDa) were identified, suggesting that it is a heterodimer. Interestingly, GPI revealed specific inhibitory activity toward a myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) from crucian carp, while no inhibitory activity was identified toward other serine proteinases, such as white croaker MBSP and crucian carp trypsin. Kinetic analysis showed that GPI is a competitive inhibitor toward MBSP, and the K(i) was 0.32 microM. Our present results indicated that the multifunctional protein GPI is an endogenous inhibitor to MBSP and may play a significant role in the regulation of muscular protein metabolism in vivo.

  8. Transgenes in F4 pMThGH- transgenic common carp (Cy- prinus carpio L.) are highly polymorphic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To gain information on the integration pattern of pMThGH-tansgene, 50 transgenes were recovered from F4 generation of pMThGH transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and 33 recovered genes were analyzed. The restriction maps of these recovered genes were constructed by digestion with five kinds of enzymes. These transgenes can be classified into 4 types according to their restriction maps. Only one type of transgenes maintains its original molecular form, whereas the other three types are very different from the original one and vary each other on both molecular weight and restriction maps. This implies that the sequences of most transgenes have been deleted and/or rearranged during integration and inheritance. The results of PCR am-plification and Southern blot hybridization indicate that MThGH in TypeI transgene keeps intact but most of its se-quence has been deleted in other three types. All these results suggest that transgenes in F4 generation of transgenic carp are highly polymorphic. Two DNA fragments concerning integration site of transgenes were cloned from recovered transgenes, and found to be homologous to the 5′UTR of β-actin gene of common carp and mouse mRNA for receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), respectively.

  9. In Situ Determination of the Effect of Drilling Noise and Vibration on Growth of Grass Carp, Myloparyngodon Piceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yao; Zhang Shaona; Song Yunli; Zhao Jun; Chen Jufa; Zhang Dehua; Jiang Shangliang

    2003-01-01

    The study is carried out on the effect of drilling noise and vibration on growth of grass carp, Myloparyngodon Piceus, by using cut-fin marking method in situ. Compared with other methods, the method is more appropriate, for its operation is simpler and more data may be obtained under the same condition. The results show that drilling noise and vibration have significant effect on the growth of grass carp. Critical equivalent noise and vibration grade ( Nleq and Vleq) are about 84.4 dB and 90.2 dB, and the affecting radius is about 8.5 m. The effect of drilling noise and vibration could be influenced by some factors,such as duration of pollution and body weight of grass carp, etc. Grass carp′s growth could rapidly recover after removing drilling noise and vibration, indicating that the drilling noise and vibration do not damage the fish organs and the effect is reversible. Therefore, the effect mechanism may be due to the activating response of non-hearing system.

  10. Seasonal and diel effects on acoustic fish biomass estimates: application to a shallow reservoir with untargeted common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemali, Imed; Yule, Daniel; Guillard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand how seasonal fish distributions affect acoustically derived fish biomass estimates in a shallow reservoir in a semi-arid country (Tunisia). To that end, sampling events were performed during four seasons (spring (June), summer (September), autumn (December) and winter (March)) that included day and night surveys. A Simrad EK60 echosounder, equipped with two 120-kHz split-beam transducers for simultaneous horizontal and vertical beaming, was used to sample the entire water column. Surveys during spring and summer and daytime hours of winter were deemed unusable owing to high methane flux from the sediment, and during the day survey of autumn, fish were close to the reservoir bottom leading to low detectability. It follows that acoustic surveys should be conducted only at night during the cold season (December–March) for shallow reservoirs having carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) as the dominant species. Further, night-time biomass estimates during the cold season declined significantly (P fish biomass in the Bir-Mcherga Reservoir was high (mean (± s.d.) 185 ± 98 tonnes (Mg)), but annual fishery exploitation is low (19.3–24.1 Mg) because the fish biomass is likely dominated by invasive carp not targeted by fishers. The results suggest that controlling carp would help improve the fishery.

  11. Experimental infection of six North American fish species with the North Carolina strain of spring Viremia of Carp Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Sanders, George E.; Conway, Carla M.; Binkowski, Fred P.; Winton, James R.; Kurath, Gael

    2015-01-01

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen associated with disease outbreaks in cultured and wild fish worldwide. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio carp), and koi (C. carpio koi) suffer the highest mortalities from SVCV infections, while other cyprinid fish species have varying susceptibility. Although salmonid fish typically are considered refractory to infection by SVCV, there have been a few reports suggesting infection has occurred in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). There have been no reports of Percid fish being infected with SVCV. Since the first North American outbreak of SVCV at a North Carolina koi farm in 2002 there have been eight subsequent detections or outbreaks of SVCV among fish species from the families of Cyprinidae andCentrarchidae within the US and Canada. Thus, this exotic virus is considered a potential threat to native and cultured fish populations in North America. We performed multiple experimental challenges with fish species from three families (Salmonidae, Cyprinidae, and Percidae) to identify the potential risk associated with SVCV exposure of resident fish populations in North America.

  12. Evolutionary history of two divergent Dmrt1 genes reveals two rounds of polyploidy origins in gibel carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Yin; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Zhi; Hong, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2014-09-01

    Polyploidy lineages, despite very rare in vertebrates, have been proposed to play significant role in speciation and evolutionary success, but the occurrence history and consequences are still largely unknown. In this study, we used the conserved Dmrt1 to analyze polyploidy occurrence and evolutionary process in polyploid gibel carp. We identified two divergent Dmrt1 genes and respectively localized the two genes on three homologous chromosomes. Subsequently, the corresponding full-length cDNAs and genomic sequences of Dmrt1 genes were also characterized from the closely related species including Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio, and their two Dmrt1 genes were respectively localized on two homologous chromosomes. Significantly, the evolutionary relationship analyses among cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of these Dmrt1 genes revealed two rounds of polyploidy origins in the gibel carp: an early polyploidy might result in an common tetraploid ancestor of Carassius auratus gibelio, Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio before 18.49 million years ago (Mya), and an late polyploidy might occur from evolutionary branch of Carassius auratus at around 0.51 Mya, which lead to the occurrence of the hexaploid gibel carp. Therefore, this study provides clear genetic evidence for understanding occurrence time and historical process of polyploidy in polyploid vertebrates.

  13. Molecular Characterization and Growth Association of Two Apolipoprotein A-Ib Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2016-09-16

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is functionally involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in vertebrates. In this study, two isoforms of apoA-Ib in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were characterized. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that C. carpio ApoA-Ib is relatively conserved within cyprinid fishes. During embryonic development, C. carpio apoA-Ib was first expressed at the stage of multi-cells, and the highest mRNA level was observed at the stage of optic vesicle. A ubiquitous expression pattern was detected in various tissues with extreme predominance in the liver. Significantly different expression levels were observed between light and heavy body weight groups and also in the compensatory growth test. Seventeen and eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in matured mRNA of the C. carpio apoA-Ib.1 and apoA-Ib.2, respectively. Two of these SNPs (apoA-Ib.2-g.183A>T and apoA-Ib.2-g.1753C>T) were significantly associated with body weight and body length in two populations of common carp. These results indicate that apoA-Ib may play an important role in the modulation of growth and development in common carp.

  14. Immunostimulatory effects of natural human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) on carps Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Hironobu; Chakraborty, Gunimala; Korenaga, Hiroki; Kono, Tomoya; Shivappa, R B; Sakai, Masahiro

    2009-10-15

    Human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) is an important immunomodulatory substance used in the treatment and prevention of numerous infectious and immune-related diseases in animals. However, the immunostimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha in fish remain to be investigated. In the current study, the immune responses of the carp species Cyprinus carpio L. to treatment with huIFN-alpha were analyzed via measurement of superoxide anion production, phagocytic activity and the expression of cytokine genes including interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 10. Low doses of huIFN-alpha were administered orally once a day for 3 days, and sampling was carried out at 1, 3 and 5 days post-treatment. Our results indicate that a low dose of huIFN-alpha significantly increased phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production in the carp kidney. The huIFN-alpha-treated fish also displayed a significant upregulation in cytokine gene expression. The current study demonstrates the stimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha on the carp immune system and highlights the immunomodulatory role of huIFN-alpha in fish.

  15. Cloning, characterization and promoter analysis of common carp hairy/Enhancer-of-split-related gene, her6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jing Liu; Yong-Hua Sun; Na Wang; Ya-Ping Wang; Zuo-Yan Zhu

    2006-12-01

    Some members of hairy/Enhancer-of-split-related gene (HES) family have important effects on axial mesoderm segmentation and the establishment and maintenance of the somite fringe. In fishes, the her6 gene, a member of the HES family, is the homologue of hes1 in mammals and chicken. In this study, the her6 gene and its full-length cDNA from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were isolated and characterized. The genomic sequence of common carp her6 is approximately 1.7 kb, with four exons and three introns, and the full-length cDNA of 1314 bp encodes a putative polypeptide of 271 amino acids. To analyse the promoter sequence of common carp her6, sequences of various lengths upstream from the transcription initiation site of her6 were fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (eGFP) and introduced into zebrafish embryos by microinjection to generate transgenic embryos. Our results show that the upstream sequence of 500 bp can direct highly efficient and tissue-specific expression of eGFP in zebrafish embryos, whereas a fragment of 200 bp containing the TATA box and a partial suppressor of hairless paired site sequence (SPS) is not sufficient to drive eGFP expression in zebrafish embryos.

  16. Purification and characterization of α2-macroglobulin from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus%草鱼α2巨球蛋白的分离纯化与若干特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤玲; 陆承平

    2004-01-01

    α2-Macroglobulin was purified from grass carp plasma by precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000,gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. The three steps of the procedure resulted in the purification of grass carp plasma α2 M. The purified product was analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) under natural conditions and the proteins showed a single band. Meanwhile, it was analyzed by SDS, PAGE under reducing conditions and the proteins showed double bands with molecular weight of about 95 kD and 80 kD. This result demonstrated that grass carp α2M was composed of two distinct subunits. Most properties of grass carp α2M were similar to that of human α2M. Grass carp α2M treated with trypsin produced the fast form of the molecule more mobile in PAGE, but the untreated grass carpR2M had the property of electrophoretically slow-form. α2M was a nonspecific proteinase inhibitors of blood plasma. Inhibition of activity of Aeromonase hydrophilas extracellular proteinase (AhECPase) showed that grass carp α2M could inhibit the proteinases secreted from invading bacteria. Double immudiffusion of α2M demonstrated no cross-antigenicity between grass carp' s and human α2M

  17. Effect of Modified Gelatin from Silver Carp Skin Combined with Peptide-Zn Complex on Preservation of Grass Carp%鲢鱼皮改性明胶复合多肽锌对草鱼的保鲜作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 马月; 罗永康; 李博

    2016-01-01

    The coating preservation of gelatin modified by transglutaminase (TGase) combined with peptide-Zn complex from silver carp skin on grass carp was studied. Sensory evaluation, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value and total bacterial count were measured to study the quality changes of grass carp with different treatments during cold storage. The results showed that modified gelatin alone and its combination with peptide-Zn complex prepared from silver carp skin protein hydrolysate were both effective in preventing deterioration and preserving the quality of grass carp by significantly inhibiting the increases in TBA value, TVB-N value and pH value and restraining bacterial growth. Modified gelatin was comparable to sodium alginate combined with peptide-Zn complex in terms of efficacy. However, compared with sodium alginate combined with peptide-Zn complex, grass carp had a better quality on the 6th d of storage after being coated with modified gelatin combined with peptide-Zn complex. As a result, the quality of grass carp remained at the first and second grades both for 3 more days. In conclusion, modified gelatin combined with peptide-Zn complex was a more effective coating for preserving the quality of aquatic products when compared with the combination with sodium alginate.%研究鲢鱼皮谷氨酰胺转胺酶(transglutaminase,TGase)改性明胶复合多肽锌对冷藏草鱼段的保鲜效果。通过测定草鱼段在4℃冷藏过程中感官评分、硫代巴比妥酸(thiobarbituric acid,TBA)、挥发性盐基氮(total volatile basic nitrogen,TVB-N)、pH值和菌落总数等指标,评估不同处理条件下草鱼品质的变化情况。结果表明,改性明胶及其复合多肽锌对草鱼均有明显的防腐保鲜作用,有效抑制了草鱼TBA值、TVB-N值、pH值的升高以及菌落总数的增长。与海藻酸钠多肽锌处理的涂膜组草鱼相比,改性明胶单独涂膜组的保鲜

  18. A novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR in teleost fish: carp SITR is involved in the nitric oxide-mediated response to a protozoan parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M S Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The innate immune system relies upon a wide range of germ-line encoded receptors including a large number of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF receptors. Different Ig-like immune receptor families have been reported in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. Most innate immune receptors of the IgSF are type I transmembrane proteins containing one or more extracellular Ig-like domains and their regulation of effector functions is mediated intracellularly by distinct stimulatory or inhibitory pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Carp SITR was found in a substracted cDNA repertoire from carp macrophages, enriched for genes up-regulated in response to the protozoan parasite Trypanoplasma borreli. Carp SITR is a type I protein with two extracellular Ig domains in a unique organisation of a N-proximal V/C2 (or I- type and a C-proximal V-type Ig domain, devoid of a transmembrane domain or any intracytoplasmic signalling motif. The carp SITR C-proximal V-type Ig domain, in particular, has a close sequence similarity and conserved structural characteristics to the mammalian CD300 molecules. By generating an anti-SITR antibody we could show that SITR protein expression was restricted to cells of the myeloid lineage. Carp SITR is abundantly expressed in macrophages and is secreted upon in vitro stimulation with the protozoan parasite T. borreli. Secretion of SITR protein during in vivo T. borreli infection suggests a role for this IgSF receptor in the host response to this protozoan parasite. Overexpression of carp SITR in mouse macrophages and knock-down of SITR protein expression in carp macrophages, using morpholino antisense technology, provided evidence for the involvement of carp SITR in the parasite-induced NO production. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We report the structural and functional characterization of a novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR in a teleost fish and propose a role for carp SITR in the NO-mediated response to a

  19. Identification and comparison of gonadal transcripts of testis and ovary of adult common carp Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Xia, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Li-Fang; Jia, Yong-Fang; Nan, Ping; Li, Li; Chang, Zhong-Jie

    2015-06-01

    The limited number of gonad-specific and gonad-related genes that have been identified in fish represents a major obstacle in the study of fish gonad development and sex differentiation. In common carp Cyprinus carpio from China's Yellow River, the ovary and testis differ in volume and weight in adult fish of the same age. Comparing sperm, egg, and somatic cell transcripts in this carp may provide insight into the mechanisms of its gonad development and sex differentiation. In the present work, gene expression patterns in the carp ovary and testis were compared using suppression subtractive hybridization. Two bidirectional subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were analyzed in parallel using testis or ovary as testers. Eighteen nonredundant clones were identified in the male library, including 15 known cDNAs. The expression patterns of selected genes in testis and ovary were analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Tektin-1, GAPDS, FGFIBP, IGFBP-5, and an unknown gene from the Ccmg4 clone were observed to be expressed only in testis. GSDF, BMI1b, Wt1a, and an unknown gene from the Ccme2 clone were expressed at higher levels in testis than in ovary at sexual maturity. Thirty functional expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in 43 sequenced clones in the female library, including 28 known cDNAs, one uncharacterized cDNA (EST clone), and one novel sequence. Eight identified ESTs showed significant differences in expression between the testis and the ovary. ZP3C and Psmb2 were expressed exclusively in ovary, whereas the expression levels of IFIPGL-1, Setd6, ATP-6, CDC45, AIF-1, and an unknown gene from the Ccfh2 clone were more strongly expressed in ovary than in testis. In addition, the expression of ZP3C, Wt1a, and Setd6 was analyzed in male and female gonads, heart, liver, kidney, and brain. ZP3C was expressed only in ovary. Setd6 expression was significantly stronger in female tissues than that in the male, except in the liver

  20. Development and Characterization of New Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers from Expressed Sequence Tags in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomu Yu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The common carp (Cyprinus carpio is an important aquaculture fish worldwide but only limited single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers are characterized from expressed sequence tags (ESTs in this species. In this study, 1487 putative SNPs were bioinformatically mined from 14,066 online ESTs mainly from the European common carp, with the occurrence rate of about one SNP every 173 bp. One hundred and twenty-one of these SNPs were selected for validation using PCR fragment sequencing, and 48 out of 81 primers could amplify the expected fragments in the Chinese common carp genome. Only 26 (21.5% putative SNPs were validated, however, 508 new SNPs and 68 indels were identified. The ratios of transitions to transversions were 1.77 for exon SNPs and 1.05 for intron SNPs. All the 23 SNPs selected for population tests were polymorphic, with the observed heterozygosity (Ho ranging from 0.053 to 0.526 (mean 0.262, polymorphism information content (PIC from 0.095 to 0.357 (mean 0.246, and 21 SNPs were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. These results suggest that different common carp populations with geographic isolation have significant genetic variation at the SNP level, and these new EST-SNP markers are readily available for genetics and breeding studies in common carp.

  1. Increased food intake in growth hormone-transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) may be mediated by upregulating Agouti-related protein (AgRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chengrong; Song, Yanlong; Wang, Yaping; Zhang, Tanglin; Duan, Ming; Li, Yongming; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    In fish, food intake and feeding behavior are crucial for survival, competition, growth and reproduction. Growth hormone (GH)-transgenic common carp exhibit an enhanced growth rate, increased food intake and higher feed conversion rate. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of feeding regulation in GH-transgenic (TG) fish are not clear. In this study, we observed feeding behavior of TG and non-transgenic (NT) common carp, and analyzed the mRNA expression levels of NPY, AgRP I, orexin, POMC, CCK, and CART I in the hypothalamus and telencephalon after behavioral observation. We detected similar gene expression levels in the hypothalamus of TG and NT common carp, which had been cultured in the field at the same age. Furthermore, we tested the effects of GH on hypothalamus fragments in vitro to confirm our findings. We demonstrated that TG common carp displayed increased food intake and reduced food consumption time, which were associated with a marked increase in hypothalamic AgRP I mRNA expression. Our results suggest that elevated GH levels may influence food intake and feeding behavior by upregulating the hypothalamic orexigenic factor AgRP I in GH-transgenic common carp.

  2. Changes in the microbial communities of air-packaged and vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Qian; Li, Dongping; Liu, Xiaochang; Luo, Yongkang

    2015-12-01

    The dominant microbiota of air-packaged (AP) and vacuum-packaged (VP) common carp fillets during storage were systematically identified. Culture-dependent methods were used for microbial enumeration and 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Different packaging conditions affected the growth of microbiota and the shelf life of carp. Shelf-life of AP and VP fillets was 8 and 12 days, respectively. Vacuum packaging delayed the increase of biogenic amines levels compared to air packaging, especially for cadaverine and tyramine levels. In the present study, a total of 13 different genera comprised the microbial communities of fresh carp fillets and Acinetobacter dominated the indigenous flora of carp. However, variability in bacterial community composition was observed in these two packaging conditions. Pseudomonas were the only microbiota found in the spoiled AP carp, whereas Carnobacterium followed by Aeromonas were found mainly in VP samples. Other genera Shewanella, Lactococcus, and Pseudomonas were also found in low numbers at the end of the VP fillets' shelf life. Additional microbial enumeration observed the highest Pseudomonas counts (8.77 log CFU/g on day 8) in AP samples and a relatively high level of lactic acid bacteria (7.74 log CFU/g on day 12) in VP samples.

  3. Characterization and expression pattern of a novel β-defensin in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): implications for its role in mucosal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Guo, Hongyan; Shan, Shijuan; Qi, Chenchen; An, Liguo; Yang, Guiwen

    2014-01-01

    β-defensins are a group of cysteine-rich cationic antimicrobial peptides that play antibacterial and antiviral roles in immune systems of vertebrates. Here, we report the cloning and identification of a β-defensin 3 cDNA sequence from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this β-defensin 3 belonged to the BD-2 group of fish. Real-time PCR showed that the β-defensin 3 mRNA was expressed in all the tissues of normal common carp that we examined and was highly expressed in the spleen and gills. When challenged with Vibrio anguillarum, the expression level of common carp β-defensin 3 mRNA was quickly upregulated in various tissues. Our results indicate that the β-defensin 3 showed markedly high constitutive expression in the gills, and significantly upregulated expression in the hindgut of the common carp after infection, suggesting it plays an important role in the innate and mucosal immunity of common carp.

  4. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) Plays a Critical Role in the Softening of Common Carp Muscle during Chilled Storage by Degradation of Type I and V Collagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Zhang, Qian; Weng, Ling; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proposed to play important roles in the degradation of collagens, thus causing the post-mortem softening of fish muscle, although the specific mechanism remains largely unresolved. Previously, we reported the existence of gelatinase-like proteinases in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle. The primary structures of these proteinases, however, have never been investigated. In the present study, two MMPs with molecular masses of 66 and 65 kDa were purified to homogeneity from common carp muscle by ammonium sulfate fractionation and a series of column chromatographies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS) analysis indicated that they are completely identical to MMP-2 from common carp. During chilled storage of common carp at 4 °C, the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 increased to 212% in 12 h while the texture profile increased over the first 2 h and gradually decreased. On the other hand, type V collagen was purified to homogeneity and a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein was prepared. Both type I and V collagens were effectively hydrolyzed by MMP-2 at 30 °C and even at 4 °C. Furthermore, injection of metalloproteinase proteinase inhibitor EDTA into the blood vessel of live common carp suppressed post-mortem tenderization significantly. All of these results confirmed that MMP-2 is a major proteinase responsible for the degradation of collagens, resulting in the softening of fish muscle during chilled storage.

  5. Controlling effect of three herbicides on an alien invasive plant Bidens frondosa%三种除草剂对外来入侵植物大狼耙草的防除效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪小飞; 黄奏义; 汪传友; 吴磊; 金亮亮; 马敏; 张银

    2012-01-01

    大狼耙草是危害生物多样性的一种恶性杂草.使用使它隆、二甲四氯、草甘膦3种除草剂对大狼耙草进行不同浓度、不同防治时期防除效果研究,结果表明:使它隆对大狼耙草平均致死率为92%,二甲四氯为85%,草甘膦为82%,但三者差异不显著;高、中、低3种浓度(使它隆分别为0.47、0.40、0.33 g·L-1,二甲四氯分别为2.80、2.33、1.87 g·L-1,草甘膦分别为5.18、3.89、2.59 g·L-1)对大狼耙草致死率差异极显著,高浓度溶液防除效果较好;大狼耙草植株在幼苗期(植株高20 cm)、生长盛期(植株高40 cm)、花期(植株高60 cm)3个防治时期致死率差异极显著,幼苗期防除效果理想.研究表明,在大狼耙草幼苗期使用0.47 g·L-1浓度的使它隆防除效果最好.%Bidens frondosa is an exotic vicious weed which endangers biodiversity. In this study, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the controlling effect of different concentrations and different application periods of herbicides Starane, MCPA, and glyphosate on B. frondosa. All the three herbicides had significant controlling effect on this weed, with the average lethality of Starane, MCPA, and glyphosate being 92% , 85% , and 82% , respectively, but no significant difference among them. Different concentrations of the herbicides (0. 47, 0. 40 and 0. 33 g · L-1 of Starane; 2.80, 2.33 and 1.87 g · L-1 of MCPA; and 5. 18, 3.89 and 2. 59 g · L-1 of glyphosate) had significant differences in the lethality on B. frondosa, and relatively high concentration could obtain belter controlling effect. The application period of the herbicides also had significant effects in controlling B. frondosa. Applying the herbicides at B. frondosa seedling stage (plant height 20 cm) could achieve better controlling effect than at its fast growing stage (plant height 40 cm) and blooming stage (plant height 60 cm). It was suggested that applying 0.47 g · L-1 of Starane at the seedling

  6. Atividades alelopáticas de nim sobre o crescimento de sorgo, alface e picão-preto Allelopathic activities of nim on the growth of sorghum, lettuce and Bidens pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cabral França

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A busca de alternativas para os herbicidas sintéticos, como os produtos naturais provenientes de plantas, pode acrescentar mais um elemento no manejo das plantas daninhas das culturas. Neste trabalho objetivou-se verificar o potencial alelopático do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. sobre o crescimento de plântulas de sorgo, alface e picão-preto. Extratos metanólico, aquoso e hexanólico, nas concentrações de 10, 5 e 2,5% (p/v de folhas de nim, foram usados para irrigar sementes das plantas teste, em caixas gerbox, permanecendo em incubadora, tipo BOD. O percentual de germinação de sementes de alface e picão-preto irrigadas com extrato aquoso e metanólico, respectivamente, foram os mais prejudiciais ao desenvolvimento das plântulas; para o sorgo independente do extrator utilizado, o aumento da concentração causou redução do percentual de germinação. O extrato aquoso causou maior efeito detrimental sobre o índice de velocidade de germinação para as três espécies estudadas. Para o sorgo, independente da concentração avaliada, o extrato aquoso foi o mais prejudicial, diferenciando dos demais extratores, com médias de 8,00; 12,986 e 14,68, para os extratores água destilada, hexanol e metanol, respectivamente. Quando se analisou o acúmulo de biomassa para plantas de picão-preto e sorgo, em todos os extratos utilizados, pôde-se verificar que o acúmulo de biomassa foi inversamente proporcional à concentração de nim aplicada.The search for alternatives for the synthetic herbicides, as the natural products from plants, may increase one more element to the handling of the harmful plants of the cultures. The aim of this work was to verify the allelopathic effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. upon sorghum, lettuce, and Bidens pilosa L. (beggustick seeds germination and seedlings growth. Aqueous, methanolic, and hexanolic extracts, in the concentrations of 10, 5 and 2,5% (w/v of nim leaves, were used to irrigate seeds

  7. Mechanisms of Neuroblastoma Cell Growth Inhibition by CARP-1 Functional Mimetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Munie, Sara; Levi, Edi; Frank, John; Ashour, Abdelkader E.; Singh, Mandip; Rishi, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastomas (NBs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of extra cranial pediatric tumors. Patients with high-risk, metastatic NBs have a long-term survival rate of below 40%, and are often resistant to current therapeutic modalities. Due to toxic side effects associated with radiation and chemotherapies, development of new agents is warranted to overcome resistance and effectively treat this disease in clinic. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are an emerging class of small molecule compounds that inhibit growth of diverse cancer cell types. Here we investigated NB inhibitory potential of CFMs and the molecular mechanisms involved. CFM-1, -4, and -5 inhibited NB cell growth, in vitro, independent of their p53 and MYCN status. CFM-4 and -5 induced apoptosis in NB cells in part by activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated kinases (SAPKs) p38 and JNK, stimulating CARP-1 expression and cleavage of PARP1, while promoting loss of the oncogenes C and N-myc as well as mitotic cyclin B1. Treatments of NB cells with CFM-4 or -5 also resulted in loss of Inhibitory κB (IκB) α and β proteins. Micro-RNA profiling revealed upregulation of XIAP-targeting miR513a-3p in CFM-4-treated NB, mesothelioma, and breast cancer cells. Moreover, exposure of NB and breast cancer cells to CFM-4 or -5 resulted in diminished expression of anti-apoptotic XIAP1, cIAP1, and Survivin proteins. Expression of anti-miR513a-5p or miR513a-5p mimic, however, interfered with or enhanced, respectively, the breast cancer cell growth inhibition by CFM-4. CFMs also impacted biological properties of the NB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Our studies indicate anti-NB properties of CFM-4 and 5, and suggest that these CFMs and/or their future analogs have potential as anti-NB agents. PMID:25033461

  8. Evaluation of the toxicological effects of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, P.T.; Dongen, W. van; Esmans, E.L.; Blust, R.; Coen, W.M. de

    2003-02-26

    In the present study we evaluated the toxicological effects of a scarcely documented environmental pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), on selected biochemical endpoints in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Juvenile organisms were exposed to PFOS through a single intraperitoneal injection (liver concentrations ranging from 16 to 864 ng/g after 5 days of exposure) and after 1 and 5 days effects were assessed in liver and serum of the exposed organisms. The investigation of the hepatotoxicity of PFOS included the determination of the peroxisome proliferating potential (peroxisomal palmitoyl CoA oxidase and catalase activity) and the compounds influence on the average DNA basepair length (ABPL) by agarose gel electrophoresis. Total antioxidant activity (TAA), cholesterol and triglyceride levels were monitored in the serum. After 1 day of exposure the ABPL was significantly increased in the 270 and 864 ng/g treatment groups. After 5 days of exposure significant increases relative to the control were observed for the 16, 270 and 864 ng/g treatment groups. Enzyme leakage from the liver was investigated by measurement of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in the serum. At 561, 670 and 864 ng/g PFOS a significant increase in serum ALT activity became apparent after 5 days of exposure with values ranging from 159 to 407% relative to the control. For serum AST activity a significant increase for the 864 ng/g treatment group was observed with a value of 112% relative to the control. Determination of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration into liver tissue as assessed through myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in liver, was used as an indicator for inflammation. It appeared that inflammation was not involved in the observed membranous enzyme leakage for the 561, 670 and 864 ng/g PFOS treatment groups. The results of this study suggest that PFOS induces inflammation-independent enzyme leakage through liver cell membranes

  9. Activated Orange Meso-Carp Carbon (AOMC; An Acceptable Remediation Techniques for Crude Oil Pollution Effect

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    Atulegwu Patrick Uzoije

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orange mesocarp with its potentials application to remove spilled crude oil was used to prepare an activated adsorbent. Therefore, adsorption of crude oil onto the activated orange meso-carp (AOMC was investigated. Batch experiment was adopted for the equilibrium studies and the studies were conducted for various operational parameters such as varying crude oil concentration and temperature values. The crude oil samples of A, B, C, D and E, with concentrations 6045, 4393, 8508, 11583, and 5220, respectively and temperature values varied between 10-50ºC were used for the experiment. The adsorption equilibrium was established at 40 min of adsorption time. Partition coefficients, kd (L/kg for various samples reacted inversely with temperature and were in the ranges of 0.37-0.69, 0.65-1.11, 1.28-2.04, 1.17-1.39 and 1.23-4.53 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. percentage of crude oil samples on the AOMC decreased with low crude oil hydrocarbons and the trend was shown as follows D>C >A>E>B. Percentage ranges for samples A, B, C,D and E were given to be 86.8-88%, 60.5-72.4, 52.5-55.2, 47.9-55.4 and 45.3-49.2%, respectively. Sorption of the crude oil samples to AOMC was found to be spontaneous, exothermic, and physio-sorption controlled with G values being in the ranges of -71.49 to -21.29, -18.25 to -5.43, -30.24 to -21.11, -28.55 to -11.33 and -50.74 to -50.12 KJ/mol for samples A ,B , C , D and E, respectively. Enthalpy(H and Entropy changes(S were also found to be -10.28, -12.24, -8.92, -6.9, -50.28 J/mol/K and -2.92, -0.32, -0.50, -0.44, -0.01 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. Activated orange meso-carp provides a veritable environmentally remediation technique for crude oil spillage.

  10. 外源NO对铅胁迫下三叶鬼针草幼苗活性氧代谢的影响%Effects of exogenous NO on reactive oxygen metabolism of Bidens pilosa seedlings under lead stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志娟; 陈银萍; 苏向楠; 郑怡; 蘧苗苗; 子轩

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb)is an important pollution source of heavy metals.Exogenous nitric oxide (NO)is a common sig-nal molecule in biology regulating plant growth and it has been shown that it participate in all kinds of plant responses to Pb stress,Bidens pilosa is an ideal germplasm resource repairing soils contaminated by Pb.The effects of NO on the membrane lipid peroxidation,osmotic regulation substances,antioxidant enzyme activities and active oxygen me-tabolism in leaves,stems and roots of B.pilosa seedlings under Pb (600μmol/L lead nitrate)stress for 3 d were studied by determining relative electrical conductivity (REC ),contents of malondialdehyde (MDA ),hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ),superoxide anion (O-2•)generating rate,contents of proline (Pro),soluble protein (SP), carotenoid (Car),activities of ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX),glutathione reductase (GR),peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT ),superoxide dismutase (SOD)in the leaves,stems and roots of sixty-day-old seedlings of B.pilosa pretreated with different concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP)as an exogenous NO donor to explore the role and mechanism of NO in plant under Pb stress,to enhance B.pilosa resistance to Pb and its better application in phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil.The results indicated:50-400μmol/L SNP remarkably reduced REC, contents of MDA,H2 O2 and O-2•generating rate,while 500-1 000 μmol/L SNP remarkably increased REC, contents of MDA,H2 O2 and O-2•generating rate,of which protection of the membrane system stability 300μmol/L SNP treatment on B.pilosa seedlings under Pb stress was the most remarkable.Moreover 300μmol/L SNP signifi-cantly promoted the synthesis of Pro,SP and Car.The effects of SNP on activities of antioxidant enzymes in leaves, stems and roots of B.pilosa seedlings was complex.And 200μmol/L SNP significantly enhanced activities of APX in leaves and stems and GR in stems,300μmol/L SNP significantly enhanced activities of POD in leaves,and 1 000μmol/L SNP

  11. The use of food waste-based diets and Napier grass to culture grass carp: growth performance and contaminants contained in cultured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Choi, Wai-Ming; Man, Yu-Bon; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    The present study used commercial feeds, food waste feeds, Napier grass, and mixed feeds (food waste feed to Napier grass ratio, 1:10) to feed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The results indicated that grass carp fed with food waste feeds and mix feeds achieved growth performance (based on specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio) that was similar to commercial feeds (p > 0.05). Concentrations of metalloid/metals in food waste feeds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Napier grass were relatively higher than other types of fish feeds (p  0.05). These findings show that food waste feeds are suitable for using in the production of fish feed and Napier grass can be served as supplemental feeds for grass carp, and hence reducing the production cost.

  12. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of changes in serum levels of growth hormone (cGH) in common carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to purify the common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), and further enhance the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for ncGH. Additionally, we investigated changes in serum ncGH levels in carps raised in different environmental conditions. The recombinant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) growth hormone was purified and used as antigen to immunize the rabbit. The natural ncGH was isolated from the pituitaries of common carp. SDS-PAGE and Western blot utilizing the polyclonal anti-rgcGH antibody confirmed the purification of ncGH from pituitaries. Purified ncGH was then used as an immunogen in the B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. A total of 14 hybridoma cell lines (FMU-cGH 1-14) were established that were able to stably secrete mAbs against ncGH. Among them, eight clones (FMU-cGH1-6, 12 and 13) were successfully used for Western blot while nine clones (FMU-cGH 1-7, 9 and 10) were used in fluorescent staining and immunohistochemistry. Epitope mapping by competitive ELISA demonstrated that these mAbs recognized five different epitopes. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for detection of ncGH was developed using FMU-cGH12 as the coating mAb and FMU-cGH6 as the enzyme labeled mAb. This detection system was found to be highly stable and sensitive, with detection levels of 70 pg/mL. Additionally, we found that serum ncGH levels in restricted food group and in the net cage group increased 6.9-and 5.8-fold, respectively, when compared to controls, demonstrating differences in the GH stress response in common carp under different living conditions.

  13. GROWING OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO IN PONDS OF IRKLIIV HERBIVOROUS FISHES HATCHERY USING TRADITIONAL ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

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    S. Krazhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Growing of young-of-the-year Nivka scaled carp in polyculture with herbivorous fishes with a study of feeding, growth of young-of-the-year carp, fish productivity of nursery ponds when using traditional organic fertilizers ? poultry droppings, cattle compost. Methodology. Generally accepted hydrochemical, hydrobiological, and fisheries methods have been used in the study. Findings. Growing of young-of-the-year carp was accompanied by studies of parameters of development of natural food bae (bacterio-, phyto-, zooplnakton, zoobenthos, feeding of young-of-the-year carp and fish productivity of nursery ponds when using traditional organic fertilizers such as poultry droppings at a concentration of 0.12 tons/ha and cattle compost at a concentration of 3.0 tons/ha. It was found that application of these fertilizers resulted in similar qualitative and quantitative development of hydrobionts in both ponds, natural food in the gut content of young-of-the-year carp reached 40%, total fish productivity was 1500-1612 kg/ha, mean weight of young-of-the-year was 51.0 ± 4.39 g and 47.0 ± 4.1 g. Consumption of poultry droppings is 25 times lower than that of cattle compost. Originality. Parameters of the growth of bacterio-, phyto-, zooplankton, zoobenthos and growth of carp in polyculture with the use of traditional organic fertilizers in controlled conditions of modern fisheries management with water supply from the Kremenchug reservoir have been determined. Practical value. Application of poultry droppings (from 0,12 t/ha and cattle compost (3,0 tons/ha in nursery ponds with water supply from the Kremenchug reservoir in Irkliiv herbivorous fishes hatchery resulted in similar quantitative indexes of development of natural food base and fish productivity. In order to save and receive fish production at a level of 1.62 tons/ha, it is recommended to apply poultry droppings at indicated amounts.

  14. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  15. Optimized Multiresidue Analysis of Organic Contaminants of Priority Concern in a Daily Consumed Fish (Grass Carp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Chen, Yanru; Yang, Chen; Liu, Wenxiu; Kong, Xiangzhen; Qin, Ning; He, Qishuang

    2017-01-01

    The organic contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are of priority concern because of their persistence, toxicity, and long-distance transportation in global environment. Their residues in a daily consumed fish (grass carp) pose potential threat to human health and aquatic ecosystems. The present study optimized an analytical protocol of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), lip-removal by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), cleanup by solid phase cartridge (SC) or adsorption chromatography column (CC), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Besides traditional statistical parameters, some indicators were calculated to judge the performances of extraction by various methods. The optimization experiment showed that n-hexane/acetone was the best MEA extraction solvent; an optimal fraction time of 10–39 min could simultaneously elute all the target chemicals in a single GPC run. Both CC and SC showed good recoveries. However, CC performed better than SC (p manual filling, and operation by automated SPE system. PMID:28348919

  16. Optimized Multiresidue Analysis of Organic Contaminants of Priority Concern in a Daily Consumed Fish (Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, are of priority concern because of their persistence, toxicity, and long-distance transportation in global environment. Their residues in a daily consumed fish (grass carp pose potential threat to human health and aquatic ecosystems. The present study optimized an analytical protocol of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE, lip-removal by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, cleanup by solid phase cartridge (SC or adsorption chromatography column (CC, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Besides traditional statistical parameters, some indicators were calculated to judge the performances of extraction by various methods. The optimization experiment showed that n-hexane/acetone was the best MEA extraction solvent; an optimal fraction time of 10–39 min could simultaneously elute all the target chemicals in a single GPC run. Both CC and SC showed good recoveries. However, CC performed better than SC (p<0.05 for OCPs, and SC performed better than CC for PBDEs (p<0.05. We also emphasized the limitations and advantages of SC and CC and finally proposed SC as the promising cleanup method because of its low-cost materials, time-saving steps, being free of manual filling, and operation by automated SPE system.

  17. Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungcheun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs. The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST, superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT. Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100 nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50 g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms.

  18. Chronic exposure to Tributyltin induces brain functional damage in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hua Li

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase, Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L and 7.5 μg/L for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters. The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity.

  19. DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

  20. Gut microbiota contributes to the growth of fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

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    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

  1. 青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼组蛋白 H2A N-端基因克隆及其衍生抗菌肽%Cloning and Derived Antibacterial Peptides of Histone H2A Gene in Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus,Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus,Silver Carp Hy pophthalmichthys molitrix and Bighead Carp Aristichthys nobilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武向敏; 赵燕静; 孔祥会; 江红霞; 李莉; 聂国兴; 李学军

    2014-01-01

    采用RT-PCR方法,以青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼肌肉提取总 RNA 为模板,运用 GenBank中BLAST 同源性搜索,寻找亲缘关系相近的鱼类基因序列,采用Primer5设计简并引物,进行 H2A N-端序列扩增,通过胶回收和连接,然后转化到载体中进行克隆测序,分别获得青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼组蛋白 H2A N-端基因序列,长为364 bp ,分析发现均属于不稳定蛋白质,等电点为10.48~11.02,平均亲水性为0.179~0.264。序列同源性比对结果显示,青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼同狭孔金线鲃和斑马鱼基因H2A编码蛋白质同源性极高,达到85%以上,与其他物种同源性较低,其中狭孔金线鲃与青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼的亲缘关系比斑马鱼更近,分子系统学分析也支持这一结果。青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼H2A衍生抗菌肽与庸鲽 Hipposin抗菌肽同源性极高,不仅存在碱性氨基酸,还存在酸性氨基酸。组蛋白 H2A N-端可衍生 Hipposin类抗菌肽,均为阳离子α螺旋结构抗菌肽。%Antimicrobial peptide derived from Histone H2A ,one of the chromosome structure protein ,is a cationic antimicrobial peptide showing a potential to substitute antibiotics .The characterization of histone H2A and the derivative antibacterial peptides are important for understanding of the mechanism and antibacterial difference among peptides derived from different H 2A genes in different fish .In this study , RT‐PCR was used to amply the H2A cDNA with the total RNA as the template in black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus , grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus , silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp A ristichthys nobilis .The homologous H2A gene sequences were selected in the BLAST in GenBank ,and aligned in software Mega5 . The universal primers were designed in software Primer5 to amplify H2A genes collected and linked with a T‐vector ,and transferred into the

  2. Operculum bone carp (cyprinus carprio sp.) scaffold is a new potential xenograft material: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartiwa, A.; Abbas, B.; Pandansari, P.; Prahasta, A.; Nandini, M.; Fadhlillah, M.; Subroto, T.; Panigoro, R.

    2017-02-01

    Orbital floor fracture with extensive bone loss, would cause herniation of the orbital tissue into the maxillary sinus. Graft implantation should be done on the orbital fracture with extensive bone loss. Different types of grafts have their own characteristics and advantages. Xenograft has been widely studied for use in bone defects. This study was to investigate cyprinus carprio sp. opercula bone as a potential xenograft. The aim of this study was to investigate based on EDS chemical analysis using a ZAF Standardless Method of Quantitative Analysis (Oxide) and SEM examination conducted in the laboratory of Mathematics, Institute of Technology Bandung. Particularly the mass ratio of Ca and P (5.8/3:47), the result is 1.67. This is equivalent to the stoichiometric Hydroxyapatite (HA) (Aoki H, 1991, Science and medical applications of hydroxyapatite, Tokyo: Institute for Medical and Engineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University). C N O that there is an element of protein/amino acid collagen compound, serves as a matrix together with HA. As shown in the SEM analysis that the matrix is a porous sheet-shaped (oval) that interconnect with each other, which is good scaffold. The pore is composed of large pores >200 microns and smaller pores between the large pores with a size smaller or equal to 10 microns that can serve for the attachment of osteoblast cell. In conclusion, Opercula bone carp (cyprinus carprio sp.) scaffold could be a new potential xenograft material.

  3. Complex responses to Si quantum dots accumulation in carp liver tissue: Beyond oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Andreea Iren; Stanca, Loredana; Sima, Cornelia; Staicu, Andrea Cristina; Zarnescu, Otilia; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2015-09-05

    The use of quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical applications is limited due to their inherent toxicity caused by the heavy metal core of the particles. Consequently, silicon-based QDs are expected to display diminished toxicity. We investigated the in vivo effects induced by Si/SiO2 QDs intraperitoneally injected in crucian carp liver. The QDs contained a crystalline Si core encased in a SiO2 shell, with a size between 2.75 and 11.25nm and possess intrinsic fluorescence (Ex 325nm/Em ∼690nm). Tissue fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed the presence of QDs in the liver for at least 2weeks after injection. Although protein and lipid oxidative stress markers showed the onset of oxidative stress, the hepatic tissue exhibited significant antioxidant adaptations (increase of antioxidant enzymes, recovery of glutathione levels), sustained by the activation of Hsp30 and Hsp70 chaperoning proteins. The increased activity of cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) support the idea that Si/SiO2 QDs have a potential to induce inflammatory response, a scenario also indicated by the profile of Hsp60 and Hsp90 heat shock proteins. MMPs profile and the recovery of oxidative stress markers suggested a tissue remodelation phase after 3weeks from QDs administration.

  4. Effect of Atrazine on Antioxidant Enzyme and Its Bioaccumulation in Kidney of Crucian Carp, Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Shunlong; CHEN Jiazhang; WU Wei; HU Gengdong; QU Jianhong; YOU Yang

    2011-01-01

    Etrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in China and the world. Acute and chronic toxicity tests werc carried out to assess the possible toxicity effect of atrazine on crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Results showed that 96 h LC,. of atrazine to Carassius auratus was 105.94 mg. L-1. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferases (GST) in kidney of Carassius auratus were all influenced by atraizine, and CAT was more sensitive to atrazine compared with SOD and GST. Atrazine residues in kidney of Carassius aura/us reached the stable state at day 19, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of atrazine in kidney of Carassius auratus treated with 1.0 mg. L-1 and 10.0 mg. L-1 atrazine were 8.3 and 4.4, respectively. The research demonstrated that atrazine could cause oxidative stress to fish kidney, but atrazine was not easy to accumulate in Carassius auratus kidney, and the antioxidant enzymes could be used as biomarker to the early detection of pollution.

  5. Chemical interactions and gel properties of black carp actomyosin affected by MTGase and their relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dan; Huang, Qilin; Xiong, Shanbai

    2016-04-01

    Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to evaluate and correlate chemical interactions (-NH2 content, S-S bonds, four non-covalent interactions) with gel properties (dynamic rheological properties and cooking loss (CL)) of black carp actomyosin affected by microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) at suwari and kamaboko stages. The G' and CL were significantly enhanced by MTGase and their values in kamaboko gels were higher than those in suwari gels at the same MTGase concentration. The γ-carboxyamide and amino cross-links, catalyzed by MTGase, were constructed at suwari stage and contributed to the network formation, while disulfide bonds were formed not only in suwari gels but also in kamaboko gels, further enhancing the gel network. PLSR analysis revealed that 86.6-90.3% of the variation of G' and 91.8-94.4% of the variation of CL were best explained by chemical interactions. G' mainly depended on covalent cross-links and gave positive correlation. CL was positively correlated with covalent cross-links, but negatively related to non-covalent bonds, indicating that covalent bonds promoted water extrusion, whereas non-covalent bonds were beneficial for water-holding.

  6. Identification of furan fatty acids in the lipids of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvalová, Daniela; Špička, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed in muscle and gonad tissues of marketed common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The extracted lipids were separated into four fractions: polar lipids (PL), diacylglycerols, free fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TAG) using thin layer chromatography. FA content within the lipid fractions was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The muscle lipids consisted primarily of TAG (96.9% of total FA), while PL were the major component of both male (67.6%) and female gonad (58.6%) lipids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids predominated in PL of all tissues (52.2-55.8% of total FA); monounsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant FA group in TAG of muscle (51.8%) and female gonads (47.8%) whereas high proportion of furan fatty acids (F-acids) (38.2%) was detected in TAG of male gonads. Eight F-acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in male gonad samples, including less common 12,15-epoxy-13,14-dimethylnonadeca-12,14-dienoic acid with even-numbered alkyl moiety.

  7. Inhibitory effect of Pistia tannin on digestive enzymes of Indian major carps: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sudipta; Ghosh, Koushik

    2010-12-01

    Aquatic weeds are one of the major unconventional feed ingredients tested for aquafeed formulation. Tannin content in the water lettuce, Pistia, has been quantified (26.67 mg g(-1); dry weight) and graded levels of which (12.5-200 μg) have been incorporated in the reaction mixtures to evaluate any change in the in vitro activity of the principal digestive enzymes from the three Indian major carps (IMC), namely rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigala (Cirrhinus mrigala). Result of the experiment revealed that the Pistia tannin (PT) significantly inhibit/lower the activities of the digestive enzymes from three IMCs in a dose-dependent manner, even at very low concentration. Significant variation in the reduction of the enzyme activities was noticed between the three fish species, as well as between the three enzymes studied. Among the three species studied, digestive enzymes from L. rohita were found to be the most sensitive to the PT, whereas enzymes from C. catla were found to be comparatively least affected. On the other hand, protease and lipase activities were comparatively more affected than the amylase activity. The results of the study suggest that more stress should be given on the elimination of tannin while incorporating feed ingredients of plant origin in fish diets.

  8. Exposure to tebuconazol in rice field and laboratory conditions induces oxidative stress in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Cândida; Loro, Vania Lucia; Santi, Adriana; de Menezes, Charlene Cavalheiro; Cattaneo, Roberta; Clasen, Bárbara Estevão; Zanella, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of living organisms. The changes seen in fish and their response to pesticides can be used as an example for vertebrate toxicity. In this study, carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to different concentrations of tebuconazol fungicide, by rice field (31.95 μg/L) and laboratory (33.47 and 36.23 μg/L) conditional testing, during a 7 day period. Parameters such thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels (TBARS), protein carbonyl, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities were studied, using the liver, brain and white muscle of the fish. The field experiment showed that the TBARS levels were increased in all the analyzed tissues. Similarly, the protein carbonyl of the liver and the brain AChE activity increased after 7 days. The laboratory experiment demonstrated that the TBARS levels in the liver were increased in both of the concentration tests. TBARS levels in the muscle increased only by the lowest test concentration. On the other hand, the protein carbonyl was increased only by the highest concentration. The results indicate that the tebuconazol exposure from the field and laboratory conditions directly affected the health of the fish, showing the occurrence of oxidative stress.

  9. Caspian White Fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) as a host for Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, M; Zamani, H; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S; Bergmann, S M

    2014-06-04

    Rutilus frisii kutum is a fish of the Cyprinidae Family which is native in Caspian Sea and commercially cultured in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate susceptibility of Caspian White Fish to Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) infection and to evaluate influence of different challenge routes on virulence of the virus. Fingerlings were infected by immersion, intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection, cohabitation and orally. Dead and surviving fish were collected for histological examination as well as for virus re-isolation by cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerization Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) analysis. The results indicated that immersion was the best infectious route of transmission with the highest mortality, whereas oral transmission showed the lowest mortality. The virus was also re-isolated from dead fish and identified by IFAT. In addition, histopathological changes including branchial, hepatic and splenic necrosis as well as glomerulonephritis and necrosis in kidney were observed in diseased fish tissues but not in the survivors. RT-PCR on samples obtained from surviving fish tissues detected viral genome in the fish surviving from immersion, i.p. injection and cohabitation challenges but not in the fish infected orally. In conclusion, Caspian White Fish are susceptible to infection by SVCV and virulence of the virus could be influenced by route of transmission. In addition, SVCV could persist in surviving fish, which may serve as reservoirs of the virus, transmitting infection to healthy fish population.

  10. Experimental susceptibility of Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum to Spring viraemia of carp virus.<