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Sample records for carp larvae food

  1. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to

  2. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such information improves our understanding of the trophic interrelations between different fish species living...

  3. Expression of immune system-related genes during ontogeny in experimentally wounded common carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of full-thickness incisional wounding on expression of genes related to the immune system in larvae and juveniles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The wounds were inflicted by needle puncture immediately below the anterior part of the dorsal fin on days 7, 14, 28 and 49...

  4. Assessment of dreissenid biodeposits as a potential food resource for invasive Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karl R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Hayer, Cari-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) are poised to invade the Laurentian Great Lakes. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have shifted nutrient pathways towards the benthos, partly through deposition of feces and rejected food particles called biodeposits. When biodeposit material was fed to bighead and silver carp, they fed on the material, but on average lost weight. Energy density between fed and unfed fish did not differ, but a few individual fish did gain weight on the biodeposits diet. Our results demonstrate that biodeposits might be considered a supplemental food for bigheaded carps.

  5. Chironomidae bloodworms larvae as aquatic amphibian food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Mojdeh Sharifian; Pasmans, Frank; Adriaensen, Connie; Laing, Gijs Du; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Martel, An

    2014-01-01

    Different species of chironomids larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) so-called bloodworms are widely distributed in the sediments of all types of freshwater habitats and considered as an important food source for amphibians. In our study, three species of Chironomidae (Baeotendipes noctivagus, Benthalia dissidens, and Chironomus riparius) were identified in 23 samples of larvae from Belgium, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine provided by a distributor in Belgium. We evaluated the suitability of these samples as amphibian food based on four different aspects: the likelihood of amphibian pathogens spreading, risk of heavy metal accumulation in amphibians, nutritive value, and risk of spreading of zoonotic bacteria (Salmonella, Campylobacter, and ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae). We found neither zoonotic bacteria nor the amphibian pathogens Ranavirus and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in these samples. Our data showed that among the five heavy metals tested (Hg, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn), the excess level of Pb in two samples and low content of Zn in four samples implicated potential risk of Pb accumulation and Zn inadequacy. Proximate nutritional analysis revealed that, chironomidae larvae are consistently high in protein but more variable in lipid content. Accordingly, variations in the lipid: protein ratio can affect the amount and pathway of energy supply to the amphibians. Our study indicated although environmentally-collected chironomids larvae may not be vectors of specific pathogens, they can be associated with nutritional imbalances and may also result in Pb bioaccumulation and Zn inadequacy in amphibians. Chironomidae larvae may thus not be recommended as single diet item for amphibians. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  7. Molecular cloning, expression analysis, and potential food intake attenuation effect of peptide YY in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Shen, Yubang; Pandit, Narayan Prasad; Fu, Jianjun; Li, Da; Li, Jiale

    2013-06-15

    The peptide YY (PYY) is a 36 amino acid peptide involved in the food intake control in vertebrates. We have cloned and characterized a PYY gene from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus. The full-length cDNA encodes a precursor protein of grass carp PYY (gcPYY) that consists of a putative 28-amino acid signal peptide, a 36-amino acid mature peptide, an amidation-proteolytic site, and a 30-amino acid carboxy-terminal extension. The gcPYY gene is comprised of 4 exons interspaced by 3 introns as seen in PYYs from other species. Amino acid alignment and gene structure comparison indicate that the structure of PYY is well preserved throughout vertebrate phylogeny. The tissue distribution and postprandial changes in gcPYY mRNA expression were evaluated by real-time PCR, which showed that the gcPYY is expressed abundantly in the central nervous system, with significantly increased expression following a single meal. During embryogenesis, the presence of gcPYY mRNA was detected in early developing embryos, and high expression levels were observed when most larvae completed their switch from endogenous nourishment to exogenous feeding. Reduced food intake by juveniles during a single meal after giving perpheral injection of gcPYY1-36 suggests a potentially important role of PYY in the food intake attenuation in grass carp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on liquid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol describes the analysis of larvae feeding on liquid food. The test is designed for quantitative assessment of the food ingestion rate of individual larvae under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as food deprivation is prolonged. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Izvorni znanstveni članak THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L. Debeljak, Lj. Turk, M. Fašaić, K. Sotjić, B. Puni tekst (Hrvatski Str. 83 - 94 (pdf, 2.21 MB downloads: 471 Sažetak This research was carried out on 8 experimental fish-pounds with individual sizes of 0,1 ha-1 on fish farm Draganići during 1990 culturing season. Carp was reared under conditions of polyculture with total stock density 3250 ind × ha-1. (77 % carp, 2500 ind × ha-1 ; 23% -- 250 ind × ha-1 each species of herbivorous fish – silver carp, bighead, grass carp. The influence of fertilization and different feeding of fish was researched through these parameters: yield and increment of fish, individual weight, losses, food conversion, Fultons and Clark’s coefficient of carp. The hydrochemical conditions in individual pounds where researched too (tabl 2. The total increment of fish was 703 ind × ha-1 (I variant, without fertilization, feeding of carp with cereals, 1302 ind × ha-1 (variant II, fertilization, 500 kg × ha-1 NPK 17: 8: 9, feeding with cereals and 2537 kg × ha-1 (variant III, without fertilization, feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin. The increment of carps was 611.4; 897.8 and 1923.5 kg × ha-1 resp. The results of production are shown on tables 3, 4 and 5. The losses of carp were similar in all variants of fish-pounds (tabl. 4. The average individual weight of carp was 30% bigger in the fish pond with fertilization, and 154% in fish pond with feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin in compare to control variant 1. Food conversion was lower for 26% in the variant which was fertilized, and for 13% in the variant fed with protein pellets, in compare to control variant l. The Fulton's and Clark's condition coefficient of carp was similar in all experimental ponds except in the variant III. In this variant the Fulton's condition coefficient was

  10. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on solid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol is designed for quantitative assessment of the willingness of individual larvae to procure solid food under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as the period of food deprivation is increased. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  11. The influence of supplement feed preparation on the fatty acid composition of carp and Chironomidae larvae in a semi-intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine how extruded and pelleted feed affects the fatty acid composition of carp meat and Chironomidae larvae, two-month-old carp specimens were set in two fishponds (L1 and L2. The fatty acid composition of extruded and pelleted feed is characterized by a significantly higher content of ω-3 fatty acids and higher ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acids ratio (ω-3/ω-6 in extruded (11.34±0.12% and 0.315±0.005, respectively compared to pelleted feed (7.72±0.08%, 0.180±0.001, respectively. The fatty acid composition of carp meat is characterized by higher ω-3 fatty acid content and ω-3/ω-6 in carp fed with extruded feed (L1, 6.98±0.53% and 0.295±0.022, respectively compared to carp fed with extruded feed (L2, 5.46±0.07% and 0.232±0.009, respectively. Chironomidae larvae from the fishpond L2 had significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid content (8.22±0.89%, and therefore higher ω-3/ω-6 (0.81±0.09 in comparison to Chironomidae from the L1 fishpond where these parameters were 4.48±0.06% and 0.21±0.01, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31075 i br. 173040

  12. Food web changes under ocean acidification promote herring larvae survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sswat, Michael; Stiasny, Martina H; Taucher, Jan; Algueró-Muñiz, Maria; Bach, Lennart T; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Riebesell, Ulf; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2018-05-01

    Ocean acidification-the decrease in seawater pH due to rising CO 2 concentrations-has been shown to lower survival in early life stages of fish and, as a consequence, the recruitment of populations including commercially important species. To date, ocean-acidification studies with fish larvae have focused on the direct physiological impacts of elevated CO 2 , but largely ignored the potential effects of ocean acidification on food web interactions. In an in situ mesocosm study on Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae as top predators in a pelagic food web, we account for indirect CO 2 effects on larval survival mediated by changes in food availability. The community was exposed to projected end-of-the-century CO 2 conditions (~760 µatm pCO 2 ) over a period of 113 days. In contrast with laboratory studies that reported a decrease in fish survival, the survival of the herring larvae in situ was significantly enhanced by 19 ± 2%. Analysis of the plankton community dynamics suggested that the herring larvae benefitted from a CO 2 -stimulated increase in primary production. Such indirect effects may counteract the possible direct negative effects of ocean acidification on the survival of fish early life stages. These findings emphasize the need to assess the food web effects of ocean acidification on fish larvae before we can predict even the sign of change in fish recruitment in a high-CO 2 ocean.

  13. Effects of food type on diel behaviours of common carp Cyprinus carpio in simulated aquaculture pond conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Meyer, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand behaviour patterns of common carp Cyprinus carpio in aquaculture ponds, their diel grazing, swimming, resting and schooling behaviours were observed in six 1 m(2) tanks under simulated pond conditions. Each tank was fertilized to stimulate natural food production before

  14. Simulation of hypothetical Asian carp egg and larvae development and transport in the Lockport, Brandon Road, Dresden Island, and Marseilles Pools of the Illinois Waterway by use of the Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Duncker, James J.

    2016-04-05

    As part of the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting an assessment of the vulnerability of the Chicago Area Waterway System and Des Plaines River to Asian carp (specifically, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp) and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)) spawning and recruitment. As part of this assessment, the USACE requested the help of the U.S. Geological Survey in predicting the fate and transport of Asian carp eggs hypothetically spawned at the electric dispersal barrier on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and downstream of the Brandon Road Lock and Dam on the Des Plaines River under dry weather flow and high water temperature conditions. The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model predicted that approximately 80 percent of silver carp eggs spawned near the electric dispersal barrier would hatch within the Lockport and Brandon Road pools (as close as 3.6 miles downstream of the barrier) and approximately 82 percent of the silver carp eggs spawned near the Brandon Road Dam would hatch in the Des Plaines River (as close as 1.6 miles downstream from the gates of Brandon Road Lock). Extension of the FluEgg model to include the fate and transport of larvae until gas bladder inflation—the point at which the larvae begin to leave the drift—suggests that eggs spawned at the electric dispersal barrier would reach the gas bladder inflation stage primarily within the Dresden Island Pool, and those spawned at the Brandon Road Dam would reach this stage primarily within the Marseilles and Starved Rock Pools.

  15. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campenhout, K. van [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, L. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.be; Blust, R. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-02-15

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 {sup o}C to 15 {sup o}C did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature.

  16. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campenhout, K. van; Bervoets, L.; Blust, R.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 o C to 15 o C did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature

  17. Feeding by larvae of intertidal invertebrates: assessing their position in pelagic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Cristian A; Manríquez, Patricio H; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2006-02-01

    One of the leading determinants of the structure and dynamics of marine populations is the rate of arrival of new individuals to local sites. While physical transport processes play major roles in delivering larvae to the shore, these processes become most important after larvae have survived the perils of life in the plankton, where they usually suffer great mortality. The lack of information regarding larval feeding makes it difficult to assess the effects of food supply on larval survival, or the role larvae may play in nearshore food webs. Here, we examine the spectrum of food sizes and food types consumed by the larvae of two intertidal barnacle species and of the predatory gastropod Concholepas concholepas. We conducted replicated experiments in which larvae were exposed to the food size spectrum (phytoplankton, microprotozoan and autotrophic picoplankton) found in nearshore waters in central Chile. Results show that barnacle nauplii and gastropod veligers are omnivorous grazers, incorporating significant fractions of heterotrophs in their diets. In accordance with their feeding mechanisms and body size, barnacle nauplii were able to feed on autotrophic picoplankton (concholepas larvae also consumed picoplankton cells, while competent larvae of this species ingested mostly the largest phytoplankton cells and heterotrophic protozoans. Results suggest that persistent changes in the structure of pelagic food webs can have important effects on the species-specific food availability for invertebrate larvae, which can result in large-scale differences in recruitment rates of a given species, and in the relative recruitment success of the different species that make up benthic communities.

  18. Does hardness of food affect the development of pharyngeal teeth of the black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Pisces: Cyprinidae)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen Manh; Ryan, Timothy M.; Stauffer, Jay R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether food type influences development of the pharyngeal crushing apparatus of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cyprinidae). Fish fed a hard diet had average standard lengths and weights larger than those fed a soft diet; these observations in part could be related to differe......We investigated whether food type influences development of the pharyngeal crushing apparatus of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cyprinidae). Fish fed a hard diet had average standard lengths and weights larger than those fed a soft diet; these observations in part could be related...... to differences in nutritional value of the two food types. The lower pharyngeal bones, which bear molariform teeth were examined using three dimensional computed tomography (CT) scans. After adjusting for differences in the standard length of the fish, the total volume and exterior surface areas...... of the pharyngeal teeth were greater in fish fed hard diets than in those fed soft diets. Total weights of the pharyngeal arches were less in the fish fed a soft diet than in those fed a hard diet. These results indicated that food type affects development of the pharyngeal crushing mill of black carp and therefore...

  19. Use of food waste as fish feeds: effects of prebiotic fibers (inulin and mannanoligosaccharide) on growth and non-specific immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Wing Y; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai M; Lun, Clare H I; Man, Yu B; Wong, James T F; Chen, Xun W; Lau, Stanley C K; Wong, Ming H

    2015-11-01

    The effects of inulin and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth performance and non-specific immunity of grass carp were studied. Two doses of prebiotic fiber with 0.2 or 2% of the fibers are being mixed into fish feed pellets. Fish growth as well as selected non-specific immune parameters of grass carp were tested in a feeding trial, which lasted for 8 weeks. Fish was fed at 2.5% body mass per day. INU02, INU2, and MOS2 significantly improved relative weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, and food conversion ratio of grass carp fed with food waste-based diet. In terms of non-specific immune response, grass carp showed significant improvement in all three tested parameters (total serum immunoglobin, bactericidal activity, and anti-protease activity). Adding 2% of inulin (INU2) into food waste diets seemed to be more preferable than other supplemented experimental diets (INU02, MOS02, MOS2), as it could promote growth of grass carp as well as improving the non-specific immune systems of grass carp.

  20. The use of food wastes as feed ingredients for culturing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    Different types of food wastes, e.g., meats, bones, cereals, fruits, and vegetables, were collected from hotels in Hong Kong, mixed in different ratio, and processed into feed pellets (food wastes (FWs) A, B, and C) for feeding trials in aquaculture species. Grass carp fed with cereal-dominant feed (FW A) showed the best growth (in terms of specific growth rate, relative weight gain, and protein efficiency ratio), among all food waste feeds. However, the growth rates of food waste groups especially the meat product-contained feeds (FW B and FW C) were lower than the commercial feed, Jinfeng(®) 613 formulation (control). The results indicated that grass carp utilized plant proteins better than animal proteins and preferred carbohydrate as a major energy source than lipid. The high-lipid content in feed containing meat products was also a possible reason for hindering growth and resulted high body lipid. It is suggested that lipid should be removed in the preparation of food waste feed or further investigations by implementing supplements, e.g., enzymes in feed to enhance lipid or protein utilization by fish. This utilization of food waste could be an effective and practical way to deal with these wastes in this densely populated city.

  1. Chemical Composition and Food Potential of Pachymerus nucleorum Larvae Parasitizing Acrocomia aculeata Kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Vieira Alves

    Full Text Available Insect consumption as food is culturally practiced in various regions of the world. In Brazil, there are more than 130 species of edible insects registered, from nine orders, among which stands out the Coleoptera. The larva of the beetle Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1792, grows into the bocaiuva fruit (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. Ex Mart., 1845, which has proven nutritional quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional potential of P. nucleorum larvae compared to bocaiuva kernels for human consumption. Proteins were the second largest portion of the larvae nutritional composition (33.13%, with percentage higher than the bocaiuva kernels (14.21%. The larval lipid content (37.87% was also high, very close to the kernels (44.96%. The fraction corresponding to fatty acids in the oil extracted from the larvae was 40.17% for the saturated and 46.52% for the unsaturated. The antioxidant activity value was 24.3 uM trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae. The larvae tryptic activity was 0.032±0.006 nmol BAPNA/min. Both the larvae and the bocaiuva kernel presented absence of anti-nutritional factors. These results favor the use of P. nucleorum larvae as food, which are a great protein and lipid sources with considerable concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the bocaiuva kernel.

  2. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  3. A food web modeling analysis of a Midwestern, USA eutrophic lake dominated by non-native Common Carp and Zebra Mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Michael E.; Pierce, Clay; Stewart, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Food web modeling is recognized as fundamental to understanding the complexities of aquatic systems. Ecopath is the most common mass-balance model used to represent food webs and quantify trophic interactions among groups. We constructed annual Ecopath models for four consecutive years during the first half-decade of a zebra mussel invasion in shallow, eutrophic Clear Lake, Iowa, USA, to evaluate changes in relative biomass and total system consumption among food web groups, evaluate food web impacts of non-native common carp and zebra mussels on food web groups, and to interpret food web impacts in light of on-going lake restoration. Total living biomass increased each year of the study; the majority of the increase due to a doubling in planktonic blue green algae, but several other taxa also increased including a more than two-order of magnitude increase in zebra mussels. Common carp accounted for the largest percentage of total fish biomass throughout the study even with on-going harvest. Chironomids, common carp, and zebra mussels were the top-three ranking consumer groups. Non-native common carp and zebra mussels accounted for an average of 42% of the total system consumption. Despite the relatively high biomass densities of common carp and zebra mussel, food web impacts was minimal due to excessive benthic and primary production in this eutrophic system. Consumption occurring via benthic pathways dominated system consumption in Clear Lake throughout our study, supporting the argument that benthic food webs are significant in shallow, eutrophic lake ecosystems and must be considered if ecosystem-level understanding is to be obtained.

  4. Nutritional value of cabbage and kikuyu grass as food for grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and digestibility coefficients were obtained for the protein, fibre, ash and fat contents of both ... Cabbage is a superior feed compared to grass for raising grass carp and a suitable low-cost alternative ... Materials and Methods ... from jumping out and was fitted with an air lift under- .... In: Aquatic weeds in South East Asia.

  5. Standard metabolic rate predicts growth trajectory of juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under changing food availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qing Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic traits vary greatly within populations and can have a significant influence on aspects of performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of individual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR on growth rate and tolerance to food deprivation in juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under varying levels of food availability. To address this issue, 19 high and 16 low SMR individuals were randomly assigned to a satiation diet for 3 weeks, whereas another 20 high and 16 low SMR individuals were assigned to a restricted diet (approximately 50% of satiation for the same period. Then, all fish were completely food-deprived for another 3 weeks. High SMR individuals showed a higher growth rate when fed to satiation, but this advantage of SMR did not exist in food-restricted fish. This result was related to improved feeding efficiency with decreased food intake in low SMR individuals, due to their low food processing capacity and maintenance costs. High SMR individuals experienced more mass loss during food deprivation as compared to low SMR individuals. Our results here illustrate context-dependent costs and benefits of intraspecific variation in SMR whereby high SMR individuals show increased growth performance under high food availability but had a cost under stressful environments (i.e. food shortage.

  6. Purification, biochemical, and immunological characterisation of a major food allergen: different immunoglobulin E recognition of the apo- and calcium-bound forms of carp parvalbumin

    OpenAIRE

    Bugajska-Schrette..., A; Grote, M; Vangelista, L; Valent, P; Sperr, W; Rumpold, H; Pastore, A; Reichelt, R; Valenta, R; Spitzauer, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Almost 4% of the population suffer from food allergy which is an adverse reaction to food with an underlying immunological mechanism.
AIMS—To characterise one of the most frequent IgE defined food allergens, fish parvalbumin.
METHODS—Tissue and subcellular distribution of carp parvalbumin was analysed by immunogold electron microscopy and cell fractionation. Parvalbumin was purified to homogeneity, analysed by mass spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and its alle...

  7. Inorganic nutrients in natural and artificial food of Dacus oleae larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukas, A.G.; Grimanis, A.; Mazomenos, B.

    1978-01-01

    Certain inorganic nutrients contained in the natural and artificial food of Dacus oleae larvae were determined by neutron activation analysis and spectrophotometry. The content of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, copper and phosporus was reported for the olive fruit mesocarp at three stages of maturity, brewer's yeast, soybean hydrolysate and roasted peanuts. Several differences were found between the inorganic nutrient content of the natural food (olive fruit) and artificial diet of D. oleae larvae. The differences which may be important in the nutrition and metabolism of this insect were estimated and discussed

  8. Estimation of food limitation of bivalve larvae in coastal waters of north-western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, O.G.; Hendriks, I.E.; Strasser, M.

    2006-01-01

    Marine invertebrate recruitment may be affected by food limitation during the pelagic larval life stages. In the present study, field data on abundance of bivalve larvae along with their prey (small phytoplankton) were examined to see whether they were consistent with predictions made...... assimilation rate averaged 7-26% of the maximum assimilation rate. Under the assumptions made for the present study, it is suggested that growth of larvae in north-west European waters is often food-limited. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  9. Efeito da Niclosamida no Controle de Girinos de Anuros na Propagação de Pós-Larvas de Carpa Comum (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Var. Specularis Effect of the Niclosamida on the Control of Tadpole of Anurous in the Propagation of Post-Larvae of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Var. Specularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Graeff

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi testar a influência de um molusquicida (niclosamida no controle dos girinos, sem comprometer o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência da carpa comum na fase de desenvolvimento do ovo até a idade de 28 dias. Foram conduzidos seis experimentos, envolvendo seis fases de desenvolvimento dos girinos e peixes (ovo, 7, 12, 21, 27 e 34 dias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos (0,00; 0,10; 0,15; 0,20; e 0,25 ppm de niclosamida e quatro repetições. Foram utilizados 20 aquários de seis litros, sendo todos abastecidos até o início do experimento, quando então era interrompido o fluxo de água. A eficiência da niclosamida no período de fertilização e eclosão de ovos de girinos e carpa não ocorreu. Na primeira semana de vida, os níveis de 0,25; 0,20; e 0,10 ppm mostraram efeito sobre os girinos aos 48, 65 e 115 minutos após a aplicação do produto respectivamente, mas apresentaram-se sem efeito sobre as pós-larvas de carpa comum. A dosagem de 0,15 ppm de niclosamida, aos 27 dias, tendeu a provocar maior mortalidade de girinos, com maior sobrevivência de pós-larvas de carpa comum, e a de 0,10 ppm, o melhor resultado na idade de 21 dias das pós-larvas de carpa comum e girinos.The objective of the research was to test the effect of a molusquicida (Niclosamida in the tadpoles control and not to compromise the development and survival of common carps in the egg development until 28 days age. Six experiments were carried out and involved six tadpoles and fishes development phases (egg, 7, 12, 21, 27 and 34 days. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments (0.00, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 ppm niclosamida and four replicates, was used. Post-larvae and tadpoles stayed together in a density of 100 units of each from a nursery production. Twenty aquariums of six liters were all supplied until the beginning of the experiment, when the water flow was

  10. Survival Rate and Growth of Fighting Fish Larvae (Betta splendens Regan Fed on Various Live Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larval of fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan requires precise live foods for its growth and survival. In this experiment, fish larvae were fed on either Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, or Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex. The fish were fed Paramecium from day-2 till day-7 after hatching. There after, the live food was changed according to the treatments till day-28.  Results showed that fish fed on Paramecium + Artemia significantly had the highest total length (12.63 mm than other treatments (11.86 mm. On the other hand, survival rate of fish had no significant affected by the treatments. Keywords: fighting fish, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larvae   ABSTRAK Larva ikan betta (Betta splendens Regan membutuhkan jenis pakan alami yang tepat bagi kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya. Pada penelitian ini, larva ikan diberi pakan berupa Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, atau Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex.  Ikan diberi pakan pakan berupa Paramecium dari hari ke-2 hingga hari ke-7. Setelah itu, pemberian pakan alami diubah berdasarkan masing-masing perlakuan hingga hari ke-28.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan Paramecium + Artemia memiliki tubuh secara signifikan lebih panjang (12,63 mm dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya (11,86 mm.  Sementara itu, kelangsungan hidup tidak dipengatuhi oleh perlakuan. Kata kunci: ikan betta, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larva

  11. Habitat selection by chironomid larvae: fast growth requires fast food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, E.M.; Wagner, C.; Koelmans, A.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2006-01-01

    1. Sediments have been considered as a habitat, a cover from predators and a source of food, but also as a source of potential toxic compounds. Therefore, the choice of a suitable substrate is essential for the development of chironomids. 2. For the midge Chironomus riparius (Meigen 1804) the growth

  12. Laboratory investigation of daily food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus under different feeding conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vermis, K.; Nelis, H.J.; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Temporary accumulation of ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AAS) was measured to estimate food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish. Fish larvae were fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia containing AAS. In a first experiment it was found that no biosynthesis of AAS occurs in the

  13. Species-specific modulation of food-search behavior by respiration and chemosensation in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeyeon; Alvarez, Mar; Lechuga, Laura M; Louis, Matthieu

    2017-09-05

    Animals explore their environment to encounter suitable food resources. Despite its vital importance, this behavior puts individuals at risk by consuming limited internal energy during locomotion. We have developed a novel assay to investigate how food-search behavior is organized in Drosophila melanogaster larvae dwelling in hydrogels mimicking their natural habitat. We define three main behavioral modes: resting at the gel's surface, digging while feeding near the surface, and apneic dives. In unstimulated conditions, larvae spend most of their time digging. By contrast, deep and long exploratory dives are promoted by olfactory stimulations. Hypoxia and chemical repellents impair diving. We report remarkable differences in the dig-and-dive behavior of D. melanogaster and the fruit-pest D. suzukii . The present paradigm offers an opportunity to study how sensory and physiological cues are integrated to balance the limitations of dwelling in imperfect environmental conditions and the risks associated with searching for potentially more favorable conditions.

  14. The influence of food supply on the response of Olympia oyster larvae to ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hettinger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide drive accompanying changes in the marine carbonate system as carbon dioxide (CO2 enters seawater and alters ocean pH (termed "ocean acidification". However, such changes do not occur in isolation, and other environmental factors have the potential to modulate the consequences of altered ocean chemistry. Given that physiological mechanisms used by organisms to confront acidification can be energetically costly, we explored the potential for food supply to influence the response of Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida larvae to ocean acidification. In laboratory experiments, we reared oyster larvae under a factorial combination of pCO2 and food level. Elevated pCO2 had negative effects on larval growth, total dry weight, and metamorphic success, but high food availability partially offset these influences. The combination of elevated pCO2 and low food availability led to the greatest reduction in larval performance. However, the effects of food and pCO2 interacted additively rather than synergistically, indicating that they operated independently. Despite the potential for abundant resources to counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, impacts were never completely negated, suggesting that even under conditions of enhanced primary production and elevated food availability, impacts of ocean acidification may still accrue in some consumers.

  15. Food and feeding ecology of Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis larvae from the southeastern Brazilian Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico W. Kurtz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Results from depth integrated and vertically stratified plankton samples collected in the southeastern Brazilian Bight were used to study the feeding behavior of Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis larvae. Sampling of the ichthyoplankton was carried out with 60 cm Bongo nets in the Bight during the spawning seasons of 1991/92 and 1992/93. The sampling of microzooplankton was carried out in the coastal region off Ubatuba, using the closing-type plankton net, in December 1995. The feeding study was based on a total of 901 captured larvae. Gut content analysis of the sardine larvae showed a diurnal pattern of food intake. Copepod nauplii dominated the diet of the preflexion and flexion larvae, but they were the second in abundance for the postflexion larvae which fed preferentially on copepodites and adults of Oncaea spp. Averaged feeding incidence of the 901 larvae was 37.6%, but it increased to 58.5% for day-caught larvae. Seventy percent of the food particles were found in the mid-gut and food eaten showed a natural increase in digestion from fore-gut to hind-gut. Vertical distribution of microzooplankton revealed that copepod nauplii were present in densities of 10-20 ind. L-1, mainly in the upper mixed layer (0-20 m depth, but higher densities of copepodite and adult of Oncaea, Oithona and Paracalamis were found within and beneath the thermocline. These results show that Brazilian sardine larvae can successfully adapt their diet, feeding on the most abundant food particles in the upper mixed layer of the survey area.Plâncton amostrado na região sudeste do Brasil, em coletas integradas verticalmente e estratificadas, foi utilizado no estudo do comportamento alimentar das larvas de sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis. As coletas de ictioplâncton foram realizadas com rede tipo Bongo de 60 cm de diâmetro durante os períodos de desova de 1991/92 e 1992/93. Microzooplâncton foi amostrado na região costeira ao largo de Ubatuba

  16. Replacing of live food with artificial diet on growth and survival rates of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani Vagheie, R.; Matinfar, A.; Aeinjamshid, Kh.; Hafezieh, M.; Ghorbani, R.

    2011-01-01

    Replacing live food with artificial diets in aquatic larviculture, especially in shrimp larvae not only is caused convenience feeding, but also in economical view is very important. With this object, in this survey, a density of 100.L -1 white leg shrimp larvae in 9 nutritional treatments each with three replicates were cultured in 20L tanks each one was held with 10L of 30% salty water using one air stone. The larvae were fed 4 times.day-1 with different diets, including live foods (Cheatoce...

  17. Purification, biochemical, and immunological characterisation of a major food allergen: different immunoglobulin E recognition of the apo- and calcium-bound forms of carp parvalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugajska-Schretter, A; Grote, M; Vangelista, L; Valent, P; Sperr, W R; Rumpold, H; Pastore, A; Reichelt, R; Valenta, R; Spitzauer, S

    2000-05-01

    Almost 4% of the population suffer from food allergy which is an adverse reaction to food with an underlying immunological mechanism. To characterise one of the most frequent IgE defined food allergens, fish parvalbumin. Tissue and subcellular distribution of carp parvalbumin was analysed by immunogold electron microscopy and cell fractionation. Parvalbumin was purified to homogeneity, analysed by mass spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and its allergenic activity was analysed by IgE binding and basophil histamine release tests. The isoelectric point (pI) 4.7 form of carp parvalbumin, a three EF-hand calcium-binding protein, was purified to homogeneity. CD analysis revealed a remarkable stability and refolding capacity of calcium-bound parvalbumin. This may explain why parvalbumin, despite cooking and exposure to the gastrointestinal tract, can sensitise patients. Purified parvalbumin reacted with IgE of more than 95% of individuals allergic to fish, induced dose-dependent basophil histamine release and contained, on average, 83% of the IgE epitopes present in other fish species. Calcium depletion reduced the IgE binding capacity of parvalbumin which, according to CD analysis, may be due to conformation-dependent IgE recognition. Purified carp parvalbumin represents an important cross reactive food allergen. It can be used for in vitro and in vivo diagnosis of fish-induced food allergy. Our finding that the apo-form of parvalbumin had a greatly reduced IgE binding capacity indicates that this form may be a candidate for safe immunotherapy of fish-related food allergy.

  18. Influence of food diet in the radiosensitivity of spodoptera frugiperda smith abbot larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.; Labrada, A.; Fundora, Z.; Herrera, A.

    1988-01-01

    To apply the traditional method in pest control it is needed to know the reaction capability of the insect in reference to radiations as well as the influence which can be exerted over it by different factors. The radiosensitivity of Spodoptera Frugiperda Smith Abbot larvae raised with two different diets (natural and artificial) was studied using doses between 20 and 100 Gy, in Co-60 gamma source with a dose power of 13.4 Gy/min survival, formation and dimensions of pupas, adult emergency and other interesting aspects were determined. The multiple analysis of results showed the influence of the food diet on radiosensitivity of larvae. results of both diets are statistically compared

  19. Relationship between digestive enzymes and food habit of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae: Characterization of carbohydrases and digestion of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, C S; Lucena, S A; Moreira, B H S; Brazil, R P; Gontijo, N F; Genta, F A

    2012-08-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. In spite of its medical importance and several studies concerning adult digestive physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, very few studies have been carried out to elucidate the digestion in sandfly larvae. Even the breeding sites and food sources of these animals in the field are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe and characterize several carbohydrases from the gut of L. longipalpis larvae, and show that they are probably not acquired from food. The enzyme profile of this insect is consistent with the digestion of fungal and bacterial cells, which were proved to be ingested by larvae under laboratory conditions. In this respect, sandfly larvae might have a detritivore habit in nature, being able to exploit microorganisms usually encountered in the detritus as a food source. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. General odorant-binding proteins and sex pheromone guide larvae of Plutella xylostella to better food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiao; Ban, Liping; Song, Li-Mei; Liu, Yang; Pelosi, Paolo; Wang, Guirong

    2016-05-01

    Olfaction of Lepidopteran larvae has received little attention, compared to the damage to crops done by insects at this stage. We report that larvae of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella are attracted to their natural sex pheromone and to their major component (Z)-11-hexadecenal, but only in a food context. For such task they use two general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs), abundantly expressed in the three major sensilla basiconica of the larval antenna, as shown by whole-mount immunostaining and immunocytochemistry experiments. None of the three genes encoding pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are expressed at this stage. Both recombinant GOBPs bind (Z)-11-hexadecenal and the corresponding alcohol, but not the acetate. Binding experiments performed with five mutants of GOBP2, where aromatic residues in the binding pocket were replaced with leucine showed that only one or two amino acid substitutions can completely abolish binding to the pheromone shifting the affinity to plant-derived compounds. We hypothesise that detection of their species-specific pheromone may direct larvae to the sites of foraging chosen by their mother when laying eggs, to find better food, as well as to reduce competition with individuals of the same or other species sharing the same host plant. We also provide evidence that GOBP2 is a narrowly tuned binding protein, whose affinity can be easily switched from linear pheromones to branched plants terpenoids, representing a tool better suited for the simple olfactory system of larvae, as compared to the more sophisticated organ of adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Food and Feeding Habits of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    distribution, abundance and feeding biology of C. carpio together with other commercially important ... The zooplankton are of low diversity but abundant and include ... caught in the shallow areas of the lake using a beach seine. .... of the contributions by other minor food items such as phytoplankton, zooplankton, ostracods.

  2. The influence of synthetic food additives and surfactants on the body weight of larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Martynov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The broad spectrum of negative effects of food additives and surfactants on living organisms and the environment in general indicate a necessity of a detailed study on this issue. The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of food additives and surfactants in a concentration of 350 mg/kg of fodder on the body weight of third age Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae larvae. A significant change in the body weight of T. molitor larvae was observed when they consumed a diet containing 350 mg/kg of sodium glutamate, sodium cyclamate and sodium benzoate. We observed a tendency towards increase in body weight after addition of the food colouring Allura Red, saccharin, benzoic acid, betaine, emulsifying wax, AOS and SLES, and also we observed a decrease in body weight after addition of Tartrazine and Indigo Carmine in the same concentration. Out of the 18 tested food additives, 3 significantly stimulated an increase in the body weight of third age T. molitor larvae, and 3 manifested the same effect at the level of tendency (stimulated an increase in mass on average by 43–58% over the 14-day experiment, and 2 caused decrease in the body weight of larvae. Also, the 4 studied surfactants manifested a tendency towards increase in the body weight of T. molitor. This study on the impact of food additives and surfactants on organisms of insects is of great significance for protecting rare species of insects.

  3. Assessment of Hydraulic Conditions Supporting the Recruitment of Asian Carp in the Illinois Waterway - A Case Study Using Known Spawning Events of 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, D. T.; Garcia, T.; Duncker, J.; Zhu, Z.; Butler, S.; Diana, M.; Wahl, D.

    2016-12-01

    The upstream movement of Asian carp in the Illinois Waterway poses a potential threat to the Great Lakes. If established within the Great Lakes, Asian carp may disrupt the food web and harm the ecosystems of the Great Lakes. Understanding the Asian carp reproduction, including the timing and locations of adult spawning and the transport and dispersal of eggs and larvae, is essential information for managing the Asian carp population in the Illinois Waterway. The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model, a Lagrangian particle tracking model, has been used to study the transport and dispersal of eggs and larvae. The FluEgg model inputs are water temperature and hydraulic properties. At present, field measured or modeled hydraulics from steady-state simulations have been used in FluEgg modeling and the applications have shown useful results for evaluating Asian carp reproduction in the Illinois Waterway. However, there is a need to use data based on more representative time-variable hydraulic conditions from spawning to the time larvae reach the Gas Bladder Inflation Stage (GBI). The GBI stage is critical because that is the stage when the young fish seek nursery habitat. In June 2015, Asian carp spawning was observed at two locations along the Illinois Waterway, one below Starved Rock Lock and Dam near Utica, and the one in the La Grange Pool near Havana, Illinois. This study analyzes how hydraulic modeling can improve the predictability of the FluEgg model. An unsteady HEC-RAS hydraulic model of the Illinois Waterway from Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Grafton, Illinois was used to reproduce the June 2015 flood event. Hydraulic data from HEC-RAS modeling, including predicted spatial and temporal discharge, water depth, and shear velocity; and measured water temperature data were used as input to the FluEgg model. FluEgg simulation results illustrate the downstream drifting of eggs and larvae until reaching the GBI stage. These simulation results can be analyzed

  4. Occupational allergy to aquarium fish food: red midge larva, freshwater shrimp, and earthworm. A clinical and immunological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer Arce, J; Villajos, I M Sánchez-Guerrero; Iraola, V; Carnés, J; Fernández Caldas, E

    2013-01-01

    Chironomids seem to be the main cause of occupational allergy to aquarium fish food. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of occupational sensitization to 3 different arthropod species used as components of aquarium fish food. The study sample comprised 8 workers from a fish food packing department. The control group comprised 40 atopic patients (20 of whom were allergic to mites). We performed prick tests with extracts of red midge larva (Chironomus thummi), freshwater shrimp (Gammarus species), earthworm (Tubifex species), and other arthropod species and a battery of common inhalant allergens. We measured peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E and performed a methacholine challenge test, nasal challenge test, and immunoblotting. Cross-reactivity analyses were completed using immunoblotting and CAP inhibition. Prick test results were positive to red midge larvae in 7 patients (87.5%), Gammarus in 5 (62.5%), Tubifex in 3 (37.5%), and mites in 6 (75%). In the mite-allergic controls, 30% had positive prick test results to red midge larvae. PEFR decreased > or = 20% during the packing process in all patients, and in 1 patient it indicated a dual asthmatic response. Methacholine challenge test results were positive in all participants. Nasal challenge tests were performed in 4 patients, and the results were positive. Specific IgE to red midge larvae was detected in 62.5%, Gammarus in 50%, and Tubifex in 16%. Bands of approximately 14-15 kDa and 31 kDa were observed in Gammarus and red midge larvae extracts. Cross-reactivity assays demonstrated that Gammarus totally inhibited red midge larvae, while Tubifex did so partially. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus showed very low inhibitory capacity. Aquarium fish food arthropods are potent allergens with an elevated prevalence of sensitization and variable degree of crossreactivity. This is the first report of occupational allergy to Tubifex. More data are necessary to identify and

  5. Food consumption by Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and effects of feeding natural versus artificial diets on mortality and mycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Tadele; Pringle, K L

    2003-11-01

    Second and third instar Chilo partellus larvae were infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (both at 1x10(8)conidia/ml) and daily consumption of maize leaves was measured. Infection by the fungi was associated with reduced mean daily food consumption. Reduction in food consumption became evident 3-4 days after treatment with the fungi for second instar larvae and 4-5 days for third instar larvae. Four conidial concentrations, 1x10(5), 1x10(6), 1x10(7), and 1x10(8)conidia/ml, were tested against second instar larvae. Food consumption dropped by 70-85% when the second instar larvae were treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml. Reduction in food consumption by C. partellus larvae infected with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae may offset the slow speed of kill of the fungi. The effect of artificial versus natural diets on mortality and mycoses of second instar larvae treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml was determined. Larvae provided with artificial diet suffered little mortality and mycoses than larvae provided with maize leaves. The LT(50) was longer for larvae provided with artificial diet.

  6. Nutritional Value of Pupae Versus Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as Food for Rearing Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe; Shelby, Kent S; Coudron, Thomas A

    2016-04-01

    Life-table analysis yielded demographic parameter values that indicate that Tenebrio molitor (L.) pupae are potentially more suitable factitious prey to mass-produce the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) and are more suitable prey than the larvae. P. maculiventris developed faster (23.2 vs. 25.5 d), weighed more (females 80.9 vs. 66.6 mg and males 64.7 vs. 53.7 mg), and had a higher survival rate (0.88 vs. 0.7), fecundity, and reproductive output (87.1 vs. 22.8 eggs/female) when reared on pupae compared with larvae of T. molitor. The total protein content and soluble protein content were significantly higher in pupae (60.2 and 23%, respectively) than larvae (53.1 and 14.4%, respectively). Lipid content was significantly lower in pupae (32.1%) than larvae (35.9%), and larvae had more polyunsaturated fatty acids (83.6 vs. 56.6 mg/g) and less oleic (0.1 mg/g) and steric (6.1 mg/g) acids than pupae (37.3 and 12.3 mg/g, respectively). The total sugar content was not significantly different between pupae and larvae. However, larvae had significantly more fructose than pupae, but pupae had more galactose, glucosamine, glucose, mannose, and trehalose than larvae. Differences in nutritional composition and its impact on predator demographic parameters are potential factors that make the pupal stage a better food source.

  7. Effect of live and dry food on rearing of tench (Tinca tinca L. larvae under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Żarski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper we present a method of rearing tench (Tinca tinca L. larvae under controlled conditions, fed on dry food (Gemma and Perla and Artemia nauplii or decapsulated cysts of Artemia. Tench larvae were obtained after artificial spawning by aid of Ovopel stimulation. Two experiments were conducted during which fish were divided into 4 groups (in duplicate and placed in 30 dm3 glass fish tanks set up in a recirculating system. The fish were fed ad libitum and reared for 25 days. Larvae were fed exclusively (experiment 1 or after 10 days (experiment 2 of receiving Artemia nauplii with two types of compound feeds and decapsulated cysts of Artemia. The best growth rate was observed in the control group fed on Artemia nauplii and in the group offered decapsulated cysts in both experiments. The highest survival rate, over 96%, occurred in the control group. A twofold worse survival rate was obtained in the group fed exclusively on dry food. Applied transition schedule had significant effect on survival rate among treatments, however it did not influence the percentage of body deformations occurring in groups receiving compound feed only. The results obtained indicate the necessity of applying gradual transition from live food to compound feed and the improvement of feeding schedules in common tench culture.

  8. Benthic food webs support the production of sympatric flatfish larvae in estuarine nursery habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying nursery habitats is of paramount importance to define proper management and conservation strategies for flatfish species. Flatfish nursery studies usually report upon habitat occupation, but few attempted to quantify the importance of those habitats to larvae developm...

  9. Comparison of size, terminal fall velocity, and density of bighead carp, silver carp, and grass carp eggs for use in drift modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E.; Garcia, Tatiana; Chapman, Duane C.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Asian carp established in the United States spawn in the turbulent water of rivers, and their eggs and early larvae develop while drifting in the current. The eggs, which are believed to perish if they settle before hatching, are slightly denser than water and are held in suspension by water turbulence. It is possible to use egg drift modeling to assess the capability of a river to support the survival of Asian carp eggs. Detection of spawning and estimation of egg abundance in the drift are typically assessed by ichthyoplankton trawls. Correct sampling design and interpretation of trawl data require knowledge of the vertical distribution of eggs in the drift, which can be accomplished with particle transport models. Data that are required to populate models of egg drift and vertical distribution include physical properties of assessed rivers and information on egg size, density, and terminal fall velocity, but data on these egg characteristics have not been previously available. Physical characteristics of the eggs are presented as a function of postfertilization time. We recorded mean egg diameter and terminal fall velocity for eggs from each Asian carp species during the first 5 h of development and at approximately 12 and 22 h postfertilization. Eggs of all species reached their maximum size before 4 h. Water-hardened eggs of Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were similarly sized in our trials, and water-hardened eggs of Bighead Carp H. nobilis were the largest. After water hardening, Silver Carp eggs sank slowest, and Bighead Carp eggs sank fastest. For a given species, smaller-diameter eggs generally had faster terminal fall velocities and higher specific gravity than larger eggs. We provide regression models of egg density and diameter for all three species, discuss usage of these data in modeling the drift and dispersion of Asian carp eggs, and discuss implications for egg sampling design.

  10. Intraventricular administration of Tenebrio molitor larvae extract regulates food intake and body weight in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Minchul; Kim, Jongwan; Moon, Seong-Su; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Kim, Mi-Ae

    2017-08-01

    We recently reported the in vitro and in vivo antiobesity effects of Tenebrio molitor larvae, a traditional food in many countries, but it remains unknown how the larvae affect appetite regulation in mice with diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that the extract of T molitor larvae mediates appetite by regulating neuropeptide expression. We investigated T molitor larvae extract's (TME's) effects on anorexigenesis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced orexigenic neuropeptide expression in the hypothalami of obese mice. Intracerebroventricular TME administration suppressed feeding by down-regulating the expression of the orexigenic neuropeptides neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein. T molitor larvae extract significantly reduced the expression of ER stress response genes. These results suggest that TME and its bioactive components are potential therapeutics for obesity and ER stress-driven disease states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Food and feeding habits of Omobranchus sp. (Blenniidae: Omobranchini) larvae in the Seagrass-Mangrove ecosystem of Johor Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Roushon; Arshad, Aziz; Amin, S M Nurul; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd

    2016-07-01

    The stomach contents of Omobranchus sp. (family Blenniidae) larvae were investigated in a seagrass-mangrove based ecosystem in Johor Strait, Malaysia from October 2007 to September 2008. Specimens of larval fish were collected through subsurface towing of a Bongo net from five different stations. The stomach sacs of 267 Omobranchus sp. larvae were separated and observed, which comprised of 24 significant food stuffs belonging to 6 main groups viz. phytoplankton (62.45%), zooplankton (18.24%), algae (5.56%), plant-like particles (5.75%), debris (4.22%) and unidentified particles (2.03%). In situ water parameters were also measured throughout the sampling cruises. There was a strong and significant positive correlation between stomach phytoplankton and salinity (r = 0.658, p < 0.05).? Canonical correlation analysis indicated a weak relationship (29.8%) between stomach contents and physico-chemical parameters. Only salinity appeared to be the controlling factor for the stomach contents of Omobranchus sp. larvae in the investigated area. Based on the stomach content analysis, it could be concluded that Omobranchus sp. were mainly herbivorous during the larval stages. ?

  12. The effect of water temperature on food transit time and digestive enzymes activity in Caspian kutum (Rutilus kutum larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ghysvandi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of water temperature on digestive enzymes activity and food transit time in Caspian kutum (Rutilus kutum larvae. Caspian kutum larvae (532 ± 0.05 and 543 ± 0.02 mg were divided into two groups with three replicates and reared at different water temperature i.e. 25.6 ± 0.4°C (T1 and 18.4 ± 0.1°C (T2. At the end of the experiment, sampling of intestine was performed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 8, 16, 24 and 30 h after feeding from each treatment. In T2, food was observed until 24 h after feeding and the intestine was empty 29 h after feeding, while in T1 19 h after feeding the intestine was empty. Digestive enzymes activities were higher in T2 treatment. The peaks of trypsin and alkaline phosphatase enzymes activity were found 8 h after feeding in T1, while occurred 16 h after feeding in T2. The highest chymotrypsin and alpha-amylase enzymes activity were observed 5 and 8h after feeding in T1 and T2, respectively. These results confirmed remarkable effects of temperature on food transit time and digestive enzymes activity of Caspian kutum.

  13. Effects of calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a live food on the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2009-12-01

    Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods ( P<0.01). Three live organisms were used for raising larvae and juveniles of Paralichthys olivaceus respectively for 15 and 10 d. Then the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of the larvae and juveniles were investigated. The results showed that the larvae and juveniles fed with copepods ( S. poplesia) had significantly higher growth rate than those fed with the other two organisms ( P<0.01). The survival of the flounder larvae fed with copepods was significantly higher than that of the others ( P<0.01), and the survival of the juvenile fish fed with copepods was higher than that fed with Artemia ( P<0.05). The contents of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) and the ratio of DHA/EPA in larval and juvenile flounder P. olivaceus were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of DHA, EPA and ARA in the larvae and juveniles fed with S. poplesia were higher than those fed with a mixed diet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

  14. Effect of food type and concentration on growth and fatty acid composition of early larvae of the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) reared under laboratory conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Garrido, Susana

    2012-12-01

    Experiments were conducted during the summer of 2008 and 2009 to study the growth of early post yolk-sac European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758) larvae reared under different food regimes. The fatty acid composition was used to assess nutritional condition of the larvae. Prey items used in the experiments were Gymnodinium sanguineum, Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the copepods Acartia grani and Euterpina acutifrons. Food type and concentration affected the growth of the larvae. Mixed diets composed of rotifers and copepod nauplii at high concentration resulted in higher anchovy larvae growth rates in comparison with single-prey diets using either rotifers or copepod nauplii. The addition of the dinoflagellate G. sanguineum (25-50cellsml -1) to the prey offered did not enhance significantly larval growth. Highest growth rates of anchovy larvae (0.28mmd -1) were obtained using high concentrations of a mixed diet, particularly the combination of rotifers and A. grani nauplii. Fatty acid composition at hatch was similar to the composition observed in the field, but during larvae ontogeny there was a marked decrease in the contribution of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). Such difference reflects the high requirements of these PUFA for larvae development, and suggests that the food offered failed to fulfill the larvae nutritional requirements. The growth rates obtained in our experiments were, overall, in the lower range of those observed in natural conditions. Taking into considerations the fact that larvae in the field are expected to encounter lower prey concentrations, we discuss the reasons for such disagreement. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effect of food type and concentration on growth and fatty acid composition of early larvae of the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) reared under laboratory conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Garrido, Susana; Saiz, Enric; Peters, Janna L.; Ré , Pedrobarcia; Á lvarez, Paula; Cotano, Unai; Herrero, D. L.; de Murguí a, Amalia Martí nez; Irigoien, Xabier

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted during the summer of 2008 and 2009 to study the growth of early post yolk-sac European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758) larvae reared under different food regimes. The fatty acid composition was used to assess nutritional condition of the larvae. Prey items used in the experiments were Gymnodinium sanguineum, Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the copepods Acartia grani and Euterpina acutifrons. Food type and concentration affected the growth of the larvae. Mixed diets composed of rotifers and copepod nauplii at high concentration resulted in higher anchovy larvae growth rates in comparison with single-prey diets using either rotifers or copepod nauplii. The addition of the dinoflagellate G. sanguineum (25-50cellsml -1) to the prey offered did not enhance significantly larval growth. Highest growth rates of anchovy larvae (0.28mmd -1) were obtained using high concentrations of a mixed diet, particularly the combination of rotifers and A. grani nauplii. Fatty acid composition at hatch was similar to the composition observed in the field, but during larvae ontogeny there was a marked decrease in the contribution of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). Such difference reflects the high requirements of these PUFA for larvae development, and suggests that the food offered failed to fulfill the larvae nutritional requirements. The growth rates obtained in our experiments were, overall, in the lower range of those observed in natural conditions. Taking into considerations the fact that larvae in the field are expected to encounter lower prey concentrations, we discuss the reasons for such disagreement. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  16. WATER CHEMISTRY IN DIFFERENTLY FERTILIZED CARP POUNDS

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    Krešimir Fašaić

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Water chemistry in carp ponds - fry carp ponds, each of them 2.5 acres big and 1.5 meter deep, as well as in inflow water in the ponds was researched. Fourty days old carp fingerlings were bread in the ponds; stock density of the three day old larvae was 1,000.000 ind˙ha-1. The fingerlings were fed with trouvit and flour. In the ponds and the inflow water the following chemical parameters were examined: : 02, C02, CaC03-, RC03-, outgoing of KMn04, N02-, N03-, NR4+, urea, PO43-, P205 and pH. During the breeding season substantial deviations of all the chemical parameters were stated, but within values that satisfy the needs of the carp ponds. The applied quantity of the mineral fertilizer did not cause a very explicit eutrophication of water in the treated ponds. Certain differences in the quantity of the respective chemical indicators in the fertilized pond variants compared to the nonfertilized variant were insignificant (P**0.05, except the pH value, which increased significantly in the fertilized variants (P<0.05. Compared with the inflow water, in all experimental ponds the quantity of the mineral nitrogen and phosphorus fractions (P<0.05, (P<0.05 has increased. (Tables 5 and 6

  17. Cloning and molecular ontogeny of digestive enzymes in fed and food-deprived developing gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Sotres, José Antonio; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Astola, Antonio; Yúfera, Manuel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    We have determined the expression pattern of key pancreatic enzymes precursors (trypsinogen, try; chymotrypsinogen, ctrb; phospholipase A2, pla2; bile salt-activated lipase, cel; and α-amylase, amy2a) during the larval stage of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) up to 60days after hatching (dph). Previously, complete sequences of try, cel, and amy2a were cloned and phylogenetically analyzed. One new isoform was found for cel transcript (cel1b). Expression of all enzyme precursors was detected before the mouth opening. Expression of try and ctrb increased during the first days of development and then maintained high values with some fluctuations during the whole larval stage. The prolipases pla2 and cel1b increased from first-feeding with irregular fluctuation until the end of the experiment. Contrarily, cel1a maintained low expression values during most of the larval stage increasing at the end of the period. Nevertheless, cel1a expression was negligible as compared with cel1b. The expression of amy2a sharply increased during the first week followed by a gradual decrease. In addition, a food-deprivation experiment was performed to find the differences in relation to presence/absence of gut content after the opening of the mouth. The food-deprived larvae died at 10dph. The expression levels of all digestive enzymes increased up to 7dph, declining sharply afterwards. This expression pattern up to 7dph was the same observed in fed larvae, confirming the genetic programming during the early development. Main digestive enzymes in gilthead seabream larvae exhibited the same expression profiles than other marine fish with carnivorous preferences in their juvenile stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2016-04-01

    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource.

  19. Arginine and proline applied as food additives stimulate high freeze tolerance in larvae of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koštál, Vladimír; Korbelová, Jaroslava; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Moos, Martin; Šimek, Petr

    2016-08-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an insect of tropical origin. Its larval stage is evolutionarily adapted for rapid growth and development under warm conditions and shows high sensitivity to cold. In this study, we further developed an optimal acclimation and freezing protocol that significantly improves larval freeze tolerance (an ability to survive at -5°C when most of the freezable fraction of water is converted to ice). Using the optimal protocol, freeze survival to adult stage increased from 0.7% to 12.6% in the larvae fed standard diet (agar, sugar, yeast, cornmeal). Next, we fed the larvae diets augmented with 31 different amino compounds, administered in different concentrations, and observed their effects on larval metabolomic composition, viability, rate of development and freeze tolerance. While some diet additives were toxic, others showed positive effects on freeze tolerance. Statistical correlation revealed tight association between high freeze tolerance and high levels of amino compounds involved in arginine and proline metabolism. Proline- and arginine-augmented diets showed the highest potential, improving freeze survival to 42.1% and 50.6%, respectively. Two plausible mechanisms by which high concentrations of proline and arginine might stimulate high freeze tolerance are discussed: (i) proline, probably in combination with trehalose, could reduce partial unfolding of proteins and prevent membrane fusions in the larvae exposed to thermal stress (prior to freezing) or during freeze dehydration; (ii) both arginine and proline are exceptional among amino compounds in their ability to form supramolecular aggregates which probably bind partially unfolded proteins and inhibit their aggregation under increasing freeze dehydration. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios analysis of food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) in strongly acidic lake Katanuma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Hideyuki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Science; Kikuchi, Eisuke; Shikano, Shuichi

    2001-12-01

    The food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) were analyzed using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in Lake Katanuma. Lake Katanuma is a volcanic and strongly acidic lake (average pH 2.2). In Lake Katanuma, potential sources of diets for the chironomid larvae are limited including a benthic diatom (Pinnularia braunii), a phytoplankton (Chlamydomonas acidophila), sulfate oxidizing bacteria, and vascular plants supplied from vegetation surrounding the lake. Based on the average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios among these potential sources and sediment, benthic diatoms were considered to be most probable food source of the chironomid larvae. {delta}{sup 13}C values of the chironomid were significantly different among seasons and habitat depths, suggesting that diet of C. acerbiphilus changed seasonally and with habitat depth. (author)

  1. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios analysis of food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) in strongly acidic lake Katanuma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hideyuki; Kikuchi, Eisuke; Shikano, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    The food sources for Chironomus acerbiphilus larvae (Diptera Chironomidae) were analyzed using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in Lake Katanuma. Lake Katanuma is a volcanic and strongly acidic lake (average pH 2.2). In Lake Katanuma, potential sources of diets for the chironomid larvae are limited including a benthic diatom (Pinnularia braunii), a phytoplankton (Chlamydomonas acidophila), sulfate oxidizing bacteria, and vascular plants supplied from vegetation surrounding the lake. Based on the average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios among these potential sources and sediment, benthic diatoms were considered to be most probable food source of the chironomid larvae. δ 13 C values of the chironomid were significantly different among seasons and habitat depths, suggesting that diet of C. acerbiphilus changed seasonally and with habitat depth. (author)

  2. MACROZOOBENTHOS IN CARP FISH FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative components of macrozoobenthos was investigated on six fish farms with 8-10 ha-1 each at "Donji Miholjac". The ponds were stocked with 200,000 individuals per ha! of three-day-old carp larvae. The fry were fed with animal protein throughout the culturing season. The qualitative and quabtitative macrozoobenthos components formed mainly due to systematic groups of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. The average size of Oligohaeta varied in each pond from 119 to 944 individuals per m-2 and from 2.18 to 14.09 g per m-2, and the larvae of Chironomidae from 174 to 1086 ind. per m-2 and from 2.66 to 14.09 g per m-2. Variation s of the total macrozoobenthos was within the amplitude of from 28 to 5805 ind. per m-2 and from 0.11 to 73.72 g. per m-2. In mid summer it was determined that there was a fall in the amount of macrozoobenthos in all fish ponds (Table 6.

  3. Feeding of larvae of the hybrid surubim Pseudoplatystoma sp. under two conditions of food management - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.15359

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryadne Simões Rocha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the growth and diet composition of hybrid surubim larvae (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans x P. reticulatum produced in two fish farming by using different systems of feeding with natural plankton: M I, larvae are transferred to fertilized fish pond for being freely fed with natural plankton; M II, larvae are remained inside laboratory in glass fiber boxes and plankton are gathered with a plankton net and offered in a controlled way. It was collected 10 individuals daily during the feeding period with live plankton for 20 days. After the biometry, stomachs were opened and the food items identified and quantified by the volumetric method. The items were represented by algae, protozoa, microcrustacean, insect larvae and surubim fragments (cannibalism. The items with higher volumetric percentage were Chironomidae larvae (29.25% followed by surubim fragments (19.68% in M I, and surubim fragments (21.85% and Moina micrura (19.97% in MII. The items Chydorus sp., Diaphanosoma sp., sp. Macrothrix and Ephemeroptera larvae were found only in fish of M I, while algae Ulothrix sp., Oscillatoria sp. and the protozoa Difflugia sp were only found in stomachs of surubim from M II. Regarding the growth, the surubim had grown faster in M I.

  4. Increased leptin expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after food intake but not after fasting or feeding to satiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, M.O.; Geven, E.J.; Kruiswijk, C.P.; Nabuurs, S.B.; Stolte, H.H.; Spanings, F.A.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    Leptin is a key factor in the regulation of food intake and is an important factor in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, more than a decade after the discovery of leptin in mouse, information regarding leptin in any nonmammalian species is still scant. We report the identification of duplicate

  5. Stable isotopic analysis of Barnacle larvae and their faecal pellets to evaluate the ingested food

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.A.; Anil, A.C.

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are useful in the evaluation of food web dynamics and have been used extensively in the feeding studies. Barnacles are dominant component of the intertidal and bio-fouling communities. Life cycle of barnacles...

  6. Performance of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae in different food sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crislaine Sartori Suzana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently observed in Brazil, Helicoverpa armigera became a relevant pest due to its rapid spread and the economic importance of crops in which it has established, such as soybean and maize. Understanding its establishment process in different regions and production systems, as well as the population dynamics of a polyphagous pest, as the basis for its management, depends on the knowledge of the effect of plant species as food sources on the pest biology. A laboratory experiment was conducted, supplying the caterpillars with reproductive organs of soybean, maize, canola, black oat, oat, turnip and ryegrass. It was concluded that the different food sources affect the larval development of H. armigera. Maize and wheat ears and canola siliques are the best food sources for the development of H. armigera. Ryegrass ears, on the other hand, are the worst ones. Black oat and oat panicles and turnip siliques are less suitable than soybean pods as food sources for the caterpillars.

  7. Gut fluorescence analysis of barnacle larvae: An approach to quantify the ingested food

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.A.; Anil, A.C.

    of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India A B S T R A C T Gut fluorescence analysis can provide a snapshot of ingested food and has been employed in the feeding studies of various organisms. In this study we standardised the gut fluorescence method utilising... naupliar instars and a pre-settling cyprid instar. The I instar nauplius is non-feeding and moults into II instar within a short interval of time. II to VI instars are phytoplanktivorus. Nauplii obtained from the adult broods of the barnacle Balanus...

  8. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  9. Complete validation of a unique digestion assay to detect Trichinella larvae in horse meat demonstrates the reliability of this assay for meeting food safety and trade requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, L B; Hill, D E; Parker, S; Tessaro, S V; Gamble, H R; Gajadhar, A A

    2008-03-01

    A tissue digestion assay using a double separatory funnel procedure for the detection of Trichinella larvae in horse meat was validated for application in food safety programs and trade. The assay consisted of a pepsin-HCl digestion step to release larvae from muscle tissue and two sequential sedimentation steps in separatory funnels to recover and concentrate larvae for detection with a stereomicroscope. With defined critical control points, the assay was conducted within a quality assurance system compliant with International Organization for Standardization-International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 17025 guidelines. Samples used in the validation were obtained from horses experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis to obtain a range of muscle larvae densities. One-, 5-, and 10-g samples of infected tissue were combined with 99, 95, and 90 g, respectively, of known negative horse tissue to create a 100-g sample for testing. Samples of 5 and 10 g were more likely to be positive than were 1-g samples when larval densities were less than three larvae per gram (lpg). This difference is important because ingested meat with 1 lpg is considered the threshold for clinical disease in humans. Using a 5-g sample size, all samples containing 1.3 to 2 lpg were detected, and 60 to 100% of samples with infected horse meat containing 0.1 to 0.7 lpg were detected. In this study, the double separatory funnel digestion assay was efficient and reliable for its intended use in food safety and trade. This procedure is the only digestion assay for Trichinella in horse meat that has been validated as consistent and effective at critical levels of sensitivity.

  10. Investigations on diploid radiation-induced gynogenesis in carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherfas, N.B.

    1975-01-01

    In carp the yield of diploid gynogenetic larvae under normal conditions averages 0.1% of the eggs fertilized. The application of low temperatures (8-10 0 C) for 3-4.5 h to ovulated uninseminated eggs (second metaphase) produced a positive result in 50% of the cases, raising the yield of gynogenetic diploids tens of times (in the best experiment to 8% of the eggs fertilized). During the first and second years of life, the gynogenetic carps are characterized by a decreased survival rate, and the critical period, which is accompanied by high losses, is the first hibernation. A specific depression of growth in the gynogenetic carps during the first and second years of life was not observed. The high yield of gynogenetic diploids in the F 2 resulting from artificial gynogenesis and their comparatively high survival rate point out the genetic causality of the ability to undergo gynogenesis and the prospects of breeding work in this direction. The fish-farm method of reproduction used in industrial carp fisheries may be successfully employed for the incubation and production of large-scale batches of gynogenetic offspring

  11. EVOLUTION DES PARAMETRES ZOOTECHNIQUES DE LA CARPE ARGENTEE (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX ELEVEE SOUS CLIMAT SEMI-ARIDE A LA STATION DE PISCICULTURE DEROUA, MAROC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana FARID

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate of Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix artificially reproduced in the Deroua Fisheries Station (Morocco since 1990 varies according to the temperature (seasons and rearing modes (monoculture or polyculture. The condition coefficient, always greater than 1, shows that this species is well adapted to its habitat, which has offered the optimum physicochemical and biological conditions for its growth. The growth parameters (weight and length of the silver carp in monoculture monitored from January 2013 to March 2014 show values greater than those found in polyculture (silver Carp + Grass Carp + Common Carp or (silver Carp + Grass Carp with a slowing of growth in Spring 2013. Its growth rate remains clearly lower than that of the grass carp and the common carp in spite of the some improvement in the growth rate observed beyond July. This is due, on the one hand, to the lack of adequate food for the silver carp, mainly phytoplankton, which shows very low densities, due the excessive development of Chara vulgaris and Ceratophyllum submersum. These macrophytes extract the mineral elements (nitrate and phosphate necessary for phytoplankton development. Thus, we recommend that in a similar case and in a semi-arid climate, the provision of additional food to silver carp is desirable.

  12. Perfil de ácidos graxos e composição centesimal de carpas (Cyprinus carpio alimentadas com ração e com dejetos suínos Fatty acid profile and proximate composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio feed artificial food and pig manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Izabel Druzian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o efeito da alimentação com dejetos suínos na composição centesimal e no perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo de carpas. Amostras de carpas com 4-10 meses de idade, recolhidas em Santa Catarina, foram filetadas, trituradas e acondicionadas em atmosfera de nitrogênio (-18°C. Os valores (% de umidade, proteína e cinzas foram: 72,24; 14,85; e 2,16, respectivamente, para carpas alimentados com ração; e 83,33; 14,48; e 3,49 para carpas alimentadas com dejetos suínos. Os valores de sódio e potássio foram: 0,491% e 1,20% carpas/ração; e 2,28% e 0,367% carpas/dejetos suínos, respectivamente. Os teores de lipídios totais também apresentaram diferenças significativas: 9,88% carpas/ração e 1,69% carpas/dejetos suínos. O perfil de ácidos graxos mostrou tendências similares nos dois músculos. Portanto, verificou-se um efeito significativo da alteração da dieta sobre a composição do tecido muscular de carpas alimentadas com dejetos suínos, principalmente no conteúdo de minerais e de lipídios totais, embora a variação observada no conteúdo de lipídios totais não tenha se refletido na composição de ácidos graxos.This study investigated the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the carp muscle fed with pig manure. Carp with 4-10 months of age were collected in Santa Catarina. Muscle samples were sliced and then triturated in a multiprocessor and stored under gaseous nitrogen atmosphere (-18°C. The moisture, protein, and ash contents (% were as follows: 72.24; 14.85; e 2.16, respectively, for carp feed artificial food; and 83.33; 14.48; e 3.49 for carp feed pig manure. The contents of sodium and potassium were: 0.491% and 1.20% carp/artificial food; 2.28% and 0.367% carp/pig manure. The total lipids contents also presented significant differences: 9.88% carp/artificial food, and 1.69% carp/pig manure. Fatty acid profile showed similar tends in both muscles. Therefore, a significant

  13. Phenotypic Plasticity in Gut Length in the Planktivorous Filter-Feeding Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

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    Zhixin Ke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity widely exists in the external morphology of animals as well as the internal traits of organs. In the present study, we studied the gut length plasticity of planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp under different food resources in large-net cage experiments in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu in 2004 and 2005. There was a significant difference in stocking density between these 2 years. Under a low stocking density and abundant food resources, silver carp increased their energy intake by feeding on more zooplankton. Meanwhile, silver carp adjusted their gut length to match the digestive requirements of food when exposed to different food resources. In the main growth seasons (from April to October, silver carp significantly increased their relative gut length when feeding on more phytoplankton in 2005 (p < 0.01, 9.23 ± 1.80 in 2004 and 10.77 ± 2.05 in 2005, respectively. There was a nearly significant negative correlation between zooplankton proportion in the diet and the relative gut length when silver carp were stocked in a high density (p = 0.112. It appears that silver carp might have evolved plasticity to change their gut length rapidly to facilitate efficient utilization of food resources. Such resource polymorphisms in the gut may be a good indication of temporal adaptation to resource conditions. Our work provided field evidence for understanding the functional basis of resource polymorphisms and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in planktivorous filter-feeding fish.

  14. Probiotics in carp fish nutrition

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    Ljubojević Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of antibiotics in aquaculture caused the appearance and spreading of pathogens resistance to antibiotics, what consequently drove up to the necesity of finding new technologies for protecting aquatic organisms from pathogens. Probiotics are aimed to reduce antibiotics application, and furthermore they have an important role not only in disease prevention but also in efficiency of food utilization and improvement of production parameters. Carp fish species are economically most significant in Republic of Serbia, therefore this work summarizes the results of previous studies of antibiotics application in this kind in particular. There is also pointed out to numerous harmful side effects of antibiotics use in aquaculture, and described the previous results of investigations on mechanism of probiotics effects and specificity of their use in this field as well. Beside this, there are summarized the results that show positive influence of probiotics in cyprinides nutrition on production performance, haematological parameters, course of experimental infection, activity of digestive enzymes. Special attention is paid to criteria for proper selection of probiotics in cyprinides production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31011: Uticaj kvaliteta komponenata u ishrani ciprinida na kvalitet mesa, gubitke i ekonomičnost proizvodnje

  15. The impact of using chickpea flour and dried carp fish powder on pizza quality

    OpenAIRE

    El-Beltagi, Hossam S.; El-Senousi, Naglaa A.; Ali, Zeinab A.; Omran, Azza A.

    2017-01-01

    Pizza being the most popular food worldwide, quality and sensory appeal are important considerations during its modification effort. This study was aimed to evaluate the quality of pizza made using two different sources of proteins, chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour and dried carp fish powder (Cyprinus carpio). Analysis indicated nutrients richness specificity of chickpea flour (higher fiber, energy, iron, zinc, linoleic acid and total nonessential amino acids) and dried carp fish powder (high...

  16. Safety assessment of freeze-dried powdered Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) as novel food source: Evaluation of 90-day toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Ri; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Hee-Jin; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide demand for novel food source has grown and edible insects are a promising food sources for humans. Tenebrio molitor, as known as yellow mealworm, has advantages of being rich in protein, and easy to raise as a novel food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic toxicity, including potential hypersensitivity, of freeze-dried powdered T. molitor larvae (fdTML) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The fdTML was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. A toxicological assessment was performed, which included mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings, histopathologic examination and allergic reaction. There were no fdTML- related findings in clinical signs, urinalysis, hematology and serum chemistry, gross examination, histopathologic examination or allergic reaction. In conclusion, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for fdTML was determined to be in excess of 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of rats under the experimental conditions of this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of feeding wheat with purple pericarp on the growth of carp

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    Jan Mareš

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed and compared the influence of feeding wheat with purple pericarp (variety Konini and standard coloured wheat (red variety Bohemia on the growth characteristics of fingerling carp (Cyprinus carpio L. of the "Amurský lysec" line. The total content of anthocyanins converted to cyanidin 3-glucoside in the control Bohemia wheat was 24.95 mg.kg-1 and in the Konini purple wheat 41.70 mg.kg-1. Two experimental variants for feed were evaluated: dipped wheat grain and crushed wheat grain. The feed dose for wheat was 1.5% of the fish stock weight and for natural food (frozen Chironomid larvae was 0.2% of fish stock weight to all variants. Growth parameters (body length, body weight, Fulton's condition factor and feed conversion ratio of the fish were evaluated after one month of administration. The feed consumption and physico-chemical parameters (temperature, oxygen saturation, pH, N-NH4 +, N-NO2-, N-NO3- and Cl- of the environment were observed. During the feeding test, no major differences in food consumption among variations feeding on either wheat and on Chironomid larvae were noted. Satisfying results for mas and length gain were achieved in V2 wheat with purple pericarp (Konini variety - dipped grain, where the average total body length was 156.56 mm and the average unit mass was 60.81 g. In this variant, higher values of the parameters were achieved compared to the control group (100.6%, resp. 104.2%. A positive impact of wheat with purple pericarp on the evaluated parameter of fish condition factor was demonstrated. This trend was confirmed in all variants. No effect was demonstrated for mechanical disruption of kernels on the level of utilization of nutrients. In further experiments on growth characteristics we would like to determine antioxidant parameters in the blood and liver of fry.

  18. FORMATION OF BACTERIAL AND ZOOPLANKTON COMPONENT OF NATURAL FOOD BASE UNDER EFFECT OF TRADITIONAL ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

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    S. Krazhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Characterization of bacteria and zooplankton in rearing ponds using traditional fertilizers: cattle manure and bird droppings in modern conditions for fish farming. Methodology. Material collection and processing were carried out according to conventional hydrochemical and hydrobiological methods. Findings. We consider forming of bacteria and zooplankton component of natural food base of Irkliiv herbivorous fish nursery rearing ponds under the influenced of traditional organic fertilizers such as bird droppings (0,12 t/ha and cattle manure (2,0 t/ha. Each pond was planted by ongrowing Nyvka carp larvae (40,0 thousand ind./ha with silver carp (1,0 thousand ind./ha and grass carp larvae (1,0 thousand ind./ha. Qualitative and quantitative development of bacteria and zooplankton in fish-breeding ponds was investigated. The results show that in the development of the studied invertebrate groups of zooplankton in production ponds had no significant differences, except for rotifers, which group prevailed by the biomass to 3,6 times in the pond with the introduction of humus. Originality. The parameters of bacteria and zooplankton by the application of traditional organic fertilizers at present fish farming are studied. Practical value. These quantitative indicators of bacteria and zooplankton of fish-rearing ponds with water supply from Kremenchug reservoir, the application of cattle manure and bird droppings could be offered as an optimum data at present fish production stage.

  19. Drosophila larvae food intake cessation following exposure to Erwinia contaminated media requires odor perception, Trpa1 channel and evf virulence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, Seydou; Masuzzo, Ambra; Royet, Julien; Kurz, C Leopold

    2017-05-01

    When exposed to microorganisms, animals use several protective strategies. On one hand, as elegantly exemplified in Drosophila melanogaster, the innate immune system recognizes microbial compounds and triggers an antimicrobial response. On the other hand, behaviors preventing an extensive contact with the microbes and thus reducing the risk of infection have been described. However, these reactions ranging from microbes aversion to intestinal transit increase or food intake decrease have been rarely defined at the molecular level. In this study, we set up an experimental system that allowed us to rapidly identify and quantify food intake decreases in Drosophila larvae exposed to media contaminated with bacteria. Specifically, we report a robust dose-dependent food intake decrease following exposure to the bacteria Erwinia carotovora carotovora strain Ecc15. We demonstrate that this response does not require Imd innate immune pathway, but rather the olfactory neuronal circuitry, the Trpa1 receptor and the evf virulence factor. Finally, we show that Ecc15 induce the same behavior in the invasive pest insect Drosophila suzukii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J

    2012-03-29

    This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17-32 ng g - 1 dry weight) compared to the reference (40-46 ng g - 1 dry weight) and VO ponds (55-86 ng g - 1 dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (δ 13 C, δ 15 N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp.

  1. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella based on microsatellites and SNPs

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    Li Jiale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs. The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

  2. Potensi Fitoplankton sebagai Sumber Daya Pakan pada Pemeliharaan Larva Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio di BBPBAT Sukabumi

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    Ana Widiana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main problem encountered in producing larvae  is the larvae  that got low due to high mortality. One attempt to overcome this problem is the use of phytoplankton as natural feed. The purpose of this study is to determine phytoplankton community structure and potential as a resource phytoplankton feed on larval rearing carp. The research was conducted in April 2012. The results showed that the phytoplankton found in the larval rearing pond goldfish are Class Bacillariophyceae (1 genera, Chlorophyceae (13 genera, and Cyanophyceae (7 genera. Phytoplankton Chlorophyceae group is a group that has the highest abundance of larval rearing carp pond. Diversity index of phytoplankton in pond carp larvae ranged from 0.65 to 1.64 (Low Diversity. Based on the preponderance index carp larvae utilize phytoplankton as natural feed by selecting the class Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceaea in early growth until the time nursery a preponderance index value respectively 87.76% and 12.23%.

  3. Not all carp are created equal: Impacts of broadband sound on common carp swimming behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchy, Kelsie; Vetter, Brooke J.; Brey, Marybeth; Amberg, Jon J.; Gaikowski, Mark; Mensinger, Allen F.

    2016-01-01

    Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (H. molitrix) (hereafter: bigheaded carps), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are invasive fish causing negative impacts throughout their North American range. To control their movements, non-physical barriers are being developed. Broadband sound (0.06 to 10 kHz) has shown potential as an acoustic deterrent for bigheaded carps, but the response of common carp to broadband sound has not been evaluated. Since common carp are ostariophysians, possessing Weberian ossicles similar to bigheaded carps, it is possible that sound can be used as an acoustical deterrent for all three species. Behavioral responses to a broadband sound were evaluated for common carp in an outdoor concrete pond. Common carp responded a median of 3.0 (1st Q: 1.0, 3rd Q: 6.0) consecutive times to the broadband sound which was lower than silver carp and bighead carp to the same stimulus. The current study shows that common carp demonstrate an inconsistent negative phonotaxis response to a broadband sound, and seem to habituate to the sound quickly.

  4. Seletividade alimentar de organismos-alimento por formas jovens de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e curimba Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 = Selective feeding of food organisms by fish larvae of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandeyara Ribeiro Marques

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a seleção alimentar de organismos-alimento por formas jovens de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus e curimba (Prochilodus lineatus com diferentes idades (6, 12, 19 e 26 dias, na presença e ausência de Pistia stratiotes. Foram utilizados quatrotratamentos (T1 = pacu + P. stratiotes; T2 = pacu; T3 = curimba + P. stratiotes; T4 = curimba e quatro repetições. A cada sete dias, foram coletadas 24 larvas de cada espécie de peixe dos tanques, sendo estas mantidas em jejum por 24 horas. Depois de distribuídas nos aquários com plâncton, as larvas permaneceram por três horas, sendocoletadas e fixadas para análise, juntamente com as amostras de água. Os tratos digestórios das larvas foram retirados e analisados sob microscópio óptico. Observaram-se diferenças estatísticas na seletividade alimentar de organismos planctônicos por larvas de mesmaespécie, em diferentes idades e também entre larvas de espécies diferentes, com mesma idade, não diferindo quanto à presença ou ausência de P. stratiotes. As formas jovens de pacu e curimba selecionaram organismos similares aos seis dias de idade, passando por alterações até o 26º dia. À medida que se desenvolveram, as larvas de pacu passaram a selecionar cladóceros e ostrácodos e as de curimba, protozoários e algas.Theobjective was to evaluate the feeding selection of food organisms for two species of fish larvae (pacu and curimba at different ages (6, 12, 19 and 26 days after eclosion, in the presence or absence of Pistia stratiotes. Four treatments were used (T1 = pacu + P. stratiotes; T2 = pacu; T3 = curimba + P. stratiotes; T4 = curimba and four replications. Every seven days, 24 fish larvae of each species were collected, and kept without food for 24 hours. Afterbeing distributed in the aquariums with plankton, the larvae stayed for three hours, and were collected and prepared for analysis, along with the water samples. The digestive tract of the fish larvae were

  5. Self mixing of fly larvae during feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkov, Olga; Johnson, Christopher; Hu, David

    How do we sustainably feed a growing world population? One solution of increasing interest is the use of black solider fly larvae, pea-sized grubs envisioned to transform hundreds of tons of food waste into a sustainable protein source. Although startups across the world are raising these larvae, a physical understanding of how they should be raised and fed remains missing. In this study, we present experiments measuring their feeding rate as a function of number of larvae. We show that larger groups of larvae have greater mixing which entrains hungry larvae around the food, increasing feeding rate. Feeding of larvae thus differs from feeding of cattle or other livestock which exhibit less self-mixing.

  6. Aquacultural and socio-economic aspects of processing carps into some value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, H S; Sehgal, G K

    2002-05-01

    Carps are the mainstay of Indian aquaculture, contributing over 90% to the total fish production, which was estimated to be 1.77 million metric tonnes in 1996. Carp culture has a great potential for waste utilization and thus for pollution abatement. Many wastes such as cow, poultry, pig, duck, goat, and sheep excreta, biogas slurry, effluents from different kinds of factories/industries have been efficiently used for enhancing the productivity of natural food of carps and related species. Besides, several organic wastes/byproducts such as plant products, wastes from animal husbandry, and industrial by-products have been used as carp feed ingredients to lower the cost of supplementary feeding. However, to ensure the continued expansion of fish ponds and the pollution control, there must be a market for the fish (carps) produced in these ponds. The carps have, however, a low market value due to the presence of intra-muscular bones, which reduces their consumer acceptability. Thus, a need was felt to develop some boneless convenience products for enhancing the consumer acceptability of the carps. Efforts were made to prepare three value-added fish products, namely fish patty, fish finger and fish salad from carp flesh and were compared with a reference product ('fish pakoura'). Sensory evaluation of these products gave highly encouraging results. The methods of preparation of these products were transferred to some progressive farmers of the region who prepared and sold these products at very attractive prices. Carp processing has a great potential for the establishment of a fish ancillary industry and thus for boosting the production of these species. In Punjab alone, there is a potential of consuming 32,448 metric tonnes per annum of such value-added products (which would require 54,080 metric tonnes of raw fish). The development of value-added products has a significant role in raising the socio-economic status of the people associated with carp culture. The

  7. Desenvolvimento "in vitro" de larvas e juvenis de Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Decapoda, Hippidae sob diferentes condições de temperatura, salinidade e regime alimentar "In vitro" development of larvae and juveniles of the sand crab Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Decapoda, Hippidae under different conditions of temperature, salinity and food diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara P. Otegui

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Larvas eclodidas em laboratório e juvenis coletados em campo do tatuí Emeritabrasiliensis (Hippidae foram cultivados em diferentes temperaturas e regime alimentar com a finalidade de avaliar as melhores condições para a manutenção da espécie em laboratório. O efeito da freqüência da substituição da água de cultivo sobre o desenvolvimento larvar também foi estudado avaliando-se a sobrevivência, o crescimento e a duração dos estádios larvares. A duração das fases larvares e o crescimento das três últimas fases de zoea correlacionaramse positivamente com a temperatura. As temperaturas testadas, entre 18 e 26ºC não influenciaram a sobrevivência das larvas. Não houve influencia da alimentação e nem da troca de água no desenvolvimento, crescimento e sobrevivência das larvas, bem como das dietas de microalgas na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento dos juvenis.Hatched larvae and field sampled juveniles of the sand crab Emeritabrasiliensis were reared at different temperatures and food diet in order to evaluate the best conditions for laboratory maintenance. The effects of frequency of changing the aquarium seawater on larval development was also studied evaluating the survival, growth and duration of larval stages. The duration of larval stage and growth of the last three zoes phases correlate positively with temperature. Temperatures between 18 and 26ºC did not influence the larval survival. The kind of food and frequency of water exchange did not influence the development, growth, and survival of larvae, as well as the development, and survival of juveniles.

  8. On the edge of death: Rates of decline and lower thresholds of biochemical condition in food-deprived fish larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Stefan; Caldarone, E.M.; Chicharo, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Gaining reliable estimates of how long fish early life stages can survive without feeding and how starvation rate and time until death are influenced by body size, temperature and species is critical to understanding processes controlling mortality in the sea. The present study is an across-speci...... are viable proxies for the physiological processes under food deprivation of individual fish pre-recruits in the laboratory and provide useful metrics for research on the role of starvation in the sea......Gaining reliable estimates of how long fish early life stages can survive without feeding and how starvation rate and time until death are influenced by body size, temperature and species is critical to understanding processes controlling mortality in the sea. The present study is an across......-species analysis of starvation-induced changes in biochemical condition in early life stages of ninemarine and freshwater fishes. Datawere compiled on changes in body size (dry weight, DW) and biochemical condition (standardized RNA–DNA ratio, sRD) throughout the course of starvation of yolk-sac and feeding larvae...

  9. Koi herpesvirus disease in carp

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    Jeremić Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A disease in the koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi and the common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, caused by the herpesvirus and accompanied by a high mortality rate, has spread across numerous fish ponds all over the world since 1998, resulting in massive mortality and significant financial losses. The herpesvirus-like virus, called the koi herpesvirus (KHV has been isolated and identified from the koi and the common carp in the course of the incidences of massive mortalities. The first appearance of a disease with a high mortality in the common and the koi carp caused by the koi herpesvirus (KHV was described in 1998 in Israel and the United States of America (USA. Since that time, a large number of cases of outbreaks of this disease have been confirmed throughout the world, including the USA, Israel, and a large number of European countries. The deaths occurred seasonally, in late spring or early autumn, when the water temperature was from 18-28ºC. The most important factor of the environment that affects the occurrence and gravity of this disease is the water temperature. This disease is currently considered one of the factors that present the biggest threat to populations of the common and the koi carp. Diseased fish are disoriented, their movements uncoordinated, their breathing rapid, gills swollen, and they have local skin lesions. The virus was isolated from tissue of diseased fish and cultivated on a KF-1 (koi fin cells cell line. Electronic microscopy examinations revealed virus identical viral particles of the Herpesviridae family. Analyses of the virion polypeptide and DNA established differences between the KHV and the previously known herpesvirus of the Cyprinida family, Herpesvirus cyprini (CHV, and the virus of the channel catfish (Channel catfish virus - CCV. In the years 2004 and 2005, high mortality was established among one-year and two-year carp fry on three fish ponds. At two ponds, the deaths occurred among one year and two

  10. DNA Methylation of T1R1 Gene in the Vegetarian Adaptation of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenjing; He, Shan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Yuan, Xiaochen

    2018-05-02

    Although previous studies have indicated importance of taste receptors in food habits formation in mammals, little is known about those in fish. Grass carp is an excellent model for studying vegetarian adaptation, as it shows food habit transition from carnivore to herbivore. In the present study, pseudogenization or frameshift mutations of the umami receptors that hypothesized related to dietary switch in vertebrates, were not found in grass carp, suggesting other mechanisms for vegetarian adaptation in grass carp. T1R1 and T1R3 strongly responded to L-Arg and L-Lys, differing from those of zebrafish and medaka, contributing to high species specificity in amino acid preferences and diet selection of grass carp. After food habit transition of grass carp, DNA methylation levels were higher in CPG1 and CPG3 islands of upstream control region of T1R1 gene. Luciferase activity assay of upstream regulatory region of T1R1 (-2500-0 bp) without CPG1 or CPG3 indicated that CPG1 and CPG3 might be involved in transcriptional regulation of T1R1 gene. Subsequently, high DNA methylation decreased expression of T1R1 in intestinal tract. It could be a new mechanism to explain, at least partially, the vegetarian adaptation of grass carp by regulation of expression of umami receptor via epigenetic modification.

  11. Role of Bacillus licheniformis VS16-Derived Biosurfactant in Mediating Immune Responses in Carp Rohu and its Application to the Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sen, Shib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, V.; Park, Se Chang

    2017-01-01

    Multifarious applications of Bacillus licheniformis VS16-derived biosurfactant were explored. Labeo rohita fingerlings were injected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing purified biosurfactant at 0 (control), 55 (S55), 110 (S110), 220 (S220), or 330 (S330) μg mL-1 concentrations. Various immunological parameters and the expression of immune-related genes were measured at 7, 14, and 21 days post-administration (dpa). At 21 dpa, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortality was recorded for 14 days. Immune parameters such as lysozyme levels (39.29 ± 2.14 U mL-1), alternative complement pathway (61.21 ± 2.38 U mL-1), and phagocytic activities (33.37 ± 1.2%) were maximum (P Biosurfactant was effective in inhibiting biofilm formation up to 54.71 ± 1.27%. Moreover, it efficiently removed cadmium (Cd) from tested vegetables such as carrot, radish, ginger, and potato, with the highest removal efficiency (60.98 ± 1.29%) recorded in ginger contaminated with Cd. Collectively, these results suggest that isolated biosurfactant could be used in the aquaculture industry, in addition to its potential application to the food industry. PMID:28400765

  12. ATTEMPTS OF INDUCTION OF SEX-REVERSAL IN CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO VAR. KOI USING TESTOSTERONE UNDECANOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GROZEA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available sexreversalprotocols to obtain inverted males (XX and which are the consequencesusing this hormone for koi carp. To induce sex-reversal, we chose to feed a normalmixed-sex progeny of koi carp with food mixed with 30 (V1, 60 (V2 and 90 (V3 mgTU / kg food, starting at the age of 30 days for a period of 60 days. When fishes had3 months old, they were moved into a bigger aquarium and they were fed withouthormones until the age of 6 months when some of fishes were sacrifices to takesamples for histological studies. At this age the main morphometric traits wereregistered. Our results indicated that the mortality percent raise dependent by thequantity of TU from food, with a maximum value in variant V3 (90 mg TU / kg foodwhere it reached 64% in koi carps until the age of 3 months. Total length was thesingle trait that registered significant differences (p0.01 and p0.05 whencomparisons among control and all the other experimental variants were made. Thissuggests that TU treatment significantly reduced length growing of the carps even itwas administered in dose of 30, 60 or 90 mg / kg food. Supplementation of food withTU modified sex ratio in studied fishes.

  13. Effect of fungal colonization of wheat grains with Fusarium spp. on food choice, weight gain and mortality of meal beetle larvae (Tenebrio molitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Guo

    Full Text Available Species of Fusarium have significant agro-economical and human health-related impact by infecting diverse crop plants and synthesizing diverse mycotoxins. Here, we investigated interactions of grain-feeding Tenebrio molitor larvae with four grain-colonizing Fusarium species on wheat kernels. Since numerous metabolites produced by Fusarium spp. are toxic to insects, we tested the hypothesis that the insect senses and avoids Fusarium-colonized grains. We found that only kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or Beauveria bassiana (an insect-pathogenic fungal control were avoided by the larvae as expected. Kernels colonized with F. proliferatum, F. poae or F. culmorum attracted T. molitor larvae significantly more than control kernels. The avoidance/preference correlated with larval feeding behaviors and weight gain. Interestingly, larvae that had consumed F. proliferatum- or F. poae-colonized kernels had similar survival rates as control. Larvae fed on F. culmorum-, F. avenaceum- or B. bassiana-colonized kernels had elevated mortality rates. HPLC analyses confirmed the following mycotoxins produced by the fungal strains on the kernels: fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin by F. proliferatum, enniatins and beauvericin by F. poae, enniatins by F. avenaceum, and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone by F. culmorum. Our results indicate that T. molitor larvae have the ability to sense potential survival threats of kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or B. bassiana, but not with F. culmorum. Volatiles potentially along with gustatory cues produced by these fungi may represent survival threat signals for the larvae resulting in their avoidance. Although F. proliferatum or F. poae produced fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin during kernel colonization, the larvae were able to use those kernels as diet without exhibiting increased mortality. Consumption of F. avenaceum-colonized kernels, however, increased larval mortality; these kernels had higher enniatin

  14. Effect of Fungal Colonization of Wheat Grains with Fusarium spp. on Food Choice, Weight Gain and Mortality of Meal Beetle Larvae (Tenebrio molitor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiqing; Döll, Katharina; Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Altincicek, Boran

    2014-01-01

    Species of Fusarium have significant agro-economical and human health-related impact by infecting diverse crop plants and synthesizing diverse mycotoxins. Here, we investigated interactions of grain-feeding Tenebrio molitor larvae with four grain-colonizing Fusarium species on wheat kernels. Since numerous metabolites produced by Fusarium spp. are toxic to insects, we tested the hypothesis that the insect senses and avoids Fusarium-colonized grains. We found that only kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or Beauveria bassiana (an insect-pathogenic fungal control) were avoided by the larvae as expected. Kernels colonized with F. proliferatum, F. poae or F. culmorum attracted T. molitor larvae significantly more than control kernels. The avoidance/preference correlated with larval feeding behaviors and weight gain. Interestingly, larvae that had consumed F. proliferatum- or F. poae-colonized kernels had similar survival rates as control. Larvae fed on F. culmorum-, F. avenaceum- or B. bassiana-colonized kernels had elevated mortality rates. HPLC analyses confirmed the following mycotoxins produced by the fungal strains on the kernels: fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin by F. proliferatum, enniatins and beauvericin by F. poae, enniatins by F. avenaceum, and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone by F. culmorum. Our results indicate that T. molitor larvae have the ability to sense potential survival threats of kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or B. bassiana, but not with F. culmorum. Volatiles potentially along with gustatory cues produced by these fungi may represent survival threat signals for the larvae resulting in their avoidance. Although F. proliferatum or F. poae produced fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin during kernel colonization, the larvae were able to use those kernels as diet without exhibiting increased mortality. Consumption of F. avenaceum-colonized kernels, however, increased larval mortality; these kernels had higher enniatin levels than F

  15. Effect of fungal colonization of wheat grains with Fusarium spp. on food choice, weight gain and mortality of meal beetle larvae (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiqing; Döll, Katharina; Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Altincicek, Boran

    2014-01-01

    Species of Fusarium have significant agro-economical and human health-related impact by infecting diverse crop plants and synthesizing diverse mycotoxins. Here, we investigated interactions of grain-feeding Tenebrio molitor larvae with four grain-colonizing Fusarium species on wheat kernels. Since numerous metabolites produced by Fusarium spp. are toxic to insects, we tested the hypothesis that the insect senses and avoids Fusarium-colonized grains. We found that only kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or Beauveria bassiana (an insect-pathogenic fungal control) were avoided by the larvae as expected. Kernels colonized with F. proliferatum, F. poae or F. culmorum attracted T. molitor larvae significantly more than control kernels. The avoidance/preference correlated with larval feeding behaviors and weight gain. Interestingly, larvae that had consumed F. proliferatum- or F. poae-colonized kernels had similar survival rates as control. Larvae fed on F. culmorum-, F. avenaceum- or B. bassiana-colonized kernels had elevated mortality rates. HPLC analyses confirmed the following mycotoxins produced by the fungal strains on the kernels: fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin by F. proliferatum, enniatins and beauvericin by F. poae, enniatins by F. avenaceum, and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone by F. culmorum. Our results indicate that T. molitor larvae have the ability to sense potential survival threats of kernels colonized with F. avenaceum or B. bassiana, but not with F. culmorum. Volatiles potentially along with gustatory cues produced by these fungi may represent survival threat signals for the larvae resulting in their avoidance. Although F. proliferatum or F. poae produced fumonisins, enniatins and beauvericin during kernel colonization, the larvae were able to use those kernels as diet without exhibiting increased mortality. Consumption of F. avenaceum-colonized kernels, however, increased larval mortality; these kernels had higher enniatin levels than F

  16. Respon Imun Spesifik Larva Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio melalui Imunitas Maternal yang Diberi Vaksin Inaktif Whole Cell Aeromonas salmonicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syohibahttul Islamiyah BAHAR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas salmonicida are specific bacteria that can cause infections and death to the cultivation of carp (Cyprinus carpio during larval stage. Death in carp can be prevented by a vaccine, but the vaccine can only be given on the seed over the age of 3 weeks. Maternal vaccination needs to be done to improve the immune system of the larvae by means of inactivated whole cell vaccine A. salmonicida on broodstock ready to spawn. Aims to determine the effectiveness of vaccines on breeders carp to the parent antibody titer test and larvae, as well Survival Rate (SR and the Relative Percent Survival (RPS larvae. This research was conducted with a completely randomized design, 4 treatments A (control; B (0.3 ml/kg; C (0.4 ml/kg; D (0.5 ml/kg and 3 repetitions. The results show that the antibody titer of 0.3 ml dose capable of providing agglutination reaction to pitting 7th (64x dilution in broodstock, and vaccine doses 0,4ml on broodstock able to give agglutination reaction to the larvae until all 6 wells (32x dilution. A dose of 0.4 ml/kg resulted the highest SR and RPS with 96.11% and 81.25% respectively. Clinical symptoms of redness in control larvae was spread throughout the body whereas on the vaccine treatment was only in certain body parts. Keywords: A. salmonicida, vaccines, maternal immunity, larva, specific immune respon

  17. Life History Attributes of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garvey, James E; DeGrandchamp, Kelly L; Williamson, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    ... of the United States, including the Great Lakes. One well-established group found in this waterway is the Asian carps including the common carp Cyprinus carpio, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, and two recent invaders, the bighead carp...

  18. A review of introduction of common carp Cyprinus carpio in Pakistan: origin, purpose, impact and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammd Naeem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Common carp Cyprinus carpio was introduced from Thailand to Pakistan in 1964 for the purpose of aquaculture. Due to its high tolerance to temperature and turbidity, and prolific pond breeding habit, it was established promptly in most of natural inland waters, including rivers, lakes, streams, canals, wetlands and even village ponds of the country. Although common carp became one of the most abundant cyprinid species in inland waters and important food fish in Pakistan, its impact is not well documented. Fish farming of common carp has been carried out in Pakistan since 1970; initially it grew slowly but now it is playing an important role in the economy of the country by employing more than 400,000 people. Nowadays, farming of freshwater carps is present throughout Pakistan, especially in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. There is a huge potential in common carp farming and it could help increase the livelihood of people and gross domestic product (GDP of the country as well. Still, there is a need to improve the fish farming practice to meet the world-class demands that could only be possible by the keen interest of policy makers and stake holders with better management.

  19. The impact of using chickpea flour and dried carp fish powder on pizza quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam S El-Beltagi

    Full Text Available Pizza being the most popular food worldwide, quality and sensory appeal are important considerations during its modification effort. This study was aimed to evaluate the quality of pizza made using two different sources of proteins, chickpea (Cicer arietinum flour and dried carp fish powder (Cyprinus carpio. Analysis indicated nutrients richness specificity of chickpea flour (higher fiber, energy, iron, zinc, linoleic acid and total nonessential amino acids and dried carp fish powder (higher contents of protein, fats, ash, oleic acid and total essential amino acids complementing wheat flour to enhance nutritional value of pizza. Total plate count and thiobarbituric acid were increased (P0.05 across the levels of two protein sources. Springiness was decreased (P0.05 on all sensorial parameters except for odor values. The results could be useful in utilization of chickpea flour and carp fish powder in designing nutritious pizza for consumers.

  20. The effect of chronic exposure to 238Pu(IV) citrate on the embryonic development of carp and fathead minnow eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of plutonium to the developing fish egg. A quantitative analysis of the uptake of 238 Pu(IV) citrate by carp eggs indicated that plutonium is accumulated in the egg and reaches a concentration factor of approx 4 at hatching (72hr after exposure begins). Autoradiographs made from carp eggs that had been exposed to 238 Pu revealed that, although some plutonium was concentrated on the egg chorion, plutonium that penetrated the chorion was uniformly distri-buted throughout the perivitelline fluid, embryo and yolk sac. Using the uptake data for carp eggs, dose conversion factors were calculated for both carp eggs and fathead minnow eggs exposed to 238 Pu during embryological development. These values were 2100 rad/μCi/ml and 7500 rad/μCi/ml for carp and fathead minnows, respectively. Experiments were conducted in which both carp and fathead minnow eggs were exposed to plutonium in solution during embryogenesis; the percentage of eggs hatching, the number of abnormal larvae produced, and the survival of larvae were used as indicators of radiation toxicity. Concentrations in excess of 1 μCi/ml were required to prevent both species of eggs from hatching. It is concluded that fish eggs developing in natural aquatic ecosystems contaminated with plutonium probably do not receive a significant dose from the plutonium alpha radioactivity. Future analysis of fecundity and the production of abnormalities in the offspring of larvae exposed during embryological development would provide an additional degree of sensitivity to the toxicity test system used in this study. (author)

  1. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  2. Production of live prey for marine fish larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Kraul, S

    1989-01-01

    Tropical marine fish larvae vary in their requirements for live planktonic food. Selection of live prey species for culture depends on larval size and larval tolerance of water quality. This report describes some of the cultured prey species, and their uses and limits as effective food for fish larvae. Methods are presented for the culture of phytoplankton, rotifers, copepods, and other live feeds.

  3. Visceral larvae as a predictive index of the overall level of fish batch infection in European anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus): A rapid procedure for Food Business Operators to assess marketability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardone, L; Nucera, D; Pergola, V; Costanzo, F; Costa, E; Tinacci, L; Guidi, A; Armani, A

    2017-06-05

    The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), one of the most important pelagic fish resources in the Mediterranean Sea, is frequently infected by anisakid larvae. Food Business Operators (FBOs) should use appropriate sampling plans and analytical methods to avoid commercialization of massively infected batches and reduce the risk of transmission of viable zoonotic larvae. In this study, performed at FishLab (Department of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Pisa) during 2016, an official sampling plan was associated with a digestion protocol for the inspection of anchovies. Considering that anisakid larvae are usually located in the fish visceral cavity and in the adjacent muscles (VM), this part was analyzed. In particular, we assessed the reliability of the digestion of a subsample of 150g (±30g) of VM, randomly collected from 29 specimens, in estimating the marketability of the anchovies' batch. Fifty-seven samples of 29 anchovies were collected. Each anchovy was sectioned to separate VM. All the subsamples were digested, and visible larvae counted. A high correlation between the number of larvae in VM regions and in the total batch was observed, indicating a very significant contribution of the VM region on total number of parasites. The Mean Abundance (MA) was used to assess the batch marketability according to a threshold calculated on the basis of the maximum number of nematodes tolerated per sample. Considering that the MA can be calculated only when the number of examined specimens is known, the number of visible Larvae per gram of tissue (LpG) was calculated on 150g (±30g) of VM subsamples. A LpG marketability threshold was calculated dividing the maximum number of tolerated nematodes by the average weight of a sample of 29 anchovies calculated considering data available in literature. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the LpG threshold, the marketability of 57 batches assessed on the basis of the MA threshold was assumed as the gold

  4. Feeding behavior of giant gourami, Osphronemus gouramy (Lacepede larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumronk Amornsakun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding experiments were carried out in 15-liter glass aquaria with 10 liters of water containing 1000 larvae aged 1.5 days post-hatching (before mouth opening in three replicates. It was found that the feeding scheme of larval giant gourami aged 5-17 days (TL 8.36-13.40 mm consumed Moina. The larvae aged 14-17 days (TL 12.40-13.40 mm consumed both Moina and artificial pellet. Larvae aged more than 18-days (TL 13.60 mm consumed only artificial pellet. Daily food uptake by the larvae and juvenile were determined in a 15-liter aquaria (water volume 10 liters containing 500 larvae. The larvae were fed with Moina at density of 10 ind/ml. Aquaria without larvae were also set for a control of natural fluctuation in food density. The amount of food intake was calculated based on changes of food density in the aquarium with and without fish larvae. It was found the average uptake of Moina in digestive tract per day of larvae aged 5, 8, 11, 14 and 17 days old were 38, 52, 182, 205 and 266 individual/larva, respectively at density of 1.27, 1.73, 6.07, 6.83, and 8.87 individual/ml, respectively.

  5. Larvae for layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lotte; Fischer, Christian Holst; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Companies and researchers are in close collaboration developing a container- based system for cultivating fly larvae at organic poultry farms. In a one week process, manure will be converted to compost and the live larvae will be harvested and used for feeding laying hens. The larvae are expected...

  6. Spatial and temporal variation of the gill rakers of gizzard shad and silver carp in three Midwestern rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walleser, Liza R.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Howard, David R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    Improved management of invasive Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the upper Mississippi River basin may be possible by better understanding the feeding abilities of this population. Food collection for filter-feeding fishes, such as Silver Carp, is influenced by the species-specific structure of their gill rakers. To investigate structural variation in gill rakers of Silver Carp, the morphology of gill rakers was quantified and compared with that of a native filter-feeding fish species which may compete with Silver Carp for food resources, Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum. Intra- and interspecies variation of gill rakers was examined in both species collected from three locations among four months. Interspecies analysis indicated the size of pores in gill rakers of Silver Carp were much larger than the interraker spacings of Gizzard Shad (95% CI ranged from 80.69 to 185.75 μm versus 16.72 to 47.36 μm, respectively). Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Silver Carp was related to the overall size of fish and occurred only among sites where dissimilar sizes of fish were collected. This suggested the size of particles filtered by Silver Carp may be dependent upon ontogenic development rather than phenotypic plasticity in response to spatial or temporal factors. Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Gizzard Shad occurred among site and monthly sampling data; however, variation was only attributable to overall size of fish for monthly sampling data. This suggested ontogeny may influence the filter-feeding ability of this species within a habitat. However, variation noted among sites, which was not attributable to size of fish, may indicate gill rakers are phenotypically plastic among Gizzard Shad populations of various river systems of the upper Mississippi River basin.

  7. [Biotechnological aspects in "loco" larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inestrosa, N C; Labarca, R; Perelman, A; Campos, E O; Araneda, R; González, M; Brandan, E; Sánchez, J P; González-Plaza, R

    1990-10-01

    The biology of planktotrophic larvae of Concholepas concholepas is the main bottleneck towards developing biotechnologies to rear this muricid. Data concerning planktonic larvae development, diets and environmental signals triggering larval settlement and recruitment is scarce. We have begun the study of the molecular and cell biology of embryos, larvae and recruits having as a final goal, the development of appropriate biotechnologies to rear this gastropod. First, an inverse ratio between BuChE and AChE enzyme activities was established. This ratio may be a precise developmental marker for this species. Second, for the first time a phosphoinositide related regulatory pathway is reported in a muricid, opening a new approach to the biotechnological management of larvae. Third, the relation between sulfate in sea water and larval motility was studied. Concentrations below 125 microM sulfate decreases larval motility. The sulfate is incorporated in proteoglycans which participate in different developmental phenomena. Lastly, a genomic Concholepas concholepas DNA sequence, similar to that of a human growth hormone probe was detected. This is very interesting since growth factors are key molecules during development, growth and are involved in food conversion rates in fish and also, in a variety of marine invertebrates.

  8. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Crisp Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermeng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp.

  9. Rapid establishment of pure lines of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molirix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongwei; YE Yuzhen; ZHOU Jianfeng; WU Qingjiang

    2004-01-01

    The diversity of gynogenetic, artificial sex reversal and natural silver carp and bighead carp is examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method.All of the 187 bands are obtained and 19 (10.16%) of them are polymorphic in gynogenetic silver carp.Meanwhile 32 (15.61%) out of 205 bands are polymorphic in control group.In gynogenetic bighead carp a total of 232 bands are identified and 11 (4.74%) out of them are polymorphic, while 25 (10.37%) out of 241 bands are polymorphic in control group.The genetic distance of four populations is calculated and it is 0.102 and 0.023 for gynogenetic silver carp and gynogenetic bighead carp respectively.The values of natural silver carp and bighead carp are 0.161 and 0.104.From the UPGMA trees constructed based on genetic distance, the sex reversal individuals that match with the gynogenetic female individuals are picked out.A new breeding process of establishing a pure line is developed.

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC ATTRIBUTES OF DIFFERENT CARP KOI FORMS (CYPRINUS CARPIO KOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Lysak

    2014-08-01

    attributes which were determined from head length (ho, mx, mn.These attributes may characterize the adjustment of carp koi to more active catching of food items, so as brighter colorful indexes scare them, especially when the water in water pond is highly limpid. It is also interesting to note the high density of fish planting (3000 exemplars per 0,2 ha, it tells us about high level of contest between different colorful  koi forms for food organisms. Among other things, increased indexes of attributes like “tail-stem length” (pl and “basis of anal fin length” (lA in three the brightest groups may point at increase of reoration power in these fish. It is possible to make an assumption that increase of indexes of these attributes was not caused by other factors of water environment, except bright color of fish (it means that this attribute may characterize connection of colorful carp koi forms with difficulties at gaining food organisms. Author conducted morpho-metric study of basic forms of Japanese carp koi. Study showed the specificity of variational changes of plastic attributes of different forms of carp koi upon condition of keeping them in the same conditions. Author researched the variance between forms of carps koi, which is proved by indexes of Student coefficients, Mayr resolution and by directional deviation. Keywords: Cyprinus carpio koi, carp koi forms, deviation, coefficients, attributes.

  11. Impact of substrate contamination with mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides on the growth performance and composition of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) for use in the feed and food value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purschke, Benedict; Scheibelberger, Rafaela; Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Jäger, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Edible insects have emerged as an alternative and sustainable source of high-quality, animal-derived protein and fat for livestock production or direct human nutrition. During the production of insects, substrate quality is a key parameter to assure optimal insect biomass gain as well as the safety of feed and food derived from commercially reared insects. Therefore, the influence of a realistic substrate contamination scenario on growth performance and accumulation behaviour of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL; Hermetia illucens L.) was investigated. Newly hatched larvae were fed on a corn-based substrate spiked with heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb), mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1/B2/G2, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone) and pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl) under defined breeding conditions (10 days, 28°C, 67% relative humidity). The extent of contaminants' bioaccumulation in the larval tissue as well as the effect on growing determinants were examined. The applied heavy metal substrate contamination was shown to impair larval growing indicated by significantly lower post-trial larval mass and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Cd and Pb accumulation factors of 9 and 2, respectively, were determined, while the concentrations of other heavy metals in the larvae remained below the initial substrate concentration. In contrast, mycotoxins and pesticides have neither been accumulated in the larval tissue nor significantly affected the growing determinants in comparison with the control. The use of BSFL as livestock feed requires contaminant monitoring - especially for Cd and Pb - in the substrates as well as in feedstuff containing BSFL to ensure feed and food safety along the value chain.

  12. MANIFESTATION OF THE EFFECT OF CRYOSELECTION IN CARP OFFSPRINGS OBTAINED FROM DEFROSTED SPERM SUSPENSION WITH MODIFIED CRYOPROTECTIVE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cherepnin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effect of the cryoselection of carp sperm of multiple age groups depending on the quality of thawed sperm after modification of the composite cryoprotective medium, which was used for the dilution of native sperm before freezing. Methodology. Coenzyme B12 (cobamamide, blood plasma of Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio, which was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, and purified protein antifreeze tmAFP isolated from larval mealworm (Tenebrio molitor, which also was subjected to natural cold-acclimation, were sued as modifiers. Findings. The results of the study demonstrated that qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the defrosted sperm, results of the incubation, rearing of embryos and larvae of Nyvky scaled carp (NLC, as well as fish culture parameters of produced young-of-the-year depended from on the composition of cryoprotective medium. The best results were demonstrated for the experimental groups, obtained with the use of the cryoprotective solution supplemented with purified antifreeze protein tmAFP. The larvae obtained from the sperm cryopreserved with the addition of cryoprotective medium TmAFP had better resistance to dehydration, surpassing the experimental groups obtained from the modifiers of Prussian carp plasma and cobamamide. There is a consolidation in the action of the related extracellular cryoprotectors, which were isolated from the cold-resistant organisms. And carp produced with their used demonstrated better performance during their rearing. The fact can be established that the manifestation of cryoselective effect depends on the integrity of sperm hereditary material and does not depend on the effect of extremely low temperatures on the cell membranes. Originality. There were the first experiments, where Prussian carp plasma and antifreeze protein tmAFP were used as extracellular cryoprotectors. Practical value. The modifications of composite

  13. The Effect of Cirata Reservoir Sediment on Early Developmental Stage of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Pujihastuti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation at Cirata reservoir may directly and indirectly influence fish particularly fish which have an adhesive characteristic at its early developmental stage such as common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Sample of sediment was collected from Cirata reservoir using Eikmand dredge at a depth of 80 m. The sample was subsequently centrifuged at 5500 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant obtained was then used for toxicity test on common carp at early developmental stage. In this test, four treatments were applied based on the concentration of sediment supernatant, namely: 0, 8.33, 16.60 and 24.90 %. The results showed that a higher sediment supernatant concentration resulted in lower egg yolk absorption rate, lower relative growth rate in length, lower egg yolk efficiency and higher egg and larval abnormality.  Higher sediment supernatant concentration also resulted in lower hatching percentage of common carp larva. The damage of eggs and larval morphologies in treatments with sediment supernatant was likely caused by the presence Pb and organic matters which act in synergy. Keywords :  sediment, Cirata, embryo, common carp   ABSTRAK Sedimentasi di Waduk Cirata secara langsung dan tidak langsung akan berpengaruh terhadap kehidupan ikan khususnya tahap awal perkembangan ikan yang bersifat adhesiveseperti ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio.  Sampel sedimen waduk Cirata diambil dengan Eikmand dredge pada kedalaman 80 m.  Hasil ekstrak di sentrifugasi dengan kecepatan 5500 rpm selama 10 menit untuk diambil air pori sedimennya.  Air pori digunakan sebagai bahan uji toksisitas terhadap perkembangan awal ikan mas dengan perlakuan 0; 8,33; 16,60 dan 24,90 %. Hasil uji toksisitas diperoleh bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi air pori dari sediment maka semakin rendah laju penyerapan kuning telur Laju pertumbuhan relatif panjang embrio pada berbagai konsentrasi juga diperoleh bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi air sedimen maka semakin rendah laju pertumbuhan relatif

  14. Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) expression in human and murine atherosclerotic lesions - Activin induces carp in smooth muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, Vivian; van Achterberg, Tanja A. E.; Beauchamp, Nicholas J.; Pannekoek, Hans; de Vries, Carlie J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective-Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) is a transcription factor-related protein that has been studied most extensively in the heart. In the present study, we investigated the expression and the potential function of CARP in human and murine atherosclerosis. Methods and Results-CARP

  15. Use of the Ethanolic Extract of Bee Pollen (Bee Bread) and Gamma Irradiation for Keeping the Quality of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Molitrix) Fish Patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibriel, AY.; Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Ali, H.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to extend the shelf-life of silver carp fish patties (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by the use of ethanolic extract of bee pollen (bee bread) at concentration of 4%, and gamma irradiation at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy as an individual treatment. The first group was control, the second group was silver carp fish patties samples treated with 4 % the ethanolic extract of bee pollen (bee bread) then irritated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. The effects of these treatments on the microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of silver carp fish patties samples have been observed. In addition, shelf-life periods were higher for silver carp fish patties samples treated by 4% the ethanolic extract of bee pollen (bee bread) and gamma radiation at dose of 5 kGy. This treatment was more effective as antimicrobial, consequently may be useful as natural food preservative.

  16. The impact of using chickpea flour and dried carp fish powder on pizza quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beltagi, Hossam S; El-Senousi, Naglaa A; Ali, Zeinab A; Omran, Azza A

    2017-01-01

    Pizza being the most popular food worldwide, quality and sensory appeal are important considerations during its modification effort. This study was aimed to evaluate the quality of pizza made using two different sources of proteins, chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour and dried carp fish powder (Cyprinus carpio). Analysis indicated nutrients richness specificity of chickpea flour (higher fiber, energy, iron, zinc, linoleic acid and total nonessential amino acids) and dried carp fish powder (higher contents of protein, fats, ash, oleic acid and total essential amino acids) complementing wheat flour to enhance nutritional value of pizza. Total plate count and thiobarbituric acid were increased (Ppizza were investigated. Dried carp fish powder increased (Ppizza. Chickpea flour increased iron and zinc contents of the pizza. Water activity (aw) was decreased in fish powder and chickpea pizza. Pizza firmness and gumminess were significantly (pPizza chewiness was the same (P>0.05) across the levels of two protein sources. Springiness was decreased (Ppizza at the expense of wheat flour had no effect (P>0.05) on all sensorial parameters except for odor values. The results could be useful in utilization of chickpea flour and carp fish powder in designing nutritious pizza for consumers.

  17. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Christoph, E-mail: steinbach@frov.jcu.cz [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Fedorova, Ganna [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Prokes, Miroslav [Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L{sup −1} to μg L{sup −1}. In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC{sub 50} values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L{sup −1} for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L{sup −1}. Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L{sup −1} of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of

  18. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, Christoph; Fedorova, Ganna; Prokes, Miroslav; Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour

    2013-01-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L −1 to μg L −1 . In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC 50 values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L −1 for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L −1 . Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L −1 of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of common carp. • The

  19. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  20. Seasonal variation in drifting eggs and larvae in the upper Yangtze, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Liu, Huan-Zhang; Duan, Zhong-Hua; Cao, Wen-Xuan

    2010-05-01

    From 5 March to 25 July 2008, ichthyoplankton drifting into the Three Gorges Reservoir from the upper reaches of the Yangtze River were sampled daily to investigate the species composition, abundance, and seasonal variation in early-stage fishes in this area. Twenty-eight species belonging to five orders and 17 families or subfamilies were identified by analyzing fish eggs and larvae, and a total of 14.16 billion individuals were estimated drifting through the sampling section during the investigation. Among the ichthyoplankton sampled, species in Cultrinae, Cobitidae, Gobioninae and Gobiidae, along with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus), comprised 89.6% of the total amount. Six peaks of drift density were identified during the sampling period, and a significant correlation was found between drift density with water discharge. The dominant species were different in each drift peak, indicating different spawning times for the major species. The total amount of the four major Chinese carps that drifted through the sampling section was estimated as 0.88 billion, indicating an increase in the population sizes of these species in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River after construction of the Three Gorges Dam. Actually, these reaches have become the largest spawning area for the four major Chinese carps in the Yangtze River. The large total amount of eggs and larvae drifting through this section demonstrated that the upper reaches of the Yangtze River provided important spawning sites for many fish species, and that conservation of this area should be of great concern.

  1. Haematological and Histological Changes in Common Carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a worsening effect of excess dietary copper exposure on the fish. Gills and intestines of both diet 2 and diet 3 were normal during and after exposure, but fatty change was observed throughout the experiment. In conclusion, increasing the copper level of common carp, which it required for its normal physiological function, ...

  2. Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

  3. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Del Pino

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b, Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles.

  4. Magnesium and its transport in tilapia and carp: A study based on nuclear methods. Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Velden, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments described in this thesis deal with the production of radiotracers for magnesium and the magnesium metabolism of freshwater tilapia and carp. In chapter 2 the technique of instrumental neutron activation analysis, and the production and properties of two radioisotopes of magnesium are described. In chapter 3 the magnesium distribution and the magnesium inventory of carp and tilapia is described, mainly by the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Chapter 4 deals with magnesium transport (in vivo and in vitro) between the water and fish and food and fish. In chapter 5 effects of a low-magnesium diet on tissue mineral concentrations, on the ion regulation and on magnesium transport of fish is described. Chapter 6 deals with the effects of low ambient magnesium on early life stages of the fish.

  5. Comparison of cadmium and chromium bioconcentration factors between scaled and scale less fish species: common carp and sutchi (striped catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sideh Zainab Abedi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne, indissoluble heavy metals are bioaccumulated in fish (human food source. In this research, chromium (Cr and cadmium (Cd bioconcentration factors (BCFs in the skin, gills, scales, livers and muscles of two widely-consumed fish species, scaled common carp Cyprinus carpio and scaleless catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus were compared. Material and Methods: Lethal concentrations of Cd and Cr (64.89 & 7.46, and 84.8 & 17.05 mg/L for the catfish and carp, respectively were determined during 96 hrs (96 h LC50, and the fishes were exposed for 15 days. Then the tissue samples were chemically digested and the contents of Cd and Cr were determined using atomic absorption. Results: Total contents of Cr and Cd in the catfish's tissues were 2286.11 & 360.73, and those of Cr & Cd in carp were 734.71 & 725.67 μg/g.dw (excluding the scales, respectively. Metal concentrations in the water residues (day 15 revealed lower Cr and Cd (0.059 & 0.0036 mg/L in the catfish than those in the carp media (0.1 & 0.0412 mg/L, respectively. In common carp, BCF of Cd was as liver > skin > gills > muscle > scales, and those in the catfish marked as liver>muscle >gills >skin. The BCF of Cr in common carp ranked as gills>liver>skin>scales>muscle, and the catfish showing a BCF pattern of Cr as liver> muscle>skin>gills. Conclusion: This study signifies that small amounts of cadmium and chromium with high BCFs especially in the muscles of scale less fish (catfish threat consumers’ health.

  6. Allomyrina Dichotoma Larvae Regulate Food Intake and Body Weight in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice Through mTOR and Mapk Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwan Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has suggested that the Korean horn beetle (Allomyrina dichotoma has anti-hepatofibrotic, anti-neoplastic, and antibiotic effects and is recognized as a traditional medicine. In our previous works, Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL inhibited differentiation of adipocytes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the anorexigenic and endoplasmic reticulum(ER stress-reducing effects of ADL in obesity has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anorexigenic and ER stress-reducing effects of ADL in the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese (DIO mice. Intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of ethanol extract of ADL (ADE suggested that an antagonizing effect on ghrelin-induced feeding behavior through the mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. Especially, ADE resulted in strong reduction of ER stress both in vitro and in vivo. These findings strongly suggest that ADE and its constituent bioactive compounds are available and valuable to use for treatment of various diseases driven by prolonged ER stress.

  7. Effect of setting with various temperatures on gel forming properties of farmed carp (Cyprinus carpio surimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Zamaninejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater aquaculture especially hydrothermal fish is increased in recent years. In Chinese carp aquaculture, common carp (CyprinusCarpiocomprises the 15-20 percent of the aquaculture system. Foods obtained from farmed carps could be turn into value-added and ready to eat products such as sausages, salami, burgers and etc. Surimi is one of the intermediate products to make ready to eat foods. Texture properties of surimi products depend mainly on its gelation ability. Through basic preparation of fish paste (setting for last cooking it would be possible to produce stronger gels. In this research the effect of high and low temperature setting on gelation characteristics of farmed common carp surimi wasinvestigated. For this end, control, kamaboko and suwari treatments were considered. Suwari and kamaboko gels were located at 35°C for 1 hour followed by storage at 4 °C for 12 hours. After setting the suwari gels were cooled,however kamaboko gels were cooked prior to cooling.All samples were examined for water holding capacity, protein solubility, soluble peptides, gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, puncture test and color evaluation. According to the results the lowest rate of whiteness and L* indices were observed in control group. Set gels at 35 °C demonstrated the highest strength, water holding capacity and soluble peptides in TCA and also had the lowest protein solubility and molecule weight of myosin. The results showed that set gels in high temperature results in better physicochemical properties than the gels set at low temperature.

  8. Radiosensitivity of spores of Paenibacillus larvae ssp. larvae in honey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Wanderley Mendes de [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Inspecao de Produtos de Origem Animal]. E-mail: sipa-rj@agricultura.gov.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito CTEx, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br; Schuch, Dulce Maria Tocchetto [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: micro-lara-rs@agricultura.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation, usually used in combination with other conventional methods of conservation, has been proven to be an efficient tool to ensure the safety of many types of foods by destroying pathogenic microorganisms and extending their shelf-lives. This work has investigated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate spores of the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae that causes the 'American foulbrood', a highly contagious disease still exotic in Brazil that kills bees and contaminates honey, preventing its commercialization and causing great economical losses. In this study, 60 g samples of two types of honey inoculated with 3.5x10{sup 3} spores/mL of that bacterium were irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 kGy and counted. The analyses indicated a mean reduction of 97.5{+-}0.7% in the number of viable spores exposed to 5 kGy. The application of doses of 7.5 kGy or higher yielded no viable spores above the detection threshold (10/mL). In addition the value of D{sub 10} (3.1{+-}0.3 kGy) was estimated and the logarithm of the population of viable spores of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae was determined as linear and quadratic polynomial functions of the radiation dose. The results indicated that the dose of 10 kGy could be insufficient to assure complete sterilization of honey in some cases while suggesting that 25 kGy would perform such task adequately. (author)

  9. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation. Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp

  10. Seletividade alimentar de organismos-alimento por formas jovens de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e curimba Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.523 Selective feeding of food organisms by fish larvae of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.523

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Bento Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a seleção alimentar de organismos-alimento por formas jovens de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus e curimba (Prochilodus lineatus com diferentes idades (6, 12, 19 e 26 dias, na presença e ausência de Pistia stratiotes. Foram utilizados quatro tratamentos (T1 = pacu + P. stratiotes; T2 = pacu; T3 = curimba + P. stratiotes; T4 = curimba e quatro repetições. A cada sete dias, foram coletadas 24 larvas de cada espécie de peixe dos tanques, sendo estas mantidas em jejum por 24 horas. Depois de distribuídas nos aquários com plâncton, as larvas permaneceram por três horas, sendo coletadas e fixadas para análise, juntamente com as amostras de água. Os tratos digestórios das larvas foram retirados e analisados sob microscópio óptico. Observaram-se diferenças estatísticas na seletividade alimentar de organismos planctônicos por larvas de mesma espécie, em diferentes idades e também entre larvas de espécies diferentes, com mesma idade, não diferindo quanto à presença ou ausência de P. stratiotes. As formas jovens de pacu e curimba selecionaram organismos similares aos seis dias de idade, passando por alterações até o 26º dia. À medida que se desenvolveram, as larvas de pacu passaram a selecionar cladóceros e ostrácodos e as de curimba, protozoários e algas.The objective was to evaluate the feeding selection of food organisms for two species of fish larvae (pacu and curimba at different ages (6, 12, 19 and 26 days after eclosion, in the presence or absence of Pistia stratiotes. Four treatments were used (T1 = pacu + P. stratiotes; T2 = pacu; T3 = curimba + P. stratiotes; T4 = curimba and four replications. Every seven days, 24 fish larvae of each species were collected, and kept without food for 24 hours. After being distributed in the aquariums with plankton, the larvae stayed for three hours, and were collected and prepared for analysis, along with the water samples. The digestive tract of the fish larvae

  11. CONTENT AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ESTERIFIED CHOLESTEROL OF LIVER AND REPRODUCTION ABILITY OF BROOD CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF VITAMIN A IN FORMULATED FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of increased amounts of vitamin A in the diet on the fatty acid composition of esterified cholesterol of liver and reproduction ability of brood carp females and males. Methodology. The experiment was conducted in pre-spawning period using three groups of brood carp. The control group of carp received standard granulated feed. Experimental groups of brood carps additionally received retynilatsetat in the composition of the above-mentioned fodder. Findings. It was found that the liver of females and males of brood carp of experimental groups, which received vitamin A at a quantity of 2500 and 5000 IU/kg of feed in the composition of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period had shown a dose-dependent reduction in the content of esterified cholesterol. At the same time, the level of monounsaturated fatty acids of n-9 family decreases significantly and dose-dependently in its fatty acid composition, however, there is an increase in the level of saturated fatty acids with paired and unpaired quantities of carbon atoms in the chain as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-6 family and especially n-3 family. Females of brood carp in the experimental groups, which were fed with additional vitamin A at a quantity of 2500 and 5000 IU/kg of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period, had an increase in working and relative fecundity, while males had an increase in sperm volume. At the same time, the output of larvae from eggs increases significantly and dose-dependently. Originality. For the first time it was found that the liver of brood carp females and males, which received increased quantities of vitamin A in the composition of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period, had the reduction in the content of esterified cholesterol. the level of monounsaturated fatty acids of n-9 family decreases significantly and dose-dependently in its fatty acid

  12. THE EFFECTS OF WATER TEMPERATURE REGIME FLUCTUATIONS ON THE EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT OF SILVER CARP (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Vodyanitskyi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the effect of temperature regime fluctuations on the development of silver carp embryos, as well as the activity of enzymatic reactions in fish eggs. Methodology. The studies were conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Hydrobiology of Bila Tserkov, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, from June to July. The biological materials were silver carp eggs, embryos and larvae. The dissolved oxygen content was determined using the Winkler method at four o’clock in the morning. Alkalinity phosphatase and LDG activity were determined using a set of reagents «Alkalinity phosphatase» and «LDG» (Phyllis diagnosis, Ukraine. SDH activity was determined by Vexy. The activity of Na, K-Mg-dependent-activated ATPase was determined as growth of inorganic phosphorus in the incubation medium by Kindratova M.N. et al. Protease activity was determined using immune enzymatic method of Tyurina et al. The obtained results were processed statistically in Statistica 5.5, Epaprobit analysis was used for calculating LC/EC values (Version 1.5. Findings The results showed that a delay of embryonic stages of development occur, the number of abnormal embryos increases, and the reproduction efficiency of fish reduces with an increase in water temperature and decrease in the dissolved oxygen content in water. The temperature factor had a significant effect on the activity of key enzymes, in particular the energetic metabolism changed from aerobic to anaerobic. Originality. It was found a negative effect of abiotic factors of water medium and drastic fluctuations in water temperature and gas regime of water bodies on the course of embryogenesis of silver carp that is especially important in the conditions of climate change. Practical value. The obtained results showed that the level of optimum and unfavorable environmental factors during the change of embryonic stages in embryonic and larval fish can be established based on the

  13. SEBARAN LARVA IKAN DAN KAITANNYA DENGAN KONDISI OSEANOGRAFI LAUT SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laut Sulawesi diketahui sebagai daerah penangkapan ikan yang potensial sekaligus diduga sebagai lokasi pemijahan. Berbagai jenis larva ikan pelagis maupun demersal ditemukan di perairan ini. Kelimpahan dan sebaran larva ikan di suatu perairan sangat dipengaruhi oleh kondisi oseanografi seperti temperatur, salinitas dan sejumlah parameter lainnya termasuk ketersediaan pakan. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh parameter oseanografi terhadap kelimpahan dan sebaran spasial larva ikan di Laut Sulawesi, telah dilakukan penelitian menggunakan kapal riset KR Baruna Jaya VII pada Oktober 2012. Parameter oseanografi yaitu temperatur dan salinitas diukur menggunakan iCTD dan sampling larva menggunakan bonggo net pada 18 stasiun pengukuran. Analisa hubungan kondisi oseanografi dengan sebaran larva dilakukan secara deskriptif dan pemetaan sebarannya dilakukan secara spasial. Hasil menunjukan keterkaitan sejumlah parameter oseanografi dengan kelimpahan dan sebaran spasial larva ikan. Sebaran larva famili Scombroidae dominan berada pada perairan bersalinitas tinggi karena merupakan jenis ikan oseanik. Larva ikan demersal banyak ditemukan di perairan sekitar Kep.Sangihe Talaud. Kelimpahan larva tertinggi ditemukan di perairan bagian utara dan barat lokasi penelitian dimana kelimpahan plankton tinggi ditemukan.   Celebes Sea is known as a potential fishing and spawning grounds for several pelagic fish species. Abundance and distribution of fish larvae are allegedly linked to oceanographic conditions such as temperature, salinity and others oceanographic parameters including food availablity. To see the effect of oceanographic on the abundance and spatial distribution of fish larvae in the Celebes Sea, has conducted a research in October 2012using the research vessel KR Baruna Jaya VII. The measurement of oceanographic parameters including temperature and salinity and larval sampling were done respectively by using iCTD and Bonggo net at 18 measuring stations. The

  14. Baylisascaris Larva Migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazacos, Kevin R.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles

    2016-05-26

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  15. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  16. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  17. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for body weight in Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) compared with mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ying; Lu, Cuiyun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Yu, Juhua; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-05-01

    We report the genetic linkage map of Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). An F1 population comprising 94 Jian carp individuals was mapped using 254 microsatellite markers. The genetic map spanned 1 381.592 cM and comprised 44 linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 6.58 cM. We identified eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body weight (BW) in seven linkage groups, explaining 12.6% to 17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Comparative mapping was performed between Jian carp and mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), which both have 50 chromosomes. One hundred and ninety-eight Jian carp marker loci were found in common with the mirror carp map, with 186 (93.94%) showing synteny. All 44 Jian carp linkage groups could be one-to-one aligned to the 44 mirror carp linkage groups, mostly sharing two or more common loci. Three QTLs for BW in Jian carp were conserved in mirror carp. QTL comparison suggested that the QTL confidence interval in mirror carp was more precise than the homologous interval in Jian carp, which was contained within the QTL interval in Jian carp. The syntenic relationship and consensus QTLs between the two varieties provide a foundation for genomic research and genetic breeding in common carp.

  18. A risk analysis of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys sp.) in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soes, D.M.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Matthews, J.; Broeckx, P.B.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Engelsma, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Two species of bigheaded carp (silver carp and bighead carp) are known to be invasive species of special concern. To gain insight into the occurrence of the alien bigheaded carp species in the Netherlands, the possibility of them becoming invasive, the possible ecological, economical and social

  19. Black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, Richardson. Thematic bibliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsynyak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Creating a thematic bibliographic list of publications in Ukrainian and Russian, dedicated to the ecology, biology, selection and cultivation of such Far East fish fauna species as black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus Richardson in conditions of fish farms of Ukraine and neighboring countries, as well as the possibility of it introduction into water bodies for bioameliorative purpose. Methodology. The complete and selective methods were applied in the process of the systematic search. The bibliographic core has been formed with the literature from the fund of the scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS. Findings. There was composed a thematic list of publications with a total quantity of 67 sources, containing characteristics of black carp as representative of cyprinids, which is very important species from the point of view of aquaculture. This bibliography covers the time period from 1949 till 2011.The literary sources were arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 7.1:2006 «System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Bibliographic entry. Bibliographic description. General requirements and rules», as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style — international standard of references. Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of breeding and study of the biological features of black carp.

  20. Enzymatic hydrolysis of Grass Carp fish skin hydrolysates able to promote the proliferation of Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Qin, Mei; Feng, Yu-Ying; Chen, Jian-Kang; Song, Yi-Shan

    2017-09-01

    The promotion effect on proliferation of Streptococcus thermophilus by enzymatic hydrolysates of aquatic products was firstly studied. The effect of influencing factors of the hydrolysis on the growth of S. thermophilus was investigated. Grass Carp fish skin was hydrolysed to peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis using protease ProteAX, and for the S. thermophilus growth, the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were temperature of 60 °C, initial pH of 9.0, enzyme concentration of 10 g kg -1 , hydrolysis time of 80 min, and ratio of material to liquid of 1:2. The Grass Carp fish skin hydrolysate (GCFSH) prepared under the optimum conditions was fractionated to five fragments (GCFSH 1, GCFSH 2, GCFSH 3, GCFSH 4, GCFSH 5) according to molecular weight sizes, in which the fragments GCFSH 4 and GCFSH 5, with molecular weights of less than 1000 Da, significantly promoted the growth of S. thermophilus. The hydrolysis process of Grass Carp fish skin can be simplified, and the peptides with molecular weights below 1000 Da in the hydrolysates are the best nitrogen source for proliferation of S. thermophilus. This work can provide a fundamental theoretical basis for the production of multi-component functional foods, especially in milk drinks or yogurt. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Excretion and intestinal absorption of tritiated glutamic acid by carp, Cyprinus Carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Terushia; Kistner, G.

    1986-01-01

    Excretion and intestinal absorption of tritiated glutamic acid by carp was investigated. Approximately 80% of orally administered tritium was excreted at a half life value of 1.4 h and an observed slower excretion of 7 days for the remainder. Tritium incorporated in glutamic acid was efficiently retained at the site of absorption, i.e. intestine, liver, gill, kidney, blood and muscle. A dual marking experiment using tritiated glutamic acid and 14 C-market glutamic acid showed higher excretion of tritium by factors 2.0 to 4.9 than that of 14 C. Tritiated glutamic acid is considered to be mainly incorporated in the citric acid cycle soon after administration and the release of tritium in tritiated water through the cycle is assumed as causing the initial rapid excretion of tritium in carp. The intestinal absorption of glutamic acid was likely to depend on its concentration in the administered solution. The maximum level of absorption is estimated to be 0.1 m mol/0.5 h for one year old carp. The results obtained here would make it possible to estimate the tritium contamination of fish due to tritiated glutamic acid entering the food chain. (orig.)

  2. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish's utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  3. Survival of mayfly larvae under mine acid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, S. Jr.; Hummon, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Mayfly larvae were abundant and diverse in riffle zones of three control streams in southeastern Ohio. But none were found in such zones of three streams having current or past histories of mine acid pollution, despite vegetative recovery of reclaimed land bordering two of the streams. Laboratory studies showed stepwise increases in non-predatory mortality of mayfly larvae with increased mine acidity. Dragonfly larvae predation on mayfly larvae was constant at pH 8.1 to 4.1, but decreased at pH 3.1 despite tolerance of dragonfly larvae to low pH conditions. Extensive acid mine pollution thus may threaten aquatic biota through removal of food sources or reduced feeding rates as well as through direct mortality.

  4. Freshly squeezed: anaphylaxis caused by drone larvae juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoevesandt, J; Trautmann, A

    2017-11-30

    Drone larvae are mostly considered a by-product of beekeeping, but have recently been advo-cated as a high-protein source of food. There are as yet no data concerning their allergenic po-tential. We report on a 29-year old bee keeper who experienced an anaphylactic reaction following the consumption of a freshly prepared beverage from raw drone larvae. Larvae-specific sensitization was confirmed by prick-to-prick and basophil activation testing. Bee stings and classical bee products including honey and royal jelly were tolerated. This is the hitherto first report on IgE-mediated allergy to drone larvae. We suggest that a certain awareness towards the allergenicity of bee larvae is required.

  5. Effect of montmorillonite on arsenic accumulation in common carp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... The effect of montmorillonite (MMT) on dietary arsenic (As(III)) accumulation in tissues of common carp ..... by clay minerals has been primarily attributed to the .... Trace elements (Cu or Zn) concentration in sampled tissues of common carp after .... interactions among mixtures of lead, cadmium and arsenic.

  6. Bigheaded carps : a biological synopsis and environmental risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cindy S.; Chapman, Duane C.; Courtenay, Walter R.; Housel, Christine M.; Williams, James D.; Jennings, Dawn P.

    2007-01-01

    The book is a detailed risk assessment and biological synopsis of the bigheaded carps of the genus Hypophthalmichthys, which includes the bighead, silver, and largescale silver carps. It summarizes the scientific literature describing their biology, ecology, uses, ecological effects, and risks to the environment.

  7. Effect of using Falcaria vulgaris on skin wound healing and immune response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nasrin Choobkar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are generally used to increase the immune response and wound healing of aquatic animals but due to the residual effects of these drugs, researchers are looking to replace them with natural materials such as medicinal plant extract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of Falcaria vulgaris on wound healing and enhancement of immune system in common carp (Cyprinus carpio.The effect of Falcaria vulgaris at concentrations of 0, 2 and 10% with Lofag foods used on wound healing, immune response, and weight gain and survival of common carp was investigated during a 21 day period with twice per day feeding on the basis of body weight. The results showed that using Falcaria vulgaris at the 10% concentration had the greatest effect on wound healing, stimulation of the immune system by increasing white blood cells, weight gain and survival of carp in comparison with the control group. This herb can be used in wound healing, increasing resistance to disease and weight gain of common carp.

  8. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YB

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yanbo Wang, Xuxia Yan, Linglin Fu Marine Resources and Nutrition Biology Research Center, Food Quality and Safety Department, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nano-selenium (Se, with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. Keywords: selenium nanoparticle, intestinal epithelial cell, crucian carp, primary culture

  9. Pesticide-contaminated feeds in integrated grass carp aquaculture: toxicology and bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucher, J; Gut, T; Mayrhofer, R; El-Matbouli, M; Viet, P H; Ngoc, N T; Lamers, M; Streck, T; Focken, U

    2014-02-19

    Effects of dissolved pesticides on fish are widely described, but little is known about effects of pesticide-contaminated feeds taken up orally by fish. In integrated farms, pesticides used on crops may affect grass carp that feed on plants from these fields. In northern Vietnam, grass carp suffer seasonal mass mortalities which may be caused by pesticide-contaminated plants. To test effects of pesticide-contaminated feeds on health and bioaccumulation in grass carp, a net-cage trial was conducted with 5 differently contaminated grasses. Grass was spiked with 2 levels of trichlorfon/fenitrothion and fenobucarb. Unspiked grass was used as a control. Fish were fed at a daily rate of 20% of body mass for 10 d. The concentrations of fenitrothion and fenobucarb in pond water increased over time. Effects on fish mortality were not found. Fenobucarb in feed showed the strongest effects on fish by lowering feed uptake, deforming the liver, increasing blood glucose and reducing cholinesterase activity in blood serum, depending on feed uptake. Fenobucarb showed increased levels in flesh in all treatments, suggesting bio-concentration. Trichlorfon and fenitrothion did not significantly affect feed uptake but showed concentration-dependent reduction of cholinesterase activity and liver changes. Fenitrothion showed bioaccumulation in flesh which was dependant on feed uptake, whereas trichlorfon was only detected in very low concentrations in all treatments. Pesticide levels were all detected below the maximum residue levels in food. The pesticide-contaminated feeds tested did not cause mortality in grass carp but were associated with negative physiological responses and may increase susceptibility to diseases.

  10. EVALUATION OF ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2 EFFECT ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABI DUMITRESCU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the scientific researches performed during the last years are focused on the determination of the negative effects caused by natural and antropogeneous chemical compounds on aquatic species; these species are more exposed to most pollutants than the land species, for the simple reason that the aquatic environment is the last destination for most residues. Our research team proposed to test the toxic effect caused by ethinylestradiol on embryo development in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Common carp embryos were purchased from the fish farm S.C. Acva Prod S.R.L. Cefa, Bihor County these were obtained by artificial reproduction. After taking and selection, the fecundated spawns were introduced in 10 Nunk culture plates of 45 ml, where we introduced 40 ml water, too. We created 3 batches, with two replications, namely: batch 1 – control, batch 2 – in water, we added ethinylestradiol (EE2 in concentration of 1.5 ng L-1 and batch 3 – we added in water a concentration of 7 ng L-1 EE2. During the incubation, the Nunk plates were kept in breeding aquariums, at a temperature of 24°C. Successive to the supervision of embryos in batch 3, 48 hours post-fecundation, we could observe evolution stagnations, 70% of them being in the stage of 40 somites of the segmentation period. At the same age, 100% of the control batch- embryos entered the stage of advanced faringula, and in batch 2 all embryos were in the stage of incipient faringula. 60-72 hours post-fecundation, all embryos in the batch 3 died, 90% in the 40 somite stage of the segmentation period and 10% in the stage of incipient faringula. 85 hours post-fecundation, all embryos belonging to the control batch were in the larva stage, while in batch 2, 90% were in the larva stage and 10% died in the stage of advanced faringula.

  11. Monoxenic liquid culture with Escherichia coli of the free-living nematode Panagrolaimus sp. (strain NFS 24-5), a potential live food candidate for marine fish and shrimp larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Farhana; Seychelles, Laurent; Strauch, Olaf; Wittke, Martina; Ehlers, Ralf-Udo

    2013-09-01

    The free-living, bacterial-feeding nematode Panagrolaimus sp. (strain NFS 24-5) has potential for use as live food for marine shrimp and fish larvae. Mass production in liquid culture is a prerequisite for its commercial exploitation. Panagrolaimus sp. was propagated in monoxenic liquid culture on Escherichia coli and parameters, like nematode density, population dynamics and biomass were recorded and compared with life history table data. A mean maximum nematode density of 174,278 mL(-1) and a maximum of 251,000 mL(-1) were recorded on day 17 after inoculation. Highest average biomass was 40 g L(-1) at day 13. The comparison with life history table data indicated that the hypothetical potential of liquid culture is much higher than documented during this investigation. Nematode development is delayed in liquid culture and egg production per female is more than five times lower than reported from life history trait analysis. The latter assessed a nematode generation time of 7.1 days, whereas the process time at maximum nematode density in liquid culture was 16 days indicating that a reduction of the process time can be achieved by further investigating the influence of nematode inoculum density on population development. The results challenge future research to reduce process time and variability and improve population dynamics also during scale-up of the liquid culture process.

  12. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  13. Emergence of carp edema virus (CEV) and its significance to European common carp and koi Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Way, K.; Haenen, O.; Stone, D.; Adamek, M.; Bergmann, S.M.; Bigarré, L.; Diserens, Nicolas; El-Matbouli, M.; Gjessing, M.C.; Jung-Schroers, V.; Leguay, E.; Matras, M.; Olesen, Niels J.; Panzarin, Valentina; Piačková, V.; Toffan, A.; Vendramin, N.; Veselý, T.; Waltzek, T.

    2017-01-01

    Carp edema virus disease (CEVD), also known as koi sleepy disease, is caused by a poxvirus associated with outbreaks of clinical disease in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Originally characterised in Japan in the 1970s, international trade in koi has led to the spread of CEV, although the first

  14. Emergence of carp edema virus (CEV) and its significance to European common carp and koi Cyprinus carpio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Way, K.; Haenen, O.; Stone, D.

    2017-01-01

    Carp edema virus disease (CEVD), also known as koi sleepy disease, is caused by a poxvirus associated with outbreaks of clinical disease in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Originally characterised in Japan in the 1970s, international trade in koi has led to the spread of CEV, although...

  15. Infestation of a bird and two cats by larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckney, R D; Kanton, K; Foster, C N; Steinberg, H; Pellitteri, P

    2001-09-01

    The larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), commonly known as the Indian meal moth, often cause enormous losses in stored food supplies. We present three clinical case reports of accidental infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in two domestic cats and one parakeet. A larva gained entry into the avian host and subsequently migrated to the brain. It was alive, covered with "silk-like" fibers and confirmed to be a fourth instar. Plodia interpunctella larvae were excised with forceps from the subcutaneous tissues of the ear and neck of two cats in a different household. Previous reports of infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in vertebrates are unknown.

  16. Development of digestive enzymes in larvae of Mayancichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus

    OpenAIRE

    López Ramírez, G.; Cuenca Soria, C.A.; Álvarez González, C.A.; Tovar Ramírez, D.; Ortiz Galindo, José Luis; Perales García, N.; Márquez Couturier, G.; Arias Rodríguez, L.; Indy, J.R.; Contreras Sánchez, W.M.; Gisbert, E.; Moyano, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of digestive enzymes during the early ontogeny of the Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) was studied using biochemical and electrophoretic techniques. From yolk absorption (6 days after hatching: dah), larvae were fed Artemia nauplii until 15 dah, afterward they were fed with commercial microparticulated trout food (45% protein and 16% lipids) from 16 to 60 dah. Several samples were collected including yolk-sac larvae (considered as day 1 after hatching) and specimens up ...

  17. Prevalence of American Foulbrood and Paenibacillus Larvae Genotypes in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    RUSENOVA, Nikolina; PARVANOV, Parvan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the prevalence of American foulbrood and Paenibacillus larvae genotypes in Bulgaria. For this purpose, data concerning American foulbrood outbreaks were used. Also, available data on the number of destroyed bee families covering a twenty-five-year period (1989 - 2013) was collected from the register of Bulgarian Food Safety Agency. In addition, Paenibacillus larvae genotypes in 15 apiaries were established by rep - PCR with BOXA1R and MBOREP1 primers. Results showe...

  18. Intraguild predation and cannibalism among larvae of detritivorous caddisflies in subalpine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissinger, S.A.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.; Steltzer, Heidi

    1996-01-01

    Comparative data from subalpine wetlands in Colorado indicate that larvae of the limnephilid caddisflies, Asynarchus nigriculus and Limnephilus externus, are reciprocally abundant among habitats - Limnephilus larvae dominate in permanent waters, whereas Asynarchus larvae dominate in temporary basins. The purpose of this paper is to report on field and laboratory experiments that link this pattern of abundance to biotic interactions among larvae. In the first field experiment, growth and survival were compared in single and mixed species treatments in littoral enclosures. Larvae, which eat mainly vascular plant detritus, grew at similar rates among treatments in both temporary and permanent habitats suggesting that exploitative competition is not important under natural food levels and caddisfly densities. However, the survival of Limnephilus larvae was reduced in the presence of Asynarchus larvae. Subsequent behavioral studies in laboratory arenas revealed that Asynarchus larvae are extremely aggressive predators on Limnephilus larvae. In a second field experiment we manipulated the relative sizes of larvae and found that Limnephilus larvae were preyed on only when Asynarchus larvae had the same size advantage observed in natural populations. Our data suggest that the dominance of Asynarchus larvae in temporary habitats is due to asymmetric intraguild predation (IGP) facilitated by a phenological head start in development. These data do not explain the dominance of Limnephilus larvae in permanent basins, which we show elsewhere to be an indirect effect of salamander predation. Behavioral observations also revealed that Asynarchus larvae are cannibalistic. In contrast to the IGP on Limnephilus larvae, Asynarchus cannibalism occurs among same-sized larvae and often involves the mobbing of one victim by several conspecifics. In a third field experiment, we found that Asynarchus cannibalism was not density-dependent and occurred even at low larval densities. We

  19. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

  20. Uptake and excretion of 110mAg by Mud carp Cirrhina molitorella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shunhua; Zhong Chuangguang

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation, excretion and tissue distribution of 110m Ag from both labeled food and water pathways in juvenile mud carp Cirrhina molitorella were investigated. Results indicated that the excretion rate of 110m Ag uptaken from artificial food pathway was very fast. 24 hours after feeding, the radioactivity of the fish decreased rapidly to 2.62% of the initial one and maintained the similar level afterwards in the 7 days excretion experiment. On the 7th day of excretion, the fish were dissected to separate the organs and tissues. The distribution of 110m Ag in the fish was uneven. Radioactivity of 110m Ag in the organs and tissues was in the order as liver>intestine>gall bladder>eye>gill>remainder>muscle. The radioactivity in liver, intestine and gall bladder were 48.14%, 18/43% and 15.43% of the total radioactivity of the fish, respectively. The accumulation of waterborne 110m Ag by mud carp showed that 110m Ag was easy to be uptaken by the fish. the concentration factors at 8th hour and 13th day were 23.8 and 208.6 respectively. Excretion of 110m Ag uptaken from water pathway was slower than that from food pathway. The radioactivity decreased to 20.1% and 16.7% on 15th and 28th day, respectively. The excretion procedure was composed of fast excretion phase (0-2d) and slow excretion phase (2-28d). The half-life of 110m Ag in mud carp in the slow excretion phase was 22d during the slow excretion phase. The distribution of 110m Ag in organs and tissues was mainly in viscera, which accounted for about 80% of the total radioactivity of the fish

  1. Dynamics of microcystins-LR and -RR in the phytoplanktivorous silver carp in a sub-chronic toxicity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Liqiang; Xie Ping; Ozawa, Kazuhiko; Honma, Takamitsu; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Park, Ho-Dong

    2004-01-01

    A sub-chronic toxicity experiment was conducted to examine tissue distribution and depuration of two microcystins (microcystin-LR and microcystin -RR) in the phytoplanktivorous filter-feeding silver carp during a course of 80 days. Two large tanks (A, B) were used, and in Tank A, the fish were fed naturally with fresh Microcystis viridis cells (collected from a eutrophic pond) throughout the experiment, while in Tank B, the food of the fish were M. viridis cells for the first 40 days and then changed to artificial carp feed. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure MC-LR and MC-RR in the M. viridis cells, the seston, and the intestine, blood, liver and muscle tissue of silver carp at an interval of 20 days. MC-RR and MC-LR in the collected Microcystis cells varied between 268-580 and 110-292 μg g -1 DW, respectively. In Tank A, MC-RR and MC-LR varied between 41.5-99.5 and 6.9-15.8 μg g -1 DW in the seston, respectively. The maximum MC-RR in the blood, liver and muscle of the fish was 49.7, 17.8 and 1.77 μg g -1 DW, respectively. No MC-LR was detectable in the muscle and blood samples of the silver carp in spite of the abundant presence of this toxin in the intestines (for the liver, there was only one case when a relatively minor quantity was detected). These findings contrast with previous experimental results on rainbow trout. Perhaps silver carp has a mechanism to degrade MC-LR actively and to inhibit MC-LR transportation across the intestines. The depuration of MC-RR concentrations occurred slowly than uptakes in blood, liver and muscle, and the depuration rate was in the order of blood>liver>muscle. The grazing ability of silver carp on toxic cyanobacteria suggests an applicability of using phytoplanktivorous fish to counteract cyanotoxin contamination in eutrophic waters. - Silver carp are tolerant of cyanobacterial toxins, and might be used to control toxic algal blooms in highly eutrophic lakes

  2. PERKEMBANGAN ENZIM PENCERNAAN LARVA IKAN PATIN, Pangasius hypophthalmus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irzal Effendi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of digestive enzymes; protease, lipase and amylase were observed in patin catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus, larvae.  The 1 day old larvae (day after hatching, with 3,37-3,97 mm length and 0,62-0,79 mg weight, were reared in aquarium 60x50x40 cm with stocking  density of 20 fish/l.  Larvae were fed  Artemia dan tubificid worms 2-8 dan 7-15 days after hatching (dAH,  respectively (schedule I;  2-6 and  5-15 dAH (schedule II; and 2-4 and 5-15 dAH (schedule III.  Chlorella was ready to eat by larvae at the entirely rearing.  For enzyme assay, larvae were sampled from each aquarium at stages of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 dAH.    Protease and lipase activity were detected in digestive tract of  1 dAH larvae.   Digestive enzymes development have a similar pattern in larvae for all feeding schedules.  Protease activity  decreased with the increasing of age until 3 dAH, then increased  until the larvae reached 7 dAH, and sharply decreased until 10 dAH and then slowly decreased thereafter. Lipase activity tended to increase slowly with age up to 3 dAH, and increased sharply until 5 dAH, and then decreased sharply until 7 dAH  before decreased again up to the end of rearing.  Amylase activity in larvae increased slowly with the increasing of age up to 5 dAH, then increased sharply until 7 dAH, and decreased thereafter.  In dimly lighted larvae, amylase activity decreased before increased up to 12 d AH, then decreased thereafter.  The amount of food organisms in larval gut, body weight and length, and survival rate of larvae were also measured and discussed.Key Words:  Digestive enzymes, development, larvae, patin catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perkembangan enzim protease, lipase dan amilase saluran pencernaan larva ikan patin akibat perubahan skedul pemberian pakan.  Larva ikan patin (panjang 3,77–3,97 mm dan bobot 0,62-0,79 mg berumur 1 hari dipelihara di akuarium 60x

  3. Evaluation of nutritive quality of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubojević, D.; Đorđević, V.; Ćirković, M.

    2017-09-01

    Common carp is the most important commercial fish species in Serbia. This fish is a valuable source of nutritive components and plays a role in healthy human nutrition. This review evaluates the nutritive quality of common carp including proximate and fatty acid compositions as well as their effects on human health. The fat content and fatty acid composition of carp have been shown to vary due to different environmental factors and particularly due to nutrition. Technology of production and composition of planktonic and benthic organisms in fish ponds have been recognised as significant factors affecting carp meat quality and desirable chemical and fatty acid composition. Carp meat quality but also production parameters and fish health are positively influenced by a balanced feed mixture. Due to the low content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol plus high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, common carp meat consumption could be linked with reduced risk of different heart diseases in humans. Also, fish proteins can have many beneficial roles in the preservation of human health. This paper emphasises the importance of consumption of common carp in order to prevent many diseases and preserve human health.

  4. Water-quality assessment of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin- Polychlorinated biphenyls in common carp and walleye fillets, 1975-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Anderson, Jesse P.

    1998-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) fillets from rivers in the Upper Mississippi River Basin upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin are summarized. PCB concentrations in common carp and walleye fillets collected from rivers in the UMIS during 1975-95 by the Minnesota Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program (MFCMP) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) were analyzed. PCBs in fish tissue are of concern because PCBs are potentially toxic, teratogenic, and are linked to poor fetal development and endocrine disruption in fish and other animals including humans, that consume fish. This summary was part of an analysis of historical data for the Upper Mississippi River (UMIS) study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The UMIS study unit is a 47,000 square-mile basin that includes the drainage of the Mississippi River upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin and encompasses the Twin Cities metropolitan area. PCB concentrations for individual samples at all sites ranged from 0.07 to 33.0 milligrams per kilograms (mg/kg) for common carp and from 0.07 to 9.8 mg/kg for walleye during 1975-95. During 1975-79 and 1980-87, 10 and 4 percent of walleye samples and 45 and 36 percent of common carp samples, respectively, exceeded the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline of 2 mg/kg PCB in fish tissue. PCB concentrations in individual common carp and walleye samples were below 2 mg/kg after 1987. Median PCB concentrations at individual sites and within stream segments were generally greatest in common carp and walleye from Mississippi River segments in the TCMA during 1975-79 and 1980-87. There was a significant difference among lipid-normalized PCB (LNPCB) concentrations in common carp, considering all stream segments combined, during all three time periods (1975-79, 1980-87, and 1988-95). LNPCB concentrations in common carp and walleye at

  5. Uptake of phosphorus from feed by carps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, H.J.; Buehringer, H.

    1993-01-01

    One of the aims of the International Conference for the Protection of the North Sea is to reduce the input of nutrients by 50% within the period of 1985 -1995. This is only possible by reducing the riverine input of phosphorus into the North Sea. For the regulated shortlived isotope of this element the bioconcentration factor to fishmeat is determined by the phosporus concentration in the water on the one hand and by the biological turn over rate in tissue on the other hand. Aquaria studies of the turn over rate of carps at different feed applications reveal that the recommended bioconcentration factor does not yield the desired conservative assessment. (orig.) [de

  6. Marketing System and Efficiency of Indian Major Carps in India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, B. Ganesh; Datta, K.K.; Reddy, G. Vidya Sagar; Menon, Muktha

    2010-01-01

    The Kolleru Lake area (KLA) in Andhra Pradesh being a predominant centre for carp culture is known as the ‘Carp Pocket of India’. This paper has described the highly efficient fish marketing system prevalent in the KLA and has compared it with the marketing of Indian Major Carps (IMC) in other major aquaculture states like West Bengal and Orissa and marine states like Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The marketing channels, market intermediaries, price spread and marketing efficiency have been...

  7. Emergence of carp edema virus (CEV) and its significance to European common carp and koi Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, K; Haenen, O; Stone, D; Adamek, M; Bergmann, S M; Bigarré, L; Diserens, N; El-Matbouli, M; Gjessing, M C; Jung-Schroers, V; Leguay, E; Matras, M; Olesen, N J; Panzarin, V; Piačková, V; Toffan, A; Vendramin, N; Vesel, T; Waltzek, T

    2017-10-18

    Carp edema virus disease (CEVD), also known as koi sleepy disease, is caused by a poxvirus associated with outbreaks of clinical disease in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Originally characterised in Japan in the 1970s, international trade in koi has led to the spread of CEV, although the first recognised outbreak of the disease outside of Japan was not reported until 1996 in the USA. In Europe, the disease was first recognised in 2009 and, as detection and diagnosis have improved, more EU member states have reported CEV associated with disease outbreaks. Although the structure of the CEV genome is not yet elucidated, molecular epidemiology studies have suggested distinct geographical populations of CEV infecting both koi and common carp. Detection and identification of cases of CEVD in common carp were unreliable using the original PCR primers. New primers for conventional and quantitative PCR (qPCR) have been designed that improve detection, and their sequences are provided in this paper. The qPCR primers have successfully detected CEV DNA in archive material from investigations of unexplained carp mortalities conducted >15 yr ago. Improvement in disease management and control is possible, and the principles of biosecurity, good health management and disease surveillance, applied to koi herpesvirus disease, can be equally applied to CEVD. However, further research studies are needed to fill the knowledge gaps in the disease pathogenesis and epidemiology that, currently, prevent an accurate assessment of the likely impact of CEVD on European koi and common carp aquaculture and on wild carp stocks.

  8. Effects of various diets on the calcium and phosphorus composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) and superworms (Zophobas morio larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'Toya V; Toddes, Barbara D; Wyre, Nicole R; Brown, Dorothy C; Michel, Kathryn E; Briscoe, Johanna A

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the nutritive quality of Tenebrio molitor larvae and Zophobas morio larvae, which are commonly cultured as live food sources, is influenced by 4 commercially available diets used as nutritional substrates; identify which diet best improved calcium content of larvae; and identify the feeding time interval that assured the highest calcium intake by larvae. ANIMALS 2,000 Zophobas morio larvae (ie, superworms) and 7,500 Tenebrio molitor larvae (ie, mealworms). PROCEDURES Larvae were placed in control and diet treatment groups for 2-, 7-, and 10-day intervals. Treatment diets were as follows: wheat millings, avian hand feeding formula, organic avian mash diet, and a high-calcium cricket feed. Control groups received water only. After treatment, larvae were flash-frozen live with liquid nitrogen in preparation for complete proximate and mineral analyses. Analyses for the 2-day treatment group were performed in triplicate. RESULTS The nutrient composition of the high-calcium cricket feed groups had significant changes in calcium content, phosphorus content, and metabolizable energy at the 2-day interval, compared with other treatment groups, for both mealworms and superworms. Calcium content and calcium-to-phosphorus ratios for larvae in the high-calcium cricket feed group were the highest among the diet treatments for all treatment intervals and for both larval species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A 2-day interval with the high-calcium cricket feed achieved a larval nutrient composition sufficient to meet National Research Council dietary calcium recommendations for nonlactating rats. Mealworm calcium composition reached 2,420 g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours, and superworm calcium composition reached 2,070g/1,000 kcal at 48 hours. These findings may enable pet owners, veterinarians, insect breeders, and zoo curators to optimize nutritive content of larvae fed to insectivorous animals.

  9. The effect of cations on sperm motility performance and fertilizing ability of silver carp Hypophtalmychtis molitrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khara H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of saline solution containing cations (Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2 on sperm motility performance (duration of sperm motility and percentage of motile spermatozoa and fertilizing capacity of sperm (fertilization rate, hatching rate, larvae length during hatching, larvae length during active feeding and survival rate in silver carp. The results suggested that solutions containing ions did not improve the duration of sperm motility. The same was observed for the percentage of motile spermatozoa. Fertilization rate influenced by solutions containing Ca+2, and other ions could not affect this parameter. The results showed that hatching rate was higher in solutions containing 99 mEq/L NaCl, 2 mEq/L MgCl2 and 2, 4 mEq/L CaCl2 respectively. Also, survival rate was higher in the solution containing 2 mEq/L MgCl2 and 36 mg/dL KCl respectively.With regard to the obtained results, it was concluded that using appropriate activation medium can improve quality of fish sperm and subsequently increases artificial reproduction performance.

  10. Designing for sustainability: ergonomics--carpe diem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K; Legg, S; Brown, C

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is a global issue that has worldwide attention but the role of ergonomics in designing for sustainability is poorly understood and seldom considered. An analysis of the literature on ergonomics, design and sustainability was conducted via a search of electronic databases: Scopus, Business Source Complete, Google Scholar, Emerald Publishing, Academic Search Premiere, Web of Science, Discover and Ergonomics Abstracts, for the years 1995-2012. A total of 1934 articles fulfilled the search criteria, but content analysis of the abstracts indicated that only 14 refereed articles addressed the main search criteria. Of those seven were in ergonomics journals and seven were in other journals (and were not written by ergonomists). It is concluded that the contribution of ergonomics to sustainability and sustainable design has been limited, even though the goals of sustainability and ergonomics are congruent. Ergonomists have not been at the forefront of research contributing to sustainability - and it is time for them to 'seize the day' - 'carpe diem'. This literature review shows that ergonomics contribution to sustainability is limited but since there is congruence between the disciplines it calls for ergonomists to become more involved and to seize the day - carpe diem.

  11. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), ... Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Effect of Ultrastructure on Changes of Textural Characteristics between Crisp Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus C.Et V) and Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus) Inducing Heating Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Ling; Yang, Xian-Qing; Li, Lai-Hao; Hao, Shu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Xu; Huang, Hui; Wei, Ya; Wu, Yan-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The research studies the ultrastructure effect on texture of crisp grass carp (CGC) and grass carp (GC) fillets inducing heating for 15, 25, and 40 min with boiling water. After heating, the hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC were higher than that of raw CGC, whereas the all textural characteristics of heating GC were lower obviously than that of raw GC. The hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC for heating 15 min were higher by 6.3%, 9.0%, 27.0%, 71.8%, 9.4%, and 23.9%, respectively, than that of raw CGC (RCGC). The hardness increasing of CGC flesh with the extension of heating time related closely to more coagulating connective tissue in interstitial spaces, especially relating to smaller muscle fiber diameter and denser muscle fiber density. The more and larger spaces between fiber and fiber with the extension of heating time results in the decrease of cohesiveness and resilience of CGC flesh. For chewiness, the stronger chewiness of cooked CGC associated with more detachment of myofiber-myocommata and fiber-fiber. Overall, the results show that the changes of texture characteristics of CGC fillet with extension of heating time correlates positively with the ultrastructure. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Swimming Performance of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp: Methodology, Metrics, and Management Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    upstream. “Accelerated Water Velocity” is under consideration as a control for aquatic nuisance species in the Great Lakes-Mississippi River Interbasin...2009. Oxygen consumption rates for bighead and silver carp in relation to life-stage and water temperature. J. Freshwater Ecology 24(4): 535-543...19.5 SD) are displaced by water velocities averaging only 25 cm/s + 3.8 SD (Layher and Ralston 1997). High activity levels of two enzymes

  14. Histopathology of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae exposed to Cyanobacteria extract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palíková, M.; Navrátil, S.; Tichý, F.; Štěrba, F.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 73, - (2004), s. 253-257 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GP524/01/P027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : microcystins * embryo-larval test * liver damage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2004

  15. Painful os styloideum: bone scintigraphy in carpe bossu disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apple, J.S.; Martinez, S.; Nunley, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The os styloideum (ninth carpal bone) is an anatomic variant that may occur as an accessory ossicle located dorsally between the capitate and trapezoid, and the bases of the second and third metacarpals. The association of dorsal wrist pain or fatigability with an os styloideum is known as carpe bossu disease. The authors describe a woman with dorsal wrist pain in whom the diagnosis of painful os styloideum (carpe bossu disease) was made using plain radiography, bone scintigraphy and tomography

  16. Visceral larva migrans: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Alexandre Bortoli; El Achkar, Marice Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    Larva migrans visceral é doença infecciosa, adquirida por ingestão de ovos provenientes dos vermes Toxocara canis e/ou Toxocara cati que infestam cães e gatos; as larvas penetram a parede intestinal e migram através dos tecidos levando a alterações diversas, conseqüentes a uma resposta inflamatória imune.¹ Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de larva migrans visceral com apresentação clínica atípica.Visceral larva migrans is an infectious human disease that occurs following ingestion of eggs...

  17. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  18. Dynamics of Social Behavior in Fruit Fly Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisko, Zachary; Kemp, Rebecca; Mubasher, Rameeshay; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    We quantified the extent and dynamics of social interactions among fruit fly larvae over time. Both a wild-type laboratory population and a recently-caught strain of larvae spontaneously formed social foraging groups. Levels of aggregation initially increased during larval development and then declined with the wandering stage before pupation. We show that larvae aggregated more on hard than soft food, and more at sites where we had previously broken the surface of the food. Groups of larvae initiated burrowing sooner than solitary individuals, indicating that one potential benefit of larval aggregations is an improved ability to dig and burrow into the food substrate. We also show that two closely related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, differ in their tendency to aggregate, which may reflect different evolutionary histories. Our protocol for quantifying social behavior in larvae uncovered robust social aggregations in this simple model, which is highly amenable to neurogenetic analyses, and can serve for future research into the mechanisms and evolution of social behavior. PMID:24740198

  19. The establishment of the cell culture of preadipocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubojević Dragana B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common carp is the most important freshwater fish in aquaculture in Republic of Serbia. Excess fat deposition in the meat and abdominal cavity of farmed carp can affect carp flesh quality, dressing percentage and consequently restrict the further development of aquaculture production. The reasons for lipid deposition in carp flesh and around visceral organs are not well known, and it is important to develop method which would enable us to understand process which occurs in common carp lipid cells. The aim of this study was to establish a new model of common carp preadipocytes and evaluate proliferation and differentiation capacity of carp preadipocytes in vitro. The establishment of the cell culture of preadipocytes of common carp could serve as a valuable tool for studying fat metabolism in this fish species.

  20. VARIOUS FACTORS AFFECTING DRESSING PERCENTAGE OF COMMERCIALLY CULTURED CYPRINID FISH IN CARP FISH PONDS IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Marković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield carcass of all categories of cyprinid fish reared in ponds in Serbia. Samples of two and three-year old carp, two-year old silver carp and grass carp were taken in the winter from a pond where the production is organized in a semi­intensive system. The three­year old carp was sampled from two ponds. In one case, it fed on barley, maize and wheat in the following proportions 40:30:30, while in the second case it fed on complete diet mixtures. Also, the samples of two­year old carp were taken from ponds where they fed on complete feed mixture. Dressing percentage was the most favourable in common carp (67%, followed by silver carp (62%, and it was the least in grass carp (60% (p<0.01. The best yield (66% was obtained in two-year old carp, followed by one-year old carp (64%, and the worst yield was determined in three-year old carp (58% (p<0.01. Carcasses yield was better in two-year old carp fed on pelleted feed (68% than in carp of the same age fed on grains (66% (p<0.01. The values of dressing percentage measured in three-year old carp reared in the semi-intensive system was 56%, and 59% in three-year old carp fed on pelleted complete feed mixture. Fish species, age, system of husbandry and diet showed a significant effect on carcasses yield. The highest dressing percentage and weight of fillets was noted in two-year old carp fed on complete feed, and it was a result of lower weight of internal organs and associated fat. The obtained results may be helpful in creating the best strategy for the selection of raw fish for fish manufacturing.

  1. Development of Digestive Enzyme of Patin Pangasius hypohthalmus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Effendi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture of patin Pangasius hypophthalmus especially larval rearing  very depends on the supply of natural food as energy source.  Artemia is the main natural food for fish larvae as a starter food, but its price is high.  To reduce production cost, farmers tend to reduce the feeding frequency and shorten  the Artemia feeding period.  Altering feeding regime however may reduce fry quality. This relate to the availability of digestive enzymes.  The objective of this study was  to examine digestive enzymes activity in patin larvae fed with  different feeding regime.  By shorten feeding period with Artemia to 2-4 days and Tubifex,substitution, the enzymes activity of protease, lipase and amylase were revealed similar pattern   The enzymes activity tends to increase and reach the peak at day 7 , and decrease later on until day 15 after hatching.  Survival rate of fish were varied for each treatment, and the highest survival rate was obtained when larvae were fed by Artemia for 8 days.  Blood worm were not fully digested by patin larvae at early stage. Keywords: enzyme, digestion, patin, Pangasius hypophthalmus   ABSTRAK Proses budidaya ikan patin, Pangasius hypophthalmus terutama pembenihan sangat tergantung oleh ketersediaan pakan alami sebagai sumber energinya. Artemia merupakan pakan alami yang banyak diberikan pada saat larva ikan mulai makan, namun harganya relatif tinggi. Untuk menekan biaya produksi, petani ikan patin cenderung mengurangi frekuensi pemberian Artemia dan mempersingkat waktu pemberiannya. Penggeseran jadwal ini diduga mengakibatkan penurunan kualitas benih ikan patin yang dihasilkan yang berhubungan dengan kesiapan enzim pencernaannya. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui aktivitas enzim pada larva ikan patin dengan jadwal pemberian pakan yang berbeda. Dengan memotong waktu pemberian Artemia 2 - 4 hari dan disubstitusi dengan Tubifex, aktifitas enzim protease, lipase dan amilase pada larva ikan patin, memiliki

  2. Chemical composition and immunomodulatory effects of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Bhaskarachary, K; Vajreswari, A; Ramesh Kumar, R; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare protein hydrolysates from underutilized common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg and to investigate their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg (roe) was hydrolysed by pepsin, trypsin, and Alcalase. Chemical composition (proximate, amino acid, mineral and fatty acid compositions) and molecular mass distribution of the three hydrolysates were determined. The carp egg protein hydrolysates (CEPHs) were evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects in BALB/c mice. CEPHs (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) were orally administered daily to female BALB/c mice (4-6 wk, 18-20 g) for a period of 45 d. After 45 d, mice were sacrificed and different tissues were collected for the immunologic investigations. The three hydrolysates contained high protein content (64%-73%) with all essential amino acids, and good proportion of ω-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid. Molecular mass analysis of hydrolysates confirmed the conversion of large-molecular-weight roe proteins into peptides of different sizes (5-90 kDa). The three hydrolysates significantly enhanced the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. Pepsin hydrolysate (0.5 g/kg body weight) significantly increased the splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity, mucosal immunity (secretory immunoglobulin A) in the gut and level of serum immunoglobulin A. Whereas Alcalase hydrolysate induced significant increases in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in spleen. The results demonstrate that CEPHs are able to improve the immune system and further reveal that different CEPHs may exert differential influences on the immune function. These results indicate that CEPHs could be useful for several applications in the health food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cutaneous larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wieczorek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM is a tropical zoonosis, caused by parasites, usually Ancylostoma braziliense. Humans are an accidental host. Polish patients with CLM are usually tourists visiting tropical and subtropical countries. The first symptoms do not always appear as creeping eruptions, which complicates the diagnosis. Objective. To present the case of a man with CLM after returning from Thailand to Poland and associated diagnostic difficulties. Case report. We present a case of a 28-year-old man who returned to Poland from Thailand. The first symptoms appeared as disseminated pruritic papules. No improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines was observed. The diagnosis was established after the appearance of serpentine erythemas and improvement after albendazole therapy. Conclusions. In the case of returnees from exotic countries suffering from raised, pruritic rashes, and no improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines, parasitic etiology should be considered.

  4. Induced mitotic gynogenesis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), optimizing irradiation dose of X- and gamma-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefian, M.; Amirinia, C.; Bercsenyi, M.; Horvath, L.

    1997-01-01

    Mitotic gynogenesis was induced in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in hatchery and laboratory conditions, using 60Co gamma-ray and X-ray for inactivation of sperm DNA and a subsequent heat shock for inducing endomitosis. The parameter examined was the dose of irradiation in the range of 70-140 Krad. Carp spermatozoa irradiated by 70-100 Krad doses showed higher motility and fertilization ability than the ones irradiated by 110-140 Krad. Sperm treated with doses of 70-90 Krad showed the same fertility rate, but lower survival rate at embryo stage compared with 100 Krad. The shock temperature and duration applied in these experiments for restoration of diploidy level were 40 degrees C plus/minus 0.1 and 2 min., respectively. The highest frequency of mitotic gynogenetic larvae was achieved by 100 Krad 60Co gamma ray at 34 min. after fertilization, - up to 12.2 percent (at 23 degrees C incubating temperature)

  5. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro-reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin, and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. PMID:28381619

  6. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Leonor; Negri, Pedro; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-04-12

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro -reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin , and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Can water disinfection prevent the transmission of infectious koi herpesvirus to naïve carp? - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, S M; Monro, E S; Kempter, J

    2017-07-01

    Hygienic measures such as disinfection are important tools for the maintenance of fish health in aquaculture. While little information is available on the disinfection of water intended for fish containment, Huwa-San ® , a disinfectant used in food and water industries, was used for daily treatment at concentrations of approximately 60 ppm over a total period of 3 months (experiment 1) with a 3-week treatment-free interval after 2 months (experiment 2). During this period, koi herpesvirus (KHV) was added to the water of two aquaria, one used as a normal contact control, the other one receiving daily water disinfectant treatments that prevented KHV infection of carp. In the second experiment, Huwa-San ® treatment was interrupted and KHV infection was prevalent. However, when naïve fish were introduced to the same aquarium after re-application of disinfectant, KHV could not be detected in those naïve fish. Whilst KHV could not be detected in samples where disinfectant had been applied, it was present in samples of naïve fish cohabiting with infection contact control animals which had undergone no disinfectant treatment over experiments 1 and 2. The results presented here show that water treatment with a disinfectant may prevent transmission of infectious KHV to naïve carp cohabited with infected carp. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Håkan Olsén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40 mM alanine, 20 mM glycine, 20 mM arginine, 8 mM serine, 8 mM leucin gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40 mM Ala, 20 mM Gly, 20 mM Arg and finally with only alanine (128 mM. Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of

  9. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo; Hajfathalian, Mona; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2018-03-01

    Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters revealed that common carp roe oil contained high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited antioxidant activity both in vitro and in 5% roe oil-in-water emulsions and inhibited the growth of certain bacterial strains. Common carp roe could be a promising source of unsaturated fatty acids and functional bioactive agents. Unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil extracted from common carp roe can be delivered into food systems by roe oil-in-water emulsions fortified by functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial hydrolysates from the defatted roe. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals the genetic basis of skin color variation in common carp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Jiang

    Full Text Available The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied.In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains.In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values.

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals the genetic basis of skin color variation in common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied. In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains. In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values.

  12. Effects of dietary glucose and sodium chloride on intestinal glucose absorption of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chaobin; Yang, Liping; Zheng, Wenjia; Yan, Xiao; Lu, Ronghua; Xie, Dizhi; Nie, Guoxing

    2018-01-08

    The co-transport of sodium and glucose is the first step for intestinal glucose absorption. Dietary glucose and sodium chloride (NaCl) may facilitate this physiological process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To test this hypothesis, we first investigated the feeding rhythm of intestinal glucose absorption. Carps were fed to satiety once a day (09:00 a.m.) for 1 month. Intestinal samples were collected at 01:00, 05:00, 09:00, 13:00, 17:00 and 21:00. Result showed that food intake greatly enhanced sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) expressions, and improved glucose absorption, with highest levels at 09:00 a.m.. Then we designed iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets with graded levels of glucose (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) and NaCl (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%), and submitted to feeding trial for 10 weeks. The expressions of SGLT1 and GLUT2, brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) glucose transport and intestinal villus height were determined after the feeding trial. Increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, enhanced BBMVs glucose transport in the proximal, mid and distal intestine. As for histological adaptive response, however, high-glucose diet prolonged while high-NaCl diet shrank intestinal villus height. Furthermore, we also found that higher mRNA levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, higher glucose transport capacity of BBMVs, and higher intestinal villus were detected in the proximal and mid intestine, compared to the distal part. Taken together, our study indicated that intestinal glucose absorption in carp was primarily occurred in the proximal and mid intestine, and increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl enhanced intestinal glucose absorption in carp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Swim-training changes the spatio-temporal dynamics of skeletogenesis in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiaz, A.W.; Leon-Kloosterziel, K.M.; Gort, G.; Schulte-Merker, S.; van Leeuwen, J.L.; Kranenbarg, S.

    2012-01-01

    Fish larvae experience many environmental challenges during development such as variation in water velocity, food availability and predation. The rapid development of structures involved in feeding, respiration and swimming increases the chance of survival. It has been hypothesized that mechanical

  14. Toxic and feeding deterrent effects of native aquatic macrophytes on exotic grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph E; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Johnson, Julie K; Cope, Rhian B; Lawmaster, Todd; Beasley, Val R

    2002-08-01

    Declines of amphibians have been attributed to many factors including habitat degradation. The introduction of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) as a biological agent for aquatic plant control in ponds and lakes managed narrowly for human recreation has likely contributed to amphibian declines through massive plant removal and associated habitat simplification and thus degradation. This research examined the interactions among grass carp and three Midwestern aquatic plants (Jussiaea repens, Ranunculus longirostris, and R. flabellaris) that may be of value in rehabilitation of habitats needed by amphibians. The feeding preference study found that C. idella avoided eating both J. repens and R. longirostris. Ranunculus species studied to date contain a vesicant toxin called ranunculin that is released upon mastication. The study that compared the effects of R. flabellaris, J. repens and a control food administered by tube feeding to C. idella found significant lesions only in the mucosal epithelium of the individuals exposed to R.flabellaris. The avoidance by C. idella of J. repens and R. longirostris in the feeding preference study, and the significant toxicity of R. flabellaris demonstrated by the dosing study, indicate these plants warrant further examination as to their potential effectiveness in aquatic amphibian habitat rehabilitation.

  15. From aquaculture goals to real social and ecological impacts: carp introduction in rural Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Mónica; Zambrano, Luis

    2003-06-01

    Aquaculture has been seen as a solution to food/protein availability in rural populations of poor countries. It is mainly based on exotic species, that produce changes in host system dynamics once introduced. Aquaculture not only changes the ecology of freshwater systems, but can also lead to modification of social relations. Until now, aquaculture programs have not been adequately analyzed no questioned enough. We evaluate both ecological effects and local social benefits of common carp aquaculture programs in shallow ponds of rural areas, using a municipality in Central Mexico as a case study. Using an "environmental entitlements" approach, our findings suggest that: i) carp aquaculture increases water turbidity and depletes native species reducing the poor people's access to them; ii) aquaculture mainly benefits pond owners rather than poor peasants. This mainly results from changes in fishing rights. We conclude that aquaculture policy goals and assumptions of benefits should be reviewed, if the negative ecological effects are to be decreased and conditions for people in rural areas are to be improved.

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Aoki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2 using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth.

  17. Highly polygenic variation in environmental perception determines dauer larvae formation in growing populations of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W M Green

    Full Text Available Determining how complex traits are genetically controlled is a requirement if we are to predict how they evolve and how they might respond to selection. This requires understanding how distinct, and often more simple, life history traits interact and change in response to environmental conditions. In order to begin addressing such issues, we have been analyzing the formation of the developmentally arrested dauer larvae of Caenorhabditis elegans under different conditions.We find that 18 of 22 previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs affecting dauer larvae formation in growing populations, assayed by determining the number of dauer larvae present at food patch exhaustion, can be recovered under various environmental conditions. We also show that food patch size affects both the ability to detect QTLs and estimates of effect size, and demonstrate that an allele of nath-10 affects dauer larvae formation in growing populations. To investigate the component traits that affect dauer larvae formation in growing populations we map, using the same introgression lines, QTLs that affect dauer larvae formation in response to defined amounts of pheromone. This identifies 36 QTLs, again demonstrating the highly polygenic nature of the genetic variation underlying dauer larvae formation.These data indicate that QTLs affecting the number of dauer larvae at food exhaustion in growing populations of C. elegans are highly reproducible, and that nearly all can be explained by variation affecting dauer larvae formation in response to defined amounts of pheromone. This suggests that most variation in dauer larvae formation in growing populations is a consequence of variation in the perception of the food and pheromone environment (i.e. chemosensory variation and in the integration of these cues.

  18. NITRO MUSK BOUND TO CARP HEMOGLOBIN ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitroaromatic compounds including synthetic nitro musks are important raw materials and intermediates in the synthesis of explosives, dyes, and pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care-products (PPCPs). The nitro musks such as musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) are extensively used as fragrance ingredients in PPCPs and other commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (4-AMX) metabolite as well as a 2- amino-MK (2-AMK) metabolite were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry' (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM) in both the electron ionization (ElMS) and electron capture (EC) negative ion chemical ionization (NICIMS) modes. Detection of 4-AMX and 2-AMK occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolites, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released metabolites were extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. A comparison between the El and EC approaches was made. EC NICIMS detected both metabolites whereas only 4-AMX was detected by ElMS. The EC NICIMS approach exhibited fewer matrix responses and provided a lower detection limit. Quantitation in both approaches was based on internal standard and a calibration plot. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Q

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4.

  20. THE EFFECT OF FISH FEEDING WITH ADDITIVES NUPRO® AND BIO-MOS® ON THE RESULTS OF THE REARING OF AGE-1+ CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Vaschenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of feed fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing of age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Methodology. The study of the effect of feeding fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L. of “Nyvka” scaled intrabreed type were performed based on the conventional methodology. The experiments were carried out in ponds condition of the research farm "Nyvka" of the Institute of Fisheries during 3 months. For the experiments, we used 0.5 ha ponds, which were stocked with age-1 carp. The stocking density was 3000 individuals per ha or 1500 individuals per pond. Findings. The study demonstrated that feeding age-1+ carp with the balanced combined feed PKS 111 2/2/4 enriched with the food additives NUPRO® (5% and BIO-MOS® (2% increased the intensity of their growth compared to that in the control group of fish, which were fed with the combined feed of the same composition but without feed additives. Using these additives in the combined feed composition increased fish growth by 12.4% when BIO-MOS® was used and by 57.3% with NUPRO®. The fish output increased by 2% and 4%, respectively. Feed costs reduced by 2.8 an 2.6 versus 3 kg/ha in the control group. All hydrochemical indices in the experimental ponds were within normal limits and temperature condition was optimal for fish growth and metabolism. Therefore, adding these feed additives in age-1+ carp diet allows obtaining additional weight gain and more effective utilization of the feed used. Originality. The analysis of the effect of adding the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® into combined on productive parameters of age-1+ carp of “Nyvka” scaled intrabreed type was carried out for the first time. Practical value. The feed additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® are recommended to be used when feeding age-1+ carp for increasing fish productivity and reducing feed costs.

  1. Reduction of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in poultry manure by rearing of Musca domestica fly larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Fischer, C.; Bjerrum, L.

    2017-01-01

    A major barrier for using animal waste as substrate for production of insects for feed or food is the concern for safety of the end products. In this study we investigated how rearing of fly larvae of Musca domestica in poultry manure influenced the counts of three pathogenic test strains...... of the larvae stage. This study provides data for evaluation of feed safety of fly larvae reared on animal waste. Furthermore suggests a potential use for reduction of these pathogens in manure........ Enteritidis, and C. jejuni was faster in manure with rearing of fly larvae than in manure without larvae; an 8 log10 reduction of all three test bacteria was observed within four days in manure with larvae; compared to manure without larvae where a 1 to 2 log10 was observed. We found no sign of propagation...

  2. Selective bioaccumulation, biomagnification, and dissipation of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in a freshwater food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Shanshan; Liu, Ruiquan; Chen, Li; Diao, Jinling; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2018-04-30

    Hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs), having potential risks to humans and ecosystem. This work evaluated the propensity of organisms to accumulate, eliminate, and transfer HCHs along the food chain (Tubifex tubifex and common carp (Cyprinus carpio)). The accumulation of HCHs from water by worms and carp was observed, and the concentrations increased with exposure time. After 8 days, the HCH concentrations in organisms remained stable. The accumulation factor (AF) values of HCHs in T. tubifex were higher than those in carp, indicating that the bioaccumulation abilities of HCHs in T. tubifex were higher than those in carp. The contaminated worms as a dietary source in the food chain led to significantly higher bioaccumulation in carp. The biomagnification factor (BMF) values of HCH isomers were all greater than 1. In the dissipation experiments, the elimination was fast and the half-lives were shorter than 2.5 days. The enantioselective accumulation and dissipation of α-HCH enantiomers were observed in worms and carp (food chain), and the enantiomeric differences should be taken into consideration in the study of contaminants risk assessment. The results on trophic transfer of HCHs in a freshwater food chain should be helpful for better understanding the fate, transport, and transfer of HCHs in freshwater environments.

  3. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding [75Se]selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikens, L.M.; Schad, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. When the 75 Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood

  4. Crown-of-Thorns Starfish Larvae Can Feed on Organic Matter Released from Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Nakajima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that Crown-of-Thorns starfish (COTS larvae may be able to survive in the absence of abundant phytoplankton resources suggesting that they may be able to utilize alternative food sources. Here, we tested the hypothesis that COTS larvae are able to feed on coral-derived organic matter using labeled stable isotope tracers (13C and 15N. Our results show that coral-derived organic matter (coral mucus and associated microorganisms can be assimilated by COTS larvae and may be an important alternative or additional food resource for COTS larvae through periods of low phytoplankton biomass. This additional food resource could potentially facilitate COTS outbreaks by reducing resource limitation.

  5. The use of morphological and histological features as nutritional condition indices of Pagrus pagrus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vera Diaz

    Full Text Available Morphometrical and histological techniques were employed to characterize Pagrus pagrus larvae nutritional condition. Larvae were reared in laboratory under controlled conditions with the main objective of testing whether these methodologies allowed finding differences between larvae from different feeding treatments. Once yolk was consumed (three days after hatching larvae were assigned to a feeding treatment: starved during the whole experiment; delayed feeding, starved during three days; fed during the entire experiment. Algae (Nannochloropsis oculata and rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis were provided to larvae for feed treatments. Larvae were fixed daily; for morphometrical purposes in 5% formaldehyde solution, and in Bouin for histological sections. Results herein obtained showed that both methodologies are sensitive enough to distinguish larvae characterized by different nutritional condition states obtained from the feeding treatments. Consequently, these methodologies could be employed in wild red porgy larvae in order to asses their nutritional condition. These techniques could also be employed to check larval quality obtained with aquaculture purposes to estimate the effects of changes in rearing protocols or kind of food supply and thus, to guaranty a higher survival of early developmental stages of reared larvae.

  6. Feeding ecology of lake whitefish larvae in eastern Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Wallbridge, Tim; Chiavelli, Rich

    2009-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario, during April and May 2004-2006. Larvae were collected with towed ichthyoplankton nets offshore and with larval seines along the shoreline. Larval feeding periodicity was examined from collections made at 4-h intervals over one 24-h period in 2005. Inter-annual variation in diet composition (% dry weight) was low, as was spatial variation among collection sites within the bay. Copepods (81.4%), primarily cyclopoids (59.1%), were the primary prey of larvae over the 3-year period. Cladocerans (8.1%; mainly daphnids, 6.7%) and chironomids (7.3%) were the other major prey consumed. Larvae did not exhibit a preference for any specific prey taxa. Food consumption of lake whitefish larvae was significantly lower at night (i.e., 2400 and 0400 h). Substantial variation in diet composition occurred over the 24-h diel study. For the 24-h period, copepods were the major prey consumed (50.4%) and their contribution in the diet ranged from 29.3% (0400 h) to 85.9% (1200 h). Chironomids made up 33.4% of the diel diet, ranging from 8.0% (0800 h) to 69.9% (0400 h). Diel variation in the diet composition of lake whitefish larvae may require samples taken at several intervals over a 24-h period to gain adequate representation of their feeding ecology.

  7. Multistate models of bigheaded carps in the Illinois River reveal spatial dynamics of invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Alison A.; Brey, Marybeth; Lubejko, Matthew; Kallis, Jahn L.; Coulter, David P.; Glover, David C.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Garvey, James E.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distributions and dispersal characteristics of invasive species is necessary for managing the spread of highly mobile species, such as invasive bigheaded carps (Bighead Carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and Silver Carp [H. molitrix]). Management of invasive bigheaded carps in the Illinois River has focused on using human-made barriers and harvest to limit dispersal towards the Laurentian Great Lakes. Acoustic telemetry data were used to parameterize multistate models to examine the spatial dynamics of bigheaded carps in the Illinois River to (1) evaluate the effects of existing dams on movement, (2) identify how individuals distribute among pools, and (3) gauge the effects of reductions in movement towards the invasion front. Multistate models estimated that movement was generally less likely among upper river pools (Starved Rock, Marseilles, and Dresden Island) than the lower river (La Grange and Peoria) which matched the pattern of gated versus wicket style dams. Simulations using estimated movement probabilities indicated that Bighead Carp accumulate in La Grange Pool while Silver Carp accumulate in Alton Pool. Fewer Bighead Carp reached the upper river compared to Silver Carp during simulations. Reducing upstream movement probabilities (e.g., reduced propagule pressure) by ≥ 75% into any of the upper river pools could reduce upper river abundance with similar results regardless of location. Given bigheaded carp reproduction in the upper Illinois River is presently limited, reduced movement towards the invasion front coupled with removal of individuals reaching these areas could limit potential future dispersal towards the Great Lakes.

  8. Genetic diversity and variation of mitochondrial DNA in native and introduced bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Fa; Yang, Qin-Ling; Xu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Hui; Chapman, Duane C.; Lu, Guoping

    2010-01-01

    The bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is native to China but has been introduced to over 70 countries and is established in many large river systems. Genetic diversity and variation in introduced bighead carp have not previously been evaluated, and a systematic comparison among fish from different river systems was unavailable. In this study, 190 bighead carp specimens were sampled from five river systems in three countries (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur rivers, China; Danube River, Hungary; Mississippi River basin, USA) and their mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene and D-loop region were sequenced (around 1,345 base pairs). Moderate genetic diversity was found in bighead carp, ranging from 0.0014 to 0.0043 for nucleotide diversity and from 0.6879 to 0.9333 for haplotype diversity. Haplotype analysis provided evidence that (1) multiple haplotype groups might be present among bighead carp, (2) bighead carp probably originated from the Yangtze River, and (3) bighead carp in the Mississippi River basin may have some genetic ancestry in the Danube River. The analysis of molecular variance showed significant genetic differentiation among these five populations but also revealed limited differentiation between the Yangtze and Amur River bighead carp. This large-scale study of bighead carp genetic diversity and variation provides the first global perspective of bighead carp in the context of biodiversity conservation as well as invasive species control and management.

  9. The thermoluminescence of carp otoliths: A fingerprint in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports a pilot study on the thermoluminescence (TL) of carbonate minerals of carp otoliths from the heavily polluted Baiyangdian Lake (BYD) in Hebei Province and non-polluted Miyun Water Reservoir (MY) in Beijing Municipality of China. Analyses on trace elements of otoliths and water show that the heavy ...

  10. Nitric oxide availability in deeply hypoxic crucian carp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marie Niemann; Gerber, Lucie; Jensen, Frank Bo

    2016-01-01

    -oxygenation. We hypothesized that crucian carp take up ambient nitrite and utilize it as a source of cellular NO availability during hypoxia. Fish were exposed for 1 day to normoxia (Po2 > 140 mmHg) and deep hypoxia (1 Po2

  11. Separation and identification of carp pituitary proteins and glycoproteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryšlavá, H.; Janatová, M.; Čalounová, G.; Selicharová, Irena; Barthová, J.; Barth, Tomislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 9 (2005), 430-437 ISSN 1212-1819 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF3028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : carp hormones * glycoproteins * oligosaccharide chains Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.254, year: 2005

  12. Predicting the potential distribution of invasive silver carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential range of silver carp in South Africa was identified based on ecological niche modelling (ENM) using the maximum entropy method. Models were constructed using occurrence records and a defined background, and calibrated using a k-fold method. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve ...

  13. The development of the nasal capsule of the silver carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the nasal capsule, including the procartilaginous as well as some mesenchymatous developmental stages, is described in the chinese silver carp,. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (VaL). In the nasal capsule a primitive feature, namely the presence of a complete paraphysial bridge was observed.

  14. The thermoluminescence of carp otoliths: A fingerprint in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... Cr, Ni, Zn, and Rb) in the carp otoliths play an important role in affecting ... gations on contamination and eutrophication between. BYD and MY. ... Otolith δ18O record of mid-Holocene sea surface temperature in Peru. Science ...

  15. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-01-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC 50 s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the β-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the α-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10 -6 M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10 -5 M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10 -6 M angiotensin II. [ 125 I]-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a β-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 μM, respectively. The α-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via β-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that α-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis

  16. Modulation of nutrient composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae by feeding seaweed-enriched media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liland, Nina S; Biancarosa, Irene; Araujo, Pedro; Biemans, Daan; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.

  17. Modulation of nutrient composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae by feeding seaweed-enriched media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S Liland

    Full Text Available Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.

  18. Sex-specific markers developed by next-generation sequencing confirmed an XX/XY sex determination system in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichehys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyang; Pang, Meixia; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhou, Ying; Tong, Jingou; Fu, Beide

    2018-01-05

    Sex-specific markers are powerful tools for identifying sex-determination system in various animals. Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichehys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) are two of the most important edible fish in Asia, which have a long juvenility period that can lasts for 4-5 years. In this study, we found one sex-specific marker by next-generation sequencing together with bioinformatics analysis in bighead carp. The male-specific markers were used to perform molecular sexing in the progenies of artificial gynogenetic diploids and found all progenies (n = 160) were females. Meanwhile, around 1 : 1 sex ratio was observed in a total of 579 juvenile offspring from three other families. To further extend the male-specific region, we performed genome walking and got a male-specific sequence of 8,661 bp. Five pairs of primers were designed and could be used to efficiently distinguish males from females in bighead carp and silver carp. The development of these male-specific markers and results of their molecular sexing in different populations provide strong evidence for a sex determination system of female homogametry or male heterogametry (XX/XY) in bighead carp and silver carp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of effective sex-specific markers in these two large carp species. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  19. The Significance of Protein Components in Heterogeneous Eggs for Embrionic Development and Larvas Persistence of Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalepukhin Valeriy Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous heterogeneity of females and their eggs is one of the most important factors of annual generation’s formation in nature-spawn and incubative centers. Its assessment is significant for comprehending the notion of biochemical changes in proximate prespawn period. Between the shares of egg’s biochemical composition of Cyprinidae species only protein and b-lipoproteids levels are incovering constant and authentic correlations with embrionic development and larval survival in the conditions of artificial reproduction. The promotion of protein’s level to 20 – 24 % (in wet weigth in percolating eggs positively affects the fertilization and larvae vitality. This trend is fair for the domesticated and nature-spawn fish. The same significance is important for the b-lipoproteids level in ovular eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.. The optimal concentration is 100-200 mg % in wet weight.

  20. Polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex class II B genes in different carp lines of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakus, K.L.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Stet, R.J.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Pilarczyk, A.; Irnazarow, I.

    2003-01-01

    Regular observation of survival of the carp breeding lines constituting a living gene bank at the Institute of Ichthyobiology and Aquaculture in Golysz (Poland) over a period of at least 15 years showed different survival rates for various lines. In this study, we have examined the polymorphism of

  1. Microcystin kinetics (bioaccumulation, elimination) and biochemical responses in common carp and silver carp exposed to toxic cyanobacterial blooms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamovský, Ondřej; Kopp, R.; Hilscherová, Klára; Babica, Pavel; Palíková, M.; Pašková, Veronika; Navrátil, S.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, Luděk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 12 (2007), s. 2687-2693 ISSN 0730-7268 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : microcystin * carp * toxicokinetics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.309, year: 2007

  2. Infectivity and development of X-irradiated third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiu, Yoshinori

    1989-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis third-stage larvae were exposed to less than 10Krad of X-radiation and then given orally to white rats to examine the effects of X-radiation on infectivity and development of the irradiated third-stage larvae and on fecundity of adults developing from the irradiated third-stage larvae. The deleterious effects of X-radiation were observed at relatively lower dosage in the above three parameters. A degree in susceptibility on X-radiation was shown to be radiation-dose-dependent. Comparing to the irradiation of larvae in vitro, the irradiation of larvae in snails caused less deleterious effects at the same dose of X-irradiation. Application of X-radiation to food hygiene was also discussed. (author)

  3. STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF LOW-TEMPERATURE HEAT TREATMENT ON THE SHELF LIFE OF SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS MADE FROM CARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Currently, the development of the catering industry due to improved heat cooking processes raw materials. One of these areas is the use of low temperature vapor cooking food pre-packed in the vacuum heat-resistant polymer film. This processing method allows to maintain vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, macro- and micronutrients raw unchanged and prevents food from undesirable organoleptic changes occurring in the traditional thermal processing, preserving attractive consumer product quality and hygienic safety guaranteed by increasing the period storage. Object of study - carp fillet, which is the source of complete protein and the spectrum of macro- and micronutrients. The article studies the shelf life of semi-finished products made from carp, treated with different modes of low-temperature thermo - humid cooking with the use of vacuum packaging. The authors found that during storage all samples carp decrease the mass fraction of the amino acids, and as a result, the mass fraction of the total protein in the samples. However, in the packaged samples treated with humidified coolant decrease the mass fraction of amino acids occurs less rapidly, indicating a better preservation of the amino acid content in the samples and hence maintaining bioavailability intermediates. Provisional vacuum packaging increases duration of the retention period.

  4. Experimental Data related to physico-chemical forms of antimony 125 and silver 110m and to their transfers to a freshwater fish, the carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, J.P.; Garnier, J.; Lambrechts, A.; Foulquier, L.

    1989-03-01

    The 125 Sb remains dissolved in the water but may be partly adsorbed on the sediment. No particulate and colloidal forms appear in the water, even in the presence of living organisms. The major part of the dissolved 125 Sb is fixed by anionic resin. 125 Sb accumulation by carp from water is a very weak phenomenon which results in a concentration factor of approximately 0.15. The best part of the 110m Ag brought in the water is rapidly adsorbed on all available surfaces and colloidal and particulate forms develop in the medium. The real dissolved forms represent less than 50 % of the water radioactivity and are essentially retained by anionic resin. The bioaccumulation, from water, of the 110m Ag by the carp results in a maximal concentration factor of about 140. The accumulation from food shows that trophic pathway may be as important as direct pathway in the transfer to fish [fr

  5. Protective Effects of Calcium on Cadmium Accumulation in Co-Cultured Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and Triangle Sail Mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Pi, Jie; Wang, Jianping; Zhu, Pengfei; Lei, Liuping; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Deming

    2016-12-01

    Discovering cost effective strategies to reduce cadmium (Cd) uptake is of great concern for consumer food safety in the aquaculture industry. This study investigated the protective effects of calcium (Ca) on Cd uptake in co-cultured silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and triangle sail mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii). The results show that Ca-depending on its applied concentration-caused a significant decrease in the Cd uptake into muscle (by 48 %-72 %), gills (by 51 %-57 %), liver (by 52 %-81 %) and kidney (by 54 %-81 %) of silver carp (p sail mussels (p sail mussel, the quality of co-cultured edible fish might improve as a consequence of the potentially reduced Cd uptake.

  6. Some diversification ways of carp culture (cyprinus carpio L.) in Lorraine (France) : advantages, limits and restraints

    OpenAIRE

    Dubost-Ebersveiller , Nathalie ,

    1996-01-01

    Fish producers are trying to develop new products and processing of carp Cyprinus carpio L. to market fillets seems to be one the solutions that finds customer acceptance. Sexual maturation lowered condition index and filleting yield for females. A relationship was determined between temperature (degree-days) and female total weight to characterize maturation stages. Floating net cages were used to grow or maintain carp for regular availability of fish. Market size carp was obtained three or ...

  7. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  8. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamara Figueiredo Procópio

    Full Text Available In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4, as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae and 1.03% (fed larvae. Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae, 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0% promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates

  9. Reexamining the frequency range of hearing in silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Brooke J.; Brey, Marybeth; Meninger, Allen F.

    2018-01-01

    Silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp (collectively bigheaded carp) are invasive fish that threaten aquatic ecosystems in the upper Midwest United States and the Laurentian Great Lakes. Controlling bigheaded carp is a priority of fisheries managers and one area of focus involves developing acoustic deterrents to prevent upstream migration. For an acoustic deterrent to be effective however, the hearing ability of bigheaded carp must be characterized. A previous study showed that bigheaded carp detected sound up to 3 kHz but this range is narrower than what has been reported for other ostariophysans. Therefore, silver and bighead carp frequency detection was evaluated in response to 100 Hz to 9 kHz using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). AEPs were recorded from 100 Hz to 5 kHz. The lowest thresholds were at 500 Hz for both species (silver carp threshold: 80.6 ± 3.29 dB re 1 μPa SPLrms, bighead carp threshold: 90.5 ± 5.75 dB re 1 μPa SPLrms; mean ± SD). These results provide fisheries managers with better insight on effective acoustic stimuli for deterrent systems, however, to fully determine bigheaded carp hearing abilities, these results need to be compared with behavioral assessments.

  10. Life History Attributes of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Mature ovary of a female silver carp. Each small white spherical structure is a mature egg 4 ERDC/TN ANSRP-07-1 May 2007 Silver carp in the...weight/fish weight), and fecundity (number of eggs per female ) of each silver and bighead carp were quantified. Diets of silver carp from the MMR also...through November, with gonads ranging from 1 to 13 percent of body weight. Females with mature ovaries (Figure 3) were present as early as age 2 years

  11. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these

  12. Assessment of Clarias gariepinus as a biological control agent against mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chala, Buze; Erko, Berhanu; Animut, Abebe; Degarege, Abraham; Petros, Beyene

    2016-05-31

    The emergence and spread of insecticide resistant mosquitoes renewed interest in investigating the use of larvivorous fish as a biological control agent. The potential of Clarias gariepinus fish in controlling Anopheles arabiensis and culicine larvae was assessed under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Small size (15-20 cm) C. gariepinus fish consumed greater number of mosquito larvae than the large size fish (25-40 cm) in the multivariate regression model (β = 13.36, 95 % CI = 4.57, 22.15). The Anopheles larvae consumed was greater in number than the culicines larvae consumed by the fish (β = 12.10, 95 % CI = 3.31, 20.89). The number of larvae consumed was greater during the night hours than during the light hours (β = 30.06, 95 % CI = 21.27, 38.85). Amount of supplementary fish food did not cause significant differences in the number of mosquito larvae consumed by the fish among different groups. C. gariepinus was observed to feed on mosquito larvae under laboratory and semi-field conditions. C. gariepinus fed on the larvae of An. arabiensis and culicines readily. Hence, it can be used as an alternative mosquito control agent in Ethiopia where the breeding habitats are small and localized.

  13. A new procedure for marinating fresh anchovies and ensuring the rapid destruction of Anisakis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monsalvez, I; de Armas-Serra, C; Martínez, J; Dorado, M; Sánchez, A; Rodríguez-Caabeiro, F

    2005-05-01

    The consumption of marinated anchovies is the main route of transmission of anisakiasis in Spain. Because this country is one of the world's major tourist destinations, this traditional food also poses a potential health risk to millions of foreign visitors. Anisakis larvae are not destroyed by the traditional marinating procedure, and alternative methods, such as long-term storage in brine, freezing, or hydrostatic pressure treatment, all present major difficulties. In this study, we used high food-grade acetic acid concentrations (10, 20, 30, and 40% [vol/vol] in line with the quantum satis rule) to destroy these larvae rapidly, and we report data on the survival of Anisakis larvae exposed directly to different marinades and when the larvae are placed under the fish musculature. The percentage of salt and acetic acid in the fish tissue water phase was also determined. A marinating procedure is proposed that ensures the rapid death of Anisakis through the use of strong acetic acid concentrations. Posttreatment washes with water reduce these to levels acceptable to consumers. The sensory characteristics of the product were shown to be satisfactory. The actual selection of an acetic acid concentration for marinating depends on costs and the processing time available. The physiological stress of the larvae exposed to the different marinades was determined by measuring the levels of their stress proteins. The latter are good indicators of injury and might reflect the infectivity of larvae. In addition, we also used a rat model to determine the infectivity of larvae considered microscopically dead.

  14. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  15. Technical and biological evaluation of Galician carp young-of-the-year in the conditions of industrial rearing in the ponds of Subcarpathia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To analyze technical and biological parameters of Galician carp young-of-the-year in the conditions of their commercial rearing in Subcarpathia ponds. Methodology. The works have been performed in accordance with conventional techniques in fish farming and selective breeding. During the rearing of Galician carp yearlings, a monitoring of abiotic factors in the experimental pond has been carried out. Findings. According to hydrochemical analysis, pond water belonged to hydrocarbonate class of calcium water and a type, which is typical for natural waters of this physical-geographic area. The species composition of phytoplankton at the beginning of the study was represented by 39 species and intraspecific taxa, in the middle of the experiment — 33, and 36 species and intraspecific taxa at the end of the study period. The majority of phytoplankton species composition was represented by green algae. The majority of zooplankton biomass (up 46% was represented by copepods, while rotifers dominated by abundance (up 49.9%. The parameters of zoobenthos development in the rearing pond ranged within 54 - 120 ind. / m2 by abundance and 0.5 - 1.3 g / m2 by biomass. The most abundant zoobenthic organisms were Chironomidae (71% and Oligochaeta (29%. Fish stocking density in the rearing pond of the 1st order was 10 thousand fish/ha; fish seeds were represented by Galician carp larvae. At the end of the growing season, 27.2 thousand young-of-the-year were obtained, the survival rate was 68%. Mean individual weight was 96 ± 75 g, coefficient of variation was 12%. When assessing the dynamics of weight growth, its peak was observed in the first week of August, while the specific growth rate had maximum values in the third week of July. Exterior parameters were used to evaluate strain characteristics. In the middle of the growing season, the young-of-the-year had mean condition factor of 2.6 ± 0.3, which was high enough for them. Before wintering, this

  16. Honey bees consider larval nutritional status rather than genetic relatedness when selecting larvae for emergency queen rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Ramesh R; Metz, Bradley N; Lucas, Hannah M; Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Breece, Carolyn R

    2018-05-16

    In honey bees and many other social insects, production of queens is a vital task, as colony fitness is dependent on queens. The factors considered by honey bee workers in selecting larvae to rear new queens during emergency queen rearing are poorly understood. Identifying these parameters is critical, both in an evolutionary and apicultural context. As female caste development in honey bees is dependent on larval diet (i.e. nutrition), we hypothesized that larval nutritional state is meticulously assessed and used by workers in selection of larvae for queen rearing. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of experiments manipulating the nutritional status of one day old larvae by depriving them of brood food for a four-hour period, and then allowing workers to choose larvae for rearing queens from nutritionally deprived and non-deprived larvae. We simultaneously investigated the role of genetic relatedness in selection of larvae for queen rearing. In all the experiments, significantly greater numbers of non-deprived larvae than deprived larvae were selected for queen rearing irrespective of genetic relatedness. Our results demonstrate that honey bees perceive the nutritional state of larvae and use that information when selecting larvae for rearing queens in the natural emergency queen replacement process.

  17. Immune response induced by oral delivery of Bacillus subtilis spores expressing enolase of Clonorchis sinensis in grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongye; Chen, Tingjin; Sun, Hengchang; Tang, Zeli; Yu, Jinyun; Lin, Zhipeng; Ren, Pengli; Zhou, Xinyi; Huang, Yan; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

    2017-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish containing infective metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensisis (C.sinensis), remains a common public health problem. New effective prevention strategies are still urgent to control this food-borne infectious disease. The previous studies suggested Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) spores was an ideal vaccines delivery system, and the C.sinensis enolase (CsENO) was a potential vaccine candidate against clonorchiasis. In the current study, we detected CsENO-specific IgM levels by ELISA in sera, intestinal mucus and skin mucus in grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idella) through oral administration with B. subtilis spores surface expressing CsENO. In addition, immune-related genes expression was also measured by qRT-PCR. Grass carps orally treated with B. subtilis spores or normal forages were used as controls. The results of ELISA manifested that specific IgM levels of grass carps in CsENO group in sera, intestine mucus and skin mucus almost significantly increased from week 4 post the first oral administration when compared to the two control groups. The levels of specific IgM reached its peak in intestine mucus firstly, then in sera, and last in skin mucus. qRT-PCR results showed that 5 immune-related genes expression had different degree of rising trend in CsENO group when compared to the two control groups. Our study demonstrated that orally administrated with B. subtilis spores expressing CsENO induced innate and adaptive immunity, systemic and local mucosal immunity, and humoral and cellular immunity. Our work may pave the way to clarify the exact mechanisms of protective efficacy elicited by B. subtilis spores expressing CsENO and provide new ideas for vaccine development against C. sinensis infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. FEATURES OF PONDS ECOSYSTEM WHEN ECHINACEA PURPUREA (ECHINACEA PURPUREA L. MOENCH WERE USING IN CARP FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dobrjanska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition fish productivity of the experimental ponds, fixed set of chemical parameters, that are specific to the environmental condition of water, which is the process of growing fish in a certain relation to it, and the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different organs and tissues of carp. Methodology. The ponds was three breed groups one-years carp average weight 39,7 g (hybrid of carp and wild carp, crossbreed frames carp, lyubin scaly carp with planting density 1000 ind./ha. Control group of carp was fed extruded feed containing 20 % protein, and research group ― the same feed, which was added in the manufacturing process, chopped dried Echinacea purpurea in the amount of 1 %. The duration of the experiment was 86 days. Definition of hydro-chemical parameters was performed by standard methods in analytical chemistry. Quantitative determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water and the organs and tissues of fish was performed by direct absorption solution in propane-butane air flames using absorption spectrophotometer C-115-M1. Findings. It was reviewed ecological status of water bodies. Found that when used in feeding carp Echinacea purpurea increased fish productivity, reduced cost of feed for growing. Chemical composition of experimental ponds water, while virtually unchanged. The comparative characteristics of heavy metals in organs and tissues carp in this part of the diet. Originality. At first time investigated the influence of Echinacea purpurea by adding it to feed on fish productivity, accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of carp. Practical value. Fish productivity in the experimental ponds was higher by 20,4 % relative to control. Costs of feed per pound of gain decreased by 13,3 % when was used in fish feeding chopped dried Echinacea purpurea. Almost all metals accumulated in the organs and tissues of experimental groups of carp in a somewhat lesser extent.

  19. THE PREVALENCE OF LERNAEID ECTOPARASITES IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. TASAWAR, S. ZAFAR, M. H. LASHARI AND C. S. HAYAT1

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of lernaeid ectoparasites in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For this purpose, 597 fishes (Ctenopharyngodon idella were examined for lernaeid ectoparasites at a private fish farm located in Multan, Pakistan. Four species of the genus Lernaea i.e. L. cyprinacea, L. polymorpha, L. oryzophila, and L. lophiara were recorded. It was observed that L. polymorpha had the highest (P20 cm.

  20. Bacterial content in the intestine of frozen common carp Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aalharbi

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... The quantitative and qualitative analyses of bacterial flora associated with the intestine of common carp. Cyprinus carpio in fresh and frozen storage conditions for 16 months was determined. Aerobic plate counts (APC) ranged from 1.8 ± 2.7 × 109 to 1.1 ± 2.9 x 104 colony forming unit (CFU) g-1, 2.0 ± 2.1 x ...

  1. Effect of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on selected chemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and carp (Cyprinus carpio cuts freshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Jelena A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of food packing in modified atmosphere is to extend its sustainability by preventing both biochemical processes and growth of spoilage bacteria. Gases or their mixtures which are mostly used in the modified atmosphere food packing technology are carbon-dioxide (CO2, oxygen (O2 and nitrogen (N2. The aim of our research was to examine the influence of packaging in modified atmosphere and vacuum on the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N content and pH in muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, as well as to determine the most suitable gas mixtures for packing of these freshwater species. Three sample groups of trout and carp cuts were investigated. The first two groups were packaged in modified atmosphere with different gas ratios: 60%CO2+40%N2 (I group and 40%CO2+60%N2 (II group, whereas the samples from third, control group, (III group were vacuum packaged. During trials samples were stored in refrigerator at +3°C. Determination of TVB-N and pH was performed on 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. The obtained results indicate that the investigated mixtures of gases and vacuum as well had a significant influence on the values of TVB-N in trout and carp cuts samples. The lowest increase in TVB-N was established in trout and carp cuts samples from the group I, whereas the highest increase was established in samples from group III. Statistical significant difference (p < 0,001 between the average values of TVB-N for trout (I group: 18,17 ± 0,93; II group: 20,90 ± 0,81 and III group: 36,18 ± 2,65 mg N/100 g and carp cuts (I group: 26,74 ± 1,48; II group: 30,02 ± 0,31 and III group: 35,10 ± 1,75 mg N/100 g was established on 14th day. The lowest pH value was established in samples packaged in modified atmosphere with 60% CO2 +40% N2 (I group. On 14th day of testing the obtained value was 6,15 ± 0,09 for trout and 5,94 ± 1,11 for carp samples. Increase in pH value in trout samples packed in

  2. Hierarchical structure of the otolith of adult wild carp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhuo; Gao Yonghua [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State key laboratory of new ceramics and fine processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-04-30

    The otolith of adult wild carp contains a pair of asterisci, a pair of lappilli and a pair of sagittae. Current research works are mainly restricted to the field of the daily ring structure. The purpose of this work is to explore the structural characteristics of carp's otolith in terms of hierarchy from nanometer to millimeter scale by transmission election microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on the observation, carp's lapillus is composed of ordered aragonite crystals. Seven hierarchical levels of the microstructure were proposed and described with the scheme representing a complete organization in detail. SEM studies show not only the clear daily growth increment, but also the morphology within the single daily increment. The domain structure of crystal orientation in otolith was observed for the first time. Furthermore, TEM investigation displays that the lapillus is composed of aragonite crystals with nanometer scale. Four hierarchical levels of the microstructure of the sagitta are also proposed. The asteriscus which is composed of nanometer scale vaterite crystals is considered to have a uniform structure.

  3. Hierarchical structure of the otolith of adult wild carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhuo; Gao Yonghua; Feng Qingling

    2009-01-01

    The otolith of adult wild carp contains a pair of asterisci, a pair of lappilli and a pair of sagittae. Current research works are mainly restricted to the field of the daily ring structure. The purpose of this work is to explore the structural characteristics of carp's otolith in terms of hierarchy from nanometer to millimeter scale by transmission election microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on the observation, carp's lapillus is composed of ordered aragonite crystals. Seven hierarchical levels of the microstructure were proposed and described with the scheme representing a complete organization in detail. SEM studies show not only the clear daily growth increment, but also the morphology within the single daily increment. The domain structure of crystal orientation in otolith was observed for the first time. Furthermore, TEM investigation displays that the lapillus is composed of aragonite crystals with nanometer scale. Four hierarchical levels of the microstructure of the sagitta are also proposed. The asteriscus which is composed of nanometer scale vaterite crystals is considered to have a uniform structure.

  4. Transforming Future Teaching through ‘Carpe Diem’ Learning Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly Salmon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic staff in Higher Education (HE need to transform their teaching practices to support more future-orientated, digital, student-centered learning. Promoting, enabling and implementing these changes urgently requires acceptable, meaningful and effective staff development for academics. We identify four key areas that are presenting as barriers to the implementation of successful staff development. We illuminate the Carpe Diem learning design workshop process and illustrate its impact on academic staff as a viable, constructive alternative to traditional staff development processes. The Carpe Diem model directly exposes and addresses the irony that educational institutions expect their academic staff to learn to design and deliver personalized, mobile and technology-enhanced learning to students, whilst wedded to ‘one size fits all’ face-to-face interventions…or worse, ‘page turning’ e-learning that masquerades as staff development. To avoid further frustrations and expensive, inappropriate initiatives, the spirit and practice of Carpe Diem could act as a ‘pathfinder beacon’, and be more widely adopted to enable fast, effective and fully embedded, learner-ready, future-proofed learning.

  5. WATER BLOOM OF BLUEGREEN ALGE IN CARP FISHPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Mihaljević

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The massive development of bluegreen algae (Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria, the so--called water bloom, is a frequent phenomenon in fishpond ecosystems. This study analyses water bloom development in three carp fishponds owned by a fishbreeding company at Donji Miholjac (Croatia, where one-year-old carps (Cyprinus carpio , were bred in defferent fishstock densities. Analyses of physicallychemical properties of water and phytoplankton biomass were per- formed in fortnight intervals from May till October, 1992. In all there investigated fishponds the water bloom of bluegreen algae developed, but at a different time and showing a different qualitative composition. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 250 kg/ha water bloom consisted of the species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and the biggest biomass (131.92 mg/I was found in August. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 437 kg/ha a water bloom consisting of species from the genues Anabaena and species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae developed at the end of July. In the fishpond with the so--called intensive breeding (fishstock density of 750 kg/ha water bloom of the species Microcystis aeruginosa developed as late as September. The beginning of water bloom development was caused by the low value (lower than 7 of the ratio between the quantities of total phosphorus and total nitrogen. However, the qualitative composition of water bloom was influenced by one-year-old carp fingerlings density.

  6. Metoprolol induces oxidative damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Donkor, Kingsley; Brewer, Sharon; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Sánchez-Aceves, Livier; Elizalde-Velázquez, Armando; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2018-04-01

    During the last decade, β-blockers such as metoprolol (MTP) have been frequently detected in surface water, aquatic systems and municipal water at concentrations of ng/L to μg/L. Only a small number of studies exist on the toxic effects induced by this group of pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the oxidative damage induced by MTP in the common carp Cyprinus carpio, using oxidative stress biomarkers. To this end, indicators of cellular oxidation such as hydroperoxide content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) were determined, as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Also, concentrations of MTP and its metabolite O-desmethyl metoprolol were determined in water as well as carp gill, liver, kidney, brain and blood, along with the partial uptake pattern of these compounds. Results show that carp takes up MTP and its metabolite in the different organs evaluated, particularly liver and gill. The oxidative stress biomarkers, HPC, LPX, and PCC, as well as SOD and CAT activity all increased significantly at most exposure times in all organs evaluated. Results indicate that MTP and its metabolite induce oxidative stress on the teleost C. carpio and that the presence of these compounds may constitute a risk in water bodies for aquatic species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Energetic consequences of an inducible morphological defence in crucian carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Lars B; Brönmark, Christer

    1999-10-01

    Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) increases in body depth in response to chemical cues from piscivores and the deeper body constitutes a morphological defence against gape-limited piscivores. In the field, deep-bodied individuals suffer a density-dependent cost when competing with shallow-bodied conspecifics. Here, we use hydrodynamic theory and swimming respirometry to investigate the proposed mechanism underlying this effect, high drag caused by the deep-bodied morphology. Our study confirms that drag is higher for deep-bodied crucian carp, both in terms of estimated theoretical drag and power curve steepness. However, deep-bodied fish swimming at the velocity associated with minimum cost of transport, U mc , did not experience higher costs of transport than shallow-bodied fish. Deep-bodied crucian carp had significantly lower standard metabolic rates, i.e. metabolic rates at rest, and also lower U mc , and the resulting costs of transport were similar for the two morphs. Nevertheless, when deep-bodied individuals deviate from U mc , e.g. when increasing foraging effort under competition, their steeper power curves will cause substantial energy costs relative to shallow-bodied conspecifics. Furthermore, there is evidence that reductions in standard metabolic rate incur costs in terms of lower stress tolerance, reduced growth rate, and life history changes. Thus, this work provides links between hydrodynamics, a cost-reducing mechanism, and a density-dependent fitness cost associated with an inducible defence.

  8. Dietary effects on fatty acid metabolism of common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csengeri, I

    1996-01-01

    The paper summarises experimental data demonstrating effects of various dietary factors exerting changes in the fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Among the dietary factors (1) supplementary feeding in fish ponds, (2) absence of essential fatty acids (EFA) in the diet, (3) starvation, and (4) ration level were studied. It was concluded that supplementary feeding in carp rearing ponds is frequently excessive in the Hungarian carp culture practice, inducing slight EFA-deficiency and enhancing de novo fatty acid synthesis. This latter caused enlarged fat depots with high oleic acid contents in the fish organs and tissues. EFA-deficient diets enhanced the synthesis of oleic acid except when high rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis was suppressed by dietary fatty acids. Feeding EFA-deficient diets caused gradual decrease in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and gradual increase in that of Mead's acid: 20:3(n-9), an indicator of the EFA-deficiency. At prolonged starvation, polyunsaturated fatty acids of the structural lipids were somehow protected and mainly oleic acid was utilised for energy production. At high ration levels, excessive exogenous polyunsaturates were decomposed, and probably converted to oleic acid or energy. Starvation subsequent to the feeding the fish at various ration levels, reflected adaptive changes in the fatty acid metabolism: Below and above the ration level required for the most efficient feed utilisation for growth, decomposition processes of the fatty acid metabolism were accelerated.

  9. Isolamento de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae no Brasil Detectionof Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Tocchetto Schuch

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou detectar presença de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae em produtos de um entreposto do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a identificação de possíveis fontes de contaminação e a avaliação da possibilidade da transferência de esporos para colméias de apiários adjacentes a partir de produtos importados contaminados. Foram analisados mel e pólen importados disponíveis no entreposto, favo do ninho (crias, pólen e mel colhido de uma colméia sadia, mel estocado em um dos apiários e abelhas adultas. Os resultados foram positivosem relação ao mel e pólen importados, a três grupos de abelhas adultas e ao mel do favo.The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in products from a warehouse located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the identification of possible contamination sources, and the assessment of spores transference possibility from contaminated imported products from the warehouse to apiaries located in the surrounding area. Samples of imported pollen and bulk honey stocked in the warehouse, and honeycomb (brood, honey and pollen from a healthy hive, honey from one apiary and adult bees were analyzed. Imported honey and pollen, and three groups of adult bees and the honey collected from the honeycomb resulted positive.

  10. Carp macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes secrete an interleukin-1-like factor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Weyts, F.A.A.; Debets, R.; Flik, G.

    1995-01-01

    Carp, Cyprinus carpio L, macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes obtained from pronephros were cultured. Supernatant was harvested after 48 h and tested for interleukin-1 (IL-1) bioactivity. A concentration-dependent stimulation of proliferation was found of carp Ig− lymphocytes as well as of the

  11. Electrical and percussive stunning of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Neurological and behavioural assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Pilarczyk, M.; Bialowas, H.; Boogaart, van den J.G.M.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The overall objective of the study was to evaluate electrical and percussive stunning methods under laboratory conditions in common carps. The electrical current needed to induce a general epileptiform insult was assessed in 13 carps. The insult was obtained by delivering a current of 0.24 ± 0.03 A

  12. Rate of sediment intake by midge larvae (Chironomus plumosus: diptera) using a 134Cs tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerking, S.D.; Berg, A.; Gerard, P.

    1976-01-01

    The food intake and assimilation of midge larvae (Chironomus plumosus) were determined by a 134 Cs technique which utilized the principle that the rate of excretion can be substituted for the rate of absorption when the larvae are in 134 Cs equilibrium with their environment. The larvae were introduced into contaminated sediments until they reached 134 Cs equilibrium. The time of reaching equilibrium and levels of radioactivity were the same at 10 and at 15 0 C (70 hr at a level of 1367 dpm/mg of larva) and were both significantly different from that at 20 0 C (40 hr at 1062 dpm/mg of larva). Cesium-134 elimination was followed on equilibrated larvae for as long as 330 hr. One egestion compartment (fast) and two excretion (medium and slow) compartments could be recognized at the three experimental temperatures. The loss rates from the second and third compartments at 10 0 C were slower and stretched out over longer time periods compared with those at 15 0 C, while the loss rate from the first compartment was much more comparable at the two temperatures. The first and second compartments merged at 20 0 C, while the slow compartment rose to almost three times that at 15 0 C. The food intake was nearly the same at the three temperatures (0.0986, 0.0893 and 0.0876 mg dry sediment/mg of larva/day). Thus, the larvae relied on an increase in assimilation to meet increased metabolic requirements at higher temperatures rather than depending upon a higher food intake. The gross growth efficiencies varied with temperature from 9.9 percent at 10 0 C to 15.1 percent at 15 0 C

  13. The accumulation and distribution of 60Co in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in water-fish compartment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppy Intan Tjahaja; Putu Sukmabuana; Eko Susanto

    2012-01-01

    In relation with nuclear safety assessment, the parameter of radionuclide transfer in the environment is significantly needed for internal doses estimation received by public trough environment - food product - human pathways. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published the transfer parameter data for temperate zone in Technical Report Series 472. In order to complete the IAEA data, especially for tropical region, the accumulation and distribution of 60 Co in carp (Cyprinus carpio) was experimentally studied based on the water-fish compartment system. The carp were cultured in 500L water containing 60 Co of about 30 Bq.mL -1 in a water tank. The 60 Co concentration in fish and water were measured using gamma spectrometer. The 60 Co was accumulated and distributed in the fish tissues with the concentration ratio (CR) of 3.08 mL.g -1 1.55 mL.g -1 and 1.14 mL.g -1 for internal organs, bones, and muscle, respectively. The CR of 60 Co in the fish will be useful in internal radiation dose estimation to human trough water-fish-human pathway, and will also complete the IAEA transfer parameter data for tropical region. (author)

  14. Intramuscular DNA Vaccination of Juvenile Carp against Spring Viremia of Carp Virus Induces Full Protection and Establishes a Virus-Specific B and T Cell Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Embregts, Carmen W. E.; Rigaudeau, Dimitri; Veselý, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Although spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) can cause high mortalities in common carp, a commercial vaccine is not available for worldwide use. Here, we report a DNA vaccine based on the expression of the SVCV glycoprotein (G) which, when injected in the muscle even at a single low dose of 0.1 μg...... DNA/g of fish, confers up to 100% protection against a subsequent bath challenge with SVCV. Importantly, to best validate vaccine efficacy, we also optimized a reliable bath challenge model closely mimicking a natural infection, based on a prolonged exposure of carp to SVCV at 15°C. Using...... this optimized bath challenge, we showed a strong age-dependent susceptibility of carp to SVCV, with high susceptibility at young age (3 months) and a full resistance at 9 months. We visualized local expression of the G protein and associated early inflammatory response by immunohistochemistry and described...

  15. Spawning Induction System of Puntius javanicus using Common Carp as a Trigger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zairin Junior

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effect of induction using common carp as a trigger on spawning of Puntius javanicus.  Mature male and female of Puntius javanicus were reared in outer of the hapa that contains mature male common carp, mature female common carp, or mature male and female common carp as a control.  Common carp broodstock was injected or not injected by ovaprim.  The result of study show that the use of male common carp injected or not injected by ovaprim could induced spawning of Puntius javanicus, without the release of sperm and eggs of common carp.   Fertilization rate of Puntius javanicus eggs was high, reached of 91.4%, by using ovaprim-injected male common carp as trigger. Keywords: Puntius javanicus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio, spawning, induction system   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh sistem imbas menggunakan ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio sebagai pemicu terhadap pemijahan ikan tawes (Puntius javanicus. Induk ikan tawes jantan dan betina yang telah matang gonad ditempatkan di luar hapa tempat ikan mas jantan matang gonad, ikan mas betina matang gonad, atau sepasang ikan mas matang gonad sebagai perlakuan kontrol. Induk ikan mas disuntik atau tidak dengan ovaprim.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan ikan mas yang disuntik ovaprim maupun tidak, dapat mengimbas ikan tawes untuk memijah meskipun tidak terjadi pengeluaran sperma dan telur ikan mas. Derajat pembuahan telur ikan tawes cukup tinggi, mencapai 91,4%, pada perlakuan induksi ikan mas jantan yang disuntik ovaprim. Kata kunci: Puntius javanicus, common carp, Cyprinus carpio, pemijahan, sistem imbas

  16. [Effects of fermented cattle dung on the growth and development of Tenebrio molitor larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang-Wei; Wang, Xia; Guo, Li-Yue; Zhan, Li-Jie; Bo, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhan; Wu, Guang-Lei; Jiang, Gao-Ming

    2012-07-01

    In order to make use of and industrialize the animal dung from large cattle farms, this paper explored the feasibility of using Tenebrio molitor to digest and utilize cattle dung. Cattle dung was mixed with the conventional feed (65% wheat bran, 30% corn flour, and 5% bean pulp) of T. molitor in definite proportions, and fermented with effective microorganisms (EM). The fermented products containing 60% and 80% of cattle dung (FD1 and FD2, respectively) were selected to feed T. molitor larvae, and the effects of the fermented products on the growth curve, death rate, pupation rate, and antioxidant system of the larvae were compared. Compared with CK (conventional deed), the FD1 made the developmental duration of the larvae prolonged by 10 days and the larvae's death rate upraised somewhat, but made the single larva's total food intake, average body mass, crude fat content, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat acids increased by 49%, 28%, 26%, and 32%, respectively (P molitor larvae had weak adaptability to FD2. Our findings suggested that using FD1 to feed the 3rd instar of T. molitor larvae would have good practical prospects in industrializing cattle dung.

  17. Seasonal occurrence and abundance of caridean shrimp larvae at Helgoland, German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    1989-03-01

    Plankton samples were collected from January 1985 to January 1986 three times per week at Helgoland to study seasonal occurrence and abundance of caridean shrimp larvae. A total of eleven species were obtained. Ninety-one % of all larvae collected during the sample period belonged to Crangon crangon L. and Crangon allmanni Kinahan, 6% to Philocheras trispinosus Hailstone and 3% to the remaining eight species. Collections were generally dominated by C. crangon larvae. However, C. allmanni larvae were most abundant in June coinciding with hatching activities of the population near Helgoland. C. allmanni was observed to have the highest density of all species with approximately 8 larvae per m3. Larvae of Eualus occultus (Lebour), Eualus pusiolus (Kroyer), Hippolyte varians Leach and Athanas nitescens Leach were most likely released by populations inhabiting the rocky intertidal zone around Helgoland. The presence of Processa modica Williamson & Rochanaburanon and Processa nouveli holthuisi Al-Adhub & Williamson in the German Bight was verified by observations of a series of different developmental stages. Larvae of the rare species Caridion steveni Lebour were also recorded. The observed shrimp species were placed into three different groups with respect to their seasonal occurrence. Possible advantages of the timing of larval dispersal relative to predation and food availability are given. The results on seasonal occurrence and relative abundance are discussed in relation to environmental factors (temperature, salinity) as well as to the geographical distribution of the species.

  18. Inclusion of copepod Acartia tonsa nauplii in the feeding of Centropomus undecimalis larvae increases stress resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Melo-Costa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research represents the first result of studies of the common snook Centropomus undecimalis larvae from broodstock matured in captivity in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the inclusion of Acartia tonsa nauplii improves stress resistance of common snook larvae. The larvae were fed with: rotifers Brachionus plicatilis (10 to 15 mL-1; A. tonsa nauplii (0.25 to 0.5 mL-1 and rotifers (5 to 7.5 mL-1, and A. tonsa nauplii (0.12 to 0.25 mL-1. The average percentage of survival of the treatments was 11.9%. At 20 days of age, larvae were subjected to thermal stress. Subsequently, the stress resistance was evaluated. Common snook larvae fed B. plicatilis+A. tonsa reached a higher weight and length (7.5 ± 0.00 mg and 9.1 ± 0.23 mm, respectively and resisted more heat stress (87.4% than larvae fed other foods, indicating that the feed mixture is satisfactory as a starter diet for larvae of common snook. However, more research is needed to confirm these results.

  19. Variations in 5S rDNAs in diploid and tetraploid offspring of red crucian carp × common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lihai; Zhang, Chun; Tang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yiyi; Liu, Shaojun

    2017-08-08

    The allotetraploid hybrid fish (4nAT) that was created in a previous study through an intergeneric cross between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ♀) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., ♂) provided an excellent platform to investigate the effect of hybridization and polyploidization on the evolution of 5S rDNA. The 5S rDNAs of paternal common carp were made up of a coding sequence (CDS) and a non-transcribed spacer (NTS) unit, and while the 5S rDNAs of maternal red crucian carp contained a CDS and a NTS unit, they also contained a variable number of interposed regions (IPRs). The CDSs of the 5S rDNAs in both parental fishes were conserved, while their NTS units seemed to have been subjected to rapid evolution. The diploid hybrid 2nF 1 inherited all the types of 5S rDNAs in both progenitors and there were no signs of homeologous recombination in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF 1 by sequencing of PCR products. We obtained two segments of 5S rDNA with a total length of 16,457 bp from allotetraploid offspring 4nAT through bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing. Using this sequence together with the 5S rDNA sequences amplified from the genomic DNA of 4nAT, we deduced that the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT might be inherited from the maternal progenitor red crucian carp. Additionally, the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT contained A-repeats and TA-repeats, which was not the case for the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF 1 . We also detected two signals of a 200-bp fragment of 5S rDNA in the chromosomes of parental progenitors and hybrid progenies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We deduced that during the evolution of 5S rDNAs in different ploidy hybrid fishes, interlocus gene conversion events and tandem repeat insertion events might occurred in the process of polyploidization. This study provided new insights into the relationship among the evolution of 5S rDNAs, hybridization and polyploidization, which were significant in clarifying the genome evolution of

  20. An appraisal of certain larval behavioural activities as affected by gamma irradiation of Spodoptera larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Sehgal, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Gamma irradiation of Spodoptera litura larvae induced an abatement in their locomotor activity. The food perception range and feeding behaviour of the larvae were also impaired. Of various dosages tested, 4 Krad (the sterilizing dose for larvae) caused a decline in locomotor speed. The first instar larvae, for instance showed decline in a speed of 3.74 cm/min to 2.96 cm/min. Similarly at this dose, the third instar larvae exhibited a reduction in speed to the extent of 38 to 45 per cent, the normal speed being 8.02 cm/min. The reactive distances of the first and third instar normal larvae were 5.30 cm and 7.36, respectively. This reactive distance was reduced by about 25 per cent after irradiation at 4 Krad, thus decreasing the food perception capacity significantly. The feeding behaviour too was significantly affected whereas the dose range less than 4 Krad did not induce such a marked impact. (author). 9 refs., 2 tables

  1. Profiles of digestive enzymes of two competing planktivores, silver carp and gizzard shad, differ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; Jensen, Nathan R.; Erickson, Richard A.; Sauey, Blake W.; Jackson, Craig

    2018-01-01

    Typically, studies in digestive physiology in fish focus on a few enzymes and provide insight into the specific processes of the enzyme in a targeted species. Comparative studies assessing a wide number of digestive enzymes on fishes that compete for food resources are lacking, especially in the context of an introduced species. It is generally thought that the invasive silver carp (SVC; Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) directly compete for food resources with the native gizzard shad (GZS; Dorosoma cepedianum) in waters where they coexist. We compared 19 digestive enzymes between SVC and GZS throughout a year and in two rivers in the Midwestern United States: Illinois River and Wabash River. All digestive enzymes analyzed were detected in both SVC and GZS in both rivers. However, the profiles of the digestive enzymes varied by species. Alkaline phosphatase, valine arylamidase, acid phosphatase, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase were all much higher in SVC than in GZS. Differences between digestive enzyme profiles were also observed between rivers and months. This study demonstrates the utility of using an ecological approach to compare physiological features in fishes.

  2. Combined use of gamma irradiation and the bioinsecticide, DIPEL 2X, in controlling larvae of the indian meal moth, ''Plodia interpunctella'' (Huebner) (''Lepidipthera phycitidae'')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.

    1996-01-01

    The bioinsecticide DIPEL 2X irradiated with doses of gamma radiation up to 2.0 kGy preserves its insecticidal efficiency against larvae of the Indian meal moth, ''Plodia interpunctella'' (Huebner). The amount of DIPEL 2X-treated food taken in by larvae irradiated with 0.1-0.7 kGy is sufficient for bringing about the death of these larvae. (author). 20 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Biology of Paenibacillus larvae, a deadly pathogen of honey bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Julia; Knispel, Henriette; Hertlein, Gillian; Fünfhaus, Anne; Genersch, Elke

    2016-09-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood of honey bees, a notifiable disease in many countries. Hence, P. larvae can be considered as an entomopathogen of considerable relevance in veterinary medicine. P. larvae is a highly specialized pathogen with only one established host, the honey bee larva. No other natural environment supporting germination and proliferation of P. larvae is known. Over the last decade, tremendous progress in the understanding of P. larvae and its interactions with honey bee larvae at a molecular level has been made. In this review, we will present the recent highlights and developments in P. larvae research and discuss the impact of some of the findings in a broader context to demonstrate what we can learn from studying "exotic" pathogens.

  4. Clash of kingdoms or why Drosophila larvae positively respond to fungal competitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohlfs Marko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Competition with filamentous fungi has been demonstrated to be an important cause of mortality for the vast group of insects that depend on ephemeral resources (e.g. fruit, dung, carrion. Recent data suggest that the well-known aggregation of Drosophila larvae across decaying fruit yields a competitive advantage over mould, by which the larvae achieve a higher survival probability in larger groups compared with smaller ones. Feeding and locomotor behaviour of larger larval groups is assumed to cause disruption of fungal hyphae, leading to suppression of fungal growth, which in turn improves the chances of larval survival to the adult stage. Given the relationship between larval density, mould suppression and larval survival, the present study has tested whether fungal-infected food patches elicit communal foraging behaviour on mould-infected sites by which larvae might hamper mould growth more efficiently. Results Based on laboratory experiments in which Drosophila larvae were offered the choice between fungal-infected and uninfected food patches, larvae significantly aggregated on patches containing young fungal colonies. Grouping behaviour was also visible when larvae were offered only fungal-infected or only uninfected patches; however, larval aggregation was less strong under these conditions than in a heterogeneous environment (infected and uninfected patches. Conclusion Because filamentous fungi can be deadly competitors for insect larvae on ephemeral resources, social attraction of Drosophila larvae to fungal-infected sites leading to suppression of mould growth may reflect an adaptive behavioural response that increases insect larval fitness and can thus be discussed as an anti-competitor behaviour. These observations support the hypothesis that adverse environmental conditions operate in favour of social behaviour. In a search for the underlying mechanisms of communal behaviour in Drosophila, this study highlights

  5. Using the Monte Carlo method for the economic evaluation of polycultures of silver catfish, carps and tilapia-the-nile as an alternative model of fish farming for small properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ritter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With a growing world population and increasing demand for quality food in sufficient quantities, the aquaculture fits in this context as a producer of high quality animal protein with high productivity. The fish production in ponds has practiced for over five decades in Rio Grande do Sul state. The fish culture system commonly used is the carp only polyculture, which consists in culturing different carp species aiming to improve the performance of each one and, therefore, achieve high productivity. The carp polyculture has a low technological level and the production obtained is considered small moreover, the release of effluents in natural water bodies may cause an imbalance in the natural aquatic environment. Some studies have been performed adding the silver catfish to the traditional polyculture. Also, several studies were performed about economic viability, but with a single species, or consortium, as is the case of polyculture of shrimp and Nile tilapia. We tested the polyculture with partial substitution of 25, 50 and 75% of carps by silver catfish and Nile tilapia. We analyzed the economic viability of all substitution rates by obtaining the Net Present Value (NPV, Annual Value (AV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR and Pay Back period. In conditions of uncertainty, we held on sensitivity analysis and evaluation through the Monte Carlo method. We concluded that substitution rate of 25% of carps by silver catfish and Nile tilapia has higher biomass production and better effluent quality. Regarding economic analysis, an investment in polyculture with vita useful 25 years is economically feasible for a fee Minimum Attractiveness (TMA of 6.17%.

  6. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Jingou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  7. Predictive Management of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondracek, Bruce C.; Carlson, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Prolific non-native organisms pose serious threats to ecosystems and economies worldwide. Nonnative bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), collectively referred to as Asian carps, continue to colonize aquatic ecosystems throughout the central United States. These species are r-selected, exhibiting iteroparous spawning, rapid growth, broad environmental tolerance, high density, and long-distance movement. Hydrological, thermal, and physicochemical conditions are favorable for establishment beyond the current range, rendering containment and control imperative. Ecological approaches to confine Asian carp populations and prevent colonization characterize contemporary management in the United States. Foraging and reproduction of Asian carps govern habitat selection and movement, providing valuable insight for predictive control. Current management approaches are progressive and often anticipatory but deficient in human dimensions. We define predictive management of Asian carps as synthesis of ecology and human dimensions at regional and local scales to develop strategies for containment and control. We illustrate predictive management in the Upper Mississippi River System and suggest resource managers integrate predictive models, containment paradigms, and human dimensions to design effective, socially acceptable management strategies. Through continued research, university-agency collaboration, and public engagement, predictive management of Asian carps is an auspicious paradigm for preventing and alleviating consequences of colonization in the United States.

  8. Factors affecting palatability of four submerged macrophytes for grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Long; Ma, Lin; Min, Fenli; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Zhenbin; He, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Grass carp can weaken the growth and reproductive capacity of submerged macrophytes by consuming valuable tissues, but factors affecting palatability of submerged macrophytes for grass carp rarely are considered. In this study, relative consumption rate of grass carp with regard to submerged macrophytes was in the following order: Hydrilla verticillata > Vallisneria natans > Ceratophyllum demersum > Myriophyllum spicatum. Firmness of macrophytes was in the following order: M. spicatum > C. demersum > H. verticillata = V. natans, whereas shear force was M. spicatum > C. demersum > H. verticillata > V. natans. After crude extracts of M. spicatum were combined with H. verticillata, grass carp fed on fewer macrophyte pellets that contained more plant secondary metabolites (PSMs). This indicated that structure and PSMs affected palatability of macrophytes.PSMs do not contribute to reduction in palatability through inhibition of intestinal proteinases activity, but they can cause a decrease in the abundance of Exiguobacterium, Acinetobacter-yielding proteases, lipases, and cellulose activity, which in turn can weaken the metabolic capacity of grass carp and adversely affect their growth. Thus, the disadvantages to the growth and development of grass carp caused by PSMs may drive grass carp to feed on palatable submerged macrophytes with lower PSMs.

  9. Factors regulating year‐class strength of Silver Carp throughout the Mississippi River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Weber, Michael J.; Pierce, Clay; Wahl, David H.; Phelps, Quinton E.; Camacho, Carlos A.; Colombo, Robert E.

    2018-01-01

    Recruitment of many fish populations is inherently highly variable inter‐annually. However, this variability can be synchronous at broad geographic scales due to fish dispersal and climatic conditions. Herein, we investigated recruitment synchrony of Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix across the Mississippi River basin. Year‐class strength (YCS) and synchrony of nine populations (max linear distance = 806.4 km) was indexed using catch‐curve residuals correlated between sites and related to local and regional climatic conditions. Overall, Silver Carp YCS was not synchronous among populations, suggesting local environmental factors are more important determinants of YCS than large‐scale environmental factors. Variation in Silver Carp YCS was influenced by river base flow and discharge variability at each site, indicating that extended periods of static local discharge benefit YCS. Further, river discharge and air temperature were correlated and synchronized among sites, but only similarities in river discharge was correlated with Silver Carp population synchrony, indicating that similarities in discharge (i.e., major flood) among sites can positively synchronize Silver Carp YCS. The positive correlation between Silver Carp YCS and river discharge synchrony suggests that regional flood regimes are an important force determining the degree of population synchrony among Mississippi River Silver Carp populations.

  10. Carbon dioxide as a tool to deter the movement of invasive bigheaded carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Donaldson,; Amberg, Jon J.; Shivani Adhikari,; Cupp, Aaron R.; Jensen, Nathan; Romine, Jason G.; Adam Wright,; Gaikowski, Mark; Cory D. Suski,

    2016-01-01

    Nonnative bigheaded carps are established in the Mississippi River and there is substantial concern about their potential entry into the interconnected Laurentian Great Lakes. While electrical barriers currently exist as a preventative measure, there is need for additional control mechanisms to promote barrier security through redundancy. We tested the effectiveness of infused carbon dioxide gas (CO2) as a tool to influence the movement and behavior invasive bigheaded carps, namely Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix, as well as native Bigmouth Buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Paddlefish Polyodon spathula, and Yellow Perch Perca flavescens in an experimental pond. Individuals were monitored with acoustic telemetry before, during, and after CO2 addition to the pond. We noted distinct changes in fish behavior following CO2 addition. Each species except Paddlefish maintained farther distances from the CO2 infusion manifold relative to controls. Both bigheaded carp species had slower persistence velocities (persistence of a movement in a given direction) following CO2 infusion and Bighead Carp used a smaller area of the pond immediately after CO2 addition. Pond pH progressively decreased up to 1.5 units following CO2 infusion. This work provides evidence that could inform future research to enhance existing control measures used to deter high-risk invasive fishes, such as bigheaded carps.

  11. Comparative analysis of the intestinal bacterial communities in different species of carp by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongtong; Long, Meng; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Aihua; Gong, Xiaoning

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota is increasingly regarded as an integral component of the host, due to important roles in the modulation of the immune system, the proliferation of the intestinal epithelium and the regulation of the dietary energy intake. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of these microbial communities is essential to health management, and the application to aquatic animals still requires basic investigation. In this study, we compared the bacterial communities harboured in the intestines and in the rearing water of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri), and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), by using 454-pyrosequencing with barcoded primers targeting the V4 to V5 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The specimens of the three species were cohabiting in the same pond. Between 6,218 and 10,220 effective sequences were read from each sample, resulting in a total of 110,398 sequences for 13 samples from gut microbiota and pond water. In general, the microbial communities of the three carps were dominated by Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, but the abundance of each phylum was significantly different between species. At the genus level, the overwhelming group was Cetobacterium (97.29 ± 0.46 %) in crucian carp, while its abundance averaged c. 40 and 60 % of the sequences read in the other two species. There was higher microbial diversity in the gut of filter-feeding bighead carp than the gut of the two other species, with grazing feeding habits. The composition of intestine microbiota of grass carp and crucian carp shared higher similarity when compared with bighead carp. The principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) with the weighted UniFrac distance and the heatmap analysis suggested that gut microbiota was not a simple reflection of the microbial community in the local habitat but resulted from species-specific selective pressures, possibly dependent on behavioural, immune

  12. ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AMUR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO HAEMATOPTERUS REPRODUCED USING CRYOPRESERVED SPERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolisnyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To reproduce Amur carp population using cryopreserved sperm and analyze some biological and fish culture peculiarities of the reproduced fish stock. Methodology. Generally accepted methods for fish culture [1]. Experimental reproduction was carried out in pond conditions of «Carpathian vodogray» LTD (Lisnevychi village, Pustomytivsky district, Lviv region. Hydrochemical analysis was carried out classically by O. Alуokin (1970 [2], hydrobiological studies in the fatting ponds according to V. Zhadin (1956, 1960 [3, 4]. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by hemocyanin method of G. Dervis, A. Vorobiov [5]. Blood for this method was collected from fish heart with the use of Pasteur pipettes in Eppendorf tubes with heparin. Following exterior morphometric parameters were analysed: body weight (m, g, standard fish body length (l, cm, largest body height (H, cm and body circumference (O cm. Following exterior indices were calculated based on these parameters: body depth index (l/H, body circumference index (l/O and Fulton’s condition factor (Kv. The study was carried out using two groups of carp: control and experimental. The first group was reproduced from the native sperm, the second from the cryopreserved sperm. Findings. Carp reproduction and growing was carried out using native and cryopreserved sperm. This work contains the results of growing 1+ Amur carp of experimental and control groups. Hydrochemical and hydrobiological parameters of the fattening ponds were studied. Peculiarities of the exterior and some hematological parameters of the carp of different origin were characterized. Originality. For the first time we performed a comparison of some biological parameters of Amur carp reproduced using native and cryopreserved sperm. Practical Value. Considering the economic importance of Amur carp due to its use in hybridization, reproduction of its population plays an important role in the development of the stocks of the pure

  13. Using a Population Model to Inform the Management of River Flows and Invasive Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, John D.; Todd, Charles R.; Zampatti, Brenton P.; Stuart, Ivor G.; Conallin, Anthony; Thwaites, Leigh; Ye, Qifeng

    2018-03-01

    Carp are a highly successful invasive fish species, now widespread, abundant and considered a pest in south-eastern Australia. To date, most management effort has been directed at reducing abundances of adult fish, with little consideration of population growth through reproduction. Environmental water allocations are now an important option for the rehabilitation of aquatic ecosystems, particularly in the Murray-Darling Basin. As carp respond to flows, there is concern that environmental watering may cause floodplain inundation and provide access to spawning habitats subsequently causing unwanted population increase. This is a management conundrum that needs to be carefully considered within the context of contemporary river flow management (natural, environmental, irrigation). This paper uses a population model to investigate flow-related carp population dynamics for three case studies in the Murray-Darling Basin: (1) river and terminal lakes; (2) wetlands and floodplain lakes; and (3) complex river channel and floodplain system. Results highlight distinctive outcomes depending on site characteristics. In particular, the terminal lakes maintain a significant source carp population regardless of river flow; hence any additional within-channel environmental flows are likely to have little impact on carp populations. In contrast, large-scale removal of carp from the lakes may be beneficial, especially in times of extended low river flows. Case studies 2 and 3 show how wetlands, floodplain lakes and the floodplain itself can now often be inundated for several months over the carp spawning season by high volume flows provided for irrigation or water transfers. Such inundations can be a major driver of carp populations, compared to within channel flows that have relatively little effecton recruitment. The use of a population model that incorporates river flows and different habitats for this flow-responsive species, allows for the comparison of likely population

  14. Time to let go of CARP? Not so fast

    OpenAIRE

    Toby C. Monsod; Sharon A. Piza

    2014-01-01

    We review the data being used to argue that the PhilippinesÕÊcomprehensive agrarian reform program (CARP) has failedÊin economic terms. We find that important statistics andÊeconometric results from cited references have been eitherÊmisinterpreted or used to make invalid comparisons. A moreÊcareful reading of the data shows that productivity for all fourÊmajor crops under land reform rose more in agrarian reformÊcommunities than elsewhere, poverty incidence declined moreÊin agrarian reform co...

  15. Mesocosm experiments on tritium dynamics in carp fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reji, T.K.; Vishnu, M.S.; Joshi, R.M.; Dileep, B.N.; Baburajan, A.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Tritium dynamics in carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) was studied in a locally designed mesocosm simulating a lake condition. The fishes were reared in an experimental tank containing tritiated water. Tissue Free water tritium (TFWT) concentration and Organically Bound Tritium (OBT) was measured for 3 months period. TFWT reached equilibrium with exposed water within one day. Detectable amount of OBT was observed after two months of exposure. OBT to TFWT ratio was 0.1. Estimated OBT was in agreement with that calculated using IAEA specific activity model. (author)

  16. STUDIES ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN BIGHEAD CARP FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA CIORNEA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates some morphological characters (total length, standard bodily length, head length, maxim height and bodily circumference in representatives of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis occurring in their first growing summer. Biometric analyses were performed on 100 individuals, in the end the morphological characters under investigations being statistically processed. Explanation of the experimental results evidences low values of the standard error of the mean, which is indicative of a grouping of all external bodily variables under investigation close to the average value.

  17. A production season of turbot larvae Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) reared on copepods in a Danish (56 degrees N) semi-intensive outdoor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per M.; Jakobsen, Hans H.; Rayner, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Turbot were reared from yolk sack larvae to juvenile in an outdoor semi-intensive system. Three production cycles were monitored from May to September. A pelagic food chain was established with phytoplankton, copepods and turbot larvae. Abiotic and biotic parameters of lower trophic levels together...

  18. Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

  19. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Marhaver, K.L.; Huijbers, C.M.; Nagelkerken, I.; Simpson, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to

  20. A generic guide to the larvae of the Nearctic Tanytarsini, (Chironomidae:diptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J.W.; Doughman, J.S.; Moore, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Larvae of the tribe Tanytarsini occur in nearly every aquatic habitat in North America where they act as primary consumers in the food chain. This new taxonomic guide overcomes some deficiencies in existing keys to this tribe and the reviewed and updated taxonomy enables identification of the larvae that may be useful as ecological indicators. Over 2,000 specimens from 26 states were examined, identified and measured in this study. The following genera were included: Stempellinell, Zavrelia, Stempellina, Constempellina, Corynocera, Cladotanytarsus,.. Paratanytarsus, Rheotanytarsus,. Micropsectra, Lauterbornia, Nimbocera, Tanytarsus and Neozavrelia. Photographs illustrate mature larvae of these genera with the exception of Zavrelia and Neozavrelia which are not known to exist in North America. The morphological data, Which are summarized in a table of distinctive characteristics and the dichotomous key, enable identification to genus. Notes on range, habitat and food preference are included, and species identifications are presented where applicable.

  1. Nutritional Transition Period in Early Larvae Clarias Gariepinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ing, N.S.; Chew, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional transition period of Clarias gariepinus were described based on the early development from hatching to 120 hours after hatching (hAH) reared at 27.5 - 28.6 degree Celsius. Newly hatched larvae had a large greenish yolk sac volume (0.99 ± 0.31 mm"3) located below a straight undeveloped digestive tract, mouth not opened, eyes unpigmented and the larvae lie on the bottom of rearing tank. During endogenous feeding period, the larval feeding system has developed rapidly with development oesophagus. Yolk sac were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (36 hAH, 0.19 ± 0.11 mm"3), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 68 hAH when yolk was completely exhausted. Yolk sac volume was significantly different by time at hatching, 6, 12 and 18 to 36 hAH (ANOVA, P<0.05). At 36 hAH, the larvae commenced feeding once morphologically developed with opened anus, functional jaw and intestine, and demonstrated horizontally swimming. The rudimentary chemoreceptors like olfactory organs and taste buds that were found on the barbels and oral cavity assisted in food detection and commenced feeding without vision. Due to the cannibalistic behaviour at early stage, feed are suggested to be provided during 36 hAH and avoided delay feeding in the larval rearing. (author)

  2. Assessment of yeast as a dietary additive on haematology and water quality of common carp in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Siraj Muhammed Abdulla; Omar, Samad Sofy; Anwer, Ayub Youns

    2017-09-01

    Feeding experiment was accomplished at the Aquaculture unit (Close system), Grdarasha station, Agriculture College, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, to investigate different levels of Aquagrow E (AGEY) brewer's yeast cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the haematological and water quality of common carp fingerlings Cyprinus carpio. The basal diet was formulated to contain 34% protein and 10% lipid and the dietary treatments were supplemented with 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of AGEY diet. A total of 180 Common carp (10.30 ± 0.27 g) fed on experimental diets for 10 weeks. Water quality assessment for well water and pond water for rearing Cyprinus carpio in cage system conducted weekly, while some parameters including pH, EC, water temperature and DO were monitored daily during the entire periods of study. Values of total hardness, alkalinity, ammonia and nitrate for studied water samples were within normal ranges for rearing Cyprinus carpio. Mean concentration of GPT, GOT and Glucose were 104 to 170 U/L, 1371 to 3308 U/L and 34 to 63mg/dl respectively, moreover, highest levels were observed in treatments with higher concentrations of yeast in its food except for blood sugar. Slight variation in lipase enzyme were found between control and treatment groups, while levels of amylase enzyme were increased toward cages with higher levels of yeast until T1 and then decreased toward T3. Total protein levels were increased to toward higher levels of yeast in food of Cyprinus carpio fish. Haematological results showed highest levels of WBC and platelets in treatments cages than control group. Levels of RBCs and hemoglobin were highest in treatment group 1 with 0.5%of yeast than treatments higher yeast concentrations. Significant correlation was found in haematological parameters between control and treatments.

  3. Feeding for larvae of catfish Pangasionodon sp. larvae in different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sludge worm (Tubifex sp. as natural feed on catfish (Pangasionodon sp. larvae rearing is available in limited amount especially during rainy season. It becomes a constraint factor for larvae rearing sector. This research was conducted to evaluate the appropriate initial age of catfish larvae to get artificial feed as sludge worm replacement. Evaluation was conducted on the growth and survival of catfish larvae in 14 days of culture. There were four treatments of feeding in triplicates i.e. larvae were given natural feed without artificial feed, given artificial feed started from d3, d6, and d9 with three replications. The results showed that larvae fed on artificial feed on d3 had the lowest growth compared to the other treatments, whereas the survival was not significantly different (P>0.05 among the treatments. As a conclusion, artificial feed could be used to replace natural feed for catfish larvae started at the age of nine days. Keywords: sludge worm, catfish larvae, artificial feed  ABSTRAK Cacing sutra (Tubifex sp. tersedia dalam jumlah terbatas terutama pada musim penghujan sebagai pakan alami dalam usaha pembenihan ikan patin (Pangasionodon sp.. Ini menjadi kendala dalam usaha pembenihan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi umur larva ikan patin yang tepat untuk mulai diberi pakan buatan menggantikan cacing sutra. Evaluasi dilakukan pada pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup larva ikan patin umur 14 hari. Selama pemeliharaan, larva diberi pakan dengan empat perlakuan; pemberian pakan alami tanpa pakan buatan, pemberian pakan buatan mulai d3, d6, dan d9 dengan tiga ulangan untuk masing-masing perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan pemberian pakan buatan mulai d3 memiliki pertumbuhan panjang yang terkecil dibandingkan perlakuan lain, sedangkan tingkat kelangsungan hidup larva tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05 antarperlakuan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pakan buatan dapat digunakan

  4. QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION OF PHYTOPLANKTONS IN DIFFERENTLY MANURED CARP PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Researches on qualitative composition of phytoplanktons in differently manured fish-ponds "Jelas" were carried out in 1996. The carp fingerling from larve to its second month was nurtured in three fish-ponds (A,B,C with the plantation of larves of 1,000,000 ind.ha-1. Larves and carp fry were nurtured by trouvit and wheat flour. The fish-pond A was controlled but not manured; the fish-pond B was fertilized by the total of 200 kg.ha-1 NPK (15:15:15 and the fish-pond C was fertilized by the total of 75 l.ha-1 of UAN and 75 kg.l-1 of NP (12:52. All fish-ponds had similar water chemism. In the qualitative composition of phytoplanktons there were stated 93 kinds, members of systematic groups Cyanophyta (10%, Euglenophyta (16.2%, Pyrrophyta (2%, Chrysophyta (39.4% and Chlorophyta (32%. All fish-ponds had similar qualitative composition of phytoplanktons with the flora similarity quotient from 65.5% to 72%.

  5. Immunomodulation by Zearalenone in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is a frequent contaminant of animal feeds, but its effects on fish have not yet been investigated extensively. In order to fill this gap a feeding trial with juvenile carp was conducted. Three groups of fish were fed feeds contaminated with ZEN at three concentrations (low: 332 μg kg−1, medium: 621 μg kg−1, and high: 797 μg kg−1 feed for four weeks. Possible reversible effects of ZEN were evaluated by feeding additional groups with the ZEN-contaminated feeds for four weeks, followed by the uncontaminated diet for two weeks. Immune function of isolated leukocytes from head kidney and trunk kidney was assessed using the assessment of NO production, the respiratory burst assay, the chemiluminescence assay, and the measurement of arginase activities. These investigations frequently revealed increased immune responses after exposure of fish to low ZEN concentrations and reduced immune responses after exposure to high mycotoxin concentrations. Moreover, the feeding of the uncontaminated diet for further two weeks did not improve the immune responses in most cases. These results indicate that cellular immune functions in ZEN-contaminated carp are influenced which may be relevant for fish health in aquaculture.

  6. Purification and characterization of parvalbumins from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthy molitrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Ming; Wang, Ning; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Li, Teng; Sun, Le-Chang; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2010-04-30

    As the largest producer and consumer of freshwater fish in the world, many people suffer from allergy for consuming freshwater fish in China. However, the allergen profiles of freshwater fish are rarely known. Parvalbumins (PVs) from the white muscle of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthy molitrix) were purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and column chromatography including DEAE-Sepharose and Superdex 75. Three PV isoforms-PV-I, PV-II, and PV-III-were obtained and their molecular masses as estimated by tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were 12, 11, and 14 kDa, respectively. All the PVs could be detected by anti-frog PV monoclonal antibody. PV-I and PV-II were quite possibly glycoproteins, while PV-III was not glycosylated, as analyzed by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Thermal stability revealed that PV-I and PV-II easily formed polymers, while these proteins were stable in a pH range of 4.0-10.0. A PV gene encoding 110 amino acid residues was cloned and it revealed high identity with PVs from other species of fish. Three isotypes of PV were purified to homogeneity and one distinct PV gene was cloned in silver carp white muscle.

  7. Glycogen dynamics of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) in prolonged anoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornanen, Matti; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2016-12-01

    Mobilization of glycogen stores was examined in the anoxic crucian carp (Carassius carassius Linnaeus). Winter-acclimatized fish were exposed to anoxia for 1, 3, or 6 weeks at 2 °C, and changes in the size of glycogen deposits were followed. After 1 week of anoxia, a major part of the glycogen stores was mobilized in liver (79.5 %) and heart (75.6 %), and large decreases occurred in gill (46.7 %) and muscle (45.1 %). Brain was an exception in that its glycogen content remained unchanged. The amount of glycogen degraded during the first anoxic week was sufficient for the anaerobic ethanol production for more than 6 weeks of anoxia. After 3 and 6 weeks of anoxia, there was little further degradation of glycogen in other tissues except the brain where the stores were reduced by 30.1 and 49.9 % after 3 and 6 weeks of anoxia, respectively. One week of normoxic recovery following the 6-week anoxia was associated with a complete replenishment of the brain glycogen and partial recovery of liver, heart, and gill glycogen stores. Notably, the resynthesis of glycogen occurred at the expense of the existing energy reserves of the body in fasting fish. These findings indicate that in crucian carp, glycogen stores are quickly mobilized after the onset of anoxia, with the exception of the brain whose glycogen stores may be saved for putative emergency situations.

  8. Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jintu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3

  9. Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3,100 microsyntenies, covering over 50% of

  10. Optimised selenium enrichment of Artemia sp. feed to improve red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) larvae rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Péter; Lengyel, Szvetlana; Udvari, Zsolt; Sándor, Alex Nagy; Stündl, László

    2017-09-01

    Selenium is an essential microelement for the normal functioning of life processes. Moreover, it is a component of enzymes with antioxidant effects. However, it has the smallest window of any micronutrient between requirement and toxicity. Selenium is a regularly used element in fish feeds; moreover, enriching zooplankton with selenium to rear larvae is also a well-known technology. It is accepted that the most common starter foods of fish larvae, natural rotifers contain the smallest dosage of selenium, but providing selenium enriched Artemia sp. instead could increase survival and growth rate of fish. However, no such references are available for the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) larvae. Therefore, in this study, Artemia sp. was enriched with nano-selenium of verified low toxicity and easy availability in 5 treatments (1, 5, 10, 50, 100 mg/l Se), and then, fish larvae were fed with four of these enriched Artemia stocks (1, 5, 10, 50 mg/l Se) and a control group. At the end of the 9-day-long experiment, survival rate (S) and growth parameters (SL, W, K-factor, SGR) of fish larvae were calculated as well as their selenium retention and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity were analysed. It was revealed that a moderate level of selenium enrichment (~4 mg/kg dry matter) of Artemia sp. positively influences the rearing efficiency (i.e. survival and growth) of fish larvae, but higher dosages of selenium could cause adverse effects.

  11. The gut microbiota in larvae of the housefly Musca domestica and their horizontal transfer through feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Wang, Wanqiang; Zhu, Fen; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang

    2017-12-01

    House fly larvae provide a prolific and sustainable source of proteins used in poultry and fish feed. Wheat bran is a superior diet for house fly larvae and has been widely investigated to exploit its potential in the food and feed area. Using Illumina MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing, this study investigated the gut microbiota of house fly larvae feeding on wheat bran and the bacterial community in the wheat bran. The bacterial communities in the house fly larvae were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Enterobacteriaceae and Providencia were the predominant bacteria at the family and genus levels, respectively. Some bacteria in the phyla Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes may be transferred from the gut of house flies to the wheat bran during feeding and may be involved in degrading and utilizing polysaccharides in the cell wall of wheat bran. The significance of the gut microbiota of house fly larvae, their transferring and roles in degradation of wheat bran is discussed. These findings regarding the gut microbiota of house fly larvae will provide opportunities for research on the impact of microbial communities on poultry and fish.

  12. Presence of parasitic ova, cysts and larva on common fresh fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several parasitic infections are associated with poor hygiene and environmental sanitation resulting in food and water containing ova, cysts or larva of these parasites. Therefore, a survey of fruits and vegetables sold at some major markets in Ibadan was carried out between January and June, 2011 to identify the ova, cyst ...

  13. Effects of crushed conspecifics on growth and survival of Penaeus monodon Fabricius post larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nga, B.T.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Scheffer, M.; Nghia, T.T.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the hypothesis tested was that Penaeus monodon post-larvae (PL) experience lower growth when exposed to crushed conspecifics, which was achieved by exposing individual P. monodon PL with abundant food for 4 weeks to a gradient from 0 to 100 crushed conspecific PL L1. Both dry

  14. Intraguild predation among plant pests: western flower thrips larvae feed on whitefly crawlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, R.; Broufas, G.; Oveja, M.F.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Omnivores obtain resources from more than one trophic level, and choose their food based on quantity and quality of these resources. For example, omnivores may switch to feeding on plants when prey are scarce. Larvae of the western flower thrips Frankiniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera:

  15. The impact of the adult blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) population on settling of conspecific larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Stenalt, Ea

    2010-01-01

    The choice of a mussel bed as a settling locality by conspecific mussel larvae is a trade-off between reduced fitness due to an increased risk of larval predation and post-settling food competition with the filtering adults and the benefit from a reduced post-settling mortality. This reduced post...

  16. Evaluating penetration ability of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae into multilayer polypropylene packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), can invade or penetrate packaging materials and infest food products. Energy bars with three polypropylene packaging types were challenged with eggs (first instars), third, and fifth instars of P. interpunctella to determine package res...

  17. Editorial: Carpe diem ('Seize the day'): Building on the findings of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial: Carpe diem ('Seize the day'): Building on the findings of the 2015 World Health Organization evaluation of the multidrugresistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) programme to make the most of shortened MDR-TB treatment in South Africa.

  18. In situ hybridization of somatolactin transcripts in the pituitary glands from acclimatized carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO LÓPEZ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We isolated and cloned a carp somatolactin SL DNA fragment, of which 78% of the nucleotides were identical to the corresponding salmon SL sequence. The results obtained upon Northern blot hybridization of carp pituitary RNA allowed the identification of two transcripts as described for other fish. When the content of SL transcripts in pituitary sections from summer- and winter- acclimatized carp was quantified by in situ hybridization assays, we found no significant differences between the two seasons. In salmonids, plasma SL reaches higher levels in summer than in winter in synchrony with the water temperature cycle; in the eurythermal carp, however, the complex adaptive responses imposed by seasonal environmental changes do not seem to include the regulation of the somatolactin detected with the probe used at the transcriptional level in pituitary glands

  19. CARP: a computer code and albedo data library for use by BREESE, the MORSE albedo package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, M.B.; Rhoades, W.A.

    1978-10-01

    The CARP computer code was written to allow processing of DOT angular flux tapes to produce albedo data for use in the MORSE computer code. An albedo data library was produced containing several materials. 3 tables

  20. Performances of local poultry breed fed black soldier fly larvae reared on horse manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Moula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect competition with human food. Little information is currently available on the utility of these larvae in poultry feed, so goals of this study were to determine whether larvae could be reared on horse manure under traditional farming conditions and to evaluate the growth performances of a local poultry fed these larvae and the fatty acids profiles of their meat. After freezing and thawing, larvae were introduced in the feed of Ardennaise chickens between 30 and 80 days of age. Birds in the control group received a commercial standard feed, while those in the treatment group received the same commercial feed in which 8% was substituted with whole fresh larvae corresponding to 2% on a dry matter basis. Means ± standard errors of larval length and weight were 20.67 ± 2.21 mm and 0.14 ± 0.02 g, respectively. Mean larval percentages of dry matter and of substances extractable in diethyl ether were 24.6% and 23.1%, respectively. Larval fatty acids profiles were predominantly composed of lauric acid (28.1% and palmitic acid (22.0%. Least squares means of weekly weights of chicken, adjusted for the effects of sex, replication and initial weights, were significantly higher (P < 0.05 by 77.03 ± 53.37 g in larvae-fed than in control chickens. All other measurements were not statistically different between larvae-fed and control chicken, including fatty acid profiles, protein content and ω6/ω3 ratio. Keywords: Insect farming, Chicken, Local breed, Growth performance, Meat quality, Fatty acid profile

  1. Evaluation of winter resistance of age-1+ galician carp in Рrikarpattya ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsynyak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the winter resistance of age-1+ Galician carp in pond conditions of the Prykarpattya region. Methodology. Analysis of the winter resistance of age-1+ Galician carp was carried out at the base of the fish farm “Korop” during 2015-2017. Wintering took place in a 2.5 ha pond. Hydrochemical parameters were determined using general chemical tests. The temperature and oxygen regimes of water in ponds were determined by a thermo-oximeter. The material for the study were age-1+ Galician carp. Determination of fish culture parameters of the preparedness for wintering of the Galician carp was carried out according to the instructions for organizing the wintering of fish seeds in ponds. To analyze the physiological preparedness of carp for wintering, the method of zootechnical analysis was used. Findings. The stocking density of age-1+ Galician carp in the wintering pond was 1000 kg/ha. The average individual weight of fish seeds ranged from 1650 g during 2015-2016 season and 1760 g during 2016-2017. The condition factor of age-1+ Galician carp was within the normative values. During the wintering season, the chemical composition of the meat-fillet of the Galician carp at the second year of culturing was within the normative parameters. During wintering, the environmental conditions corresponded to the necessary fish culture requirements. The dissolved oxygen content in water during the winter period did not exceed the critical limits. The water temperature ranged from 1 ° C to 8 ° C. As a result of fish harvesting in the wintering pond, 1483 and 1291 specimens of age-2 Galician carp were obtained in 2016 and 2017, respectively. The average individual weight of fish was 1450 ± 191 g and 1528 ± 124 g. The total yield from wintering exceeded 90%. Originality. For the first time, an evaluation of winter resistance of age-1+ Galician carp in pond conditions of the Prykarpattya region was carried out. Practical value. The results of

  2. Influence of a carp invasion on the zooplankton community in Laguna Medina, a Mediterranean shallow lake

    OpenAIRE

    Norbert, Florian; López-Luque, raquel; Ospina-Álvarez, Natalia; Hufnagel, Levente; Green, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a highly invasive species and an ecological engineer. It has been repeatedly shown to increase nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton biomass while destroying submerged macrophytes, although there are few studies from the Mediterranean region. We studied its impact on the zooplankton community in Laguna de Medina lake, a shallow lake in Jerez de la Frontera, south-west Spain. Carp were removed with rotenone in 2007 but returned in 2010-2011. ...

  3. The effect of Chaetoceros calcitrans extract on hematology common carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected by Aeromonas salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftuch; Wulan, N. D. A.; Suprastyani, H.; Wijayanto, E.; Noercholis, M.; Prihanto, A. A.; Kurniawan, A.

    2018-04-01

    The application of C. calcitrans extract in carp (C. carpio) is expected to inhibit the growth of A. salmonicida. A. salmonicida-infected common carp (C. carpio) were treated with the extract of C. calcitrans. Hematology, erythrocyte, leukocyte, hematocrit and hemoglobin test analysis was observed. The result indicated that the extract can be used to treat the infected fish. The best dose was treatment of D with 45.3 ppm.

  4. A tentative assessment of cesium 137 direct and indirect transfer rates in a simplified fresh water food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, Luc; Lambrechts, Alain.

    1982-08-01

    A comparison was made of the direct transfer of cesium from water to carps and the indirect transfer via the food. In a first experiment on chronic contamination of carps by water, the kinetics and distribution of cesium in the organs of the carps were studied. Equilibrium was not reached on the 56th day, 4% of the initial water activity had been retained by the carps and the concentration factor was below 10. The highest specific activities were found in the transit organs. In a second experiment, the water activity varied by alternating contamination and decontamination. A fluctuating equilibrium was reached on the 22nd day. The concentration factor was of the same order of magnitude than in the previous experiment. Indirect contamination of fish by ingestion of contaminated daphnids was studied in a third experiment. Cesium levels in carps increased with the cumulated activities in meals, and the uptake rate in fish was 4%. Both decorporation and biological half-lives (30-40 days) were independent of the contamination routes. The respective significance of the transfer pathways is discussed taking into account the biomass pyramids to be found in the nature. It is estimated that in a cesium environment, 70% of the carp activity should come from the diet and 30% from the water. The concentration factor would then be 75 instead of 22 when only direct transfer of cesium from water to fish is considered [fr

  5. Transcriptome analysis reveals the time of the fourth round of genome duplication in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is thought to have undergone one extra round of genome duplication compared to zebrafish. Transcriptome analysis has been used to study the existence and timing of genome duplication in species for which genome sequences are incomplete. Large-scale transcriptome data for the common carp genome should help reveal the timing of the additional duplication event. Results We have sequenced the transcriptome of common carp using 454 pyrosequencing. After assembling the 454 contigs and the published common carp sequences together, we obtained 49,669 contigs and identified genes using homology searches and an ab initio method. We identified 4,651 orthologous pairs between common carp and zebrafish and found 129,984 paralogous pairs within the common carp. An estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that common carp and zebrafish diverged 120 million years ago (MYA). We identified one round of genome duplication in common carp and estimated that it had occurred 5.6 to 11.3 MYA. In zebrafish, no genome duplication event after speciation was observed, suggesting that, compared to zebrafish, common carp had undergone an additional genome duplication event. We annotated the common carp contigs with Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways. Compared with zebrafish gene annotations, we found that a set of biological processes and pathways were enriched in common carp. Conclusions The assembled contigs helped us to estimate the time of the fourth-round of genome duplication in common carp. The resource that we have built as part of this study will help advance functional genomics and genome annotation studies in the future. PMID:22424280

  6. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...... was registered, and virus could not be re-isolated from goldfish or carp bath-challenged with any of the isolates in the panel....

  7. Larva migrans visceral: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Machado Alexandre Bortoli; El Achkar Marice Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    Larva migrans visceral é doença infecciosa, adquirida por ingestão de ovos provenientes dos vermes Toxocara canis e/ou Toxocara cati que infestam cães e gatos; as larvas penetram a parede intestinal e migram através dos tecidos levando a alterações diversas, conseqüentes a uma resposta inflamatória imune.¹ Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de larva migrans visceral com apresentação clínica atípica.

  8. New method of preserving food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrard, G. (Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights)

    1983-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation for food preservation is discussed. Investigations at the AAEC include: the eradication of fruit-fly larvae in oranges, tomatoes and avocadoes; treatment of shrimps; extending the shelf life of mushrooms and potatoes; treatment of imported beans to prevent germination; killing of bacterial spores with a combination of pressure and gamma radiation; and the treatment of beehives containing honey-bee larvae with foulbrood.

  9. New method of preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrard, G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation for food preservation is discussed. Investigations at the AAEC include: the eradication of fruit-fly larvae in oranges, tomatoes and avocadoes; treatment of shrimps; extending the shelf life of mushrooms and potatoes; treatment of imported beans to prevent germination; killing of bacterial spores with a combination of pressure and gamma radiation; and the treatment of beehives containing honey-bee larvae with foulbrood

  10. In-depth proteomic analysis of carp (Cyprinus carpio L) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Mariola A; Arnold, Georg J; Fröhlich, Thomas; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of protein fractionation by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 348 proteins in carp spermatozoa, most of which were for the first time identified in fish. Dynein, tubulin, HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, adenosylhomocysteinase, NKEF-B, brain type creatine kinase, mitochondrial ATP synthase, and valosin containing enzyme represent high abundance proteins in carp spermatozoa. These proteins are functionally related to sperm motility and energy production as well as the protection of sperm against oxidative injury and stress. Moreover, carp spermatozoa are equipped with functionally diverse proteins involved in signal transduction, transcription, translation, protein turnover and transport. About 15% of proteins from carp spermatozoa identified here were also detected in seminal plasma which may be a result of leakage from spermatozoa into seminal plasma, adsorption of seminal plasma proteins on spermatozoa surface, and expression in both spermatozoa and cells secreting seminal plasma proteins. The availability of a catalog of carp sperm proteins provides substantial advances for an understanding of sperm function and for future development of molecular diagnostic tests of carp sperm quality, the evaluation of which is currently limited to certain parameters such as sperm count, morphology and motility or viability. The mass spectrometry data are available at ProteomeXchange with the dataset identifier PXD000877 (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6019/PXD000877). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Common carp disrupt ecosystem structure and function through middle-out effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaemingk, Mark A.; Jolley, Jeffrey C.; Paukert, Craig P.; Willis, David W.; Henderson, Kjetil R.; Holland, Richard S.; Wanner, Greg A.; Lindvall, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Middle-out effects or a combination of top-down and bottom-up processes create many theoretical and empirical challenges in the realm of trophic ecology. We propose using specific autecology or species trait (i.e. behavioural) information to help explain and understand trophic dynamics that may involve complicated and non-unidirectional trophic interactions. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) served as our model species for whole-lake observational and experimental studies; four trophic levels were measured to assess common carp-mediated middle-out effects across multiple lakes. We hypothesised that common carp could influence aquatic ecosystems through multiple pathways (i.e. abiotic and biotic foraging, early life feeding, nutrient). Both studies revealed most trophic levels were affected by common carp, highlighting strong middle-out effects likely caused by common carp foraging activities and abiotic influence (i.e. sediment resuspension). The loss of water transparency, submersed vegetation and a shift in zooplankton dynamics were the strongest effects. Trophic levels furthest from direct pathway effects were also affected (fish life history traits). The present study demonstrates that common carp can exert substantial effects on ecosystem structure and function. Species capable of middle-out effects can greatly modify communities through a variety of available pathways and are not confined to traditional top-down or bottom-up processes.

  12. Comparison of the Exomes of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Christiaan V.; Dirks, Ron P.; Jansen, Hans J.; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E.E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17 kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4–1.5 Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which—due to a higher degree of compactness—did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish. PMID:22715948

  13. Socializing makes thick-skinned individuals: on the density of epidermal alarm substance cells in cyprinid fish, the crucian carp (Carassius carassius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabell, Ole B; Vegusdal, Anne

    2010-09-01

    In cyprinid fish, density of epidermal club cells (i.e. alarm substance cells) has been found to vary between lakes with different predator fauna. Because predators can be labelled with chemical cues from prey, we questioned if club cell density could be controlled indirectly by predators releasing prey cues. In particular, we suspected a possible feedback mechanism between chemical alarm signals and their cellular source. We raised crucian carp singly and in groups of four. For both rearing types, fish were exposed to skin extracts of either conspecifics or brown trout (without club cells), and provided either low or high food rations. Independent of rearing type, condition factor and club cell density increased with food ration size, but no change was found in club cell density following exposure to conspecific alarm signals. However, the density of club cells was found significantly higher for fish raised in groups than for fish raised alone. We conclude that an increased condition factor results in more club cells, but crucian carp may also possess an awareness of conspecific presence, given by higher club cell densities when raised in groups. This increase in club cell density may be induced by unknown chemical factors released by conspecifics.

  14. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. TIME management by medicinal larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David I; Čeřovský, Václav; Nigam, Yamni; Pickles, Samantha F; Cazander, Gwendolyn; Nibbering, Peter H; Bültemann, Anke; Jung, Wilhelm

    2016-08-01

    Wound bed preparation (WBP) is an integral part of the care programme for chronic wounds. The acronym TIME is used in the context of WBP and describes four barriers to healing in chronic wounds; namely, dead Tissue, Infection and inflammation, Moisture imbalance and a non-migrating Edge. Larval debridement therapy (LDT) stems from observations that larvae of the blowfly Lucilia sericata clean wounds of debris. Subsequent clinical studies have proven debriding efficacy, which is likely to occur as a result of enzymatically active alimentary products released by the insect. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of LDT have also been investigated, predominantly in a pre-clinical context. This review summarises the findings of investigations into the molecular mechanisms of LDT and places these in context with the clinical concept of WBP and TIME. It is clear from these findings that biotherapy with L. sericata conforms with TIME, through the enzymatic removal of dead tissue and its associated biofilm, coupled with the secretion of defined antimicrobial peptides. This biotherapeutic impact on the wound serves to reduce inflammation, with an associated capacity for an indirect effect on moisture imbalance. Furthermore, larval serine proteinases have the capacity to alter fibroblast behaviour in a manner conducive to the formation of granulation tissue. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Influence of lecithotrofic feeding on growth and development of larvae of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, R R; Kriakhova, N V

    2011-01-01

    In the giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man), lecithotrofic feeding was discovered at the zoea I stage, and facultative lecithotrofic feeding was found at the zoea II stage. Cases of the completion of the first two stages without feeding were detected. However, a delay in feeding at the zoea II stage caused the inhibition of the growth and development of larvae. In this connection, we recommend to introduce food to the aquaculture of the giant freshwater shrimp on the end of the first day after hatching, when the first zoea II larvae emerge.

  17. Image-based automatic recognition of larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ru; Yu, Guiying; Fan, Weijun; Guo, Tiantai

    2010-08-01

    As the main objects, imagoes have been researched in quarantine pest recognition in these days. However, pests in their larval stage are latent, and the larvae spread abroad much easily with the circulation of agricultural and forest products. It is presented in this paper that, as the new research objects, larvae are recognized by means of machine vision, image processing and pattern recognition. More visional information is reserved and the recognition rate is improved as color image segmentation is applied to images of larvae. Along with the characteristics of affine invariance, perspective invariance and brightness invariance, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is adopted for the feature extraction. The neural network algorithm is utilized for pattern recognition, and the automatic identification of larvae images is successfully achieved with satisfactory results.

  18. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...

  19. CalCOFI Larvae Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  20. A PRELIMINARY HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON OVARIUM DEVELOPMENT IN MIRROR CARP AND SCALED CARP (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) INTRODUCED INTO GELINGÜLLÜ RESERVOIR, TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Erkmen, Belda; Kırankaya, Şerife Gülsün

    2016-01-01

    Carp(Cyprinus carpio) is the most common species of the Cyprinidae familyand is among the important species commercially caught in the GelingüllüReservoir, Yozgat, Turkey. In this study, the reproductive biology of mirrorcarp and scaled carp in Gelingüllü Reservoir was studied in terms of thegonadosomatic index (GSI), fecundity, and ovarian histology. Ovaries wereclassified into 5 maturity stages based on histological data, as follows: 1.Chromatin-nucleolus stage (oocyte diameter is 20-60 µm)...

  1. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon J.; Chapman, Duane C.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440 000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish’s major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

  2. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.; Olesen, Jørgen; Haug, Joachim T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoolo...

  3. Activity of R(+ limonene against Anisakis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Giarratana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of R(+ limonene of against Anisakidae larvae. Its effectiveness was tested in vitro. The results obtained showing a significant activity of the compound against Anisakis larvae, suggesting further investigation on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. In this regard, the use of R(+ limonene in seafood products could be interesting, also due the sensory attributes resulting from its use and its relatively safe status.

  4. Comparative study of carp otolith hardness: lapillus and asteriscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongni; Meyers, Marc André; Zhou, Bo; Feng, Qingling

    2013-05-01

    Otoliths are calcium carbonate biominerals in the inner ear of vertebrates; they play a role in balance, movement, and sound perception. Two types of otoliths in freshwater carp are investigated using nano- and micro-indentation: asteriscus and lapillus. The hardness, modulus, and creep of asteriscus (vaterite crystals) and lapillus (aragonite crystals) are compared. The hardness and modulus of lapillus are higher than those of asteriscus both in nano- and micro-testing, which is attributed to the different crystal polymorphs. Both materials exhibit a certain degree of creep, which indicates some time dependence of the mechanical behavior and is attributed to the organic components. The nano-indentation hardnesses are higher than micro-hardnesses for both otoliths, a direct result of the scale dependence of strength; fewer flaws are encountered by the nano than by the microindenter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. lipid oxidation during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochrem Andrzej S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After meat and dairy products, fish meat is one of the greatest sources of animal protein, but it is also probably the most susceptible to oxidation. The study material consisted of carp, Cyprinus carpio L., meat. The left and right sides of the fillet were divided into three parts, the head, abdomen, and tail. On the first day of the study, the anisidine value ranged from 0.21-1.70, and did not differ significantly among the body parts. Peroxide values fluctuated frequently during the study. Lipid oxidation depended on the part of the fish the meat came from and the structure of the meat, either fillets or ground meat.

  6. Attraction to Carbon Dioxide from Feeding Resources and Conspecific Neighbours in Larvae of the Rhinoceros Beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Kojima

    Full Text Available Saprophagous (feeding on decaying matter insects often use carbon dioxide (CO2 as a cue for finding food. Humus-feeding larvae of the giant rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus exhibit a clumped distribution in natural microhabitats, but the mechanisms driving the distribution were unknown. Herein, I examined whether larvae use CO2 as a cue for fermented humus and aggregate in the vicinity of the food. I found that (i larvae of T. dichotomus are strongly attracted to CO2, (ii larvae orient toward highly fermented humus when given a choice between highly and poorly fermented humus, (iii the highly fermented humus emits more CO2 than the poorly fermented humus, and (iv larvae grow larger when fed highly fermented humus rather than poorly fermented humus. The clumped distribution of larvae is probably formed along the concentration gradient of CO2 induced by heterogeneity of fermented organic materials in soil. My laboratory experiments also revealed that larvae are chemically attracted to each other. Moreover, CO2 concentrations in soil were increased by the larval respiration, and small amounts of CO2 (much less than emitted during respiration by a single larva were sufficient for larval attraction. These results suggest that not only response to fermented food resources, but also respiratory CO2 from conspecifics may lead to aggregation. Enhanced densities resulted in reduced weight gain under experimental conditions. However, exploiting a high-value resource at enhanced densities still led to greater body weight compared to individually exploiting a low-value resource. This demonstrates the adaptive value of the response to CO2 sources in this species.

  7. Attraction to Carbon Dioxide from Feeding Resources and Conspecific Neighbours in Larvae of the Rhinoceros Beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Saprophagous (feeding on decaying matter) insects often use carbon dioxide (CO2) as a cue for finding food. Humus-feeding larvae of the giant rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus exhibit a clumped distribution in natural microhabitats, but the mechanisms driving the distribution were unknown. Herein, I examined whether larvae use CO2 as a cue for fermented humus and aggregate in the vicinity of the food. I found that (i) larvae of T. dichotomus are strongly attracted to CO2, (ii) larvae orient toward highly fermented humus when given a choice between highly and poorly fermented humus, (iii) the highly fermented humus emits more CO2 than the poorly fermented humus, and (iv) larvae grow larger when fed highly fermented humus rather than poorly fermented humus. The clumped distribution of larvae is probably formed along the concentration gradient of CO2 induced by heterogeneity of fermented organic materials in soil. My laboratory experiments also revealed that larvae are chemically attracted to each other. Moreover, CO2 concentrations in soil were increased by the larval respiration, and small amounts of CO2 (much less than emitted during respiration by a single larva) were sufficient for larval attraction. These results suggest that not only response to fermented food resources, but also respiratory CO2 from conspecifics may lead to aggregation. Enhanced densities resulted in reduced weight gain under experimental conditions. However, exploiting a high-value resource at enhanced densities still led to greater body weight compared to individually exploiting a low-value resource. This demonstrates the adaptive value of the response to CO2 sources in this species.

  8. Fly larvae as sustainable bioconverters of waste for feed in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Aabo, Søren

    2014-01-01

    How to provide enough food and feed for the growing population is a major challenge for the nextgeneration. Improved economy in many developing countries increases the demand for protein from meator fish. This may lead to depletion of the seas and overexploitation of agricultural land in the in s......How to provide enough food and feed for the growing population is a major challenge for the nextgeneration. Improved economy in many developing countries increases the demand for protein from meator fish. This may lead to depletion of the seas and overexploitation of agricultural land......, or nutrients may be refined fromprocessed insects, however there is a huge need for technological development in order to automateculture and harvest of the insects.In nature insects and insect larvae are important feed sources for poultry and the larva of the commonhouse fly (Musca domestica) have been shown...... to be especially rich in essential amino and fatty acids. Atthe Food institute we have investigated in feed safety of using these fly larvae as feed for egg laying hens.The larvae were reared on poultry manure which implies the risk of transmission of pathogenicmicroorganism between animals and to humans, as well...

  9. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Haug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages, alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages. These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world 1928-30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially differing in their shield morphologies. The shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults.

  10. Production and quality assessment of fish burger from the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1844

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjurul Haq

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish burger was produced from grass carp (Ctenophygodon idella to assess the feasibility of value addition to this low priced fish in Bangladesh. Different food additives (25% mashed potato, 2% NaCl, 2% soybean oil, 2% spices and 0.6% sugar were used to enhance the consumer’s acceptance of the fishery product. Consumers' acceptance of the fish burger was determined by sensory evaluation based on its color, flavor, softness or firmness (S/F, chewy/ rubbery (C/R using 10 point scoring system by a group of 10 untrained judges (20-50 years old. The results were found as follows: color (7.25±1.15, flavor (6.67±1.17, S/F (8.47±1.20 and C/R (7.83±1.23. Evaluation of proximate composition showed that the moisture and protein contents in grass carp mince were 79.15 ± 1.16 % and 18.01±0.44 % respectively which were higher than that of fish burger, 69.46 ± 0.89 % and 16.42 ± 0.57 %, respectively. Lipid (6.64±0.15 % and ash (2.98±0.09 % contents in fish burger were also higher than fish mince. The pH of fish mince and fish burger was 6.8±0.11 and 6.6±0.05 respectively. Therefore, from simple cost-profit analysis, it can be assumed that business of fish burger in Bangladesh has a very good prospect and it would be profitable.

  11. The Protective Effect of Liquorice Plant Extract on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Malekinejad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of liquorice plant extract (LPE on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in common carp was evaluated using fifty adult carps. The fish were cultured in a standard environment in terms of water flow rate, oxygen, pH, food and temperature. The fish were assigned into 5 groups (N = 10 as control, sham, and tests. The test groups were pre-treated for 3 h with various concentrations of LPE, 3 days before CCl4 exposure. The control and sham groups received normal saline before and after CCl4 exposure. To induce hepatotoxicity, animals in the sham and test groups were exposed against 100 l L-1 CCl4 for 45 min. The fish in all groups 1 h after CCl4 exposure were anesthetized and the blood samples were collected. Immediately the liver specimens were dissected out and were stored in 10 % formalin for further pathological studies. Determination of serum level of ALP and SGOT revealed that acute form of CCl4 exposure elevated significantly (P < 0.05 the serum level of either tested hepatic marker enzymes. While 3 days pretreatment with LPE prevented from ALP and SGOT enhancement. The pathological evaluation revealed that the CCl4 exposure resulted in a minor pathologic manifestation such as slight congestion, which the LPE pretreated groups showed the remarkable improvement. The anti-oxidant capacity of LPE was assayed by FRAP and DPPH methods. Both provided techniques showed that LPE exerts an excellent anti-oxidant effect. This data suggest that LPE exerts protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, the hepatoprotective effect of LPE may attribute to its antioxidant capacity.

  12. Feeding common carp Cyprinus carpio with β-glucan supplemented diet stimulates C-reactive protein and complement immune acute phase responses following PAMPs injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J; Shrive, Annette K; Hoole, Dave

    2014-08-01

    The effect of β-glucan as a feed additive on the serum and gene profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was ascertained in common carp Cyprinus carpio. In addition effects of subsequent intraperitoneal injections of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), i.e. LPS or poly(I:C), to mimic bacterial or viral infection respectively, were studied. Carp were first orally fed with β-glucan (MacroGard®) with a daily β-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight or with control food for 25 days and then injected with PBS containing either LPS (4 mg/kg) or poly(I:C) (5 mg/kg) or PBS alone. Fish were sampled during the 25 days of the feeding period and up to 7 days post-PAMPs injections for serum and liver, head kidney and mid-gut tissues. Oral administration of β-glucan for 25 days significantly increased serum CRP levels and alternative complement activity (ACP). In addition, the subsequent LPS and poly(I:C) challenges significantly affected CRP and complement related gene expression profiles (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2), with the greatest effects observed in the β-glucan fed fish. However, in fish fed β-glucan the PAMPs injections had less effects on CRP levels and complement activity in the serum than in control fed fish, suggesting that the 25 days of β-glucan immunostimulation was sufficient enough to reduce the effects of LPS and poly(I:C) injections. Results suggest that MacroGard® stimulated CRP and complement responses to PAMPs immunological challenges in common carp thus highlighting the beneficial β-glucan immunostimulant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary phytoimmunostimulant Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum) has more remarkable impacts on skin mucus than on serum in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zoheiri, Fazel; Lazado, Carlo C

    2016-12-01

    Immunostimulation through the use of sustainable and eco-friendly dietary additives is one of the current prophylactic strategies in fish husbandry. Plant-based immunostimulants are highly considered for this intent, both for their scientific and practical advantages. Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum) is a flower-bearing herb that possesses interesting pharmacological importance due to its bioactive compounds. It is commonly used as spice, food additive, dietary supplement and traditional remedy. The present study evaluated the potential of H. persicum as a dietary phytoimmunostimulant in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The powder form of H. persicum was incorporated in the basal diet at three different inclusion levels: 2.5, 5 and 10 g kg -1 . The basal diet (0 g kg -1 of H. persicum) served as control. Experimental diets were administered to the fish for a period of 8 weeks. At the termination of the feeding experiment, impacts on fish immunity and performance were evaluated. Inclusion of H. persicum in the diet significantly elevated several immunological factors such as immunoglobulins, lysozyme, protease and alternative complement activities in carp. Interestingly, the changes were more pronounced in the skin mucus than in the serum. Performance was significantly improved in the fish groups that received the candidate phytoimmunostimulant. Specifically, final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in the fish that received dietary H. persicum at inclusion levels 5 g kg -1 and higher. This study demonstrated the potential of Persian hogweed as a candidate dietary phytoimmunostimulant in carp, impacting mainly the skin mucosal defenses. The study supports the current trend in the exploration of sustainable plant-based dietary supplements that are capable of boosting the immunological defenses of farmed fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha; Jamal, Shazia; Levi, Edi; Rishi, Arun K.; Datta, Nabanita S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1

  15. Effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidase activity, and immune function in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ke; Wang, Qiu-Ju; Yang, Yi-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic use in livestock feed additives has resulted in harmful residue accumulation and spread of drug-resistance. We examined the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as a safer alternative to antibiotics in feeding the common carp. AMPs were added to common carp basal diets (Control) as additives at four concentrations: 100 mg kg(-1) (B1), 200 mg kg(-1) (B2), 400 mg kg(-1) (B3), 600 mg kg(-1) (B4) by dry weight of basal diet. After a 60-day feeding experiment, the final weight, DG and SGR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly higher than the control (p 0.05) in levels of uric ammonia, globulin, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase and blood glucose in all groups. The serum superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and B4-fed carps. The serum alkaline phosphate activity of carps on B1 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than B4-fed carps. The serum acid phosphatase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other antimicrobial peptide-fed groups. The serum lysozyme activity of carps on B1, B2, and B3 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control- and B4-fed carps. Regarding immune factors in serum, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) and interleukin (IL)-1β in B1-fed carps were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other groups, while IL-1α levels in B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control-, B2-, and B3-fed carps. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the content of MHC among the five groups. In conclusion, antimicrobial peptide can reduce triglyceride levels in serum, enrich oxidation resistance, and improve immunity of the common carp. It showed that appropriate concentration of antibacterial peptide as supplements in diets for common carp increased the final weight, DG, SGR and decreased the FCR. Copyright © 2015

  16. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: ndatta@med.wayne.edu [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1

  17. Isolation of innate immune response genes, expression analysis, polymorphism identification and development of genetic marker for linkage analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common carp are economically important foodfish worldwide. Over the past few years, carp aquaculture has suffered from enormous losses to a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). A recent study reported that common carp strains/crossbreds have differential resistance to CyHV-3, suggest...

  18. Evaluation of the Dressing Percentage of 3-year-old Experimental Scaly Crossbreds of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758 in Relation to Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Buchtová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare dressing percentages, with relation to sex, of three bisexual groups of hybrid carp, i.e. Hungarian mirror carp and Northern mirror carp (M2 × M72, the hybrid line of Přerov scaly carp and Northern mirror carp (PS × M72, the hybrid line of P.erov scaly carp and Ropsha scaly carp (PS × ROP, and the pure line of P.erov scaly carp (PS in harvest size (K3. There were practically no differences in growth variables of male and female carp between the pure line PS carp and M2 × M72 and PS × ROP hybrids. Statistically significant differences in some variables between sexes were found in the scaly hybrid line PS × M72. Females in that group had significantly higher growth rates (TL and SL by 4.08% and 4.52%, respectively; p abs by 11.37%, 13.70% and 14.83%, respectively; p p p < 0.01 than that of ovaries of female carp (or, rather, the GSI of male carp was higher.

  19. MORE ON THE APPROVAL OF ANTONINSKO-ZOZULENETSKIY CARPS OF UKRAINIAN BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oleksiyenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform an analysis the fish breeding, biological, productive, exterior indicators of Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy carps of Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds, their genetic characteristics as well as to provide the methods of the creation of these carps as a selective achievement. Methodology. The works were carried out in accordance with conventional techniques in fish farming and breeding. Carp breeding was conducted by the method of mass continuously improving selection of fish the aim of which is that a complex of fish breeding and management activities create conditions contributing to the development of productive qualities in the selected carp, while selection and breeding activities form and reproduce the leading pedigree group of the stock. Findings. In the conditions of the development of fisheries industry, especially important are the problems of selection and breeding works aimed at improving the biological and economic features of fish farming objects by improving the existing and developing new breeds, inbreeding, zonal types, lines, etc., creating a progressive heterotic structure of breeds and forming highly productive pedigree stocks of fish breeding objects. The main object of commercial fish farming in Ukraine, as in many countries, is carp, so his selection is given much attention. The starting material for producing the Antoninsko-Zozulenetskiy Ukrainian scaly and Ukrainian framed breeds was carp population of Antoninskiy State fish hatchery (Khmelnytsky region, which was a cross between native carp with mirror Galician carp. The principal method of carp breeding was a massive, continuously improving selection with high intensity among younger age groups. An importance during the selection was given to the growth rate of the fish, their exterior and constitutional "strength." For the brood, individuals with the highest body weight, scaly cover of which corresponded to accepted standards, beautiful high

  20. Effects of starvation on moult cycle and hepatopancreas of Stage I lobster (Homarus americanus) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, K.; Storch, V.; Anger, V.; Capuzzo, J. M.

    1985-06-01

    Effects of feeding and starvation on the moult cycle and on the ultrastructure of hepatopancreas cells were studied in Stage I lobster larvae ( Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards). The relative significance of yolk and first food was quite different in larvae originating from two females. This difference was evident also in the amounts of stored lipid in the R-cells of the larval hepatopancreas. Most larvae from one hatch were, in principle, able to develop exclusively with yolk reserves (without food) to the second instar. The larvae from the second hatch showed lecithotrophic development only to the transition between late intermoult and early premoult (Stages C/D0 of Drachs's moult cycle) of the first larval instar. When initial starvation in this group lasted for 3 days or more, the point of no return (PNR) was exceeded. After the PNR, consumption of food was still possible, but development ceased in the transition C/D0 or in late premoult (D3 4). It is suggested that these stages of the moult cycle are critical points were cessation of development and increased mortality are particularly likely in early larval lobsters under nutritional stress. Examination of hepatopancreas R-cells suggested that the PNR is caused by an irreversible loss of the ability to restore lipid reserves depleted during initial starvation. Initial periods of starvation ending before the PNR prolonged mainly Stage D0 of the same instar (I). During this delay, structural changes in the R-cells caused by the preceding period of starvation were reversed: reduced lipid inclusions, swollen mitochondria, an increased number of residual bodies indicating autolysis, and a reduction of the microvillous processes. Continually starved larvae which showed lecithotrophic development throughout the first instar and were then re-fed after moulting successfully, had later a prolonged intermoult (Stage C) period in the second instar. This shows that, despite occasional lecithotrophy, food is an important

  1. Distribution patterns and feeding success of anchovy, Engraulis anchoita, larvae off southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cunha Vasconcellos

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding success and changes in horizontal patchiness relative to size were studied for anchovy, Engraulis anchoita, larvae caught with a Bongo net off southern Brazil. Results show higher feeding success rates during winter, when the combined effect of enrichment, stability and retention mechanisms seems to create optimal conditions for larval feeding. Under optimal feeding conditions larvae of more than 10 mm have higher feeding success rates than smaller size classes. With a simple body structure and low swimming capabilities, larvae of up to 10 mm show a low level of patchiness, low evasion rate of the sampling gear and feeding on small food particles only. Results corroborate the hypothesis of a critical period between two important ontogenic phases: the beginning of exogenous feeding and the onset of active swimming, gas gland buoyancy and school forming behavior.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Indian medium carp, Labeo gonius (Hamilton, 1822) and its comparison with other related carp species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Bijay Kumar; Kumari, Kavita; Baisvar, Vishwamitra Singh; Rout, Ajaya Kumar; Pakrashi, Sudip; Paria, Prasenjet; Jena, J K

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Labeo gonius is reported using PGM sequencer (Ion Torrent). The complete mitogenome of L. gonius is obtained by the de novo sequences assembly of genomic reads using the Torrent Mapping Alignment Program (TMAP) which is 16 614 bp in length. The mitogenome of L. gonius comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNA genes, and D-loop as control region along with gene order and organization, being similar to most of other fish mitogenomes of NCBI databases. The mitogenome in the present study has 99% similarity to the complete mitogenome sequence of Labeo fimbriatus, as reported earlier. The phylogenetic analysis of Cypriniformes depicted that their mitogenomes are closely related to each other. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. gonius would be helpful in understanding the population genetics, phylogenetics, and evolution of Indian Carps.

  3. Water guns affect abundance and behavior of bigheaded carp and native fish differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jose; Glover, David C.; Kocovsky, Patrick; Garvey, James E.; Gaikowski, Mark; Jensen, Nathan R.; Adams, Ryan F.

    2017-01-01

    Water guns have shown the potential to repel nuisance aquatic organisms. This study examines the effects of exposure to a 1966.4 cm3 seismic water gun array (two guns) on the abundance and behavior of Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Silver Carp H. molitrix (collectively referred to as bigheaded carp) and native fishes (e.g., Smallmouth Buffalo Ictiobus bubalus). Water guns were deployed in a channel that connects the Illinois River to backwater quarry pits that contained a large transient population of bigheaded carp. To evaluate the effect of water guns, mobile side-looking split-beam hydroacoustic surveys were conducted before, during and between replicated water gun firing periods. Water guns did not affect abundance of bigheaded carp, but abundance of native fish detected during the firing treatment was 43 and 34% lower than the control and water guns off treatments, respectively. The proximity of bigheaded carp to the water gun array was similar between the water guns on and water guns off treatments. In contrast, the closest detected native fish were detected farther from the water guns during the water guns on treatment (mean ± SE, 32.38 ± 3.32 m) than during the water guns off treatment (15.04 ± 1.59 m). The water gun array had a greater impact on native fish species than on bigheaded carp. Caution should be taken to the extrapolation of these results to other fish species and to fish exposed to water guns in different environments (e.g., reduced shoreline interaction) or exposure to a larger array of water guns, or for use of water guns for purposes other than a barrier.

  4. Genome Wide Identification, Phylogeny, and Expression of Aquaporin Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanju Dong

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (Aqps are integral membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Among vertebrate species, Aqps are highly conserved in both gene structure and amino acid sequence. These proteins are vital for maintaining water homeostasis in living organisms, especially for aquatic animals such as teleost fish. Studies on teleost Aqps are mainly limited to several model species with diploid genomes. Common carp, which has a tetraploidized genome, is one of the most common aquaculture species being adapted to a wide range of aquatic environments. The complete common carp genome has recently been released, providing us the possibility for gene evolution of aqp gene family after whole genome duplication.In this study, we identified a total of 37 aqp genes from common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of aqps are highly conserved. Comparative analysis was performed across five typical vertebrate genomes. We found that almost all of the aqp genes in common carp were duplicated in the evolution of the gene family. We postulated that the expansion of the aqp gene family in common carp was the result of an additional whole genome duplication event and that the aqp gene family in other teleosts has been lost in their evolution history with the reason that the functions of genes are redundant and conservation. Expression patterns were assessed in various tissues, including brain, heart, spleen, liver, intestine, gill, muscle, and skin, which demonstrated the comprehensive expression profiles of aqp genes in the tetraploidized genome. Significant gene expression divergences have been observed, revealing substantial expression divergences or functional divergences in those duplicated aqp genes post the latest WGD event.To some extent, the gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp aqp gene family provides an

  5. Water guns affect abundance and behavior of bigheaded carp and native fish differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jose; Glover, David C.; Kocovsky, Patrick; Garvey, James E.; Gaikowski, Mark; Jensen, Nathan R.; Adams, Ryan F.

    2018-01-01

    Water guns have shown the potential to repel nuisance aquatic organisms. This study examines the effects of exposure to a 1966.4 cm3 seismic water gun array (two guns) on the abundance and behavior of Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Silver Carp H. molitrix (collectively referred to as bigheaded carp) and native fishes (e.g., Smallmouth Buffalo Ictiobus bubalus). Water guns were deployed in a channel that connects the Illinois River to backwater quarry pits that contained a large transient population of bigheaded carp. To evaluate the effect of water guns, mobile side-looking split-beam hydroacoustic surveys were conducted before, during and between replicated water gun firing periods. Water guns did not affect abundance of bigheaded carp, but abundance of native fish detected during the firing treatment was 43 and 34% lower than the control and water guns off treatments, respectively. The proximity of bigheaded carp to the water gun array was similar between the water guns on and water guns off treatments. In contrast, the closest detected native fish were detected farther from the water guns during the water guns on treatment (mean ± SE, 32.38 ± 3.32 m) than during the water guns off treatment (15.04 ± 1.59 m). The water gun array had a greater impact on native fish species than on bigheaded carp. Caution should be taken to the extrapolation of these results to other fish species and to fish exposed to water guns in different environments (e.g., reduced shoreline interaction) or exposure to a larger array of water guns, or for use of water guns for purposes other than a barrier.

  6. Quantification of eDNA shedding rates from invasive bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymus, Katy E.; Richter, Catherine A.; Chapman, Duane C.; Paukert, Craig P.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife managers can more easily mitigate the effects of invasive species if action takes place before a population becomes established. Such early detection requires sensitive survey tools that can detect low numbers of individuals. Due to their high sensitivity, environmental DNA (eDNA) surveys hold promise as an early detection method for aquatic invasive species. Quantification of eDNA amounts may also provide data on species abundance and timing of an organism’s presence, allowing managers to successfully combat the spread of ecologically damaging species. To better understand the link between eDNA and an organism’s presence, it is crucial to know how eDNA is shed into the environment. Our study used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and controlled laboratory experiments to measure the amount of eDNA that two species of invasive bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) shed into the water. We first measured how much eDNA a single fish sheds and the variability of these measurements. Then, in a series of manipulative lab experiments, we studied how temperature, biomass (grams of fish), and diet affect the shedding rate of eDNA by these fish. We found that eDNA amounts exhibit a positive relationship with fish biomass, and that feeding could increase the amount of eDNA shed by ten-fold, whereas water temperature did not have an effect. Our results demonstrate that quantification of eDNA may be useful for predicting carp density, as well as densities of other rare or invasive species.

  7. Elementary budget of stag beetle larvae associated with selective utilization of nitrogen in decaying wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kubota, Kôhei

    2018-05-03

    Wood degradation by insects plays important roles for the forest matter cycling. Since wood is deficient in nitrogen compared to the insect body, wood-feeding insects need to assimilate the nitrogen selectively and discard an excess carbon. Such a stoichiometric imbalance between food and body will cause high metabolic cost; therefore, wood-feeding insects may somehow alleviate the stoichiometric imbalance. Here, we investigated the carbon and nitrogen budgets of the larvae of stag beetle, Dorcus rectus, which feed on decaying wood. Assimilation efficiency of ingested wood was 22%, and those values based on the carbon and nitrogen were 27 and 45%, respectively, suggesting the selective digestion of nitrogen in wood. Element-based gross growth efficiency was much higher for nitrogen (45%) than for carbon (3%). As a result, the larvae released 24% of the ingested carbon as volatile, whereas almost no gaseous exchange was observed for nitrogen. Moreover, solubility-based elementary analysis revealed that the larvae mainly utilized alkaline-soluble-water-insoluble fraction of wood, which is rich in nitrogen. Actually, the midgut of the larvae was highly alkaline (pH 10.3). Stag beetle larvae are known to exhibit coprophagy, and here we also confirmed that alkaline-soluble-water-insoluble nitrogen increased again from fresh feces to old feces in the field. Stable isotope analysis suggested the utilization of aerial nitrogen by larvae; however, its actual contribution is still disputable. Those results suggest that D. rectus larvae selectively utilize alkaline-soluble nitrogenous substrates by using their highly alkaline midgut, and perhaps associate with microbes that enhance the nitrogen recycling in feces.

  8. Elementary budget of stag beetle larvae associated with selective utilization of nitrogen in decaying wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kubota, Kôhei

    2018-06-01

    Wood degradation by insects plays important roles for the forest matter cycling. Since wood is deficient in nitrogen compared to the insect body, wood-feeding insects need to assimilate the nitrogen selectively and discard an excess carbon. Such a stoichiometric imbalance between food and body will cause high metabolic cost; therefore, wood-feeding insects may somehow alleviate the stoichiometric imbalance. Here, we investigated the carbon and nitrogen budgets of the larvae of stag beetle, Dorcus rectus, which feed on decaying wood. Assimilation efficiency of ingested wood was 22%, and those values based on the carbon and nitrogen were 27 and 45%, respectively, suggesting the selective digestion of nitrogen in wood. Element-based gross growth efficiency was much higher for nitrogen (45%) than for carbon (3%). As a result, the larvae released 24% of the ingested carbon as volatile, whereas almost no gaseous exchange was observed for nitrogen. Moreover, solubility-based elementary analysis revealed that the larvae mainly utilized alkaline-soluble-water-insoluble fraction of wood, which is rich in nitrogen. Actually, the midgut of the larvae was highly alkaline (pH 10.3). Stag beetle larvae are known to exhibit coprophagy, and here we also confirmed that alkaline-soluble-water-insoluble nitrogen increased again from fresh feces to old feces in the field. Stable isotope analysis suggested the utilization of aerial nitrogen by larvae; however, its actual contribution is still disputable. Those results suggest that D. rectus larvae selectively utilize alkaline-soluble nitrogenous substrates by using their highly alkaline midgut, and perhaps associate with microbes that enhance the nitrogen recycling in feces.

  9. The innate immune and systemic response in honey bees to a bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Leonard J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a major paradox in our understanding of honey bee immunity: the high population density in a bee colony implies a high rate of disease transmission among individuals, yet bees are predicted to express only two-thirds as many immunity genes as solitary insects, e.g., mosquito or fruit fly. This suggests that the immune response in bees is subdued in favor of social immunity, yet some specific immune factors are up-regulated in response to infection. To explore the response to infection more broadly, we employ mass spectrometry-based proteomics in a quantitative analysis of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Newly-eclosed bee larvae, in the second stage of their life cycle, are susceptible to this infection, but become progressively more resistant with age. We used this host-pathogen system to probe not only the role of the immune system in responding to a highly evolved infection, but also what other mechanisms might be employed in response to infection. Results Using quantitative proteomics, we compared the hemolymph (insect blood of five-day old healthy and infected honey bee larvae and found a strong up-regulation of some metabolic enzymes and chaperones, while royal jelly (food and energy storage proteins were down-regulated. We also observed increased levels of the immune factors prophenoloxidase (proPO, lysozyme and the antimicrobial peptide hymenoptaecin. Furthermore, mass spectrometry evidence suggests that healthy larvae have significant levels of catalytically inactive proPO in the hemolymph that is proteolytically activated upon infection. Phenoloxidase (PO enzyme activity was undetectable in one or two-day-old larvae and increased dramatically thereafter, paralleling very closely the age-related ability of larvae to resist infection. Conclusion We propose a model for the host response to infection where energy stores and metabolic enzymes are regulated in concert with direct

  10. Models of prey capture in larval fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The food uptake of larval carp and pike is described from high speed movies with synchronous lateral and ventral views.

    During prey intake by larval fishes the velocities of the created suction flow are high relative to their own size: 0.3 m/s for carp larvae of 6

  11. Uptake of heavy metals and arsenic in black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae grown on seaweed-enriched media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancarosa, Irene; Liland, Nina S; Biemans, Daan; Araujo, Pedro; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan; Amlund, Heidi

    2018-04-01

    The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is one of the most promising insect species for use in animal feed. However, studies investigating feed and food safety aspects of using black soldier fly as feed are scarce. In this study, we fed black soldier fly larvae feeding media enriched with seaweed, which contains naturally high concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential transfer of such undesirable substances from the feeding media to the larvae. The larvae accumulated cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic. Concentrations of these elements in the larvae increased when more seaweed was added to the feeding media. The highest retention was seen for cadmium (up to 93%) and the lowest for total arsenic (up to 22%). When seaweed inclusion exceeded 20% in the media, this resulted in larval concentrations of cadmium and total arsenic above the current European Union maximum levels for these elements in complete feed. Our results confirm that insect larvae can accumulate heavy metals and arsenic when present in the feeding media. A broader understanding of the occurrence of these undesirable substances in processed larvae products is needed to assess feed and food safety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Vectorial competence of larvae and adults of Alphitobius diaperinus in the transmission of Salmonella enteritidis in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffer, Andreia M; Kuttel, Javier; Martins, Lidiane M; Pedroso, Antonio Carlos; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Ferreira, Fernando; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2010-06-01

    The ingestion of food products originating from poultry infected with Salmonella spp. is one of the major causes of food poisoning in humans. The control of poultry salmonellosis is particularly difficult since birds are asymptomatic and numerous factors may expedite the maintenance of bacteria in poultry production facilities. The aim of the study was to determine the vectorial capacity of adults and larvae of Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in the experimental transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 to 1-day-old specific pathogen-free White Leghorn chicks. Adult insects and larvae were starved for 1 day, fed for 24 h or 7 days on sterile ration that had been treated with Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4, and the levels of bacterial infection were determined. Infected adult insects and larvae were fed to groups of day-old chicks, after which bacteria were recovered from cecum, liver, and spleen samples over a 7-day period. Infected larvae were more efficient than adult insects in transmitting Salmonella Enteritidis to chicks. Higher concentrations of bacteria could be reisolated from the cecum, liver, and spleen of chicks that had ingested infected larvae compared with those that had ingested infected adults. The control of A. diaperinus, and particularly of the larvae, represents a critical factor in the reduction of Salmonella spp. in poultry farms.

  13. Adult exposure to ocean acidification is maladaptive for larvae of the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata in the presence of multiple stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Laura M; O'Connor, Wayne A; Byrne, Maria; Coleman, Ross A; Virtue, Patti; Dove, Michael; Gibbs, Mitchell; Spohr, Lorraine; Scanes, Elliot; Ross, Pauline M

    2017-02-01

    Parental effects passed from adults to their offspring have been identified as a source of rapid acclimation that may allow marine populations to persist as our surface oceans continue to decrease in pH. Little is known, however, whether parental effects are beneficial for offspring in the presence of multiple stressors. We exposed adults of the oyster Saccostrea glomerata to elevated CO 2 and examined the impacts of elevated CO 2 (control = 392; 856 µatm) combined with elevated temperature (control = 24; 28°C), reduced salinity (control = 35; 25) and reduced food concentration (control = full; half diet) on their larvae. Adult exposure to elevated CO 2 had a positive impact on larvae reared at elevated CO 2 as a sole stressor, which were 8% larger and developed faster at elevated CO 2 compared with larvae from adults exposed to ambient CO 2 These larvae, however, had significantly reduced survival in all multistressor treatments. This was particularly evident for larvae reared at elevated CO 2 combined with elevated temperature or reduced food concentration, with no larvae surviving in some treatment combinations. Larvae from CO 2 -exposed adults had a higher standard metabolic rate. Our results provide evidence that parental exposure to ocean acidification may be maladaptive when larvae experience multiple stressors. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Toxocara cati larva migrans in domestic pigs - detected at slaughterhouse control in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Rebecca K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Routine Trichinella meat inspection at the slaughterhouse detected one larva in a pooled batch of 100 pig samples. The larva was sent to the Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI for species identification. Morphological examination revealed that the larva was not Trichinella spp. Molecular analysis was performed. PCR and sequencing of 5S/ITS identified the larva as Toxocara cati. A second round of digests was carried out at the meat inspection laboratory, in smaller batches to try to identify the infected animal. No further larvae were detected and it was not possible to identify which of the 100 animals the larva had come from. This is the first time that Toxocara cati has been reported in slaughterhouse pigs in Norway. Although the infected individual could not be identified, the meat originated from one of six potential farms. A small survey regarding rodent control and cats was sent to each of these farms. Cats had restricted access to food storage areas (two farms reported that cats had access whilst none of the farms allowed cats into the production housing. Cats were, however, present on all the farms (mostly stray cats of unknown health status. Half of the farms also reported seeing rodents in the pig housing during the previous six months and half reported finding rodents in the feed and straw storage areas. We were unable to narrow down the source of infection – however contamination of food or bedding material, with cat faeces or infected rodents, in addition to the presence of infected rodents in pig housing remain potential routes of infection.

  15. Toxocara cati larva migrans in domestic pigs--detected at slaughterhouse control in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Mermer, Anna; Øines, Øivind

    2012-11-21

    Routine Trichinella meat inspection at the slaughterhouse detected one larva in a pooled batch of 100 pig samples. The larva was sent to the Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI) for species identification.Morphological examination revealed that the larva was not Trichinella spp. Molecular analysis was performed. PCR and sequencing of 5S/ITS identified the larva as Toxocara cati. A second round of digests was carried out at the meat inspection laboratory, in smaller batches to try to identify the infected animal. No further larvae were detected and it was not possible to identify which of the 100 animals the larva had come from. This is the first time that Toxocara cati has been reported in slaughterhouse pigs in Norway.Although the infected individual could not be identified, the meat originated from one of six potential farms. A small survey regarding rodent control and cats was sent to each of these farms. Cats had restricted access to food storage areas (two farms reported that cats had access) whilst none of the farms allowed cats into the production housing. Cats were, however, present on all the farms (mostly stray cats of unknown health status). Half of the farms also reported seeing rodents in the pig housing during the previous six months and half reported finding rodents in the feed and straw storage areas. We were unable to narrow down the source of infection - however contamination of food or bedding material, with cat faeces or infected rodents, in addition to the presence of infected rodents in pig housing remain potential routes of infection.

  16. Methodical aspects of rearing decapod larvae, Pagurus bernhardus (Paguridae) and Carcinus maenas (Portunidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawirs, R. R.

    1982-12-01

    Improved methods for experimental rearing of Pagurus bernhardus and Carcinus maenas larvae are presented. Isolated maintenance was found essential for reliable statistical evaluation of results obtained from stages older than zoea-1. Only by isolated rearing is it possible to calculate mean values ±95% confidence intervals of stage duration. Mean values (without confidence intervals) can only be given for group-reared larvae if mortality is zero. Compared to group rearing, isolated rearing led to better survival, shorter periods of development and stimulated growth. Due to different swimming behavior P. bernhardus zoeae needed larger water volumes than Carcinus maenas larvae. P. bernhardus zoeae were reared with best results when isolated in Petri dishes (ca. 50 ml). They fed on newly hatched brine shrimp nauplii ( Artemia spp.). P. bernhardus megalopa did not require any gastropod shell or substratum; it developed best in glass vials without any food. C. maenas larvae could be reared most sucessfully in glass vials (ca 20 ml) under a simulated day-night regime (LD 16:8); constant darkness had a detrimental effect on development, leading to prolonged stage-duration times. C. maenas larvae were fed a mixture of newly hatched brine shrimp naupli and rotifers ( Brachionus plicatilis).

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans battling starvation stress: low levels of ethanol prolong lifespan in L1 larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola V Castro

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans arrests development at the first larval stage if food is not present upon hatching. Larvae in this stage provide an excellent model for studying stress responses during development. We found that supplementing starved larvae with ethanol markedly extends their lifespan within this L1 diapause. The effects of ethanol-induced lifespan extension can be observed when the ethanol is added to the medium at any time between 0 and 10 days after hatching. The lowest ethanol concentration that extended lifespan was 1 mM (0.005%; higher concentrations to 68 mM (0.4% did not result in increased survival. In spite of their extended survival, larvae did not progress to the L2 stage. Supplementing starved cultures with n-propanol and n-butanol also extended lifespan, but methanol and isopropanol had no measurable effect. Mass spectrometry analysis of nematode fatty acids and amino acids revealed that L1 larvae can incorporate atoms from ethanol into both types of molecules. Based on these data, we suggest that ethanol supplementation may extend the lifespan of L1 larvae by either serving as a carbon and energy source and/or by inducing a stress response.

  18. The Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model for evaluation of Shigella virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoy, Shoshana; Gancz, Hanan; Zhu, Yuewei; Honnold, Cary L; Zurawski, Daniel V; Venkatesan, Malabi M

    2017-07-04

    Shigella spp. causing bacterial diarrhea and dysentery are human enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens that are orally transmitted through contaminated food and water and cause bacillary dysentery. Although natural Shigella infections are restricted to humans and primates, several smaller animal models are used to analyze individual steps in pathogenesis. No animal model fully duplicates the human response and sustaining the models requires expensive animals, costly maintenance of animal facilities, veterinary services and approved animal protocols. This study proposes the development of the caterpillar larvae of Galleria mellonella as a simple, inexpensive, informative, and rapid in-vivo model for evaluating virulence and the interaction of Shigella with cells of the insect innate immunity. Virulent Shigella injected through the forelegs causes larvae death. The mortality rates were dependent on the Shigella strain, the infectious dose, and the presence of the virulence plasmid. Wild-type S. flexneri 2a, persisted and replicated within the larvae, resulting in haemocyte cell death, whereas plasmid-cured mutants were rapidly cleared. Histology of the infected larvae in conjunction with fluorescence, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy indicate that S. flexneri reside within a vacuole of the insect haemocytes that ultrastructurally resembles vacuoles described in studies with mouse and human macrophage cell lines. Some of these bacteria-laden vacuoles had double-membranes characteristic of autophagosomes. These results suggest that G. mellonella larvae can be used as an easy-to-use animal model to understand Shigella pathogenesis that requires none of the time and labor-consuming procedures typical of other systems.

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure inferred from the partially duplicated genome of domesticated carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldman Marcus W

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic relationships among eight populations of domesticated carp (Cyprinus carpio L., a species with a partially duplicated genome, were studied using 12 microsatellites and 505 AFLP bands. The populations included three aquacultured carp strains and five ornamental carp (koi variants. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella was used as an outgroup. AFLP-based gene diversity varied from 5% (grass carp to 32% (koi and reflected the reasonably well understood histories and breeding practices of the populations. A large fraction of the molecular variance was due to differences between aquacultured and ornamental carps. Further analyses based on microsatellite data, including cluster analysis and neighbor-joining trees, supported the genetic distinctiveness of aquacultured and ornamental carps, despite the recent divergence of the two groups. In contrast to what was observed for AFLP-based diversity, the frequency of heterozygotes based on microsatellites was comparable among all populations. This discrepancy can potentially be explained by duplication of some loci in Cyprinus carpio L., and a model that shows how duplication can increase heterozygosity estimates for microsatellites but not for AFLP loci is discussed. Our analyses in carp can help in understanding the consequences of genotyping duplicated loci and in interpreting discrepancies between dominant and co-dominant markers in species with recent genome duplication.

  20. Relationship between snail population density and infection status of snails and fish with zoonotic trematodes in Vietnamese carp nurseries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin

    2012-01-01

    ponds. Previous risk assessment on FZT transmission in the Red River Delta of Vietnam identified carp nursery ponds as major sites of transmission. In this study, we analyzed the association between snail population density and heterophyid trematode infection in snails with the rate of FZT transmission...... to juvenile fish raised in carp nurseries....

  1. Eastern Baltic cod : Perspectives from existing data on processes affecting growth and survival of eggs and larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; St. John, Michael; Wieland, Kai

    1996-01-01

    exist in our knowledge of processes affecting egg and larval growth and survival, but some promising areas of research are indicated. In particular the seasonality of spawning, deep water oxygen concentrations, predation on eggs, and larval food production require further investigation....... surveys have described food concentrations at appropriate scales for cod larvae, and the species composition of larval diets is unknown. Growth rates for Baltic cod larvae have not been measured and cannot be compared with rates in other areas or to variations in biotic and abiotic factors. Large gaps...

  2. Self-heating by large insect larvae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Nikita L; Emlen, Douglas J; Woods, H Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Do insect larvae ever self-heat significantly from their own metabolic activity and, if so, under what sets of environmental temperatures and across what ranges of body size? We examine these questions using larvae of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus), chosen for their large size (>20g), simple body plan, and underground lifestyle. Using CO 2 respirometry, we measured larval metabolic rates then converted measured rates of gas exchange into rates of heat production and developed a mathematical model to predict how much steady state body temperatures of underground insects would increase above ambient depending on body size. Collectively, our results suggest that large, extant larvae (20-30g body mass) can self-heat by at most 2°C, and under many common conditions (shallow depths, moister soils) would self-heat by less than 1°C. By extending the model to even larger (hypothetical) body sizes, we show that underground insects with masses >1kg could heat, in warm, dry soils, by 1.5-6°C or more. Additional experiments showed that larval critical thermal maxima (CT max ) were in excess of 43.5°C and that larvae could behaviorally thermoregulate on a thermal gradient bar. Together, these results suggest that large larvae living underground likely regulate their temperatures primarily using behavior; self-heating by metabolism likely contributes little to their heat budgets, at least in most common soil conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Management implications of broadband sound in modulating wild silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Brooke J.; Calfee, Robin D.; Mensinger, Allen F.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) dominate large regions of the Mississippi River drainage, outcompete native species, and are notorious for their prolific and unusual jumping behavior. High densities of juvenile and adult (~25 kg) carp are known to jump up to 3 m above the water surface in response to moving watercraft. Broadband sound recorded from an outboard motor (100 hp at 32 km/hr) can modulate their behavior in captivity; however, the response of wild silver carp to broadband sound has yet to be determined. In this experiment, broadband sound (0.06–10 kHz) elicited jumping behavior from silver carp in the Spoon River near Havana, IL independent of boat movement, indicating acoustic stimulus alone is sufficient to induce jumping. Furthermore, the number of jumping fish decreased with subsequent sound exposures. Understanding silver carp jumping is not only important from a behavioral standpoint, it is also critical to determine effective techniques for controlling this harmful species, such as herding fish into a net for removal.

  4. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of coagulation factor VII gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaolin; Xu, Baohong; Xiao, Tiaoyi; Su, Jianming; Zhong, Lei

    2013-08-01

    Coagulation factor VII has been studied in several species but, to date, not in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a commercially important freshwater fish found in China. In this study, the full-length cDNA of grass carp coagulation factor VII (GcCFVII) was cloned using a RACE-Ready cDNA Kit, grass carp were challenged with a hemorrhagic virus, and temporal expression profiles of GcCFVII in the thymus, gills, liver, spleen, and head kidney were examined at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 138 h using fluorescence quantitative PCR. The results showed the 1480 bp GcCFVII to contain three conservative motifs: Gla, EGF-CA, and Tryp-SPc, similar to other species. Phylogenetic analysis showed the evolution of GcCFVII gene to be consistent with the evolution of the species. After viral challenge, GcCFVII expression in five tissues of grass carp showed different patterns of fluctuation. These results provide a solid basis for further investigation of GcCFVII and its relationship with grass carp hemorrhage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Immune-relevant thrombocytes of common carp undergo parasite-induced nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Inge R; Ribeiro, Carla M S; Forlenza, Maria; Taverne-Thiele, Anja; Rombout, Jan H W M; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2015-06-01

    Common carp thrombocytes account for 30-40% of peripheral blood leukocytes and are abundant in the healthy animals' spleen, the thrombopoietic organ. We show that, ex vivo, thrombocytes from healthy carp express a large number of immune-relevant genes, among which several cytokines and Toll-like receptors, clearly pointing at immune functions of carp thrombocytes. Few studies have described the role of fish thrombocytes during infection. Carp are natural host to two different but related protozoan parasites, Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii, which reside in the blood and tissue fluids. We used the two parasites to undertake controlled studies on the role of fish thrombocytes during these infections. In vivo, but only during infection with T. borreli, thrombocytes were massively depleted from the blood and spleen leading to severe thrombocytopenia. Ex vivo, addition of nitric oxide induced a clear and rapid apoptosis of thrombocytes from healthy carp, supporting a role for nitric oxide-mediated control of immune-relevant thrombocytes during infection with T. borreli. The potential advantage for parasites to selectively deplete the host of thrombocytes via nitric oxide-induced apoptosis is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Carp edema virus/Koi sleepy disease: an emerging disease in Central-East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewisch, E; Gorgoglione, B; Way, K; El-Matbouli, M

    2015-02-01

    Koi sleepy disease (KSD), also known as carp edema virus (CEV), was first reported from juvenile colour carp in Japan in the 1970s. Recently, this pox virus was detected in several European countries, including Germany, France and the Netherlands. In England, in addition to colour carp, outbreaks in common carp are reported. KSD/CEV is an emerging infectious disease characterized by a typical sleepy behaviour, enophthalmia, generalized oedematous condition and gill necrosis, leading to hypoxia. High mortality, of up to 80-100%, is seen in juvenile koi collected from infected ponds. In Austria, this disease had not been detected until now. In spring 2014, diagnostic work revealed the disease in two unrelated cases. In one instance, a pond with adult koi was affected; in the other, the disease was diagnosed in adult common carp recently imported from the Czech Republic. A survey was carried out on recent cases (2013/2014), chosen from those with similar anamnestic and physical examination findings, revealing a total of 5/22 cases positive for KSD/CEV. In this study, two paradigmatic cases are presented in detail. Results together with molecular evidence shaped the pattern of the first diagnosis of KSD/CEV in fish from Austrian ponds. In the light of the positive cases detected from archived material, and the spread of the disease through live stock, imported from a neighbouring country, the need for epidemiological investigations in Austria and surrounding countries is emphasized. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Development of a PCR assay to detect cyprinid herpesvirus 1 in koi and common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadanna, Pedro H O; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Peterson, Trace; Way, Keith; Stone, David M; Marty, Gary D; Pilarski, Fabiana; Hedrick, Ronald P; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2017-02-08

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 1 (CyHV1) infects all scaled and color varieties of common carp Cyprinus carpio, including koi. While it is most often associated with unsightly growths known as 'carp pox,' the underlying lesion (epidermal hyperplasia) can arise from a variety of disease processes. CyHV1-induced epidermal hyperplasia may occur transiently in response to water temperature, and thus histopathology cannot be used in isolation to assess CyHV1 infection status. To address this problem, here we describe a PCR assay targeted to the putative thymidine kinase gene of CyHV1. The PCR assay generates a 141 bp amplicon and reliably detects down to 10 copies of control plasmid DNA sequence (analytic sensitivity). The PCR does not cross-detect genomic DNA from cyprinid herpesvirus 2 and 3 (analytic specificity). The CyHV1 PCR effectively detected viral DNA in koi and common carp sampled from various locations in the UK, USA, Brazil, and Japan. Viral DNA was detected in both normal appearing and grossly affected epidermal tissues from koi experiencing natural epizootics. The new CyHV1 PCR provides an additional approach to histopathology for the rapid detection of CyHV1. Analysis of the thymidine kinase gene sequences determined for 7 PCR-positive carp originating from disparate geographical regions identified 3 sequence types, with 1 type occurring in both koi and common carp.

  8. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Si-Fa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  9. Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

  10. Accumulation and effects of metals in caged carp and resident roach along a metal pollution gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynders, H.; Bervoets, L.; Gelders, M.; Coen, W.M. de; Blust, R.

    2008-01-01

    Metal accumulation and effects on plasma Ca 2+ , alanine transaminase (ALT) and fish condition factor were examined in caged carp (Cyprinus carpio) and resident roach (Rutilus rutilus) at four locations along the Grote Nete River system (Belgium). Cadmium and zinc accumulation were found in carp and roach, with highest concentrations at the most contaminated site (dissolved Cd: 1.82 μg/l, Zn: 967 μg/l). On the tissue level, highest cadmium concentrations were measured in kidneys of carp and roach, followed by gills, intestine and liver, while low concentrations were observed in carcass and muscle. For zinc, a similar pattern was observed (intestine > kidney > gills > liver > carcass > muscle). Comparison between species showed higher cadmium concentrations in feral roach, while zinc levels were lower, owing to the high zinc concentrations in control carp. Furthermore, comparison of metal concentrations between two sampling periods (2005 and 2000-2001) revealed a drastic decrease in cadmium concentration in gills, liver and muscle of roach, similar to the reduction in waterborne cadmium concentrations, while differences for zinc were much less pronounced. In addition to metal accumulation, increased metallothionein concentrations (∼ 2x) were found in carp and roach, while no metal-related effects were found on ALT, Ca 2+ or condition factor. However, negative effects on fish community structure, as assessed by the index of biotic integrity (IBI), were found along the pollution gradient and indicated long-term adverse effects of metal pollution

  11. Accumulation and effects of metals in caged carp and resident roach along a metal pollution gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynders, H. [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: hans.reynders@ua.ac.be; Bervoets, L.; Gelders, M.; Coen, W.M. de; Blust, R. [Department of Biology, Research Unit Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2008-02-25

    Metal accumulation and effects on plasma Ca{sup 2+}, alanine transaminase (ALT) and fish condition factor were examined in caged carp (Cyprinus carpio) and resident roach (Rutilus rutilus) at four locations along the Grote Nete River system (Belgium). Cadmium and zinc accumulation were found in carp and roach, with highest concentrations at the most contaminated site (dissolved Cd: 1.82 {mu}g/l, Zn: 967 {mu}g/l). On the tissue level, highest cadmium concentrations were measured in kidneys of carp and roach, followed by gills, intestine and liver, while low concentrations were observed in carcass and muscle. For zinc, a similar pattern was observed (intestine > kidney > gills > liver > carcass > muscle). Comparison between species showed higher cadmium concentrations in feral roach, while zinc levels were lower, owing to the high zinc concentrations in control carp. Furthermore, comparison of metal concentrations between two sampling periods (2005 and 2000-2001) revealed a drastic decrease in cadmium concentration in gills, liver and muscle of roach, similar to the reduction in waterborne cadmium concentrations, while differences for zinc were much less pronounced. In addition to metal accumulation, increased metallothionein concentrations ({approx} 2x) were found in carp and roach, while no metal-related effects were found on ALT, Ca{sup 2+}or condition factor. However, negative effects on fish community structure, as assessed by the index of biotic integrity (IBI), were found along the pollution gradient and indicated long-term adverse effects of metal pollution.

  12. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

  13. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Böhm

    Full Text Available Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

  14. Identification and expression analysis of the sting gene, a sensor of viral DNA, in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X L; Chen, J J; Cao, Y; Nie, G X; Su, J G

    2016-05-01

    Stimulator of interferon gene (sting) was identified and characterized from common carp Cyprinus carpio. The sting messenger (m)RNA encoded a polypeptide of 402 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46·184 kDa and an isoelectronic point of 6·08. The deduced protein of sting contained a signal peptide, three transmembrane motifs in the N-terminal region and four putative motifs (RXR) found in resident endoplasmic reticulum proteins. mRNA expression of sting was present in twelve investigated tissues, and was up-regulated by koi herpesvirus (KHV) in vivo and in vitro. The transcription of sting was altered by poly(I:C) and poly(dT:dA) stimulation in vitro. The findings suggested that sting is an inducible gene involved in innate immunity against DNA- and RNA-derived pathogens. To investigate defence mechanisms in C. carpio development, sting level in embryos, larvae and juvenile fish was monitored following KHV challenge. The sting message was negligible in embryos prior to hatching, but observed at higher transcriptional levels throughout larval and juvenile stages. Investigation showed the mRNA expression profiles of genes encoding for proteins promoting various functions in the interferon pathway, from pattern recognition receptors to antiviral genes, to be significantly induced in all examined organs by in vivo infection with KHV. Following KHV infection, the ifn message was significantly downregulated in spleen, head kidney, brain and hepatopancreas but notably up-regulated in gill, intestine and skin, suggesting that ifn induction might be related to the mucosal immune system and virus anti-ifn mechanisms. These results provided the basis for further research into the role and mechanisms of sting in fishes. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. The Possibility of Using Irradiated Khishni (Liza abu) Fish Meal Instead of the Imported Protein Sources in The Diet of Common Carp (Cprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL shammaa, A.A; Abu Tabigh, S.M; Al Fadily, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were done,the first for ten week,in which fish meal (FM) were used instead of animal protein (AP). A total of (12) group of young common carps Cyprinus carpio L.(25.98±0.27 gm.) were fed on four experimental diets. The first three diets were with 4%, 8% and 12% of (FM) (total replacement),specific growth rate, final fish weight and protein efficiency ratio. Whereas, in the second experiment, a total of (15) groups of C.carpio (36,44±0.23 gm)were fed on five experimental diets in which (FM) were used by 12% and 15% instead of (AP) as well as by 10% and 15% instead of Soyabean meal . The fifth diets was with 0% (F M). Statistical analysis (CRD and Dun cans test ) showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between the experimental diet according to food conversion ratio. According to these results dried irradiated Khishni can be used as a (FM). and to be a good replacer for all (AP) and 50% of Soyabean (c.p. 44%) in the diet of common carp.) (author)

  16. Defensive repertoire of Drosophila larvae in response to toxic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trienens, Monika; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Wertheim, Bregje

    2017-10-01

    Chemical warfare including insecticidal secondary metabolites is a well-known strategy for environmental microbes to monopolize a food source. Insects in turn have evolved behavioural and physiological defences to eradicate or neutralize the harmful microorganisms. We studied the defensive repertoire of insects in this interference competition by combining behavioural and developmental assays with whole-transcriptome time-series analysis. Confrontation with the toxic filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans severely reduced the survival of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Nonetheless, the larvae did not behaviourally avoid the fungus, but aggregated at it. Confrontation with fungi strongly affected larval gene expression, including many genes involved in detoxification (e.g., CYP, GST and UGT genes) and the formation of the insect cuticle (e.g., Tweedle genes). The most strongly upregulated genes were several members of the insect-specific gene family Osiris, and CHK-kinase-like domains were over-represented. Immune responses were not activated, reflecting the competitive rather than pathogenic nature of the antagonistic interaction. While internal microbes are widely acknowledged as important, our study emphasizes the underappreciated role of environmental microbes as fierce competitors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. TEKNOLOGI PEMELIHARAAN LARVA KERAPU SUNU (Plectropomus leopardus SECARA MASSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek Aslianti

    2016-12-01

    Seed production technology of leopard coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus by improving hatchery management had been conducted in order to increase survival rate and to produce seed continuity. The initial feeding can successfully support in larval rearing. Feed organism as rotifer, trochophore gonad, egg yolk emulsion, and artificial feed emulsion, had been used as an initial feed. The twelve of concrete tanks with 6 m3 capacity were stocked with coral trout eggs at density 100,000—150,000 eggs/tank. Artemia nauplii, artificial feed, and mysid as feed, start on larvae D20 up to juvenile stage (D45. Growth rate and survival rate were observed and calculated when the experiment was terminated. The data was analyzed by descriptive. Nutrition value of food was analyzed by proximate and fatty acid composition. The others parameters such as deformity and water quality were observed. The result showed that artificial feed emulsion and egg yolk emulsion as an initial feeding can be improve the growth rate and increase survival rate of larvae. The range of total length, body weight and survival rate of the seed i.e. 1.95—2.85 cm; 0.64—0.73 g, and 0.25%— 3.97% with the daily growth rate 3,9%—4,22%, respectively. No back bone deformity in the seed, that is 21—23 segments with interspaces of segments 0.030—0.036 mm.

  18. PERKEMBANGAN AWAL LARVA KERAPU KERTANG (Epinephelus lanceolatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Teguh Imanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Observasi pada larva kerapu kertang (E. lanceolatus dilaksanakan di Balai Besar Riset Perikanan Budidaya Laut (BBRPBL, Gondol-Bali, untuk mengumpulkan informasi dasar tentang perkembangan awal morfologi larva yang penting untuk menunjang keberhasilan pembenihannya. Larva berasal dari telur hasil pemijahan yang dirangsang dengan hormon (di Taiwan dan ditransportasikan segera setelah menetas (D-0 melalui transportasi udara ke laboratotium pembenihan BBRPBL, Gondol. Pengamatan dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan fasilitas tangki 500 L dengan sistem air resirkulasi. Dari data yang dihimpun diketahui bahwa rata-rata panjang total larva (D-1 2,48 mm; D-8 3,17 mm; dan tumbuh dengan cepat mencapai 10,79 mm pada D-19. Kuning telur larva yang berumur sehari (D-1 rata-rata bervolume 150,3 x 10-4 mm3 dan pada hari ketiga terserap 42,61% dan habis pada hari keempat (D-4. Butir minyak larva D-1 sebesar 41,9 x 10-4 mm3 dan masih tersisa sebesar 0,34 x 10-4 mm3 sampai dengan D-6. Mulut larva diperhitungkan sudah mencapai lebar sebesar 200 μm pada D-2. dan mampu untuk memangsa rotifer sejalan dengan pigmentasi mata yang mulai terjadi pada D-2 dan sempurna pada D-3. Dari analisis pertumbuhan terjadi titik belok (flexion point pada D-8 dan setelah itu terjadi kurva pertumbuhan yang cepat y= 0,6747x-2,5508. Berdasarkan hasil observasi tersebut maka pemberian pakan awal untuk larva kerapu kertang sudah bisa diberikan pada D-2 akhir (sore, pada D-8 komposisi pakan alami sudah harus diubah dengan memberikan pakan yang lebih besar dan bernutrisi tinggi. Observation on early development of E. lanceolatus larvae have been conducted in laboratory condition at Gondol Research Institute for Mariculture (GRIM Bali; the purpose was to gain basic data mainly on the larval development stage to support both larval rearing and aquaculture technique of this species. The larvae from egg were produced by induced spawning technique and transported on D-0 to GRIM. Observation have been

  19. Chironomidae larvae (Diptera) of Neotropical floodplain: overlap niche in different habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakka, C M M; Ragonha, F H; Takeda, A M

    2014-05-01

    The niche overlap between trophic groups of Chironomidae larvae in different habitats was observed between trophic groups and between different environments in Neotropical floodplain. For the evaluation we used the index of niche overlap (CXY) and analysis of trophic networks, both from the types and amount of food items identified in the larval alimentary canal. In all environments, the larvae fed on mainly organic matter such as plants fragments and algae, but there were many omnivore larvae. Species that have high values of food items occurred in diverse environments as generalists with great overlap niche and those with a low amount of food items with less overlap niche were classified as specialists. The largest number of trophic niche overlap was observed among collector-gatherers in connected floodplain lakes. The lower values of index niche overlap were predators. The similarity in the diet of different taxa in the same niche does not necessarily imply competition between them, but coexistence when the food resource is not scarce in the environment even in partially overlapping niches.

  20. Effect of gamma rays on the larvae of Rhipicephalus bursa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gecheva, G.

    1979-01-01

    Rhipicephalus bursa larvae were exposed to a single acute gamma-irradiation from cobalt 60 source in doses from 0.5 to 40 kiloroentgen (kr). Doses higher than 20 kr rilled the larvae, lower than 10 kr produced disturbances in tick development, dependent on radiation; larvae irradiated with 2 to 3 kr started sucking blood as larvae ordinarily do, but could not undergo metamorphosis; larvae irradiated with lower doses (0.5 and 1 kr) had a prolonged metamorphosis, the onset of oviposition was delayed and the percentage of hatched second generation larvae was reduced. (A.B.)

  1. Nitrogen removal and water microbiota in grass carp culture following supplementation with Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Quan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Lee, Khui Hung; Wang, Yibing; Yu, Kan; Shen, Wenying; Fu, Luoqin; Shu, Miaoan; Li, Weifen

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was designed to study the effects of Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4 on nitrogen removal and microbial community structure in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) culture. The selected strain Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4 significantly decreased nitrite, nitrate and total nitrogen levels in water over an extended, whereas increased ammonia level. Pyrosequencing showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were dominant in grass carp culture water. Compared with the control group, the number of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were increased, while Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased in treatment group. At the genus level, some genera, such as Bacillus, Prosthecobacter, Enterococcus, etc., appear only in the treatment, while many other genera exist only in the control group; Lactobacillus, Luteolibacter, Phenylobacterium, etc. were increased in treatment group compared to those in control group. As above, the results suggested that supplementation with B. licheniformis BSK-4 could remove some nitrogen and cause alterations of the microbial composition in grass carp water.

  2. Optimization of gelatine extraction from grass carp (Catenopharyngodon idella) fish skin by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xue, Yan; Weilong, Yao; Hong, Sun D; He, Qian

    2007-12-01

    To establish the optimum gelatine extraction conditions from grass carp fish skin, response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted in this study. The effects of concentration of HCl (%, A), pre-treatment time (h, B), extraction temperature ( degrees C, C) and extraction time (h, D) were studied. The responses were yield (%) and gel strength (g). A=1.19%, B=24 h, C=52.61 degrees C and D=5.12h were determined as the optimum conditions while the predicted responses were 19.83% yield and 267 g gel strength. Gelling and melting points were 19.5 degrees C and 26.8 degrees C, respectively. Moreover, grass carp gelatine showed high contents of imino acids (proline and hydroxyproline) 19.47%. RSM provided a powerful tool to optimize the extraction parameters and the results may be adapted for industrial extraction of gelatine from grass carp fish skins.

  3. Ferromagnetic resonance in the ethmoid bones of salmon and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorobets, Svitlana; Gorobets, Oksana; Golub, Volodymyr; Gromnadska, Marina

    2017-10-01

    The detection of biogenic magnetic nanoparticles (BMN) with different magnetic properties in biological material was done using magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy. MR spectra of biological material of ethmoid bone of salmon (containing ferritin and BMN), bacteria E. coli K13 (containing ferritin and without BMN), yeast S. cerevisiae (without ferritin or BMN) and ethmoid bone of silver carp (containing ferritin and not investigated for the presence of BMN) were investigated. The analysis of MR spectra shows that S. cerevisiae cells produce much lower signal MR than samples of ethmoid bones of salmon and silver carp which is confirming conclusions about the presence of BMN and ferritin in the ethmoid bones of fishes. The narrow MR linewidth indicates that the magnetic particles in the ethmoid bones of salmon and silver carp are in monodisperse state. The presence of a broad line and the absence of a narrow peak in MR spectrum of E. coli K13 cells are typical for ferritin.

  4. Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using [ 125 I]labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of [ 125 I]thyroxine under comparable conditions

  5. Efficacy of DNA vaccine encoding koi herpesvirus glycoprotein GP-25in common carp juvenile by immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soko Nuswantoro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Koi herpesvirus (KHV is a herpesvirus that particularly infects and causes mass mortality to koi and common carp. Therefore, the protection of common carp from KHV infection is urgently needed. In this study, we developed an application of DNA vaccine encoding KHV glycoprotein-25 by immersion method to increase survival of common carp against KHV infection. A total of 400 common carp juveniles at 30-day-old were immersed in 1-L water containing 1.3×108CFU/mL of the killed Escherichia coli cells carrying DNA vaccine. Three frequencies and three duration of fish immersion were tested, namely: 1×30 minutes, 1×60 minutes, 1× 90 minutes, 2×90 minutes and 3×90 minutes by interval of 24 hours. Reversetranscription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that DNA vaccine was successfully expressed in the vaccinated fish. Fish at twenty eight days post vaccination were challenged by injecting 10-4 mL of KHV per fish. The result showed that vaccination by 1×30 minutes immersion allowed 61% of fish survived, and this was significantly higher (p<0.05 compared to control (without vaccination, but it was similar among vaccination treatments (p>0.05. The relative percent survival of vaccinated fish were also similar among treatments (p>0.05. DNA vaccination has increased fish survival about two fold higher compared to unvaccinated fish control (26.67%. Thus, DNA vaccination was effectively delivered by immersion for 1×30 minutes, and this technique can be useful to level up the resistance of common carp juveniles against KHV infection. Keywords: DNA vaccine, KHV, glycoprotein, immersion, common carp

  6. First evidence of grass carp recruitment in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Davis, J. Jeremiah; Jenkins, Jill A.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Miner, Jeffrey G.; Farver, John; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    We use aging techniques, ploidy analysis, and otolith microchemistry to assess whether four grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella captured from the Sandusky River, Ohio were the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin. All four fish were of age 1 +. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that these fish were not aquaculture-reared and that they were most likely the result of successful reproduction in the Sandusky River. First, at least two of the fish were diploid; diploid grass carp cannot legally be released in the Great Lakes Basin. Second, strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios were elevated in all four grass carp from the Sandusky River, with elevated Sr:Ca ratios throughout the otolith transect, compared to grass carp from Missouri and Arkansas ponds. This reflects the high Sr:Ca ratio of the Sandusky River, and indicates that these fish lived in a high-strontium environment throughout their entire lives. Third, Sandusky River fish were higher in Sr:Ca ratio variability than fish from ponds, reflecting the high but spatially and temporally variable strontium concentrations of southwestern Lake Erie tributaries, and not the stable environment of pond aquaculture. Fourth, Sr:Ca ratios in the grass carp from the Sandusky River were lower in their 2011 growth increment (a high water year) than the 2012 growth increment (a low water year), reflecting the observed inverse relationship between discharge and strontium concentration in these rivers. We conclude that these four grass carp captured from the Sandusky River are most likely the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin.

  7. Rosie Carpe and the Virgin Mary: Modelling Modern Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Eaton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie NDiaye’s 2001 novel, Rosie Carpe, incorporates, as one of its several instances of parenting failure, the narrative of the decline of a single mother from adequacy to abuse. This narrative, which is the focus of this article, might be said to put flesh on the bones of Julia Kristeva’s deconstruction of the Virgin Mary in her 1980s essay ‘Stabat Mater’. Kristeva saw the Marian model as out of date but she interrogated its enduring power and its continuing influence on our cultural perceptions of maternity. NDiaye’s eponymous Rosie realises she is pregnant but has no idea how this has come about. Rosie is not represented as a woman who has a religious faith but she decides to accept her child as a holy miracle. This article analyses how the ‘mythology’ of the Virgin Mary, and other biblical intertext, is woven into the narrative of Rosie’s experience of motherhood, so as to counterpoint and illuminate Rosie’s bleak and raw inner experience of maternity, an experience which, while confirming that Rosie is not, and never could have been, a modern Virgin Mary nevertheless refreshes the human stories at the root of the Christian narrative.

  8. Effects of bifenthrin on some haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velisek, J; Svobodova, Z; Machova, J

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bifenthrin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The 96-h LC50 value of Talstar EC 10 (active substance 100 g l(-1) bifenthrin) was found to be 57.5 microg l(-1). Examination of haematological and biochemical profiles and histological tissue examination was performed on common carp after 96 h of exposure to Talstar EC 10 (57.5 microg l(-1)). The experimental group showed significantly higher (P bifenthrin-based Talstar EC 10 pesticide preparation was classified as a substance strongly toxic for fish.

  9. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong , Lei; Yu , Xiaomu; Tong , Jingou

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes h...

  10. Effect of salinity level on TSH and thyroid hormones of grass carp, Ctenophayngodon idella

    OpenAIRE

    Peyghan, Rahim; Enayati, Ala; Sabzevarizadeh, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (T3, T4) have marked effect on body metabolism and in controlling osmoregulation activity in fish. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water salinity changes on thyroid hormones level and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of grass carp. For this purpose 120 grass carp were divided randomly in to four groups (10 fish in each group and three replicates per treatment). Three groups were held in three different salinities at concentrations of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1. T...

  11. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CI to CO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  12. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names DH to EC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names TF to U

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  14. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HJ to ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  15. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names AN to AR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  16. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SJ to ST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  17. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CP to DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  18. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names C to CE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  19. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names EV to GN

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  20. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names V to Z

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  1. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names ED to EU

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  2. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SD to SI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  3. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names MB to MO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  4. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names LJ to MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  5. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names AS to BA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  6. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  7. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names MP to NA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  8. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SU to TE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  9. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names PL to PO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  10. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names IE to LA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  11. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names A to AM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  12. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HB to HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names OM to OX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  14. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names Q to SA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  15. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names PP to PZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  16. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names GO to HA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  17. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names NB to OL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  18. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names LB to LI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  19. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names BCE to BZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  20. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CD to CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  1. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names OY to PI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  2. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes-Pisces) of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    the Indian Ocean, their regional, seasonal as well as diurnal variations. Engyprosopon grandisquamis dominated contributing to 23.2% of the total larvae. Numerically the incidence of bothid larvae suggested a uniform pattern of distribution during the two...

  3. Decapod larvae from the nearshore waters of Karwar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Paulinose, V.T.

    Abundance of decapod larvae at three stations in Binge Bay, Karwar has been reported based on surface collections taken during the period October 1975 to September 1976. The larvae were very common in the Bay and the postmonsoon months sustained...

  4. A comparison of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queen, worker and drone larvae by RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu-Jiang; Jiang, Wu-Jun; Zhou, Mi; Barron, Andrew B; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang

    2017-11-06

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) have haplodiploid sex determination: males develop from unfertilized eggs and females develop from fertilized ones. The differences in larval food also determine the development of females. Here we compared the total somatic gene expression profiles of 2-day and 4-day-old drone, queen and worker larvae by RNA-Seq. The results from a co-expression network analysis on all expressed genes showed that 2-day-old drone and worker larvae were closer in gene expression profiles than 2-day-old queen larvae. This indicated that for young larvae (2-day-old) environmental factors such as larval diet have a greater effect on gene expression profiles than ploidy or sex determination. Drones had the most distinct gene expression profiles at the 4-day larval stage, suggesting that haploidy, or sex dramatically affects the gene expression of honeybee larvae. Drone larvae showed fewer differences in gene expression profiles at the 2-day and 4-day time points than the worker and queen larval comparisons (598 against 1190 and 1181), suggesting a different pattern of gene expression regulation during the larval development of haploid males compared to diploid females. This study indicates that early in development the queen caste has the most distinct gene expression profile, perhaps reflecting the very rapid growth and morphological specialization of this caste compared to workers and drones. Later in development the haploid male drones have the most distinct gene expression profile, perhaps reflecting the influence of ploidy or sex determination on gene expression. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Body size, swimming speed, or thermal sensitivity? Predator-imposed selection on amphibian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvoždík, Lumír; Smolinský, Radovan

    2015-11-02

    Many animals rely on their escape performance during predator encounters. Because of its dependence on body size and temperature, escape velocity is fully characterized by three measures, absolute value, size-corrected value, and its response to temperature (thermal sensitivity). The primary target of the selection imposed by predators is poorly understood. We examined predator (dragonfly larva)-imposed selection on prey (newt larvae) body size and characteristics of escape velocity using replicated and controlled predation experiments under seminatural conditions. Specifically, because these species experience a wide range of temperatures throughout their larval phases, we predict that larvae achieving high swimming velocities across temperatures will have a selective advantage over more thermally sensitive individuals. Nonzero selection differentials indicated that predators selected for prey body size and both absolute and size-corrected maximum swimming velocity. Comparison of selection differentials with control confirmed selection only on body size, i.e., dragonfly larvae preferably preyed on small newt larvae. Maximum swimming velocity and its thermal sensitivity showed low group repeatability, which contributed to non-detectable selection on both characteristics of escape performance. In the newt-dragonfly larvae interaction, body size plays a more important role than maximum values and thermal sensitivity of swimming velocity during predator escape. This corroborates the general importance of body size in predator-prey interactions. The absence of an appropriate control in predation experiments may lead to potentially misleading conclusions about the primary target of predator-imposed selection. Insights from predation experiments contribute to our understanding of the link between performance and fitness, and further improve mechanistic models of predator-prey interactions and food web dynamics.

  6. Crustacean Larvae-Vision in the Plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas W; Bok, Michael J; Lin, Chan

    2017-11-01

    We review the visual systems of crustacean larvae, concentrating on the compound eyes of decapod and stomatopod larvae as well as the functional and behavioral aspects of their vision. Larval compound eyes of these macrurans are all built on fundamentally the same optical plan, the transparent apposition eye, which is eminently suitable for modification into the abundantly diverse optical systems of the adults. Many of these eyes contain a layer of reflective structures overlying the retina that produces a counterilluminating eyeshine, so they are unique in being camouflaged both by their transparency and by their reflection of light spectrally similar to background light to conceal the opaque retina. Besides the pair of compound eyes, at least some crustacean larvae have a non-imaging photoreceptor system based on a naupliar eye and possibly other frontal eyes. Larval compound-eye photoreceptors send axons to a large and well-developed optic lobe consisting of a series of neuropils that are similar to those of adult crustaceans and insects, implying sophisticated analysis of visual stimuli. The visual system fosters a number of advanced and flexible behaviors that permit crustacean larvae to survive extended periods in the plankton and allows them to reach acceptable adult habitats, within which to metamorphose. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  8. (Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus) Larvae on Sofala Bank

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Vertical larval fish movement influences their survival and dispersal, hence recruitment variability. This study presents the vertical behaviour of gold- spot herring (Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus) larvae observed on the Sofala Bank. (Mozambique) throughout a 48-hour period when depth-stratified samples were.

  9. Monograph On Bothid Larvae (Pleuronectiformes - Pisces)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    in the preparation of a descriptive document on the larvae of flat fishes from the Indian Ocean. However, study of the larval forms from the Indian Ocean has been made possible due to the availability of material from the Naga Expedition (1959-61) from the Gulf...

  10. Produção de pós-larvas de Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae, sob condições controladas de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Do Vale Barreto

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on production of post-larvae of the prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum under controlled laboratory conditions were developed at the Departamento de Oceanografia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, from September 1980 to February 1982. Experiments were undertaken in aquaria and tanks where the salinity and density of the populations had been changed. The best production was obtained with salinity 14/00 with a density of 38 larvae per litre. The food provided for larvae was crushed fish and nauplii of Artemia salina. Out of 13 experiments a total of 20,000 post-larvae of Macrobrachium amazonicum were obtained.

  11. ISOLASI BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DARI LARVA DAN PENGUJIAN PATOGENISITASNYA TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK VEKTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondine Ch. P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate pathogenic organisms as cause of mosquito larvae death was conducted at Wonokerto and Pabelan villages, Salatiga Luar Kota subdistrict, Semarang regency in Central Java from May 1991 through December 1991. Bacterial isolation from dead larvae showed that 31 B. thuringicnsis isolates were obtained from 31 larvae samples collected from 2 location e.g Wonokerto village (3 samples, Pabelan village (28 samples. Nineteen isolates (61,3% showed a pathogenicity of more than 50% to third toward instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively 24 hours after exposure. This study shows the possible use of B. thuringiensis for biologic control of mosquitoes which can act as vectors for human diseases.

  12. Characterization of zebrafish larvae suction feeding flow using μPIV and optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkan, Kerem; Uslu, Fazıl E.; Chang, Brain; Mani, Karthick; Chen, Chia-Yuan; Holzman, Roi

    2016-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of suction feeding is critical for the survival of fish larvae; failure to capture food during the onset of autonomous feeding can rapidly lead to starvation and mortality. Fluid mechanics experiments that investigate the suction feeding of suspended particles are limited to adult fishes, which operate at large Reynolds numbers. This manuscript presents the first literature results in which the external velocity fields generated during suction feeding of early zebrafish larv...

  13. Effects of nutritional history on stress response in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danli; Wu, Yubo; Huang, Di; Ren, Xing; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    The stress response of omnivorous gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) with different nutritional history were evaluated. A 2×2 layout, including two fish species (gibel carp or largemouth bass) and two nutritional history (fasted or fed to satiation for four weeks), was used. After feeding or fasting, the fishes were subjected to an acute handling. Fasting resulted in decrease of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content of gibel carp and largemouth bass. After handling stress, plasma levels of cortisol, glucose and lactate of gibel carp and largemouth bass increased, regardless the fasted fish or fed fish. During the period from 0h to 24h post-stress, the fasted gibel carp exhibited lower plasma cortisol and glucose levels, brain and liver glycogen contents, and liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity compared with the fed counterpart. The plasma glucose level, brain glucose level, brain and liver glycogen contents were lower, while the liver PEPCK and hexokinase (HK) activities were higher, in the faster largemouth bass than the fed counterpart. This study indicates that nutritional history can influence stress response of gibel carp and largemouth bass, and the stress response is less severe in the fasted fish relative to the fed counterpart. This study also reveals that gibel carp and largemouth bass may have different strategies in response to fasting and acute handling stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF CARP REARING DURING WINTER PERIOD IN THE CONDITIONS OF A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. STEFAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of carp culture are highly diversified, ranging from the extensive production in pond or open water with no fertilization or supplemental feeding to highly intensive systems in concrete tanks or cages. Among the different carp species, common carp is the best species reared in intensive monoculture, the others (Chinese and Indian carps being usually cultivated in polyculture (P. Kestemont, 1995. An experiment was conducted in inside recirculation system conditions to identify the technological performances on carp growth and survival at the Fishing and Aquaculture Department, Galati, during winter period (February, 2007 – March, 2007. The 1-year-old carp (Cyprinus carpio 4792g; 4594 g; 4561 g and 4525 g (total weight grew to 7384g; 7017g; 6924g and 7125 g in 44 days in aquarium 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In all aquariums, the fish appeared healthy and no mortality was observed. Feed conversion efficiencies (FCE had similar values among all aquariums, the highest FCE being found in B4 aquarium with 1, 57 value. Water quality parameters were acceptable range for fish culture. Results show that the carp rearing during winter period in the inside recirculation system is a very good economic solution.

  15. Trophic ecology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus [corrected] larvae from the Gulf of Mexico and NW Mediterranean spawning grounds: A Comparative Stable Isotope Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Laiz-Carrión

    Full Text Available The present study uses stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon (δ15Nandδ13C as trophic indicators for Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (BFT (6-10 mm standard length in the highly contrasting environmental conditions of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM and the Balearic Sea (MED. These regions are differentiated by their temperature regime and relative productivity, with the GOM being significantly warmer and more productive. MED BFT larvae showed the highest δ15N signatures, implying an elevated trophic position above the underlying microzooplankton baseline. Ontogenetic dietary shifts were observed in the BFT larvae from the GOM and MED which indicates early life trophodynamics differences between these spawning habitats. Significant trophic differences between the GOM and MED larvae were observed in relation to δ15N signatures in favour of the MED larvae, which may have important implications in their growth during their early life stages.These low δ15N levels in the zooplankton from the GOM may be an indication of a shifting isotopic baseline in pelagic food webs due to diatrophic inputs by cyanobacteria. Lack of enrichment for δ15N in BFT larvae compared to zooplankton implies an alternative grazing pathway from the traditional food chain of phytoplankton-zooplankton-larval fish. Results provide insight for a comparative characterization of the trophic pathways variability of the two main spawning grounds for BFT larvae.

  16. Lagrangian Observations and Modeling of Marine Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Claire B.; Irisson, Jean-Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Just within the past two decades, studies on the early-life history stages of marine organisms have led to new paradigms in population dynamics. Unlike passive plant seeds that are transported by the wind or by animals, marine larvae have motor and sensory capabilities. As a result, marine larvae have a tremendous capacity to actively influence their dispersal. This is continuously revealed as we develop new techniques to observe larvae in their natural environment and begin to understand their ability to detect cues throughout ontogeny, process the information, and use it to ride ocean currents and navigate their way back home, or to a place like home. We present innovative in situ and numerical modeling approaches developed to understand the underlying mechanisms of larval transport in the ocean. We describe a novel concept of a Lagrangian platform, the Drifting In Situ Chamber (DISC), designed to observe and quantify complex larval behaviors and their interactions with the pelagic environment. We give a brief history of larval ecology research with the DISC, showing that swimming is directional in most species, guided by cues as diverse as the position of the sun or the underwater soundscape, and even that (unlike humans!) larvae orient better and swim faster when moving as a group. The observed Lagrangian behavior of individual larvae are directly implemented in the Connectivity Modeling System (CMS), an open source Lagrangian tracking application. Simulations help demonstrate the impact that larval behavior has compared to passive Lagrangian trajectories. These methodologies are already the base of exciting findings and are promising tools for documenting and simulating the behavior of other small pelagic organisms, forecasting their migration in a changing ocean.

  17. Long Frontal Projections Help Battus philenor (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) Larvae Find Host Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Ikuo; Tsuchihara, Kazuko; Suzuki, Taichi A; Yokoi, Tomoyuki; Papaj, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    Animals sometimes develop conspicuous projections on or near their heads as, e.g., weaponry, burrowing or digging tools, and probes to search for resources. The frontal projections that insects generally use to locate and assess resources are segmented appendages, including antennae, maxillary palps, and labial palps. There is no evidence to date that arthropods, including insects, use projections other than true segmental appendages to locate food. In this regard, it is noteworthy that some butterfly larvae possess a pair of long antenna-like projections on or near their heads. To date, the function of these projections has not been established. Larvae of pipevine swallowtail butterflies Battus philenor (Papilionidae) have a pair of long frontal fleshy projections that, like insect antennae generally, can be actively moved. In this study, we evaluated the possible function of this pair of long moveable frontal projections. In laboratory assays, both frontal projections and lateral ocelli were shown to increase the frequency with which search larvae found plants. The frontal projections increased finding of host and non-host plants equally, suggesting that frontal projections do not detect host-specific chemical cues. Detailed SEM study showed that putative mechanosensillae are distributed all around the frontal as well as other projections. Taken together, our findings suggest that the frontal projections and associated mechanosensillae act as vertical object detectors to obtain tactile information that, together with visual information from lateral ocelli and presumably chemical information from antennae and mouthparts, help larvae to find host plants. Field observations indicate that host plants are small and scattered in southern Arizona locations. Larvae must therefore find multiple host plants to complete development and face significant challenges in doing so. The frontal projections may thus be an adaptation for finding a scarce resource before starving to

  18. Feeding frequency and caste differentiation in Bombus terrestris larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, M.F.; Velthuis, H.H.W.; Duchateau, Marie José; Tweel, I. van der

    1998-01-01

    The frequency with which bumble bee larvae are fed during their development was studied using video-recordings. The behaviour of the workers while feeding worker, male and queen larvae of Bombus terrestris was recorded. At the beginning of development, female larvae of both castes were fed at a

  19. Using pharyngeal teeth and chewing pads to estimate juvenile Silver Carp total length in the La Grange Reach, Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampo, Eli G.; Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jon; Anderson, Cory A.; Rechkemmer, Will T.; Solomon, Levi E.; Casper, Andrew F.; Pendleton, Richard M.; Lamer, James T.

    2017-01-01

    The Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix is an invasive species in the Mississippi River basin; an understanding of their vulnerability to predation as juveniles may inform control by native predators and predator enhancement (e.g., stocking). Digestion of Silver Carp prey recovered from diets makes it difficult to determine the size‐classes that are most vulnerable to predation by native fishes. The objective of this study was to determine whether the sizes of the chewing pad (CP), pharyngeal teeth (PT), and pharyngeal arch (PA)—the Silver Carp structures most often found intact in predator diets—were predictive of the TL of prey Silver Carp. During 2014 and 2015, juvenile Silver Carp (n = 136; <180 mm) were collected using 60‐Hz pulsed‐DC electrofishing and mini‐fyke nets in the La Grange reach of the Illinois River. We extracted Silver Carp CPs (n = 136 fish) and PAs with PT intact (n = 129 fish) and measured CP length (CPL) and width (CPW), eight reproducible PT landmarks (PT1L–PT4L; PT1W–PT4W), and four reproducible PA landmarks (PA1–PA4) to the nearest 0.01 µm. Using simple linear regression, we found a strong predictive relationship between measurements of CP, PT, or PA and the TL of Silver Carp. The CPL (r2 = 0.94) and CPW (r2 = 0.94) had the strongest relationships with Silver Carp TL, followed by PA1 (r2 = 0.89) and PT1L (r2 = 0.87). These strong relationships suggest that all three structures could be used in diet analyses to accurately estimate Silver Carp TL and thus further our understanding of predator–prey dynamics for this high‐risk invasive species.

  20. Preservation of the genetic diversity of a local common carp in the agricultural heritage rice–fish system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weizheng; Hu, Liangliang; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Lu; Zhang, Entao; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    We examined how traditional farmers preserve the genetic diversity of a local common carp (Cyprinus carpio), which is locally referred to as “paddy field carp” (PF-carp), in a “globally important agricultural heritage system” (GIAHS), i.e., the 1,200-y-old rice–fish coculture system in Zhejiang Province, China. Our molecular and morphological analysis showed that the PF-carp has changed into a distinct local population with higher genetic diversity and diverse color types. Within this GIAHS region, PF-carps exist as a continuous metapopulation, although three genetic groups could be identified by microsatellite markers. Thousands of small farmer households interdependently obtained fry and parental carps for their own rice–fish production, resulting in a high gene flow and large numbers of parent carps distributing in a mosaic pattern in the region. Landscape genetic analysis indicated that farmers’ connectivity was one of the major factors that shaped this genetic pattern. Population viability analysis further revealed that the numbers of these interconnected small farmer households and their connection intensity affect the carps’ inherent genetic diversity. The practice of mixed culturing of carps with diverse color types helped to preserve a wide range of genetic resources in the paddy field. This widespread traditional practice increases fish yield and resource use, which, in return, encourages famers to continue their practice of selecting and conserving diverse color types of PF-carp. Our results suggested that traditional farmers secure the genetic diversity of PF-carp and its viability over generations in this region through interdependently incubating and mixed-culturing practices within the rice−fish system. PMID:29295926

  1. Grass Carp Follisatin: Molecular Cloning, Functional Characterization, Dopamine D1 Regulation at Pituitary Level, and Implication in Growth Hormone Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. K. Fung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Activin is involved in pituitary hormone regulation and its pituitary actions can be nullified by local production of its binding protein follistatin. In our recent study with grass carp, local release of growth hormone (GH was shown to induce activin expression at pituitary level, which in turn could exert an intrapituitary feedback to inhibit GH synthesis and secretion. To further examine the activin/follistatin system in the carp pituitary, grass carp follistatin was cloned and confirmed to be single-copy gene widely expressed at tissue level. At the pituitary level, follistatin signals could be located in carp somatotrophs, gonadotrophs, and lactotrophs. Functional expression also revealed that carp follistatin was effective in neutralizing activin’s action in stimulating target promoter with activin-responsive elements. In grass carp pituitary cells, follistatin co-treatment was found to revert activin inhibition on GH mRNA expression. Meanwhile, follistatin mRNA levels could be up-regulated by local production of activin but the opposite was true for dopaminergic activation with dopamine (DA or its agonist apomorphine. Since GH stimulation by DA via pituitary D1 receptor is well-documented in fish models, the receptor specificity for follistatin regulation by DA was also investigated. Using a pharmacological approach, the inhibitory effect of DA on follistatin gene expression was confirmed to be mediated by pituitary D1 but not D2 receptor. Furthermore, activation of D1 receptor by the D1-specific agonist SKF77434 was also effective in blocking follistatin mRNA expression induced by activin and GH treatment both in carp pituitary cells as well as in carp somatotrophs enriched by density gradient centrifugation. These results, as a whole, suggest that activin can interact with dopaminergic input from the hypothalamus to regulate follistatin expression in carp pituitary, which may contribute to GH regulation by activin/follistatin system

  2. Larva migrans visceral: relato de caso Visceral larva migrans: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bortoli Machado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral é doença infecciosa, adquirida por ingestão de ovos provenientes dos vermes Toxocara canis e/ou Toxocara cati que infestam cães e gatos; as larvas penetram a parede intestinal e migram através dos tecidos levando a alterações diversas, conseqüentes a uma resposta inflamatória imune.¹ Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de larva migrans visceral com apresentação clínica atípica.Visceral larva migrans is an infectious human disease that occurs following ingestion of eggs from the environment originating from roundworms which commonly infect dogs and cats, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. The larvae penetrate the gut wall and migrate through the tissues causing disorders consequent to an inflammatory immune response¹. The authors describe a clinical case of visceral larva migrans with an unusual clinical presentation and also its clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed.

  3. Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-10-01

    We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. A fly in the ointment: evaluation of traditional use of plants to repel and kill blowfly larvae in fermented fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo J de Boer

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In rural areas in Laos, fly larvae infestations are common in fermenting fish. Blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala, Diptera: Calliphoridae are attracted to oviposit (and/or larviposit onto fermenting fish which results in infestations with fly larvae. Knowledge of traditional use of plants to repel larvae during the production of fermented fish is common and widespread in Lao PDR. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: How effective are the most salient species in repelling, and killing fly larvae in fermenting fish? MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three plant species most frequently reported to repel fly larvae during an ethnobotanical survey throughout Lao PDR were tested for repellence and larvicidal activity of fly larvae infesting fermented fish. The lethality and repellence of Tadehagi triquetrum (L. H. Ohashi (Fabaceae, Uraria crinita (L. Desv. ex DC. (Fabaceae and Bambusa multiplex (Lour. Raeusch. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Poaceae were tested in an experimental design using fermenting fish in Vientiane, Lao PDR. RESULTS: The repellent effect of fresh material of T. triquetrum and U. crinita, and the larvicidal effect of fresh B. multiplex, is significantly more effective than that of dried material of the same species, and the total effect (repellence and larvicidal effect combined for each of the three species was significantly more effective for fresh than for dry material. Fresh material of T. triquetrum, U. crinita, or B. multiplex added on top of the fermenting fish repelled 50%, 54%, 37%, and killed 22%, 28%, and 40% of fly larvae. The total effect was not significantly different per species at 72%, 82%, and 77%, respectively. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The three most salient species are effective in repelling and killing fly larvae in the production of fermented fish, and may be essential to augment food safety during traditional fermentation in open jars.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and Russian scattered scale mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang Fu; Liu, Xiang Jiang; Zou, Gui Wei; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete mitogenomes of (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and Russian scattered scale mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio). Comparison of these two mitogenomes revealed that the mitogenomes of these two common carp strains were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. There were only 55 bp variations in 16,581 nucleotides. About 1 bp variation was located in rRNAs, 2 bp in tRNAs, 9 bp in the control region and 43 bp in protein-coding genes. Furthermore, forty-three variable nucleotides in the protein-coding genes of the two strains led to four variable amino acids, which were located in the ND2, ATPase 6, ND5 and ND6 genes, respectively.

  6. Assessing the efficacy of corn-based bait containing antimycin-a to control common carp populations using laboratory and pond experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Joshua R.; Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Bajer, Przemyslaw G.

    2018-01-01

    Strategic use of oral toxicants could allow for practical and sustainable control schemes for the invasive common carp (Cyprinus carpio, or ‘carp’) if a toxicant selectively targeted carp and not native species. In this study, we incorporated antimycin-a (ANT-A), a known fish toxicant, into a corn-based bait and conducted a series of experiments to determine its toxicity, leaching rate, and species-specificity. Our results showed that ANT-A was lethal to carp at doses ≥ 4 mg/kg and that the amount of ANT-A that leached out of the bait in 72 h was not lethal to carp or bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Species-specificity trials were conducted in 227 L tanks, in which carp were stocked with three native species representing families that occur sympatrically with carp in our study region: the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill. These trials showed high mortality of carp (46%) and fathead minnows (76%) but no significant mortality of perch or bluegill. Finally, a pond study, which used the same species composition except for fathead minnows, resulted in 37% morality among adult carp and no mortality among perch or bluegill. Our results suggest that corn-based bait that contains ANT-A could be used to selectively control carp in ecosystems dominated by percids or centrarchids, such as lakes across the Great Plains ecoregion of North America, where carp are especially problematic.

  7. Isotope niche dimension and trophic overlap between bigheaded carps and native filter-feeding fish in the lower Missouri River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzhu; Chapman, Duane C.; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yang; Gu, Binhe

    2018-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) were used to evaluate trophic niche overlap between two filter-feeding fishes (known together as bigheaded carp) native to China, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), and three native filter-feeding fish including bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) and paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in the lower Missouri River, USA, using the Bayesian Stable Isotope in R statistics. Results indicate that except for bigmouth buffalo, all species displayed similar trophic niche size and trophic diversity. Bigmouth buffalo occupied a small trophic niche and had the greatest trophic overlap with silver carp (93.6%) and bighead carp (94.1%) followed by gizzard shad (91.0%). Paddlefish had a trophic niche which relied on some resources different from those used by other species, and therefore had the lowest trophic overlap with bigheaded carp and other two native fish. The trophic overlap by bigheaded carp onto native fish was typically stronger than the reverse effects from native fish. Average niche overlap between silver carp and native species was as high as 71%, greater than niche overlap between bighead carp and native fish (64%). Our findings indicate that bigheaded carps are a potential threat to a diverse and stable native fish community.

  8. Effects of 2-phenoxyethanol Anaesthesia on Haematological Profile on Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Velíšek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess changes in haematological profile of common carp (Cyprinus carpio and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss after the exposure to anaesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol. The haematological profile was assessed before, immediately after 10 min of anaesthesia and 24 h after the anaesthesia with recommended concentration of 0.30 ml l-1 2-phenoxyethanol. The 10-min exposure to 2-phenoxyethanol of common carp caused the significant increase (p -1 does not cause irreversible damage of the blood in common carp and rainbow trout.

  9. Chlorinated paraffins: disposition of a polychloro-[l-14C]hexadecane in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Brandt, I.; Bergman, Aa.

    1983-01-01

    The disposition of polychloro-[l- 14 C]hexadecane was studied in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus). After intra-arterial injection in carp about 6% of dose was excreted as 14 CO 2 in 96 h. The autoradiographic distribution pattern after administration of PCHD to carp and bleak was characterized by a strong labelling in the bile/intestinal contents. High radioactivity also appeared in the kidney, liver, gills and, particularly in bleak, in the nasal cavity, lens and skin. (Auth.)

  10. Comparison of rearing performances and intermuscular bone number in the mirror and nude genotypes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in a controlled field test in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Edithe Andria-Mananjara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nude carps, a genotype of common carp which are devoid of scales, have been banned from farmed populations of carp in Europe due to both the lethal effect of the N (nude gene when in homozygous state, and to the negative pleiotropic effects on growth and survival (especially in harsh conditions of this same gene in the heterozygous state, which produces the nude phenotype. In Madagascar, where climatic variations are less extreme than in Eastern Europe, the nude phenotype is valued both by farmers and consumers, for its good growth and supposed low number of intermuscular bones. We performed an on-farm experiment using a “common garden” design to control environmental variation, in order to compare the growth and survival, as well as the number of intermuscular bones of nude carp to two other common scale cover phenotypes of the same species, the mirror and scaly carps. We found that survival of nude carps was lower or equal to that of mirror carps at all stages of the farming process, while growth performance was lower than that of mirror carps in some ponds only. Globally, the biomass production per fish stocked was always lower in nude carp compared to mirror carp. The number of intermuscular bones was the same in nude, mirror and scaly carps. We conclude that as in Europe, it would be valuable to farm mirror rather than nude carps, as the supposed benefits of the latter are not supported by our experiment in typical Malagasy farming conditions. Keywords: Nude carp, Growth, Survival, Pleiotropy, Intermuscular bones

  11. Expression of Major histocompatibility complex genes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, P.N.S.

    1996-01-01


    The common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) has been the experimental animal of choice because many features of the immune system of this Cyprinid fish have been well characterized. The immune system consists of an integrated set of organs containing

  12. Mouth and fin deformities in common carp: is there a genetic basis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocour, Martin; Linhart, Otomar; Vandeputte, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 37, 4 (2006), s. 419-422 ISSN 1355-557X R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF4117 Grant - others:BARRANDE 03218RF; BARRANDE 07508SA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : common carp Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.051, year: 2006

  13. Top-crossing with evaluation of slaughtering value in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) offspring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gela, David; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2003), s. 379-387 ISSN 0967-6120 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/97/S056; GA MŠk ME 403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : common carp Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.446, year: 2003

  14. Increased stocking density influences the acute physiological stress response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio (L.))

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.; Carballo, E.C.; Komen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The physiological response of common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) to increased stocking density and an additional acute net confinement stressor was investigated. Stocking densities were increased from 28.4 to 56.8 or 113.6 kg m¿3 by the use of crowding screens and fish were sampled from the crowded

  15. THERMAL AND OXYGEN CONDITIONS IN CARP PONDS DURING THE SUMMER PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wiśnios

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The work presents changes of oxygen indices in carp ponds during the summer season. The basis of the research were regular water tests conducted in two ponds: Mydlniki II intended for carp farming in the second year of fish production cycle and Bocian used for carp farming in the third (final year of breeding. The temperature of pond water in July and August was optimal for development and farming of cyprinid fish and ranged from 16.6 to 30.5 °C. The lowest value of oxygen dissolved in water (6.4 mg·dm-3 was registered in Mydlniki II pond and was higher than the oxygen optimum for carp (5 mg·dm-3. Oxygen saturation in water of fish ponds exceeded the optimum upper limit value (168% on a few dates, however, it posed no lethal threat for fish. In August in Bocian pond oxygen saturation fell within the range of optimal values, creating better conditions for fish development. In the secondary pond (Mydlniki II it was found that oxygen saturation in water on 12 dates was lower than the low optimal value (96%.

  16. Stress and stress disorders in a teleost fish, the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Unlike research using mammalian animal models such as rats or mice, experimental fish often come from wild or commercial sources, leading to a lack of well defined experimental animal models. Isogenic carp offer us a well defined fish model for physiological research. The aim of this thesis

  17. Clones of common carp, Cyprinus carpio = New perspectives in fish research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, J.

    1990-01-01

    The absence of well defined inbred lines is an important problem associated with scientific research on fish. Inbred lines can be produced by conventional full-sib mating, but at least 10-15 generations are needed to produce homozygous inbred lines. Using common carp, which reach maturity

  18. Translocation, accumulation and distribution of 110mAg in carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuanzhao; Zhao Wenhu; Xu Shiming

    1995-01-01

    The experimental carp were raised in the water with 110m Ag specific activity of 3.7 x 10 2 Bq/L, 3.7 x 10 3 Bq/L, 3.7 x 10 4 Bq/L respectively. The carp were sampled after raising 1,2,3,5,7,9,12,15,18,21 and 23 days, and separated into scale, bone, muscle, gill, alimentary canal, heart and heptapancreas for measuring the radioactivity. The results showed that 110m Ag was absorbed rapidly by carp via gill and alimentary canal from water, and distributed into all parts of the body, mainly in soft tissue with blood circulation. 110m Ag accumulation of the body increased with the 110m Ag specific activity in the water in the same raising time. The accumulation of 110m Ag in gill, alimentary canal, heart, muscle and bone appeared mono-peak curves with raising time. There was a linear relationship between the specific activity of 110m Ag in heptapancreas and the carp's raising time in 110m Ag water. The concentration abilities for 110m Ag in all organs were in the order of heptapancreas>gill>alimentary>canal>heart>muscle>bone

  19. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  20. Insulin alone can lead to a withdrawal of meiotic arrest in the carp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meiotic arrest of oocyte in an Indian carp, Labeo rohita Ham. has been found for the first time to be withdrawn by insulin only. Addition of insulin to oocytes in vitro caused germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), one of the first visual markers to determine initiation of the final maturational process. Under the influence of insulin ...

  1. Monoclonal antibody FsC-47 against carp sperm creatine kinase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubek, Pavel; Elzeinová, Fatima; Šulc, Miroslav; Linhart, O.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2006), s. 154-157 ISSN 1554-0014 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/03/0178 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : creatin kinase * monoclonal antibody * carp sperm Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.411, year: 2006

  2. Respiratory Neuron Activity in the Mesencephalon, Diencephalon and Cerebellum of the Carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, C.M.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Jüch, P.J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The functional properties, localization and connections of neurons with a respiratory-rhythmic firing pattern in the mesencephalon, diencephalon and cerebellum of the carp were studied. Some neurons acquire respiratory rhythm only as a side effect of respiration via sensory stimulation by movements

  3. Effects of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Feed on Immunological Parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Bitsayah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxin contamination is a common natural phenomenon that is difficult to avoid or control and it can occur during pre and post-harvest periods under high humidity and temperature conditions, and are potentially dangerous to fish. In the present study, a feeding trial evaluated the effects of diets contaminated with aflatoxin on certain immunological parameters of common carp. Methods: The immunotoxicity assessment of juvenile common carp was performed on 180 fish divided into five groups with triplicate: Control group received normal feed (Group I; group II was fed diets contaminated with extraction solution (methanol, acetone and diluted water as a positive control. Group III-V was respectively fed diets contaminated with 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 feed for 3 wk. Results: Lysozyme activities, total immunoglobulin contents, complement C3 and C4 activities in plasma of common carp fed with different concentrations of aflatoxins significantly decreased when compared to that of the control fish. Although plasma ACH50 contents remained unchanged in 0.5 mg kg-1 aflatoxins, ACH50 contents decreased in 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 groups after 21 d of aflatoxin treatment. No significant changes were observed in immunological parameters between the control positive and control groups throughout the experimental periods. Conclusion: Oral exposure to aflatoxin (0.5 mg kg-1≤ could adversely affect immunological parameters of common carp.

  4. Effect of cadmium on blood plasma biochemistry in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drastichová, J.; Svobodová, Z.; Lusková, Věra; Čelechovská, O.; Kaláb, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 4 (2004), s. 733-740 ISSN 0007-4861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : common carp * haematology * cadmium Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2004 http://www.springerlink.com/content/t87rpmd2d0cx2f9h/fulltext.pdf

  5. EFFECTS OF VAGAL SENSORY INPUT ON THE BREATHING RHYTHM OF THE CARP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGRAAF, PJF; ROBERTS, BL

    Electrical stimulation of an epibranchial vagal ganglion, which innervates the gill region, had a marked influence on the respiratory rhythm of the carp Cyprinus carpio. Vagal input could initiate ventilation in fish displaying intermittent respiration. In fish breathing steadily, vagal stimuli

  6. The effect of diazinon on blood plasma biochemistry in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, Věra; Svoboda, M.; Kolářová, J.

    Roc. 71, č. 1 (2002), s. 117-123 ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : common carp * acute toxicity * haematology Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.370, year: 2002 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol71/pdf/71_117.pdf

  7. Effect of deltamethrin on haematological indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Z.; Lusková, Věra; Drastichová, J.; Svoboda, M.; Žlábek, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2003), s. 79-85 ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : pyrethroids * acute toxicity * common carp Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2003 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol72/pdf/72_079.pdf

  8. The effect of diazinon on haematological indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, M.; Lusková, Věra; Drastichová, J.; Žlábek, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 4 (2001), s. 457-465 ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 162700004 Keywords : common carp * acute toxicity * haematology Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2001 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol70/pdf/70_457.pdf

  9. Heredity of stress-related response in androgenetic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, M.W.T.; Vermeulen, K.J.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the heritability for the intensity of the stress-related cortisol response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using androgenetic progeny groups. For this, 660 androgenetic individuals (age: 110 days) were subjected to a 9°C cold shock and blood sampled 20 min

  10. Plasma cortisol and metabolite level profiles in two isogenic strains of common carp during confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.; Huisman, E.A.; Komen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A rapid increase in common carp Cyprinus carpio plasma cortisol levels was noted, in two experiments, after 30 mins of a 3 h net confinement, which was sustained while the fish were held in the nets. After release from the nets, cortisol levels returned to control values in 1 h. Plasma glucose and

  11. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  12. Afferent and Efferent Connections of the Optic Tectum in the Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The afferent and efferent connections of the tectum opticum in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied with the HRP method. Following iontophoretic peroxidase injections in several parts of the rectum anterograde transport of the enzyme revealed tectal projections to the lateral geniculate

  13. Effect of cadmium on hematological indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drastichová, J.; Svobodová, Z.; Lusková, Věra; Máchová, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 4 (2004), s. 725-732 ISSN 0007-4861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : common carp * haematology * cadmium Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2004 http://www.springerlink.com/content/k1165kk79hdjfqjf/fulltext.pdf

  14. Differential macrophage polarisation during parasitic infections in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joerink, Maaike; Forlenza, Maria; Ribeiro, Carla M. S.; de Vries, Beitske J.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2006-01-01

    In many parasitic infections both classically activated macrophages (caMF) and alternatively activated macrophages (aaMF) play a pivotal role. To investigate if both types of macrophages also play an important role during parasitic infections in fish, we infected carp with either Trypanoplasma

  15. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment aged for 2 years to carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S. Y.; Li, J. Y.; Jia, X. M.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the risk of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) existing in sediment for years, the accumulation of PBDEs in sediment aged for 2 years to fish was investigated. Simulated aquatic system microcosms were conducted with PBDE contaminated sediment aged for 2 years and carps were cultured in the microcosms for 20 days. PBDE concentrations in carp tissues were analyzed to estimate the bioavailability of aged PBDEs in carps. The main spiked PBDE congeners were detected in sediment even though the contaminated sediment was aged for 2 years. Similarly, the five PBDE (BDE-28, 47, 100, 153 and 154) congeners which probably were bioaccumulated by carp were detected in fish tissues, indicating that PBDEs could be bioaccumulated after aging for 2 years. The PBDEs distribution revealed that the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in tissues of Cyprinus carpio is in this order of magnitude: gut > liver > gill > fillet. The PBDEs concentrations in fillet were as high as 67.9 ng/g dry wt, in which BDE-47 contributed almost 50% in profile.

  16. Haematological and biochemical profiles of carp blood following nitrite exposure at different concentrations of chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Z.; Máchová, J.; Drastichová, J.; Groch, L.; Lusková, Věra; Poleszczuk, G.; Velíšek, J.; Kroupová, H.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 12 (2005), s. 1177-1184 ISSN 1355-557X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : common carp * acute toxicity * gill histopathology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2005

  17. A model of cumulation of 137Cs in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapulinski, J.; Buszman, A.; Kwapulinska, G.

    1976-01-01

    A model of 137 Cs as accumulation in various stages of carp development is presented. The model includes the influence of body weight and weight increase on 137 Cs concentration. Moreover, an equation is given, illustrating the influence of the activity of bottom sediments and global fallout. The model was checked, using the results of 137 Cs determinations in the years 1965-1970

  18. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, S.; Halajlan, A.; Luus-Powell, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 9 (2015), s. 3521-3524 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Biological invasions * Helminth parasites * Fish * Common carp * Cyprinus carpio * Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2015

  19. Growth Comparison of Israeli Carp (Cyprinus carpio) to Different Breeding Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ju-ae; Goo, In Bon; Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Myung Hun; Kim, Do Hee; Im, Jae Hyun; Choi, Hye-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the improvement of growth in Israeli carp (Cyprinus carpio), and the cross experiment was carried out with two strains of Israeli carp. Four combinations of Israeli carp from Jeonbuk fisheries farm and Songpu mirror carp from Heilong Jiang, China (KK; Jeonbuk ♀ × Jeonbuk ♂, KC; Jeonbuk ♀ × China ♂, CC; China ♀ × China ♂ and CK; China ♀ × Jeonbuk ♂) were developed and reared. Body length, body weight and condition factor were determined at 20, 40, 60 and 170 days post-hatch (DPH). The results showed that there were differences in growth rate of the four groups. Body length of four groups were CK > CC > KC > KK and body weight were CC > CK > KC > KK at 170 DPH. The growth perfomance of four groups were statistically significant difference (P<0.05). During the rearing, CC group had longer length and higher weight at 170 DPH compared to other three groups and also condition factor was highest in the CC group, but there was no significant difference in a survival rate. These results indicated that the growth performance mainly depended upon brooder combination but survival rate could not significantly affect brooder. PMID:28144632

  20. Cytochemical study of carp neutrophil granulocytes after acute exposure to cadmium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drastichová, J.; Švestková, E.; Lusková, Věra; Svobodová, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2005), s. 215-219 ISSN 0175-8659 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : peripheral-blood leukocytes * cadmium * common carp Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2005

  1. SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...

  2. Radioiodine uptake in young carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) retarded in growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysak, A.

    1978-01-01

    In the light of results obtained in recent years, radioiodine disposition in young carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), retarded in growth is described. The pharynx centre accumulates most of the administered radioiodine. Activation of renal centre takes place already after 10 days of intensive feeding. (author)

  3. The quality of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) cultured in various Polish regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkaczewska, Joanna; Migdał, Władysław; Kulawik, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    Although environmental factors greatly affect the quality of carp meat, no regulations impose labelling the place of cultivation of freshwater fish. That is why the purpose of this study was to determine the quality of carp meat cultivated in several regions of Poland as well as to assess the necessity of implementing such regulations. The influence of the cultivation region on colour, nutrition value, health safety and sensory quality of carp meat was assessed. The analysis included colour measurement, determination of fatty acid profile and sensory evaluation of carp muscle. Moreover, microbiological analysis of the fish surface was performed. The results show that the place of cultivation does not influence the lightness (L*) of fillet, but has an impact on other colour parameters (a*, b*). The microbiological quality of fish from all studied farms was satisfactory, since no pathogenic microorganisms were observed on the fish surface. The fatty acid profile was fairly varied (P cultures should be performed, before any recommendation for the necessity of labelling the place and method of cultivation should be suggested. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Asian Carp Survivability Experiments and Water Transport Surveys in the Illinois River. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Report) UNCLAS//Public 20. Security Class (This Page) UNCLAS//Public 21. No of Pages 131 22. Price Asian Carp Survivability Experiments and...7 Water Depth (ft): # flours Filled (Target): ’ZL\\ \\,\\t\\7 ’:, (Actual): d_~ # Ho1,.1rs Filled (Target): ( O’-( hiL’" (Actual): l\\1

  5. Histopathological study on the effect of rice herbicides on grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodan idella) fingerlings were exposed to rice herbicides butachlor 1.5 kg ha-1, oxyfluorfen 0.25 kg ha-1 and thiobencarb 1.5 kg ha-1, 12 days after their application in the respective fields. To observe the impact of herbicides on the histopathology of the fish, the fingerlings were collected from the ...

  6. HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON INTERNAL ORGANS DEVELOPMENT OF MANGROVE SNAPPER, Lutjanus argentimaculatus LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Mahardika

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus is one of highly economic value of marine fish commodity. Culture of this species has been developed a few years ago. Basic data on biological aspect is still limited whereas those kinds of information are needed. Histological study to determine development of internal organs of the larvae of mangrove snapper was conducted. Amount of 15-20 larvae each from 1 day after DAH hatching (1 DAH up to 30 days after hatching (30 DAH were collected, fixed in Bouin’s solution for 4-6 hours and then transferred into 70% alcohol. The samples were then embedded in paraffin wax and the sections were stained with haematoxylineosin (H&E. Results showed that the eye retina of the mangrove snapper larvae well developed on 3 DAH, whereas their digestive tract was on 5 DAH. Under this condition, the larvae started feeding as showed by present of natural food tissues in the intestine. Development of digestive tract and other internal organs reached their complete form like in adult fish after 20 DAH.

  7. Antioxidant enzyme level response to prooxidant allelochemicals in larvae of the southern armyworm moth, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsos, C A; Ahmad, S; Elliott, A J; Pardini, R S

    1990-01-01

    Larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, are highly polyphagous feeders which frequently encounter and feed upon plants containing high levels of prooxidant allelochemicals. While ingestion of moderate quantities of prooxidants can be tolerated by these larvae, ingestion of larger quantities can result in toxicity. Studies were conducted to assess the role of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the protection of S. eridania against redox active prooxidant plant allelochemicals. Dietary exposure of mid-fifth-instar larvae to either quercetin (a flavonoid) or xanthotoxin (a photoactive furanocoumarin), which generate superoxide radical, and singlet oxygen, respectively, resulted in an increase in SOD levels. CAT levels increased in all groups of S. eridania including control insects. This may have been due to the sudden exposure to food following an extended fast of 18 h (to insure that larvae would not reject the diet because of the prooxidants' bitter taste) with an eventual lowering of CAT values with time. GR activities did not significantly change except for a slight inhibition at the highest prooxidant concentrations used at 12-h post-ingestion. The data from these studies suggest that SOD responds to prooxidant challenges in these insects and together with CAT and GR contributes to the insect's defense against potentially toxic prooxidant compounds.

  8. Experimental absorption and desorption study on a combination of 60Co, 51Cr, 137Cs, 54Mn and 22Na in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsh, A.F.; Baudin, J.P.

    1984-03-01

    The study of radionuclide behavior in water shows that about 25% of the 60 Co et 98% of the 54 Mn are found in particle form, while 96% of the 137 Cs and 87% of the 22 Na remain in solution. The soluble fraction generally remains cationic except for 60 Co, of which over one-fourth becames anionic. The uptake kinetics in the carp vary widely according to the radionuclide. The process is linear for 54 Mn, and tends to decrease in time for 137 Cs, while an equilibrium state tends to avise with 60 Co and 22 Na. The fresh weight concentration factors calculated after 65 days of experimentation were 150, 12, 3 and 120, respectively. Contaminated carp placed in non-radioactive water for 57 days lost between 45% and 65% of the 60 Co, 137 Cs and 54 Mn uptake. These elimination rates correspond to biological half-lives of 70-120 days for radioactive cobalt and cesium, and longer than 120 days for 54 Mn. The process was much more rapid with 22 Na, 95% of which was eliminated in 57 days: this corresponds to two biological half lives of 3 and 15 days. When the fish were deprived of food the process was appreciably slower, but in different proportions for each radionuclide; the effect was more significant for 137 Cs and 60 Co than for 54 Mn and 22 Na. The fecal excretion of radionuclides also diminished: smaller quantities of 60 Co and 54 Mn were eliminated under these conditions than when food was administered. Fecal excretion of 22 Na was practically nil in both cases [fr

  9. A laboratory investigation of the suspension, transport, and settling of silver carp eggs using synthetic surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  10. Bioaccumulation of PCB Contaminants in Five Fish Species in Utah Lake as Affected by Carp Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjinez-Guzmán, V. A.; Cadet, E. L.; Crandall, T.; Chamberlain, T.; Rakotoarisaona, H.; Morris, P.

    2017-12-01

    State reports published by the Utah Department of Health (2005) and the Utah Department of Water Quality (2008) determined that there were elevated levels of PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls) that exceeded the EPA's cancer (0.02 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) and non-cancer screening levels (0.08 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) in two fish species from Utah Lake, the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Fish consumption advisories were issued for both of these fish species due to their health effects of PCBs. The Common Carp is a non-native predatory species that comprise 90% of the biomass in Utah Lake. As of September 2009, an extensive carp removal program was instituted by the Department of Natural Resources and began the removal of 75% of the carp population. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of carp removal on PCB levels in five sport fish species consumed by Utah citizens. The fish being analyzed are the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Black Bullhead (Ameiurus melas), Walleye (Sander vitreus), and White Bass (Morone chrysops). One-hundred twenty (120) fish were collected from Utah Lake and subcategorized by their gender, tissue type (fillet and offal), weight, and size: small (under 33 cm), medium (33 cm - 43 cm), and large (greater than 43 cm). This was done in order to determine the variation of contaminant levels in each subcategory. PCB analysis was performed by Utility Testing Laboratory in Salt Lake City, Utah. Results show there has been a significant increase in PCB levels in all fish species in comparison with the state reports (2008). All fish species have exceeded the EPA cancer screening level, except for the fillet tissue of the White Bass species. In Common Carp fillet, and offal decreased concentrations of 11.80% and 23.72%, respectively. In Channel catfish: the PCB levels in the fillet increase by 87.93%, however, the offal levels

  11. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Garcia

    Full Text Available Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this

  12. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Garcia, Marcelo H

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  13. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  14. Bioaccumulation of arsenic and silver by the caddisfly larvae Hydropsyche siltalai and H. pellucidula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awrahman, Zmnako; Rainbow, Philip S; Smith, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    Biodynamic modeling was used to investigate the uptake and bioaccumulation of arsenic and silver from water and food by two Hydropsychid caddisfly larvae: Hydropsyche siltalai and Hydropsyche pellucidula. Radiotracer techniques determined the uptake rate constants of arsenic and silver from water...... solution were significantly lower than those of As and Ag assimilated from ingested food in both species. Experimentally derived ku and ke values were then used to predict As and Ag tissue concentrations in hydropsychids collected from 13 UK sites, including metal-contaminated streams in Cornwall. Arsenic...

  15. 1 Food and Feeding Habits of the Guppy.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    number of algae and mosquito larvae consumed, while there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the number of other food ..... Alae Diatoms Protozoans Mosquito Fish Crustanceans Organic Sand ... use of the fish for biological control of.

  16. Food and feeding performance of Pellonula leonensis (Reajon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and feeding performance of Pellonula leonensis (Reajon, 1917) ... fed more on ants and fish larvae while juveniles fed more on detritus, crustaceans and sand. ... Pellonula was considered piscivorous and cannibalistic its feeding habit.

  17. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J Eichmiller

    Full Text Available Although environmental DNA (eDNA has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp', an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA, in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5, indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart.

  18. The effect of microwave on the interaction of flavour compounds with G-actin from grass carp (Catenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiaowei; Yang, Qiuli; Sun, Yangying; Pan, Daodong; Cao, Jinxuan

    2017-09-01

    In order to investigate the influence of non-thermal effects of microwaves on the flavour of fish and meat products, the G-actin of grass carp in ice baths was exposed to different microwave powers (0, 100, 300 or 500 W); the surface hydrophobicity, sulfhydryl contents, secondary structures and adsorption capacity of G-actin to ketones were determined. As microwave power increased from 0 to 300 W, the surface hydrophobicity, total and reactive sulfhydryls increased; α-helix, β-sheet and random coil fractions turned into β-turn fractions. As microwave power increased from 300 to 500 W, however, hydrophobicity and sulfhydryl contents decreased; β-turn and random coil fractions turned into α-helix and β-sheet fractions. The tendencies of adsorbed capacity of ketones were similar to hydrophobicity and sulfhydryl contents. The increased adsorbing of ketones could be attributed to the unfolding of secondary structures by revealing new binding sites, including thiol groups and hydrophobic binding sites. The decreased binding capacity was related to the refolding and aggregation of protein. The results suggested that microwave powers had obvious effects on the flavour retention and proteins structures in muscle foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Caffeine taste signaling in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A Apostolopoulou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal and ventral organ. However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative coreceptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s. This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviours.

  20. Heritability estimates for growth-related traits using microsatellite parentage assignment in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vandeputte, M.; Kocour, Martin; Mauger, S.; Duppont Nivet, M.; De Guerry, D.; Rodina, Marek; Gela, David; Vallod, D.; Chevassus, B.; Linhart, Otomar

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 235, - (2004), s. 223-236 ISSN 0044-8486 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : common carp * Cyprinus carpio * heritability Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.627, year: 2004