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Sample records for carp cyprinus carpio

  1. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to

  2. Digestibility of Protein in Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digestibility of dietary protein by carp, Cyprinus carpio fed for 10 weeks on different levels of chicken gut and duckweed incorporated into the diets was investigated. Growth, food conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization all improved with increase in the level of chicken gut in diet.

  3. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such information improves our understanding of the trophic interrelations between different fish species living...

  4. Expression of Major histocompatibility complex genes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, P.N.S.

    1996-01-01


    The common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) has been the experimental animal of choice because many features of the immune system of this Cyprinid fish have been well characterized. The immune system consists of an integrated set of organs containing

  5. Increased stocking density influences the acute physiological stress response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio (L.))

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.; Carballo, E.C.; Komen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The physiological response of common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) to increased stocking density and an additional acute net confinement stressor was investigated. Stocking densities were increased from 28.4 to 56.8 or 113.6 kg m¿3 by the use of crowding screens and fish were sampled from the crowded

  6. Development and application of genetically uniform strains of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, A.B.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of genetically uniform strains of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. is described. As in research on mammals, the use of genetically uniform fish could increase the quality (replicability, reproducability and repeatability) of experiments.

  7. Heritability estimates for growth-related traits using microsatellite parentage assignment in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vandeputte, M.; Kocour, Martin; Mauger, S.; Duppont Nivet, M.; De Guerry, D.; Rodina, Marek; Gela, David; Vallod, D.; Chevassus, B.; Linhart, Otomar

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 235, - (2004), s. 223-236 ISSN 0044-8486 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : common carp * Cyprinus carpio * heritability Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.627, year: 2004

  8. Effects of the herbicide Roundup on the ultrastructural pattern of hepatocytes in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarek, J; Siwicki, A; Andrzejewska, A; Terech-Majewska, E; Banaszkiewicz, T

    2000-01-01

    Experimental studies were performed on healthy, 80-100 g carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were exposed by emersion in Roundup (205 mg of glyphosate/l or 410 mg of glyphosate/l) in concentrations of 40- to 20-fold lower than those used in practice. Electron microscopy revealed that the herbicide caused appearance of myelin-like structures in carp hepatocytes, swelling of mitochondria and disappearance of internal membrane of mitochondria in carp at both exposure concentrations. It means that Roundup was harmful to carp when used in applied concentrations. Results of these studies enhance our knowledge of ultrastructural pathomorphology of fish organs following exposure to Roundup.

  9. STUDY OF THE ADAPTATION PROCESS IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.) AFTER HARVESTING

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Bušová; Kristýna Štancelová

    2013-01-01

    Fish is sensitive to exogenous and endogenous ammonia. Ammonia formed in fish as a product of metabolism of proteins may be under certain circumstances life-threatening. Ammonia autointoxication is a serious problem and can cause mass mortalities in fish farms. This study focused on the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in large-capacity breeding farms. It was focused on monitoring the blood ammonia levels in fish blood in the period of metabolic attenuation and the influence of harvesting and h...

  10. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  11. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Komen, H.; Jobling, S.; Sumpter, J.; Bowmer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17β-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp

  12. Property Prediction of Dry Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio During Storage by Kinetic Model

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    Qian Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is an important food resource in European and Asian countries. Nowadays, common carp after drying process is appreciated by the transportation agency and food industry because of its low transportation cost. Changes of acid value (AV, total bacterial count (TBC, and peroxide value (PV were reported in this study. We found that the changes of AV, TBC and PV of dry common carp fitted the first order reaction model and the reaction energies of changes of AV, TBC, and PV during storage were 4.56 kJ/mol, 2.21 kJ/mol, and 2.33 kJ/mol, respectively. This study will provide theoretical knowledge to food factories relating with dry fish storage and transportation.

  13. STUDY OF THE ADAPTATION PROCESS IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L. AFTER HARVESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bušová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish is sensitive to exogenous and endogenous ammonia. Ammonia formed in fish as a product of metabolism of proteins may be under certain circumstances life-threatening. Ammonia autointoxication is a serious problem and can cause mass mortalities in fish farms. This study focused on the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in large-capacity breeding farms. It was focused on monitoring the blood ammonia levels in fish blood in the period of metabolic attenuation and the influence of harvesting and handling of fish on the fish's ability to withstand such changes. The study results confirmed the effect of sudden changes in water temperature to values of ammonia in the blood of fish. On the contrary, there were no dramatically increased concentrations of ammonia in the blood of fish nor symptoms of autointoxication. The measured ammonia concentrations ranged between 98.3 ± 56µmol/L and 141.4 ± 31 µmol/L in the monitored period, which corresponds with the study results of other authors. This study has confirmed good technological conditions in the market production of carp after harvesting and a good level of adaptation process of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. to these changes.

  14. Major histocompatibility (MH) class II ß gene polymorphism influences disease resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakus, K.L.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Jurecka, P.M.; Walker, P.D.; Pilarczyk, A.; Irnazarow, I.

    2009-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are crucial elements of adaptive immunity. High polymorphism renders the MHC genes highly suitable for studies on association with disease resistance. In common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), there are two paralogous groups of MH class II B genes,

  15. The effect of seed morphology on the potential dispersal of aquatic macrophytes by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.; de Jong, M.D.E.; Steegh, A.; Ouborg, N.J.; Van Groenendael, J.M.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    1. The potential for seed dispersal by fish (ichthyochory) will vary among aquatic plants because of differences in seed size and morphology. 2. To examine how seed morphology influences the probability of dispersal by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), we studied seed ingestion, retention time and

  16. Head kidney-derived macrophages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) show plasticity and functional polarization upon differential stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joerink, Maaike; Ribeiro, Carla M. S.; Stet, René J. M.; Hermsen, Trudi; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2006-01-01

    Cells from the myeloid lineage are pluripotent. To investigate the potential of myeloid cell polarization in a primitive vertebrate species, we phenotypically and functionally characterized myeloid cells of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during culture. Flow cytometric analysis, Ab labeling of

  17. Head kidney-derived macrophages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) show plasticity and functional polarization upon differential stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joerink, M.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Stet, R.J.M.; Hermsen, G.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    Cells from the myeloid lineage are pluripotent, To investigate the potential of myeloid cell polarization in a primitive vertebrate species, we plienotypically and functionally characterized myeloid cells of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during culture. Flow cytometric analysis, Ab labeling of

  18. Effects of food type on diel behaviours of common carp Cyprinus carpio in simulated aquaculture pond conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Meyer, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand behaviour patterns of common carp Cyprinus carpio in aquaculture ponds, their diel grazing, swimming, resting and schooling behaviours were observed in six 1 m(2) tanks under simulated pond conditions. Each tank was fertilized to stimulate natural food production before

  19. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) alters its feeding niche in response to changing food resources: direct observations in simulated ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Kadowaki, S.; Balcombe, S.R.; Wahab, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    We used customized fish tanks as model fish ponds to observe grazing, swimming, and conspecific social behavior of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) under variable food-resource conditions to assess alterations in feeding niche. Different food and feeding situations were created by using only pond water

  20. Measuring cortisol in the water as an indicator of stress caused by increased loading density in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.; Komen, J.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of a high loading density for a period of 28 days on growth, water quality and stress parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was investigated. In addition, cortisol levels in the water were measured during the experiment to investigate if a relationship exists between loading

  1. THE IMPACT OF TOXIC HEAVY METALS ON THE HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vinodhini ، M. Narayanan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effect of heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead in aquatic system on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. by using a set of biochemical parameters. The experimental group of fish was exposed to a sublethal concentration of 5 mg/L of combined (Cd+Pb+Cr+Ni metal solution containing 1.25 mg/L of each metal ion (1/10th of LC 50/48 h for a period of 32 days. The results indicated that the values of the hemoglobin were in the range of 55.30±1.20 g/L to 74.55±1.33 g/L (p<0.001 and the packed cell volume was in the range of 26.72±0.26% to 30.68±0.43% (p<0.01. Concentrations of red blood cells, blood glucose and total cholesterol were significantly elevated. The level of serum iron and copper was increased. The results showed the decreased activity of vitamin C during chronic exposure to toxic heavy metals, which indicates the presence of reactive oxygen species–induced peroxidation. The study suggested that the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic environment has strong influence on the hematological parameters in the fresh water fish common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

  2. Acute effect of copper exposure on serum biochemical characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Melika Ghelichpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of ambient copper was investigated on serum stress markers, sodium and enzyme levels in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. over a 14-d exposure period. Fish were exposed to 0, 25 and 100 μg L-1 copper (as copper sulfate and blood was sampled at 0, 3, 7 and 14 d after exposure. Serum profile was significantly affected by copper concentration, sampling time and their interaction. Increase in serum levels of cortisol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decrease in serum sodium levels were observed in both copper-exposed groups, 3 d after copper exposure, which lasted until the end of the experiment. It is concluded that copper exposure causes stress response and sodium loss in common carp. Likewise alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase increase after exposure which might be as results of either tissue damage or stress.

  3. Enhancement of Hsp70 synthesis protects common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., against lethal ammonia toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Y Y; Roberts, R J; Bossier, P

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to TEX-OE®, a patented extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) containing chaperone-stimulating factor, was shown to protect common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings against acute ammonia stress. Survival was enhanced twofold from 50% to 95% after exposure to 5.92 mg L(-1) NH(3) , a level determined in the ammonia challenge bioassay as the 1-h LD50 concentration for this species. Survival of TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish was enhanced by 20% over non-exposed controls during lethal ammonia challenge (14.21 mg L(-1)  NH(3) ). Increase in the levels of gill and muscle Hsp70 was evident in TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish but not in the unexposed controls, indicating that application of TEX-OE® accelerated carp endogenous Hsp70 synthesis during ammonia perturbation. Protection against ammonia was correlated with Hsp70 accretion. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of nutritive quality of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubojević, D.; Đorđević, V.; Ćirković, M.

    2017-09-01

    Common carp is the most important commercial fish species in Serbia. This fish is a valuable source of nutritive components and plays a role in healthy human nutrition. This review evaluates the nutritive quality of common carp including proximate and fatty acid compositions as well as their effects on human health. The fat content and fatty acid composition of carp have been shown to vary due to different environmental factors and particularly due to nutrition. Technology of production and composition of planktonic and benthic organisms in fish ponds have been recognised as significant factors affecting carp meat quality and desirable chemical and fatty acid composition. Carp meat quality but also production parameters and fish health are positively influenced by a balanced feed mixture. Due to the low content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol plus high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, common carp meat consumption could be linked with reduced risk of different heart diseases in humans. Also, fish proteins can have many beneficial roles in the preservation of human health. This paper emphasises the importance of consumption of common carp in order to prevent many diseases and preserve human health.

  5. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

  6. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Böhm

    Full Text Available Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Ljubica Debeljak

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Izvorni znanstveni članak THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L. Debeljak, Lj. Turk, M. Fašaić, K. Sotjić, B. Puni tekst (Hrvatski Str. 83 - 94 (pdf, 2.21 MB downloads: 471 Sažetak This research was carried out on 8 experimental fish-pounds with individual sizes of 0,1 ha-1 on fish farm Draganići during 1990 culturing season. Carp was reared under conditions of polyculture with total stock density 3250 ind × ha-1. (77 % carp, 2500 ind × ha-1 ; 23% -- 250 ind × ha-1 each species of herbivorous fish – silver carp, bighead, grass carp. The influence of fertilization and different feeding of fish was researched through these parameters: yield and increment of fish, individual weight, losses, food conversion, Fultons and Clark’s coefficient of carp. The hydrochemical conditions in individual pounds where researched too (tabl 2. The total increment of fish was 703 ind × ha-1 (I variant, without fertilization, feeding of carp with cereals, 1302 ind × ha-1 (variant II, fertilization, 500 kg × ha-1 NPK 17: 8: 9, feeding with cereals and 2537 kg × ha-1 (variant III, without fertilization, feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin. The increment of carps was 611.4; 897.8 and 1923.5 kg × ha-1 resp. The results of production are shown on tables 3, 4 and 5. The losses of carp were similar in all variants of fish-pounds (tabl. 4. The average individual weight of carp was 30% bigger in the fish pond with fertilization, and 154% in fish pond with feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin in compare to control variant 1. Food conversion was lower for 26% in the variant which was fertilized, and for 13% in the variant fed with protein pellets, in compare to control variant l. The Fulton's and Clark's condition coefficient of carp was similar in all experimental ponds except in the variant III. In this variant the Fulton's condition coefficient was

  8. Benzocaine hydrochloride anesthesia in carp (Cyprinus carpio / Cloridrato de benzocaína na anestesia de carpas (Cyprinus carpio

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    Marco Antonio da Rocha

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish anesthesia is indicated to allow the accomplishment of several procedures such as biometry, tagging, transportation, physical examination, surgical procedures, and reproductive management. The doses of benzocaine in the carp anesthesia (Cyprinus carpio were determined, carrying through six phases with 40 fish each. The average weight of carps in each phase was of 147.45±7.99g, 173.32±9.15g, 191.26±14.05g, 269.84±19.24g, 285.25±17.97g, and 300.91±16.45g. In each phase, fish had been captured and placed in four containers each one with different concentrations of benzocaine (100, 140, 180 and 220 mg/L respectively. The induction time (IT was registered for each fish and after that the anesthetic induction biometry was performed. In each phase the minimal dose of benzocaine was calculated using the Linear Response Plateau (LRP, in a model that included dose and IT. The LRP was calculated for each phase: 125.79mg/L in 114.33s, 155.68mg/L in 115.75s, 145.33mg/L in 102.52s, 149.50mg/L in 140.53s, 166.42mg/L in 116.15s, and 158.34mg/L in 102.00s. The optimal dose was related with the weight, resulting in the equation: dose=114.230+0.158 x weight (r2=0.53. The equation shows that an increase in the weight in 1g corresponds to an increase of 0.158 mg/L in the dose of benzocaine hydrochloride for carps.A anestesia em peixes é indicada para permitir a realização de diversos procedimentos como: biometria, marcação, transporte, exame físico, procedimentos cirúrgicos e manejo reprodutivo. Determinou-se a dose de benzocaína na anestesia de carpas (Cyprinus carpio, com a realização de seis etapas com 40 peixes cada. O peso médio das carpas em cada etapa foi de 147,45±7,99g, 173,32±9,15g, 191,26±14,05g, 269,84±19,24g, 285,25±17,97g, e 300,91±16,45g. Em cada etapa, os peixes foram capturados e colocados em quatro recipientes com benzocaína nas concentrações de 100, 140, 180 e 220 mg/L respectivamente. O tempo de indução (TI foi

  9. Chemical composition and immunomodulatory effects of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Bhaskarachary, K; Vajreswari, A; Ramesh Kumar, R; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare protein hydrolysates from underutilized common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg and to investigate their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg (roe) was hydrolysed by pepsin, trypsin, and Alcalase. Chemical composition (proximate, amino acid, mineral and fatty acid compositions) and molecular mass distribution of the three hydrolysates were determined. The carp egg protein hydrolysates (CEPHs) were evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects in BALB/c mice. CEPHs (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) were orally administered daily to female BALB/c mice (4-6 wk, 18-20 g) for a period of 45 d. After 45 d, mice were sacrificed and different tissues were collected for the immunologic investigations. The three hydrolysates contained high protein content (64%-73%) with all essential amino acids, and good proportion of ω-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid. Molecular mass analysis of hydrolysates confirmed the conversion of large-molecular-weight roe proteins into peptides of different sizes (5-90 kDa). The three hydrolysates significantly enhanced the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. Pepsin hydrolysate (0.5 g/kg body weight) significantly increased the splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity, mucosal immunity (secretory immunoglobulin A) in the gut and level of serum immunoglobulin A. Whereas Alcalase hydrolysate induced significant increases in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in spleen. The results demonstrate that CEPHs are able to improve the immune system and further reveal that different CEPHs may exert differential influences on the immune function. These results indicate that CEPHs could be useful for several applications in the health food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC ATTRIBUTES OF DIFFERENT CARP KOI FORMS (CYPRINUS CARPIO KOI

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    O. O. Lysak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Japanese carp or carp koi ( Cyprinus carpio koi – is a freshwater, partially saltwater fish which is a decorative subspecies of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. namely a primary black form of carp koi that has its domestic name Magoi. Constant complex activity of abiotic and biotic factors together with husbandry and selectional activity of human caused significant changes in water ecosystems that impacted on the biology of carp koi subspecies (Cyprinus carpio koi and as a result caused the species-specific morphological adaptations in fish.  Collection of materials was conducted from ornamental water ponds at the territory of Nemishaievo state agrotechnical college in the spring 2012. Author selected 3000 units of this year fish offsprings of carp koi with different colors. All the studied fish was divided into groups according to external indexes ( among them color in the following way: group I (sample – grey and white form (Hikarimuji which is the most similar to Magoi, group II – black and white form (Kumonryu, group III – black and yellow form ( Utsurimono, group IV – red and white form (Kohaku. For further researches scientists selected 25 exemplars of carp koi for each group. It is necessary to have a starting point (sample for statistical research of differences in carp koi forms. Sample or optimal form was determined by distances of deviations of scalar sums of form vectors of carp koi from nyvkivskyi carp. Morphometric study of carp koi was conducted according to 30 plastic attributes, in accordance with method proposed by I. F. Pravdin. In contrast with generally accepted relative magnitudes of indexes of plastic attributes of carp koi body were calculated from zoological (not standard length of the body of the fish that is connected with using koi as an object of decorative aquaculture. Statistic processing was conducted with using of average arithmetical discrepancy, root-mean-square error and variability index. Actuality of

  11. Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Microbiological Properties of Fresh Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Katarína Hudecová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the growth rate of total viable counts (TVC, psychrotrophic viable counts (PVC, coliform bacteria and E. coli in portions of fresh common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. under two different modified atmosphere packaging (experimental MAP1: 70% N2/30% CO2; experimental MAP2: 80% O2/20% CO2 and air (control samples stored at +4 ± 0.5 °C, and to determine their shelf life. The presence of pathogens (Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was also surveyed in this study. A total of 360 portions from 90 common carp were examined. Laboratory analyses were performed on storage day 0 (production day and days 3, 7 and 10. As compared to air packaging, the numbers of TVC and PVC were significantly lower (p E. coli counts in fresh carp during storage were generally low, showing levels of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in any of the examined samples. All the strains of Listeria spp. were identified as Listeria innocua. According to TVC values and sensory changes, the shelf life of carp portions was determined as 6 days in MAP1, 8 days in MAP2 and 3 days in air.

  12. Ontogeny of the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system: Gene expression and experimental limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ontogeny of the immune system in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.). The work has been focused on innate immune responses during the wound healing processes and how the innate immune response develops with age and size of the fish. Newly hatched......, 3 and 7 post-wounding and samples were stored in RNA later for isolation of RNA. The physical tissue damage was performed using a sterile needle, which penetrated the skin and the underlying musculature in an area above the lateral line of the left side of fish. Carps at the age of 10, 16 and 24...... carp were brought to the facilities at DTU and kept in aquaria at 25°C. They were initially fed Artemia nauplii, and later switched to commercial dry granulate feed. Carp were anaesthetised and then experimentally wounded at days 10, 16, 24, 47 and 94 days post-hatch. Sampling was carried out at day 1...

  13. Effects of 2-phenoxyethanol Anaesthesia on Haematological Profile on Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

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    J. Velíšek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess changes in haematological profile of common carp (Cyprinus carpio and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss after the exposure to anaesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol. The haematological profile was assessed before, immediately after 10 min of anaesthesia and 24 h after the anaesthesia with recommended concentration of 0.30 ml l-1 2-phenoxyethanol. The 10-min exposure to 2-phenoxyethanol of common carp caused the significant increase (p -1 does not cause irreversible damage of the blood in common carp and rainbow trout.

  14. Biochemical and Hematological Profiles of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio under Sublethal Effects of Trivalent Chromium

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    Zeynab Abedi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In natural waters and/or aquaculture facilities, fish are often exposed to chromium waste and demonstrate cumulative deleterious effects. To our knowledge, there are no studies concerning the effects of trivalent Cr on C. carpio hematology. This study presents hematological and some biochemical parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, affected by sublethal concentration of trivalent chromium. Methods: The fish in the experimental aquaria (three replicates each were exposed to a sublethal chromium chloride concentration of 2 mg L−1, which was prepared as stock solution and added depending on the volume of the aquaria to obtain the required concentration. After a period of 28 days, parameters such as hematocrit (Hct, hemoglobin (Hb, lymphocytes (Lym, neutrophils (Neu, total protein (TP, albumin, immunoglobulin M (IgM, glucose, red and white blood cells (RBC and WBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC were examined. Results: Chromium exposure for 28 days significantly (P0.05 between the Cr-exposed fish and the control. Conclusion: Hematological indices of fish, caused by chromium toxicity to C. carpio, can be secondary responses to toxicants, including exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals, which reflect the launch of stress reaction in the affected fish.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY CELL CULTURE FROM TAIL EPIDERMAL TISSUE OF KOI CARP (Cyprinus carpio koi)

    OpenAIRE

    Lila Gardenia; Isti Koesharyani

    2014-01-01

    Primary cell culture from tail epidermal tissue of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) was developed. Cells were grown in Leibovits-15 medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics (Penicillin/Streptomycin and Kanamycin). Cell growth was observed in a range of incubation temperature (17oC±2oC, 22oC±2oC, 27oC±2oC, and 32oC±2oC) in order to determine the optimum temperature. The cells were able to grow at a range of temperature between 17oC to 32oC with optimal growth at 22oC. Prim...

  16. Mucosal immune response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja

    -like process in common carp. In order to reach these objectives, different methods were used such as real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) in order to measure the expression of immunerelated genes involved in wound healing process, ELISA for specific antibody detection, cortisol assay for measurement of stress......Control of fish diseases is a great concern in aquaculture because of losses in the production. Drug choices for the treatment of common infectious diseases are becoming increasingly limited and expensive and, in some cases, unavailable due to the emergence of drug resistance in bacteria and fungi....... This is why number of biological compounds, as an alternative to the drugs, has been used to reduce the risk of diseases and improve fish welfare by enhancement of non-specific defence system. Among them, ß-glucans, naturally occurring polysaccharides found in the cell wall of plants, bacteria and fungi...

  17. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Constanze; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Junge, Ranka

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp. PMID:26343724

  18. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp.

  19. Effects of pH on copper accumulation and toxicity in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopadevi, H; Somashekar, R K; Balagangadhar, B R

    2011-07-01

    Static, short-term acute toxicity tests were performed over a period of 96h, using different concentrations of copper on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings (3.2 +/- 1.1 cm and 0.42 g +/- 0.2 g) at pH 6.5, pH 7.5 and pH 8.5. The effect of copper on carp was significantly high (determined as LC50) at pH 6.5 followed by pH 7.5 and pH 8.5. The lethal toxic effect of copper on common carp was directly proportional to pH. Exposure to sub-lethal doses of 0.25, 0.3, 0.35, 0.45 ppm for 15 days indicated that metal concentration and exposure time are determining factors in the copper accumulation processes. Nonetheless the BAF (Bioaccumulation factor) was found to be inversely proportional to cumulative dosage and duration.

  20. The Effect of Cirata Reservoir Sediment on Early Developmental Stage of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Pujihastuti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation at Cirata reservoir may directly and indirectly influence fish particularly fish which have an adhesive characteristic at its early developmental stage such as common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Sample of sediment was collected from Cirata reservoir using Eikmand dredge at a depth of 80 m. The sample was subsequently centrifuged at 5500 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant obtained was then used for toxicity test on common carp at early developmental stage. In this test, four treatments were applied based on the concentration of sediment supernatant, namely: 0, 8.33, 16.60 and 24.90 %. The results showed that a higher sediment supernatant concentration resulted in lower egg yolk absorption rate, lower relative growth rate in length, lower egg yolk efficiency and higher egg and larval abnormality.  Higher sediment supernatant concentration also resulted in lower hatching percentage of common carp larva. The damage of eggs and larval morphologies in treatments with sediment supernatant was likely caused by the presence Pb and organic matters which act in synergy. Keywords :  sediment, Cirata, embryo, common carp   ABSTRAK Sedimentasi di Waduk Cirata secara langsung dan tidak langsung akan berpengaruh terhadap kehidupan ikan khususnya tahap awal perkembangan ikan yang bersifat adhesiveseperti ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio.  Sampel sedimen waduk Cirata diambil dengan Eikmand dredge pada kedalaman 80 m.  Hasil ekstrak di sentrifugasi dengan kecepatan 5500 rpm selama 10 menit untuk diambil air pori sedimennya.  Air pori digunakan sebagai bahan uji toksisitas terhadap perkembangan awal ikan mas dengan perlakuan 0; 8,33; 16,60 dan 24,90 %. Hasil uji toksisitas diperoleh bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi air pori dari sediment maka semakin rendah laju penyerapan kuning telur Laju pertumbuhan relatif panjang embrio pada berbagai konsentrasi juga diperoleh bahwa semakin tinggi konsentrasi air sedimen maka semakin rendah laju pertumbuhan relatif

  1. The seasonal changes in innate immunity of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtíková, S.; Šimková, A.; Rohlenová, K.; Flajshans, M.; Lojek, Antonín; Lilius, E. M.; Hyršl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 318, 1-2 (2011), s. 169-175 ISSN 0044-8486 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Cyprinus carpio * Respiratory burst * Phagocytes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.041, year: 2011

  2. Development and characterization of two new cell lines from common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wazir S Lakra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new cell lines (CCF and CCH were established from fin and heart tissues of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The cells were optimally maintained in Leibovitz-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and 10 ng/ml of basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF. The effects of temperature, concentration of FBS and bFGF on the growth of CCF and CCH cells were examined. The temperature ranged from 24 to 32 °C for good growth of the cells. The growth rate of cells was higher in medium containing 10% FBS and the addition of bFGF to the medium significantly increased the growth rate. The CCF cells were found to be epithelial, while the CCH cells were fibroblastic in nature. The cytogenetic analysis of the cell lines revealed a diploid number of 100 chromosomes in C. carpio. The viability of CCF and CCH cell lines were 70 and 72%, respectively, after six months of storage in liquid nitrogen (-196 ° C. Molecular characterization of the cell lines using 16S rRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI revealed the origin of the cell lines. These new cell lines will be useful for isolation of fish viruses and other in vitro biotechnological studies.

  3. Assessment of environmental quality and inland water pollution using biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinus carpio): Use of a bioactivation:detoxication ratio as a biotransformation index (BTI).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Oost, R.; Lopes, S.C.C.; Komen, H.; Satumalay, K.; Bos, R.; Heida, H.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study the bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as well as the responses of a suite of biochemical parameters were investigated in a standardized carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish line. Carps were caged for 2 to 8 weeks at two Amsterdam

  4. Only small fractions of soluble ß-glucan modulate the mucosal immune system in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    is to understand the effect of β-glucan induced modulation in carp in relation to tissue regeneration, mucosal immunity and host-pathogen interactions. Expression profiles of immune related genes will be measured in fresh water specie – common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The methodology of the project involves...... the usage of real-time quantitative PCR to quantify expression of genes of interest (IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-6). This study will provide further understanding on the effect of β-glucan as a modulator which could improve fish welfare and health as well as having an economic potential production...

  5. Stress Response to Long Distance Transportation of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dobšíková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress responses and changes in biochemical and haematological indices were investigated in three-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. during a long-distance transportation in special truck tanks. Twelve-hour transportation caused a significant increase in ammonia (p < 0.01, mean corpuscular volume MCV (p < 0.01, metamyelocytes ( p < 0.05 and band neutrophils (p < 0.01, and a significant decrease in Cl- (p < 0.05, lactate (p < 0.05, ALT (p < 0.05 and ALP (p < 0.01 levels. The values of LDH (p < 0.01, AST (p < 0.05, CK (p < 0.01 and haematocrit PCV (p < 0.05 were also significantly influenced by the transportation, but no time-dependent relation was found. On the contrary, the levels of cortisol, glucose and total protein in the biochemical profile, and the values of erythrocyte count (RBC, haemoglobin (Hb, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte counts (WBC and leukogram (except for metamyelocytes and band neutrophils in the haematological profile were not significantly influenced by the transportation. Results showed that pre-transport fish manipulation (hauling, netting, handling, loading was found to be an important stressor for fish. Long-distance transportation itself was relatively considerate for the common carp tested.

  6. Bioaccumulation profiles of 35S-labelled sodium alkylpoly(oxyethylene) sulfates in carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Wakabayashi, M.; Kojima, H.; Yoshida, T.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake, distribution and elimination of two labelled surfactants, 35 S-labelled sodium dodecyltri(oxyethylene) sulfate ( 35 S-C12-AES(3)) and 35 S-labelled sodium dodecylpenta(oxyethylene) sulfate ( 35 S-C12-AES(5)) were investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to concentrations of 0.3-0.6 mg l -1 , using whole-body autoradiography and the liquid scintillation counting method. 35 S-Radioactivity was first rapidly absorbed by the gills and skin and transferred to other organs and tissues. After 24h-exposure, there was a comparatively high accumulation of 35 S-radioactivity in the gills, hepatopancreas, gall bladder, intestinal content, and nasal and oral cavity. The distribution patterns of 35 S-radioactivity derived from 35 S-C12-AES(3) and 35 S-C12-AES(5) in tissues and organs were similar. The whole-body concentration factors of 35 S-radioactivity in fish exposed to 35 SC12-AES(3) and 35 S-C12-AES(5) for 72 hr were 18 and 4.7, respectively. In surfactant-free water, the absorbed 35 S-radioactivity was eliminated more rapidly from the fish body exposed to 35 S-C12-AES(3) than 35 S-C12-AES(5). It was eliminated relatively fast from gills and hepatopancreas, but elimination from gall bladder was rather slow. (author)

  7. Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungcheun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs. The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST, superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT. Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100 nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50 g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms.

  8. Gut microbiota contributes to the growth of fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

  9. Handling Technique Development of Live Carp, Cyprinus carpio, In Cold Dry Styrofoam Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketut Suwetja, I.; Salindeho, Netty; Gede Prabawa Suwetja, I.

    2017-10-01

    The study focused on several following aspects: temperature and time optimation for fainting, holding media optimation, temperature and time optimation for recovery, and their correlation with mortality rate of carp, Cyprinus carpio. Fainting occurred at the optimum time of 11 minutes and 03 seconds, temperature of 8°C, and holding time of 6 hours. Holding medium was rice husk. The fastest consciousness of the fish was found in 6 volt-aerated water medium. The fish consciousness after 6 hours of storing in the rice husk at the fainting temperature of 8°C was found faster (p < 0.05), 11 minutes and 15 seconds, than that added with 0.02% of clove oil, 25 minutes and 16 seconds. The fish mortality rate after 6 hours of storage in the rice husk at fainting temperature of 8°C was lower (p < 0.05), 46%, than that with addition of 0.02% of clove oil, 75%.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY CELL CULTURE FROM TAIL EPIDERMAL TISSUE OF KOI CARP (Cyprinus carpio koi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Gardenia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary cell culture from tail epidermal tissue of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi was developed. Cells were grown in Leibovits-15 medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics (Penicillin/Streptomycin and Kanamycin. Cell growth was observed in a range of incubation temperature (17oC±2oC, 22oC±2oC, 27oC±2oC, and 32oC±2oC in order to determine the optimum temperature. The cells were able to grow at a range of temperature between 17oC to 32oC with optimal growth at 22oC. Primary cells infected with koi herpes virus produced typical cytopathic effects characterized by severe vacuolation and deformation of nuclei, which is consistent with those of previous reports. Artificial injection experiment by using supernatant koi herpes virus SKBM-1 isolate revealed that it could cause 90% mortality in infected fish within two weeks. PCR test with Sph I-5 specific primers carried out with DNA template from supernatant virus, pellet cell, and gills of infected fish showed positive results in all samples (molecular weight of DNA target 290 bp. The cells were found to be susceptible to koi herpes virus and can be used for virus propagation.

  11. Retroperitoneal hemangiosarcoma in a common carp Cyprinus carpio: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Michael W; Clauss, Tonya M; Dennison, Sophie E; Camus, Alvin C

    2013-12-12

    A 7.5 kg common carp Cyprinus carpio presented with prominent localized swelling in the caudal right coelomic area, identified by ultrasound as a fluid filled mass. Fine needle aspirate (FNA) and culture results suggested a sterile seroma. Centesis removed 290 ml of serosanguinous fluid that returned within days. Recheck ultrasonography revealed a solid component within the cavity. Radiography demonstrated irregular lysis and misalignment of vertebrae adjacent to the mass, most suggestive of bacterial osteitis or neoplasia. Treatment with antibiotics followed for 2 mo but failed to resolve the lesion. Repeated radiography and ultrasonography showed progressive enlargement of the mass, with vertebral lysis and invasion characteristic of neoplasia. Ultrasound-guided FNA of the solid component of the mass was non-diagnostic. Euthanasia was elected due to the poor clinical response and primary differential of neoplasia. Post-mortem MRI and CT confirmed a retroperitoneal soft tissue mass, partially surrounded by a fluid-filled cavity, causing vertebral lysis and infiltration of the spinal canal. Expansion of the mass caused severe muscle loss and an associated elevation in creatine kinase (>120000 U l-1). Necropsy results corroborated the MRI and CT findings, revealing a retroperitoneal, multilobular, red and tan mass causing dorsal displacement of the vertebral column, with vertebral lysis, pathologic fracture and invasion of the spinal canal. Histopathologic examination revealed a locally aggressive neoplasm exhibiting multiple patterns of growth, including endothelial lined vascular channels and solid areas formed by more pleomorphic polygonal and spindle cells, consistent with hemangiosarcoma.

  12. EVALUATION OF ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2 EFFECT ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABI DUMITRESCU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the scientific researches performed during the last years are focused on the determination of the negative effects caused by natural and antropogeneous chemical compounds on aquatic species; these species are more exposed to most pollutants than the land species, for the simple reason that the aquatic environment is the last destination for most residues. Our research team proposed to test the toxic effect caused by ethinylestradiol on embryo development in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Common carp embryos were purchased from the fish farm S.C. Acva Prod S.R.L. Cefa, Bihor County these were obtained by artificial reproduction. After taking and selection, the fecundated spawns were introduced in 10 Nunk culture plates of 45 ml, where we introduced 40 ml water, too. We created 3 batches, with two replications, namely: batch 1 – control, batch 2 – in water, we added ethinylestradiol (EE2 in concentration of 1.5 ng L-1 and batch 3 – we added in water a concentration of 7 ng L-1 EE2. During the incubation, the Nunk plates were kept in breeding aquariums, at a temperature of 24°C. Successive to the supervision of embryos in batch 3, 48 hours post-fecundation, we could observe evolution stagnations, 70% of them being in the stage of 40 somites of the segmentation period. At the same age, 100% of the control batch- embryos entered the stage of advanced faringula, and in batch 2 all embryos were in the stage of incipient faringula. 60-72 hours post-fecundation, all embryos in the batch 3 died, 90% in the 40 somite stage of the segmentation period and 10% in the stage of incipient faringula. 85 hours post-fecundation, all embryos belonging to the control batch were in the larva stage, while in batch 2, 90% were in the larva stage and 10% died in the stage of advanced faringula.

  13. Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J

    2012-03-29

    This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17-32 ng g - 1 dry weight) compared to the reference (40-46 ng g - 1 dry weight) and VO ponds (55-86 ng g - 1 dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (δ 13 C, δ 15 N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp.

  14. Histochemical Effects of “Verita WG” on Glycogen and Lipid Storage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Georgieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed in the present work is to study the effects of fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide (“Verita WG” on glycogen storage and expression of lipid droplets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. liver. Concentrations of the test chemical were 30 mg/L, 38 mg/L and 50 mg/L under laboratory conditions. We used PAS-reaction for detection of glycogen storage and Sudan III staining for detection of lipid droplets in common carp hepatocytes. Hence, we found that the amount of glycogen and the fat storage in the liver increased proportionally with the increased fungicide concentrations. We also found conglomerates of accumulated glycogen in certain hepatocytes at all used concentrations. Overall, the results demonstrated enhanced glyconeogenesis and fat accumulation in the common carp liver, exposed to the test chemical.

  15. Food and Feeding Habits of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Feeding habits of Cyprinus carpio was studied in Lake Koka, Ethiopia, in April and May (dry ... bottom feeder fish. Since it disturbs the bottom sediment while feeding, it is known to increase water turbidity (Magalhaes, 1993; Ali et al., 2010; Mustafizur et al., ..... The role of supplementary feeding in food competition between.

  16. B-glucan-supplemented diets increase poly(I:C)-induced gene expression of Mx, possibly via Tlr3-mediated recognition mechanism in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco Gracia, J.A.; Miest, J.J.; Pionnier, N.; Pietretti, D.; Forlenza, M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously observed that in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), administration of ß-glucan (MacroGard®) as feed additive leads to a lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting that this immunostimulant may be preventing an acute and potentially dangerous response to infection,

  17. The effect of endosulfan bioaccumulation on the growth of carp, Cyprinus carpio LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Taufik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was done in order to determine the effect of endosulfan biaccumulation on the growth of carp (Cyprinus carpio. This research was conducted in 40 l of glass aquaria, the initial weight of carp was 0.81±0.098 g/fish, and the pesticide endosulfan with active ingredient of 350 g/l was used as test solution. Preliminary research was conducted with bioassay test to assess  LC50-96h of endosulfan for  carp, and then the fish were exposed to some series of exposure concentration, those are  10; 30; and 50% of LC50-96h value or 0.24; 0.72; and 1.2 mg/l for 12 weeks. Endosulfan residue analysis in the water and the body of the fish was conducted after: 0, 4, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144, 192, 264 of exposure hours by using liquid gas chromatography (LGC. Body weight of fish was measured weekly. This study resulted that endosulfan was very toxic to the carp with LC50-96h value was 2.42 (2.206-2.652 mg/l. Endosulfan bioaccumulation of exposure concentration of  0.24; 0.72; and 1.20 mg/l were 67.93; 119.21; and 141.19 mg/kg respectively. Bioaccumulation of 119,21mg/kg   significantly inhibit the growth of carp. Keywords: endosulfan, bioaccumulation, growth, carp   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh biakumulasi insektisida endosulfan terhadap pertumbuhan ikan mas. Wadah penelitian berupa akuarium kaca, hewan uji adalah ikan mas berukuran 0,81±0,098 g/ekor, bahan uji berupa formulasi insektisida dengan bahan aktif endosulfan 350 g/l. penelitian diawali dengan uji hayati untuk menentukan nilai LC50-96 jam endosulfan terhadap ikan mas, selanjutnya dilakukan pemaparan ikan mas selama 12 minggu dalam air dengan konsentrasi endosulfan yang berbeda, yaitu: 10, 30, dan 50% dari nilai LC50-96 jam atau sebesar 0,24; 0,72; dan 1,20  mg/l. Analisis residu endosulfan dalam sample air dan ikan dilakukan setelah waktu pemaparan 0, 4, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144, 192, dan 264 jam dengan menggunakan kromatografi gas cair (GC, pengukuran bobot

  18. Elevated ability to compete for limited food resources by 'all-fish' growth hormone transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, M; Zhang, T; Hu, W; Sundström, L F; Wang, Y; Li, Z; Zhu, Z

    2009-10-01

    Food consumption, number of movements and feeding hierarchy of juvenile transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics were measured under conditions of limited food supply. Transgenic fish exhibited 73.3% more movements as well as a higher feeding order, and consumed 1.86 times as many food pellets as their non-transgenic counterparts. After the 10 day experiment, transgenic C. carpio had still not realized their higher growth potential, which may be partly explained by the higher frequency of movements of transgenics and the 'sneaky' feeding strategy used by the non-transgenics. The results indicate that these transgenic fish possess an elevated ability to compete for limited food resources, which could be advantageous after an escape into the wild. It may be that other factors in the natural environment (i.e. predation risk and food distribution), however, would offset this advantage. Thus, these results need to be assessed with caution.

  19. Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jintu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3

  20. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campenhout, K. van; Bervoets, L.; Blust, R.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 o C to 15 o C did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature

  1. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campenhout, K. van [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, L. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.be; Blust, R. [Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-02-15

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 {sup o}C to 15 {sup o}C did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature.

  2. Expression of immune system-related genes during ontogeny in experimentally wounded common carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2014-01-01

    they were microscopically indistinguishable from normal tissue by day 3 post-wounding in all but the juvenile carp wounded on day 49 post-fertilization. In these juveniles the wounded area was still visible even 7days post-wounding. On the transcriptional level a very limited response was observed......We investigated the effect of full-thickness incisional wounding on expression of genes related to the immune system in larvae and juveniles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The wounds were inflicted by needle puncture immediately below the anterior part of the dorsal fin on days 7, 14, 28 and 49...... after fertilization. We followed the local gene expression 1, 3 and 7days after wounding by removing head and viscera before extracting RNA from the remaining part of the fish, including the wound area. In addition, we visually followed wound healing. Overall the wounds had regenerated to a point where...

  3. Evaluation of the toxicological effects of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, P.T.; Dongen, W. van; Esmans, E.L.; Blust, R.; Coen, W.M. de

    2003-02-26

    In the present study we evaluated the toxicological effects of a scarcely documented environmental pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), on selected biochemical endpoints in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Juvenile organisms were exposed to PFOS through a single intraperitoneal injection (liver concentrations ranging from 16 to 864 ng/g after 5 days of exposure) and after 1 and 5 days effects were assessed in liver and serum of the exposed organisms. The investigation of the hepatotoxicity of PFOS included the determination of the peroxisome proliferating potential (peroxisomal palmitoyl CoA oxidase and catalase activity) and the compounds influence on the average DNA basepair length (ABPL) by agarose gel electrophoresis. Total antioxidant activity (TAA), cholesterol and triglyceride levels were monitored in the serum. After 1 day of exposure the ABPL was significantly increased in the 270 and 864 ng/g treatment groups. After 5 days of exposure significant increases relative to the control were observed for the 16, 270 and 864 ng/g treatment groups. Enzyme leakage from the liver was investigated by measurement of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in the serum. At 561, 670 and 864 ng/g PFOS a significant increase in serum ALT activity became apparent after 5 days of exposure with values ranging from 159 to 407% relative to the control. For serum AST activity a significant increase for the 864 ng/g treatment group was observed with a value of 112% relative to the control. Determination of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration into liver tissue as assessed through myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in liver, was used as an indicator for inflammation. It appeared that inflammation was not involved in the observed membranous enzyme leakage for the 561, 670 and 864 ng/g PFOS treatment groups. The results of this study suggest that PFOS induces inflammation-independent enzyme leakage through liver cell membranes

  4. Effect of mercury chloride to number of melano-macrophage centers on the kidney of carp fish (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarokah, L.; Tjahjaningsih, W.; Sulmartiwi, L.

    2018-04-01

    Mercury chloride can cause immunotoxic effects on fish. The accumulation or aggregate of melano-macrophages centers (MMCs) in the kidney is a feature of cellular immune response, so it can be used as a bioindicator of heavy metal toxicity in waters. This research aims to determine an effect of heavy metal exposure concentration of mercury chloride (HgCl2) on a number of MMCs from common carp kidney. This research using four treatments of mercury chloride: 0 ppm, 0.01 ppm, 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm. The main parameters were the number of MMCs in kidney common carp. Supporting parameter was behavior change, water quality and concentration of mercury in the water and kidney. The results of the research showed that the concentration the heavy metal exposure concentration of mercury chloride (HgCl2) affected the number of MMCs from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) kidney. The number of MMCs in the kidney of common carp exposed to mercury chloride 0.01 ppm, 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm increased compared to carp was not exposed to mercury chloride (0 ppm).

  5. Are fish immune systems really affected by parasites? An immunoecological study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlenová, Karolína; Morand, Serge; Hyršl, Pavel; Tolarová, Soňa; Flajšhans, Martin; Simková, Andrea

    2011-06-27

    The basic function of the immune system is to protect an organism against infection in order to minimize the fitness costs of being infected. According to life-history theory, energy resources are in a trade-off between the costly demands of immunity and other physiological demands. Concerning fish, both physiology and immunity are influenced by seasonal changes (i.e. temporal variation) associated to the changes of abiotic factors (such as primarily water temperature) and interactions with pathogens and parasites. In this study, we investigated the potential associations between the physiology and immunocompetence of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected during five different periods of a given year. Our sampling included the periods with temporal variability and thus, it presented a different level in exposure to parasites. We analyzed which of two factors, seasonality or parasitism, had the strongest impact on changes in fish physiology and immunity. We found that seasonal changes play a key role in affecting the analyzed measurements of physiology, immunity and parasitism. The correlation analysis revealed the relationships between the measures of overall host physiology, immunity and parasite load when temporal variability effect was removed. When analyzing separately parasite groups with different life-strategies, we found that fish with a worse condition status were infected more by monogeneans, representing the most abundant parasite group. The high infection by cestodes seems to activate the phagocytes. A weak relationship was found between spleen size and abundance of trematodes when taking into account seasonal changes. Even if no direct trade-off between the measures of host immunity and physiology was confirmed when taking into account the seasonality, it seems that seasonal variability affects host immunity and physiology through energy allocation in a trade-off between life important functions, especially reproduction and fish condition. Host

  6. Are fish immune systems really affected by parasites? an immunoecological study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flajšhans Martin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basic function of the immune system is to protect an organism against infection in order to minimize the fitness costs of being infected. According to life-history theory, energy resources are in a trade-off between the costly demands of immunity and other physiological demands. Concerning fish, both physiology and immunity are influenced by seasonal changes (i.e. temporal variation associated to the changes of abiotic factors (such as primarily water temperature and interactions with pathogens and parasites. In this study, we investigated the potential associations between the physiology and immunocompetence of common carp (Cyprinus carpio collected during five different periods of a given year. Our sampling included the periods with temporal variability and thus, it presented a different level in exposure to parasites. We analyzed which of two factors, seasonality or parasitism, had the strongest impact on changes in fish physiology and immunity. Results We found that seasonal changes play a key role in affecting the analyzed measurements of physiology, immunity and parasitism. The correlation analysis revealed the relationships between the measures of overall host physiology, immunity and parasite load when temporal variability effect was removed. When analyzing separately parasite groups with different life-strategies, we found that fish with a worse condition status were infected more by monogeneans, representing the most abundant parasite group. The high infection by cestodes seems to activate the phagocytes. A weak relationship was found between spleen size and abundance of trematodes when taking into account seasonal changes. Conclusions Even if no direct trade-off between the measures of host immunity and physiology was confirmed when taking into account the seasonality, it seems that seasonal variability affects host immunity and physiology through energy allocation in a trade-off between life important

  7. Metals Analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio from Shirinsu Wetland, Hamedan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhan Ardakani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Concentrations of Cd, Hg and As were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in muscle, liver and gill tissues of common carp from the Shirinsu Wetland during February to March 2013. Methods: Fish samples (Cyprinus carpio were caught from Shirinsu Wetland, western Iran from February to March 2013. Specimens were frozen in prewashed polyethylene bags and frozen samples brought to the laboratory in ice chests. Samples (2 g were digested with 5 ml of HNO 3 (65% v/v, 1 ml of H 2 O 2 (30% v/v with a microwave oven. A blank digest was carried out in the same way. The digestion program began at a potency of 1200W then ramped for 10 min, after which samples were held for 10 min at 1200W. The second step began at a potency of 0W and held for 15 min. All metal concentrations were determined on a wet weight basis as μg g −1 . Results: Metal levels measured in muscle tissue were in the following ranges (μg g −1 : Cd 0.007-0.011, Hg 0.006-0.01 and As not detected. In liver tissue were (μg g −1 : Cd 0.035-0.043, Hg and As not detected. In gill tissue were (μg g −1 : Cd 0.31-0.55, Hg 0.002-0.004 and As 0.001-0.003. The results presented on metal contents in the examined tissues give an indication of the environmental conditions. Concentrations of Cd, Hg and As obtained were far below the established values by the European Community Regulations. However, Cd level found in gill tissue was higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption and as such may cause a human health issue. Conclusion: Analytical data shows that the metal concentrations for the fish tissues were generally within the FAO/WHO, ASTDR and EEC recommended limits for fish. Therefore there is no serious health risk associated with the consumption of the three studied metals in the muscle and liver tissues analyzed.             

  8. Effect of using Falcaria vulgaris on skin wound healing and immune response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nasrin Choobkar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are generally used to increase the immune response and wound healing of aquatic animals but due to the residual effects of these drugs, researchers are looking to replace them with natural materials such as medicinal plant extract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of Falcaria vulgaris on wound healing and enhancement of immune system in common carp (Cyprinus carpio.The effect of Falcaria vulgaris at concentrations of 0, 2 and 10% with Lofag foods used on wound healing, immune response, and weight gain and survival of common carp was investigated during a 21 day period with twice per day feeding on the basis of body weight. The results showed that using Falcaria vulgaris at the 10% concentration had the greatest effect on wound healing, stimulation of the immune system by increasing white blood cells, weight gain and survival of carp in comparison with the control group. This herb can be used in wound healing, increasing resistance to disease and weight gain of common carp.

  9. THE EFFECT OF FISH FEEDING WITH ADDITIVES NUPRO® AND BIO-MOS® ON THE RESULTS OF THE REARING OF AGE-1+ CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Vaschenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of feed fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing of age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Methodology. The study of the effect of feeding fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L. of “Nyvka” scaled intrabreed type were performed based on the conventional methodology. The experiments were carried out in ponds condition of the research farm "Nyvka" of the Institute of Fisheries during 3 months. For the experiments, we used 0.5 ha ponds, which were stocked with age-1 carp. The stocking density was 3000 individuals per ha or 1500 individuals per pond. Findings. The study demonstrated that feeding age-1+ carp with the balanced combined feed PKS 111 2/2/4 enriched with the food additives NUPRO® (5% and BIO-MOS® (2% increased the intensity of their growth compared to that in the control group of fish, which were fed with the combined feed of the same composition but without feed additives. Using these additives in the combined feed composition increased fish growth by 12.4% when BIO-MOS® was used and by 57.3% with NUPRO®. The fish output increased by 2% and 4%, respectively. Feed costs reduced by 2.8 an 2.6 versus 3 kg/ha in the control group. All hydrochemical indices in the experimental ponds were within normal limits and temperature condition was optimal for fish growth and metabolism. Therefore, adding these feed additives in age-1+ carp diet allows obtaining additional weight gain and more effective utilization of the feed used. Originality. The analysis of the effect of adding the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® into combined on productive parameters of age-1+ carp of “Nyvka” scaled intrabreed type was carried out for the first time. Practical value. The feed additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® are recommended to be used when feeding age-1+ carp for increasing fish productivity and reducing feed costs.

  10. A Novel igf3 Gene in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio): Evidence for Its Role in Regulating Gonadal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feibiao; Wang, Lanmei; Zhu, Wenbin; Fu, Jianjun; Dong, Juanjuan; Dong, Zaijie

    2016-01-01

    Since the insulin-like growth factor 3 (igf3) gene was recently discovered in fish ovary, its function in the gonads has received much attention. In this study, we isolated two igf3 subtypes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), which comprised full-length cDNA of 707 and 1153 nucleotides encoding 205 and 198 amino acids (aa), respectively. The Igf3 aa sequence had the highest gene homology of 72% with the corresponding sequence in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Phylogenetic tree construction revealed that the C. carpio igf3 gene was first clustered with D. rerio and then with other teleost species. Igf3 mRNA was widely expressed, with expression being highest in the gonads and blood. In the gonad development stage, igf3a mRNA expression was highest in the maturity and recession stage of the ovary, and decline phase of the testis, while igf3b was highest in the recession and fully mature periods of the ovaries and testes, respectively. Western blotting of testis protein samples showed two bands of approximately 21 kDa and 34 kDa corresponding to the calculated molecular mass of the two Igf3 subtypes; no signal was detected in the ovary. The Igf3 protein was localized in the ovary granulosa cells and testis spermatogonium and spermatids. 17β-Ethinylestradiol treatment increased both ovary and testis igf3 mRNA expression. These findings suggest that Igf3 may play an important role in C. carpio gonadal development.

  11. The in vitro effect of temperature on motility and antioxidant response of common carp Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadras, Hadiseh; Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Cosson, Jacky; Golpour, Amin; Dzyuba, Borys

    2016-07-01

    The effect of temperature on Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa in vitro was investigated with spermatozoa activated at 4, 14, and 24°C. At 30s post-activation, motility rate was significantly higher at 4°C compared to 14 and 24°C, whereas highest swimming velocity was observed at 14°C. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) content was significantly higher at 14°C and 24°C than at 4°C in motile spermatozoa. No significant differences in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity relative to temperature were observed. This study provides new information regarding effect of temperature on lipid peroxidation intensity and spermatozoon motility parameters in carp. The elevation of TBARS seen at higher temperatures could be due to inadequate capacity of antioxidant enzymes to protect the cell against the detrimental effects of oxidative stress induced by higher temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical and Chemical Changes in Fresh Chilled Muscle Tissue of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Packed in a Modified Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ježek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to monitor the course of physical and chemical changes taking place in stored fresh chilled muscle tissue of carp packed in modified atmosphere (MAP, and to determine its shelf life. Samples of muscle tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. were packed in MAP (80% O2, 20% CO2 and stored for 15 days at +2 ± 2 °C max. During the storage period, O2 level in packs decreased from 78.7 ± 0.39% (day 1 to 63.8 ± 1.30% (day 15. Decrease in O2 in packs between storage days 7 and 9 was highly significant (p -1 (day 15. Hydrolytic lipid decomposition (FFA was more intensive in carp muscle tissue (2.09 ± 1.07% total lipid as oleic acid than in carp skin (1.01 ± 0.31% total lipid as oleic acid (day 15. Lipid oxidation (PV in skin showed differences from lipid oxidation in muscle tissue. Oxidation processes in muscle correlated positively with the length of storage (r = 0.90. Over the storage period, peroxide levels increased from 2.58 ± 1.19 mekv O2 kg-1 (day 1 to 6.76 ± 1.78 mekv O2 kg-1 (day 15. Because of low TVBN levels in muscle tissue, shelf life was limited mainly by sensory changes (green discoloration, odour deviations, slime production, which were observed from storage day 9 onwards. It was found that the maximum shelf life of carp packed in MAP (80% O2, 20% CO2 was 7 days. The optimum parameter to determine the remaining shelf life of common carp muscle tissue stored at +2 ± 2 °C max is the TVBN level. As concerns shelf life, TVBN levels in carp muscle should not exceed 15 mg 100 g-1. This level of TVBN (max. 15 mg 100 g-1 for carp (MAP 80% O2, 20% CO2 is much more lower in comparison with levels TVBN (max 25 - 35 mg 100 g-1 which have been determined by Commission Regulation (EC No. 2074/2005 for sea fish. For that reason we suggest to amplify the study by other monitoring (higher number of samples, various breeds of carp in different weight categories for all the year. On the basis of these analyses the level

  13. Seasonal and diel effects on acoustic fish biomass estimates: application to a shallow reservoir with untargeted common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemali, Imed; Yule, Daniel; Guillard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand how seasonal fish distributions affect acoustically derived fish biomass estimates in a shallow reservoir in a semi-arid country (Tunisia). To that end, sampling events were performed during four seasons (spring (June), summer (September), autumn (December) and winter (March)) that included day and night surveys. A Simrad EK60 echosounder, equipped with two 120-kHz split-beam transducers for simultaneous horizontal and vertical beaming, was used to sample the entire water column. Surveys during spring and summer and daytime hours of winter were deemed unusable owing to high methane flux from the sediment, and during the day survey of autumn, fish were close to the reservoir bottom leading to low detectability. It follows that acoustic surveys should be conducted only at night during the cold season (December–March) for shallow reservoirs having carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) as the dominant species. Further, night-time biomass estimates during the cold season declined significantly (P night-time survey, overall fish biomass in the Bir-Mcherga Reservoir was high (mean (± s.d.) 185 ± 98 tonnes (Mg)), but annual fishery exploitation is low (19.3–24.1 Mg) because the fish biomass is likely dominated by invasive carp not targeted by fishers. The results suggest that controlling carp would help improve the fishery.

  14. Prediction of mercury bioavailability to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using the diffusive gradient in thin film technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelcová, Pavlína; Vičarová, Petra; Ridošková, Andrea; Dočekalová, Hana; Kopp, Radovan; Mareš, Jan; Poštulková, Eva

    2017-11-01

    The mercury bioaccumulation by common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues (gills, skin, eyes, scales, muscle, brain, kidneys, liver, and spleen) and the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique to predict bioavailability of mercury for individual carp's tissues were evaluated. Carp and DGT units were exposed to increasing concentrations of mercury (Hg 2+ : 0 μg L -1 , 0.5 μg L -1 , 1.5 μg L -1 and 3.0 μg L -1 ) in fish tanks for 14 days. In the uncontaminated fish group, the highest mercury concentration was determined in the muscle tissues and, in fish groups exposed to mercury, the highest mercury concentration was determined in the detoxification (kidneys) and input (gills) organs. A strong and positive correlation between the rate of mercury uptake by the DGT technique and the rate of mercury accumulation by fish tissues (gills, skin, scales, and eyes) was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence ofAeromonas hydrophilaStrain Ae25, Isolated from a Septicemic Moribund Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honein, Karim; Jagoda, S S S De S; Arulkanthan, A; Ushio, Hideki; Asakawa, Shuichi

    2018-02-01

    Motile aeromonad septicemia caused by mesophilic strains of Aeromonas hydrophila is a widespread problem in cultured freshwater fish. We announce here the draft genome sequence of the multidrug-resistant A. hydrophila strain Ae25, isolated from a koi carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) with motile aeromonad septicemia that was collected from an ornamental fish-breeding farm in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2018 Honein et al.

  16. Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON)

    OpenAIRE

    Pietsch, Constanze; Schulz, Carsten; Rovira, Pere; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg DON kg−1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish wi...

  17. Cryoconservation of fish sperm in model species - common carp (Cyprinus carpio): the influence of different temperature regimes of cryopreservation on the viability of thawed spermatozoa.

    OpenAIRE

    SOCHOROVÁ, Denisa

    2012-01-01

    Influence of temperature and freezing rate on sperm survival after thawing were objective of this study. Motility (percentage of moving sperm), velocity and duration of sperm movement before and after process of freezing were observed in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) spermatozoa. Solutions recommended by Kopeika (1986) and Kurokura (1984) were used as a cryoprotective media. Sperm freezing was performed in 0.5 ml straws layed in styrofoam box 3, 6 and 9 cm above the level of liquid nitroge...

  18. Immune effects of the vaccine of live attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila screened by rifampicin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yanjing; Kong, Xianghui; Pei, Chao; Li, Li; Nie, Guoxing; Li, Xuejun

    2016-06-08

    Aeromonas hydrophila, as a strong Gram-negative bacterium, can infect a wide range of freshwater fish, including common carp Cyprinus carpio, and cause the huge economic loss. To create the effective vaccine is the best way to control the outbreak of the disease caused by A. hydrophila. In this study, a live attenuated A. hydrophila strain, XX1LA, was screened from the pathogenic A. hydrophila strain XX1 cultured on medium containing the antibiotic rifampicin, which was used as a live attenuated vaccine candidate. The immune protection of XX1LA against the pathogen A. hydrophila in common carp was evaluated by the relative percent survival (RPS), the specific IgM antibody titers, serum lysozyme activity and the expression profiles of multiple immune-related genes at the different time points following immunization. The results showed that the variable up-regulations of the immune-related genes, such as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, the chemokine IL-10 and IgM, were observed in spleen and liver of common carp injected in the vaccines with the formalin-killed A. hydrophila (FKA) and the live attenuated XX1LA. Specific antibody to A. hydrophila was found to gradually increase during 28 days post-vaccination (dpv), and the RPS (83.7%) in fish vaccinated with XX1LA, was significant higher than that (37.2%) in fish vaccinated with FKA (Pvaccinated with XX1LA. During the late stage of 4-week immunization phase, compared with FKA and the control, specific IgM antibody titers significantly increased (Plive attenuated bacterial vaccine XX1LA, screened in this study, indicates the better protect effect on common carp against A. hydrophila, which can be applied in aquaculture of common carp to prevent from the disease outbreak in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Ovarian tumor in a koi carp (Cyprinus carpio): Diagnosis, surgery, postoperative care and tumour classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewisch, E; Reifinger, M; Schmidt, P; El-Matbouli, M

    2014-01-01

    Although ovarian tumour in the koi (Cyprinus carpio) does not appear to be an uncommon condition, its occurrence and therapy has rarely been reported. In the present case, the decision for surgery was based on clinical and sonographic findings of an intracoelomic mass. We used tricaine methansulfonate for the anaesthesia. Laparotomy was performed by ventral access and an ovarian tumour of 12-cm diameter was removed. The wound was sutured in two layers using Vicryl®. In addition to the application of an analgesic, an antibiotic and vitamins, the postoperative conditions the patient was kept under were adapted to support wound healing. The fish recovered uneventfully and was clinically healthy during the 16-month observation period. Based on the histological findings, the tumour was diagnosed as a thecoma. Investigations using antibodies against vimentin, cytokeratin, S 100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) failed to provide reliable results.

  20. Cyto-genotoxicity and oxidative stress in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to a mixture of ibuprofen and diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Flores, Hariz; Manuel Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Michelle Sánchez-Ocampo, Esmeralda; SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Ortíz-Reynoso, Mariana; Dublán-García, Octavio

    2017-05-01

    Thirty million people worldwide consume each day nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), a heterogeneous group of pharmaceuticals used for its analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies report high NSAID concentrations in wastewater treatment plant effluents, in surface, ground, and drinking water, and in sediments. NSAIDs are also known to induce toxicity on aquatic organisms. However, toxicity in natural ecosystems is not usually the result of exposure to a single substance but to a mixture of toxic agents, yet only a few studies have evaluated the toxicity of mixtures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity induced by diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBP), and their mixture on a species of commercial interest, the common carp Cyprinus carpio. The median lethal concentration of IBP and DCF was determined, and oxidative stress was evaluated using the following biomarkers: lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Cyto-genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus test, comet assay, and the specific activity of caspase-3. Results show that DCF, IBP, and a mixture of these pharmaceuticals induced free radical production, oxidative stress and cyto-genotoxicity in tissues of C. carpio. However, a greater effect was elicited by the mixture than by either pharmaceutical alone in some biomarkers evaluated, particularly in gill. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1637-1650, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of dietary glucose and sodium chloride on intestinal glucose absorption of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chaobin; Yang, Liping; Zheng, Wenjia; Yan, Xiao; Lu, Ronghua; Xie, Dizhi; Nie, Guoxing

    2018-01-08

    The co-transport of sodium and glucose is the first step for intestinal glucose absorption. Dietary glucose and sodium chloride (NaCl) may facilitate this physiological process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To test this hypothesis, we first investigated the feeding rhythm of intestinal glucose absorption. Carps were fed to satiety once a day (09:00 a.m.) for 1 month. Intestinal samples were collected at 01:00, 05:00, 09:00, 13:00, 17:00 and 21:00. Result showed that food intake greatly enhanced sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) expressions, and improved glucose absorption, with highest levels at 09:00 a.m.. Then we designed iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets with graded levels of glucose (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) and NaCl (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%), and submitted to feeding trial for 10 weeks. The expressions of SGLT1 and GLUT2, brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) glucose transport and intestinal villus height were determined after the feeding trial. Increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, enhanced BBMVs glucose transport in the proximal, mid and distal intestine. As for histological adaptive response, however, high-glucose diet prolonged while high-NaCl diet shrank intestinal villus height. Furthermore, we also found that higher mRNA levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, higher glucose transport capacity of BBMVs, and higher intestinal villus were detected in the proximal and mid intestine, compared to the distal part. Taken together, our study indicated that intestinal glucose absorption in carp was primarily occurred in the proximal and mid intestine, and increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl enhanced intestinal glucose absorption in carp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of triclosan on hormones and reproductive axis in female Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio): Potential mechanisms underlying estrogen effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Guo, Xiangmeng; Chen, Wanguang; Sun, Yaowen; Fan, Chaojie

    2017-12-01

    Triclosan (TCS), a member of the class of compounds called pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), is a broad antibacterial and antifungal agent found in a lot of consumer products. However, TCS hormone effect mechanism in teleost female fish is not clear. Female Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 1/20, 1/10 and 1/5 LC 50 TCS (96h LC 50 of TCS to carp) under semi-static conditions for 42days. Vitellogenin (Vtg), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), testosterone(T), estrogen receptor (Er), gonadotropin (GtH), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Meanwhile, we also examined the mRNA expressions of aromatase, GtHs-β, GnRH, and Er by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results indicated that 1/5 LC 50 TCS induced Vtg in hepatopancreas of female carps by interference with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at multiple potential loci through three mechanisms: (a) TCS exposure enhanced the mRNA expression of hypothalamus and gonadal aromatase which converts androgens into estrogens, subsequently increasing serum concentrations of E 2 to induce Vtg in hepatopancreas; (b) TCS treatment increased GnRH and GtH-β mRNA expression and secretion, causing the disturbance of reproductive endocrine and the increase of E 2 to induce Vtg in hepatopancreas; (c) TCS exposure enhanced synthesis and secretion of Er, then it bound to Er to active Vtg synthesis. These mechanisms showed that TCS may induce Vtg production in female Yellow River carp by Er-mediated and non-Er-mediated pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of chronic dietary exposure of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the serum protein profile of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chupani, Latifeh; Zusková, Eliška; Niksirat, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    information related to their toxicological endpoints. Proteomics was applied to evaluate the sub-lethal effects of dietary exposure to ZnO NPs on serum proteome profile of juvenile common carp, (Cyprinus carpio). Therefore, ZnO NPs solution (500mgkg-1 of feed) was added to a commercial carp feed for six weeks...... proteins were significantly altered (fold change (fc) ≥2 and p complement component C4-2 (fc 2.5) and the uncharacterised protein encoded by kng1 (fc 5.8) were increased and major histocompatibility class I (fc 4.9) and the uncharacterised...

  4. Feeding common carp Cyprinus carpio with b-glucan supplemented \\ud diet stimulates C-reactive protein and complement immune acute\\ud phase responses following PAMPs injection

    OpenAIRE

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J.; Shrive, Annette K.; Hoole, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The effect of β-glucan as a feed additive on the serum and gene profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was ascertained in common carp Cyprinus carpio. In addition effects of subsequent intraperitoneal injections of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), i.e. LPS or poly(I:C), to mimic bacterial or viral infection respectively, were studied. Carp were first orally fed with β-glucan (MacroGard®) with a daily β-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight o...

  5. Biological significance of [14C]phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Kumar, V.; Moitra, J.

    1990-01-01

    Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of [ 14 C]phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish

  6. Genetic diversity of the two populations of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio in Gharahsu and Anzali regions using eight microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melika Ghelichpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is regarded as one of the economically important bony fish species in south Caspian Sea. In recent decades, stock rebuilding programs of common carp were carried out by artificial propagation of wild caught broodstocks that might disturb genetic diversity. In this study, 56 fish were collected from Gharahsu and Anzali regions (28 samples in each region to investigate the populations’ structure. DNA were extracted by phenol‌-chloroform method and investigated for 8 microsatellite loci. Results showed that the range of allel number, expected and observed heterozygosity, were 11-18, 0.90 and 1.00, respectively. The analyses of molecular variance showed high genetic diversity (99% within populations. The Fst value was 0.017 which indicates the low genetic differentiation between the Gharahsu and Anzali populations that could be because of the natural migration of fish. 13 out of 16 investigated tests showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05, mostly due to the excess of heterozygosity. UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei genetic distance showed there are two different populations inhabited in these regions. The results could be of interest for management and conservation programs of this valuable species in the Caspian Sea.

  7. Apple cider vinegar boosted immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of Lactobacillus casei in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Nejadmoghadam, Shabnam; Khalili, Mohsen

    2017-08-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of combined or singular administration of apple cider vinegar (ACV) and Lactobacillus casei in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) diet. An 8-week feeding trial was designed with following treatments: Control (basal diet), Pro (contains 10 7  CFU g -1 L. casei), LACV (contains 1% ACV), HACV (contains 2% ACV), Pro + LACV (contains 10 7  CFU g -1 L. casei plus 1% ACV) and Pro + HACV (contains 10 7  CFU g -1 L. casei plus 2% ACV). Evaluation of skin mucus revealed notable increase of total Ig level and lysozyme activity in Pro + LACV and Pro + HACV treatments compared other groups (P ACV (P ACV boosted immunomodulatory and health promoting effects of L. casei and can be considered as a promising immunostimulants in early stage of common carp culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of copper nanoparticles exposure in the physiology of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio: Biochemical, histological and proteomic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantak Raj Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs are serious water pollutants but their impact in teleosts performance remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have exposed juvenile carps (Cyprinus carpio, a freshwater teleost edible in India to two different doses (20 and 100 μg/L of Cu-NPs for seven days. The doses selected were eco-relevant considering the contamination levels of certain water resources. The results indicated that the activity oxidative stress enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione-S-transferase were significantly increased in the kidney, liver and gills of the treated groups when compared to control. Histological analysis revealed that after exposure, disruption of the secondary lamellae of gills, liver damage with pyknotic nuclei and structural disarray of the kidney occurred. Proteomic analysis of the liver showed down-regulation of several proteins including the ferritin heavy chain, rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 17-like, cytoglobin-1 and up-regulation of diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase and selenide & water dikinase-1. Taken together, the results of suggest that short-term exposure of juvenile carp to Cu-NPs causes oxidative stress and impart serious deleterious effects in the tissues which may affect fish growth and development.

  9. Association of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes in the haemorrhagic blister of cultured carp Cyprinus carpio in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harresh Adikesavalu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the association of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes in the haemorrhagic blister of cultured exotic carp Cyprinus carpio in West Bengal, India, its cellular fatty acid composition and antibiotic sensitivity. Methods: The phenotypic characterization and antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial flora of diseased fish were performed. The whole cellular fatty acid composition of Aeromonas salmonicida (A. salmonicida was determined by MIS Sherlock automatic identification system. Results: Aeromonas hydrophila, A. salmonicida and Pseudomonas alcaligenes were isolated from the haemorrhagic blister. The fatty acid methyl esters pattern confirmed the A. salmonicida strain as A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes. Unsaturated fatty acid 16:1 w7c/16:1 w6c (39.09%, saturated fatty acid 16:0 (26.84% and the mono-unsaturated fatty acids 18:1 w7c (8.89% and 16:1 iso I/14:0 3OH (8.49% were the most common fatty acids, which accounted for 83.31% of the total fatty acids. A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes was highly susceptible to broad spectrum antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, gentamycin, nitrofurantoin and oxytetracycline. Conclusions: The finding on the presence of A. salmonicida in carps necessitates molecular level study on establishing the prevalence of this bacterium in Indian aquaculture systems especially on its free-living viable but non-culturable state.

  10. Rodlet Cells in the Head and Trunk Kidney of the Domestic Carp (Cyprinus carpio): Enigmatic Gland Cells or Coccidian Parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishelson, Lev; Becker, Klaus

    Rodlet cells have been found in the head and trunk kidneys of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). From an experimental sample of 50 carps of various ages, we detected these cells in only seven fishes, contradicting the hypothesis that they constitute a normal component of the fish epithelia. The rodlet cells have a typical structure: 12-16μm in diameter, with a basal nucleus various in form, and an encasing layer of fibrillar structure. The cells contain rodlets, composed of elongated, opaque sacs featuring dark rods in the center, which strongly elongate in ripening cells. Remarkable pseudopodia-like extensions from the apical parts of the rodlet cells penetrate into the delicate blood vessels and sinusoids of the organs. The encasing layer at the cell apex then opens to release the rodlets into the bloodstream. No junctions were found between the rodlet cells and neighboring cells. It is suggested that these cells comprise some kind of "symbiosis" between leukocyte, possible granulocyte cells, and the parasitic rodlets. The cells serve the rodlets as an incubation chamber, as well as a means of transportation into the bloodstream after ripening.

  11. Voluntary timing of food intake increases weight gain and reduces basal plasma cortisol levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaren, Peter H M; van Dalen, Stephanie C M; Atsma, Wim; Spanings, F A Tom; Hendriks, Jasper; Flik, Gert

    2013-10-02

    We investigated the effect of timing of food intake on growth in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Juvenile carp were demand-fed for 22 days using a computerized pendulum feeder that registered meal requests. Controls were pair-fed at 10:00 h, both groups were kept at 12L:12D (lights on at 06:30 h). Demand-fed fish displayed highest food intake at 22:00 h, and the lowest at 10:00. After 22 days, demand-fed fish had grown by 20% of their initial body weight, compared to 4% of the pair-fed control. Plasma cortisol levels in demand-fed fish were remarkably low and stable, whereas in the control group levels had increased 60-fold at 10:00 h compared to 22:00 h. Hepatic mRNA expression of leptin-a1 and leptin-a2 also differed markedly between groups and time points, with leptin-a2 expression being lowest in the demand-fed group at the time point of lowest food intake. We conclude that timing of food intake is an important determinant of endocrine status, growth and welfare. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Antimicrobial effects of guava leaf (Psidium guajava Linn. extract against Aeromonas hydrophila in fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangtongpirot, J.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of guava leaves in treatment or prevention of bacterial infection using methanol extracted guava leaves. Three hundred and eighty four fancy carps (Cyprinus carpio with average weight of 25.5 g. were acclimated for 14 days before the experiment. Fish were divided into 32 groups of two replicates each with 6 fish. All experiments were done in replicate. Guava leaves were macerated and extracted by methanol distillation and evaporation to produce 12.99% of dried leave weight. The exposures were divided into oral route using 5% (MIC and 10 % (2xMIC. And 1000 ppm (MIC and 2000 ppm (2xMIC for dip and bath methods. MIC by agar dilution method was 1000 ppm. At the 1000 ppm concentration dipped for 5 minutes, fish lost consciousness but this was reversible when returned to freshwater, which may due to the antinociceptive effect. All fish died when dipped at 2000 ppm concentration. The relative percent survival (RPS of 5% feed mix group was significantly higher than the 10% feed mix group and higher when fed for longer time. All groups receiving guava leaf extract had significantly higher percent phagocytosis and percent chemotaxis than the controls (P<0.05. The results indicated that guava leaf extract can stimulate the non-specific immune responses and decrease the mortality rate of the bacterial infected carp. The effects were enhanced by the longer period of exposure.

  13. Effect of setting with various temperatures on gel forming properties of farmed carp (Cyprinus carpio surimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Zamaninejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater aquaculture especially hydrothermal fish is increased in recent years. In Chinese carp aquaculture, common carp (CyprinusCarpiocomprises the 15-20 percent of the aquaculture system. Foods obtained from farmed carps could be turn into value-added and ready to eat products such as sausages, salami, burgers and etc. Surimi is one of the intermediate products to make ready to eat foods. Texture properties of surimi products depend mainly on its gelation ability. Through basic preparation of fish paste (setting for last cooking it would be possible to produce stronger gels. In this research the effect of high and low temperature setting on gelation characteristics of farmed common carp surimi wasinvestigated. For this end, control, kamaboko and suwari treatments were considered. Suwari and kamaboko gels were located at 35°C for 1 hour followed by storage at 4 °C for 12 hours. After setting the suwari gels were cooled,however kamaboko gels were cooked prior to cooling.All samples were examined for water holding capacity, protein solubility, soluble peptides, gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, puncture test and color evaluation. According to the results the lowest rate of whiteness and L* indices were observed in control group. Set gels at 35 °C demonstrated the highest strength, water holding capacity and soluble peptides in TCA and also had the lowest protein solubility and molecule weight of myosin. The results showed that set gels in high temperature results in better physicochemical properties than the gels set at low temperature.

  14. A Novel igf3 Gene in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio: Evidence for Its Role in Regulating Gonadal Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feibiao Song

    Full Text Available Since the insulin-like growth factor 3 (igf3 gene was recently discovered in fish ovary, its function in the gonads has received much attention. In this study, we isolated two igf3 subtypes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio, which comprised full-length cDNA of 707 and 1153 nucleotides encoding 205 and 198 amino acids (aa, respectively. The Igf3 aa sequence had the highest gene homology of 72% with the corresponding sequence in zebrafish (Danio rerio. Phylogenetic tree construction revealed that the C. carpio igf3 gene was first clustered with D. rerio and then with other teleost species. Igf3 mRNA was widely expressed, with expression being highest in the gonads and blood. In the gonad development stage, igf3a mRNA expression was highest in the maturity and recession stage of the ovary, and decline phase of the testis, while igf3b was highest in the recession and fully mature periods of the ovaries and testes, respectively. Western blotting of testis protein samples showed two bands of approximately 21 kDa and 34 kDa corresponding to the calculated molecular mass of the two Igf3 subtypes; no signal was detected in the ovary. The Igf3 protein was localized in the ovary granulosa cells and testis spermatogonium and spermatids. 17β-Ethinylestradiol treatment increased both ovary and testis igf3 mRNA expression. These findings suggest that Igf3 may play an important role in C. carpio gonadal development.

  15. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Christoph, E-mail: steinbach@frov.jcu.cz [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Fedorova, Ganna [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Prokes, Miroslav [Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L{sup −1} to μg L{sup −1}. In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC{sub 50} values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L{sup −1} for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L{sup −1}. Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L{sup −1} of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of

  16. Threonine affects intestinal function, protein synthesis and gene expression of TOR in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feng

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of threonine (Thr on the digestive and absorptive ability, proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes, and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian. First, seven isonitrogenous diets containing graded levels of Thr (7.4-25.2 g/kg diet were fed to the fishes for 60 days. Second, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation were assayed by culturing enterocytes with graded levels of Thr (0-275 mg/l in vitro. Finally, enterocytes were cultured with 0 and 205 mg/l Thr to determine protein synthesis. The percent weight gain (PWG, specific growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency, protein retention value, activities of trypsin, lipase and amylase, weights and protein contents of hepatopancreas and intestine, folds heights, activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP, γ- glutamyl transpeptidase and Na(+/K(+-ATPase in all intestinal segments, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT activities in hepatopancreas, and 4E-BP2 gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestinal segments were significantly enhanced by Thr (p<0.05. However, the plasma ammonia concentration and TOR gene expression decreased (p<0.05. In vitro, Thr supplement significantly increased cell numbers, protein content, the activities of GOT, GPT, AKP and Na(+/K(+-ATPase, and protein synthesis rate of enterocytes, and decreased LDH activity and ammonia content in cell medium (p<0.05. In conclusion, Thr improved growth, digestive and absorptive capacity, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation, and protein synthesis and regulated TOR and 4E-BP2 gene expression in juvenile Jian carp. The dietary Thr requirement of juvenile Jian carp was 16.25 g/kg diet (51.3 g/kg protein based on quadratic regression analysis of PWG.

  17. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor on the histological features in carp testis. Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) for a period of 21 days. A single dose of 17-β estradiol (1 ...

  18. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758: Biochemical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinsetrase (AChE activities were measured. Behavioral changes in the fish were also recorded during the experiment. Unbalanced swimming, swimming in the surface water and hyperglycemia, increased blood triglyceride, and increased levels of AST, LDH and CK activities as well as decreased levels of AChE activity were important changes that were observed in the specimens exposed to chlorpyrifos during experimental periods. The most important alterations in the blood biochemical parameters were measured in the specimens exposed to 40 µg/L chlorpyrifos on the 20th and 30th day of the trial. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos as low as 40 µg/L may cause biochemical and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio.

  19. Potassium Dichromate as a Reference Substance for Embryonic Tests of Toxicity in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krejčí

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 has already been used as a reference substance in tests of toxicity with aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to determine and compare values of LC50 for potassium dichromate during the whole period of embryonic development (i.e., 120 h and 48 h after hatching of embryos in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Fish eggs and embryos were exposed to 5 different concentrations of potassium dichromate (i.e., 372, 409, 450, 495, 545 mg l-1 during two experiments. Such characteristics as the cumulative mortality, the start and the end of hatching, the number of deformities, body length, and body mass of surviving individuals were studied during the tests. The highest mortality was found in the hatched embryos. Mortality and frequency of deformities increased with the growing concentration of potassium dichromate. The value of 120 LC50 for potassium dichromate was 464.91 ± 23.83 mg l-1 and the value of 48 LC50 was 458.94 ± 4.14 mg l-1 (mean ± SD. No statistically significant difference between values 120 LC50 a 48 LC50 was found. This is why reduction of the exposure period to only 48 h after hatching seems a reasonable method to study the control of susceptibility using potassium dichromate in embryonic tests of toxicity.

  20. Florfenicol pharmacokinetics following intravenous and oral administrations and its elimination after oral and bath administrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangaran Nejad, Abdolhossein; Peyghan, Rahim; Najafzadeh Varzi, Hossein; Shahriyari, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacokinetic profiles of florfenicol after a single dose of intravenous (5.00 mg kg -1 body weight) and oral (40.00 mg kg -1 body weight) administrations in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ). The residue depletion of florfenicol was also investigated after oral administration (10.00 mg kg -1 body weight) and bath treatment (5.00 mg L -1 ) for 10 consecutive days. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in plasma after a single dose administration, at 10 time points (0.50, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 168 hr) and florfenicol concentrations in tissues (plasma, liver and muscle) at three time points (1, 7 and 14 days) after 10 consecutive days, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The peak concentration of florfenicol was 137.02 ng mL -1 and the time to reach peak concentration in plasma was two hr. The elimination half-lives, the volume of distribution at steady state and total body clearance were estimated as 21.40 hr, 0.30 and 0.03 L hr -1 , respectively. After drug administration for 10 days, it's concentration in plasma and muscle in oral treatment was significantly more than bath treatment in all days. Drug concentrations in the liver after bath treatment were significantly higher for a shorter period than the concentration in the oral treatment, indicating that higher levels of florfenicol for a longer period can be achieved in the tissues after oral drug administration. According to pharmacokinetic results, florfenicol may be a suitable candidate for the treatment of common bacterial infections in common carp farming.

  1. Transgenerational isotopic marking of carp Cyprinus carpio, L. using a 86Sr /84Sr double spike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitek, Andreas; Cervicek, Magdalena; Irrgeher, Johanna; Horsky, Monika; Kletzl, Manfred; Weismann, Thomas; Prohaska, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Transgenerational isotopic marking has been recognized recently as an effective tool for mass marking and tracking of individual fish to their original source. Compared to other conventional marking techniques, transgenerational marking offers several advantages. Most importantly, it is possible to mark all offspring of one individual female without the necessity of handling eggs or larval fish. Furthermore it is possible to vary the concentrations of individual isotopes to obtain specific marks for individual female fish. An enriched isotopic spike solution is usually applied to gravid female spawners by injection into the body cavity for transgenerational marking. The isotope is then incorporated into the central otolith region of the offspring which is known to be built up by maternally derived material. Within this study transgenerational marking of a typical cyprinid fish species, Cyprinus carpio, L., was tested using a 86Sr /84Sr double spike. Buffered solutions with different isotopic composition and concentrations were administered to 4 female individuals by intraperitoneal injection 5 days before spawning, while one female was injected a blank solution. After spawning, otoliths (Lapilli) from juvenile fish were sampled at the age of about 5 months at fish sizes between 3 and 4 cm and analyzed for their isotopic composition by LA-ICPMS applying cross sectional line scans. Central otolith regions of the progeny showed a shift in the natural isotope ratios for the administered isotopes. Deconvolution of the blank corrected measurement data of the Sr isotopes was done to trace back the original spike ratio. The different spike ratios could be well distinguished reflecting the original composition of the spike solution. This study proved that it is possible to create batch-specific unique transgenerational marks in otolith cores by varying the concentrations of two naturally occurring Sr isotopes. This method has high potential to reduce the marking effort for

  2. Differences between intestinal segments and soybean meal-induced changes in intestinal mucus composition of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, van der M.C.; Propsting, M.J.; Battermann, F.; Jung-Schroers, V.; Hubner, A.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Steinhagen, D.

    2014-01-01

    The alimentary tract is a possible site where pathogens and toxins can enter. The alimentary tract is protected, amongst others, by mucus. In this study, tissue samples and crude mucus preparations from different parts of the intestinal tract of Cyprinus carpio (from intestinal bulb onto the

  3. The establishment of the cell culture of preadipocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Ljubojević Dragana B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common carp is the most important freshwater fish in aquaculture in Republic of Serbia. Excess fat deposition in the meat and abdominal cavity of farmed carp can affect carp flesh quality, dressing percentage and consequently restrict the further development of aquaculture production. The reasons for lipid deposition in carp flesh and around visceral organs are not well known, and it is important to develop method which would enable us to understand process which occurs in common carp lipid cells. The aim of this study was to establish a new model of common carp preadipocytes and evaluate proliferation and differentiation capacity of carp preadipocytes in vitro. The establishment of the cell culture of preadipocytes of common carp could serve as a valuable tool for studying fat metabolism in this fish species.

  4. Effect of Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at Environmental Concentrations on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Josef Velisek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine’s herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5 mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029 mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07 mg/L, 1.4 mg/L, and 3.5 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC = 0.002 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC = 0.0001 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5 mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found.

  5. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Shangqi; Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp.

  6. Effect of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on TVB-N production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić Milijašević, J.; Milijašević, M.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Vranić, D.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of our research was to examine the influence of packaging in modified atmosphere and vacuum on the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content in muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), as well as to determine the most suitable gas mixtures for packing of these freshwater species. Three sample groups of trout and carp cuts were investigated. The two groups were packaged in modified atmosphere with different gas ratios: 90%CO2+10%N2 (MAP 1) and 60%CO2+40%N2 (MAP 2), whereas the third group of fish cuts were vacuum packaged. During trials, the trout and carp cuts were stored in refrigerator at 3°C±0.5°C. Determination of TVB-N was performed on 1, 4, 7, 9, 12 and 14 days of storage. The obtained results indicate that the investigated mixtures of gases and vacuum had a significant influence on the values of TVB-N in trout and carp cuts. The lowest increase in TVB-N was established in trout and carp cuts packaged in MAP 1, whereas the highest increase was established in vacuum packaged cuts. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the gas mixture consisting of 90% CO2 and 10% N2 was the most suitable for packaging of fresh trout and carp cuts in terms of TVB-N value.

  7. Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Grou, C.P.O.; Bergsma, J.; Saeij, J.P.J.; Nakayasu, C.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ontogeny of the teleost innate immune system was studied in carp using cellular, histological and quantitative molecular techniques. Carp myeloid cells first appeared ventro-lateral of the aorta at 2 days post fertilization (the start of hatching), and subsequently around the sinuses of the vena

  8. Electrical and percussive stunning of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Neurological and behavioural assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Pilarczyk, M.; Bialowas, H.; Boogaart, van den J.G.M.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The overall objective of the study was to evaluate electrical and percussive stunning methods under laboratory conditions in common carps. The electrical current needed to induce a general epileptiform insult was assessed in 13 carps. The insult was obtained by delivering a current of 0.24 ± 0.03 A

  9. Comparison of Lethal Concentrations (LC50-96 H of Cdcl2, Crcl3, and Pb (NO32 in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio and Sutchi Catfish (Pangasius Hypophthalmus

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    Zeynab Abedi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study compared lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h of CdCl2, CrCl3, and Pb (NO32 between two scaled and scaleless freshwater fish species: Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae and Pangasius hypophthalmus (Pangasiidae. Methods: The experimental fishes were obtained from fish markets/ponds with average lengths and weights of approximately 11.68 ±1.92 and 9.8±1.9 cm, and 25.92±6.3 and 18.61±3.22 g for C. carpio and P. hypophthalmus, respectively. The fishes were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, 100, 120, 200 mg L−1 lead (Pb (0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 90, 150 mg L−1, and chromium (Cr (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 mg L−1 for 96 h. Physicochemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature of aquaria as well as mortality rate of the fishes, were monitored daily. Results: The 50% lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h of CdCl2, CrCl3, and Pb (NO32 for P. hypophthalmus were found at 64.89, 7.46, and 48.06 mg L−1, and those of CdCl 2, CrCl 3, Pb (NO32 for C. carpio were detected at 84.8, 17.05, and 77.33 mg L−1. The ratios of heavy metal toxicity factors (TF were greater for common carp compared to those for the catfish. Conclusion: Our preliminary findings suggest that common carp C. carpio with higher LC50 (and LC100 values appears to be more tolerant to heavy metals exposure than the catfish (P. hypophthalmus. This may be due to the resistance to the heavy metals through protection from the carp's scaled body versus scaleless body of the catfish.

  10. Isolation and characterization of transferrin from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L) seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Mariola A; Zmijewski, Dominik; Karol, Halina; Hejmej, Anna; Bilińska, Barbara; Jurecka, Patrycja; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Słowińska, Mariola; Hliwa, Piotr; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2010-07-01

    Transferrin (Tf) in fish is recognized as a component of non-specific humoral defense mechanisms against bacteria. It is a major protein of common carp seminal plasma but its structure and localization in carp testis is unknown. In this study we developed a simple and efficient three-step purification procedure consisting of affinity chromatography (Con A-Sepharose), hydrophobic interaction chromatography (Phenyl Sepharose) and gel filtration (Superdex 200). The molecular mass of Tf has been determined to be 73.6 kDa and isoelectric point 5.1. The peculiar characteristics of carp transferrin were the lack of carbohydrate component and binding of iron ions by only one functional iron-binding site. Western blot analysis revealed a strong similarity of carp seminal plasma Tf to carp blood Tf and Tf from seminal plasma of other cyprinids but a lower similarity to salmonid and percid fishes. Tf was localized to the blood vessels of the carp testis which strongly suggest that most Tf of carp seminal plasma originates from blood. In conclusion, seminal plasma Tf has a unique structure and is similar or identical to blood Tf. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using a Population Model to Inform the Management of River Flows and Invasive Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, John D.; Todd, Charles R.; Zampatti, Brenton P.; Stuart, Ivor G.; Conallin, Anthony; Thwaites, Leigh; Ye, Qifeng

    2018-03-01

    Carp are a highly successful invasive fish species, now widespread, abundant and considered a pest in south-eastern Australia. To date, most management effort has been directed at reducing abundances of adult fish, with little consideration of population growth through reproduction. Environmental water allocations are now an important option for the rehabilitation of aquatic ecosystems, particularly in the Murray-Darling Basin. As carp respond to flows, there is concern that environmental watering may cause floodplain inundation and provide access to spawning habitats subsequently causing unwanted population increase. This is a management conundrum that needs to be carefully considered within the context of contemporary river flow management (natural, environmental, irrigation). This paper uses a population model to investigate flow-related carp population dynamics for three case studies in the Murray-Darling Basin: (1) river and terminal lakes; (2) wetlands and floodplain lakes; and (3) complex river channel and floodplain system. Results highlight distinctive outcomes depending on site characteristics. In particular, the terminal lakes maintain a significant source carp population regardless of river flow; hence any additional within-channel environmental flows are likely to have little impact on carp populations. In contrast, large-scale removal of carp from the lakes may be beneficial, especially in times of extended low river flows. Case studies 2 and 3 show how wetlands, floodplain lakes and the floodplain itself can now often be inundated for several months over the carp spawning season by high volume flows provided for irrigation or water transfers. Such inundations can be a major driver of carp populations, compared to within channel flows that have relatively little effecton recruitment. The use of a population model that incorporates river flows and different habitats for this flow-responsive species, allows for the comparison of likely population

  12. ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AMUR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO HAEMATOPTERUS REPRODUCED USING CRYOPRESERVED SPERM

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    N. Kolisnyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To reproduce Amur carp population using cryopreserved sperm and analyze some biological and fish culture peculiarities of the reproduced fish stock. Methodology. Generally accepted methods for fish culture [1]. Experimental reproduction was carried out in pond conditions of «Carpathian vodogray» LTD (Lisnevychi village, Pustomytivsky district, Lviv region. Hydrochemical analysis was carried out classically by O. Alуokin (1970 [2], hydrobiological studies in the fatting ponds according to V. Zhadin (1956, 1960 [3, 4]. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by hemocyanin method of G. Dervis, A. Vorobiov [5]. Blood for this method was collected from fish heart with the use of Pasteur pipettes in Eppendorf tubes with heparin. Following exterior morphometric parameters were analysed: body weight (m, g, standard fish body length (l, cm, largest body height (H, cm and body circumference (O cm. Following exterior indices were calculated based on these parameters: body depth index (l/H, body circumference index (l/O and Fulton’s condition factor (Kv. The study was carried out using two groups of carp: control and experimental. The first group was reproduced from the native sperm, the second from the cryopreserved sperm. Findings. Carp reproduction and growing was carried out using native and cryopreserved sperm. This work contains the results of growing 1+ Amur carp of experimental and control groups. Hydrochemical and hydrobiological parameters of the fattening ponds were studied. Peculiarities of the exterior and some hematological parameters of the carp of different origin were characterized. Originality. For the first time we performed a comparison of some biological parameters of Amur carp reproduced using native and cryopreserved sperm. Practical Value. Considering the economic importance of Amur carp due to its use in hybridization, reproduction of its population plays an important role in the development of the stocks of the pure

  13. Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringø, Einar

    2014-10-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3%) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (SEM 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3% FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies.

  14. Enrichment of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) diet with medlar (Mespilus germanica) leaf extract: Effects on skin mucosal immunity and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Khodadadian Zou, Hassan; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Van Doan, Hien; Romano, Nicholas; Dadar, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    A feeding trial was performed to assess the effects of dietary Medlar (Mespilus germanica) leaf extract (MLE) on the growth performance, skin mucus non-specific immune parameters as well as mRNA levels of immune and antioxidant related genes in the skin of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Fish were fed diets supplemented with graded levels (0, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00%) of MLE for 49 days. The results revealed an improvement to the growth performance and feed conversion ratio in MLE fed carps (P skin mucous and skin, respectively, revealed significant increment in fish fed 1% MLE (P skin mucus lysozyme activity (P  0.05) in case protease activity in the skin mucous or tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta gene expression in the skin of carps (P > 0.05). The expression of genes encoding glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase alpha were remarkably increased in MLE fed carps compared to the control group (P skin (P < 0.05). The present results revealed the potentially beneficial effects of MLE on the mucosal immune system and growth performance in common carp fingerlings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminarily study on the maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on gastropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tingbing; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Tanglin; Wang, Yaping; Hu, Wei; Olsen, Rolf Eric; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2017-10-01

    The present study preliminarily examined the differences in maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on four gastropods species (Bellamya aeruginosa, Radix auricularia, Parafossarulus sinensis and Alocinma longicornis) under laboratory conditions. In the maximum handling size trial, five fish from each age group (1-year-old and 2-year-old) and each genotype (transgenic and non-transgenic) of common carp were individually allowed to feed on B. aeruginosa with wide shell height range. The results showed that maximum handling size increased linearly with fish length, and there was no significant difference in maximum handling size between the two genotypes. In the size selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on three size groups of B. aeruginosa. The results show that the two genotypes of C. carpio favored the small-sized group over the large-sized group. In the species selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on thin-shelled B. aeruginosa and thick-shelled R. auricularia, and five pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on two gastropods species (P. sinensis and A. longicornis) with similar size and shell strength. The results showed that both genotypes preferred thin-shelled Radix auricularia rather than thick-shelled B. aeruginosa, but there were no significant difference in selectivity between the two genotypes when fed on P. sinensis and A. longicornis. The present study indicates that transgenic and non-transgenic C. carpio show similar selectivity of predation on the size- and species-limited gastropods. While this information may be useful for assessing the environmental risk of transgenic carp, it does not necessarily demonstrate that transgenic common carp might

  16. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF PLANKTONIC CLADOCERAN DAPHNIA MAGNA FOR COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio FRY FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bogut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and contents of amino acids and fatty acids in the planktonic cladoceran Daphnia magna were investigated, aiming to evaluate its value for feeding of young carp. Crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and moisture contents were analyzed according to standard laboratory procedures. Amino acids content was determined by LKB 4101 automatic analyzer and that of fatty acids by Chrompack CP 9000 chromatograph, using a flame ionizing detector. Protein contents amounted to 1.18 and 39.24% of fresh and dry mass, respectively. These amounts of proteins completely meet nutritional requirements both of carp fry and its older categories and other omnivorous fishes. Raw fat and fibre contents in dry weight were 4.98 and 4.32%, respectively, which is suitable for the commercial carp breeding. Methionine and phenylalanine are partially in deficit, whereas other essential amino acids identified in dry mass of Daphnia magna were present in amounts adequate for all carp categories. The proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in lipids of Daphnia magna were 18.70 and 66.20%, respectively. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, the omega–3 group was present with 27.30%. The omega–3 : omega–6 fatty acids ratio was 5.68:1, which fully meets the carp nutrition requirements.

  17. Bioavailability of the imidazole antifungal agent clotrimazole and its effects on key biotransformation genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jenna; Lange, Anke; Cumming, Rob I; Owen, Stewart F; Ball, Jonathan S; Tyler, Charles R; Winter, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Clotrimazole (CTZ) is a persistent imidazole antifungal agent which is frequently detected in the aquatic environment and predicted to bio-concentrate in fish. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to mean measured concentrations of either 1.02 or 14.63μgl(-1) CTZ for 4 and 10 days, followed by a depuration period of 4 days in a further group of animals. Following each exposure regimen, plasma and liver CTZ concentrations were measured. Mean measured plasma concentrations of CTZ in animals exposed to the lower concentration of CTZ were 30 and 44μgl(-1) on days 4 and 10, respectively, and in the higher concentration were 318 and 336μgl(-1). Mean measured liver levels in the same animals were 514, 1725, 2111 and 7017μgl(-1) suggesting progressive hepatic accumulation. Measurement of CTZ in plasma after depuration suggested efficient elimination within 4 days, but appreciable levels of CTZ remained in the liver after depuration suggesting a degree of persistence in this tissue. In addition we measured responses of a number of key hepatic detoxification gene targets in the liver associated with the transcription factor pregnane X receptor (PXR); namely cyp450s 2k and 3a, glutathione-S-transferases a and p (gsta and p), and drug transporters multidrug resistance protein1 (mdr1), and MDR-related protein2 (mrp2). CTZ is a potent ligand of the PXR in humans and there is some evidence of PXR activation following exposure to CTZ in fish. The highest concentration of CTZ was adopted to explore the potential for alterations to detoxification gene expression in fish at a pharmacologically relevant dose level, and the lower concentration is within the range reported in effluents from waste water treatment works (WWTW). The genes for all biotransformation enzymes were up-regulated after exposure to the higher concentration of CTZ for 10 days, and alterations in expression occurred for the drug transporter genes mdr1 and mrp2 following exposure to the lower concentration

  18. The effect of diazinon on blood plasma biochemistry in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, Věra; Svoboda, M.; Kolářová, J.

    Roc. 71, č. 1 (2002), s. 117-123 ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : common carp * acute toxicity * haematology Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.370, year: 2002 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol71/pdf/71_117.pdf

  19. Effect of cadmium on blood plasma biochemistry in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drastichová, J.; Svobodová, Z.; Lusková, Věra; Čelechovská, O.; Kaláb, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 4 (2004), s. 733-740 ISSN 0007-4861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : common carp * haematology * cadmium Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2004 http://www.springerlink.com/content/t87rpmd2d0cx2f9h/fulltext.pdf

  20. Effect of cadmium on hematological indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drastichová, J.; Svobodová, Z.; Lusková, Věra; Máchová, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 4 (2004), s. 725-732 ISSN 0007-4861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : common carp * haematology * cadmium Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2004 http://www.springerlink.com/content/k1165kk79hdjfqjf/fulltext.pdf

  1. Adrenergic regulation of the innate immune response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadzinska, M.K.; Tertil, E.; Kepka, M.; Hermsen, G.J.; Scheer, M.H.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Catecholamines exert their physiological actions through a and ß adrenergic receptors (ARs). As ARs are not exclusively expressed on neuroendocrine cells, but also on leukocytes, they may facilitate neuroendocrine modulation of immune responses. We sequenced the ß2a-AR in common carp, and studied

  2. Effects of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Feed on Immunological Parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio

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    Amal Bitsayah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxin contamination is a common natural phenomenon that is difficult to avoid or control and it can occur during pre and post-harvest periods under high humidity and temperature conditions, and are potentially dangerous to fish. In the present study, a feeding trial evaluated the effects of diets contaminated with aflatoxin on certain immunological parameters of common carp. Methods: The immunotoxicity assessment of juvenile common carp was performed on 180 fish divided into five groups with triplicate: Control group received normal feed (Group I; group II was fed diets contaminated with extraction solution (methanol, acetone and diluted water as a positive control. Group III-V was respectively fed diets contaminated with 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 feed for 3 wk. Results: Lysozyme activities, total immunoglobulin contents, complement C3 and C4 activities in plasma of common carp fed with different concentrations of aflatoxins significantly decreased when compared to that of the control fish. Although plasma ACH50 contents remained unchanged in 0.5 mg kg-1 aflatoxins, ACH50 contents decreased in 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 groups after 21 d of aflatoxin treatment. No significant changes were observed in immunological parameters between the control positive and control groups throughout the experimental periods. Conclusion: Oral exposure to aflatoxin (0.5 mg kg-1≤ could adversely affect immunological parameters of common carp.

  3. Stress and stress disorders in a teleost fish, the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Unlike research using mammalian animal models such as rats or mice, experimental fish often come from wild or commercial sources, leading to a lack of well defined experimental animal models. Isogenic carp offer us a well defined fish model for physiological research. The aim of this thesis

  4. Top-crossing with evaluation of slaughtering value in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) offspring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gela, David; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2003), s. 379-387 ISSN 0967-6120 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/97/S056; GA MŠk ME 403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : common carp Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.446, year: 2003

  5. The effect of diazinon on haematological indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, M.; Lusková, Věra; Drastichová, J.; Žlábek, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 4 (2001), s. 457-465 ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 162700004 Keywords : common carp * acute toxicity * haematology Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2001 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol70/pdf/70_457.pdf

  6. ATTEMPTS OF INDUCTION OF SEX-REVERSAL IN CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO VAR. KOI USING TESTOSTERONE UNDECANOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GROZEA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available sexreversalprotocols to obtain inverted males (XX and which are the consequencesusing this hormone for koi carp. To induce sex-reversal, we chose to feed a normalmixed-sex progeny of koi carp with food mixed with 30 (V1, 60 (V2 and 90 (V3 mgTU / kg food, starting at the age of 30 days for a period of 60 days. When fishes had3 months old, they were moved into a bigger aquarium and they were fed withouthormones until the age of 6 months when some of fishes were sacrifices to takesamples for histological studies. At this age the main morphometric traits wereregistered. Our results indicated that the mortality percent raise dependent by thequantity of TU from food, with a maximum value in variant V3 (90 mg TU / kg foodwhere it reached 64% in koi carps until the age of 3 months. Total length was thesingle trait that registered significant differences (p0.01 and p0.05 whencomparisons among control and all the other experimental variants were made. Thissuggests that TU treatment significantly reduced length growing of the carps even itwas administered in dose of 30, 60 or 90 mg / kg food. Supplementation of food withTU modified sex ratio in studied fishes.

  7. Effect of deltamethrin on haematological indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Z.; Lusková, Věra; Drastichová, J.; Svoboda, M.; Žlábek, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2003), s. 79-85 ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : pyrethroids * acute toxicity * common carp Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2003 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol72/pdf/72_079.pdf

  8. Germ cell development in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkoop, van A.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of larval and juvenile gonads of a teleost fish, the common carp, with special attention to the differentiation of the primordial germ cells. The early gonadal development has received relatively little attention, hitherto, as the research on fish

  9. Clones of common carp, Cyprinus carpio = New perspectives in fish research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, J.

    1990-01-01

    The absence of well defined inbred lines is an important problem associated with scientific research on fish. Inbred lines can be produced by conventional full-sib mating, but at least 10-15 generations are needed to produce homozygous inbred lines. Using common carp, which reach maturity

  10. Differential transcription of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onara, D.F.; Forlenza, M.; Gonzalez, S.F.; Rakus, K.L.; Pilarczyk, A.; Irnazarow, I.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and

  11. The quality of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) cultured in various Polish regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkaczewska, Joanna; Migdał, Władysław; Kulawik, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    Although environmental factors greatly affect the quality of carp meat, no regulations impose labelling the place of cultivation of freshwater fish. That is why the purpose of this study was to determine the quality of carp meat cultivated in several regions of Poland as well as to assess the necessity of implementing such regulations. The influence of the cultivation region on colour, nutrition value, health safety and sensory quality of carp meat was assessed. The analysis included colour measurement, determination of fatty acid profile and sensory evaluation of carp muscle. Moreover, microbiological analysis of the fish surface was performed. The results show that the place of cultivation does not influence the lightness (L*) of fillet, but has an impact on other colour parameters (a*, b*). The microbiological quality of fish from all studied farms was satisfactory, since no pathogenic microorganisms were observed on the fish surface. The fatty acid profile was fairly varied (P cultures should be performed, before any recommendation for the necessity of labelling the place and method of cultivation should be suggested. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. C-reactive protein and complement as acute phase reactants in common carp Cyprinus carpio during CyHV-3 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Adamek, Mikołaj; Miest, Joanna J; Harris, Sarah J; Matras, Marek; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Hoole, Dave

    2014-07-03

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a highly virulent and lethal disease of common carp Cyprinus carpio and its ornamental koi varieties. However, specific knowledge about immune mechanisms behind the infection process is very limited. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the CyHV-3 infection on the profile of 2 major components of the common carp immune acute phase response: the C-reactive protein (CRP) and the complement system. Common carp were infected with CyHV-3 by bath immersion. Fish were sampled before the infection and at 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 336 h post-infection for serum and head kidney, liver, gill and spleen tissues. CRP levels and complement activity were determined from the serum, whereas CRP- and complement-related genes (crp1, crp2, c1rs, bf/c2, c3, masp2) expression profiles were analysed in the tissues by quantitative PCR. Both CRP levels and complement activity increased significantly up to 10- and 3-fold, respectively, in the serum of infected fish during the challenge. Analysis revealed distinct organ- and time-dependent expression profile patterns for all selected genes. These results suggest that CRP and complement behave as acute phase reactants to CyHV-3 infection in common carp with an organ- and time-dependent response.

  13. The Influence of Ketapang (Terminalia catappa Bark Extract on Survival Rate and Histopathology of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Liver Which is Infected by Aeromonas hydrophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maftuch Maftuch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the influence of Ketapang (Terminalia catappa bark extract (KBE on the survival rate and liver histopathology of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio which was Infected by Aeromonas hydrophilia. Experimental design with Completely Randomized Design (CRD. Obtained data were analyzed by using Analysis of Varian (ANOVA and further Least Significant Differed (LSD analysis. The main parameters in this research are the damage level of Common carp liver based on scoring value and survival rates. Based on the result from scoring data, it was shown that there is altered-histology on Common carp fish liver. The damages found were congestion, melanomacrofag, and necrosis. In average, treatment A (730 ppm had the highest damage average while treatment C (770 ppm had the lowest damage average value. The final result shows that the bigger the dose, the lower the damage. In contrast, the survival rates would decrease with the higher dose of KBE. It can be concluded that KBE able to reduce the liver alteration however in some extend it will cause the mortality. Keywords : common carp, histopathology, ketapang, liver, survival rate.

  14. Khawia japonensis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea): another invasive parasite of carp, Cyprinus carpio L., imported to Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Binh, T. T.; dezfuli, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 12 (2011), 943-949 ISSN 0140-7775 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : carp * fish movements * identification key * man-assisted introduction * tapeworms Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2011

  15. Excretion and intestinal absorption of tritiated glutamic acid by carp, Cyprinus Carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Terushia; Kistner, G.

    1986-01-01

    Excretion and intestinal absorption of tritiated glutamic acid by carp was investigated. Approximately 80% of orally administered tritium was excreted at a half life value of 1.4 h and an observed slower excretion of 7 days for the remainder. Tritium incorporated in glutamic acid was efficiently retained at the site of absorption, i.e. intestine, liver, gill, kidney, blood and muscle. A dual marking experiment using tritiated glutamic acid and 14 C-market glutamic acid showed higher excretion of tritium by factors 2.0 to 4.9 than that of 14 C. Tritiated glutamic acid is considered to be mainly incorporated in the citric acid cycle soon after administration and the release of tritium in tritiated water through the cycle is assumed as causing the initial rapid excretion of tritium in carp. The intestinal absorption of glutamic acid was likely to depend on its concentration in the administered solution. The maximum level of absorption is estimated to be 0.1 m mol/0.5 h for one year old carp. The results obtained here would make it possible to estimate the tritium contamination of fish due to tritiated glutamic acid entering the food chain. (orig.)

  16. Asteriscus v. lapillus: comparing the chemistry of two otolith types and their ability to delineate riverine populations of common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, J I; McNeil, D G; Crook, D A

    2012-10-01

    The chemical composition of common carp Cyprinus carpio asteriscus (vaterite) and lapillus (aragonite) otoliths from the same individual and reflecting the same growth period was measured to (1) determine whether there are differences in the uptake of trace metals (Mg:Ca, Mn:Ca, Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ) and Sr isotope ratios ((87)Sr:(86)Sr) in co-precipitating lapilli and asterisci and (2) compare the ability of multi-element and isotopic signatures from lapilli, asterisci and both otolith types combined to discriminate C. carpio populations over a large spatial scale within a river basin. Depth profile analyses at the otolith edge using laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that asterisci were enriched in Mg and Mn and depleted in Sr and Ba relative to lapilli, whilst (87)Sr:(86)Sr values were nearly identical in both otolith types. Significant spatial differences among capture locations were found when all trace element and Sr isotope ratio data were aggregated into a multi-element and isotopic signature, regardless of which otolith type was used or if they were used in combination. Discriminatory power was enhanced, however, when data for both otolith types were combined, suggesting that analysis of multiple otolith types may be useful for studies attempting to delineate C. carpio populations at finer spatial or temporal scales. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Beta-glucan bath promote wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    healing process [1, 4]. Previous studies have shown that β-glucans stimulate production of pro-inflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines like e.g. IL-8, IL-1b, or IL-6 [5]. Studies in higher vertebrates clearly show that both PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular pattern) and DAMPs (danger......-associated molecular pattern) cause inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate capability to modulate immune parameters during the wound healing processes of two commercially available β–glucans. In in vivo study, carps of ~50g were anaesthetised and wounded with 5mm biopsy punches. During the extent...

  18. Βeta-glucans promote wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    healing process [1, 4]. Previous studies have shown that β-glucans stimulate production of pro-inflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines like e.g. IL-8, IL-1b, or IL-6 [5]. Studies in higher vertebrates clearly show that both PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular pattern) and DAMPs (danger......-associated molecular pattern) cause inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate capability to modulate immune parameters during the wound healing processes of two commercially available β–glucans. In in vivo study, carps of ~50g were anaesthetised and wounded with 5mm biopsy punches. During the extent...

  19. 3-Methylcholanthrene inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and increases intracellular calcium levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, S.; Duchiron, C.; Deschaux, P.

    2003-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of environmental pollutants that are known to be carcinogenic and immunotoxic. Many authors have focused on macrophage activities in fish exposed to PAHs. However, fewer studies have reported decrease in specific immunity in such fish. We investigated the intracellular mechanisms by which the 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) decreased lymphocyte proliferation in carp. T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation induced by Concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were inhibited by 3-MC (0.5-50 μM). 3-MC also produced a rapid and a sustained increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) (2 h minimum). However, the cytochrome P450 1A and Ah receptor inhibitor, α-naphtoflavone (a-NF), also inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and did not reverse the effects of 3-MC. Moreover, since a-NF and 3-MC increased [Ca 2+ ] i and inhibited lymphocyte proliferation it was possible that calcium release played a role in 3-MC-inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. The rise in [Ca 2+ ] i induced by 3-MC was potentiated by the inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases, thapsigargin. Treating cells with 3-MC decreased calcium mobilization caused by thapsigargin. These results suggest that 3-MC acts on the endoplasmic reticulum, perhaps directly on calcium ATPases, to increase intracellular calcium levels in carp leucocytes

  20. RESILIENCY OF SMALL-SCALE COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio FARMERS IN WEST PAGADEN RURAL AREA OF SUBANG - WEST JAVA (Daya Lenting Pembudidaya Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio Skala Kecil di Perdesaan Kecamatan Pagaden Barat Subang – Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Carolina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Since early 1980s, freshwater fish farming was introduced as an economic activity to the rural community in Subang, West Java Province. Until presently, 5% of the population participate on it, specifically as common carp (Cyprinus carpio cultivators in freshwater ponds ecosystem. The economic gain from the carp farming triggers vast development indicated by significant landscape conversion from rice fields to fish ponds. Environmental limitation does not seem to become their major concern, because good yields which means good income is their main driving factor to extend and intensify common carp aquaculture. Recognizing the important role of small scale fish farms in West Java common carp production system, we explore their resiliency in confronting challenges encountered in managing the freshwater ecosystem. Utilizing participatory observation and interview, we explore their socio-ecological resilience from the perception of human and nature interaction. The study area is Pagaden Sub District in Subang - West Java. Descriptive analysis is used to articulate the phenomenon enfolded in a socio-ecological framework of thinking. It can be concluded that high dependency to the aquaculture activity, has reached a situation in which ecologically sound technology should be introduced. Included in a scheme of technical assistance which specifically designed to meet the need and in harmony with the socio-cultural characters of small-scale fish farmers, the technology introduction should be carried out to spur the sustainable aquaculture in Subang West Java. This should be a proposed agenda for the local government in support to aquaculture sustainable development. ABSTRAK Sejak awal tahun 1980, budidaya ikan air tawar diperkenalkan sebagai kegiatan ekonomi masyarakat desa di wilayah Subang, Propinsi Jawa Barat. Dewasa ini, sekitar 5% populasi terlibat di kegiatan tersebut, terutama sebagai pembudidaya ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio di ekosistem

  1. Emergence of carp edema virus (CEV) and its significance to European common carp and koi Cyprinus carpio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Way, K.; Haenen, O.; Stone, D.

    2017-01-01

    the first recognised outbreak of the disease outside of Japan was not reported until 1996 in the USA. In Europe, the disease was first recognised in 2009 and, as detection and diagnosis have improved, more EU member states have reported CEV associated with disease outbreaks. Although the structure...... is possible, and the principles of biosecurity, good health management and disease surveillance, applied to koi herpesvirus disease, can be equally applied to CEVD. However, further research studies are needed to fill the knowledge gaps in the disease pathogenesis and epidemiology that, currently, prevent...... an accurate assessment of the likely impact of CEVD on European koi and common carp aquaculture and on wild carp stocks....

  2. Β-glucan-induced stimulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during tissue regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    The response to pathogens and damage in vertebrates involves a series of organized and highly evolved molecular mechanisms leading to pathogen specific immune reactions and tissue regeneration as the wound healing process. Pathogen and damage‐associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs) rely...... administration and dose‐related immune‐suppression has also been described. The superior aim of this study is to understand the effect of β‐glucan induced modulation in carp in relation to tissue regeneration and the subsequent effects relating to the filet as a product. A comparison in modulation between immune...... cells (Macrophages) and tissue related cells (Fibroblasts) will be evaluated. Parameters as respiratory burst activity and expression profiles of immune related genes will be measured in cell cultures and in in vivo experiments. The methodology of the project involves the creation of protocols...

  3. Polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex class II B genes in different carp lines of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakus, K.L.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Stet, R.J.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Pilarczyk, A.; Irnazarow, I.

    2003-01-01

    Regular observation of survival of the carp breeding lines constituting a living gene bank at the Institute of Ichthyobiology and Aquaculture in Golysz (Poland) over a period of at least 15 years showed different survival rates for various lines. In this study, we have examined the polymorphism of

  4. The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian González-Segura

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the common carp. Eight injections of reserpine alone, at doses of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/ml/kg of body weight and at intervals of 48 hours, caused an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells. The dose 0.5 mg/ml/kg, presented an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 382% and 123%, respectively, above the control group. The dose 1.0 mg/ml/kg, showed an enhanced number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 704% and 152%, respectively. With the dose 1.5 mg/ml/kg increase in number (171% and volume (106% of gonadotrophic cells was lower. The gonads of the experimental groups had an abundance of advanced states of spermatogenesis. Our results show that eight intraperitoneal injections of reserpine were responsible for an increase in gonadodrophic cell, number and volumeLa secreción de gonadotropinas (GtHs en pez dorado y carpas, es estimulada por la hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas (GnRH e inhibida por la dopamina. Trabajos previos con antidopaminérgicos demostraron ser efectivos para estimular la espermiación y ovulación, en varias especies de teleósteos. La reserpina, una sustancia que desaparece catecolaminas, se ha probado con éxito para estimular la espermiación en la carpa común. En este trabajo, reportamos los efectos de la reserpina en el número y volúmen de células gonadotropas en la carpa común. Se aplicaron ocho inyecciones de reserpina a dosis de 0.5, 1.0, y 1.5 mg/ml/kg de peso corporal, a intervalos de 48 horas

  5. Effects of incorporating in diets cold-pressed rapeseed cake on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, and body composition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurkiewicz Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative proteins from vegetal sources are being studied, because of the high costs and limited resources of fish meal. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of including cold-pressed rape cake (CPRC as a partial protein substitute in diets for common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Common carp fry were stocked into experimental ponds at a density of 30 fish per pond. The effects on growth, feeding efficiency, and fish body composition were studied for four amounts of CPRC (0, 70, 130, 200 g × kg-1. Statistically significant higher final weights (528-530 g were obtained with fish fed diets with 130 and 200 g × kg-1 CPRC. The fish growth rate was nearly identical in all variants (SGR of 3.3-3.4 % d-1. Similar results were presented in FCR at 1.3, and in PER at 2.2. Our results suggest that it is possible to include up to 200 g × kg-1 of CPRC in diets for two-year old common carp without significant effects on growth, nutritive efficiency, or the proximate composition of the fish.

  6. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiker, T.J.; Abney, S.R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596????g kg- 1 wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (< 51????g kg- 1 ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

  7. Effects of Oxytetracycline Containing Feed on Pond Ecosystem and Health of Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Svobodová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of medicated feed, Rupin Special gran. ad us. vet. with oxytetracyclini chloridum as active ingredient (5 g kg-1 feed, on physical and chemical characteristics of a pond ecosystem and the health of carp of two age groups in a pilot operation. The medicated feed was administered in 8 doses (15 g kg-1 live weight. In the study, temperature, oxygen concentration, pH, microbiological, hydrobiological and hydrochemical variables of pond water were monitored. The fish health assessment was based on clinical, pathological-morphological and haematological examinations of 80 individuals in total. The examinations were made before, during, immediately after and 15 days after the administration of medicated feed. No effects on water quality were found. An important histological change after the application of 8 doses was the loss of haematopoietic tissue from the spleen, and dystrophic changes in the renal duct epithelium. A decrease in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and in total blood plasma protein concentrations (P < 0.05 were observed already after the 3rd dose of Rupin Special. It follows from the results of the study that Rupin Special should be used in only 4 (exceptionally 6 doses, compared to the originally recommended 8 doses.

  8. Chronic exposure to Tributyltin induces brain functional damage in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hua Li

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase, Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L and 7.5 μg/L for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters. The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity.

  9. DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

  10. Gene Expression Variations of Red—White Skin Coloration in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Min Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Teleosts have more types of chromatophores than other vertebrates and the genetic basis for pigmentation is highly conserved among vertebrates. Therefore, teleosts are important models to study the mechanism of pigmentation. Although functional genes and genetic variations of pigmentation have been studied, the mechanisms of different skin coloration remains poorly understood. The koi strain of common carp has various colors and patterns, making it a good model for studying the genetic basis of pigmentation. We performed RNA-sequencing for red skin and white skin and identified 62 differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Most of them were validated with RT-qPCR. The up-regulated DEGs in red skin were enriched in Kupffer’s vesicle development while the up-regulated DEGs in white skin were involved in cytoskeletal protein binding, sarcomere organization and glycogen phosphorylase activity. The distinct enriched activity might be associated with different structures and functions in erythrophores and iridophores. The DNA methylation levels of two selected DEGs inversely correlated with gene expression, indicating the participation of DNA methylation in the coloration. This expression characterization of red—white skin along with the accompanying transcriptome-wide expression data will be a useful resource for further studies of pigment cell biology.

  11. Thermophile-fermented compost as a fish feed additive modulates lipid peroxidation and free amino acid contents in the muscle of the carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryusuke; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Shigeta, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Masakazu; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Matsushita, Teruo

    2016-05-01

    Recently, a compost fermented with marine animals with thermophilic Bacillaceae in a clean and exclusive process at high temperature was reported as a possible feed additive to improve the healthy balance in sea fish and mammals (i.e., pigs and rodents). Here, the effects of the oral administration of the compost on the muscle and internal organs of carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a freshwater fish model were investigated. The fatty acid composition was different in the muscle of the carp fed with or without the compost extract, but there was little difference in the hepatopancreas. The accumulation of triacylglycerols, cholesterol, lipid peroxide and hydroxyl lipids decreased in the muscle after the oral administration of the compost extract in the carps over 12 weeks, but the accumulation did not always decrease in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, free-radical-scavenging activities and the concentrations of free amino acids in the muscle did not always increase and was dependent on the dose of the compost at 12 weeks. The scavenging activities and part of free amino acid levels in the muscle of the carp were improved at 24 weeks after a high dose of compost exposure, and then the survival rates of the carp were maintained. Thus, the oral administration of thermophile-fermented compost can prevent peroxidation and increase the content of free amino acids in the muscle of the freshwater fish, depending on the dose and term of the administration, and may be associated with the viability of the fish. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Interaction of phytase RONOZYME?P(L and citric acid on the utilization of phosphorus by common carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Gabaudan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted for 60 days to study the effects of the combination of microbial phytase and citric acidon phosphorus utilization in Cyprinus carpio fingerlings. Four diets designated as diet without phytase or inorganic phosphorussupplementation (T1, with 1.1% MSP (T2, with 0.55% MSP and phytase (T3 and with 0.55% MSP, phytase andcitric acid (T4. Four replicate groups of 20 fish were fed two times daily until satiation. Phosphorus digestibility and retentionwere measured as well as the fish growth performance. It is concluded from the results that the addition of microbial phytaseand citric acid enhances the availability of phosphorus from plant sources, improves bone mineralization, growth and feedefficiency. Combining a low dose of citric acid to the phytase significantly increased the positive effects of the enzyme.

  13. Genome-wide characterization of Toll-like receptor gene family in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and their involvement in host immune response to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yiwen; Feng, Shuaisheng; Li, Shangqi; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Zixia; Hu, Mou; Xu, Peng; Jiang, Yanliang

    2017-12-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene family is a class of conserved pattern recognition receptors, which play an essential role in innate immunity providing efficient defense against invading microbial pathogens. Although TLRs have been extensively characterized in both invertebrates and vertebrates, a comprehensive analysis of TLRs in common carp is lacking. In the present study, we have conducted the first genome-wide systematic analysis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) TLR genes. A set of 27 common carp TLR genes were identified and characterized. Sequence similarity analysis, functional domain prediction and phylogenetic analysis supported their annotation and orthologies. By examining the gene copy number of TLR genes across several vertebrates, gene duplications and losses were observed. The expression patterns of TLR genes were examined during early developmental stages and in various healthy tissues, and the results showed that TLR genes were ubiquitously expressed, indicating a likely role in maintaining homeostasis. Moreover, the differential expression of TLRs was examined after Aeromons hydrophila infection, and showed that most TLR genes were induced, with diverse patterns. TLR1, TLR4-2, TLR4-3, TLR22-2, TLR22-3 were significantly up-regulated at minimum one timepoint, whereas TLR2-1, TLR4-1, TLR7-1 and TLR7-2 were significantly down-regulated. Our results suggested that TLR genes play critical roles in the common carp immune response. Collectively, our findings provide fundamental genomic resources for future studies on fish disease management and disease-resistance selective breeding strategy development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genotoxicological response of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to spring water in Tlaxcala, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Nieto, Edelmira; Juárez-Santacruz, Libertad; García-Gallegos, Elizabeth; Tlalmis-Zempoalteca, Joselin; Romo-Gómez, Claudia; Torres-Dosal, Arturo

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the genotoxic impact of anthropic activities in Huactzinco Spring, using Cyprinus carpio as a biomonitor. In situ and in vivo experimental designs were compared by means of simultaneous 2-week exposures. The water from the spring generated mean micronuclei frequency values (108.6 ± 32 MN/1,000) and DNA fragmentation values (143.4 ± 35 au) which were statistically higher than those for the negative control (10.9 ± 6 MN/1,000 and 67.6 ± 23 au). The in situ and in vivo experiments supported one another. The comet assay proved to be the most sensitive test, with an EC50 value (11.4 % ± 3.4 %) being less than that determined for the micronuclei test (54.8 % ± 3.2 %). The results of this study confirm the usefulness of C. carpio as an environmental contamination biomonitor, and suggest that Huactzinco Spring water constitutes a latent risk to human health and the environment.

  15. Sperm quality biomarkers complement reproductive and endocrine parameters in investigating environmental contaminants in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from the Lake Mead National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Rosen, Michael R.; Dale, Rassa O.; Echols, Kathy R.; Torres, Leticia; Wieser, Carla M.; Kersten, Constance A.; Goodbred, Steven L.

    2018-01-01

    Lake Mead National Recreational Area (LMNRA) serves as critical habitat for several federally listed species and supplies water for municipal, domestic, and agricultural use in the Southwestern U.S. Contaminant sources and concentrations vary among the sub-basins within LMNRA. To investigate whether exposure to environmental contaminants is associated with alterations in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) gamete quality and endocrine- and reproductive parameters, data were collected among sub-basins over 7 years (1999–2006). Endpoints included sperm quality parameters of motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, count, morphology, and DNA fragmentation; plasma components were vitellogenin (VTG), 17ß-estradiol, 11-keto-testosterone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. Fish condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and gonadal histology parameters were also measured. Diminished biomarker effects were noted in 2006, and sub-basin differences were indicated by the irregular occurrences of contaminants and by several associations between chemicals (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan) and biomarkers (e.g., plasma thyroxine, sperm motility and DNA fragmentation). By 2006, sex steroid hormone and VTG levels decreased with subsequent reduced endocrine disrupting effects. The sperm quality bioassays developed and applied with carp complemented endocrine and reproductive data, and can be adapted for use with other species.

  16. Organ damage and hepatic lipid accumulation in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after feed-borne exposure to the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Constanze; Schulz, Carsten; Rovira, Pere; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-02-21

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg DON kg(-1) feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism.

  17. Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg DON kg−1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism.

  18. Shelf-life of Chilled Muscle Tissue of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Packaged in Carbon Monoxide Enriched Modified Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Ježek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP consisting of 69% N2, 25% CO2, 5% O2 and 1% CO on sensory and chemical indicators (O2 in MAP, pH, lipids, total volatile basic nitrogen TVBN, nitrogen-trimethylamine N-TMA, free fatty acids FFA, peroxides PV, malondialdehyde MDA of carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. fillets and compare them with fillets in simple packaging (control group. A total of 24 carp of 2.17 ± 0.29 kg mean live weight were analyzed. The control fillets were analyzed on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 9 and 11. Fillets in MAP were analyzed on days 1, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16 and 18. Fillets in MAP were pink red and the colour was stable (a carboxy-myoglobin complex, the control fillets were lighter with discolorations (from day 4. A change in the smell and consistency of fillets was observed starting on day 9 (MAP and 4 (controls. Levels of pH in both types of samples fluctuated and no conclusive results were obtained. TVBN and N-TMA concentrations increased consistently upon fish aging. FFA concentrations on day 1 of monitoring were higher (p p < 0.01 throughout the experiment. MDA may be another suitable indicator for the determination of the intensity of fat oxidation.

  19. Effect of Bawang Dayak (Eleutherine palmifolia (L) Merr) crude extract towards bacteria inhibition zone and carp (Cyprinus carpio) hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftuch

    2017-05-01

    Negative impacts of antibiotics and chemical substance usage in aquaculture demand the researchers discover more efficient alternative yet environmentally friendly to overcome fish diseases. One alternative is by using Bawang Dayak (Eleutherine palmifolia (L.) Merr). This research aimed to reveal the effect of Bawang Dayak crude extract towards the inhibition zone of A. hydrophilia, V. harveyi, and P. fluorescens bacteria. Furthermore, it was also conducted to investigate the carp (C. carpio) hematology which was infected with A. hydrophila bacteria, and find the most appropriate dose of Bawang Dayak crude extract to inhibit the bacteria. This experimental research was performed by using Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments and 3 replications. The best result of the zone of inhibition test in A. hydrophila bacteria was at the dose of 70 ppm while V. harveyi and P. Fluorescens bacteria were at the dose of 85 ppm. Then, fish hematology was found best at the dose of 80 ppm. Bawang Dayak crude extract was significant towards the inhibition zone of A. hydrophila, V. harveyi and P. Fluorescens bacteria, and carp hematology which was infected with A. hydrophila bacteria.

  20. Seasonal changes on total fatty acid composition of carp (Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... The effects of seasonal variation on the fatty acid composition of carps Cyprinus carpio were determined. A total of 38 different fatty ... recent years, fish lipids have been focused on as being beneficial for human health. .... The principal fatty acids of both fractions (neutral and phospholipids) were palmitic ...

  1. ( Vicia peregrina ) seed as protein source for mirror carp ( Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 80-day feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation system aquarium operating at 26 ± 0.3 °C, to evaluate the nutritive value of Vicia peregrina seed as a possible protein source in the diet of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Vicia peregrina seed was included in the diets at different levels, viz. 100, 200, 300 g ...

  2. Feeding common carp Cyprinus carpio with β-glucan supplemented diet stimulates C-reactive protein and complement immune acute phase responses following PAMPs injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J; Shrive, Annette K; Hoole, Dave

    2014-08-01

    The effect of β-glucan as a feed additive on the serum and gene profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was ascertained in common carp Cyprinus carpio. In addition effects of subsequent intraperitoneal injections of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), i.e. LPS or poly(I:C), to mimic bacterial or viral infection respectively, were studied. Carp were first orally fed with β-glucan (MacroGard®) with a daily β-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight or with control food for 25 days and then injected with PBS containing either LPS (4 mg/kg) or poly(I:C) (5 mg/kg) or PBS alone. Fish were sampled during the 25 days of the feeding period and up to 7 days post-PAMPs injections for serum and liver, head kidney and mid-gut tissues. Oral administration of β-glucan for 25 days significantly increased serum CRP levels and alternative complement activity (ACP). In addition, the subsequent LPS and poly(I:C) challenges significantly affected CRP and complement related gene expression profiles (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2), with the greatest effects observed in the β-glucan fed fish. However, in fish fed β-glucan the PAMPs injections had less effects on CRP levels and complement activity in the serum than in control fed fish, suggesting that the 25 days of β-glucan immunostimulation was sufficient enough to reduce the effects of LPS and poly(I:C) injections. Results suggest that MacroGard® stimulated CRP and complement responses to PAMPs immunological challenges in common carp thus highlighting the beneficial β-glucan immunostimulant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vivo and in silico analyses of estrogenic potential of bisphenol analogs in medaka (Oryzias latipes) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Arizono, Koji; Tominaga, Nobuaki

    2015-10-01

    Various studies have demonstrated the estrogenic effect of bisphenol A (BPA), a member of bisphenol analogs (BPs), in in vitro and in vivo assays. However, limited data are available on the estrogenic potentials and risks of other BPs in aquatic organisms. In addition, the estrogenic effect of chemicals is known to have species-specific responses in teleost fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential estrogenic effects of BPs on the medaka (Oryzias latipes) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using in vivo and in silico assays. Our quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that the expression levels of several hepatic estrogen-responsive biomarker genes in male medaka responded to various types and concentrations of BPs in a dose-response manner. The order of in vivo estrogenic potencies of BPs was as follows: BPC≈BPAF>BPB>BPA⋙BPP. To further investigate the interaction potential of BPs with medaka estrogen receptor α (ERα) in silico, a three-dimensional model of the ERα ligand-binding domain (LBD) was built and docking simulations were performed. The docking simulation analysis revealed that BPC interaction potential for medaka ERα LBD was the most potent, followed by BPAF and BPA. Comparing this with carp ERα LBD revealed that the interaction potentials of these BPs to medaka ERα LBD were more stable than to carp ERα LBD. Furthermore, we identified key amino acid residues in medaka ERα LBD that interacted with BPC (Glu356, Arg397, and Cys533), BPAF (Thr350 and Glu356), and BPA (Glu356 and Met424), and found some differences in these key amino acid residues between medaka and carp ERα LBDs. These results of in vivo and in silico analyses showed potential estrogenic effects of BPs in teleost fish, and they also indicated that the differences in interaction potentials and key amino acid residues between medaka and carp ERα LBDs may be due to the differences between the species and estrogenic potencies of the selected BPs. Copyright

  4. Effects of vitamins E and Riboflavin (B2 and combinations of them on the hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifzadeh Seyedeh Atefeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of vitamins E, B2 and combinations of them on hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., were investigated during a 56-day experiment. The various dietary levels of vitamins E, B2 and their combination were used as experimental treatments, as follows: T1: vitamin E (80 mg, T2: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1, T3: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1, T4: vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1, T5: vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1, T6: vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1, T7: vitamin E (80 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1, T8: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1, T9: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1. One group not given vitamin supplements was the control. The values of red blood cells (RBC, hemoglobin (Hb, and hematocrit (Hct were higher in T7 than in the other experimental treatments. The values of white blood cells (WBC were higher in T2 than in the other treatments. The concentration of immunoglobulin (IgM was also lower in T10 than in the other experimental treatments. The highest values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular volume (MCV were observed in T2. No significant differences were noted among experimental groups in the values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC. This study showed that vitamin E and B2 supplements alter the hematological parameters of common carp.

  5. Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Gene and Their Associations with Growth Traits in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Xiu Feng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I plays an important role in the growth and development of vertebrates. To study polymorphisms of IGF-I, we screened a total of 4555 bp of genomic sequences in four exons and partial introns for the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Three SNPs (g.3759T>G, g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C in intron 2 and a nonsynonymous SNP (g.7892C>T in exon 3 were identified in a pilot population including random parents and their progenies. 289 progenies were further genotyped for studying possible associations between genotypes or combined genotypes and growth traits. The results showed that the locus g.7627T>A was significantly associated with body weight and body length, and fish with genotype AA had a mean body weight 5.9% higher than those with genotype TT. No significant associations were observed between genotypes of other loci and growth traits. However, when both g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C were considered, the combined genotype TT/TT was extremely associated with the lowest values of body length and body weight and the highest K value in comparison with other diplotypes (p < 0.01. These results suggest that genotype AA at g.7627T>A and its combined genotypes with alleles from another locus have positive effects on growth traits, which would be a candidate molecular marker for further studies in marker-assisted selection in common carp.

  6. Defining global gene expression changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in female sGnRH-antisense transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio.

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    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish reproductive system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous study we injected 342 fertilized eggs from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio with a gene construct that expressed antisense sGnRH. Four years later, we found a total of 38 transgenic fish with abnormal or missing gonads. From this group we selected the 12 sterile females with abnormal ovaries in which we combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH and cDNA microarray analysis to define changes in gene expression of the HPG axis in the present study. As a result, nine, 28, and 212 genes were separately identified as being differentially expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary, of which 87 genes were novel. The number of down- and up-regulated genes was five and four (hypothalamus, 16 and 12 (pituitary, 119 and 93 (ovary, respectively. Functional analyses showed that these genes involved in several biological processes, such as biosynthesis, organogenesis, metabolism pathways, immune systems, transport links, and apoptosis. Within these categories, significant genes for neuropeptides, gonadotropins, metabolic, oogenesis and inflammatory factors were identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicated the progressive scaling-up effect of hypothalamic sGnRH antisense on the pituitary and ovary receptors of female carp and provided comprehensive data with respect to global changes in gene expression throughout the HPG signaling pathway, contributing towards improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and regulative pathways in the

  7. Dietary β-glucan stimulate complement and C-reactive protein acute phase responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during an Aeromonas salmonicida infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna; Frost, Patrick; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Shrive, Annette; Hoole, Dave

    2013-03-01

    The effect of β-glucans as feed additive on the profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was studied in common carp Cyprinus carpio after exposition to a bacterial infection with Aeromonas salmonicida. Carp were orally administered with β-glucan (MacroGard®) for 14 days with a daily β-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight. Fish were then intraperitoneally injected with either PBS or 1 × 10⁸ bacteria per fish and sampled at time 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-injection (p.i.) for serum and head kidney, liver and mid-gut tissues. CRP levels and complement activity were determined in the serum samples whilst the gene expression profiles of CRP and complement related genes (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2) were analysed in the tissues by quantitative PCR. Results obtained showed that oral administration of β-glucan for 14 days significantly increased serum CRP levels up to 2 fold and serum alternative complement activity (ACP) up to 35 fold. The bacterial infection on its own (i.e. not combined with a β-glucan feeding) did have significant effects on complement response whilst CRP was not detectably induced during the carp acute phase reaction. However, the combination of the infection and the β-glucan feeding did show significant effects on both CRP and complement profiles with higher serum CRP levels and serum ACP activity in the β-glucan fed fish than in the control fed fish. In addition, a distinct organ and time dependent expression profile pattern was detected for all the selected genes: a peak of gene expression first occurred in the head kidney tissue (6 h p.i. or 12 h p.i.), then an up-regulation in the liver several hours later (24 h p.i.) and finally up- or down-regulations in the mid-gut at 24 h p.i. and 72 h p.i. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that MacroGard® stimulated CRP and complement responses to A. salmonicida infection in common carp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  8. Effect of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on selected chemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and carp (Cyprinus carpio cuts freshness

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    Babić Jelena A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of food packing in modified atmosphere is to extend its sustainability by preventing both biochemical processes and growth of spoilage bacteria. Gases or their mixtures which are mostly used in the modified atmosphere food packing technology are carbon-dioxide (CO2, oxygen (O2 and nitrogen (N2. The aim of our research was to examine the influence of packaging in modified atmosphere and vacuum on the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N content and pH in muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, as well as to determine the most suitable gas mixtures for packing of these freshwater species. Three sample groups of trout and carp cuts were investigated. The first two groups were packaged in modified atmosphere with different gas ratios: 60%CO2+40%N2 (I group and 40%CO2+60%N2 (II group, whereas the samples from third, control group, (III group were vacuum packaged. During trials samples were stored in refrigerator at +3°C. Determination of TVB-N and pH was performed on 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. The obtained results indicate that the investigated mixtures of gases and vacuum as well had a significant influence on the values of TVB-N in trout and carp cuts samples. The lowest increase in TVB-N was established in trout and carp cuts samples from the group I, whereas the highest increase was established in samples from group III. Statistical significant difference (p < 0,001 between the average values of TVB-N for trout (I group: 18,17 ± 0,93; II group: 20,90 ± 0,81 and III group: 36,18 ± 2,65 mg N/100 g and carp cuts (I group: 26,74 ± 1,48; II group: 30,02 ± 0,31 and III group: 35,10 ± 1,75 mg N/100 g was established on 14th day. The lowest pH value was established in samples packaged in modified atmosphere with 60% CO2 +40% N2 (I group. On 14th day of testing the obtained value was 6,15 ± 0,09 for trout and 5,94 ± 1,11 for carp samples. Increase in pH value in trout samples packed in

  9. Biohydrogen production from fermentation of cotton stalk hydrolysate by Klebsiella sp. WL1316 newly isolated from wild carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) of the Tarim River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbin; Zhang, Qin; Deng, Li; Liu, Zhanwen; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Fang

    2018-03-19

    A new hydrogen-producing bacterium was isolated from the intestine of wild carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) of the Tarim River Basin. The isolate was identified as Klebsiella sp. based on 16S rDNA gene sequencing and examination of physiological and biochemical characteristics. The isolated strain, Klebsiella sp. WL1316, could effectively produce a high yield of hydrogen by using cotton stalk hydrolysate as substrate. The optimum fermentation conditions for hydrogen production were determined as follows: an initial sugar concentration of 40 g/L, a fermentation temperature of 37 °C and an initial pH value of 8.0. The scaled-up fermentation process was conducted in a 5-L fermenter using these parameters. Higher productivities with maximum daily hydrogen production of 937.0 ± 41.0 mL L -1  day -1 , cumulative hydrogen production of 2908.5 ± 47.4 mL L -1 , viable cell count of (20.2 ± 0.6) × 10 8  CFU mL -1 and hydrogen yield of 1.44 ± 0.08 mol mol -1 sugar consumed were obtained. The cumulative hydrogen production was predicted by the modified Gompertz equation with R 2 of 0.997, and values of R m and P were 44.8 mL L -1  h -1 and 3057.6 mL L -1 , respectively. These results indicated that the strain Klebsiella sp. WL1316 resulted in a high hydrogen production rate (HPR) and good hydrogen production potential. Moreover, this strain exhibited higher values of maximum hydrogen yield and HPR than the reported pure cultures.

  10. Suppressive immunoregulatory effects of three antidepressants via inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB activation assessed using primary macrophages of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenhui; Wu, Minghong; Liu, Shuai; Chen, Bei; Pan, Chenyuan; Yang, Ming; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2017-05-01

    Antidepressants, having been applied for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions for decades, are among the most commonly detected human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. This study evaluated the immunotoxicity of acute exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of amitriptyline, fluoxetine and mianserin using an in vitro primary macrophage model isolated from red common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and also explored their potential mechanisms of action. A potential suppressive immunoregulatory effect of antidepressant exposure was suggested based on the observed suppressive effects on oxidative stress parameters, bactericidal activity, NO production, and NO synthase activity, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression, and a significant stimulatory effect on anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 and interferon cytokine gene expression and ATPase activities in macrophages after 6h-exposure to three individual antidepressants and a combination thereof. Notably, we also found these effects were significantly associated with a corresponding decrease in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity after antidepressants exposure, and the NF-κB antagonist significantly restrained the effects of antidepressants on gene expression of cytokines, indicating that antidepressants could alter the response of various immune-associated components via the inhibition of NF-κB. Moreover, time-dependent lethal concentrations of three antidepressants on primary macrophages were firstly determined at mg/L levels, and the synergetic effects of antidepressant mixtures were suggested and in particular, for some parameters including total antioxidant capacity and cytokine genes expression, they could be significantly affected by antidepressants exposure at concentrations as low as 10ng/L, which together thereby revealed the potential risk of antidepressants to aquatic life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intestinal disease of scattered mirror carp Cyprinus carpio caused by Thelohanellus kitauei and notes on the morphology and phylogeny of the myxosporean from Sichuan Province, southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingtong; Lu, Mingmiao; Quan, Keyan; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong; Wu, Shangong; Wang, Jiangyong; Wang, Guitang

    2017-05-01

    The mass mortality of pond-reared scattered mirror carp, Cyprinus carpio, caused by Thelohanellus kitauei, occurred at fish farms in Sichuan Province, southwest China. Morphological and molecular analyses were supplemented with histological evaluation of infected tissues to better understand the route of infection and the pathological effects of T. kitauei on the fish host. The intestine of the diseased host was full of large cysts of the myxosporean. The cysts range from 2 cm to 3.6 cm in diameter. Histopathology indicated that T. kitaue i first invaded the submucosa of the host intestine and then moved into the mucosa layers with the development of their spores, finally entering into the enteric cavity of the hosts after the disruption of mucosa layers. The pyriform spores of T. kitauei were surrounded by the transparent spore sheath, measuring 25.98 μm±0.95 μm in body length, 8.72 μm±0.51 μm in body width, and 7.86 μm±0.26 μm in body thickness. The single polar capsule was pyriform, measuring 14.73 μm±0.92 μm in length and 6.82 μm±0.45 μm in width, with eight to 10 turns of filament coils winding inside. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences indicated that minimal genetic differences were present between T. kitauei samples from South Korea and from China. Close affinity was found between the genus Thelohanellus and Myxobolus. Additionally, two polar capsule nuclei were found at the anterior end of the single polar capsule in spores of T. kitauei stained with hematoxylin and eosin, which suggested the separation of the genus Thelohanellus from Myxobolus.

  12. Resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to oxidative stress after chloramine-T treatment is increased by microalgae carotenoid-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stara, Alzbeta; Sergejevova, Magda; Kozak, Pavel; Masojidek, Jiri; Velisek, Josef; Kouba, Antonin

    2014-01-01

    In fish aquaculture, disinfectants are used against bacterial and protozoal infections. These compounds cause oxidative stress that may stimulate the generation of reactive oxygen species, and subsequently the alteration in antioxidant systems of exposed organisms. Antioxidants like carotenoids present in microalgae increase carp resistance to oxidative stress after chemical treatment. The aim of these experiments was to prove increased resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) juveniles fed on experimental diets with microalgae biomass supplement (Algadiets) to oxidative stress caused by a disinfectant chloramine-T. In indoor experiments fish were fed on laboratory-prepared extruded diets containing supplement of Chlorella spp. (cf. C. vulgaris Beijerinck) biomass which contains antioxidants (carotenoids) like lutein. The young-of-the-year-old fish were acclimatized and fed on basal diet (control group) and the on diets containing 1, 2, 5 and 10% (w/w) of spray-dried Chlorella biomass (Algadiet 1, 2, 5 and 10) for 14 days followed by 6 weeks. Consequently, fish were treated daily with chloramine-T (Chl-T) at concentration of 10 mg x l(-1) for 1 h in three consecutive days. After this treatment, the indices of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity were assayed in fish gill, muscle and hepatopancreas. The fish fed on different Algadiets had increased antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase in flesh after the exposure to Chl-T. Higher activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were also observed in the hepatopancreas in all tested concentrations compared to the control group fed on the basal diet. The increased production and activity of antioxidant enzymes confirmed improved protection ability of fish tissues against oxidative damage when microalgae biomass was supplemented to the fish diet which was more pronounced by higher microalgae supplement in

  13. Exposure to sub-acute doses of fipronil and buprofezin in combination or alone induces biochemical, hematological, histopathological and genotoxic damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Irfan Zia, E-mail: irfanzia@qau.edu; Bibi, Asia; Shahid, Sana; Ghazanfar, Madiha

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Pesticides and insecticides may drastically effect non-target animal species like fish. • Cyprinus carpio were exposed to fipronil and buprofezin in combination and by themselves. • Severe alterations occurred in biochemical, hematological parameters and histomorphology of gills, liver and kidneys. • Greater genotoxic damage occurred in in the combined and fipronil alone group. - Abstract: Use of pesticides or insecticides can be highly toxic to aquatic life forms due to leaching and agricultural runoff, rains or flood. Fipronil (FP) is a GABA receptor inhibitor, while buprofezin (BPFN) is an insect growth regulator. Presently, we exposed groups of aquaria acclimated carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) for 96 h to sub-lethal concentrations of fipronil (400 μg L{sup −1}; 9.15 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1}) and buprofezin (BPFN, 100 mg L{sup −1}; 1.072 × 10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1}) singly or in combination. The extent of damage was assessed at biochemical, hematological, molecular biological and histopathological level. Results obtained in treated fish were compared statistically with those of control non-treated fish and also among treatment groups. Significance level was p < 0.05. Compared to control, serum total protein and globulin concentrations decreased significantly (p < 0.0001) in fish treated with FP; while albumin concentration remained unaltered with all treatments. Glucose concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.002) in fish treated with FP. In contrast, combined FP + BPFN treatment and BPFN treatment caused insignificant elevation of glucose concentration. Hematological assessment demonstrated significant decrease in red blood cell and thrombocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit percent; while white blood cell count showed an increase in all treatment groups (p < 0.0001). Blood smears from pesticide treated fish revealed aberrant erythrocyte morphologies which included necrosis, micronuclear formation and

  14. Fatty Acid Composition in Intramuscular Lipids of Experimental Scaly Crossbreds in 3-Year-Old Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Buchtová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the differences in the composition of fatty acids (in % of total fatty acids investigated, their total contents and ratios (n-6/n-3 in intramuscular lipids (IML of three experimental scaly groups of carp (pure line PS: Přerov scaly carp, hybrid PS × M72: Přerov scaly carp × Northern mirror carp, hybrid PS × ROP: Přerov scaly carp × Ropsha scaly carp in comparison with the mirror carp control group (hybrid M2 × M72: Hungarian mirror carp × Northern mirror carp. Compared with the controls (M2 × M72, fat content in meat of experimental groups of carp (PS, PS × M72, PS × ROP was practically the same (p > 0.05. The highest fat content (89.8 ± 1.94 g kg-1 was found in meat of PS × ROP hybrids. Composition of fatty acids in IML was not influenced to any large degree by a hybrid type or by gender. The only exception was the IML of PS × ROP hybrids which, compared with controls (M2 × M72 and PS × M72 hybrids, contained significantly (p sum. Higher content of oleic acid (PS × ROP: 54.94 ± 0.70% in carp fat was manifested by higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAsum values (PS × ROP: 64.20 ± 0.57%. IML of PS × ROP hybrids contained 6.99 ± 0.20% of linoleic acid and 0.53 ± 0.02% of arachidonic acid. Contents of α-linoleic acid (PS × ROP: 0.86 ± 0.09%, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA (PS × ROP: 0.69 ± 0.09% and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (PS × ROP: 0.35 ± 0.02% were low and influenced the PUFA n-6/n-3 ratio (PS × ROP: 3.25 ± 0.18. From this point of view, the IML of carp groups in this experiment constituted a relatively minor source of PUFAn-3 (PS × ROP: 2.39 ± 0.09%.

  15. Effects of partial replacement of fish meal by yeast hydrolysate on complement system and stress resistance in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Wen-Bin; Liang, Chao; Sun, Cun-Xin; Xue, Yun-Fei; Wan, Zu-De; Jiang, Guang-Zhen

    2017-08-01

    A 10-week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary fish meal replacement by yeast hydrolysate (YH) on growth performance, complement system and stress resistance of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) (initial average weight 19.44 ± 0.06 g). In the study, there were five groups: one control group was fed with a basal diet (YH0), and four treatment groups were fed with dietary fish meal replaced by 1% YH (YH1), 3% (YH3), 5% (YH5) and 7% (YH7), respectively. Each group had four replicates. At the end of feeding trial, twelve fish from each group (three fish per replicate) were randomly selected for assessing the growth and immunity. Meanwhile, 20 fish per replicate were injected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The results showed that (1) Replacement levels of YH significantly affected the growth of the fish with the highest values of weight gain (WG) occurred in fish fed YH3 diet. However, no significant difference in feed conversion ratios (FCR) was observed among all groups. (2) Pre-stressed plasma lysozyme activity, total protein and albumin contents and complement component 3 (C3) and complement component 4 (C4) levels of fish fed YH3 diet were significantly higher than those of fish fed YH0 diet. However, post-stressed immune parameters of fish in all groups were significantly lower. (3) There was a trend that the expression levels of the complement-related genes (c1r/s-A, c4-1, c3-H1, c5-1, fb/c2-A, mbl-2 and masp) initially increased and then decreased except mbl-2 and masp, with the maximum values observed in fish fed YH3 diet. Before stress, the expression levels of the inflammation-related genes (alp, il-1β and tnf-α) in the hepatopancreas and spleen of fish fed YH1 diet and YH7 diet were significant higher than that of fish fed YH0 diet. After stress, no significant difference in the expression levels of those genes was observed among all groups. These results indicated that FM replacement by YH could improve growth

  16. Rag expression identifies B and T cell lymphopoietic tissues during the development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Huising, M.O.; Meulen, van der T.; Oosterhoud, van C.N.; Alvarez Sánchez, N.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Stroband, H.W.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The generation of lymphoid cells during carp development was studied by analyzing expression of the recombination activating genes (rag) using in situ hybridization and real time quantitative PCR. These data were combined with immunohistochemistry using the mAb's WCL9 (cortical thymocytes) and WCI12

  17. Effect of different cyanobacterial biomasses and their fractions with variable microcystin content on embryonal development of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palíková, M.; Krejčí, R.; Hilscherová, Klára; Babica, Pavel; Navrátil, S.; Kopp, R.; Bláha, Luděk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 3 (2007), s. 312-318 ISSN 0166-445X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6005411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cyanobacterial biomass * embryonal development * common carp Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.975, year: 2007

  18. THE OPTIMAL RATIO OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus AND COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY ON DEEP WATER POND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Taufik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pond productivity can be increased by applied polyculture system in the deep pond. The purpose of this experiment is to examine the optimal ratio between nile tilapia and common carp, in order to increase the productivity. Nine concrete tanks (15 m2 with water depth of 2.2 m and were completed by water inlet, water outlet, and aeration. Both of nile tilapia and common carp with size ranging of 5-8 cm in total length were used. Stock density was 150 ind./m2. The difference ratio of both fish tilapia and carp of fish stocked as a treatment. The fish ratio this experiment were as followed: A 100%; B 80%:20%; C 60%:40%. Fish fed by pellet until at ad libitum. The duration of experiment was 100 days. Parameters such as survival, growth, and productivity were observed every ten days during the experiment period. Water quality parameters were also periodically observed. The results showed that survival of nile tilapia among the treatments were not significantly different (P>0.05 where survival of common carp at B treatment was better than C treatment (P<0.05. The highest of growth of absolute weight (94.86±2.85 g and total length (14.71±1 cm of nile tilapia at B treatment was found (P<0.05 where the best of growth of absolute weight (106.52±10.47 g and total length (11.57±1.78 cm of common carp was also found at B treatment (P<0.05. Biomass productivity at B treatment was the highest compared with A treatment (P<0.05. Combination between polyculture and the deep water pond technology could increase productivity. The polyculture system and the deep water pond technology would be able to keep constant water quality within in the threshold accordance with the regulation for fish culture.

  19. Effects of Sub-Lethal Toxicity of Paraquat on Blood Biochemical Parameters of Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Banaee; Behzad Nemadoost Haghi; Somayeh Tahery; Shima Shahafve; Maryam Vaziriyan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Paraquat is a non-selective contact herbicide, widely used to control weeds in agriculture farms and aquatic plants in surface waters. Paraquat can have adverse effects on the health of aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to detect the alterations in the blood biochemical parameters of common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of commercial formulations of paraquat. Methods: The fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (0.2 and 0.4 mg.L-1) of paraquat for...

  20. Cortisol emphasizes the metabolic strategies employed by common carp, Cyprinus carpio at different feeding and swimming regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Hon Jung; Chiarella, Daniela; Pelle, Antonella; Faggio, Caterina; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between feeding, exercise and cortisol on metabolic strategies of common carp over a 168h post-implant period. Feeding provided readily available energy and clearly increased muscle and liver protein and glycogen stores. Swimming, feeding and cortisol all induced aerobic metabolism by increasing oxygen consumption, and stimulated protein metabolism as demonstrated by the increased ammonia and urea excretion and ammonia quotient. Hypercortisol stimulated ammonia self-detoxifying mechanisms by enhancing ammonia and urea excretion, especially during severe exercise. At high swimming level, higher branchial clearance rates in cortisol treated fish succeeded in eliminating the elevation of endogenous ammonia, resulting in reduced plasma Tamm levels compared to control and sham implanted fish. Carp easily induced anaerobic metabolism, both during routine and active swimming, with elevated lactate levels as a consequence. Both feeding and cortisol treatment increased this dependence on anaerobic metabolism. Hypercortisol induced both glycogenesis and gluconeogenesis resulting in hyperglycemia and muscle and liver glycogen deposition, most likely as a protective mechanism for prolonged stress situations and primarily fuelled by protein mobilization. © 2013.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF THE DEVELOPMЕNT OF POND FORAGE BASE WHEN REARING CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO FISH SEEDS AT FISH FARM «MERKURIY»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grishin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the development of main components of natural forage base in nursery ponds during the period of rearing the carp fish seeds in monoculture. Methodology. Hydrobiological (bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and hydrochemical samples have been collected and processes according to generally accepted methods. Findings. Qualitative and quantitative parameters of the development of bacterio-, phyto-, zooplankton and zoobenthos in nursery ponds have been studied when rearing young-of-the-year Lubin few scale carp, Antoninsko-Zozulenets carp and their reciprocal crosses in monoculture (50 thousand fish/ha. General water mineralization in ponds was 292.7–315.7 mg/dm3 and according to O.A. Alekin’s classification, pond water belonged to hydrocarbonate class of calcium group. Water pH was 7.4–7.5. Permanganate values were 12.5–14.9 mgO/dm3. On average, average ammonium nitrogen content, nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen, mineral phosphorus, total iron did not exceed normative values. Qualitative and quantitative parameters of phyto-, bacterio-, zooplankton of nursery ponds have been studied. The seasonal development of phytoplankton was within 15.96–20.88 mg/dm3 with the predominance of Chlorococcales in the floristic spectrum. The development of bacterioplankton was within 5.08–5.81 mg/dm3. Zooplankton was dominated by cladoceran-copepod complex with average seasonal values of 5.27–17.20 g/m3. Zoobenthos was formed of Diptera larvae (Chironomidae and Chaoboridae with average seasonal biomasses of 0.51–1.8 g/m2. According to saprobic parameters, pond water belonged to β-mesosabrobic zone and corresponded to the water quality class II (“clean enough” category. Fish productivity of nursery ponds was within 617.2–815.2 kg/ha; output of carp young-of-the-year was within 39.82–43.56%, mean weight of young-of-the-year was 31.0–39.3 g. Originality. For the first time we carried out a

  2. CONTENT AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ESTERIFIED CHOLESTEROL OF LIVER AND REPRODUCTION ABILITY OF BROOD CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF VITAMIN A IN FORMULATED FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of increased amounts of vitamin A in the diet on the fatty acid composition of esterified cholesterol of liver and reproduction ability of brood carp females and males. Methodology. The experiment was conducted in pre-spawning period using three groups of brood carp. The control group of carp received standard granulated feed. Experimental groups of brood carps additionally received retynilatsetat in the composition of the above-mentioned fodder. Findings. It was found that the liver of females and males of brood carp of experimental groups, which received vitamin A at a quantity of 2500 and 5000 IU/kg of feed in the composition of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period had shown a dose-dependent reduction in the content of esterified cholesterol. At the same time, the level of monounsaturated fatty acids of n-9 family decreases significantly and dose-dependently in its fatty acid composition, however, there is an increase in the level of saturated fatty acids with paired and unpaired quantities of carbon atoms in the chain as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-6 family and especially n-3 family. Females of brood carp in the experimental groups, which were fed with additional vitamin A at a quantity of 2500 and 5000 IU/kg of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period, had an increase in working and relative fecundity, while males had an increase in sperm volume. At the same time, the output of larvae from eggs increases significantly and dose-dependently. Originality. For the first time it was found that the liver of brood carp females and males, which received increased quantities of vitamin A in the composition of standard granulated formulated feed during pre-spawning period, had the reduction in the content of esterified cholesterol. the level of monounsaturated fatty acids of n-9 family decreases significantly and dose-dependently in its fatty acid

  3. β-glucan enriched bath directly stimulates the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera

    2013-01-01

    investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological impact of two different commercially available β glucan containing products on the wound healing process in carp. Throughout a two week experiment fish were kept either untreated (control), or in water supplemented with the two...... activated in all wounds regardless of treatment. Expression of all three interleukins was highly up regulated in control wounded muscle already at day 1 post-wounding and decreased at subsequent time-points. The reverse was the case with control wounded skin, where expression increased from day 1 through......Wound healing is a complex and well-organized process in which physiological factors and immune mechanisms are involved. A number of different immune modulators have been found to enhance the non-specific defence system in vertebrates, among which β-glucans are the most powerful and extensively...

  4. Investigations Concerning Possibilities of Diagnosis and Treatement in One Pesthole of Bacterial Haemorrhagic Septicemia in Carp (Cyprinus Carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were done on 7 alive samples in agonic or death stage, taken from an extensive exploitation pond, innorth-east Transylvanian zone, with an water surface of 0,2 ha and a total fish quantity of about 200 kg, secondsummer carp of an average weight of 300 g/individual. As a result of clinical, bacterioscopy and bacteriology andalso necropsy laboratory exam it were put in evidence some aspects. So, clinical exam has revealed, by the presenceof integument hemorrhagic ulcerous lesions, also the presence of some crustacaee ectoparasites, Argulus foliaceusspecies, which have made easier the disease spreading in whole effective. Necropsy exam puts in evidence, anatomyclinic,the presence of integument hemorrhagic lesions under a point or diffuse form, but also ulcers and muscle –cutaneous necrosis. As a following of bacterioscopy exam of smears done from pathologic material taken incutaneous lesions and colored by Gram method it was ascertained the presence of a bacterial polymorph flora, ofbacillus and cocobacillus type, Gram negative. Bacteriologic exam (cultural, realized on ordinary culture mediums(sauce, water and selective mediums (agar with blood isolates in pure culture germs from Aeromonas kind, basis onmorphological and cultural characters, which are framed in Aeromonas genus patterns described by specialityliterature. As a following of biochemical characters exam, with the help of multitest API20E system it wasestablished that Aeromonas spp. strains isolated, belong to hydrophila group 1 species, species which is responsibleof bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia performing in carp. By testing the sensitiveness to antibodies and chemiotherapyin strains which have been found as diagnosis (diffusiometric method of antibiogram, it was ascertained that group 1Aeromonas hydrophila strains, isolated from disease pesthole, were in decreasing order sensitive to: Eurofloxocin,Florfenicol (Floron and Oxitetracycline and resistant to

  5. β-glucan enriched bath directly stimulates the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylska-Diaz, D A; Schmidt, J G; Vera-Jiménez, N I; Steinhagen, D; Nielsen, M E

    2013-09-01

    Wound healing is a complex and well-organized process in which physiological factors and immune mechanisms are involved. A number of different immune modulators have been found to enhance the non-specific defence system in vertebrates, among which β-glucans are the most powerful and extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological impact of two different commercially available β glucan containing products on the wound healing process in carp. Throughout a two week experiment fish were kept either untreated (control), or in water supplemented with the two different types of β-glucans. The wound healing process was monitored using a multispectral visualisation system. The correlation between wound closure and immune response was investigated by measuring the gene expression patterns of IL-1β, IL-6 family member M17, IL-8 and Muc5b, and measurement of production of radical oxygen species. PAMPs/DAMPs stimulation caused by the wounding and or β-glucans resulted in an inflammatory response by activating IL-1β, IL-6 family member M17 and IL-8 and differences in the expression pattern were seen depending on stimuli. IL-1β, IL-6 family member M17 and IL-8 were activated in all wounds regardless of treatment. Expression of all three interleukins was highly up regulated in control wounded muscle already at day 1 post-wounding and decreased at subsequent time-points. The reverse was the case with control wounded skin, where expression increased from day 1 through day 14. The results for the β-glucan treated wounds were more complex. The images showed significantly faster wound contraction in both treated groups compared to the control. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that a β glucan enriched bath promotes the closure of wounds in common carp and induce a local change in cytokine expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cellular and molecular hypoxic response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate at sublethal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Junichi; Nakayama, Kei; Shimizu, Ichiyo; Yamada, Hiroko; Suzuki, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Yamane, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is an anionic surfactant commonly used in cleaning agents such as laundry detergents. Trace amounts of LAS are released into environmental waters after processing in wastewater treatment plants after the use of this chemical. Acute toxicity of LAS has been well-studied using various organisms, and its effects are particularly well known in fish. LAS damages fish gill morphology and induces mucous excretion from these organs. LAS also causes hematological changes. These observations suggest that LAS might induce hypoxic conditions in fish. However, the connections between hypoxia and hematological changes at the cellular and molecular levels remain unknown. Common carp were exposed to LAS at concentrations of 625, 1250, and 2500 μg/L for 96 h. A total of 9-10 fish were sampled at the end of the exposure period for each concentration. For hematological analysis, carp blood was sampled from the caudal vein. Gill tissue was used for real-time PCR analysis to evaluate transcriptional changes of hypoxia-induced genes. The number of normal red blood cells and the number of immature red blood cells were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in fish exposed to 2500 µg/L LAS. The hypoxic marker genes hypoxia inducible factor 1α, myoglobin 1, and erythropoietin 2 were upregulated in these fish. Our results suggest that LAS decreases erythrocyte numbers and induces hypoxic conditions. In addition, LAS-exposed fish increase production of immature erythrocytes and upregulate myoglobin expression in gills to improve oxygen transport and absorption. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 122-130, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effects of Sub-Lethal Toxicity of Paraquat on Blood Biochemical Parameters of Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paraquat is a non-selective contact herbicide, widely used to control weeds in agriculture farms and aquatic plants in surface waters. Paraquat can have adverse effects on the health of aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to detect the alterations in the blood biochemical parameters of common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of commercial formulations of paraquat. Methods: The fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (0.2 and 0.4 mg.L-1 of paraquat for 21 days. Biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine phosphokinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT activities were measured. Results: A significantly increase was observed in AST activity in fish exposed to 0.4 mg.L-1 paraquat. Paraquat caused a significant (P < 0.05 increase in plasma ALT, LDH and CPK activities and plasma creatinine levels. Although ALP activity significantly (P < 0.05 increased in fish exposed to 0.2 mg.L-1 paraquat, the fish exposed to 0.4mg.L-1 paraquat exhibited a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in ALP activity. A significant (P < 0.05 decrease in GGT activity, total protein, albumin and globulin levels as well as cholesterol and triglyceride levels was observed in fish exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of paraquat. Conclusion: Exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of paraquat may cause changes in blood biochemical parameters in common carp.

  8. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Rui [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Wang, Jia-Hao; Liu, Ying-Juan [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Jeney, Galina [National Agricultural Research Center, Research Institute for Fisherie and, Aquaculture, Anna Light 8, Szarvas 5440 (Hungary); Xu, Pao, E-mail: xup@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Yin, Guo-Jun, E-mail: yingj@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • We explored the underlying toxicology of CCl{sub 4} at the cellular and molecular levels. • QRT-PCR detected the gene expression of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. • The apoptosis and necrosis occurred simultaneously in carp liver damage. • CCl{sub 4} activated the TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways. - Abstract: In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatotoxicity in fish was investigated by studying the effects of CCl{sub 4} on the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis. Common carp were given an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl{sub 4} in arachis oil (0.5 ml/kg body weight). At 72 h post-injection, blood were collected to measure glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver samples were taken to analyze toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/cREL). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of the primary hepatocytes with CCl{sub 4} at 8 mM. The results showed that CCl{sub 4} significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, MDA, TLR4 and CYP2E1, reduced the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and T-AOC, and up-regulated the gene expressions of NF-κB/cREL and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12. In vitro, CCl{sub 4} caused a dramatic loss in cell viability and induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways play important roles in CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity in fish.

  9. Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions fortified with enzymatic hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Physical and oxidative stability of 5% (by weight) cod liver oil-in-water emulsions fortified with common carp (C. carpio) roe protein hydrolysate (CRPH) were examined. CRPH was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of discarded roe by using Alcalase 2.4 L for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min to yield different...... degrees of hydrolysis (DH). All the hydrolysates showed in vitro antioxidant activity in terms of radical scavenging and chelating properties. CRPH-containing emulsions had significantly smaller droplets than control (p ...

  10. Comparative Proteomic, Physiological, Morphological, and Biochemical Analyses Reveal the Characteristics of the Diploid Spermatozoa of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Kang; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Ming; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Luo, Kaikun; Zhao, Rurong; Qin, Qinbo; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    The generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. The DNA content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. We performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 21 protein spots that changed in abundance were analyzed. As the common carp and the allotetraploid hybrids are not fully sequenced organisms, we identified proteins by Mascot searching against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NR) protein database for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and verified them against predicted homologous proteins derived from transcriptomes of the testis. Twenty protein spots were identified successfully, belonging to four gene ontogeny categories: cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and other functions, indicating that these might be associated with the variation in diploid spermatozoa. This categorization of variations in protein composition in diploid spermatozoa will provide new perspectives on male polyploidy. Moreover, our approach indicates that transcriptome data are useful for proteomic analyses in organisms lacking full protein sequences. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  11. Occurrence of glucocorticoids discharged from a sewage treatment plant in Japan and the effects of clobetasol propionate exposure on the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kei; Sato, Kentaro; Shibano, Takazumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Go; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi

    2016-04-01

    The present study evaluated the environmental risks to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) posed by glucocorticoids present in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. To gather information on the seasonal variations in glucocorticoid concentration, the authors sampled the effluent of a Japanese STP every other week for 12 mo. Six of 9 selected glucocorticoids were detected in the effluent, with clobetasol propionate and betamethasone 17-valerate detected at the highest concentrations and frequencies. The present study's results indicated that effluent glucocorticoid concentration may depend on water temperature, which is closely related to the removal efficiency of the STP or to seasonal variations in the public's use of glucocorticoids. In a separate experiment, to clarify whether glucocorticoids in environmental water increase susceptibility to bacterial infection in fish, the authors examined the responses to bacterial infection (Aeromonas veronii) of common carp exposed to clobetasol propionate. Clobetasol propionate exposure did not affect bacterial infection-associated mortality. In fish infected with A. veronii but not exposed to clobetasol propionate, head kidney weight and number of leukocytes in the head kidney were significantly increased (p glucocorticoids at environmentally relevant concentrations. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Hormonal responses of the fish, Cyprinus carpio, to environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . M Ramesh, M Saravanan, C Kavitha. Abstract. The present study reports the acute and sublethal toxicity of lead nitrate on plasma cortisol and prolactin level of a freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio. The median lethal concentration of lead nitrate ...

  13. Heavy metals and minerals contents in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca), carp (Cyprinus carpio) and flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) from Sidi Salem Reservoir (Tunisia): health risk assessment related to fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemis, Ines Ben; Besbes Aridh, Nadia; Hamza, Neila; M'Hetli, Mohamed; Sadok, Saloua

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate heavy metals and selected minerals contents in filets of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca), carp (Cyprinus carpio) and flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), the major fish species produced in Sidi-Salem reservoir; the largest Tunisian freshwater ecosystem. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, while concentrations of Na and P were determined by flame photometry and spectrophotometry, respectively. Results concerning heavy metals are considered quantitatively reliable for Hg and Cd but must be taken with precautions concerning Pb levels as the LOD (limit of detection) of the analytical process was higher than acceptable limit. They showed greater accumulations of both Hg and Cd in filets of pikeperch than in filets of carp and mullet, but none of the values exceeded the normative maximum levels (0.500 and 0.050 mg kg -1 w.w., respectively). Considering provisional intakes, target hazard quotient and hazard index, estimated for a fish portion per week, consumption of any of the species did not appear to be potentially hazardous for the health as they were far below threshold values. A fish portion would provide substantial amounts (>15% of daily requirements) in essential mineral nutrients (P, Mg and Fe) and thus should be considered an interesting contribution to a healthy diet. It is strongly advocated to authorities including freshwater fish in the official national annual control survey of contaminants in fishery products, which in addition to guaranteeing security of consumers, would also allow diversifying valorisation opportunities and thus increase the economic value of this fish production.

  14. Evaluation of DNA Damage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. by Comet Assay for Determination of Possible Pollution in Lake Mogan (Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Çok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of the aquatic environment with various concentrations of pollutants results in unexpected threats to humans and wildlife. The consequences of exposure and metabolism of pollutants/xenobiotics, especially carcinogens and mutagens, can be suitably assessed by investigating severe events, such as DNA damage; for example, DNA adducts and DNA strand breaks. One of the commonly used techniques to detect DNA damage in aquatic organisms is single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay. This study was carried out using Cyprinus carpio in order to identify the possible pollution in Lake Mogan, near Ankara, Turkey, where the city's sewer system and pesticides used in agriculture are believed to be the common causes of pollution. From the comet assay, the tail length (μm, tail intensity (%, and tail moment values of fish caught from Lake Mogan were found to be 31.10 ± 10.39, 7.77 ± 4.51, 1.50 ± 1.48, respectively, whereas for clean reference sites they were found to be 22.80 ± 1.08, 3.47 ± 1.59, 0.40 ± 0.51, respectively. The values are statistically different from each other (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0013, respectively. These results indicate that Lake Mogan may be polluted with substances that have genotoxic effects and constitute an early warning for the lake system. Further detailed research is needed to establish the source of the pollution and the chemicals responsible.

  15. Amelioration of cadmium-induced changes in biochemical parameters of the muscle of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio by Vitamin C and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of administering antioxidants, including vitamin C and chitosan on oxidative stress markers in muscle as edible tissues of Cyprinus carpio exposed to cadmium chloride. In this experiment, by exposing to 0.2 mg/L cadmium chloride for 21 days, fish were fed a normal diet, diet containing chitosan (1000 mg/kg diet, vitamin C (1000 mg/kg diet or both vitamin C and chitosan. Oxidative stress markers, including the activity of catalase, total antioxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA as well as biochemical parameters, including the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE were measured. Fish exposure to cadmium chloride significantly increased AST, LDH, CPK, catalase, and MDA activity, while it significantly decreased AST and AChE activity, and levels of total antioxidant in muscle cells. Administration of chitosan or vitamin C alone or in combination with each other to fish exposed to cadmium chloride was effective in regulating ALT, CPK, and catalase activity. Although administration of vitamin C and chitosan caused a significant decrease in MDA, AST and LDH, these enzymes were still significantly higher than those in the control group. Administration of vitamin C and chitosan had no significant effects on the activity of AChE and levels of total antioxidant. Although, chitosan alone could not prevent oxidative stress damages in muscle tissues of cadmium-treated fish, administration of vitamin C combined with chitosan may increase the efficiency of antioxidant defense system and improve the detoxification system in the muscles of fish exposed to cadmium chloride.

  16. Resistência da pele de carpa espelho (Cyprinus carpio specularis curtida pelas técnicas ao cromo e bioleather - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1711 Resistance of the carp mirror skin (Cyprinus carpio specularis tanned by chromium and bioleather technique - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1711

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Telmo Agostin Schmidt

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a técnica de curtimento bioleather e o curtimentocom sais de cromo, em peles de carpa espelho (Cyprinus carpio specularis. As peles foram retiradas com o auxílio de uma máquina, identificadas e congeladas. Em seguida, foram curtidas por meio de duas técnicas diferentes. O passo seguinte foi retirada dos corpos de prova, que foram levados para o laboratório, climatizado em torno de 23ºC e umidade relativa, do ar de 50%, conforme NBR 10455 (1988, por 24 horas. Para os testes de resistência à tração, ao alongamento e à determinação da força de rasgamento progressivo, utilizou-se o dinamômetro EMIC. Foram retiradas amostras da região dorsal do couro para análise de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. As amostras foram secas em ponto crítico com CO2 e metalizadas com íons de ouro-paládio. Em seguida as amostras foram elétron-micrografados com o JEOL-JSM 5410. Observou-se o entrelaçamento e sobreposição das camadas das fibras colágenas, que proporcionam maior resistência ao couro, constatada pelos testes realizados. Os couros curtidos com a técnica bioleather apresentaram maiores valores no teste de tração (20,45 N/mm2 em comparação ao cromo (12,32 N/mm2. Não houve diferença na elongação entre os tratamentos (bioleather = 72,52%; cromo = 84,74%. Para o teste de rasgamento progressivo, o curtimento ao cromo foi superior (26,28 N/mm, comparado ao bioleather (11,96 N/mm. Entretanto, os dois curtimentos podem ser utilizados nas peles dessa espécie de peixe para a confecção de vestuários.The objective of the work was to evaluate the tanning technique to bioleather and with chromium salts, in carp mirror skins (Cyprinus carpio specularis. The skins wore removed by means of a machine, identified and congealed. Next they were tanned by the two techniques. The test bodies wore removed and taken to the laboratory climatized around 23ºC and relative humidity of the 50% air, as ABNT

  17. Evaluation of the Dressing Percentage of 3-year-old Experimental Scaly Crossbreds of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758 in Relation to Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Buchtová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare dressing percentages, with relation to sex, of three bisexual groups of hybrid carp, i.e. Hungarian mirror carp and Northern mirror carp (M2 × M72, the hybrid line of Přerov scaly carp and Northern mirror carp (PS × M72, the hybrid line of P.erov scaly carp and Ropsha scaly carp (PS × ROP, and the pure line of P.erov scaly carp (PS in harvest size (K3. There were practically no differences in growth variables of male and female carp between the pure line PS carp and M2 × M72 and PS × ROP hybrids. Statistically significant differences in some variables between sexes were found in the scaly hybrid line PS × M72. Females in that group had significantly higher growth rates (TL and SL by 4.08% and 4.52%, respectively; p abs by 11.37%, 13.70% and 14.83%, respectively; p p p < 0.01 than that of ovaries of female carp (or, rather, the GSI of male carp was higher.

  18. Life History Attributes of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garvey, James E; DeGrandchamp, Kelly L; Williamson, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    ... of the United States, including the Great Lakes. One well-established group found in this waterway is the Asian carps including the common carp Cyprinus carpio, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, and two recent invaders, the bighead carp...

  19. INFLUENCE DES CONDITIONS D’ÉLEVAGE SUR LA CROISSANCE PONDÉRALE ET LES PARAMÈTRES SANGUINS UTILISÉS COMME DESCRIPTEURS DE L’ÉTAT PHYSIOLOGIQUE ET IMMUNITAIRE DE JEUNES CARPES CYPRINUS CARPIO (CYPRINIDAE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA V.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Les réponses de certains paramètres sanguins de la carpe (Cyprinus carpio à des modifications des conditions d’élevage sont analysées au cours d’un cycle annuel. Les descripteurs hématologiques retenus, car pouvant témoigner d’une perturbation physiologique des poissons, sont : l’hématocrite, le nombre de globules rouges, le taux d’hémoglobine, la glycémie, la concentration en protéines sériques et la proportion d’immunoglobulines par rapport aux protéines totales. Les conditions d’élevage testées correspondent à un schéma de production de plus en plus utilisé en Dombes. Deux phases successives sont considérées : -élevage semi-intensif caractérisé par des densités élevées et une complémentation alimentaire à base de céréales ou d’aliments complets plus riches en protéines, -élevage extensif avec des densités plus faibles et une alimentation exclusivement naturelle. Nos résultats illustrent une influence du régime alimentaire, notamment au printemps avec l’augmentation de la température de l’eau et l’arrêt de la complémentation. Il semblerait qu’un régime très protéique provoque une déficience physiologique des poissons lorsqu’ils ne disposent plus que des ressources naturelles du milieu.

  20. TOKSISITAS LETAL MOLUSKISIDA NIKLOSAMIDA PADA BENIH IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosmaniar Yosmaniar

    2009-04-01

    experiment aimed to determine potency of lethal toxicity (LC50 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of niclosamide on common carp (Cyprinus carpio fry. This research was conducted at Research Station for Enviroment and Toxicology, Cibalagung-Bogor by using molluscicide containing niclosamide of 250 EC. Twenty one glass aquaria of 40 cm x 20 cm x 20 cm in size filled with 10 L of water were used in this experiment equipped with water circulation system and stockted with 10 fry per aquarium. Parameter observed was the mortality of fry and water quality. The tested fish were not fed during the treatment. Preliminary research was performed by finding concentration range, lethal time  dan LC50 of 24, 48, 72, dan 96 hours. Data obtained was analyzed using LC50  probit analysis program. Result of the experiments indicated that the lethal toxicity (LC50 of niclosamide on common carp (Cyprinus carpio fry were as follows: 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours which were 0.8012 (0.7140—0.8990, 0.5999 (0.5356—0.6719, 0.4511(0.4067—0.5004, and 0,3849 mg/L (0.3684—0.4061. The niclosamide is extremely toxic (classification A.

  1. Substrate mobilization and hormonal changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, L) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L) during deep hypoxia and subsequent recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanRaaij, MTM; VandenThillart, GEEJM; Vianen, GJ; Pit, DSS; Balm, PHM; Steffens, B

    1996-01-01

    Common carp (at 20 degrees C) and rainbow trout (at 15 degrees C) were fitted with an indwelling cannula in the dorsal aorta. The fish were exposed to a controlled decline of water pO(2) followed by 90 min deep hypoxia at 0.3 kPa (carp) or 4.8 kPa (trout). Thereafter, normoxic recovery was monitored

  2. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Azolla microphylla based gold nanoparticles against acetaminophen induced toxicity in a fresh water common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Kunjiappan

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized GNaP protects liver against oxidative damage and tissue damaging enzyme activities and could be used as an effective protector against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in fresh water common carp fish.

  3. Multiple regulation of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes by serum factors: influence of infection with atypical Aeromonas salmonicida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Daly, J.G.; Groeneveld, A.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Normal carp serum contains inhibitory and stimulatory factors for macrophage and neutrophilic granulocyte respiratory burst activity. As stimulatory factors were only effective in combination with phorbol myristate actetate (PMA) activation, it is concluded that they are probably linked to protein

  4. Histopathology of gill, liver, muscle and brain of Cyprinus carpio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological studies in organs like gill, liver, muscle and brain of Cyprinus carpio communis were made to assess tissue damage due to sublethal concentration of heavy metals lead and cadmium after 28 days of exposure. In lead treated gill, disintegration and fusion of primary lamellae, extensive vacuolization with ...

  5. Response of Cyprinus carpio hatchlings artemia, mixed zooplankton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted on the response of Cyprinus carpio to Artemia nauplii, mixed zooplankton and Yeast (single cell protein). The fish was fed two quantities of each diet, 100 and 150 ml artemia; 50-100 ml and 150-200 ml zooplankton; and 185 -195 and 200-250 ml yeast. They were fed twice daily There was no ...

  6. Increased food intake in growth hormone-transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) may be mediated by upregulating Agouti-related protein (AgRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chengrong; Song, Yanlong; Wang, Yaping; Zhang, Tanglin; Duan, Ming; Li, Yongming; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    In fish, food intake and feeding behavior are crucial for survival, competition, growth and reproduction. Growth hormone (GH)-transgenic common carp exhibit an enhanced growth rate, increased food intake and higher feed conversion rate. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of feeding regulation in GH-transgenic (TG) fish are not clear. In this study, we observed feeding behavior of TG and non-transgenic (NT) common carp, and analyzed the mRNA expression levels of NPY, AgRP I, orexin, POMC, CCK, and CART I in the hypothalamus and telencephalon after behavioral observation. We detected similar gene expression levels in the hypothalamus of TG and NT common carp, which had been cultured in the field at the same age. Furthermore, we tested the effects of GH on hypothalamus fragments in vitro to confirm our findings. We demonstrated that TG common carp displayed increased food intake and reduced food consumption time, which were associated with a marked increase in hypothalamic AgRP I mRNA expression. Our results suggest that elevated GH levels may influence food intake and feeding behavior by upregulating the hypothalamic orexigenic factor AgRP I in GH-transgenic common carp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo

    2017-01-01

    Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees...... antioxidant activity both in vitro and in 5% roe oil-in-water emulsions and inhibited the growth of certain bacterial strains. Common carp roe could be a promising source of unsaturated fatty acids and functional bioactive agents. Unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil extracted from common carp roe can be delivered...... into food systems by roe oil-in-water emulsions fortified by functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial hydrolysates from the defatted roe....

  8. GROWING OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO IN PONDS OF IRKLIIV HERBIVOROUS FISHES HATCHERY USING TRADITIONAL ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krazhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Growing of young-of-the-year Nivka scaled carp in polyculture with herbivorous fishes with a study of feeding, growth of young-of-the-year carp, fish productivity of nursery ponds when using traditional organic fertilizers ? poultry droppings, cattle compost. Methodology. Generally accepted hydrochemical, hydrobiological, and fisheries methods have been used in the study. Findings. Growing of young-of-the-year carp was accompanied by studies of parameters of development of natural food bae (bacterio-, phyto-, zooplnakton, zoobenthos, feeding of young-of-the-year carp and fish productivity of nursery ponds when using traditional organic fertilizers such as poultry droppings at a concentration of 0.12 tons/ha and cattle compost at a concentration of 3.0 tons/ha. It was found that application of these fertilizers resulted in similar qualitative and quantitative development of hydrobionts in both ponds, natural food in the gut content of young-of-the-year carp reached 40%, total fish productivity was 1500-1612 kg/ha, mean weight of young-of-the-year was 51.0 ± 4.39 g and 47.0 ± 4.1 g. Consumption of poultry droppings is 25 times lower than that of cattle compost. Originality. Parameters of the growth of bacterio-, phyto-, zooplankton, zoobenthos and growth of carp in polyculture with the use of traditional organic fertilizers in controlled conditions of modern fisheries management with water supply from the Kremenchug reservoir have been determined. Practical value. Application of poultry droppings (from 0,12 t/ha and cattle compost (3,0 tons/ha in nursery ponds with water supply from the Kremenchug reservoir in Irkliiv herbivorous fishes hatchery resulted in similar quantitative indexes of development of natural food base and fish productivity. In order to save and receive fish production at a level of 1.62 tons/ha, it is recommended to apply poultry droppings at indicated amounts.

  9. Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295r adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letcher, Robert J.; Sanderson, J. Thomas; Bokkers, Abraham; Giesy, John P.; Berg, Martin van den

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4'-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a maximum of 3% to 4% (at 100 μM) compared with 8% for BPA relative to the maximum induction by 17β-estradiol (E2, 1 μM). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was a potent antagonist of vtg production with an IC50 of 5.5 μM, virtually 100% inhibition of vtg at 20 μM, and an inhibitive (IC50) potency about one-tenth that of the known ER antagonist tamoxifen (IC50, 0.6 μM). 2,2'-Diallyl bisphenol A, 4,4'-(1,4-phenylene-diisopropylidene)bisphenol, BPRO, and BHF were much less inhibitory with IC50 concentrations of 20-70 μM, and relative potencies of 0.03 and 0.009 with tamoxifen. Bisphenol ethoxylate showed no anti-estrogenicity (up to 100 μM), and 4,4'-isopropylidene-diphenol diacetate was only antagonistic at 100 μM. When comparing the (anti)estrogenic potencies of these bisphenol A analogues/diphenylalkanes, anti-estrogenicity occurred at lower concentrations than estrogenicity. 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dimethylphenol) (IC50, 2.0 μM) reduced E2-induced (EC50, 100 nM) vtg production due to concentration-dependent cytotoxicity as indicated by a parallel decrease in MTT activity and vtg, whereas the remaining diphenylalkanes did not cause any cytotoxicity relative to controls. None of the diphenylalkanes (up to 100 μM) induced EROD activity indicating that concentration-dependent, CYP1A enzyme-mediated metabolism of E2, or any Ah-receptor-mediated interaction with the ER, was not a likely explanation for the observed anti-estrogenic effects. At concentrations as great as 100

  10. Extraction of unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe and production of defatted roe hydrolysates with functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelichi, Sakhi; Shabanpour, Bahareh; Pourashouri, Parastoo; Hajfathalian, Mona; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2018-03-01

    Common carp roe is a rich protein and oil source, which is usually discarded with no specific use. The aims of this study were to extract oil from the discarded roe and examine functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of defatted roe hydrolysates (CDRHs) at various degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters revealed that common carp roe oil contained high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted roe yielded higher content of essential amino acids. CDRHs displayed higher solubility than untreated defatted roe, which increased with DH. Better emulsifying and foaming properties were observed at lower DH and non-isoelectric points. Furthermore, water and oil binding capacity decreased with DH. CDRHs exhibited antioxidant activity both in vitro and in 5% roe oil-in-water emulsions and inhibited the growth of certain bacterial strains. Common carp roe could be a promising source of unsaturated fatty acids and functional bioactive agents. Unsaturated fatty acid-rich oil extracted from common carp roe can be delivered into food systems by roe oil-in-water emulsions fortified by functional, antioxidant, and antibacterial hydrolysates from the defatted roe. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Validation of a serum neutralization test for detection of antibodies specific to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in infected common and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabon, J.; Louboutin, L.; Castric, J.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious infective, notifiable disease affecting common carp and varieties. In survivors, infection is generally characterized by a subclinical latency phase with restricted viral replication. The CyHV-3 genome is difficult to detect i...

  12. High corticosterone and sex reversal in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with adrenal hyperplasia caused by P450c17a2 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nematollahi, M.A.; Pelt-Heerschap, van H.M.L.; Komen, H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inheritance of adrenal hyperplasia, caused by 17a-hydroxylase deficiency, and its association with female to male sex reversal in common carp. Inbred strains used in this experiment were E4 (XX, female, normal), E5 (XX, male, adrenal hyperplasia) and E7

  13. Results of comparative growing test of all-female and bisexual population in two-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocour, Martin; Linhart, Otomar; Gela, David

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2003), s. 369-378 ISSN 0967-6120 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/97/S056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : all-female * common carp * genetics Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.446, year: 2003

  14. Supplementary feeding with thermally treated cereals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) pond farming and its effects on water quality, nutrient budget and zooplankton and zoobenthos assemblages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváč, D.; Anton-Pardo, M.; Másílko, J.; Hartman, P.; Regenda, J.; Vejsada, P.; Baxa, M.; Pechar, L.; Valentová, O.; Všetičková, Lucie; Drozd, B.; Adámek, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2016), s. 1681-1697 ISSN 0967-6120 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Common carp * Nutrient budget * Supplementary feeding * Thermally treated cereals Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.095, year: 2016

  15. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoran, Jenna, E-mail: J.F.Corcoran@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Winter, Matthew J., E-mail: M.Winter@exeter.ac.uk [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Lange, Anke, E-mail: A.Lange@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Cumming, Rob, E-mail: Rob.Cumming@astrazeneca.com [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Owen, Stewart F., E-mail: Stewart.Owen@astrazeneca.com [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Charles R., E-mail: C.R.Tyler@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • CFA appears to have a low propensity to bioconcentrate and has a plasma half-life of <4 days in carp. • CFA increases levels of mRNA of a number of genes known to be regulated by PPARα in mammals. • PPARα activation changes levels of mRNA of genes involved with several detoxification/ biotransformation system components in carp. • CFA alters levels of mRNA and activity of the inducible β-oxidation pathway enzyme Acox1, a known indicator of peroxisome proliferator exposure. - Abstract: In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA

  16. Early intrauterine embryonic development in Khawia sinensis Hsu, 1935 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Lytocestidae), an invasive tapeworm of carp (Cyprinus carpio): an ultrastructural study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruňanská, M.; Mackiewicz, J. S.; Młocicki, D.; Świderski, Z.; Nebesářová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2012), s. 1009-1017 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ATRACTOLYTOCESTUS-HURONENSIS ANTHONY * WENYONIA-VIRILIS WOODLAND * DIDYMOBOTHRIUM-RUDOLPHII MONTICELLI * FARMED COMMON CARP * ONCOSPHERAL ENVELOPES * VITELLOGENESIS * PARASITE * CESTOIDEA * EUCESTODA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00436-011-2590-2

  17. Enzyme activity in energy supply of spermatozoon motility in two taxonomically distant fish species (sterlet Acipenser ruthenus, Acipenseriformes and common carp Cyprinus carpio, Cypriniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Rodina, Marek

    2016-03-01

    As spermatozoon motility duration differs significantly among fish species, the mechanism of ATP generation-regeneration and its distribution along the flagellum may be species-dependent. The present study compared the role of creatine kinase (CK) with that of adenylate kinase (AK) in ATP regeneration during motility of demembranated spermatozoa of taxonomically distant fish species, sterlet, and common carp, allowing investigation for the presence of the creatine-phosphocreatine (PCr) shuttle in sterlet spermatozoa. The flagellar beat frequency of demembranated spermatozoa was measured in reactivating media in the presence or absence of ATP, ADP, PCr, and CK and AK inhibitors. After demembranation, AK, CK, and total ATPase activity was measured in spermatozoon extracts. Beat frequency of demembranated spermatozoa was found to be positively correlated with ATP levels in reactivating medium and to reach a plateau at 0.8 mM and 0.6 mM ATP for carp and sterlet, respectively. It was shown for the first time that sterlet axonemal dynein ATPases have a higher affinity for ATP than do those of carp. Supplementation of reactivating medium with ADP and PCr without ATP resulted in beat frequencies comparable to that measured with 0.3 to 0.5-mM ATP for both studied species. The presence of the PCr-CK phosphagen system and its essential role in ATP regeneration were first confirmed for sturgeon spermatozoa. The inhibition of CK exerted a high impact on spermatozoon energy supply in both species, whereas the inhibition of AK was more pronounced in sterlet than in carp. This was confirmed by the quantification of enzyme activity in spermatozoon extracts. We concluded that spermatozoa of these taxonomically distant species use similar systems to supply energy for flagella motility, but with different efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. State of the immune protection system of brood carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 based on vitamin E and selenium levels in their diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yurchak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the state of the immune system of brood carp, which were fed with a combined feed containing a liposomal preparation with vitamin E and organic compound of selenium microelement during pre-spawning period. Methodology: The study has been performed in three experimental ponds, in which carp females and males were placed after wintering. The first experimental group was fed with a diet supplemented with vitamin E at a concentration of 50 mg/mg of the feed and selenium – 0.3 mg/kg. The second experimental group received the supplement of vitamin E at a concentration of 100 mg.kg and selenium – 0.3 mg/kg. The control group received the mentioned combined feed without addition of the vitamin-mineral supplement. After termination of 30-day pre-spawning feeding with the combined feed supplemented with vitamin E and selenium, blood samples for biochemical tests were collected from fish of the control and both experimental groups. Findings. It was found that pre-spawning feeding of carp females and males with combined feeds supplemented with the above mentioned vitamin-mineral additive had a positive effect on the contents of T-, B-lymphocytes and their subpopulations in fish blood. Originality. The effect of the liposomal preparation with vitamin E and microelement Se fed to brood carp during the pre-spawning period on the contents of T-, B-lymphocytes and their subpopulations in fish peripheral blood was studied for the first time. Practical value. The results of the study can be used in fish breeding centers and full-system fish farms for balanced feeding of brood fish.

  19. Protein profile of seminal plasma and functionality of spermatozoa during the reproductive season in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaliutina-Kolešová, A.; Kotas, P.; Štěrba, Ján; Rodina, M.; Dzyuba, B.; Cosson, J.; Linhart, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 11 (2016), s. 968-982 ISSN 1040-452X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03044S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : reproductive season * spermatozoon motility * seminal plasma proteins * carp * rainbow trout * protein identification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.316, year: 2016

  20. EVALUATION OF THE TOXICITY OF SYNTHETIC PYRETHROIDS TO RED SWAMP CRAYFISH (PROCAMBARUS CLARKII, GIRARD 1852 AND COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO, L. 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOROLLI C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of three synthetic pyrethroids (Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin and Cyfluthrin to red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii and the mortality after long-term exposition of young common carp to Deltamethrin were determined in standardized laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of limiting the expansion of crayfish by the use of these compounds and the implications of their use on fish. Red swamp crayfish experienced high sensitivity to pyrethroids as expressed by the LC50-24h: 0.14 μg/l for Cypermethrin, 0.17 μg/l for Cyfluthrin and 0.22 μg/l for Deltamethrin. No mortality was observed in common carp during the long term (24 days exposure test at initial concentration of 22.0 μg/l of Deltamethrin. The concentrations of Deltamethrin in muscle of crayfish and common carp were under the limit of quantification of the gas-chromatographic method in all the tests. The results suggest that synthetic pyrethroids may be suitable to control or to eradicate nuisance populations of red swamp crayfish, in small and limited areas.

  1. Environmental Degradation in a Eutrophic Shallow Lake is not Simply Due to Abundance of Non-native Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Herrejón, Juan P; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Balart, Eduardo F; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo; Mar-Silva, Valentín; Caraveo-Patiño, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Non-native species are often major drivers of the deterioration of natural ecosystems. The common carp Cyprinus carpio are known to cause major changes in lentic systems, but may not be solely responsible for large scale changes in these ecosystems. We used data from extensive collection efforts to gain insight into the importance of carp as drivers of ecosystem change in Lake Patzcuaro, Mexico. We compared the structure (fish density, biomass, diversity, and evenness) of fish assemblages from six Lake Patzcuaro sites with different habitat characteristics. Intersite comparisons were carried out for both wet and dry seasons. We explored the relationships between non-carp species and carp; and studied multivariate interactions between fish abundance and habitat characteristics. From a biomass perspective, carp was dominant in only four of six sites. In terms of density, carp was not a dominant species in all sites. Further, carp density and biomass were not negatively related to native species density and biomass, even when carp density and biomass were positively correlated to water turbidity levels. Carp dominated fish assemblages in the shallowest sites with the highest water turbidity, plant detritus at the bottom, and floating macrophytes covering the lake surface. These results suggest that the effect of carp on fish assemblages may be highly dependent on habitat characteristics in Lake Patzcuaro. Watershed degradation, pollution, water level loss, and other sources of anthropogenic influence may be more important drivers of Lake Patzcuaro degradation than the abundance of carp.

  2. Comparaison de populations de carpe commune (Cyprinus carpio à taille commerciale : intérêt d'une approche globale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA V.

    1999-07-01

    Une discrimination géographique des populations est possible mais elle repose sur une approche globale intégrant l'ensemble des paramètres. Les différences semblent essentiellement liées aux conditions environnementales et permettent de distinguer les lots issus des régions où l'élevage est plus intensif et traditionnellement centré sur la carpe (Dombes, Forez, Lorraine et les lots correspondant à un élevage plus extensif et davantage orienté vers le marché du repeuplement (Allier, Brenne, Poitou-Charentes.

  3. Oral immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing OmpAI confers protection against Aeromonas veronii challenge in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xing; Kang, Yuan-Huan; Chen, Long; Siddiqui, Shahrood Ahmed; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong; Shan, Xiao-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a gram-negative pathogen capable of infecting both fish and mammals, including humans, and natural infection in fish results in irreparable damage to the aquaculture industry. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a number of properties that make them attractive candidates as delivery vehicles for presentation to the mucosa sites of compounds with pharmaceutical interest, in particular vaccines. In this study, we generated two recombinant Lactobacillus casei (surface-displayed or secretory) expressing the OmpAI of A.veronii and evaluated the effect on immune responses in fish model. A 1022 bp gene fragment of the 42 kDa OmpAI antigen of A.veronii was cloned into pPG-1 (surface-displayed) and pPG-2 (secretory) and electrotransformed into Lactobacillus casei CC16. The recombinant plasmid in L.casei could be stably inherited over 50 generations, and production of OmpAI protein had slight limited effects on cells growth. Treatment of common carp with the recombinant vaccine candidate stimulated high serum or skin mucus specific antibody titers and induced a higher lysozyme, ACP, SOD activity, while fish fed with Lc-pPG or PBS had no detectable immobilizing immune responses. Expression of IL-10, IL-β, IFN-γ, TNF-α genes in the group immunized with recombinant L.casei were significantly (P casei strains were directly delivered and survive throughout the intestinal tract, the recombinant OmpAI was also detected in intestine mucosal. The results showed that common carp received Lc-pPG1-OmpAI (66.7%) and Lc-pPG2-OmpAI (50.0%) had higher survival rates compared with the controls after challenge with A.veronii, indicating that Lc-pPG1-OmpAI and Lc-pPG2-OmpAI had beneficial effects on immune response and enhanced disease resistance of common carp against A.veronii infection. Our study here demonstrates, for the first time, the ability of recombinant L.casei as oral vaccine against A.veronii infection in carps. The combination of OmpAI delivery and LAB

  4. Experimental absorption and desorption study on a combination of 60Co, 51Cr, 137Cs, 54Mn and 22Na in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsh, A.F.; Baudin, J.P.

    1984-03-01

    The study of radionuclide behavior in water shows that about 25% of the 60 Co et 98% of the 54 Mn are found in particle form, while 96% of the 137 Cs and 87% of the 22 Na remain in solution. The soluble fraction generally remains cationic except for 60 Co, of which over one-fourth becames anionic. The uptake kinetics in the carp vary widely according to the radionuclide. The process is linear for 54 Mn, and tends to decrease in time for 137 Cs, while an equilibrium state tends to avise with 60 Co and 22 Na. The fresh weight concentration factors calculated after 65 days of experimentation were 150, 12, 3 and 120, respectively. Contaminated carp placed in non-radioactive water for 57 days lost between 45% and 65% of the 60 Co, 137 Cs and 54 Mn uptake. These elimination rates correspond to biological half-lives of 70-120 days for radioactive cobalt and cesium, and longer than 120 days for 54 Mn. The process was much more rapid with 22 Na, 95% of which was eliminated in 57 days: this corresponds to two biological half lives of 3 and 15 days. When the fish were deprived of food the process was appreciably slower, but in different proportions for each radionuclide; the effect was more significant for 137 Cs and 60 Co than for 54 Mn and 22 Na. The fecal excretion of radionuclides also diminished: smaller quantities of 60 Co and 54 Mn were eliminated under these conditions than when food was administered. Fecal excretion of 22 Na was practically nil in both cases [fr

  5. Molecular cloning, immunohistochemical localization, characterization and expression analysis of caspase-9 from the purse red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dian; Xu, Zhen’e [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyan [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Wang, Hongmei [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Wang, Yannan [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Min, Weiping, E-mail: weiping.min@gmail.com [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Jiangxi Academy of Medical Sciences, Nanchang 330006 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •The cDNA of caspase-9 in common carp was cloned. •The evolutionary conservation including caspase recruitment domain, large and small subunits was clarified. •The mRNA level of caspase-9 cannot be used as a major marker at an earlier point in the apoptotic cascade. •Caspase-9 cleavage form was detected. •Immunopositive staining was limited to the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells. -- Abstract: Caspase-9, the essential initiator caspase is believed to play a central role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signaling. In this study, we isolated the caspase-9 gene from common carp, one of the most important industrial aquatic animals in China using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid sequence of caspase-9, composed of 436 amino acids, showed approximately 47.6% identity and 64.7% similarity to human caspase-9. It also possessed a conserved caspase-associated recruitment domain (CARD), a large subunit and a small subunit. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that caspase-9 formed a clade with cyprinid fish caspase-9. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that caspase-9 transcripts were not significantly increased in kidney after exposure to cadmium (Cd). Whereas caspase-9 cleaved fragments were detected using Western blot analysis with the same Cd treatment condition. Furthermore, the result of immunohistochemical detection showed immunoreactivities were predominantly limited to the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and no remarkable changes of immunopositive staining were observed after Cd treatment. Accordingly, the results signify that caspase-9 may play an essential role in Cd induced apoptosis.

  6. Etude expérimentale des conditions d'isolement de l'agent de l'érythrodermatite de la carpe (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUFFERY G.

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available Des carpes ont été inoculées à l'aide d'une souche de la bactérie res-ponsable de l'E.C., afin de suivre l'évolution de la maladie et de procéder à l'isolement du germe à partir des lésions et du rein des animaux d'expérience. Les cadavres des poissons ont été conservés dans différentes conditions de températures (+ 4, + 10, + 20° C, pendant des temps variables (24, 48, 96 heures, afin de vérifier la persistance de la bactérie. Celle-ci ne peut être réisolée avec efficacité lors des mortalités que dans les 9 à 10 premiers jours de la maladie, essentiellement avant que les ulcères n'apparaissent. La bactérie n'a jamais été détectée dans le rein. La survie du germe dans les cadavres est presque nulle quelles que soient les conditions de conservation. Le dépistage systématique de l'E.C. ne peut utiliser des méthodes bacté-riologiques et il doit faire appel à la recherche d'anticorps spécifiques de la bactérie. Les cadavres des carpes mortes de TEC. ne constituent pas une source d'infection pour le peuplement piscicole d'un étang.

  7. IMPROVEMENT OF NON SPECIFIC IMMUNE SYSTEM ON COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio AGAINST KOI HERPESVIRUS DISEASE (KHVD BY ADDITION OF ASCORBIC ACID ON FISH DIET: A FIELD SCALE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taukhid Taukhid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research with the aim to know the optimal feeding frequency of supplemented ascorbic acid (microencapsulated vitamin C CFC-90 on the dose of 750 mg/kg feed to control Koi Herpesvirus (KHV disease infecting common carp has been done in field condition. Fish were reared in floating cages with the size of 3.5 m x 3.5 m x 2.0 m and stocking density of 1,250 fish/cage with the size range of ± 10 g/fish. The treatments applied in the research were: (A daily application, (B every 3 days application, and (C without vitamin C addition as the control. Fish test were challenged to KHV infection on the mid cultivation by cohabitation method in the laboratory scale for 2 weeks. Examination on behavior, clinical sign, and mortality of fish test conducted daily. The results showed that the highest survival rate was found on the application of vitamin C every 3 days (60.16%; and followed by every day (52.00%, and the lowest was found on the control group (47.36%.

  8. Reduction of the Oxidative Stress Status Using Steviol Glycosides in a Fish Model (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livier Mireya Sánchez-Aceves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Steviol glycosides are sweetening compounds from the Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant. This product is considered safe for human consumption and was approved as a food additive by the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA. Its effects on the ecosystem have not been studied in depth; therefore, it is necessary to carry out ecotoxicological studies in organisms such as Cyprinus carpio. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity by SGs on diverse tissues in C. carpio using oxidative stress (OS biomarkers. To test the antioxidant activity, carps were exposed to four systems: (1 SGs free control, (2 CCl4 0.5 mL/kg, (3 SGs 1 g/L, and (4 CCl4 0.5 mL/kg + SGs 1 g/L at 96 h. The following biomarkers were analyzed: lipoperoxidation (LPX, hydroperoxide content (HPC, and protein carbonyl content (PCC, as well as antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. It was found that both (3 and 4 systems’ exposure decreases LPX, CHP, PCC, SOD, and CAT with respect to the CCl4 system. The results of this study demonstrate that the concentrations of SGs used are not capable of generating oxidative stress and, on the contrary, would appear to induce an antioxidant effect.

  9. Vitellogenin induction in Cyprinus carpio treated with 17 {beta} Estradiol and 4-Nonylphenol; Induzione della vitellogenina in esemplari di Cyprinus carpio trattati sperimentalmetne con 17 {beta} Estradiolo e 4-Nonilfenolo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, S. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali; Fossi, M. C. [Messina Univ., Messina (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale ed Ecologia Marina; Mori, G. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali; Bjornstad, A. [Rogaland Research, Stavanger (Norway)

    2001-01-01

    A major problem of freshwater environments is the massive discharge of surfactants such as alkylphenols that have been shown to have estrogenic activity. One marker of the effects of estrogenic compounds is induction of vitellogenin (Vtg), a yolk protein precursor of lower viviparous vertebrates. The aim of the present study was to validate induction of Vtg in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a biomarker for monitoring freshwater ecosystems. Sexually undifferentiated specimens of common carp were treated experimentally with 17 {beta},-Estradiol and increasing doses of 4-Nonylphenol and levels plasma Vtg were measured in order to: 1) validate an E.L.I.S.A. assay for plasma Vtg in the common carp using the polyclonal rabbit anti-salmon Vtg antibody; 2) check the sensitivity of carp juveniles in producing Vtg in response to estrogen stimulation. [Italian] Uno dei maggiori problemi legati alla salute degli ecosistemi acquatici e' la presenza di composti di sintesi con attivita' estrogenica quali, ad esempio, gli alchilfenoli polietossilati. Tra i piu' interessanti strumenti di indagine capaci di individuare gli effetti di tali composti sulle comunita' naturali c'e' l'induzione, nei vertebrati ovipari, della vitellogenina (Vtg; proteina precursore delle proteine del tuorlo) un importante biomarker specifico di effetto per composti estrogenici. Lo scopo del presente studio e' stato quello di validare l'induzione della Vtg nella carpa comune (Cyprinus carpio) come biomarker per il monitoraggio degli ecosistemi acquatici interni. Esemplari sessualmente immaturi di carpa comune sono stati trattati sperimentalmente con 17 {beta}, -Estradiolo e dosi crescenti di 4-Nonilfenolo al fine di: 1) mettere a punto il test E.L.I.S.A. per la valutazione dei livelli plasmatici di Vtg nella carpa utilizzando l'anticopro policlonale Rabbit anti Salmon Vtg; 2) verificare le capacita' di risposta a stimoli estrogenici nella specie

  10. New Record of Aspidogaster ijimai Kawamura, 1913 (Trematoda: Aspidogastridae) from Cyprinus carpio in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Choe, Seongjun; Kang, Yeseul; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2017-10-01

    Aspidogastrid trematodes (Subclass Aspidogastrea) are a relatively small group with a characteristic adhesive disc and parasitize in a variety of cold-blooded hosts. Until now, only 2 species in the genus Cotylaspis, i.e., C. coreensis and C. sinensis, have been reported as the aspidogastrid trematode in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). In the present study, we intended to describe a species of aspidogastrids collected from the small intestine of the common carp, Cypri-nus carpio, in a faunistic point of view. Total 51 specimens were collected from a carp caught in Nakdong-gang (River) on May 2015. Some of them were prepared as the specimens for light microscopic observations, and some others were prepared for SEM. They were slightly elongated without head lobes, 2,432×840 μm in average size, and had characteristic adhesive discs with 4 rows and 46 alveoli in average. The ovary was reniform and was located in the posterior-upper part of the body. The single testis was larger than the ovary and was located below the ovary. The uterus was coiled containing numerous eggs and distributed in the posterior 2/3 of the body. The vitellaria were follicular, and distributed from the mid-level of testis to near the posterior end. The morphological characters with dimensions of our specimens were closely identical with those of Aspidogaster ijimai previously described. A new aspidogastrid is added among the Korean trematode fauna by the present study.

  11. Dietary supplementation of probiotics affects growth, immune response and disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akhil; Gupta, Paromita; Dhawan, Asha

    2014-12-01

    The effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans (MTCC 9872), Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 6824) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (MTCC 122) supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio fry. Laboratory maintained B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa were used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy fish fry were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. Fish were fed for 80 days with control basal diet (B0) and experimental diets containing B. coagulans (B1), B. licheniformis (B2) and P. polymyxa (B3) at 10(9) CFU/g diet. Fish fry (mean weight 0.329 ± 0.01 g) were fed these diets and growth performance, various non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 80 days post-feeding. The antagonism study showed inhibition zone against A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi. All the probiotic bacterial strains were harmless to fish fry as neither mortality nor morbidities were observed of the challenge. The growth-promoting influences of probiotic supplemented dietary treatments were observed with fish fry and the optimum survival, growth and feed utilization were obtained with P. polymyxa (B3) supplemented diet. Study of different non-specific innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay and myeloperoxidase content showed significant (p fry fed B3 diet at 10(9) CFU/g. The challenge test showed dietary supplementation of B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa significantly (p fry against bacterial challenge. These results collectively suggests that P. polymyxa is a potential probiotic species and can be used in aquaculture to improve growth, feed utilization, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of fry common carp, C. carpio. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Toxicity of uranium and plutonium to the developing embryos of fish. [Cyprinus carpio, Pimephales promelas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, J.E.; Kaye, S.V.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1976-07-01

    The radiological and chemical toxicity of plutonium and uranium to the developing embryos of fish was investigated using eggs from carp, Cyprinus carpio, and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas. Freshly fertilized eggs were developed in solutions containing high specific activity /sup 238/Pu or /sup 232/U or low specific activity /sup 244/Pu, /sup 235/U, or /sup 238/U. Quantitative tests to determine the penetration of these elements through the chorion indicated that plutonium accumulated in the contents of carp eggs reaching a maximum concentration factor of approximately 3.0 at hatching. Autoradiographs of 16 ..mu.. egg sections showed that plutonium was uniformly distributed in the egg volume. Uranium localized in the yolk material, and the concentration factor in the yolk sac remained constant during development at approximately 3.3. Doses from /sup 238/Pu which affected hatchability of the eggs were estimated to be 1.6 x 10/sup 4/ rads and 9.7 x 10/sup 3/ rads for C. carpio and P. promelas, respectively; doses from /sup 232/U were 1.3 x 10/sup 4/ rads for C. carpio and 2.7 x 10/sup 3/ rads for P. promelas. A greater number of abnormal larvae than in control groups was produced by /sup 238/Pu doses of 4.3 x 10/sup 3/ rads to carp and 5.7 x 10/sup 2/ rads to fathead minnows; 3.2 x 10/sup 3/ rads and 2.7 x 10/sup 2/ rads were estimated from /sup 232/U. Eggs that were incubated in 20 ppM /sup 244/Pu did not hatch. This mortality may have been the result of chemical toxicity of plutonium. Concentrations of 60 ppM of /sup 235/U and /sup 238/U did not affect egg hatching. Based on these data, concentrations in fish eggs were calculated for representative concentrations of uranium and plutonium in natural waters and the corresponding dose levels are below those levels at which observable effects begin to occur.

  13. Effect of atrazine ( Herbicide ) on blood parameters of common carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of atrazine (Herbicide) on blood parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes). M Ramesh, R Srinivasan, M Saravanan. Abstract. In the present study an attempt was made to investigate the acute toxicity of atrazine (ATR) a herbicide on an economically important fish, Cyprinus carpio.

  14. Histological Effects of Cadmium on Hepatopancreas and Gill in Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Ghiasi*

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histological studies in organs like hepatopancreas and gill of the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio, were made to assess tissue damage due to sub-lethal concentration of cadmium after a long exposure period. Methods: This study was conducted in University of Tehran, in 2013. The fish were divided into two groups in 1000 litre fiberglass tanks supplied with dechlorinated water [hardness 302.6 mg CaCo3/l, pH 7, O2 7.8 mg/L and temperature 15 ± 2 ºC] and continuous aeration. Group 1 was without any cadmium considered as control group. Group 2 was exposed to 30 ppb CdCl2 (Merck containing 7.8 ppb cadmium. The tissue samples from: hepatopancreas, gill were collected 30 days post exposure and processed by histological procedures. Results: The main lesions in cadmium exposed groups were: (a pancreatitis necrosis in endocrine part of pancreas (b cholangitis and necrosis in liver parenchyma (c hypertrophy, fusion and telangiectasia in secondary lamellae Conclusion: Cadmium chloride at low concentration can induce pathological alterations in hepatopancreas and gill of common carp.

  15. Assessment of the toxicity of waste water from a textile industry to Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopadevi, H; Somashekar, R K

    2012-03-01

    Static, short-term, acute toxicity tests were performed over a period of 96 hrs using different concentrations of influent and effluent of textile industry waste water with the objective of evaluating their acute toxicity on fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio (common carp). The LC50 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr of influent and effluent were 25.9, 21.10, 15.66, 11.11% (v/v) and 63.18, 54.89, 48.62, 36.04% (v/v), respectively. The acute toxic unit TUa values for 24, 48, 72, 96 hr for influent and effluent are 3.85, 4.73, 6.38, 8.99 and 1.58, 1.82, 2.05, 2.77, respectively. Correspondingly, the TF was found to be 1, 1.22, 1.65 and 2.33 for influent, and for effluent 1, 1.15, 1.29 and 1.75. Total efficiency of the treatment was 69.16% and the safe concentration of effluent is set to be 3.60%. These data are highly useful in establishing limits of acceptability by the aquatic animals. The need to introduce toxicity evaluation assay for confirming the quality of effluent from the point view of effective environmental safe limits and to ensure integrity of aquatic environment, is stressed.

  16. Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, 60100, Ancona (Italy); Monserrat, Jose M., E-mail: josemmonserrat@pesquisador.cnpq.b [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    Differences in the toxicological and metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenic compounds are largely unknown for aquatic species. In the present study the effects of short-time and acute exposure to As{sup III} and As{sup V} were investigated in gills and liver of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), measuring accumulation and chemical speciation of arsenic, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase omega (GST OMEGA), the rate limiting enzyme in biotransformation of inorganic arsenic. Oxidative biomarkers included antioxidant defenses (total glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and lipid peroxidation products. A marked accumulation of arsenic was observed only in gills of carps exposed to 1000 ppb As{sup V}. Also in gills, antioxidant responses were mostly modulated through a significant induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity which probably contributed to reduce ROS formation; however this increase was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation. No changes in metal content were measured in liver of exposed carps, characterized by lower activity of GST OMEGA compared to gills. On the other hand, glutathione metabolism was more sensitive in liver tissue, where a significant inhibition of glutathione reductase was concomitant with increased levels of glutathione and higher total antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals, thus preventing lipid peroxidation and ROS production. The overall results of this study indicated that exposure of C. carpio to As{sup III} and As{sup V} can induce different responses in gills and liver of this aquatic organism. - Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) presented marked differences between gills and liver after arsenic exposure in terms of antioxidant responses and also in biotransformation.

  17. Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Monserrat, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in the toxicological and metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenic compounds are largely unknown for aquatic species. In the present study the effects of short-time and acute exposure to As III and As V were investigated in gills and liver of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), measuring accumulation and chemical speciation of arsenic, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase omega (GST Ω), the rate limiting enzyme in biotransformation of inorganic arsenic. Oxidative biomarkers included antioxidant defenses (total glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and lipid peroxidation products. A marked accumulation of arsenic was observed only in gills of carps exposed to 1000 ppb As V . Also in gills, antioxidant responses were mostly modulated through a significant induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity which probably contributed to reduce ROS formation; however this increase was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation. No changes in metal content were measured in liver of exposed carps, characterized by lower activity of GST Ω compared to gills. On the other hand, glutathione metabolism was more sensitive in liver tissue, where a significant inhibition of glutathione reductase was concomitant with increased levels of glutathione and higher total antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals, thus preventing lipid peroxidation and ROS production. The overall results of this study indicated that exposure of C. carpio to As III and As V can induce different responses in gills and liver of this aquatic organism. - Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) presented marked differences between gills and liver after arsenic exposure in terms of antioxidant responses and also in biotransformation.

  18. Effects of Ala-Gln feeding strategies on growth, metabolism, and crowding stress resistance of juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Mei; Guo, Gui-Liang; Sun, Li; Yang, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Gui-Qin; Qin, Gui-Xin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different L-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln) feeding strategies on the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance related parameters in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) under crowded condition (80 g/L). Juvenile Jian carp (initial weight 26.1 ± 0.6 g) were distributed into five groups which fed with graded concentrations (0% or 1.0%) of Ala-Gln for eight weeks. Control group (I, 0/0) fed with control diet (0% Ala-Gln) throughout the feeding trial. The other four groups employed different control and experimental diet feeding strategies ranging from two weeks control diet fed and two weeks experimental diet (1% Ala-Gln) fed (II, 0/2) to eight weeks experimental diet fed (V, 4/4). Results revealed that Mean weight gain (MEG) under all different feeding strategies of Ala-Gln were significantly higher than that of the control group (p feeding strategy was alternatively fed with control diet and then experimental diet at an interval of two weeks for juvenile Jian carp under crowded condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Respon Imun Spesifik Larva Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio melalui Imunitas Maternal yang Diberi Vaksin Inaktif Whole Cell Aeromonas salmonicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syohibahttul Islamiyah BAHAR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas salmonicida are specific bacteria that can cause infections and death to the cultivation of carp (Cyprinus carpio during larval stage. Death in carp can be prevented by a vaccine, but the vaccine can only be given on the seed over the age of 3 weeks. Maternal vaccination needs to be done to improve the immune system of the larvae by means of inactivated whole cell vaccine A. salmonicida on broodstock ready to spawn. Aims to determine the effectiveness of vaccines on breeders carp to the parent antibody titer test and larvae, as well Survival Rate (SR and the Relative Percent Survival (RPS larvae. This research was conducted with a completely randomized design, 4 treatments A (control; B (0.3 ml/kg; C (0.4 ml/kg; D (0.5 ml/kg and 3 repetitions. The results show that the antibody titer of 0.3 ml dose capable of providing agglutination reaction to pitting 7th (64x dilution in broodstock, and vaccine doses 0,4ml on broodstock able to give agglutination reaction to the larvae until all 6 wells (32x dilution. A dose of 0.4 ml/kg resulted the highest SR and RPS with 96.11% and 81.25% respectively. Clinical symptoms of redness in control larvae was spread throughout the body whereas on the vaccine treatment was only in certain body parts. Keywords: A. salmonicida, vaccines, maternal immunity, larva, specific immune respon

  20. Toxicity of copper sulphate on some haematological parameters of a freshwater teleost Cyprinus carpio var. communis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, M.

    2001-01-01

    Haematological changes in a freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio var. communis, exposed to acute and sublethal toxicity of copper sulphate were studied. During the acute treatment, erythrocyte and leucocyte count, and haemoglobin content increased, whereas during the sublethal treatment, erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content decreased and leucocyte count increased.

  1. Impact of Diets Containing Plant Raw Materials as Fish Meal and Fish Oil Replacement on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata, and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Freshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorakis Kriton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate whether the total or high substitution of fish meal (FM and fish oil (FO by sustainable plant raw materials (plant meal and oils in long-term feeding for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp can result in spoilage alterations during ice storage. These three species were fed throughout their whole rearing cycle with plant-based diets and compared to counterparts that received FM/FO-based diets or commercial-like diets. Sensory QIM schemes adopted for these species and ATP breakdown products (K-value and components were used to evaluate the freshness. Sensory acceptability of 14, 15, and 12 days was found for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. This corresponded to K-values of approximately 80%, 35%, and 65% for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. No major effect of dietary history on postmortem shelf life was shown for gilthead sea bream and common carp; neither sensory-perceived nor chemical freshness showed diet-related differences. Rainbow trout fed with the plant-based diet exhibited slightly worse sensory freshness than fish fed with FM/FO-based diets, at the end of shelf life. These findings imply that FM and FO can be successfully substituted without major impacts on shelf life of fish.

  2. APLIKASI KUANTIFIKASI KOI HERPESVIRUS : REAL TIME – QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (RT-Q PCR MENGGUNAKAN SYBR GREEN PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

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    Isti Koesharyani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Koi Herpes Virus (KHV di Indonesia sejak tahun 2002 merupakan penyakit mematikan yang menyerang ikan koi Cyprinus carpio koi dan ikan mas Cyprinus carpio carpio, dan sampai saat ini, infeksi KHV dilaporkan sudah menyebar hampir di seluruh dunia. Untuk mengetahui adanya infeksi KHV perlu cara diagnosa yang sangat akurat/sensitif, sehingga keberadaan KHV dapat diketahui secara pasti dengan tingkat sensitivitas yang lebih baik pada ikan budidaya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengaplikasikan teknik deteksi dengan real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT- qPCR/qPCR guna mengetahui adanya infeksi KHV secara kuantitatif pada ikan mas dengan mengetahui kandungan virus (viral load. Sebanyak masing-masing 3 ekor sampel diperoleh dari sentra budidaya ikan mas di Cirata-Jawa Barat, Maninjau-Sumatera Barat, dan Banjarmasin-Kalimantan Selatan. Sampel-sampel tersebut selanjutnya dianalisa keberadaan KHV-nya dengan RT-qPCR menggunakan SYBR Green. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah tertinggi (viral load diperoleh dari ikan mas asal Cirata-3 dengan nilai Threshold Cycle (Ct. 18,24 atau setara dengan 3,4 x 107 kopi, dan terendah dari ikan mas asal Banjarmasin-3 dengan nilai Ct. 33,39 atau 1,8 x 102 kopi. Dua standar yang digunakan dalam pengujian ini berupa plasmid dengan jumlah kopi 2 x 104 (Ct 27,24 dan 2 x 103 (Ct 30,24 dan kontrol atau Non Template Control (NTC adalah 3,1 x 10 atau dengan nilai Ct 35,65. Uji aplikasi deteksi KHV dengan metode RT-qPCR ini memberikan hasil yang lebih sensitif, di mana sampel yang tidak terdeteksi dengan metode PCR konvensional dapat dideteksi dan dihitung jumlah kopi DNA (DNA copy. Since 2002, Koi herpesvirus (KHV in Indonesian has been a malignant diseases, now recognized as a worldwide cause of mortality among populations of koi Cyprinus carpio koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio. To determine the presence of infection is required the KHV diagnosis method with highly accurate and sensitive

  3. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and Microelements in Silver Bream (Brama brama L.), Northern Pike (Esox lucius L.), Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) From Tisza River, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in liver, gills, gonads, and brain of four ecologically different fish species in Serbia: piscivorous northern pike, benthivorous sterlet and silver bream, and omnivorous common carp. Fish were caught at four sites along the stretch of the River Tisza in the Pannonian part of Serbia during October 2010. Results revealed that heavy metals and microelements with the highest values in fish samples were Fe, Al, and Zn. The highest concentration of heavy metals and microelements was recorded in omnivorous common carp, and organs that most intensively accumulated the greatest number of metals were liver and gills, whereas the locality did not exert a marked impact on level of bioaccumulation.

  4. Experimental studies on the effect of cadmium chloride, zinc acetate, their mixture and the mitigation with vitamin C supplementation on hatchability, size and quality of newly hatched larvae of common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab A. El-Greisy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present results show that the fertilization and hatching rates, as well as the development of the embryos of common carp are adversely affected by heavy metal pollution. The degree of this effect depends on the duration and the concentration of the heavy metal used. Malformation of the yolk sac and curvature in the abdominal region were also observed throughout this study. No statistical difference was recorded between the polluted group which was supplemented with vitamin C (300 mg/kg of dry feed, and the control group (P < 0.05. The newly hatched larvae showed severe body malformation, and they were not able to swim or feed. Other organs such as the kidneys and livers were also affected. The most important changes in the kidneys of common carp were glomerular expansion and the reduction of Bowman’s space. No abnormalities or alterations were observed in the livers of the control fish. However, the main alterations were observed in the liver of treated fish with cadmium chloride that were either single or mixed with zinc acetate. The most important changes in the livers of common carp were hypertrophy nucleus and vacuolation in cytoplasm. Addition of vitamin C with dry feed showed an improvement in the tissues of livers and kidneys of polluted fish.

  5. Bio-monitoring of Tissue Accumulation and Genotoxic Effect of Heavy Metals in Cyprinus carpio from River Kabul Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siraj, Muhammad; Khisroon, Muhammad; Khan, Ajmal; Zaidi, Farrah; Ullah, Ahmad; Rahman, Ghani

    2018-03-01

    The study explored (I) the concentration of heavy metals in water samples (II) their bioaccumulation in common carp Cyprinus carpio (III) and the subsequent genotoxicity in the selected organs of carp; from river Kabul, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Except for Mercury (Hg) the water samples had all the heavy metals within permissible limits of recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Nonetheless a number of heavy metals (Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb and Hg) showed bioaccumulation at levels higher than permissible. Zinc (Zn) was the most while Cadmium (Cd) was the least accumulated metal in all tissue samples analyzed. The metal burden in different organs of C. carpio was in sequence of intestine > skin > liver > gills > muscle. The Comet assay established DNA damage in selected organs to be in accordance with metal burden; the most to least damage being in sequence of blood > intestine > skin > liver > gills > muscle. In conclusion assessment of DNA damage in the organs of C. carpio appears to be a useful bio-marker to evaluate genotoxic effects of heavy metal pollution.

  6. Efeito da densidade de povoamento na produtividade final em carpas (Cyprinus carpio var specularis em fase de engorda, durante o verão Effect of population density on the productivity of carp (Cyprinus carpio var specularis, in the fattening stage, during the summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Graeff

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar o efeito da densidade de povoamento na produtividade final, em carpas na fase de engorda, no período de verão. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (1; 0,5; e 0,33 peixes/m² e três repetições. Os peixes foram estocados com peso e comprimento médios de 2,40 g e 5,35; 5,40 e 5,39 cm, respectivamente, nos tratamentos 1, 2 e 3, com 45 dias de idade. As dietas foram formuladas com 27% PB e 2925 kcal/kg de ração, sendo fornecidas diariamente, na quantidade de 3% do peso vivo. O comportamento dos tratamentos foi estudado por intermédio da análise de regressão. Os resultados para o comprimento e peso dos peixes foram 25,68; 28,66; e 31,21 cm e 255,00; 424,00; e 519,66 g, respectivamente. Os tratamentos 1 e 3 apresentaram modelo de regressão linear diferente do tratamento 2, que apresentou modelo quadrático. Na biomassa total, os resultados foram 1881; 1512; e 1302 kg/ha/período e os modelos de regressão significativos para os tratamentos 1e 3 foram lineares e para o tratamento 2 quadrático. A conversão alimentar apresentou modelo de regressão linear para todos tratamentos. Em condições similares, podem-se recomendar todas densidades sugeridas, com base na produção final e sobrevivência.This study aimed to evaluate impact of stocking density on final productivity in the production of mirror common carp in fattening stage, during the summer. A completely randomized design with three treatments (1, .5, .33 fishes/m² and three replicates was used. The fish were stocked with an average weight of 2.40 g and average length of 5.35, 5.40 and 5.39 cm, respectively, in the treatments 1, 2 and 3, with 45 days of age. The diets were formulated with 27% CP and 2925 kcal/kg of diet and supplied daily at a rate of 3% of body weight. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of each treatment. For the fish lengths, the results were 25.68, 28.66 and 31.21 cm

  7. Acute toxication of deltamethrin results in activation of iNOS, 8-OHdG and up-regulation of caspase 3, iNOS gene expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Harun; Altun, Serdar; Özdemir, Selçuk

    2017-06-01

    Deltamethrin is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid pesticide that protects agricultural yields, including crops, fruits, and vegetables from insect-pests. It is known that deltamethrin toxication leads to metabolic disorders and has detrimental effects on the brain and liver in different organisms. However, the harmful effects of deltamethrin toxication on aquatic animals remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the adverse effects of deltamethrin toxication by performing a histopathological examination, an immunofluorescence assay, and a qRT-PCR on common carp. We observed that a low-dose (0.04μM) and a high-dose (0.08μM) of deltamethrin exposure caused lamellar cells hyperplasia and inflammatory cells infiltration in the gills, hyperemia, diffuse hydropic degenerations and focal necrosis in the hepatocytes, necrotic changes in the neurons, and also induced activation of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the gills, liver, and brain depending on the exposure time (24h, 48h, 72h and 96h). In addition, deltamethrin toxication caused the up-regulation of caspase-3 and the inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) of the gene expression depending on the dose (0.04μM and 0.08μM) and the exposure time in the brain (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001). Our results indicated that long-term deltamethrin exposure could lead to inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis on the different organs in common carp. Thus, deltamethrin toxication is dangerous for common carp populations, and the usage of deltamethrin should be controlled and restricted in agricultural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. EFFECT OF A LIPOSOMAL PREPARATION OF VITAMINS A, E AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS OF TRACE ELEMENTS OF Zn, Se, I ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE OF BROOD CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO DURING PRESPAWNING PERIOD

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    Yu. Zabytivskyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Evaluation of the physiological and biochemical status of the organism of brood carps, which during spawning period were fed with a liposomal preparation with a vitamins A, E and organic compounds of microelements of Zn, Se, І. Methodology. During a 30-day prespawning period, the experimental group of brood carp received a complex liposomal preparation, which included: vitamin A – 5000 IU/kg, vitamin E – 10 mg/kg, Zn – 15 mg/kg (zinc glutamate, Se – 0.3 mg/kg (commercial preparation «Sel-Plex», І – 5 mg/kg (experimental preparation «Lipoiodine» and sunflower phospholipid – 100 mg/kg. The liposomal emulsion prepared in an ultrasonic disperser at a frequency 35 Hz. Determinations of activity of ALT, AST, ALP, Chol, Ck, and to content of cholesterol, urea, creatinine, uric acid, total protein, albumin and glucose in serum were carried out in the biochemical analyzer Cobas Mira with the use of test-systems. Findings. We found a positive effect of the supplement on the integrity of cellular membranes of hepatopancreas and kidney that was evident as a reduction in serum ALT activity. A possible increase in ALP activity by 1.9 time indicates on an increase in phosphoric acid metabolism intensity that was related to the processes of phosphorus accumulation in fish eggs. The liposomal supplement has an effect on the reduction of uric acid content in blood by 16 times compared to the control group that indicated on the intensification of protein metabolism. An accumulation of the necessary quantity of amino acids is one of the drivers of the preparation of egg for embryogenesis. Originality. First demonstration of the effect of the liposomal preparation with vitamins A, E and organic forms of microelements of Zn, Se, І, which was fed to brood carp during prespawning period on the physiological and biochemical characteristics of serum. Practical value. The results of the work can be used for the development of prespawning brood

  9. Microcystin-LR induced reactive oxygen species mediate cytoskeletal disruption and apoptosis of hepatocytes in Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlin Jiang

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are a group of cyclic hepatotoxic peptides produced by cyanobacteria. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR contains Leucine (L and Arginine (R in the variable positions, and is one of the most common and potently toxic peptides. MC-LR can inhibit protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A activities and induce excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The underlying mechanism of the inhibition of PP1 and PP2A has been extensively studied. The over-production of ROS is considered to be another main mechanism behind MC-LR toxicity; however, the detailed toxicological mechanism involved in over-production of ROS in carp (Cyprinus carpio L. remains largely unclear. In our present study, the hydroxyl radical (•OH was significantly induced in the liver of carp after a relatively short-term exposure to MC-LR. The elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS production may play an important role in the disruption of microtubule structure. Pre-injection of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC provided significant protection to the cytoskeleton, however buthionine sulfoximine (BSO exacerbated cytoskeletal destruction. In addition, the elevated ROS formation induced the expression of apoptosis-related genes, including p38, JNKa, and bcl-2. A significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed at 12-48 hours. Our study further supports evidence that ROS are involved in MC-LR induced damage to liver cells in carp, and indicates the need for further study of the molecular mechanisms behind MC-LR toxicity.

  10. Paenibacillus polymyxa as a water additive improved immune response of Cyprinus carpio and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Gupta, Dr., Associate Professor/Senior Scientist (Fisheries

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of Paenibacillus polymyxa as water additive probiotic bacterium in common carp, Cyprinus carpio based on water quality, survival, innate immune responses and disease resistance. The completely randomized experiment design was conducted for eight weeks and treatments consisted of three levels of P. polymyxa added in water at concentration of 103 cfu mL−1 (PP1, 104 cfu mL−1 (PP2 and 105 cfu mL−1 (PP3 and one control (Con, without any probiotic. No significant differences (p > 0.05 in water quality parameters, such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonical nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen were observed throughout the experimental period among treatments. The influences of P. polymyxa at different concentrations significantly improved survival (p < 0.05. Study of different innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay, myeloperoxidase content, catalase and superoxidase dismutase activities showed significant (p < 0.05 improved immune responses in fish exposed to P. polymyxa as water additive at 103 (PP1 and 104 (PP2 cfu mL−1. The supplementation of probiotic in challenge test significantly (p < 0.05 enhanced the resistance of fish against A. hydrophila infection. In view of recent reports of antibiotic failure from many countries to stop spread of fish diseases, renewed interest in a more complete understanding of the fish immune response to infectious diseases will be critical in developing new eco-friendly control strategies for future. Therefore, the application of probiotic P. polymyxa as water additive could be applied in aquaculture to improve immune responses and disease resistance of C. carpio.

  11. Pengaruh Ekstrak Daun Sirsak (Annona Muricata) terhadap Profil Darah dan Kelulushidupan Ikan Mas (Cyprinus Carpio) yang Diinfeksi Bakteri Aeromonas Hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Nurjannah, R. Dewi Dharina; Prayitno, Slamet Budi; Sarjito, Sarjito; Lusiastuti, Angela Mariana

    2013-01-01

    Carp is a freshwater species that is easily cultivated. One of the constraints in cultivating carps (C. carpio) is diseases that ultimately caused mass mortality. The disease that generally affects carp is Motile Aeromonas Septicemia (MAS) caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. Soursop leaves is one of the herbs that can be used as an ingredient to control fish diseases because it contains chemicals that acts bacteriocide. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence and the best dose...

  12. Effects of copra (Cocos nucifera) meal on the growth performance of Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusup, Cep Hikmat Maulana; Nugroho, Rudy A.

    2017-02-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the optimum concentration of copra meal as a fish meal replacement on the growth performance of Cyprinus carpio. Various concentrations of copra (Cocos nucifera) meal, viz 3, 6, 9, and 12 % were used to determine the final weight, body weight gain (BWG), average weekly gain (AWG), daily weight gain (DWG), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the C. carpio (Initial body weight 25-25.2 g/fish) and compare with control group (Basal diet) without copra meal replacement and commercial diet (CD). Six groups of C. carpio with three replicates were used and fed with different concentration of copra meal at satiation level five times per day for 12 weeks. At the end of feeding trial, the C. carpio fed 9% copra meal in the diet had higher final weight, BWG, AWG, DWG, SGR than any other groups, except commercial diet (CD). Meanwhile, the highest PER was found on the fish fed CD, followed by fish fed 3 % of copra meal in the diet. However, FCR was not affected by any types of diets. These finding suggested that the 9% replacement of wheat in the diet with copra meal is beneficial to improve growth performance.

  13. Innate immune receptors in carp: recognition of protozoan parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, C.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis reports on pattern recognition receptors involved in the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to two protozoan parasites Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. The immune responses of carp are fundamentally different when comparing these two extracellular blood

  14. Efektifitas Nannochloropsis sp. terhadap sistem imun non-spesifik ikan mas Cyprinus carpio yang diinfeksi Virus Herpes

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    Arafik Lamadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effect of Nannochlorpsisis sp. against the common carp (Cyprinus carpio leukocyte profile, infected with Koi Hepesvirus (KHV. The  descriptive observational method wa used in this study. This research was conducted for 4 weeks, using common carp length 12±0,3 cm as many as 7 fish. The tested experiment was P1: without infested by Nannochlorpsisis sp. and KH; P2: Infested by  Nannochlorpsisis sp. and without KHV infected; P3: Infected by Nannochloropsis sp. and KHV; P4;  Not infected by Nannochlorpsisis sp. and  infected by KHV. Evey tratment in three replications. The results showed that the highest total leukocyte was obtained in P3 (37.600 cells/ml, followed by  P4 (29.650 cells / ml, P2 (28,500 cells / ml and P1 (21,150 cells / ml. Leukocyte differentiation test on P1 (neutrophil 6.2%, lymphocyte 68.0%, monocyte 17.0%, P2 (neutrophil 6.6%, lymphocyte 72.3%, monocyte 18.3%, P3 (neutrophil 7.9%, lymphocyte 66.1%, monocytes 24.3%, P4 (neutrophils 11.2%, lymphocytes 57.6%, monocytes 37.6%. The higher survivla rate was recorded in P2 (100%. It is concluded that  Nannochloropsis sp. can enhance the common carp immune sytem. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian Nannochlorpsis sp. terhadap profil leukosit ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio yang terinfeksi Koi Herves Virus (KHV. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif observasional dengan membandingkan hasil pada perlakuan 1 P1: (tanpa pemberian Nannochlorpsis sp. dan tidak diinfeksi KHV, 2 P2 (diberikan Nannochlorpsis sp dan tanpa diinfeksi KHV, 3 P3 (diberikan Nannochlorpsisis sp dan diinfeksi KHV, 4 P4 (tanpa pemberian Nannochlorpsis sp. dan diinfeksi KHV, masing-masing perlakukan 3 kali ulangan. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama 4 minggu dengan menggunakan Ikan mas berukuran 12±0,3  cm sebanyak 120 ekor. Hasil perhitungan total leukosit tertinggi diperoleh pada P3 (37.600 sel/ml, selanjutnya berturut-turut  P4 (29.650  sel

  15. Histopathological effects following short-term coexposure of Cyprinus carpio to nanoparticles of TiO2 and CuO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Borhan; Maleki, Afshin; Davari, Behroz; Johari, Seyed Ali; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Shahsavari, Siros

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the coexposure of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and copper oxide (CuO) on the alterations of the gill, intestine, kidney, and liver tissues of carps (Cyprinus carpio). In this study, carps (length 23 ± 1.5 cm; weight 13 ± 1.3 g) were divided into six groups of 15 each and exposed to 2.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) of CuO nanoparticles (NPs), 10.0 mg L(-1) of TiO2 NPs, and 2.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) of CuO NPs + 10.0 mg L(-1) of TiO2 NP mixture. Fish were sampled for histopathological studies after hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results indicated that the more kinds of histopathology anomalies observed with CuO NP and TiO2 NP mixture were broadly of the same type as CuO NPs and TiO2 NPs alone, but the severity or incidence of injuries of gill, intestine, liver, and kidney of carps in the mixture of CuO NPs + TiO2 NPs was higher than that of each NP alone. Moreover, behavioral changes in carps exposed to CuO NP and TiO2 NP mixture such as hyperactivity, loss of balance, and convulsions were higher than those to CuO NPs and TiO2 NPs alone. In conclusion, the presence of TiO2 NPs enhanced the effects of NPs of copper oxide in terms of histopathological changes in carps.

  16. The Possibility of Using Irradiated Khishni (Liza abu) Fish Meal Instead of the Imported Protein Sources in The Diet of Common Carp (Cprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL shammaa, A.A; Abu Tabigh, S.M; Al Fadily, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were done,the first for ten week,in which fish meal (FM) were used instead of animal protein (AP). A total of (12) group of young common carps Cyprinus carpio L.(25.98±0.27 gm.) were fed on four experimental diets. The first three diets were with 4%, 8% and 12% of (FM) (total replacement),specific growth rate, final fish weight and protein efficiency ratio. Whereas, in the second experiment, a total of (15) groups of C.carpio (36,44±0.23 gm)were fed on five experimental diets in which (FM) were used by 12% and 15% instead of (AP) as well as by 10% and 15% instead of Soyabean meal . The fifth diets was with 0% (F M). Statistical analysis (CRD and Dun cans test ) showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between the experimental diet according to food conversion ratio. According to these results dried irradiated Khishni can be used as a (FM). and to be a good replacer for all (AP) and 50% of Soyabean (c.p. 44%) in the diet of common carp.) (author)

  17. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis diet supplements on disease resistance and immune-related gene expression in Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to herbicide atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Reda, Rasha M; Awad, Ashraf

    2017-08-01

    The present study evaluated the immunotoxicological effects of the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) at sub-lethal concentrations and the potential ameliorative influence of Spirulina platensis (SP) over a sub-chronic exposure period on Cyprinus carpio L., also known as common carp. Common carp was sampled after a 40-days exposure to ATZ (428 μg/L) and SP (1%), individually or in combination to assess the non-specific immune response, changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes [lysozyme (LYZ), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and complement component 3 (C3)] in the spleen, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukins IL-1ß and IL-10) in the head kidney using real-time PCR. Additionally, disease resistance to Aeromonas sobria was evaluated. The results revealed that ATZ exposure caused a significant decline in most of the hematological variables, lymphocyte viability, and lysozyme and bactericidal activity. Moreover, ATZ increased the susceptibility to disease, reflected by a significantly lower post-challenge survival rate of the carp. ATZ may induce dysregulated expression of immune-related genes leading to downregulation of mRNA levels of IgM and LYZ in the spleen. However, expression of C3 remained unaffected. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, IL-1B was up-regulated in the head kidney. In contrast, the expression of IL-10 gene was down-regulated in the ATZ-exposed group. The SP supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in most indices; however, these values did not match with that of the controls. These results may conclude that ATZ affects both innate and adaptive immune responses through the negative transcriptional effect on genes involved in immunity and also due to the inflammation of the immune organs. In addition, dietary supplements with SP could be useful for modulation of the immunity in response to ATZ exposure, thereby presenting a promising feed additive for carps in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Uptake of 137Cs in cultured fresh water fish (Cyprinus carpio): physiological and histological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosniakos, F.; Kesidou, A.; Kalfa, A.; Moumtzis, A.; Karakoltsidis, P.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in fresh-water fish (Cyprinus carpio) cultured, in small water tanks, artificially contaminated with radioactive 137 Cs (3000 Bq/1) to determine the uptake of 137 Cs and its physiological and histological effects in different fish organs. It was found that 137 Cs was located in muscular tissues, gills, head muscles, liver and kidneys. Moderate amounts were found in spleen, eyes, gonads, intestine and urinary bladder. It seems that sorption was of much less importance than ingestion in the uptake of 137 Cs. The histological examination in musculature tissue, revealed an acute hyperemia with focal haemorrages which may be due to allergic effects of 137 Cs. Hyperemia and focal fatty degeneration of hepatic cells was also noted in the liver which may be due to toxic effects of 137 Cs. Diffused hyperemia has also occurred in the brain and focal degeneration of epithelial cells of renal tubules. (Author)

  19. Carp macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes secrete an interleukin-1-like factor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Weyts, F.A.A.; Debets, R.; Flik, G.

    1995-01-01

    Carp, Cyprinus carpio L, macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes obtained from pronephros were cultured. Supernatant was harvested after 48 h and tested for interleukin-1 (IL-1) bioactivity. A concentration-dependent stimulation of proliferation was found of carp Ig− lymphocytes as well as of the

  20. Differential enrichment of TTF-I and Tip5 in the T-like promoter structures of the rDNA contribute to the epigenetic response of Cyprinus carpio during environmental adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardocci, Gino; Simonet, Nicolas G; Navarro, Cristina; Längst, Gernot; Alvarez, Marco

    2016-08-01

    To ensure homeostasis, ectothermic organisms adapt to environmental variations through molecular mechanisms. We previously reported that during the seasonal acclimatization of the common carp Cyprinus carpio, molecular and cellular functions are reprogrammed, resulting in distinctive traits. Importantly, the carp undergoes a drastic rearrangement of nucleolar components during adaptation. This ultrastructural feature reflects a fine modulation of rRNA gene transcription. Specifically, we identified the involvement of the transcription termination factor I (TTF-I) and Tip-5 (member of nucleolar remodeling complex, NoRC) in the control of rRNA transcription. Our results suggest that differential Tip5 enrichment is essential for silencing carp ribosomal genes and that the T0 element is key for regulating the ribosomal gene during the acclimatization process. Interestingly, the expression and content of Tip5 were significantly higher in winter than in summer. Since carp ribosomal gene expression is lower in the winter than in summer, and considering that expression concomitantly occurs with nucleolar ultrastructural changes of the acclimatization process, these results indicate that Tip5 importantly contributes to silencing the ribosomal genes. In conclusion, the current study provides novel evidence on the contributions of TTF-I and NoRC in the environmental reprogramming of ribosomal genes during the seasonal adaptation process in carp.

  1. Effect of Spirulina platensis Supplementation by Different Concentration in Diet on Red Color Intensity of Kohaku Koi (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kohaku koi (Cyprinus carpio is one of the fancy koi that has a high price.  Red color intensity of kohaku determines its market price.  This study was performed to verify the effect of Spirulina platensis supplementation in diet  with different dosages (1, 3 and 5% on red color intensity of kohaku koi.  The result of study show that inclusion of Spirulina platensis in the diet increased intensity of koi color.  Feeding with  1% of Spirulina platensis enriched paste diet for 5 weeks resulted in  a brighter red color compared to other treatments and control.   Alteration of red color intensity has not been followed by its patch length.  No effect of Spirulina supplementation on koi growth by weight and length were observed. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, color, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio   ABSTRAK Ikan koi kohaku (Cyprinus carpio L merupakan salah satu jenis ikan koi yang memiliki harga tinggi.  Kecerahan warna merah ikan koi kohaku menentukan harga jualnya.  Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan Spirulina platensis in the diet dengan dosis berbeda (1, 3 dan 5% terhadap kualitas warna merah koi kohaku.  Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penambahan Spirulina platensis melalui pakan dapat meningkatkan kualitas warna pada ikan koi. Pemberian pakan berupa pasta yang diperkaya dengan Spirulina platensis sebanyak 1% selama 5 minggu menghasilkan warna merah lebih cerah dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya dan kontrol. Perubahan warna yang terjadi tidak diikuti oleh perubahan panjang bercak warnanya. Penambahan Spirulina pada pakan tidak berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan berat dan panjang ikan koi. Kata kunci: Spirulina platensis, warna, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio

  2. Effect of Heavy Metals on Liver, Kidney, Gills and Muscles of Cyprinus carpio and Wallago attu inhabited in the Indus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Mahboob

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of heavy metals on an important tissue of two fish species Cyprinus carpio and Wallago attu, sampled from the Indus river, Mianwali District, Pakistan. The concentration of selected heavy metals Fe, Cr, Cu, and in gills, muscles, kidney and liver was compared with an International standard of food fish. The overall metal concentrations among different weight categories in C. carpio were in the order of Fe > Cu > Cr >. In W. attu the overall accumulation of these metals were, in order of Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb The order of accumulation of metals in gills and muscle of C. carpio was Fe > Cr > Pb > Cu; kidney and muscles of W. attu was Fe > Cr > Cu > Pb; liver Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb. An increasing trend of concentration of iron, copper, chromium and lead occurred with an increase in weight of C. carpio and W. attu. There was a significant difference in the accumulation of heavy metals in different organs of both species (p<0.01. All studied heavy metals except Cr were within permissible limits described by various international agencies like WHO, FAO and FEPA in edible tissues of C. carpio and W. attu.

  3. Células sangüíneas, eletrólitos séricos, relação hepato e esplenossomática de carpa-comum, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae na primeira maturação gonadal - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1661 Blood cells, seric electrolyte and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae common carp hepatosomatic and splenosomatic relation in the first gonadal maturation - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1661

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio de Campos Filho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados em ambos os sexos de Cyprinus carpio o fator relativo de condição (Kn, a relação hepato (RHS e esplenossomática (RES, o eritrograma, trombograma, leucograma, a localização de glicogênio pelo método de PAS em trombócitos e leucócitos e os níveis séricos de proteína total e de eletrólitos. O Kn nas fêmeas foi maior que nos machos. Os valores médios da RES nas fêmeas foram inferiores aos dos machos, enquanto que o número de leucócitos, linfócitos e neutrófilos foram superiores; porém os níveis séricos de magnésio e de cloreto nos machos foram maiores quando comparados aos das fêmeas. Os valores médios da RHS, hematócrito, concentração de hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, concentração da hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, número de eritrócitos, trombócitos, monócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos granular PAS-positivos (LG-PAS, níveis séricos de proteína total, sódio, potássio e cálcio não evidenciaram diferença estatisticamente significativa (P>0,05, entre machos e fêmeas. O método de PAS mostra grânulos de glicogênio no citoplasma de trombócitos, eosinófilos e neutrófilos. Entretanto, no citoplasma dos LG-PAS foram detectados grânulos de glicoproteínas neutras. Monócitos, linfócitos foram PAS negativos. Nos teleósteos o amadurecimento das gônadas apresenta forte relação com o fator de condição. Na fase de reprodução nem sempre é possível detectar os efeitos do sexo isoladamente no hemograma, pois muitas vezes esse pode não ser o único fator ocasionando dimorfismoThis research studied the condition (Kn relative factor, the hepatosomatic (HSR, the splenosomatic (SSR relation, the erythrocytes, thrombocytes and leukocytes number, the glicogen locality by PAS method in thrombocytes and leucocytes and the total protein and electrolytes serices levels in both Cyprinus carpio L. sex. The female Kn showed higher value than the males. The female HSR average

  4. Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumari Pratheepa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g and in the same concentration (50 g, the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations.

  5. Specific and nonspecific immunostimulation study of Euphorbia hirta on Pseudomonas fluorescens-infected Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, V; Sukumaran, N

    2011-05-01

    Infectious diseases are one of the major factors affecting the production of fish worldwide. The pathogens (especially bacteria) affect the immune system of fish and the administration of immunostimulants can increase resistance to infectious diseases by enhancing both specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms. In the present study, we have conducted an experiment on the pathogen-infected Cyprinus carpio Linn. (Cyprinidae), using Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) plant leaves as immunostimulants. The aqueous extract of the leaves was prepared and the immunostimulant action was recorded by giving different concentrations of plant extract supplemented diet. The results obtained from the studies show that the higher concentration of the extract (50 g/kg diet) provided significant immune response (specific and nonspecific) on the fish. The 50 g/kg leaf extract of E. hirta enhanced the phagocytic ratio on 10th and 15th day after the infection. The results of the specific and nonspecific immunostimulation studies are statistically significant. This work will guide the researchers for the discovery of significant aquaculture nutrients to improve the immunostimulant action on fish.

  6. Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, Vijayakumari; Sukumaran, NatarajaPillai

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations.

  7. Immunomodulatory effect of Aegle marmelos leaf extract on freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio infected by bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheepa, V; Ramesh, S; Sukumaran, N

    2010-11-01

    Aquatic organisms (especially fish) require potent defense mechanisms to protect themselves against pathogen invasion and disease formation. The use of immunostimulants in fish culture can prevent the diseases through augmentation of both specific and non-specific immunity. A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of different dietary doses of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Corr. Serr. (Rutaceae) leaf extract for the immune response and the disease resistance of the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio Linn. (Cyprinidae) infected by Aeromonas hydrophila Chester (Aeromonadaceae). Hematological, specific immune response, non-specific immune response and enzyme assay studies were performed on fish and were scrutinized after 50 days of feeding trial. Fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a dose of 1.5 × 10(4) cells/mL through intraperitoneal injection, and the hematological changes, the immune response, the enzyme activity and the disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio against the pathogen were also studied for 20 days at 5-day intervals. The results obtained from the study demonstrated that the fish fed with leaf extract of Aegle marmelos incorporated into feed significantly enhanced the red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, phagocytic activity, nitroblue tetrazolium chloride assay, lysozyme, pathogen clearance and enzyme activity compared with the control group. The survivability was higher in the fish which consumed leaf extract-incorporated feed, and the fish group fed with 5 g diet showed highest percentage survival of the fish. These results indicate that Aegle marmelos stimulates the immunity and makes the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio more resistant to Aeromonas hydrophila.

  8. Macrophage polarisation: immune responses of carp against parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joerink, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the studies described in this thesis we used a natural host-parasite model of two parasites ( Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii ) infecting common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), to obtain more knowledge about the phenomenon of macrophage polarisation in 'the evolutionary older' teleosts

  9. Blood Picture and Enzymatic Activities In Common Crap Cyprinus carpio Influenced by Sodium Chloride (NaCl)

    OpenAIRE

    Kale Al-Taee, Shahba

    2014-01-01

    The aim of these study was to assess the effect of Sodium Chloride NaCl  on blood picture as hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and lymphocyte count  also the activity of both enzymes Alanine amino Transferase (ALT) and Creatine Phospho kinase  (CPK) in Cyprinus carpio. NaCl was used at different concentration (0.5,1 and 1.5)mg\\L for 7 day .The concentration 1.5 mg\\L was toxic to the fish and cause death after 48 hour of exposure ,while in the fish that were exposure separately to both...

  10. Blood Picture and Enzymatic Activities in Common Crap Cyprinus carpio Influenced by Sodium Chloride (NaCl)

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Taee, Shahba Kale Al-Taee; Al-Hamdani, Alaa Hussain

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Sodium Chloride NaCl on blood picture as hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and lymphocyte count also the activity of both enzymes Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT) and Creatine Phospho Kinase (CPK) in Cyprinus carpio. NaCl was used at different concentration (0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 mg\\L) for 7 day. The concentration 1.5 mg\\L was toxic to the fish and caused death after 48 hour of exposure, while in the fish that were exposure separately to bot...

  11. Molecular Characterization and Histopathology of Myxobolus koi Infecting the Gills of A koi Cyprinus carpio, with an Amended Morphologic Description of the Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Myxobolus sp., morphologically resembling M. toyamai, M. longisporus, and M. koi, was isolated from the gills of a koi, Cyprinus carpio that died in an ornamental pond. Large plasmodia were localized within lamellae, causing severe disruption of the normal branchial architecture, sufficient to com...

  12. TOKSISITAS SUBLETAL MOLUSKISIDA NIKLOSAMIDA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN KONDISI HEMATOLOGI YUWANA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosmaniar Yosmaniar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Niklosamida digunakan secara intensif sebagai pestisida di sawah untuk membunuh keong mas (Pomacea sp.. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan pengaruh toksisitas subletal moluskisida niklosamida terhadap pertumbuhan dan kondisi hematologi yuwana ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio. Penelitian dilakukan di Instalasi Riset Lingkungan Perikanan Budidaya dan Toksikologi Cibalagung Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar Bogor. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Waktu penelitian 12 minggu. Perlakuan adalah konsentrasi moluskisida niklosamida, yaitu: 0,00 (kontrol; 0,01; 0,03; dan 0,05 mg/L. Menggunakan 16 akuarium ukuran 70 cm x 50 cm x 60 cm. Benih ikan mas yang digunakan berkisar 2,5-3,0 gram dipelihara dengan kepadatan 20 ekor dalam volume air 40 L. Selama pemaparan ikan uji diberi pakan secara at satiation serta dilakukan pergantian air setiap 48 jam dengan konsentrasi bahan uji yang sama. Peubah yang diukur adalah laju pertumbuhan dan kondisi hematologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi subletal moluskisida niklosamida berpengaruh nyata terhadap penurunan pertumbuhan terjadi mulai pada konsentrasi 0,03 mg/L sedangkan terhadap kondisi hematologi, yaitu peningkatan hematokrit dan hemoglobin pada konsentrasi 0,01 mg/L dan peningkatan jumlah eritrosit pada konsentrasi 0,03 mg/L, dan penurunan leukosit pada konsentrasi 0,03 mg/L. Niklosamida digunakan secara intensif sebagai pestisida di sawah untuk membunuh keong mas (Pomacea sp.. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan pengaruh toksisitas subletal moluskisida niklosamida terhadap pertumbuhan dan kondisi hematologi yuwana ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio. Penelitian dilakukan di Instalasi Riset Lingkungan Perikanan Budidaya dan Toksikologi Cibalagung Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar Bogor. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Waktu penelitian 12 minggu. Perlakuan adalah konsentrasi moluskisida

  13. Anthelmintic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis against Dactylogyrus minutus (Monogenea) infections in Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoral, M A; Futami, K; Endo, M; Maita, M; Katagiri, T

    2017-11-30

    Monogenean parasites are important ectoparasites of fish, and are responsible for severe economic impacts in the aquaculture industry. They are usually treated with chemicals, but the chemicals can have harmful side effects in the fish and may pose threats to human health. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a common medicinal herb, with antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Here, we examined the anthelmintic activity of rosemary extract against the monogenean (Dactylogyrus minutus) in vitro and in vivo using bath treatment and oral administration. The in vitro experiments showed that parasite survival was affected by both rosemary extract concentration and the solvent (water and ethanol). Parasites were dead at 61.8±5.6 and 7.8±1.4min when exposed to 100 and 200g aqueous rosemary extract solution/L of water respectively. It took 166.7±48.2 and 5.4±1.01min to kill the parasites when exposed to 1 and 32g ethanol rosemary extract solution/L of water respectively. Moreover, pure component of rosemary extract obtained commercially used in in vitro experiments showed that 1,8-Cineole was the most toxic component of the main components tested. Parasite intensity and prevalence in fish exposed to 50 and 100g aqueous rosemary solution/L water for 30min were significantly lower than they were in controls (p<0.05). In oral treatment experiments, diets of Cyprinus carpio were supplemented with eight different concentrations of aqueous rosemary extract. The intensity of parasites was significantly less in fish fed for 30days with feed containing 60, 80 and 100ml aqueous extract/100g feed than in control (p<0.05). Together these results indicate that rosemary is a promising candidate for prevention and control of monogenean infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Operculum bone carp (cyprinus carprio sp.) scaffold is a new potential xenograft material: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartiwa, A.; Abbas, B.; Pandansari, P.; Prahasta, A.; Nandini, M.; Fadhlillah, M.; Subroto, T.; Panigoro, R.

    2017-02-01

    Orbital floor fracture with extensive bone loss, would cause herniation of the orbital tissue into the maxillary sinus. Graft implantation should be done on the orbital fracture with extensive bone loss. Different types of grafts have their own characteristics and advantages. Xenograft has been widely studied for use in bone defects. This study was to investigate cyprinus carprio sp. opercula bone as a potential xenograft. The aim of this study was to investigate based on EDS chemical analysis using a ZAF Standardless Method of Quantitative Analysis (Oxide) and SEM examination conducted in the laboratory of Mathematics, Institute of Technology Bandung. Particularly the mass ratio of Ca and P (5.8/3:47), the result is 1.67. This is equivalent to the stoichiometric Hydroxyapatite (HA) (Aoki H, 1991, Science and medical applications of hydroxyapatite, Tokyo: Institute for Medical and Engineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University). C N O that there is an element of protein/amino acid collagen compound, serves as a matrix together with HA. As shown in the SEM analysis that the matrix is a porous sheet-shaped (oval) that interconnect with each other, which is good scaffold. The pore is composed of large pores >200 microns and smaller pores between the large pores with a size smaller or equal to 10 microns that can serve for the attachment of osteoblast cell. In conclusion, Opercula bone carp (cyprinus carprio sp.) scaffold could be a new potential xenograft material.

  15. EFFECTS OF VAGAL SENSORY INPUT ON THE BREATHING RHYTHM OF THE CARP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGRAAF, PJF; ROBERTS, BL

    Electrical stimulation of an epibranchial vagal ganglion, which innervates the gill region, had a marked influence on the respiratory rhythm of the carp Cyprinus carpio. Vagal input could initiate ventilation in fish displaying intermittent respiration. In fish breathing steadily, vagal stimuli

  16. ENTRAINMENT OF THE BREATHING RHYTHM OF THE CARP BY IMPOSED OSCILLATION OF THE GILL ARCHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGRAAF, PJF; ROBERTS, BL

    Artificial oscillation imposed onto the gill arches could modify the respiratory rhythm in the carp Cyprinus carpio. The degree of modification depended upon the frequency and amplitude of the applied movement. Oscillation at frequencies close to the spontaneous respiratory rhythm and at amplitudes

  17. The effects of different lipid sources on performance of Koi carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding experiment was carried out to determine the effect of different dietary lipid on the growth and survival of Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) L fingerlings. Four experimental diets were formulated such that they contained groundnut oil, shea butter oil and palm oil respectively. The control contained no oil. Each diet was fed ...

  18. Partial replacement of fish and soyabean meal protein in mirror carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 80-day feeding trial was conducted as two experiments to evaluate the effects of replacement of fish meal (FM) and soyabean meal (SBM) protein with hazelnut meal (HM) protein in the diets of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Growth parameters and body composition were measured in fingerlings cultured ...

  19. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, S.; Halajlan, A.; Luus-Powell, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 9 (2015), s. 3521-3524 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Biological invasions * Helminth parasites * Fish * Common carp * Cyprinus carpio * Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2015

  20. Seleksi Bakteri Berpotensi Probiotik dari Ikan Mas (Cyprinus Carpio Indegenous Jantho Berdasarkan Aktivitas Antibakteri secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Yulvizar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control is probiotic bacteria as microbial control agents. This research was carried out to obtain indegenous isolates of probiotic bacteria from digestive tract Cyprinus carpio. Selection criteria were appointed based on the capacity to produce the antibacterial compound against the pathogen and grow at pH 2. The research was conducted from May to July 2014 at Microbiology Laboratory, Biology Department, UNSYIAH. The research was carried out by experiment laboratories. The planting of the bacteria was carried out with the pour-plate method in nutrient agar medium. The result show that there are six bacterial isolates varied morphological colony and cell and able to produce antibacterial compounds for active against A.hydrophila and E. tarda.

  1. The impact of using chickpea flour and dried carp fish powder on pizza quality

    OpenAIRE

    El-Beltagi, Hossam S.; El-Senousi, Naglaa A.; Ali, Zeinab A.; Omran, Azza A.

    2017-01-01

    Pizza being the most popular food worldwide, quality and sensory appeal are important considerations during its modification effort. This study was aimed to evaluate the quality of pizza made using two different sources of proteins, chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour and dried carp fish powder (Cyprinus carpio). Analysis indicated nutrients richness specificity of chickpea flour (higher fiber, energy, iron, zinc, linoleic acid and total nonessential amino acids) and dried carp fish powder (high...

  2. Trypanoplasma borreli cystein proteinase activities support a conservation of function with respect to digestion of host proteins in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruszczyk, A.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Jurecka, P.M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanoplasma borreli is an extracellular parasite that is transmitted by a leech vector and is naturally found in the blood of cyprinid fish. High parasitemia and associated severe anemia together with splenomegaly are typical of infection of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Papain-like cysteine

  3. Benzo(a)pyrene-induced cytochrome p4501A expression of four freshwater fishes (Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Yoon, Hong-Gil; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2015-05-01

    Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus are useful indicator species for CYP1A biomarker studies; however, comparative studies have not been performed. To compare susceptibility, dose- and time-dependent CYP1A induction at the mRNA and protein levels in response to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) exposure was analyzed. At the mRNA level, a statistically significant difference was found among the four species; however, such was not observed at the protein level. C. carpio showed the highest CYP1A induction level and the steepest slope in the dose-response curve. To assess susceptibility, the difference in CYP1A mRNA induction among species must be considered, and C. carpio was the most sensitive species of the four evaluated in terms of CYP1A expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Not all carp are created equal: Impacts of broadband sound on common carp swimming behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchy, Kelsie; Vetter, Brooke; Brey, Marybeth; Amberg, Jon; Gaikowski, Mark; Mensinger, Allen F.

    2016-01-01

    Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (H. molitrix) (hereafter: bigheaded carps), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are invasive fish causing negative impacts throughout their North American range. To control their movements, non-physical barriers are being developed. Broadband sound (0.06 to 10 kHz) has shown potential as an acoustic deterrent for bigheaded carps, but the response of common carp to broadband sound has not been evaluated. Since common carp are ostariophysians, possessing Weberian ossicles similar to bigheaded carps, it is possible that sound can be used as an acoustical deterrent for all three species. Behavioral responses to a broadband sound were evaluated for common carp in an outdoor concrete pond. Common carp responded a median of 3.0 (1st Q: 1.0, 3rd Q: 6.0) consecutive times to the broadband sound which was lower than silver carp and bighead carp to the same stimulus. The current study shows that common carp demonstrate an inconsistent negative phonotaxis response to a broadband sound, and seem to habituate to the sound quickly.

  5. Hematologia de Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae e Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae mantidos em diferentes condições de manejo e alimentação no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i4.162 Haematology of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae maintained in different conditions of handling and feeding from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.162

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Maia Yamashita

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia do Nilo e Cyprinus carpio (carpa comum capturados em diferentes propriedades de Blumenau, Joinville e Ituporanga, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os resultados foram relacionados às condições de manejo e alimentação a que os animais estavam expostos. Além de ração, as propriedades A e C de Blumenau alimentavam seus peixes com vísceras de peixes, arroz cozido, sobras de alimento do restaurante e ração artesanal. A e C de Ituporanga eram caracterizadas pela consorciação com suínos como principal fonte de alimento alimento e em Joinville as propriedades caracterizavam-se pelo fornecimento de ração comercial como o único alimento aos peixes. O percentual de hematócrito e o número de eritrócitos nas tilápias da região de Joinville foram maiores do que nas demais. Nas propriedades A e C de Blumenau e nas de Ituporanga foram observados os maiores valores na contagem total de leucócitos. As tilápias expostas a dejetos de suínos apresentaram também maior número de linfócitos. Os valores hematológicos de carpas não apresentaram variações significativas que pudessem ser relacionadas com o ambiente.This work evaluated the haematological parameters in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Cyprinus carpio (carp captured from the different owners in the cities of Blumenau, Joinville and Ituporanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The results were related to handling and feeding that the fish were exposed. Not only the ration, but also entrails, cooked rice, restaurant scraps and ration made in fish farm were used in the feeding of fish in the facilities A and C of Blumenau. However, A and C in Ituporanga were characterized by pig manure as the main source of feeding. In Joinville the diet was characterized by ration as the main source of food. Hematocrit and the erythrocyte number were higher in fish from Joinville than the others. The highest

  6. Growth of mycotal species on the eggs of Cyprinus carpio in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... on the eggs of cyprinid species such as Chondrostoma nasus, Gobio albipinatus and Scardinus erythrophthalmus. (Czeczuga and Muszynska, 1999). A. arbuscula has also been isolated from the eggs of C. carpio on a fish farm in. Thailand (Chukanhom and Hatai, 2004). Other species from the Allomyces ...

  7. Biomarkers of Cytotoxic, Genotoxic and Apoptotic Effects in Cyprinus carpio Exposed to Complex Mixture of Contaminants from Hospital Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Néstor, Corina G; Morales-Avila, Enrique; Gómez-Olivan, Leobardo M; Galár-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Neri-Cruz, Nadia

    2016-03-01

    Hospital wastewater is an important source of emerging contaminants. Recent studies emphasize the importance of assessing the effects of mixtures of contaminants rather than environmental risk of their individual components, as well as the determination of intrinsic toxicity of wastewater. Mixtures of pollutants has possible interactions that have notable environmental side effects. The aim of this study is an attempt to characterize biomarkers in Cyprinus carpio related to the exposure to a complex mixture of contaminants found in hospital wastewater. Results of a particular hospital effluent show the presence of traces of heavy metals, high chlorine concentration and emerging contaminants such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The LC50 was of 5.49 % at 96 h. The cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic biomarkers increase when fishes were exposed to wastewater (1/10 CL50) from hospital wastewater. This study emphasizes the importance of identifying and quantifying the effects of contaminants as pharmaceuticals, disinfectants and surfactants in order to design and implement an ecotoxicological plan.

  8. PENENTUAN TINGKAT TOLERANSI IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio L TERHADAP LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI SASIRANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elrifadah Elrifadah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this research were to know the tolerance rate of common carp to liquid waste of sasirangan industries, effect of liquid waste of sasirangan industries to common carp mortality , water quality media, and common carp gills under exposures in 96 hours. Method in this research was Static Bioassay.  Tolerance Limit Media (TLM or Lethal Concentration 50 % (LC50 in 96 hours used to determine of common carp tolerance rate with toxicity test.   Before toxicity test, preliminary test be done for determination of  upper and lower limit concentration. Completely randomize design with 5 treatments and 3 replicates was used in this research.  Application of liquid waste concentration as the treatment was K without liquid waste (0%, A (4,5%, B (5,5%, C (6,5%, and D (7,5%.  The data analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (Anova, and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT.          Result of the research showed that tolerance rate of common carp to liquid waste (LC50-96 hours was in concentration 4,9%.  Mortality rate was 0%; 33,33% and 76,66% for treatment K, A, and B respectively, but for treatment C and D reaches 100 %.    Anova and DMRT result indicated that liquid waste of sasirangan industries had significant effect (P< 0,05 to mortality rate of common carp.  Liquid waste also affect  water quality media such as temperature, pH, BOD, COD, NH3, Zn, and fenol, all of the parameters increasingly, except DO get decrease.  Based of histological analyze, liquid waste had impact to the gills. The  higher the liquid waste concentration makes the higher the damage rate.

  9. Growth of mycotal species on the eggs of Cyprinus carpio in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The smallest number of those species was found on the eggs of common carp in water from Spring Cypisek, Pond Komosa and River Suprasl, which are low in biogenes (12, ... The following rare mycotal species were also found: Allomyces arbuscula, Aphanomyces frigidophilus, Candida albicans, Fusarium aquaeductum, ...

  10. Optimalisering van de groei bij de karper (Cyprinus carpio L.) : een op de visteelt gericht onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, E.A.

    1974-01-01

    In course of time carp culture - in Europe already practiced since the Middle Ages - has been subjected to different patterns of intensification e.g. fertilization of ponds and supplementary feeding. Mechanisation in pond farm management has also proved to be important.

    The aim of these

  11. Formation of germinal epithelium during gonodal morphogenesis and differentiation in Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei:Cypriniformes) : a structural and ultrastructural analysis of the germ and somatic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Talita Sarah Mazzoni

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: Numa nova visão da morfogênese gonadal, sua descrição em Cyprinus carpio, mostra como a proliferação e diferenciação de células germinativas e somáticas a partir do primórdio gonadal levam à formação das diferentes estruturas ovarianas e testiculares e à constituição do epitélio germinativo que margeia as lamelas ovígeras e os túbulos testiculares. Em C. carpio, o primórdio gonadal é formado por células germinativas primordiais (CGPs) rodeadas por células somáticas. Após sucessivas di...

  12. Alteration of Gills and Liver Histological Structure of Cyprinus carpio Exposed to Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Dewi Kusumaningrum Pribadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in the waste management in Indonesia is the treatment of leachate, which mostly dumped to the river This research is aimed to obtain information of histological alteration in gills and liver of C. carpio L. exposed to leachate. Measurements on the water quality parameters comprised water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO. This research was conducted by exposing leachate to C. carpio for 96 hours. The concentration of leachate were 0 ppm, 80 ppm, and 100 ppm. Histological preparation were made on the gills and liver using 10% fixative Neutral Buffered Formalin and Ehrlich Hematoxylin-Eosin staining with qualitative observation descriptive analyses for discussion. The result showed that increasing water temperature is directly proportional to the leachate concentration in the aquaria, while the value of pH and DO inversely proportional to the leachate concentration. Damages on the gills with 80 ppm leachate concentrasion were identified as follows: fusion of secondary gill filaments and hyperplasia of epithelial cell, along with karyorrhexis and hydropic degeneration on the liver. Damages on the gills of fishes exposed to leachate with 100 ppm concentrasion were identified as follows: fusion of secondary gill filaments, hyperplasia of epithelial cell, congestion, and edema along with karyorrhexis, hydropic degeneration and melanomacrophage centre (MMC found on the liver. The results of this study can be used as an overview of the impact of an environmental pollution by leachate as indicated from histological damage to the gills and liver of C. carpio, thus contribute significan information to aquaculture sector and endorse better waste management

  13. Characterisation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from the Gut of Cyprinus carpio That May Be Effective Against Lead Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Yun, Saekil; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Kim, Sang Guen; Kang, Jeong Woo; Kim, Sang Wha; Han, Se Jin; Park, Se Chang; Sukumaran, V

    2017-12-28

    The present study was conducted to isolate and characterise Pb-resistant lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and thus determine their potential for use as probiotics against Pb toxicity. A total of 107 Pb-resistant LAB strains were isolated from the gut content of Cyprinus carpio, of which 41 were established to be gram-positive and catalase-negative. Investigation of the Pb-binding ability of these isolated LAB identified seven strains (P2, P6, P7, P9, P16, P19 and P22) with comparatively high Pb-binding activities. These were selected for further screening to establish their Pb tolerance, anti-oxidative capacity and in vitro probiotic characteristics. Strain P16 exhibited both the highest Pb-binding and a relatively good antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, P16 displayed a high survival rate during 4 h of exposure to both low-pH (2.5-3.5) conditions and 10.0% fish bile, and a strong capacity to adhere to fish intestinal mucus (62.4%). Furthermore, P16 showed strong antibacterial activities against all tested fish pathogens. Strains P6, P9, P16, P19 and P22 were susceptible to a range of tested antibiotics, but not to vancomycin. Thus, of the isolated lactobacilli, strain P16 exhibited the best Pb-binding ability, a high level of antioxidant activity and satisfactory in vitro probiotic properties. Biochemical and 16S-rRNA gene analyses identified P16 as Lactobacillus reuteri. Thus, the results of the conducted in vitro tests suggest that the fish-associated P16 Lact. reuteri strain is a promising candidate probiotic, which should undergo further investigation to assess its suitability for use in protecting against lead-exposure-induced toxicities in aquaculture.

  14. Toxicity of furadan (carbofuran 3% g in Cyprinus carpio: Haematological, biochemical and enzymological alterations and recovery response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathan Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Furadan, a carbamate pesticide is widely used in paddy fields and it has been detected in ground, surface and rain waters. In this study, fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio were exposed to different concentrations of furadan ranging from 25 to 50 mg L−1 for 96 h and the acute toxicity was calculated as 43.651 mg L−1. To assess the effect of furadan, fish were exposed to two concentrations of furadan (8.730 mg L−1, Treatment I and 4.365 mg L−1, Treatment II and certain haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters were evaluated at the end of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods with a recovery period of 96 h. A significant (p < 0.05 decrease in haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (Hct, red blood cells (RBC, plasma protein and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT activity in gill, liver and kidney (except at the end of 96 h in Treatment I were noted in both the concentrations tested while white blood cells (WBC and glucose level were significantly increased after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods when compared to untreated groups. A mixed trend in mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT activity in gill, liver and kidney was noted. During the recovery study period (96 h MCHC and plasma glucose level was recovered to some extent whereas the other parameters remain altered. The alterations of these parameters can be used to assess the toxic levels of the pesticide furadan on aquatic biota.

  15. PROSPEK USAHA PEMBENIHAN IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio L PADA UNIT PEMBENIH RAKYAT (UPR DI KELURAHAN MENTAOS KECAMATAN BANJARBARU UTARA KOTA BANJARBARU PROPINSI KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Puspitasari

    2016-06-01

    The  research  show the  profit  achieved  in  the  seeding  gold  fish  (Cyprinus carpio, L business in Mentaos Village is by average Rp.13.754.922,00/year, Break Even Point (BEP by minimum selling price is Rp.86,94 per head and producing by minimum of 200.701 head year.  Based on the feasibility of the business it is found that R/C Ratio of the fish hatchery operations in a single  season production is 2,17(R/C>1, mean while Payback Period (PP is 0,244 year or 2 month 29 days, the demand of goldfish (Cyprinus carpio L is bigger than the supply (D>S,  it means the production still cannot fulfil the market demand and the marketing channels which allows the fish farmers to sell their  product directly to the last consumer which become  the most efficiency way

  16. Molecular characterization of Sphaerospora molnari (Myxozoa), the agent of gill sphaerosporosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eszterbauer, E.; Sipos, D.; Forró, B.; Bartošová, Pavla; Holzer, Astrid S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 1 (2013), s. 59-67 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P724 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200961205 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Sphaerosporosis * Histozoic myxozoans * Blood stages * Cyprinids * 18S rDNA * Phylogeny * In situ hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.586, year: 2013

  17. Experimental investigation of cobalt-60 accumulation and elimination in Cyprinus carpio (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, A.F.

    1985-11-01

    When introduced in cation form, 60 Co showed a distinct tendency to form anion or neutral complexes (50% and 20%, respectively); this was favorized by a high biomass content per liter of water. The ionic evolution of the radionuclide did not affect its accumulation level in the fish. Direct contamination predominated (70%) and the concentration factor at equilibrium was 10. Nutritional transfer from Limnaea to carp, after ingestion of 45 contaminated rations in 63 days, resulted in a low radionuclide retention factor (3 x 10 -3 ) that was not subject to bioamplification. Cobalt-60 was primarily eliminated via urine (60%), while the fecal matter contained only 20% of the radioactive isotope ingested in the food. The 60 Co content of carp contaminated from the water increased proportionally with the temperature. However, the 60 Co concentration did not vary significantly with the thermal factor, and the radionuclide concentration factor ranged from 4 to 6 between 8 0 C and 25 0 C. Decontamination was generally a two-phase process characterized by a short biological half-life ( 60 Co contained in the fish. The high 60 Co content of the digestive tract may be explained by fecal excretion of the radioactive isotope (30-40% of the elimination). The kidneys act as radionuclide elimination regulators via the urinary system [fr

  18. Genetic differences in natural antibody levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kachamakova, N.M.; Irnazarow, I.; Parmentier, H.K.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Pilarczyk, A.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    In mammals, natural antibodies (Nabs) are mostly of the IgM isotype and can bind to a particular antigen or pathogen even if the host has never been exposed. Despite their early detection and abundance, the exact role and genetic control of Nabs remain unclear. We have used an indirect ELISA with

  19. Receptor-Mediated and Lectin-Like Activities of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) TNF-¿

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forlenza, M.; Magez, S.; Scharsack, J.P.; Westphal, A.H.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Functional characterization of TNF- in species other than mammalian vertebrates is limited, and TNF- has been studied in a limited number of fish species, primarily in vitro using recombinant proteins. Studies on TNF- from different fish species so far pointed to several inconsistencies, in

  20. Effect of deltamethrin on the biochemical profile of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velíšek, J.; Dobšíková, R.; Svobodová, Z.; Modrá, H.; Lusková, Věra

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 6 (2006), s. 992-998 ISSN 0007-4861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD523/03/H076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : fish * metabolism * cypermethrin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.505, year: 2006 http://www.springerlink.com/content/e974g87836848876/fulltext.pdf

  1. Stress response and pubertal development in the male common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consten, D.

    2001-01-01

    Summary electronic version • I Every organism experiences the effects of stress in its day to day life. Stress can be defined as any disturbance of the organism’s homeostasis.The inter-nal or external stimulus that causes stress is called the stressor. Usually, the organ-ism is well equipped to

  2. A differential role for corticosteroid receptors in neuroendocrine-immune interactions in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the involvement of the receptors for the stress hormone cortisol in stress and immune regulation. We set out to characterise the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Furthermore, we used a genome wide screen (microarray) to search for additional genes

  3. The effects of diclofenac on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánová, S.; Prášková, E.; Chromcová, L.; Plhalová, L.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Blahová, J.; Svobodová, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2013), s. 454-460 ISSN 1382-6689 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Fish * Embryo–larval toxicity test * Oxidative stress * LOEC * NOEC Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.862, year: 2013

  4. Early ontogeny, growth and mortality of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at low concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máchová, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Kroupová, H.; Svobodová, Z.; Mácová, S.; Doleželová, P.; Velíšek, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 3 (2009), s. 505-512 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71305 Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) QH82117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : auxiliary substance * toxicity * fish embryos * larvae Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 0.403, year: 2009

  5. Cryopreservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) sperm induces protein phosphorylation in tyrosine and threonine residues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, P.; Hulák, M.; Li, Z.; H.; Šulc, Miroslav; Pšenička, M.; Rodina, M.; Gela, D.; Linhart, O.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 2 (2013), s. 84-89 ISSN 0093-691X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cryopreservation * Sperm * Phosphorylation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.845, year: 2013

  6. Uptake of sediment-bound bioavailable polychlorobiphenyls by benthivorous carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moermond, C.T.A.; Roozen, F.C.J.M.; Zwolsman, J.J.G.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    It is unclear whether accumulation of sediment-bound chemicals in benthivorous fish depends on the degree of sequestration in the sediment like it does for invertebrates. Here, we report on the potential of slow and fast desorbing sediment-bound polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) fractions for accumulation in

  7. Outcomes of repeated exposure of the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to cyanobacteria extract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palíková, M.; Navrátil, S.; Krejčí, R.; Štěrba, F.; Tichý, F.; Kubala, Lukáš; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 2 (2004), s. 259-265 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/01/P027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : erythrocytes * leukocytes * plasma enzymes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2004

  8. Environmental quality and natural food performance at feeding sites in a carp (Cyprinus carpio) pond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Z.; Mrkvová, Markéta; Zukal, Jan; Roche, Kevin Francis; Mikl, Libor; Šlapanský, Luděk; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2016), s. 1591-1606 ISSN 0967-6120 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Pond aquaculture * Supplemental feeding * Zooplankton * Macrozoobenthos * Oxygen * Turbidity Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.095, year: 2016

  9. New metacestodes of gryporhynchid tapeworms (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) from Mozambique, Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Boane, C.; Saraiva, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2008), s. 315-320 ISSN 1525-2647 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cestode larvae * Gryporhynchidae * morphology * freshwater fish Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2008

  10. The effects of metribuzin on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánová, S.; Doleželová, P.; Plhalová, L.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Maršálek, P.; Škorič, M.; Svobodová, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 2 (2012), s. 152-158 ISSN 0048-3575 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Fish * Embryo–larval toxicity test * LOEC * Triazine * Early development Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2012

  11. Effect of terbutryn at environmental concentrations on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velíšek, J.; Stará, A.; Máchová, J.; Dvořák, P.; Zusková, E.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Svobodová, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2012), s. 102-108 ISSN 0048-3575 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Triazine * Embryo–larval toxicity test * Lowest observed-effect concentration * No observed-effect concentration * Early development * Malformation Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2012

  12. Effect of nitrite on early-life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupová, H.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Mácová, S.; Peňáz, Milan; Baruš, Vlastimil; Novotný, L.; Máchová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2010), s. 535-540 ISSN 0730-7268. [International Workshop on Aquatic Toxicology and Biomonitoring /1./. Vodňany, 27.08.2008-29.08.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Embryo–larval toxicity test * Lowest-observed-effect concentration * No-observed-effect concentration * Early development * Histopathology Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.026, year: 2010

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of sea cucumber Phyllophorus sp. extract in carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmartiwi, Laksmi; Triastuti, Juni; Andriyono, Sapto; Umami, Mardiah Rahma

    2017-02-01

    Many procedures continuously in aquaculture and scientific research like tagging and vaccinating cause pain, involving damaging tissue and also cause stress responses in fish. Stress responses in fish influence liver because liver have vital role to supply energy and metabolism. Histology alteration in liver is caused by stress response like changes of vacuolation hepatocyte and characteristic colour. Triterpenoid was known had hepatoprotective activity. One of marine organism contained triterpenoid was sea cucumber. Result of research showed that liver tissue in fish with injected acetic acid 5 % (in upper lip) as pain stimulus have histopathology damages such as pyknosis (medium damage level) and oedema (heavy damage level) after 8 hour injection. Injected Lidocaine 1mg/fish as analgesic drug have histopathology damages such as oedema (heavy damages level), necrosis and pyknosis (low damages level). Injected acetic acid 5 % (in upper lip) and ethanolic extract of sea cucumber Phyllophorus sp. dose 5 mg/50 gr body weight shown histopathology damages such as necrosis, edema (medium damage level) and pyknosis (low damage level).

  14. Spermatozoal Competition in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio): What Is The Primary Determinant of Competition Success?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linhart, Otomar; Rodina, Marek; Gela, David; Kocour, Martin; Vandeputte, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 130, - (2005), s. 705-711 ISSN 1470-1626 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0178; GA AV ČR IBS5045314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : spermatozoal competition Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.136, year: 2005

  15. Classical and molecular cytogenetics of Khawia sinensis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), invasive parasite of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orosová, Martina; Oros, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 5 (2012), s. 1397-1944 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : TAPEWORMS PLATYHELMINTHES * RIBOSOMAL DNA * CHROMOSOMES * EVOLUTION * FISH * RDNA * PSEUDOPHYLLIDEA * LOCATION * GENES * DIFFERENTIATION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00436-011-2720-x

  16. The effects of ciprofloxacin on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Živná, D.; Plhalová, L.; Chromcová, L.; Blahová, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Skorič, M.; Maršálek, P.; Prášková, E.; Štěpánová, S.; Svobodová, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 7 (2016), s. 1733-1740 ISSN 0730-7268 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : fluoroquinolones * embryo-larval toxicity test * antioxidant enzymes * detoxifying enzymes * lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.951, year: 2016

  17. Effects of selected tricyclic antidepressants on early-life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sehonová, P.; Plhalová, L.; Blahová, J.; Doubková, V.; Maršálek, P.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Tichý, F.; Skládaná, M.; Fiorino, E.; Mikula, P.; Večerek, V.; Faggio, C.; Svobodová, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 185, October (2017), s. 1072-1080 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Mixture toxicity * Amitriptyline * Nortriptyline * Clomipramine * Oxidative stress Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.208, year: 2016

  18. Effect of salicylic acid on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Živná, D.; Sehonová, P.; Plhalová, L.; Maršálek, P.; Blahová, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Divišová, L.; Stancová, V.; Dobšíková, R.; Tichý, F.; Široká, Z.; Svobodová, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2015), s. 319-325 ISSN 1382-6689 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Pharmaceutical residues * NSAIDs * Oxidative stress * Lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.187, year: 2015

  19. Beta-Glucan induced immune modulation of wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera

    Immune modulators are compounds capable to interact with the immune system and to modify the host response. This interaction enhances non-specific defense mechanisms, improving health and promoting survival. β-glucans are glucose polysaccharides present in sea weed, bacteria, fungi and cereal...... but not in animals. β-glucans are commonly used as immune modulators, but the mechanisms through which the modulation is achieved remains to be understood. Wound healing and tissue regeneration are essential mechanisms to ensure the survival and health of any organism. Studies based in mammalian systems have shown...... resulted in fast and vigorous production of reactive oxygen species, consistent with a pathogen eradication strategy. This response was highly dominated by production of superoxide anion. In contrast, DAMP stimulation led to a slow, subtle but long-lasting production of oxygen radicals dominated...

  20. The effects of atrazine exposure on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chromcová, L.; Blahová, J.; Plhalová, L.; Živná, D.; Štěpánová, S.; Prášková, E.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Zelníčková, L.; Škorič, M.; Svobodová, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, Suppl. 2 (2013), s. 95-101 ISSN 0172-780X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : embryo-larval toxicity test * LOEC * oxidative stress * TBARS * defense enzymes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.935, year: 2013

  1. Histopathology of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae exposed to Cyanobacteria extract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palíková, M.; Navrátil, S.; Tichý, F.; Štěrba, F.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 73, - (2004), s. 253-257 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GP524/01/P027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : microcystins * embryo-larval test * liver damage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2004

  2. Use of oxidative stress biomarkers in Cyprinus carpio L. for the evaluation of water pollution in Ataturk Dam Lake (Adiyaman, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Hasan; Fırat, Özgür; Fırat, Özge

    2014-03-01

    Adiyaman city, which is located in the north of the Ataturk Dam Lake, has no wastewater purification facilities which results in municipal, agricultural, and industrial wastewater discharges directly entering the reservoir. To assess the pollution in the dam lake, we used several oxidative stress biomarkers in blood tissue of Cyprinus carpio. Fish samples were taken from Sitilce, polluted area by untreated wastewaters, and Samsat, relatively clean area, in the reservoir in August 2012. The activity of catalase and level of malondialdehyde increased while activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione level decreased in fish from Sitilce site when compared to Samsat site. The findings of the present investigation suggest that the presence of certain prooxidative compounds that can lead to oxidative stress in the fish at the Sitilce site and oxidative stress biomarkers may be important in order to evaluate the effects of untreated wastewaters on living organisms in the dam lake.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath B. Shivappa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio. The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  4. Assessment of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) and copper (II) oxide (CuO) induced hemato- and hepatotoxicity in Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureen, Aasma; Jabeen, Farhat; Tabish, Tanveer A.; Yaqub, Sajid; Ali, Muhammad; Shakoor Chaudhry, Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Recently, Cu-based nanoparticles have drawn considerable attention for their various fascinating roles in multiple biological systems. It is recognized that their frequent use can create compatibility challenges for the recipient systems. Nevertheless, it is unclear how various biological interactions affect the compatibility of Cu oxide II (CuO) and Cu oxide nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) for different organisms. Consequently, it has been difficult to perform structured risk assessments for their use in biological systems. Therefore, this study compared the effects of different doses of waterborne Cu-NPs and CuO on the blood and liver of selected groups of Cyprinus (C) carpio. These fish while housed in suitable water tanks were exposed to one of the following treatments for 14 d: control (no added Cu) or 0.5 or 1 or 1.5 mg Cu as Cu-NPs or CuO l-1 of water. We found significant changes in all assessed blood parameters of fish in response to increasing doses from 0 to 1.5 mg of Cu-NPs or CuO. Similarly, increased levels of lipid peroxide and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also observed in the livers of C. carpio in Cu-NPs or CuO treated groups. Enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation and GSH were also recorded in the Cu-NP treated groups compared with the CuO treated groups in a dose dependent manner. The lowest catalase activity was observed in the liver of C. carpio treated with the higer dose of Cu-NPs. Cu-NP or CuO exposure induced significant histological alterations in the liver of C. carpio including focal necrosis, cloudy swelling of hepatocytes, degenerative hepatocytes, vacuolization, pyknotic nuclei, damaged central vein, nuclear hypertrophy, dilated sinusoid, vacuolated degeneration, congestion, and complete degeneration in a dose dependent manner. Substantial alterations in blood and liver specimens were observed in the Cu-NP treated fish when compared with the CuO treated fish. It appeared that the Cu-NPs were more toxic than the CuO as shown by the hemato- and

  5. Assessment of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) and copper (II) oxide (CuO) induced hemato- and hepatotoxicity in Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureen, Aasma; Jabeen, Farhat; Tabish, Tanveer A; Yaqub, Sajid; Ali, Muhammad; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor

    2018-04-06

    Recently, Cu-based nanoparticles have drawn considerable attention for their various fascinating roles in multiple biological systems. It is recognized that their frequent use can create compatibility challenges for the recipient systems. Nevertheless, it is unclear how various biological interactions affect the compatibility of Cu oxide II (CuO) and Cu oxide nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) for different organisms. Consequently, it has been difficult to perform structured risk assessments for their use in biological systems. Therefore, this study compared the effects of different doses of waterborne Cu-NPs and CuO on the blood and liver of selected groups of Cyprinus (C) carpio. These fish while housed in suitable water tanks were exposed to one of the following treatments for 14 d: control (no added Cu) or 0.5 or 1 or 1.5 mg Cu as Cu-NPs or CuO l -1 of water. We found significant changes in all assessed blood parameters of fish in response to increasing doses from 0 to 1.5 mg of Cu-NPs or CuO. Similarly, increased levels of lipid peroxide and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also observed in the livers of C. carpio in Cu-NPs or CuO treated groups. Enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation and GSH were also recorded in the Cu-NP treated groups compared with the CuO treated groups in a dose dependent manner. The lowest catalase activity was observed in the liver of C. carpio treated with the higer dose of Cu-NPs. Cu-NP or CuO exposure induced significant histological alterations in the liver of C. carpio including focal necrosis, cloudy swelling of hepatocytes, degenerative hepatocytes, vacuolization, pyknotic nuclei, damaged central vein, nuclear hypertrophy, dilated sinusoid, vacuolated degeneration, congestion, and complete degeneration in a dose dependent manner. Substantial alterations in blood and liver specimens were observed in the Cu-NP treated fish when compared with the CuO treated fish. It appeared that the Cu-NPs were more toxic than the CuO as shown by the hemato

  6. Estimation de la survie des alevins de carpe (C. carpio au cours de leur premier mois d'existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOREAU J.

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available Des observations réalisées sur deux stations piscicoles de Madagascar, dans des étangs ne recevant ni engrais ni nourriture, révèlent qu'au cours de leur premier mois les alevins de carpe (C. carpio subissent des mortalités voi-sines de 50 %. Ces dernières sont encore plus élevées en début et en fin de saison de reproduction. Au début, les fortes mortalités sont dues à la température trop basse et aux disponibilités alimentaires insuffisantes ; en fin de saison de reproduction, la température trop élevée et la mauvaise qualité des œufs sont sans doute en cause. Une fumure adéquate des étangs de grossissement des alevins et une alimentation correcte des géniteurs permettront peut-être de diminuer ces mortalités.

  7. Morphological and quantitative analysis of myenteric plexus neurons of intestinal bulb of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae Análise morfológica e quantitativa dos neurônios do plexo mientérico do bulbo intestinal de Cyprinus Carpio. (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Marega

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The myenteric plexus shows morphologic and quantitative variability in the alimentary canals of different species of animals. We have quantified and analyzed the morphology of the myenteric plexus of ten adult Cyprinus carpio intestinal bulbs, by means of histological cross sections stained with HE and Van Gieson methods, as well as Giemsa-stained whole mount preparations. The myenteric plexus, located between the longitudinal and circular layers of the muscular tunic, is formed by isolated neurons and ganglia. Percentages of small, medium and large neurons were 21%, 63.4% and 15.6%, respectively, with a prevalence of intermediary cytoplasmic basophily and peripheral nuclei. Neuronal density in 6.92mm2 of intestinal bulb was of 2,040 neuronsO plexo mientérico apresenta variabilidade morfológica e quantitativa ao longo do tubo digestório das diferentes espécies animais. No presente trabalho quantificamos e analisamos a morfologia dos neurônios do plexo mientérico de dez bulbos intestinais de Cyprinus carpio, por meio de cortes histológicos corados com HE e Van Gieson e de preparados de membrana corados pelo método de Giemsa. O plexo mientérico foi localizado entre os estratos longitudinal e circular da túnica muscular, sendo constituído por neurônios isolados e por gânglios. As porcentagens de neurônios pequenos, médios e grandes foram 21%, 63,4% e 15,6%, respectivamente, predominando neurônios com basofilia citoplasmática intermediária e núcleo em posição periférica. A análise quantitativa revelou a presença de 2.040 neurônios/6,92mm2 de bulbo intestinal

  8. UJI APLIKASI VAKSIN HYDROVAC UNTUK PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT MERAH PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio DAN GURAME (Osphronemus gouramy DI BALAI BENIH IKAN PANDAK KABUPATEN BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Indrawati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Uji aplikasi vaksin ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian vaksin hydrovac terhadap perkembangan kesehatan ikan mas dan gurami, serta mendapatkan informasi tentang cara pengendalian, melalui tindakan pencegahan ikan air tawar yang terserang wabah penyakit Aeromonas hydrophila. Sebanyak 39 ekor ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio dengan bobot rata-rata 1 kg dan panjang rata-rata 30 cm dan108 ekor ikan gurami (Osphronemus gouramy L. dengan bobot rata-rata 250 g dan panjang rata-rata 10 cm yang berasal dari Balai Benih Ikan (BBI Pandak Kabupaten Banyumas, digunakan sebagai ikan uji. Vaksin yang digunakan adalah “vaksin hydrovac” yang diproduksi oleh Laboratorium Patologi Ikan. Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar, Bogor. Vaksin diaplikasikan dengan cara dicampur pelet dengan dosis 2--3 mL per kilogram bobot badan ikan yang diberikan selama 5--7 hari berturut-turut dan setelah satu bulan kemudian dilakukan vaksinasi ulangan (booster terhadap ikan yang telah divaksin dengan cara yang sama. Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa ikan baik ikan mas maupun gurame yang divaksin menunjukkan angka sintasan yang cukup tinggi apabila dibandingkan dengan ikan yang tidak divaksin. Mortalitas ikan uji yang tidak divaksin terjadi mulai minggu ke-5 dan ke-6.

  9. Effects of carbon nanomaterials fullerene C60 and fullerol C60(OH)18–22 on gills of fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socoowski Britto, Roberta; Longaray Garcia, Márcia; Martins da Rocha, Alessandra; Artigas Flores, Juliana; Pinheiro, Maurício V. Brant; Monserrat, José María; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L.

    2012-01-01

    In consequence of their growing use and demand, the inevitable environmental presence of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns about their potential deleterious effects to aquatic environments. The carbon NM fullerene (C 60 ), which forms colloidal aggregates in water, and its water-soluble derivative fullerol (C 60 (OH) 18–22 ), which possesses antioxidant properties, are known to be photo-excited by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. To investigate their potential hazards to aquatic organisms upon exposure to UV sunlight, this study analyzed (a) the in vitro behavior of fullerene and fullerol against peroxyl radicals (ROO·) under UV-A radiation and (b) the effects of these photo-excited NMs on oxidative stress parameters in functional gills extracted from the fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae). The variables measured were the total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The obtained results revealed the following: (1) both NMs behaved in vitro as antioxidants against ROO· in the dark and as pro-oxidants in presence of UV-A, the latter effect being reversed by the addition of sodium azide, which is a singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) quencher; (2) fullerene induced toxicity with or without UV-A incidence, with a significant (p 1 O 2 generation; and (3) fullerol also decreased GCL activity and GSH formation (p 1 O 2 formation.

  10. INCREASING NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF ARTIFICIAL FEED WITH WHOLE SPORE PROTEIN OF MYXOBOLUS KOI AS AN IMMUNOSTIMULTANT ON GOLDFISH (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusairi A.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of goldfish in Indonesia in 2010-2013 has increased by 7.09%, the lowest average production increase compared with other main commodities such as shrimp, tilapia, catfish, and others. One of the primary causes of the low increase in production is the presence of disease and high price of feed in some central goldfish productions. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of whole spore protein of Myxobolus koi on goldfish (Cyprinus carpio L. through feed to immune response, growth rate, feed efficiency and survival rate. This research was conducted with complete randomized design with 5 replications. This study used two types of treatment, control (100% artificial feed and artificial feed + immunostimulant (whole spore protein of Myxobolus koi + Boster® Progol adhesive spores. The results showed that whole spore protein of Myxobolus koi given to the feed as immunostimulant can cause response of the immune through the increase of monocytes and lymphocytes in white blood cells on days 7, 14 and 28 observations, daily growth rate of 5.55% compared without immunostimulant with the rate of 1.13%; feed efficiency of 36.57% compared with no immunostimulant, which is only 23.84%, and the treatment gives a 99% survival rate.

  11. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  12. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  13. Koi herpesvirus disease in carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A disease in the koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi and the common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, caused by the herpesvirus and accompanied by a high mortality rate, has spread across numerous fish ponds all over the world since 1998, resulting in massive mortality and significant financial losses. The herpesvirus-like virus, called the koi herpesvirus (KHV has been isolated and identified from the koi and the common carp in the course of the incidences of massive mortalities. The first appearance of a disease with a high mortality in the common and the koi carp caused by the koi herpesvirus (KHV was described in 1998 in Israel and the United States of America (USA. Since that time, a large number of cases of outbreaks of this disease have been confirmed throughout the world, including the USA, Israel, and a large number of European countries. The deaths occurred seasonally, in late spring or early autumn, when the water temperature was from 18-28ºC. The most important factor of the environment that affects the occurrence and gravity of this disease is the water temperature. This disease is currently considered one of the factors that present the biggest threat to populations of the common and the koi carp. Diseased fish are disoriented, their movements uncoordinated, their breathing rapid, gills swollen, and they have local skin lesions. The virus was isolated from tissue of diseased fish and cultivated on a KF-1 (koi fin cells cell line. Electronic microscopy examinations revealed virus identical viral particles of the Herpesviridae family. Analyses of the virion polypeptide and DNA established differences between the KHV and the previously known herpesvirus of the Cyprinida family, Herpesvirus cyprini (CHV, and the virus of the channel catfish (Channel catfish virus - CCV. In the years 2004 and 2005, high mortality was established among one-year and two-year carp fry on three fish ponds. At two ponds, the deaths occurred among one year and two

  14. Assessment of yeast as a dietary additive on haematology and water quality of common carp in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Siraj Muhammed Abdulla; Omar, Samad Sofy; Anwer, Ayub Youns

    2017-09-01

    Feeding experiment was accomplished at the Aquaculture unit (Close system), Grdarasha station, Agriculture College, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, to investigate different levels of Aquagrow E (AGEY) brewer's yeast cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the haematological and water quality of common carp fingerlings Cyprinus carpio. The basal diet was formulated to contain 34% protein and 10% lipid and the dietary treatments were supplemented with 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of AGEY diet. A total of 180 Common carp (10.30 ± 0.27 g) fed on experimental diets for 10 weeks. Water quality assessment for well water and pond water for rearing Cyprinus carpio in cage system conducted weekly, while some parameters including pH, EC, water temperature and DO were monitored daily during the entire periods of study. Values of total hardness, alkalinity, ammonia and nitrate for studied water samples were within normal ranges for rearing Cyprinus carpio. Mean concentration of GPT, GOT and Glucose were 104 to 170 U/L, 1371 to 3308 U/L and 34 to 63mg/dl respectively, moreover, highest levels were observed in treatments with higher concentrations of yeast in its food except for blood sugar. Slight variation in lipase enzyme were found between control and treatment groups, while levels of amylase enzyme were increased toward cages with higher levels of yeast until T1 and then decreased toward T3. Total protein levels were increased to toward higher levels of yeast in food of Cyprinus carpio fish. Haematological results showed highest levels of WBC and platelets in treatments cages than control group. Levels of RBCs and hemoglobin were highest in treatment group 1 with 0.5%of yeast than treatments higher yeast concentrations. Significant correlation was found in haematological parameters between control and treatments.

  15. Evaluation of acute and sublethal effects of chloroquine (C18H26CIN3) on certain enzymological and histopathological biomarker responses of a freshwater fishCyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Mathan; Anitha, Selvaraj; Poopal, Rama Krishnan; Shobana, Chellappan

    2018-01-01

    In this study the toxicity of antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) on certain enzymological (GOT, GPT and LDH) and histopathological alterations (Gill, liver and kidney) of a freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio was studied after acute (96 h) and sublethal (35 days) exposure. The median lethal concentration (96 h) of CQ was 31.62 mg/ml. During acute treatment (CQ at 31.62 mg/ml) the treated fish groups showed a significant increase in GOT and GPT activities in blood plasma; whereas LDH activity was decreased when compare to control groups. To analyse the effects of drug at the lowest concentration, the fish were exposed to 3.16 mg/ml (1/10th of 96 h LC50 value) for 96 h. In sublethal treatment (3.16 mg/ml) GOT activity increased up to 14th day and decreased during the rest of the exposure period (21, 28 and 35th day). A biphasic response in GPT activity was observed. LDH activity was found to be increased throughout the study period (35 days) compare to control groups. The alterations in enzyme activities in blood plasma were found to be significant at p < 0.05 (DMRT). Many histopathological changes in vital organs such as gill, liver and kidney of fish were observed in CQ treated group (acute and sub-lethal) compare to normal group. The alterations in the enzymological and histopathological study in the present investigation indicate that the drug CQ has toxic effects on non-target organisms. We conclude that the alterations in enzymological parameters and histopathological changes can be used as biomarker to assess the health of the aquatic organism/environment. Further data on molecular studies are needed to define the mode of action and toxicity of these emerging pollutants.

  16. PIGMENTACIÓN, CRECIMIENTO Y SUPERVIVENCIA DE CRÍAS CARPA KOI (CYPRINUS CARPIO VAR. HAEMATOPTERUS ALIMENTADAS CON DIETAS CON INCLUSIONES DE ACEITE DE LANGOSTILLA ROJA (PLEURONCODES PLANIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria L. Gil R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó el efecto de la inclusión de aceite de langostilla roja (Pleuroncodes planipes sobre el crecimiento, supervivencia y pigmentación del tegumento de crías de carpa koi (Cyprinus carpio var. haematopterus. El estudio consistió en tres experimentos: experimento 1, con fotoperiodo de 4 h L / 20 h O y aguas claras; experimento 2, con fotoperiodo 12 h L/ 12 h O y aguas claras, y, experimento 3, cuyo fotoperiodo fue de 12 h L /12 O y aguas con algas. En estos experimentos, dos variedades de crías de carpa koi -naranjas y con manchas oscuras- fueron alimentadas con dietas adicionadas con aceite de langostilla a diferentes porcentajes de inclusión (0, 1, 2 y 3 %, con el 5% de alimento con relación a la biomasa de cada unidad experimental. Al final de cada uno de los experimentos se tomaron fotografías de los organismos y se analizó la coloración con el modelo de matiz-saturación-brillantez de cuatro regiones anatómicas en ambas variedades de crías y en los experimentos 1 y 2 se evaluaron parámetros biológicos: supervivencia, ganancia en longitud y en peso, y porcentaje de incremento en peso y en longitud. Las dietas adicionadas con aceite de langostilla roja no fueron rechazadas por los organismos, y no se observaron efectos negativos en las variables evaluadas. En general, la inclusión de aceite influyó en la pigmentación de las crías de color naranja y en el crecimiento y la coloración de los organismos con manchas oscuras, particularmente cuando el fotoperiodo fue de 12 L/ 12 O.

  17. HEMATOLOGICAL BLOOD PARAMETERS OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARPS (CYPRINIDAE REARED USING FISH RANCHING TECHNOLOGY IN THE SOUTHERN UKRAINE

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    Yu. Volichenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the hematological characteristics of blood young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology in the southern Ukraine and to establish certain correlations between the main fish technical features of the studied groups of the young-of-the-year fish. Methodology. The studies were based on field and experimental methods adopted for fisheries, biochemical and statistical studies. Findings. The paper contains the data on mean fish weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of serum of young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology. Based on a comparative analysis of the obtained data, we detected significant peculiarities and qualitative difference in the absence of foam cells and basophils, which distinguish carp from the group of herbivorous fish, established significant correlations between mean fish weight and hematologic indices of blood. Marked by fish-breeding relationships with signs like weight and some parameters of blood components in all studied fish: hemoglobin in the range from 0.7858 to 0.9943, number of erythrocytes from 0.7843 to 0.9942, lymphocytes from 0.7848 to 0.9949, сholеsterol from 0.7640 to 0.9616 and triglycerides of 0.7499 in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and 0.9616 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio. To show these relationships graphically, we used regression analysis and the obtained regression equations can give an accurate assessment of the quality of fish seeds through hematological blood parameters and mean weight. Originality. The analysis of hematological parameters of blood of young-of-the-year carps: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella reared using fish ranching technology in the south of Ukraine was performed for the first time. Practical value. The obtained data allow scientifically recommending them as a component of

  18. TRANSMISI GEN krt-GP11 DAN PERFORMA KETAHANAN IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio TRANSGENIK F-2 TERHADAP INFEKSI KHV

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    Khairul Syahputra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pembentukan ikan mas transgenik merupakan salah satu program penelitian di Balai Penelitian Pemuliaan Ikan, Sukamandi dalam rangka menghasilkan varietas unggul ikan mas tahan infeksi KHV (Koi herpesvirus. Pada tahun 2015 telah dilakukan pembentukan ikan mas transgenik tahan KHV generasi F-2. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi transmisi gen krt-GP11, ketahanan ikan mas transgenik F-2 terhadap infeksi KHV, keberadaan marka Cyca-DAB1*05 tahan KHV pada populasi ikan mas transgenik F-2. Ikan mas transgenik F-2 dihasilkan dengan memijahkan ikan mas transgenik F-1 jantan dengan betina non-transgenik. Pengujian transmisi transgen dan deteksi marka ketahanan KHV pada transgenik F-2 dilakukan dengan metode PCR menggunakan primer spesifik untuk transgen krt-GP11 dan gen Cyca-DAB1*05. Evaluasi ketahanan ikan mas transgenik F-2 terhadap infeksi KHV dilakukan dengan uji tantang secara kohabitasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa transmisi gen krt-GP11 pada keturunan F-2 memiliki persentase yang relatif rendah yaitu sebesar 0%-2%. Ikan mas transgenik F-2 memiliki ketahanan relatif baik terhadap KHV dengan sintasan uji tantang sebesar 90% dan tidak berbeda nyata dengan ikan mas pembanding atau non-transgenik (P>0,05. Tingginya pesentase keberadaan marka Cyca-DAB1*05 pada populasi transgenik berperan pada ketahanan ikan mas transgenik terhadap infeksi KHV. Creating of transgenic common carp is one of the breeding programs in Research Institute for Fish Breeding for producing a superior strain of common carp resistant to KHV(Koi herpesvirus. Since 2015, the creation of common carp transgenic has been conducted to produce F2 population resistant to KHV. This study was aimed to evaluate the transmission of krt-GP11 gen,the resistantce of F2 transgenic common carp against to KHV infection, and the existence of Cyca-DAB1*05 marker resistant to KHV in F2 transgenic population. F2 transgenic population has been produced by mating F1 transgenic male with non

  19. The impact of using chickpea flour and dried carp fish powder on pizza quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam S El-Beltagi

    Full Text Available Pizza being the most popular food worldwide, quality and sensory appeal are important considerations during its modification effort. This study was aimed to evaluate the quality of pizza made using two different sources of proteins, chickpea (Cicer arietinum flour and dried carp fish powder (Cyprinus carpio. Analysis indicated nutrients richness specificity of chickpea flour (higher fiber, energy, iron, zinc, linoleic acid and total nonessential amino acids and dried carp fish powder (higher contents of protein, fats, ash, oleic acid and total essential amino acids complementing wheat flour to enhance nutritional value of pizza. Total plate count and thiobarbituric acid were increased (P0.05 across the levels of two protein sources. Springiness was decreased (P0.05 on all sensorial parameters except for odor values. The results could be useful in utilization of chickpea flour and carp fish powder in designing nutritious pizza for consumers.

  20. Real-time gene expression analysis in carp (Cyprinus carpio) skin: inflammatory responses to injury mimicking infection with ectoparasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, S.F.; Huising, M.O.; Stakauska, R.; Forlenza, M.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Buchmann, K.; Nielsen, M.E.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    We studied a predictive model of gene expression induced by mechanical injury of fish skin, to resolve the confounding effects on the immune system induced by injury and skin parasite-specific molecules. We applied real time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) to measure the expression of the pro-inflammatory

  1. Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: Review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oros, Mikuláš; Hanzelová, V.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 164, 2-4 (2009), s. 217-222 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : biological invasions * Khawia sinensis * fish health Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2009

  2. Vitellogenesis in Archigetes sieboldi Leuckart, 1878 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Caryophyllaeidae), an intestinal parasite of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruňanská, M.; Mackiewicz, J. S.; Nebesářová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 12 (2012), s. 1611-1620 ISSN 0213-3911 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Caryophyllidea * Archigetes sieboldi * vitellogenesis * Ultrastructure Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2012

  3. Higher attack rate of fish-borne trematodes (Heterophyidae) in common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio) at lower fish weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, A.S.; Graat, E.A.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) can cause pathology in humans. Fish weight was reported as important risk factor for transmission from snail to fish. However, in fingerlings, the relation between fish weight and infection is unknown. Aim was quantifying the effect of fish weight on infection

  4. New data on Myxobolus longisporus (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), a gill infecting parasite of carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus, from Chinese lakes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Fiala, Ivan; Nie, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2003), s. 263-268 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 424 Grant - others:National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 30025035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909; CEZ:MSM 123100003 Keywords : Myxozoa * Myxobolus longisporus * SSU rDNA Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.469, year: 2003

  5. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steinbach, C.; Fedorova, G.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Grabicová, K.; Máchová, J.; Grabic, R.; Valentová, O.; Kocour Kroupová, H.

    461-462, 461-462 (2013), s. 198-206 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bioconcentration * Embryo-larval test * Half-life time * Heart rate * Verapamil Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 3.163, year: 2013

  6. Application of PCR-RF-SSCP to study major histocompatibility class II B polymorphism in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakus, K.L.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Adamek, M.; Bekh, V.; Stet, R.J.M.; Irnazarow, I.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of methods have been applied for the characterization of major histocompatibility (MH) polymorphism in fish. We optimized a technique designated polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-RF-SSCP) for screening a large number of individuals

  7. Increased leptin expression in common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) after food intake but not after fasting or feeding to satiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, M.O.; Geven, E.J.W.; Kruiswijk, C.P.; Nabuurs, S.B.; Stolte, E.H.; Spanings, F.A.T.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    Leptin is a key factor in the regulation of food intake and is an important factor in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, more than a decade after the discovery of leptin in mouse, information regarding leptin in any nonmammalian species is still scant. We report the identification of duplicate

  8. CULTIVATION OF CLADOCERAN (CLADOCERA FOR INCREASING PROVISION OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO WITH NATURAL FEEDS (REVIEW

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    A. Tuchapska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Natural feeds are important in pond fish diet because they contain all nutrients necessary for fish growth and development. The share of natural feeds in fish diet has great effect on fish growth and immunity, assimilation of artificial feeds. The main way of assured procurement of natural feeds for fish feeding at different stages of their development is artificial cultivation of aquatic organisms. However, cultivation of natural feeds is not virtually performed in aquaculture enterprises of Ukraine, therefore an analysis of available data on zooplankton cultivation is important for looking for optimal and economically profitable methods of enrichment of pond fish diet with natural feeds. Methodology. Methods of cladoceran cultivation were the object of the study, material for the study – literature data on ways and methods of zooplankton cultivation. Findings. Cultivation of various species of zooplankton is performed for feeding of pond fish on different life stages. Main object of cultivation in aquaculture is Daphnia magna Straus, juvenile forms of which are consumed by fish larvae, while adult organisms are the most valuable for yearlings and older fish. The efficiency of hydrobiont cultivation highly depends on the selected object, containers, where cladocerans are cultivated, optimum conditions, peculiarities of water supply, species, and application of fertilizers and feeds. Originality. The highest production of zooplankton can be obtained when cultivating D. magna in tanks with continuous flow and in net cages installed in ponds under condition of ensuring requirements of the culture in bacterial and algae feeds (due to application of fertilizers and feeding with feeds and microalgae taking into account their presence in water, which is in the tank-cultivator. Practical value. Simplicity of the methods and high efficiency of zooplankton cultivation for preparation of pond fish juveniles is the basis of its wide use in current economical conditions. Cladoceran cultivation is especially important during the period of its active consumption by fish in summer months, when a depletion of the natural forage base occur in ponds.

  9. Ice-age endurance: the effects of cryopreservation on proteins of sperm of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, P.; Hulak, M.; Koubek, Pavel; Šulc, Miroslav; Dzyuba, B.; Boryshpolets, S.; Rodina, M.; Gela, D.; Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla; Pěknicová, Jana; Linhart, O.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 3 (2010), s. 413-423 ISSN 0093-691X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701; CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : sperm quality * cryodamage * spermatozoa * seminal plasma * fish Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2010

  10. NeemAzal T/S – toxicity to early-life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chromcová, L.; Blahová, J.; Živná, D.; Plhalová, L.; Casuscelli di Tocco, F.; Divišová, L.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Faggio, C.; Tichý, F.; Svobodová, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2015), s. 23-30 ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Neemazal T/S * embryo-larval toxicity test * azadirachtin * oxidative stress * histopathology * insecticide Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.560, year: 2015

  11. Increased leptin expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after food intake but not after fasting or feeding to satiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, M.O.; Geven, E.J.; Kruiswijk, C.P.; Nabuurs, S.B.; Stolte, H.H.; Spanings, F.A.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    Leptin is a key factor in the regulation of food intake and is an important factor in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, more than a decade after the discovery of leptin in mouse, information regarding leptin in any nonmammalian species is still scant. We report the identification of duplicate

  12. Plasma lactate and stress hormones in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during stepwise decreasing oxygen levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vianen, GJ; Van den Thillart, GEEJM; Van Kampen, M; Van Heel, TI; Steffens, AB

    By measuring the lactate response it is possible to determine whether a teleost is able to adapt to a certain oxygen level. It is hypothesized that recovery will occur at oxygen levels above the critical oxygen level (PO2)(crit) reflected by a transient lactate increase. In contrast, continuous

  13. KERAGAAN PERTUMBUHAN BENIH IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio STRAIN MAJALAYA, LOKAL BOGOR DAN RAJADANU DI KOLAM CIJERUK, BOGOR-JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otong Zenal Arifin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan strain ikan mas yang memiliki keragaan pertumbuhan yang baik sebagai spesies kandidat untuk program seleksi. Tiga strain ikan mas (majalaya, lokal Bogor, dan rajadanu dipelihara dalam jaring yang diletakkan di kolam Instalasi Penelitian Cijeruk, Bogor selama 6 minggu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan nyata untuk parameter pertambahan bobot dan sintasan dari 3 strain ikan mas yang diuji, sedangkan untuk pertambahan panjang individual (mm per bulan ada perbedaan yang sangat nyata (P<0,05. Strain ikan mas rajadanu memiliki pertambahan panjang terbaik (16,0 ± 1,41 dan berbeda dengan majalaya (10,3 ± 4,50 serta lokal (10,8 ± 2,06. Objective of this study is to produce good performance of common carp by comparing three promising strains majalaya, local, and rajadanu. The study was carry out using floating net cages placed in earthen pond at The Cijeruk Germ Plasm Research Station. During the study, growth and survival rate were observed were observed for six weeks. The results indicated there was no significant difference for growth of weight and survival rate. However, growth of standard length was significantly different (P<0.05. Rajadanu made the best growth of standard length (16.0 ± 1.41 and was different from majalaya (10.3 ± 4.50 and local strain (10.8 ± 2.06.

  14. Viabilidade econômica de estocagem de alevinos de carpa comum (Cyprinus Carpio Var. Specularis no inverno em alta densidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeff Álvaro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar o efeito econômico de povoamento de alevinos I de carpa comum (Cyprinus carpio L., no inverno em alta densidade, com suplementação artificial e adubação química. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (5; 10; 15 e 20 peixes/m² e nove repetições. Os peixes foram estocados com peso e comprimento médios de 0,48 g e 3,15 cm, respectivamente, em todos tratamentos, por 45 dias de idade. As dietas foram formuladas com 27% de PB e 2925 kcal/kg de ração, sendo fornecidas diariamente, em duas vezes, na quantidade de 3% do peso vivo. O comportamento das variáveis explicativas em função dos tratamentos foi estudado por intermédio da análise de regressão. Os resultados para o comprimento e peso médio final nas densidades de 5; 10; 15 e 20 foram 8,67; 8,06; 7,81 e 7,47 cm e 3,64; 2,80; 2,31 e 2,25 g, respectivamente. O comportamento do peso em função das densidades estudadas é descrito pela equação de regressão quadrática Y= 4,41 - 0,29 X + 0,0077X² . O comportamento do comprimento e da conversão alimentar, em função das densidades, é explicado por regressão linear, por intermédio das equações Y= 5,83 - 0,077X e Y= 0,9978 + 0,0844X, respectivamente. A sobrevivência foi de 98,41; 97,61; 97,35 e 97,21%, respectivamente, nas densidades de 5 a 20. Em condições similares, pode-se recomendar todas as densidades estudadas e, economicamente, a lucratividade da atividade é crescente com o aumento da densidade, havendo diminuição do custo médio ou unitário.

  15. Heavy metal content in the meat of common carp (Cyprinuscarpio L.and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., cultivated under different technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Stoyanova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Water pollution from industrial production and developing agriculture is a serious problem in aquaculture. The aim of this study was to determine the content of heavy metals Zn (zink, Pb(lead, Ni (nickel and Cd (cadmium in the muscles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., grown under different technologies. In the current study were investigated common carp (Cyprinus carpio and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, cultivated in net cages, earthen ponds and raceways. The concentration of heavy metals in the muscles of fish was determined by the methods of AAS in the Scientific laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture. The influence of different production technologies on the bioaccumulation of Zn, Pb, Ni and Cd (in the flesh of common carp and rainbow trout was found. The Ni content in muscles was 31.25% higher in common carp, cultured at earthen ponds, compared with its content in the flesh of the fish raised in net cages. The concentration of Pd and Ni in rainbow trout, raised in raceways was higher than that determinated for rainbow trout cultivated in net cages, by 25.0% and 7.14%, respectively. The concentration of Cd and Zn of these species, grown in raceways were lower by 33.33% and 2.14%, respectively, compared with their concentration in rainbow trout, cultivated in net cages.

  16. Responses of biomarkers of a standardized (Cyprinus carpio) and a native (Pimelodella laticeps) fish species after in situ exposure in a periurban zone of Luján river (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcia, Paola; Calamante, Gabriela; de la Torre, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    The Luján River basin, which is located in the northwest area of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, receives different anthropogenic inputs before reaching the Río de la Plata estuary. The aim of this study was to assess the adverse impact of the river in the middle part of the basin. To this end, an in situ cage assay was conducted in two sites of the river (S1 and S2) near Luján city, and the responses of hepatic biomarkers of both a standardized (Cyprinus carpio) and a native (Pimelodella laticeps) species were evaluated. The biomarkers studied were the condition factor and liver somatic indices (LSI), the enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), lipid peroxidation levels (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) and the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and vitellogenin (Vtg) proteins. After 14 days, LSI and GST activity increased, and TBARS levels decreased in both species exposed at S1 and S2. In addition, exposure at both sites promoted an increase in SOD activity and CYP1A induction in C. carpio, while Vtg expression was observed only at S1. A shorter exposure period (7 days) caused an initial response only at S2 mediated only by CAT in P. laticeps. Finally, our results demonstrate that a 14-day period of in situ exposure in Luján River could lead to antioxidant and biotransformation processes in C. carpio and to phase II biotransformation responses in P. laticeps. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF CARP REARING DURING WINTER PERIOD IN THE CONDITIONS OF A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. STEFAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of carp culture are highly diversified, ranging from the extensive production in pond or open water with no fertilization or supplemental feeding to highly intensive systems in concrete tanks or cages. Among the different carp species, common carp is the best species reared in intensive monoculture, the others (Chinese and Indian carps being usually cultivated in polyculture (P. Kestemont, 1995. An experiment was conducted in inside recirculation system conditions to identify the technological performances on carp growth and survival at the Fishing and Aquaculture Department, Galati, during winter period (February, 2007 – March, 2007. The 1-year-old carp (Cyprinus carpio 4792g; 4594 g; 4561 g and 4525 g (total weight grew to 7384g; 7017g; 6924g and 7125 g in 44 days in aquarium 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In all aquariums, the fish appeared healthy and no mortality was observed. Feed conversion efficiencies (FCE had similar values among all aquariums, the highest FCE being found in B4 aquarium with 1, 57 value. Water quality parameters were acceptable range for fish culture. Results show that the carp rearing during winter period in the inside recirculation system is a very good economic solution.

  18. The impact of using chickpea flour and dried carp fish powder on pizza quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beltagi, Hossam S; El-Senousi, Naglaa A; Ali, Zeinab A; Omran, Azza A

    2017-01-01

    Pizza being the most popular food worldwide, quality and sensory appeal are important considerations during its modification effort. This study was aimed to evaluate the quality of pizza made using two different sources of proteins, chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour and dried carp fish powder (Cyprinus carpio). Analysis indicated nutrients richness specificity of chickpea flour (higher fiber, energy, iron, zinc, linoleic acid and total nonessential amino acids) and dried carp fish powder (higher contents of protein, fats, ash, oleic acid and total essential amino acids) complementing wheat flour to enhance nutritional value of pizza. Total plate count and thiobarbituric acid were increased (Pchickpea flour or dried carp fish powder and chemical, textural, sensory and storage evaluation parameters of in pizza were investigated. Dried carp fish powder increased (Pprotein, ash, fats, zinc and protein digestibility of pizza. Chickpea flour increased iron and zinc contents of the pizza. Water activity (aw) was decreased in fish powder and chickpea pizza. Pizza firmness and gumminess were significantly (pprotein source, but cohesiveness was decreased with 10% chickpea flour. Pizza chewiness was the same (P>0.05) across the levels of two protein sources. Springiness was decreased (Pchickpea flour. Chickpea and dried carp fish incorporation up to 7.50% in pizza at the expense of wheat flour had no effect (P>0.05) on all sensorial parameters except for odor values. The results could be useful in utilization of chickpea flour and carp fish powder in designing nutritious pizza for consumers.

  19. Dietary exposure of mink to carp from Saginaw Bay, Michigan: 2. Hematology and liver pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, S. N.; Bursian, S.J.; Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D. E.; Render, J. A.; Jones, P.D.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Kubiak, T.J.; Aulerich, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of consumption of environmental contaminants contained in carp (Cyprinus carpio)from Saginaw Bay, Michigan on various hematological parameters and liver integrity of adult female mink (Mustela vison) were determined. Mink were fed diets that contained 0 (control), 10, 20, or 40% carp prior to and throughout the reproductive period (182 days). The diets contained 0.015, 0.72, 1.53, and 2.56 mg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)/kg diet and 1.0, 19, 40, and 81 pg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs)/g diet, respectively. Mink fed the diets containing carp showed a general dose-dependent occurrence of clinical signs commonly associated with chlorinated hydrocarbon toxicity, including listlessness, nervousness when approached, anorexia, and melena. Erythrocyte counts were less in mink exposed to Saginaw Bay carp than in controls, while the number of white blood cells was greater than in controls. Significant differences (pdiets were significantly less than those of mink in the control and 10% carp groups. There were no significant differences in hemoglobin concentrations among the groups. Necropsies revealed enlarged yellowish livers in many of the carp-fed mink, especially those fed the 40% carp diet. Liver, spleen, and lung weights of carp-fed mink were significantly greater than those of control mink. Histopathologic examination of the livers revealed various degrees of congestion, hepatocellular fatty changes, and scattered portal lymphocytic infiltration which were most prevalent in mink fed the carp diets. These clinical signs, hematological effects, and histologic alterations are similar to those previously described for chlorinated hydrocarbon toxicoses in mink.

  20. Bioaccumulation of PCB Contaminants in Five Fish Species in Utah Lake as Affected by Carp Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjinez-Guzmán, V. A.; Cadet, E. L.; Crandall, T.; Chamberlain, T.; Rakotoarisaona, H.; Morris, P.

    2017-12-01

    State reports published by the Utah Department of Health (2005) and the Utah Department of Water Quality (2008) determined that there were elevated levels of PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls) that exceeded the EPA's cancer (0.02 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) and non-cancer screening levels (0.08 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) in two fish species from Utah Lake, the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Fish consumption advisories were issued for both of these fish species due to their health effects of PCBs. The Common Carp is a non-native predatory species that comprise 90% of the biomass in Utah Lake. As of September 2009, an extensive carp removal program was instituted by the Department of Natural Resources and began the removal of 75% of the carp population. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of carp removal on PCB levels in five sport fish species consumed by Utah citizens. The fish being analyzed are the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Black Bullhead (Ameiurus melas), Walleye (Sander vitreus), and White Bass (Morone chrysops). One-hundred twenty (120) fish were collected from Utah Lake and subcategorized by their gender, tissue type (fillet and offal), weight, and size: small (under 33 cm), medium (33 cm - 43 cm), and large (greater than 43 cm). This was done in order to determine the variation of contaminant levels in each subcategory. PCB analysis was performed by Utility Testing Laboratory in Salt Lake City, Utah. Results show there has been a significant increase in PCB levels in all fish species in comparison with the state reports (2008). All fish species have exceeded the EPA cancer screening level, except for the fillet tissue of the White Bass species. In Common Carp fillet, and offal decreased concentrations of 11.80% and 23.72%, respectively. In Channel catfish: the PCB levels in the fillet increase by 87.93%, however, the offal levels

  1. A dense genetic linkage map for common carp and its integration with a BAC-based physical map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. RESULTS: The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. CONCLUSION: We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for

  2. WATER BLOOM OF BLUEGREEN ALGE IN CARP FISHPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Mihaljević

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The massive development of bluegreen algae (Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria, the so--called water bloom, is a frequent phenomenon in fishpond ecosystems. This study analyses water bloom development in three carp fishponds owned by a fishbreeding company at Donji Miholjac (Croatia, where one-year-old carps (Cyprinus carpio , were bred in defferent fishstock densities. Analyses of physicallychemical properties of water and phytoplankton biomass were per- formed in fortnight intervals from May till October, 1992. In all there investigated fishponds the water bloom of bluegreen algae developed, but at a different time and showing a different qualitative composition. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 250 kg/ha water bloom consisted of the species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and the biggest biomass (131.92 mg/I was found in August. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 437 kg/ha a water bloom consisting of species from the genues Anabaena and species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae developed at the end of July. In the fishpond with the so--called intensive breeding (fishstock density of 750 kg/ha water bloom of the species Microcystis aeruginosa developed as late as September. The beginning of water bloom development was caused by the low value (lower than 7 of the ratio between the quantities of total phosphorus and total nitrogen. However, the qualitative composition of water bloom was influenced by one-year-old carp fingerlings density.

  3. Dietary effects on fatty acid metabolism of common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csengeri, I

    1996-01-01

    The paper summarises experimental data demonstrating effects of various dietary factors exerting changes in the fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Among the dietary factors (1) supplementary feeding in fish ponds, (2) absence of essential fatty acids (EFA) in the diet, (3) starvation, and (4) ration level were studied. It was concluded that supplementary feeding in carp rearing ponds is frequently excessive in the Hungarian carp culture practice, inducing slight EFA-deficiency and enhancing de novo fatty acid synthesis. This latter caused enlarged fat depots with high oleic acid contents in the fish organs and tissues. EFA-deficient diets enhanced the synthesis of oleic acid except when high rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis was suppressed by dietary fatty acids. Feeding EFA-deficient diets caused gradual decrease in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and gradual increase in that of Mead's acid: 20:3(n-9), an indicator of the EFA-deficiency. At prolonged starvation, polyunsaturated fatty acids of the structural lipids were somehow protected and mainly oleic acid was utilised for energy production. At high ration levels, excessive exogenous polyunsaturates were decomposed, and probably converted to oleic acid or energy. Starvation subsequent to the feeding the fish at various ration levels, reflected adaptive changes in the fatty acid metabolism: Below and above the ration level required for the most efficient feed utilisation for growth, decomposition processes of the fatty acid metabolism were accelerated.

  4. Experimental infection of six North American fish species with the North Carolina strain of spring Viremia of Carp Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Sanders, George E.; Conway, Carla M.; Binkowski, Fred P.; Winton, James R.; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen associated with disease outbreaks in cultured and wild fish worldwide. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio carp), and koi (C. carpio koi) suffer the highest mortalities from SVCV infections, while other cyprinid fish species have varying susceptibility. Although salmonid fish typically are considered refractory to infection by SVCV, there have been a few reports suggesting infection has occurred in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). There have been no reports of Percid fish being infected with SVCV. Since the first North American outbreak of SVCV at a North Carolina koi farm in 2002 there have been eight subsequent detections or outbreaks of SVCV among fish species from the families of Cyprinidae andCentrarchidae within the US and Canada. Thus, this exotic virus is considered a potential threat to native and cultured fish populations in North America. We performed multiple experimental challenges with fish species from three families (Salmonidae, Cyprinidae, and Percidae) to identify the potential risk associated with SVCV exposure of resident fish populations in North America.

  5. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  6. Gill infection model for columnaris disease in common carp and rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, A M; Chiers, K; Haesebrouck, F; Van den Broeck, W; Dewulf, J; Cornelissen, M; Decostere, A

    2015-03-01

    Challenge models generating gill lesions typical for columnaris disease were developed for the fry of both Common Carp Cyprinus carpio and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss by means of an immersion challenge and Flavobacterium columnare field isolates were characterized regarding virulence. Carp inoculated with highly virulent isolates revealed diffuse, whitish discoloration of the gills affecting all arches, while in trout mostly unilateral focal lesions, which were restricted to the first two gill arches, occurred. Light microscopic examination of the gills of carp exposed to highly virulent isolates revealed a diffuse loss of branchial structures and desquamation and necrosis of gill epithelium with fusion of filaments and lamellae. In severe cases, large parts of the filaments were replaced with necrotic debris entangled with massive clusters of F. columnare bacterial cells enwrapped in an eosinophilic matrix. In trout, histopathologic lesions were similar but less extensive and much more focal, and well delineated from apparently healthy tissue. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations of the affected gills showed long, slender bacterial cells contained in an extracellular matrix and in close contact with the destructed gill tissue. This is the first study to reveal gill lesions typical for columnaris disease at macroscopic, light microscopic, and ultrastructural levels in both Common Carp and Rainbow Trout following a challenge with F. columnare. The results provide a basis for research opportunities to examine pathogen-gill interactions.

  7. Biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinuscarpio) and native collected fish (Leporinus obtusidens) in the Río de la Plata Estuary, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcia, Paola; Calamante, Gabriela; de la Torre, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    Punta Lara is located in the Río de la Plata estuary near industrial areas contaminated mainly by organic pollutants. In this work, the responses and status of hepatic biomarkers were studied in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) by means of a 21-day field exposure in cages and collection of juvenile native fish (Leporinus obtusidens) at Punta Lara. The analyzed hepatic biomarkers were: enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation level using the thiobarbituric acid reaction (TBARS), and CYP1A protein expression, condition factor (CF) and liver somatic (LSI) index. Taking into account oxidative stress responses, SOD activity was increased in both species, while CAT was increased in C. carpio and decreased in L. obtusidens; TBARS levels indicated that oxidative damage was possibly exerted only in L. obtusidens. Biotransformation responses mediated by CYP1A were observed in both species, while GST activity was induced mainly in carps. Considering morphometric indices, CF and LSI were significantly increased in carps while CF decreased in native species. The anthropogenic pollution detected in this study in Punta Lara was associated with differences in biomarkers on both fish species, although a different pattern of response was observed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  8. 9 CFR 93.900 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Any defined geographic land area identifiable by geological, political, or surveyed boundaries. A... ictalurid fish species. SVC-susceptible species. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon...

  9. Interactions of highly and low virulent Flavobacterium columnare isolates with gill tissue in carp and rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Annelies Maria; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Dewulf, Jeroen; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Cornelissen, Maria; Bossier, Peter; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Decostere, Annemie

    2015-03-06

    The interactions of Flavobacterium columnare isolates of different virulence with the gills of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) were investigated. Both fish species were exposed to different high (HV) or low virulence (LV) isolates and sacrificed at seven predetermined times post-challenge. Histopathological and ultrastructural examination of carp and rainbow trout inoculated with the HV-isolate disclosed bacterial invasion and concomitant destruction of the gill tissue, gradually spreading from the filament tips towards the base, with outer membrane vesicles surrounding most bacterial cells. In carp, 5-10% of the fish inoculated with the LV-isolate became moribund and their gill tissue displayed the same features as described for the HV-isolate, albeit to a lesser degree. The bacterial numbers retrieved from the gill tissue were significantly higher for HV- compared to LV-isolate challenged carp and rainbow trout. TUNEL-stained and caspase-3-immunostained gill sections demonstrated significantly higher apoptotic cell counts in carp and rainbow trout challenged with the HV-isolate compared to control animals. Periodic acid-Schiff/alcian blue staining demonstrated a significantly higher total gill goblet cell count for HV- and LV-isolate challenged compared to control carp. Moreover, bacterial clusters were embedded in a neutral matrix while being encased by acid mucins, resembling biofilm formation. Eosinophilic granular cell counts were significantly higher in the HV-isolate compared to LV-isolate inoculated and control carp. The present data indicate a high colonization capacity, and the destructive and apoptotic-promoting features of the HV-isolate, and point towards important dynamic host mucin-F. columnare interactions warranting further research.

  10. Central and peripheral interleukin-1ß and interleukin-1 receptor I expression and their role in the acute stress response of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, J.R.; Huising, M.O.; Leon, K.M.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    In fish, the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI-axis), the equivalent of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) in mammals, is activated during stress and leads to production and release of cortisol by the interregnal cells in the head kidney. In mammals, the cytokine

  11. Consequent effects of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) predation on parasite infection and body condition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondračková, Markéta; Valová, Zdenka; Kortan, J.; Vojtek, L.; Adámek, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 4 (2012), s. 1487-1493 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ichthyophthirius multifiliis * Channel catfish * Crowding stress * Arctic charr * Fish * Susceptibility * Monogeneans Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012

  12. Assessment of silver nanoparticle toxicity for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish embryos using a novel method controlling the agglomeration in the aquatic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opršal, J.; Bláha, L.; Pouzar, M.; Knotek, P.; Vlček, Milan; Hrdá, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 23 (2015), s. 19124-19132 ISSN 0944-1344 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanosilver * agglomeration * fish embryo Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.760, year: 2015

  13. Biochemical parameters of blood plasma and content of microcystins in tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from hypertrophic pond with cyanobacterial water bloom

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopp, Radovan; Mareš, J.; Palíková, M.; Navrátil, S.; Kubíček, Z.; Ziková, A.; Hlávková, J.; Bláha, Luděk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 15 (2009), s. 1683-1693 ISSN 1355-557X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : microcystin * aquaculture * biochemistry Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.099, year: 2009

  14. Reliability of non-lethal assessment methods of body composition and energetic status exemplified by applications to eel (Anguilla anguilla) and carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim

    2013-01-01

    tNon-lethal assessments of proximate body composition of fish can help unravelling the physiologicaland condition-dependent mechanisms of individual responses to ecological challenges. Common non-lethal methods designed to index nutrient composition in fish include the relative condition factor (Kn),bioelectric...... impedance-based assessments of body composition (BIA), and microwave-based “fat” meters(FM). Previous studies have revealed mixed findings as to the reliability of each of these. We compared theperformance of Kn, BIA and FM at different temperatures to predict energetic status of the whole bodiesof live eel...

  15. Effects of Pro-Tex on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and adult yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerrigter, J.G.J.; Vis, van de J.W.; Bos, van den R.; Abbink, W.; Spanings, T.; Zethof, J.; Louzao Martinez, L.; Andel, van W.F.M.; Lopez-Luna, J.; Flik, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture practices bring several stressful events to fish. Stressors not only activate the hypothalamus–pituitary–interrenal-axis, but also evoke cellular stress responses. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is among the best studied mechanisms of the cellular stress response. An extract

  16. Enzyme treatment for elimination of egg stickness in tench (Tinca Tinca L.), European catfish (Silurus Glanis L.) and common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linhart, Otomar; Rodina, Marek; Gela, David; Flajšhans, Martin; Kocour, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 28, - (2004), s. 507-508 ISSN 0920-1742 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 403; GA MŠk ME 420; GA AV ČR IBS5045314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : aquaculture * egg * enzyme Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2004

  17. Effect of fish size on transmission of fish-borne trematodes (Heterophyidae) to common carps (Cyprinus carpio) and implications for intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, A.S.; Graat, E.A.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish-borne trematodes are reported to affect the health of more than 40 million people worldwide. Few experimental studies are available on fish size dependent gain (attack rates of cercariae) or loss (mortality of metacercariae) of fish-borne trematodes. Aim was to quantify the relation between

  18. The effect of the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin on somatic indices and oxidative stress parameters in early stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Charvátová, N.; Želinská, G.; Dobšíková, R.; Stancová, V.; Živná, D.; Plhalová, L.; Blahová, J.; Sehonová, P.; Maršálek, P.; Bartošková, M.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Piskořová, I.; Svobodová, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, Supplement 1 (2015), s. 79-87 ISSN 0172-780X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : antibiotics * fish * morphometry * antioxidant enzymes * lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.946, year: 2015

  19. Effects of ions on the motility of fresh and demembranate spermatozoa of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)and paddlefish (Polyodon spathula)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linhart, Otomar; Cosson, J.; Mims, S. D.; Rodina, Marek; Gela, David; Shelton, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 28, - (2004), s. 203-205 ISSN 0920-1742 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0178 Grant - others:CBG Program(US) KYX-01-11469 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : fish * spermatozoa * motility Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2004

  20. Early intrauterine embryonic development in Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Lytocestidae), an invasive tapeworm of carp (Cyprinus carpio): an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Mackiewicz, John S; Młocicki, Daniel; Swiderski, Zdzisław; Nebesářová, Jana

    2012-02-01

    Intrauterine embryonic development in the caryophyllidean tapeworm Khawia sinensis has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen. Contrary to previous light microscopy findings that reported the release of non-embryonated eggs of K. sinenesis to the external environment, the present study documents various stages of embryonation (ovoviviparity) within the intrauterine eggs of this cestode. At the initial stage of embryonic development, each fertilised oocyte is accompanied by several vitellocytes that become enclosed within the operculate, electrondense shell. Cleavage divisions result in formation of blastomeres (up to about 24 cells) of various sizes. Mitotic divisions and apparent rosette arrangment of the blastomeres, the latter atypical within the Eucestoda, are observed for the first time in the intrauterine eggs of K. sinenesis. The early embryo enclosed within the electrondense shell is surrounded by a thin membraneous layer which in some enlarged regions shows presence of nuclei. Simultaneously to multiplication and differentiation, some of the blastomeres undergo deterioration. A progressive degeneration of the vitellocytes within eggs provides nutritive reserves, including lipids, for the developing embryo. The possible significance of this atypical timing of the intrauterine embryonic development to (1) the ecology of K. sinensis and that of a recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe; and (2) the affiliation of caryophyllideans with other lower cestodes, are discussed.

  1. Effects of different oxygen saturation on activity of complex biomass and aqueous crude extract of cyanobacteria during embryonal development in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palíková, M.; Krejčí, R.; Hilscherová, Klára; Buryšková, B.; Babica, Pavel; Navrátil, S.; Kopp, R.; Bláha, Luděk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 2 (2007), s. 291-299 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6005411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ammonia * cyanobacteria * embryonal test Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.687, year: 2007

  2. Effects of carbon nanomaterials fullerene C{sub 60} and fullerol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22} on gills of fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socoowski Britto, Roberta; Longaray Garcia, Marcia; Martins da Rocha, Alessandra [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Artigas Flores, Juliana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Pinheiro, Mauricio V. Brant [Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil); Monserrat, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L., E-mail: josenclerf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    In consequence of their growing use and demand, the inevitable environmental presence of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns about their potential deleterious effects to aquatic environments. The carbon NM fullerene (C{sub 60}), which forms colloidal aggregates in water, and its water-soluble derivative fullerol (C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22}), which possesses antioxidant properties, are known to be photo-excited by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. To investigate their potential hazards to aquatic organisms upon exposure to UV sunlight, this study analyzed (a) the in vitro behavior of fullerene and fullerol against peroxyl radicals (ROO{center_dot}) under UV-A radiation and (b) the effects of these photo-excited NMs on oxidative stress parameters in functional gills extracted from the fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae). The variables measured were the total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The obtained results revealed the following: (1) both NMs behaved in vitro as antioxidants against ROO{center_dot} in the dark and as pro-oxidants in presence of UV-A, the latter effect being reversed by the addition of sodium azide, which is a singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) quencher; (2) fullerene induced toxicity with or without UV-A incidence, with a significant (p < 0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation (with greater damage under illumination), a decrease in GCL activity, and the depletion of GSH stocks (under illumination), all of which were attributed to {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation; and (3) fullerol also decreased GCL activity and GSH formation (p < 0.05) but without lipid damage. The overall results show that fullerene can be toxic with or without light incidence, whereas UV radiation seems to play a key role in the environmental toxicity of carbon NMs through {sup 1}O{sub 2} formation.

  3. Polymorphism of transferrin of carp seminal plasma: relationship to blood transferrin and sperm motility characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczak, Mariola; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Jurecka, Patrycja; Słowińska, Mariola; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a major protein of carp (Cyprinus carpio) seminal plasma. Its relationship with milt quality is unknown. In this study, we sought to determine if Tf is polymorphic in carp seminal plasma and if this polymorphism is related to sperm motility characteristics. We screened males of purebred common carp line (Polish line R6) for Tf polymorphism in blood plasma. The majority of Tf genotypes represented only DD and DG variants. We then collected milt from preselected DD and DG genotypes and tested their sperm motility characteristics using computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA). Tf polymorphism in seminal plasma was found to be identical with that of blood. However, the relationships between Tf polymorphism and iron metabolic parameters were different for blood and semen. These data suggest different regulation of Tf in liver and testis. We found substantial differences in sperm motility characteristics between both genotypes. Spermatozoa of DG males were characterized by lower curvilinear velocity (VCL), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), higher linearity (LIN) and straightness (STR) of movement as compared to DD males. No differences were found in other sperm characteristics such as sperm concentration and percentage of sperm motility. Our results suggest that sperm motility parameters are related to Tf polymorphism and therefore this polymorphism may be related to sperm competitive ability.

  4. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

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    Jessica J Eichmiller

    Full Text Available Although environmental DNA (eDNA has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp', an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA, in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5, indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart.

  5. Production of periphyton to enhance yield in polyculture ponds with carps and small indigenous species

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    Sabita Jha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although carp polyculture is well established throughout southern Asia, its overall efficiency in providing sufficient nutrients and financial profit remains variable. Site-specific adjustments are needed to improve efficiencies of polyculture under local circumstances. We evaluated variations of carp polyculture systems in two separate trials: one on a research station (on-station, and one in farmers’ ponds (on-farm. The on-station experiment included four treatments: TF (carp + 100% feed, TFS (carp + SIS (small indigenous species +100% feed, TFSP (carp + SIS + 50% feed + bamboo substrate and TSP (carp + SIS+ bamboo substrate with no feed, each done with three replicates. Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, rohu (Labeo rohita, and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala were stocked at a ratio of 4:1:4:3:5:5 and a rate of 15,000 fish/ha. Additionally, 2 SIS, dedhuwa (Esomus danricus and pothi (Puntius sophore, were stocked at 1:1 and a combined density of 50,000 fish/ha. Carps were fed daily at 5% of body weight (BW for 60 days, then 2% BW for 150 days, using a supplemental feed composed of dough (mustard oil cake and rice bran (1:1, or using grass (for grass carp. Total carp yield and FCR were highest in TFSP ponds. Gross margin was also higher in treatments enhanced with periphyton (TFSP and TSP. Overall, TFSP was determined the best on-station result, based on total production of fish and profit. The two treatments with the highest net fish yield, TF and TFSP, were introduced to 37 women farmers in Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts for on-farm trials. After 8 months of culture, total fish weight and gross margin were 24.0% and 51.2% higher, respectively, in TFSP ponds than in TF ponds. Reduced feed application with increased periphyton enhancement dramatically improved profit while maintaining fish yields similar to

  6. Characterization of common carp transcriptome: sequencing, de novo assembly, annotation and comparative genomics.

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    Peifeng Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient transcriptome data available. The objective of the project is to sequence transcriptome deeply and provide well-assembled transcriptome sequences to common carp research community. RESULT: Transcriptome sequencing of common carp was performed using Roche 454 platform. A total of 1,418,591 clean ESTs were collected and assembled into 36,811 cDNA contigs, with average length of 888 bp and N50 length of 1,002 bp. Annotation was performed and a total of 19,165 unique proteins were identified from assembled contigs. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed and classified all contigs into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. Open Reading Frames (ORFs were detected from 29,869 (81.1% contigs with an average ORF length of 763 bp. From these contigs, 9,625 full-length cDNAs were identified with sequence length from 201 bp to 9,956 bp. Comparative analysis revealed that 27,693(75.2% contigs have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins, and 24,371(66.2%, 24,501(66.5% and 25,025(70.0% to teraodon, medaka and three-spined stickleback refseq proteins. A total of 2,064 microsatellites were initially identified from 1,730 contigs, and 1,639 unique sequences had sufficient flanking sequences on both sides for primer design. CONCLUSION: The transcriptome of common carp had been deep sequenced, de novo assembled and characterized, providing the valuable resource for better understanding of common carp genome. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on common carp genome, and

  7. Fish as aquatic “sniffer dogs”: Olfactory-mediated behaviors and conditioning of common carps to cadaver odors

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    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even with the aide of modern technology, the search for cadaver or human remains underwater is still assisted by sniffer dogs mainly because of their superior sense of olfaction. However, dogs rely on volatile organic compounds in the air and that this may constraint their ability when searching for submerged cadavers. On the other hand, it has long been recognized that fishes use olfaction to sample odors from their surroundings to accomplish a task and are capable of acquiring new skills through training or conditioning. Despite decades of experimental and observational studies of the olfactory sensitivities of fishes, its potential application to forensic sciences has never been truly explored. In this pioneering research, we explore the possibility of using fish olfaction in detecting cadaver odors (porcine origin, using common carps Cyprinus carpio as model species in a series of experiments under laboratory conditions. We first observed the innate behavior of carps towards cadaver odors. Afterwards, the carps were trained in two-choice chamber experimental tanks by appetitive olfactory conditioning and odor masking methods. We also experimented on the effects of cadaver odors by early exposure using eggs and larval impregnation techniques, and observing the behaviors when they develop to early juveniles. In general, we found out that common carps are naturally repelled to cadaver odors. However using our devised conditioning protocol, results show that the conditioned carps were able to learn to be attracted to cadaver odors despite their innate aversion. The development of fish for cadaver detection is a simple but innovative idea and that it may present a cost-effective and reliable solution for the shortcomings of the existing methods in underwater cadaver search. We anticipate that this research will open up a variety of different studies in pursuit of developing fishes as biosensors and its application to forensic sciences.

  8. Efficacy Testing of Orally Administered Praziquantel to Common Carp Naturally Infected by Caryophyllidean Tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda

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    Eliška Sudová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effects of orally applied praziquantel on the treatment efficacy against most abundant tapeworms (Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 and Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 of common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus. Naturally infected fish (1.5-year-old; K1-2 were divided into 6 groups. Three trial groups were administered praziquantel mixed in heat-treated amyloid vehicle (at doses of 50 mg kg-1 body weight. In 3 groups of control, the fish were administered amyloid vehicle only. Fish were examined using gut dissection 2, 4 and 6 days after the administration. The location, intensity and prevalence of individual species of tapeworms were recorded. A. huronensis and K. sinensis were found in the gut of carp together. A. huronensis was situated in the oesophageal part of foregut, and K. sinensis came after – immediately before the first intestine loop, of the intestines of carp. The invasion of A. huronensis was fully eliminated in all trial groups after 4 days whereas some specimens of K. sinensis still persisted in the gut of few fish. The full elimination of both parasites was observed 6 days after administration. Our results showed that elimination of K. sinensis takes longer than elimination of A. huronensis. The dose of 50 mg kg-1 of orally administered praziquantel is effectual to control A. huronensis and K. sinensis infections in common carp successfully, however, a significant decrease of the number of parasites was also caused by a single oral administration of big bolus vehicle and leaving unfed fish in the clean water.

  9. First evidence of endocrine disruption in feral carp from the Ebro River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavado, Ramon; Thibaut, Remi; Raldua, Demetrio; Martin, Rebeca; Porte, Cinta

    2004-01-01

    Feral carps (Cyprinus carpio) were collected in spring 2001 from five sites along the lower course of Ebro River (Spain) with the aim of investigating the existence of endocrine-disrupting effects. Several findings (low gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasmatic vitellogenin (VTG), depressed levels of testosterone, and histological alterations in gonads) detected in male carps downstream of Zaragoza's sewage treatment plant (STP) strongly suggest that the concentration of sewage effluent in the area is a major causal factor leading to the detected estrogenic effects. Important alterations (viz. delayed maturation in females, indications of arrested spermatogenesis in males) were detected in carps from Flix, a heavily industrialized area. Low ovarian P-450 aromatase and reduced glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol in males were observed in Zaragoza and Canal Imperial de Aragon--an agricultural area--which suggest decreased estrogen synthesis, and possibly, reduced sex hormone excretion in those organisms. These results were related to some in vitro assays aimed to assess the interference of model compounds (atrazin, vinclozolin, diuron, pp'-DDE, dicofol, triphenyltin, nonylphenol, and fenarimol) with the glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol by liver microsomal fractions. The fungicide fenarimol (10-20 μM) and nonylphenol (50 μM) were found to significantly inhibit (20%) both activities at relatively low doses. Overall, this work provides the first evidence of the existence of significant alterations of the endocrine system of carps from the medium-low course of the Ebro River and demonstrates the ability of several chemicals to modulate the inactivation of endogenous steroids

  10. Expression profiles of carp IRF-3/-7 correlate with the up-regulation of RIG-I/MAVS/TRAF3/TBK1, four pivotal molecules in RIG-I signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hong; Liu, Hong; Kong, Renqiu; Wang, Lu; Wang, Yaping; Hu, Wei; Guo, Qionglin

    2011-01-01

    The cytoplasmic helicase protein RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) and downstream signaling molecules, MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein), TRAF3 (TNF-receptor-associated factor 3) and TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase 1), have significant roles in the recognition of cytoplasmic 5'-triphosphate ssRNA and short dsRNA, and phosphorylation of IRF-3 (interferon regulatory factor 3) and IRF-7 which is responsible for the induction of type I interferons (IFN). In the present study, the full-length cDNAs of RIG-I, MAVS, TRAF3 and TBK1 were cloned and identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The deduced protein of carp RIG-I is of 946 aa (amino acids), consisting of two CARDs (caspase-recruitment domain), a DEXDc (DExD/H box-containing domain), a HELICc (helicase superfamily c-terminal domain) and a RD (regulatory domain). Carp MAVS is of 585 aa, containing a CARD, a proline-rich region and a TM (transmembrane domain). Carp TRAF3 encodes a protein of 573 aa, including a RING (really interesting new gene), two TRAF-type zinc fingers, a coiled coil and a MATH-TRAF3 (meprin and TRAF homology) domain. Carp TBK1 is of 727 aa and contains a S_TKc domain (Serine/Threonine protein kinases, catalytic domain). Carp RIG-I, MAVS, TRAF3 and TBK1 mRNAs are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined. In response to SVCV infection, carp RIG-I and MAVS mRNAs were up-regulated at different levels in spleen, head kidney and intestine tissues at different time points. Similarly, both carp IRF-3 and IRF-7 mRNAs were significantly up-regulated in the detected tissues. Especially in intestine, the IRF-3 and IRF-7 mRNAs of carp increased and reached 25.3-fold (at 3 dpi) and 224.7-fold (at 5 dpi). Noteworthily, a significant growth of carp TRAF3 and TBK1 mRNA was also mainly found in intestine (7.0-fold and 11.3-fold at 5 dpi, respectively). These data implied that the expression profiles of IRF-3/-7 mRNAs in carp correlate with the up-regulation of RIG-I/MAVS/TRAF3/TBK, and

  11. The effects of subchronic exposure to ketoprofen on early developmental stages of common carp

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    Eva Prášková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketoprofen residues have been found in surface water where they present a potential risk to nontarget aquatic species. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of ketoprofen in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on 300 embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio were investigated during a 30 day toxicity test with concentrations of ketoprofen: 0.003, 2.1, 6.3 and 21 mg/l. The exposure to ketoprofen showed no effect on mortality, but we observed significant delay (P P < 0.05 in development were revealed at 2.1, 6.3 and 21 mg/l ketoprofen. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and the determination of developmental stages, the lowest observed effect concentration was 0.003 mg/l. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of ketoprofen in Czech rivers could have a negative effect on the growth and development of carp embryos and larvae. These tests have not yet been performed. Further research and search for a mechanism to reduce the incidence of ketoprofen in the waters by better wastewater treatment is required.

  12. Transgenic common carp do not have the ability to expand populations.

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    Hao Lian

    Full Text Available The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of "all-fish" growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1∶1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear.

  13. Water-quality assessment of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin- Polychlorinated biphenyls in common carp and walleye fillets, 1975-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Anderson, Jesse P.

    1998-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) fillets from rivers in the Upper Mississippi River Basin upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin are summarized. PCB concentrations in common carp and walleye fillets collected from rivers in the UMIS during 1975-95 by the Minnesota Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program (MFCMP) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) were analyzed. PCBs in fish tissue are of concern because PCBs are potentially toxic, teratogenic, and are linked to poor fetal development and endocrine disruption in fish and other animals including humans, that consume fish. This summary was part of an analysis of historical data for the Upper Mississippi River (UMIS) study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The UMIS study unit is a 47,000 square-mile basin that includes the drainage of the Mississippi River upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin and encompasses the Twin Cities metropolitan area. PCB concentrations for individual samples at all sites ranged from 0.07 to 33.0 milligrams per kilograms (mg/kg) for common carp and from 0.07 to 9.8 mg/kg for walleye during 1975-95. During 1975-79 and 1980-87, 10 and 4 percent of walleye samples and 45 and 36 percent of common carp samples, respectively, exceeded the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline of 2 mg/kg PCB in fish tissue. PCB concentrations in individual common carp and walleye samples were below 2 mg/kg after 1987. Median PCB concentrations at individual sites and within stream segments were generally greatest in common carp and walleye from Mississippi River segments in the TCMA during 1975-79 and 1980-87. There was a significant difference among lipid-normalized PCB (LNPCB) concentrations in common carp, considering all stream segments combined, during all three time periods (1975-79, 1980-87, and 1988-95). LNPCB concentrations in common carp and walleye at

  14. Distinct seasonal migration patterns of Japanese native and non-native genotypes of common carp estimated by environmental DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchii, Kimiko; Doi, Hideyuki; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2017-10-01

    Understanding behavioral differences between intraspecific genotypes of aquatic animals is challenging because we cannot directly observe the animals underwater or visually distinguish morphologically similar counterparts. Here, we tested a new monitoring tool that uses environmental DNA (eDNA), an assemblage of DNA in environmental water, to specifically detect Japanese native and introduced non-native genotypes of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) in Lake Biwa, Japan, and estimated differences between the two genotypes in the use of inland habitats. We monitored the ratios of native and non-native single nucleotide polymorphism alleles of a mitochondrial locus of common carp in a lagoon connected to Lake Biwa for 3 years using eDNA. We observed seasonal dynamics in the allele frequency showing that the native genotype frequency peaked every spring, suggesting that native individuals migrated to the lagoon for spawning and then returned to the main lake, whereas non-native individuals tended to stay in the lagoon. The estimated migration patterns corresponded with the estimates of a previous study, which were based on commercial fish catch data. Our findings suggest that eDNA-based monitoring can be useful tool for addressing intraspecific behavioral differences underwater.

  15. Comparative nutritional value of Jatropha curcas protein isolate and soy protein isolate in common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Sunil; Kumar, Vikas; Makkar, Harinder P S; Stadtlander, Timo; Romano, Nicholas; Becker, Klaus

    2018-02-01

    Jatropha seed cake (JSC) is an excellent source of protein but does contain some antinutritional factors (ANF) that can act as toxins and thus negatively affect the growth and health status of fish. While this can limit the use of JSC, detoxified Jatropha protein isolate (DJPI) may be a better option. An 8-week study was performed to evaluate dietary DJPI to common carp Cyprinus carpio. Five iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein of 38%) were formulated that consisted of a C ontrol (fish meal (FM) based protein), J 50 or J 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI), and S 50 or S 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate, SPI) and fed to triplicate groups of 75 carp fingerlings (75; av. wt. ± SD; 11.4 ± 0.25 g). The growth, feeding efficiencies, digestibility, plasma biochemistry, and intestinal enzymes were measured. Results showed that growth performance of fish fed the S 75 - or DJPI-based diets were not significantly different from those fed the C ontrol diet, while carp fed the S 50 had significantly better growth than the J 75 diet. Fish fed the J 75 diet had significantly lower protein and lipid digestibility as well as significantly lower intestinal amylase and protease activities than all other groups. However, all plant protein-based diets led to significantly higher crude protein, crude lipid, and gross energy in the body of common carp compared to the control treatment. Plasma cholesterol and creatinine significantly decreased in the plant protein fed groups, although plasma triglyceride as well as the red blood cells count, hematocrit, albumin, globulin, total plasma protein, and lysozyme activity were higher in plant protein fed groups compared to FM fed group. White blood cells, hemoglobulin concentration, alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase activities, and glucose level in blood did not differ significantly among treatments. The results suggest that the DJPI is non-toxic to carp and can be used to replace FM in

  16. Effect of atrazine (Herbicide) on blood parameters of common carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    The alterations of the above parameters could be used as an important tool for the assessment of pathological conditions of fish. Key words: Atrazine, acute toxicity, hematology, biochemical, Cyprinus carpio. INTRODUCTION. Due to rapid industrialization, application of synthetic fertilizers and use of various insecticides and ...

  17. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity in carp brain and muscle after acute exposure to diafuran Atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase em cérebro e músculo de carpas após exposição aguda ao diafuran

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    Jaqueline Ineu Golombieski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sublethal adverse effects may result from exposure of aquatic organisms to insecticides at environmentally relevant concentrations. Fingerlings of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Valenciennes, 1844, and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, Richardson, 1845 were exposed to diafuran, an insecticide widely used during rice cultivation in Southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between the lethal concentration (LC50 of diafuran and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in brain and muscle tissues of these species as a possible early biomarker of exposure to this insecticide. LC50 was determined for fish exposed to diafuran concentrations during 96 h (short term: common carp: control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mg L-1; grass carp: control, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 3.5 mg L-1 and, bighead carp: control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg L-1, as well as the determination of AChE at concentrations near LC50 for these species. LC50 values (nominal concentrations were 1.81 mg L-1 for the common carp, 2.71 mg L-1 for the grass carp and, 2.37 mg L-1 for the bighead carp. All carps exposed to diafuran were lethargic (lower concentrations or immobile. Diafuran inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity in brain (~38% and muscle (~50% of all species. Muscle of bighead carp under control treatment showed higher specific AChE activity than brain (14.44 against 5.94 µmol min-1 g protein-1, respectively. Concentrations of diafuran used for rice cropping may affect Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Aristichthys nobilis behaviors and the AChE activities in brain and muscle of these species may be an early biomarker of toxicity of this insecticide.Exposição a inseticidas em concentrações elevadas no ambiente podem ocasionar efeitos adversos subletais em organismos aquáticos. Alevinos de carpa húngara (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758, carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon

  18. Research of acute influence of new fertlizer «Rost-concentrate» on the hydrobionts Сyprinus carpio L. and Daphnia magna Straus

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    N. Tson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To establish and assess acute toxicity parameters of "ROST-concentrate (10+7+7" acute toxicity for planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna Straus and carp fingerlings Cyprinus carpio L. Methodology."ROST-concentrate (10+7+7" contains macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, which are valuable for the pond ecosystem, and trace elements in environmentally safe chelate form. We determined the vital (LC0, absolutely lethal (LC100 and median (LC50 drug concentrations on the test organisms such as crustacean D. magna (Cladocera and carp fingerlings C. carpio. The determination of acute lethal toxicity on D. magna was conducted according to DSTU 4173: 2003 that corresponded to the international standard ISO 6341: 2012, MOD [7]. The temperature of the experiment was 20±0.5 oC. The exposure time - 96 hours. Daphnia were not fed. Following "ROST-concentrate (10+7+7" concentrations were tested: 100; 75; 50; 25; 10; 1; 0.5; 0.1; 0.05; 0.01; 0,005; 0,001 ml/dm3. We also determined the acute lethal toxicity on carp fingerings with an average weight of 6.78±0.63 grams following the standardized procedure [8]. Pond water was used in the experiment. Ten fish were placed into a 40 L aquarium. Following concentrations of "ROST-concentrate (10+7+7" were investigated: 0,5; 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10; 15; 20; 30; 40 mg/L. The exposure time was 24 hours. Water temperature was 19±1oC. LC50 drug median concentration was calculated according to G. Kerber method. Findings. The parameters of integral acute toxicity of "ROST-concentrate (10+7+7" on typical organisms of fish pond ecosystems.With 96 h exposure on juvenile cladoceran D. magna, lethal concentration was LC100 = 5,00 ml/dm3, median concentration was LC50 = 0,15 ml/dm3, vital concentration was LC0 = 0,01 ml/dm3. According to the classification of toxic substances, the "ROST-concentrate (10+7+7" is characterized by low toxicity on juvenile cladoceran D. magna. With 24 h exposure on carp

  19. The regeneration of the tail fin actinotrichia of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758 under the action of naproxen A regeneração das actinotriquias da nadadeira caudal da carpa (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758 sob a ação do naproxeno

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    PK. Böckelmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A conglomerate of small, rigid, fusiform spicules known as actinotrichia sustains the edge of tail fins of teleost. After amputation, these structures show an extremely fast regenerative capacity. In this study we observed the effect of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, naproxen, used in the treatment of degenerative articular diseases, during the process of actinotrichia regeneration. For this purpose, regenerating tissue from animals in contact with the drug was submitted to histochemical and ultrastructural analysis in comparison to tissue from animals under normal conditions, i.e., not in contact with the drug in question. Actinotrichia regeneration was similar in both animals, indicating that naproxen, at the dose used in the present study, did not interfere with actinotrichia synthesis during the regenerative process of the tail fin. This could be because naproxen did not influence the expression of the genes required for the regeneration process, such as the Sonic hedgehog (Shh gene, which is involved in actinotrichia formation.A borda da nadadeira caudal de teleósteo é sustentada por um conglomerado de espículas pequenas, rígidas e fusiformes chamadas actinotriquias. Essas estruturas, após a amputação, apresentam uma capacidade regenerativa extremamente rápida. Neste trabalho estudamos o efeito de uma droga anti-inflamatória não esteroide, o naproxeno, utilizada no tratamento de doenças articulares degenerativas, durante o processo de regeneração da actinotriquia. Para isso foram feitas análises histoquímicas e ultraestruturais do tecido em regeneração de animais em contato com a droga comparada com animais em condições normais, ou seja, sem contato com a droga em questão. Os animais em contato com a droga apresentaram a regeneração da actinotriquia de modo semelhante ao dos animais mantidos em condições normais, indicando que o naproxeno, na dose utilizada neste trabalho, não interferiu na síntese das actinotriquias durante o processo regenerativo da nadadeira caudal. Isto talvez seja porque o naproxeno não tenha influenciado a expressão dos genes necessários para o processo de regeneração, tal como o gene Sonic hedgehog (Shh, que está envolvido na formação da actinotriquia.

  20. Tlr22 structure and expression characteristic of barbel chub, Squaliobarbus curriculus provides insights into antiviral immunity against infection with grass carp reovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong-Hua; Li, Wei; Fan, Yu-Ding; Liu, Qiao-Lin; Zeng, Ling-Bing; Xiao, Tiao-Yi

    2017-07-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the most virulent agent to Grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, and causes a severe infectious disease called hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. Generally, barbel chub, Squaliobarbus curriculus, a genetically closely related species to grass carp, exhibits significant resistance against GCRV infection compared to grass carp. To investigate whether the Toll-like receptor 22 (tlr22) has got a vital role against the GCRV infection, the full cDNA sequence of tlr22 from barbel chub (Sctlr22) was cloned by RACE-PCR, and the structure and expression feature were studied. The complete cDNA sequence of Sctlr22 has a size of 3504 bp, encoding for 960 amino acid residues. Sctlr22 possesses typical structural features of the tlrs family, including 19 leucine rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane (TM) and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that barbel chub Tlr22 was clustered together with the Tlr22 of grass carp (Citlr22). Structurally, barbel chub Tlr22 have two different structure in LRRs domain and TIR domain with grass carp (Susceptible to GCRV), but was similar to that of Danio rerio and Cyprinus carpio (Resistance to GCRV). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis has shown that Sctlr22 is prominently expressed in immune relevant tissues such as head kidney and spleen. After GCRV infection, Sctlr22 expression level was up-regulated in four tested tissues and the highest expression of Sctlr22 appeared fast and higher than Citlr22. The interferon-β (ifn-β) expression level in CIK cells over-expressing fused cDNA encoding the LRR domain of Sctlr22 to the transmembrane and TIR domain of Citlr22 was significantly higher than that cells overexpressing Citlr22 after GCRV infection. The virus titer was significantly reduced compared to Citlr22 over-expressing cells. These results suggested that Sctlr22 seems to play a vital role in the immune response against GCRV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Utilization of biofloc meal as a feed ingredient for Nile tilapia and common carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Ekasari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was aimed to evaluate the utilisation of biofloc meal collected from biofloc-based catfish intensive culture as a mix ingredient for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and common carp Cyprinus carpio diet. A control diet containing 29.03% crude protein was used in this experiment. Experimental diet was made by mixing 30% biofloc waste meal with the control diet and repelleted after the addition of 2% of binder. To determine the experimental feed digestibility, 0.5% of Cr2O3 was added as a marker for digestibility. The feed was offered to satiation at a frequency of 3 times a day for 28 days of experimentation. Nile tilapia and common carp juveniles with an initial average body weight of 11.72±0.04 g and 8.81±0.04 g, respectively, were used as the experimental animals. Each fish species were randomly stocked with a density of 10 fish/aquarium (30´45´30 cm3. The results showed that dry matter digestibility of diets with 30 % biofloc waste meal in both fish species were significantly lower than those of the controls (P<0.05. However, protein, lipid and phosphorus digestibilities of diets containing biofloc waste meal were significantly higher than those of the controls (P<0.05. Feeding with biofloc waste meal mixed feed to tilapia resulted in lower growth rate compared to that to fed control feed. On the other hand, similar treatment to common carp resulted in comparable growth rate to the control treatment.Keywords: biofloc meal, digestibility, growth performance, tilapia, common carp ABSTRAK                                                                                      Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pemanfaatan tepung bioflok yang dikumpulkan dari limbah pemeliharaan ikan lele intensif berbasis teknologi bioflok sebagai campuran pakan untuk ikan nila Oreochromis niloticus dan ikan mas Cyprinus carpio. Pakan kontrol yang

  2. Comparative study of ß-glucan induced respiratory burst measured by nitroblue tetrazolium assay and real-time luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera; Pietretti, D.; Wiegertjes, G. F.

    2013-01-01

    The respiratory burst is an important feature of the immune system. The increase in cellular oxygen uptake that marks the initiation of the respiratory burst is followed by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide which plays a role...... kidney cell fractions and total head kidney cell suspensions and proved to be a fast, reliable, automated multiwell microplate assay to quantitate fish health status modulated by β-glucans....

  3. Transcription of signal-3 cytokines, IL-12 and IFNalphaß, coincides with the timing of CD8alphaß up-regulation durinig viral infection of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forlenza, M.; Carvalho Dias, de J.D.A.; Vesely, E.T.; Pokorova, D.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian naïve CD8+ T cells are activated by antigen (signal 1) and CD28 costimulation (signal 2) to undergo several rounds of cell division, but programming for survival, effector function and memory requires a third signal that can be provided by IL-12 and/or type I interferons. Functional

  4. Histological Investigations on an Intestinal Level in Common Carp, One Summer Old, Fed with Organic Selenium (Selplex Supplemented Fodder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Şara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex on the intestinal mucosa and theimpact on the growth and consumption performances in one summer old common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lausitzand Galitian varieties. The research were conducted on a number of 392 fish, Lausitz variety divided in 2 groups andon 192 fish, Galitian variety, divided into 2 groups. The fish were raised in 2 ponds (one pond for the control groupand one pond for the experimental group, in a semi-intensive polyculture system. The rearing conditions wereidentical for the 2 groups. The fodder for the experimental group was supplemented with Selenium (0.03mg/kgfodder. At the end of the experiment, the Selenium supplementation had a positive influence on the height of theintestinal villi. The experimental group (both varieties showed significant differences compared with the controlgroup. The mean height of the intestinal microvilli from the experimental group, Lausitz variety, was 2.328μm,0.95% bigger compared to the same variety of the control group. The Galitian variety showed a mean height of themicrovilli of 2.227μm, 0.72% biger than the same variety of the control group. This development of the villistructures in the experimental groups led to an increase in the absorption surface of the intestine which explains theaccelerated growth and the improvement of the feed conversion ratio.

  5. Molecular fingerprinting of the myxozoan community in common carp suffering Swim Bladder Inflammation (SBI) identifies multiple etiological agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holzer, Astrid S.; Hartigan, Ashlie; Patra, Sneha; Pecková, Hana; Eszterbauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, AUG 28 2014 (2014), s. 398 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) M200961205; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cyprinus carpio carpio * swim bladder inflammation * fish disease * Myxozoa * molecular diagnostic * rDNA * in situ hybridisation Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  6. The effects of temperature and food availability on growth, flexibility in metabolic rates and their relationships in juvenile common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-Qing; Fu, Cheng; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2018-03-01

    Flexibility in phenotypic traits can allow organisms to handle environmental changes. However, the ecological consequences of flexibility in metabolic rates are poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether the links between growth and flexibility in metabolic rates vary between two temperatures. Common carp Cyprinus carpio were raised in three temperature treatments [the 18°C, 28°C and 28°C-food control (28°C-FC)] and fed to satiation of receiving food either once or twice daily for 4weeks. The morphology and metabolic rates (standard metabolic rate, SMR; maximum metabolic rate, MMR) were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment. The mean total food ingested by fish in the 28°C-FC treatment was the same as that by fish in the 18°C treatment at each food availability. The final SMR (not MMR and aerobic scope, AS=MMR-SMR) increased more in the 28°C and 28°C-FC treatments with twice-daily feedings than once-daily feedings. Fish in the 28°C treatment had a higher specific growth rate (SGR) than fish in the 28°C-FC and 18°C treatments at both food availabilities. However, no differences in feeding efficiency (FE) were found among the three treatments in fish fed twice daily. The flexibility in SMR was related to individual differences in SGR, not with food intake and FE; individuals who increased their SMR more had a smaller growth performance with twice-daily feedings at 28°C, but it did not exist at 18°C. Flexibility in SMR provides a growth advantage in juvenile common carp experiencing changes in food availability and this link is temperature-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Feeding behavior of black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (Pisces: Cyprinidae) on fry of other fish species and trematode transmitting snail species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen Manh; The, Dang Tat; Stauffer, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    stressed in the experimental aquaria. Under semi-field conditions, presence of the black carp had no effect on survival of fry of Oreochromis niloticus and C. carpio both in the absence and presence of snails as alternative food. The black carp consumed most snails offered with the exception of some...

  8. Carp feeding activity and habitat utilisation in relation to supplementary feeding in a semi-intensive aquaculture pond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Pavel; Adámek, Zdeněk; Roche, Kevin Francis; Mrkvová, Markéta; Štarhová, Dagmar; Prášek, Václav; Zukal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2016), s. 1627-1640 ISSN 0967-6120 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cyprinus carpio * telemetry * fish diet * fat content * pond aquaculture * water quality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.095, year: 2016

  9. Targeted genomic enrichment and sequencing of CyHV-3 from carp tissues confirms low nucleotide diversity and mixed genotype infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Hammoumi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD is an emerging disease that causes mass mortality in koi and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Its causative agent is Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3, also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV. Although data on the pathogenesis of this deadly virus is relatively abundant in the literature, still little is known about its genomic diversity and about the molecular mechanisms that lead to such a high virulence. In this context, we developed a new strategy for sequencing full-length CyHV-3 genomes directly from infected fish tissues. Total genomic DNA extracted from carp gill tissue was specifically enriched with CyHV-3 sequences through hybridization to a set of nearly 2 million overlapping probes designed to cover the entire genome length, using KHV-J sequence (GenBank accession number AP008984 as reference. Applied to 7 CyHV-3 specimens from Poland and Indonesia, this targeted genomic enrichment enabled recovery of the full genomes with >99.9% reference coverage. The enrichment rate was directly correlated to the estimated number of viral copies contained in the DNA extracts used for library preparation, which varied between ∼5000 and ∼2×107. The average sequencing depth was >200 for all samples, thus allowing the search for variants with high confidence. Sequence analyses highlighted a significant proportion of intra-specimen sequence heterogeneity, suggesting the presence of mixed infections in all investigated fish. They also showed that inter-specimen genetic diversity at the genome scale was very low (>99.95% of sequence identity. By enabling full genome comparisons directly from infected fish tissues, this new method will be valuable to trace outbreaks rapidly and at a reasonable cost, and in turn to understand the transmission routes of CyHV-3.

  10. Indispensable amino acid concentrations decrease in tissues of stomachless fish, common carp in response to free amino acid- or peptide-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Dabrowski, K; Hliwa, P; Gomulka, P

    2006-09-01

    The premise that free amino acid or dipeptide based diets will resolve the nutritional inadequacy of formulated feeds for larval and juvenile fish and improve utilization of nitrogen in comparison to protein-based diets was tested in stomachless fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae. We examined the postprandial whole body free amino acid (FAA) pool in fish that were offered a FAA mixture based diet for the duration of 2 or 4 weeks. We found that the total amount and all indispensable amino acids concentrations in the whole body decreased after a meal. We then fed juvenile carp with dietary amino acids provided in the FAA, dipeptide (PP), or protein (live feed organisms; brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplii, AS) forms. Histidine concentrations in the whole fish body increased in all dietary groups after feeding whereas all other indispensable amino acids decreased in FAA and PP groups in comparison to the AS group. Taurine appears to be the major osmotic pressure balancing free amino acid in larval freshwater fish which may indicate a conditional requirement. We present the first evidence in larval fish that in response to synthetic FAA and PP diets, the whole body indispensable free AA concentrations decreased after feeding. This study shows that amino acids given entirely as FAA or PP cannot sustain stomachless larval fish growth, and may result in depletion of body indispensable AA and most of dispensable AA. The understanding of these responses will determine necessary changes in diet formulations that prevent accelerated excretion of amino acids without protein synthesis.

  11. Dynamic regulation of mRNA and miRNA associated with the developmental stages of skin pigmentation in Japanese ornamental carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xue; Pang, Xiaolei; Wang, Liangyan; Li, Mengrong; Dong, Chuanju; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Lei; Song, Dongying; Feng, Jianxin; Xu, Peng; Li, Xuejun

    2018-04-20

    The Japanese ornamental carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Koi) is famous for multifarious colors and patterns, making it commonly culture and trade across the world. Although functional genes and inheritance of color traits have been commonly studied, seldom attentions were focused on the genetic regulation during the developmental process of pigmentation. To better understand the mechanism of skin color development, we observed the morphogenesis of pigment cells during the post-embryonic stages and analysed the temporal expression pattern of mRNAs/miRNAs profiles in four distinct developmental stages. 59 and 103 differentially expressed genes/miRNAs (DEGs/DEMs) associated with pigmentation and skin were identified, including pax7, mitf, tyr, tyrp1, etc., and the highest DEGs were detected at 11 days post hatching (dph). In addition, the functional characteristics of mRNAs/miRNAs associated with pteridine and carotenoid pathway were also examined. Furthermore, 65 miRNA-mRNA interaction pairs related to pigmentation, pteridines and carotenoids metabolism were detected between different stages. Interestingly, the largest pairs appeared in the transition from 11 dph to 48 dph, which had the similar trend with DEGs further manifesting the importance of 11 dph. This study produced a comprehensive programme of DEGs/DEMs during color development, which will provide resources to understand the regulation mechanism in color formation. The understanding of genetic basis in color formation might promote the production and breeding of the Koi carp. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Hormonal responses of the fish, Cyprinus carpio, to environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... earth's crust, rock, soil, and water, but most waterborne lead derives from human activities such as mining and smelting, coal burning, cement manufacturing, and use in gasoline, batteries, and paint. Environmental pollutants such as metals pose serious risks to many aquatic organisms by changing genetic ...

  13. Nutritional and Digestive Properties of Protein Isolates Extracted from the Muscle of the Common Carp Using pH-Shift Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuanyong; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Chunhong; Zhang, Long; Liu, Jinyang; Liu, Junrong

    2017-02-01

    This study details the nutritional and digestive properties of protein isolates that are extracted from carp ( Cyprinus Carpio L.) muscle using pH shifting methods. Alkaline (ALPI) and acid (ACPI) protein isolates exhibit higher protein yields (87.6%, 76.3%, respectively). In addition to the high recovery of myofibrillar protein, a portion of the water-soluble proteins is also recovered. The moisture contents of ACPI and ALPI are 85.5% and 88.5%, respectively, and the crude protein contents of these two fractions are 83.20% and 83.0%, respectively, both contents of which are higher than those for fresh muscle. Most part of the ash and fat are removed in the separation process. The protein isolation is also found to be lighter and whiter than the fresh muscle and there is no difference between amino acid content of protein isolation and that of fresh muscle. The maximum solubility of water washed surimi is 73.21%, while solubility of ACPI-2 and ALPI-2 (pH 7.0) are 66.67% and 62.08%, respectively. The digestibility of ALPI and ACPI is improved after being treated with chymotrypsin, which is about 7-8 times as that of fresh muscle. The results indicate that the protein isolates have better nutritional and digestive properties than the fresh muscle does in food processing. Common carp is a lower additional value fish that exists in large amount in China. This study investigates nutritional and digestive properties of protein from carp extracted by pH shifting methods. According to the obtained data in this study, pH shifting method is a good protein recovery method that can effectively remove bone spurs, skin, fat and other impurities. In addition, sarcoplasmic proteins can also be recovered. The nutritional properties of protein isolates of carp were suitable for supplementing as an ingredient for human consumption. The pH-shift process greatly improves the protein digestibility. Therefore, there are broad application prospects of the protein isolation as protein

  14. Population study of Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), an invasive parasite of common carp introduced to Europe: mitochondrial cox1 haplotypes and intragenomic ribosomal ITS2 variants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazsalovicsová, E.; Kraľová-Hromadová, I.; Štefka, Jan; Scholz, Tomáš; Hanzelová, V.; Vávrová, S.; Szemes, T.; Kirk, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 1 (2011), 125-131 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER-1 * CYPRINUS-CARPIO * SEQUENCE VARIATION * ANTHONY * PLATYHELMINTHES * VARIABILITY * CESTOIDEA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2011

  15. Recombinant carp parvalbumin, the major cross-reactive fish allergen: a tool for diagnosis and therapy of fish allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Ines; Bugajska-Schretter, Agnes; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Spitzauer, Susanne

    2002-05-01

    IgE-mediated reactions to fish allergens represent one of the most frequent causes of food allergy. We have constructed an expression cDNA library from carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle in phage lambda gt11 and used serum IgE from a fish allergic patient to isolate 33 cDNA clones that coded for two parvalbumin isoforms (Cyp c 1.01 and Cyp c 1.02) with comparable IgE binding capacities. Both isoforms represented calcium-binding proteins that belonged to the beta-lineage of parvalbumins. The Cyp c 1.01 cDNA was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and rCyp c 1.01 was purified to homogeneity. Circular dichroism analysis and mass spectroscopy showed that rCyp c 1.01 represented a folded protein with mainly alpha-helical secondary structure and a molecular mass of 11,416 Da, respectively. rCyp c 1.01 reacted with IgE from all fish-allergic patients tested (n = 60), induced specific and dose-dependent basophil histamine release, and contained most of the IgE epitopes (70%) present in natural allergen extracts from cod, tuna, and salmon. Therefore, it may be used to identify patients suffering from IgE-mediated fish allergy. The therapeutic potential of rCyp c 1.01 is indicated by our findings that rabbit Abs raised against rCyp c 1.01 inhibited the binding of IgE (n = 25) in fish-allergic patients to rCyp c 1.01 between 35 and 97% (84% mean inhibition) and that depletion of calcium strongly reduced IgE recognition of rCyp c 1.01. The latter results suggest that it will be possible to develop strategies for immunotherapy for fish allergy that are based on calcium-free hypoallergenic rCyp c 1.01 derivatives.

  16. Détermination des caractéristiques de maturité sexuelle du Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    L'âge, la taille et le poids de maturité sexuelle ont été étudiés sur 200 Cyprinus carpio à partir de 3 mois d'âge en grossissement dans un étang à Batié (climat Soudano-guinéen, Ouest-Cameroun). L'abattage et la dissection de 20 spécimens choisis au hasard tous les deux mois ont été réalisés sur une période de 19 mois ...

  17. Crescimento de jundiá e carpa húngara criados em sistema de recirculação de água Jundiá growth and Common Carp reared in recirculated water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviani Corrêia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar o crescimento e o rendimento de carcaça e a composição corporal de juvenis de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen e carpa húngara (Cyprinus carpio criados em sistema de recirculação de água, em mono e bicultivo, durante 60 dias, na fase de recria. Cinco tratamentos com três repetições foram testados: 100C=100% carpa; 100J=100% jundiá; 50C50J=50% carpa 50% jundiá; 75C25J=75% carpa 25% jundiá e 25C75J=25% carpa 75% jundiá, sendo utilizados 20 peixes por unidade experimental. Foram avaliados o peso (P, a biomassa total (BT, o fator de condição (FC, a conversão alimentar aparente (CAA, a taxa de crescimento específico (TCE, o rendimento de carcaça (RC, o índice digestivo-somático, o índice hepato-somático, o quociente intestinal, as composições centesimais dos peixes, as taxas de deposição de proteína e a gordura corporal. Não foram observadas diferenças no peso, no FC e na TCE dos jundiás (P>0,05. Para essas variáveis, as carpas submetidas ao tratamento 25C75J apresentaram valores significativamente maiores (PA study was conducted to evaluate growth, carcass yield and body composition of jundiá and common carp raised in mono or duoculture in a recirculated water system, for 60 days, during the growing. Five treatments were tested with three replicates: 100C=100% carp; 100J=100% jundiá, 50C50J=50% carp 50% jundiá; 75C25J=75% carp 25% jundiá and 25C75J=25% carp 75% jundiá. Twenty fishes were distributed in each experimental unit. It was evaluated weight (W, total biomass (TB, condition factor (CF, feed conversion rate (FCR, specific growth rate (SGR, carcass yield (YC, digestive-somatic index, hepatossomatic index, intestinal quotient and the proximate composition and body deposition of protein and fat. Considering jundiá performance, no statistical difference was observed for W, CF and SGR (P>0.05. Common carp from treatment 25C75J showed the highest values (P<0

  18. Fontes protéicas vegetais na alimentação da carpa húngara Plant protein sources on common carp feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Taffarel Bergamin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A substituição parcial da farinha de carne suína por farelos vegetais em dietas para juvenis de carpa húngara (Cyprinus carpio foi avaliada em cinco dietas experimentais: um controle (farinha de carne suína (FCS como fonte protéica e quatro dietas vegetais: farelo de soja (FS, farelo de canola (FC, farelo de girassol (FG ou farelo de linhaça (FL, substituindo 50% da proteína proveniente da FCS. 195 juvenis (43,4±0,4g foram alimentados duas vezes ao dia (9 e 15 horas durante 71 dias. Ao final do experimento, maior peso (205,69g, ganho em peso (2,29g dia-1, taxa de crescimento específico (2,2% dia-1 e conversão alimentar (1,74 foram obtidos nas dietas com FCS, seguido dos tratamentos FC e FS que não diferiram entre si. Os peixes alimentados com FCS, FG e FS apresentaram maior gordura corporal. A dieta FL apresentou piores resultados de desempenho, coeficiente de retenção protéica, deposição de proteína e gordura corporal e no filé. Pode-se concluir que a dieta à base de farinha de carne suína proporciona maior crescimento e deposição de proteína em juvenis de carpa húngara, comparada às dietas com farelos vegetais; os parâmetros de carcaça (rendimentos e índices digestivos não são afetados pelas fontes protéicas da dieta.This study was conducted to evaluate the partial replacement of porcine meat meal by plant-protein meals in diets for common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Five experimental diets were evaluated: control (FCS, only porcine meat meal as protein source, and four plant-based diets: soybean meal (FS, canola meal (FC, sunflower meal (FG or linseed meal (FL replacing 50% of protein from porcine meat meal. Juveniles (195, 43.4±0.4g were fed twice daily (9:00 am and 03:00pm for 71 days. At the end of the trial, the best weight (205,69g, weight gain (2,29g day-1, specific growth rate (2,2% day-1 and food conversion ratio (1,74 were obtained in FCS, followed by FC and FS, that did not differ among each other. Fish

  19. Seasonal changes on total fatty acid composition of carp ( Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the third highest fatty acid in total fatty acids. MUFAs were found to be higher than SFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in all seasons. Docosahexaenoic acid C22:6 3, linoleic acid C18:2 6 and eicosapentaenoic acid C20:5 3 were the highest levels among the PUFAs. The percentages of 3 fatty acid were higher ...

  20. Bacterial content in the intestine of frozen common carp Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sp., Bacillus sp., Enterobacter sp., Micrococcus sp., Photobacterium damselae, Serratia liquefaciens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp. and Vibrio sp. survived after prolonged freezing. Two bacterial species viz. Shewanella putrefaciens and Aeromonas ...

  1. Bacterial content in the intestine of frozen common carp Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aalharbi

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... Despite the number of surveys on the micro- biology of fish, there have been few studies on frozen fish. Limited information on microbiological ... flagellation, spores, encapsulation, and Gram staining. The isolates were then subjected to biochemical tests (oxidase, catalase, amylase, gelatinase, lipase ...

  2. Effect of Bisphenol A on the Levels of Vitellogenin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the potential role of bisphenol A (BPA) in inducing endocrine disruption in fish. Methods: Adult male koi carps, Cyprinus carpio carpio (n = 60, mean body weight = 125 ± 12.288 g and mean length = 24 ± 1.392 cm) were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) for a ...

  3. Phytoplankton response to fish-induced environmental changes in a temperate shallow pond-type lake

    OpenAIRE

    Napiórkowska-Krzebietke Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Since 1967, the temperate, shallow, pond-type Lake Warniak has been subjected to different biomanipulation methods including the introduction of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.), silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val.), and bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson) and then their removal in an effort to control macrophytes and phytoplankton. Recently, pilot stocking with predatory fish, particularly pike, Esox lucius L., has also ...

  4. Ontogeny of the immune system of fish using specific markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, N.

    1998-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was used for the characterisation of leucocyte subpopulations during the ontogeny of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio , L.) and sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax , L.). In carp the leucocytes were monitored in

  5. Phenotypic changes in Cyprinus carpiovar var. Jian introduced by sperm-mediated transgenesis of rearranged homologous DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zheming; Ding, Weidong; Ren, Hongtao

    2013-09-01

    Common carp, specifically the Jian variety (Cyprinus carpiovar var. Jian), is an important Chinese and global aquatic stock for commercial foodstuff. Homologous recombination of carp gene sequences has been widely used in population genetics to broadly screen for beneficial phenotypical variations, thus optimizing artificially engineered carp stocks with Jian variety and native stock varieties. Random rearrangement of homologous DNA fragments from parent specimens of C. carpiovar var. Jian were attained by digestion of genomic DNA with MspI followed by religation and redigestion with EcoR I to specifically rearrange homologous DNA fragments of myostatin and microsatellite genes. Based on known characteristics of myostatin gene function, growth pattern changes in resultant carp mutant varieties was expected. DNA fragments were introduced into metaphase-II oocytes, resulting in one to several dozen insertions of homologous fragments into the host genome by sperm-mediated transgenesis. Introduction of rearranged homologous DNA fragments often resulted in phenotypic changes in C. carpiovar var. Jian, including significant phenotypic changes linked to growth rate at 4 months.

  6. Toxicity of Diazinon 60 EC for Cyprinus carpio and Poecilia reticulata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máchová, J.; Prokeš, Miroslav; Svobodová, Z.; Žlábek, V.; Peňáz, Milan; Baruš, Vlastimil

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3-4 (2007), s. 267-276 ISSN 0967-6120. [New Challenges in Pond Aquaculture . České Budějovice, 26.04.2005-28.04.2005] R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : acute toxicity * chemical insecticide * Daphnia magna * embryonic toxicity test * larval toxicity test * organophosphate * pond fishery Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2007

  7. Molecular characterization of Atractolytocestus sagittatus (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), monozoic parasite of common carp, and its differentiation from the invasive species Atractolytocestus huronensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazsalovicsová, E.; Kráľová-Hromadová, I.; Štefka, Jan; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 5 (2012), s. 1621-1629 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER-1 * RIBOSOMAL-RNA GENES * SEQUENCE VARIATION * CYPRINUS-CARPIO * INTRAGENOMIC HETEROGENEITY * TAPEWORMS PLATYHELMINTHES * RDNA * EVOLUTION * POPULATION Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00436-011-2673-0

  8. Application of Biotic Ligand Model in Predicting Copper Acute Toxicity to Carp (Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanbin; Liang, Qibin; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Three representative species of Cyprinidae fishes (Aristichthys nobilis, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, and Cyprinus carpio), which are abundant in Chinese surface waters, were studied to determine their sensitivity to copper (Cu) in acute exposures. We first performed acute toxicity tests to determine the Cu LC 50 value for each species in water with varying characteristics. The biotic ligand model (BLM) was then calibrated using the toxicity data for these species together with binding properties specific to Cu. The BLM calibration involved the calculation of the level of Cu accumulation in the gills that resulted in 50% lethality (i.e., LA 50 ). The LA 50 values for A. nobilis, C. idellus and C. carpio were 5.16, 11.60 and 9.00 nmol g -1 . The model calibrated to these data was improved by adjusting the Cu-proton exchange constant (pK CuHA-A ) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to values of 1.84 and 4.67E-3 mol g -1 , respectively. The calibrated Cu-BLM was validated for these three common fish species by comparing predicted and observed LC 50 values, which were in agreement to within a factor of 2. The results of this study provide an important contribution to ecological risk assessment and establishment of water quality criteria for Cu in China.

  9. Fish farming of native species in Colombia: current situation and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, P. E.; Medina-Robles, V. M.; Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    Prochilodus magdalenae (Steindachner), carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) and yamu Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz). From the three main fish species, cachama blanca is the only native species, which has shown excellent performance in pond farming due to its rusticity, omnivorous habits, docility, meat quality...

  10. Environmental Statement on the Tactical Fighter Weapons Center (TFWC) Range Complex, Nellis Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-10

    Regulus calendula cineaceus Ruby-crowned Kinglet 197. Anthus spinoietta rubescens Water Pipit 198. Bombycilla cedrorum Cedar Waxwing 199. Phainopela nitens...velifer White River Speckled Dace 13. Moapa coriacea* ** Moapa Dace 14. Cyprinus carpio Asian Carp 15. Lepidomeda mollispinus pratensis Big Spring

  11. Cytocomposition of the vitellarium in Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Lytocestidae): another caryophyllidean species with lamellar bodies and lipids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruňanská, M.; Drobníková, P.; Mackiewicz, J. S.; Nebesářová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 7 (2013), s. 2703-2711 ISSN 0044-3255 Grant - others:ERDF(XE) 26220120022 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Wenyonia virilis * Carp cyprinus-carpio * reproductive system * vitteline cells * ultrastructure * phylogenetic implications Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  12. Sublethal Effects of Diesel on Total Protein Levels and Cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Effect of cadmium and nickel exposure on haematological parameters of common carp,. Cyprinus carpio. L. Acta Ichthyological et. Piscatoria, 35(1): 29-38. Carbioch, L., Dauvin, J. C. and Gentil, F. (1977). Preliminary observation on pollution of the seabed and disturbance of sublitoral communities in Northern Brittany by oil ...

  13. Towards a mechanistic understanding of vulnerability to hook-and-line fishing: Boldness as the basic target of angling-induced selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Kuparinen, Anna

    2017-01-01

    In passively operated fishing gear, boldness-related behaviors should fundamentally affect the vulnerability of individual fish and thus be under fisheries selection. To test this hypothesis, we used juvenile common-garden reared carp (Cyprinus carpio) within a narrow size range to investigate th...

  14. cDNA expression library screening and identification of two novel antigens, ubiquitin and receptor for activated C kinase (RACK) homologue, of the fish parasite Trypanosoma carassii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruszczyk, A.; Joerink, M.; Guldenaar, C.; Hermsen, G.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanosoma carassii is a kinetoplastid parasite infecting cyprinid fish with a high prevalence in nature. Antibodies have been shown to play a protective role in the immune response against this parasite in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. To identify immunogenic and putative protective T. carassii

  15. Larval gryporhynchid tapeworms (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) of British freshwater fish, with a description of the pathology caused by Paradilepis scolecina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Williams, C. F.; Reading, A. J.; Scholz, Tomáš; Shinn, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2012), 1-9 ISSN 0022-149X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : CARP CYPRINUS-CARPIO * METACESTODES * DILEPIDIDAE * PARASITES * PLEROCERCOIDS * MOZAMBIQUE * INFECTION * LINNAEUS * LAKE Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.157, year: 2012

  16. Mixed infection with Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii induces protection: Involvement of cross-reactive antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joerink, M.; Groeneveld, A.; Ducro, B.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed infections with Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) are commonly found in nature. So far, in the laboratory, only mono-parasitic infections have been examined in more detail. We studied the influence of mixed rather than mono-parasitic infections

  17. Relationships among water quality, food resources, fish diet and fish growth in polyculture ponds: A multivariate approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the influence of addition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and artificial feed in rohu (Labeo rohita) ponds. We analyzed the relationships among four datasets on different components of the pond food web (water quality, food availability, natural food intake, and fish growth and

  18. Periodic bacterial control with peracetic acid in a recirculating aquaculture system and its long-term beneficial effect on fish health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dibo; Straus, David L.; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2017-01-01

    improve fish health. In the present study, a periodic microbial control was performed in a RAS with 16 tanks stocked with mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) for 3months. Half of the fish culture tanks were treated with 1mgL−1 peracetic acid (PAA) twice per week, while the other half remained untreated...

  19. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. YONGFANG JIA. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 97 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 157-172 RESEARCH ARTICLE. Identification, molecular characterization and analysis of the expression pattern of SoxF subgroup genes the Yellow River carp, Cyprinus carpio · TINGTING LIANG ...

  20. Izegaegbe and Oloye (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    heavy metals tainted organisms. In this study, heavy metals pollution was assessed from the muscles and liver of the African Catfish caught from Ilushi River in Edo State, .... Laurenson, L.J.B., Stagnitti, F., and Snow,. E.T., 2002. A comparison of trace element concentration in cultured and wild carp (Cyprinus carpio) of Lake.

  1. The anaesthetic potency of benzocaine-hydrochloride in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anaesthetic potency of benzocaine-hydrochloride in three freshwater fish species. J.T. Ferreira, H.J. Schoonbee and G.L. Smit. Research Unit for Fish Biology, Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg. Anaesthesia was induced in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus and rainbow trout, ...

  2. pyridine-carboxamide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, a short ring interaction between thiophene S1 and pyri- dine N1 of a symmetry related complex (centroid-to- centroid distance = 3.707(4) Ε; dihedral angle between planes = 2.3(3) ..... Changes in the Histology of Kidneys in Common Carp,. Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 58 456. 10.

  3. Protective role of lycopene and vitamin E against diazinon-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed

    2015-06-05

    Jun 5, 2015 ... Similar behavioral responses determined in this study have been observed with the guppy exposed to pyrethroids (Viran et al., 2003), fresh- water catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to cypermethrin (Saha and Kaviraj, 2003) and young mirror carp, Cyprinus carpio exposed to deltamethrin (Calta and.

  4. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 22 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimates of combining ability and heterosis for growth traits in a full diallel cross of three strains of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Shengyan Su, Pao Xu, Xinhua Yuan ...

  5. Long-term effects of water pH changes on hematological parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of water pH changes on certain hematological parameters of fingerlings of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), in water with different pH (acidic and alkaline). Fingerlings of common carp were subjected to acidic (pH 5.5 and 6.5) and alkaline (pH 8.0, 8.5 and 9.0) water for 21 ...

  6. Prostorová distribuce kaprů v polointenzivním rybníce

    OpenAIRE

    Mrkvová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    In semi-intensive pond aquaculture, the dietary requirements of the species cultured (mainly carp Cyprinus carpio) are guaranteed through consumption of natural food organisms together with "supplementary" feed inputs. As a result, we hypothesise that carp will utilise the whole area of the pond in their search for those places where natural food is available. To date, there has been no in-depth study on fish behaviour and feeding habits in such ponds, despite the possibility of food competit...

  7. The tapeworm Atractolytocestus tenuicollis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) - a sister species or ancestor of an invasive A. huronensis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraľová-Hromadová, I.; Štefka, Jan; Bazsalovicsová, E.; Bokorová, S.; Oros, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 10 (2013), s. 3379-3388 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Grant - others:Centre of Excellence for Parasitology(XE) 2622012011 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : carp Cyprinus carpio * farmed common carp * Cestoda Caryophyllidea * sequence alignment * parasites * fishes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2013

  8. Utilisation of vegetable leaves for carp production

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, A.K.; Rai, S.P.; Datta, A.K.; Das, C.R.; Ghosh, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    The results of two sets of experiments on mono-culture of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and mixed culture of carps (grass carp 50 : catla 20 : rohu 15 : mrigal 15) fed exclusively with vegetable leaves are reported. The experiments were conducted with two replicates each in 0.02 ha ponds of Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara during 1991-93. Monoculture of grass carp stocked at 1000/ha demonstrated an average net production of 21.0...

  9. EFEKTIVITAS TRANSFER DAN ANALISIS EKSPRESI GEN IMUNOGENIK TAHAN KOI HERPES VIRUS (KHV PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Syahputra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian transfer gen imunogenik tahan KHV (krt-GP11 pada ikan mas telah dilakukan dengan metode elektroporasi sperma menggunakan konsentrasi DNA yang berbeda. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui konsentrasi DNA optimal yang efektif digunakan dalam transfer gen pada ikan mas. Sperma dielektroporasi menggunakan tipe kejutan square wave dengan voltase 50 V dan jumlah kejutan tiga kali. Konsentrasi DNA yang digunakan adalah 10 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, dan 100 μg/mL. Deteksi transgen pada sperma, embrio, dan larva dilakukan dengan metode PCR menggunakan primer spesifik untuk gen krt-GP11. Ekspresi transgen pada embrio dan larva dianalisis secara semi-kuantitatif dengan metode reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gen krt-GP11 terdeteksi pada sperma, embrio, dan larva. Pemberian konsentrasi DNA 10 μg/mL lebih efektif digunakan dalam transfer gen krt-GP11 pada ikan mas, sedangkan peningkatan konsentrasi DNA yang digunakan tidak memberikan hasil yang berbeda terhadap keberhasilan transfer gen pada ikan mas. Ekspresi gen krt-GP11 yang berhasil diintroduksikan pada ikan mas baru dapat teramati dengan baik pada fase embrio.

  10. TRANSMISI TRANSGEN GLIKOPROTEIN DAN KETAHANAN IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio) TRANSGENIK F1 TERHADAP INFEKSI KOI HERPES VIRUS (KHV)

    OpenAIRE

    Khairul Syahputra; Yogi Himawan; Didik Ariyanto

    2016-01-01

    Ketahanan penyakit merupakan salah satu karakter selain pertumbuhan yang potensial dikembangkan dengan metode transgenesis pada ikan budidaya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi transmisi transgen glikoprotein-GP11 (GP11) dari KHV dan menguji ketahanan ikan mas transgenik F1 terhadap infeksi koi herpes virus (KHV). Empat garis keturunan F1 transgenik (B1, B2, SA1, dan SA2) diproduksi dengan menyilangkan ikan mas jantan F0 yang membawa gen GP11 di sperma dengan betina non-transgenik. ...

  11. HUBUNGAN ANTARA PERTUMBUHAN DENGAN KEBERADAAN GEN TAHAN PENYAKIT MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX (MHC PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Primanita Hayuningtyas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wabah penyakit koi herpes virus (KHV di Indonesia yang terjadi sejak tahun 2002 merupakan salah satu faktor yang memicu kemerosotan produksi ikan mas budidaya. Pembentukan strain unggul ikan mas tahan KHV dapat menjadi solusi bagi permasalahan tersebut. Pemilihan genotip ikan mas tahan KHV dengan marka molekuler gen major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II, khususnya pada alel Cyca DAB 1*05 akan membantu dalam kegiatan seleksi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keberadaan gen MHC-II pada populasi dasar G0 ikan mas strain Rajadanu dan hubungannya dengan pertumbuhan (bobot. Metode deteksi keberadaan gen MHC-II pada dua kelompok ikan dengan ukuran berbeda dilakukan dengan teknik PCR. Hubungan antara pertumbuhan ikan mas dengan persentase kemunculan gen MHC-II dianalisis dengan menggunakan program SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, sehingga diperoleh korelasi di antara keduanya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hubungan antara pertumbuhan dengan persentase keberadaan gen MHC-II berkorelasi negatif dengan nilai R = -0,742. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa semakin cepat pertumbuhan populasi ikan mas maka semakin sedikit persentase individu yang mempunyai gen MHC-II pada setiap populasi ikan mas. Sehingga populasi ikan mas yang pertumbuhannya lambat memiliki tingkat persentase positif MHC-II lebih tinggi (85,71%-100% dibandingkan populasi ikan mas yang pertumbuhannya cepat (42,86%-85,71%.

  12. POTENCY AND EFFICACY TEST OF A VACCINE IN ADDITION WITH ADJUVANT AGAINST KOI HERPESVIRUS IN KOI (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Sholichah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Koi Herpesvirus (KHV is a malignant virus infecting the goldfish and koi in all stadia and cause mortality up to 95%. The purpose of this study was to determine the potency and efficacy of inactivated-vaccine in addition with adjuvant against KHV in koi fish. The viral propagation was done using a KF-1 cell line in 25 cm3 flask. The cultured virus was harvested on 12 days post inoculation, and then the harvested virus was inactivated with 0.1% formalin as inactivated-vaccine. Three hundred of test fish (10.38 ± 1.25 g maintained in 126 L of plastic containers with aeration, and fed with pellets twice a day. After 14 days of adaptation, the fish were divided into five treatments (A= vaccine; B= vaccine + Complete Freund’s Adjuvant; C= vaccine + Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant; K+= positive control, and K-= negative control and each treatment has four replicates. Vaccine was given by injecting intramuscularly of 0.1 mL per fish. All fish were challenged by injecting intramuscularly of 0.1 mL of KHV virus with concentration of 104.58 TCID50/mL after 21 days post vaccination. The results showed that the B treatment had higher (P<0.05 values of hematocrit level, lysozyme activity, and titer of antibody compared with positive control. In addition, the survival of fish in B treatment also had the highest percentages and significantly different compared to other treatments (P<0.05. The conclusion of this research was the application of inactivated KHV vaccine in 0.1% formalin with the addition of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant through the injection dose 0.1 mL fish-1 in 104.58 TCID50/mL capable to enhance the immune responses and raised the optimal protection of KHV antibody in koi fish.

  13. Functionality of a bacillus cereus biological agent in response to physiological variables encountered in cyprinus carpio aquaculture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lalloo, R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern aquaculture utilises intensive reticulated systems resulting in waste accumulation and proliferation of disease. Conventional chemical treatments cause resistance in pathogens and negative environmental impact. The potential of a Bacillus...

  14. In vivo statistical evaluation of efficancy of a biological agent on water quality in the rearing of ornamental Cyprinus carpio

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramduth, DM

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available ponds. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to express their gratitude to: Dr Horst Kaizer, Dr Santosh Ramchuran and Dr Naill Vine for their valuable inputs dur- ing the trial and BioPad BRIC for their generous funding of the project. • • Figure...

  15. Quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of the toxicity of organothiophosphate pesticides to Daphnia magna and Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Du, T.; Griff, T.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Murk, A.J.; Rietjens, I.

    2009-01-01

    Within the REACH regulatory framework in the EU, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) models are expected to help reduce the number of animals used for experimental testing. The objective of this study was to develop QSAR models to describe the acute toxicity of organothiophosphate

  16. Farelo de tungue in natura ou detoxificado na alimentação de carpa húngara (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pretto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a substituição parcial de farinhas de origem animal pelo farelo de tungue como fonte proteica no arraçoamento de carpa húngara. Os tratamentos compreenderam a inclusão de farelo de tungue in natura ou detoxificado (obtido após aplicação de tratamento químico ao farelo, e o tratamento referência consistiu de base proteica composta por farinha de carne e ossos suína e farinha de peixe. O período de alimentação foi de 63 dias. No decorrer de 30 dias experimentais não foi observada diferença em indicadores de crescimento entre os animais que consumiram as rações controle e com farelo de tungue tratado quimicamente, porém o consumo da ração com farelo de tungue in natura provocou redução no desempenho até o final do período experimental. Após 63 dias de arraçoamento, alguns indicadores de crescimento mostraram-se inferiores também para o tratamento que continha farelo de tungue tratado em relação ao controle. A análise bioquímica no plasma e no fígado revelou aumento de triglicerídeos, glicogênio, glicose e a utilização de outras fontes, possivelmente aminoácidos, como precursores energéticos na produção de energia quando os animais consumiram a dieta com farelo de tungue in natura em relação às demais, o que refletiu na menor concentração de proteína e na maior deposição de gordura na carcaça. Em relação à atividade de enzimas digestivas, tripsina apresentou atividade aumentada no tratamento com farelo de tungue in natura e protease ácida, quimotripsina, amilase e lipase não foram alteradas em nenhum dos tratamentos avaliados.

  17. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  18. Kondiční ukazatel v chovu tržního kapra v poloprovozních pokusech na sádkách v Třeboni

    OpenAIRE

    FLOKOVIČ, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis, I dealt with supplementary feeding of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) in semi-operation experiments in fish-ponds in Třeboň. For the experiment, three-year carp of the operation line scaly Třeboň carp was used. The main objective of the experiment realized by me was to compare the feed triticale in various modified forms. For extra feeding, the feed triticale was used in three modified forms (whole triticale, pressed triticale, whole triticale thermally processed at 1...

  19. Piezoelectricity of green carp scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H. Y.; Yen, F.; Huang, C. W.; Mei, R. B.; Chen, L.

    2017-04-01

    Piezoelectricity takes part in multiple important functions and processes in biomaterials often vital to the survival of organisms. Here, we investigate the piezoelectric properties of fish scales of green carp by directly examining their morphology at nanometer levels. Two types of regions are found to comprise the scales, a smooth one and a rough one. The smooth region is comprised of a ridge and trough pattern and the rough region characterized by a flat base with an elevated mosaic of crescents. Piezoelectricity is found on the ridges and base regions of the scales. From clear distinctions between the composition of the inner and outer surfaces of the scales, we identify the piezoelectricity to originate from the presence of hydroxyapatite which only exists on the surface of the fish scales. Our findings reveal a different mechanism of how green carp are sensitive to their surroundings and should be helpful to studies related to the electromechanical properties of marine life and the development of bio-inspired materials.

  20. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  1. Empowering Women through Photovoice: Women of La Carpio, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Mary Y.; Vardell, Rosemarie; Lower, Joanna K.; Kinter-Duffy, Ibarra, Laura C.; Victoria L.; Cecil-Dyrkacz, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to allow participants to document, critique, and change their family and community conditions through photographs and stories of their everyday lives. This study used photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, with 7 women from La Carpio, Costa Rica. The women were given cameras and asked to photograph…

  2. Relationship of phosphorus content in carp otoliths with that in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... 1State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing100083,. China. 2Beijing ... the Taihu Lake, the third largest freshwater lake in China. ... carp otoliths to the ambient water of the carps, the phosphorus concentration in carp otoliths was.

  3. Changes in Oxidation and Reduction Potential (Eh) and Ph of Tropical Fish During Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, Eko; Agustini, Tri Winarni; Ritanto, Eko Prasetyo; Dewi, Eko Nurcahya; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2011-01-01

    Four tropical fish species, Thunnus albacares (Yellowfin tuna), Ephinephelus striatus (Nassau Grouper), Cyprinus carpio (Carp), and Osphronemus gourami (Gouramy), were assayed for oxidation reduction potental (Eh) and pH in different temperature,i.e. ambient and chilled temperature. Every species has different pattern of Eh and pH values. Eh values of tropical freshwater fish were higher than tropical marine fish, however pH values four tropical fish have same trend. The rates of the Eh an...

  4. MACROZOOBENTHOS IN CARP FISH FRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative components of macrozoobenthos was investigated on six fish farms with 8-10 ha-1 each at "Donji Miholjac". The ponds were stocked with 200,000 individuals per ha! of three-day-old carp larvae. The fry were fed with animal protein throughout the culturing season. The qualitative and quabtitative macrozoobenthos components formed mainly due to systematic groups of Oligochaeta and Chironomidae. The average size of Oligohaeta varied in each pond from 119 to 944 individuals per m-2 and from 2.18 to 14.09 g per m-2, and the larvae of Chironomidae from 174 to 1086 ind. per m-2 and from 2.66 to 14.09 g per m-2. Variation s of the total macrozoobenthos was within the amplitude of from 28 to 5805 ind. per m-2 and from 0.11 to 73.72 g. per m-2. In mid summer it was determined that there was a fall in the amount of macrozoobenthos in all fish ponds (Table 6.

  5. Mixed culture of fishes in seasonal ponds through fertilization and feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Kamal, M.; Islam, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    A study on mixed culture of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio Lin.), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Lin.), silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix Val.) and Thai sharpunti (Puntius gonionotus Bleeker) in the ratio of 1:2:2:5 was conducted in 12 seasonal mini ponds (30 m² each) for 105 days. There were six treatments each with two replicates and each pond was stocked with a total of 100 fishes. Rice bran and mustard oil cake were used as supplemental feed either in combination or alone in presen...

  6. IMMUNOGENICITY ASSESSMENT FOR DETERMINATION OF THE MOST POTENTIAL ISOLATES OF KOIHERPES VIRUS

    OpenAIRE

    Lila Gardenia; Isti Koesharyani; Tatik Mufidah

    2015-01-01

    Common carp and koi (Cyprinus carpio) are the main consumption fish commodity and ornamental fish in Indonesia. Diseases due to koiherpes virus (KHV) infection had caused a huge loss in both common carp and koi culture industries world-wide. This study was generated to select the most potential candidate from out of three koiherpes virus isolates based on their serological performances for vaccine development to control Koiherpes virus disease in koi. Virus collection, isolation, and propagat...

  7. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation. Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp

  8. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  9. A risk analysis of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys sp.) in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soes, D.M.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Matthews, J.; Broeckx, P.B.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Engelsma, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Two species of bigheaded carp (silver carp and bighead carp) are known to be invasive species of special concern. To gain insight into the occurrence of the alien bigheaded carp species in the Netherlands, the possibility of them becoming invasive, the possible ecological, economical and social

  10. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish's utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  11. Constraining Factors in Hungarian Carp Farming: An Econometric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergő Gyalog

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although carp farming had a key role in the Blue Revolution at a global level, European carp aquaculture has stagnated over the past 25 years without achieving any productivity gains. The objective of this study was to identify the factors and mechanisms constraining production and productivity growth in pond-based carp farming in Hungary, as the country is a good representative of the EU pond-based farming sector. By using data from 44 carp farms, different specifications of the Cobb-Douglas production function were parameterized to investigate the determinants of yields and to assess the extent of economies of scale. Descriptive statistics show that large differences exist in productivity between individual farms, meaning that it is hard to implement technical standards and to ensure repeatability in extensive carp farming technology. Econometric analysis demonstrates that economies of scale do not prevail in pond-based farming in Hungary, so a concentration of farms would not stimulate a growth in carp farming. This may explain the stagnation of carp aquaculture, as the only European aquaculture segments which can grow are those that can exploit economies of scale. Further analysis demonstrates that labour is an important factor of production, and a decreasing workforce may constrain the intensification process of production. On the other hand, mechanisation did not prove to be a significant contributing factor to yields, indicating that large investment in equipment has a limited role in carp farming.

  12. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  13. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  14. The Effect of Stocking Density on Nitrification Rate in a Closed Recirculating Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Sidik

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTNitrification rate in a closed recirculating water system with different stocking density of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. had been observed in the Laboratory of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Mulawarman University.   Fish were cultivated  in rounded tanks with four level of stocking densities i.e. 10, 20, 30 and 40 fish/100 l in a closed recirculting water system, and fed on a commercial pellet given thrice a day at a quantity of 5% from the total body weight of fish per day.  The experiment was designed completely randomized with three replications. Nitrification rate was calculated stoichiometrically through the determination of  ammonia and nitrite oxidation rate. Results showed that in this experiment the ammonia and nitrite oxidation rate, and nitrification rate in a closed recirculating water system was increased with the increasing stocking density of fish.   On the contrary, the growth of fish was decreased with the increasing of stocking density.Key words :  Nitrification rate, stocking density, recirculation system, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. ABSTRAKLaju nitrifikasi dalam budidaya sistem resirkulasi air tertutup dengan padat penebaran ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio L. yang berbeda telah diamati di Laboratorium Budidaya Perairan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Mulawarman.  Ikan dipelihara dalam tong plastik dengan empat tingkat padat penebaran, yaitu 10, 20, 30 dan 40 ekor/100 l, dan diberi makan pelet komersial tiga kali sehari dengan jumlah 5 % dari berat badan ikan per hari.  Penelitian ini dirancang secara acak lengkap dengan tiga ulangan.  Laju nitrifikasi dihitung secara stoikiometrik melalui penentuan laju oksidasi amoniak dan nitrit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa laju oksidasi amoniak dan nitrit serta laju nitrifikasi dalam sistem resirkulasi air tertutup meningkat dengan meningkatnya padat penebaran.  Sebaliknya pertumbuhan ikan menurun dengan meningkatnya

  15. Designing for sustainability: ergonomics--carpe diem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K; Legg, S; Brown, C

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is a global issue that has worldwide attention but the role of ergonomics in designing for sustainability is poorly understood and seldom considered. An analysis of the literature on ergonomics, design and sustainability was conducted via a search of electronic databases: Scopus, Business Source Complete, Google Scholar, Emerald Publishing, Academic Search Premiere, Web of Science, Discover and Ergonomics Abstracts, for the years 1995-2012. A total of 1934 articles fulfilled the search criteria, but content analysis of the abstracts indicated that only 14 refereed articles addressed the main search criteria. Of those seven were in ergonomics journals and seven were in other journals (and were not written by ergonomists). It is concluded that the contribution of ergonomics to sustainability and sustainable design has been limited, even though the goals of sustainability and ergonomics are congruent. Ergonomists have not been at the forefront of research contributing to sustainability - and it is time for them to 'seize the day' - 'carpe diem'. This literature review shows that ergonomics contribution to sustainability is limited but since there is congruence between the disciplines it calls for ergonomists to become more involved and to seize the day - carpe diem.

  16. Painful os styloideum: bone scintigraphy in carpe bossu disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apple, J.S.; Martinez, S.; Nunley, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The os styloideum (ninth carpal bone) is an anatomic variant that may occur as an accessory ossicle located dorsally between the capitate and trapezoid, and the bases of the second and third metacarpals. The association of dorsal wrist pain or fatigability with an os styloideum is known as carpe bossu disease. The authors describe a woman with dorsal wrist pain in whom the diagnosis of painful os styloideum (carpe bossu disease) was made using plain radiography, bone scintigraphy and tomography

  17. The effect of hybridization on fish physiology, immunity and blood biochemistry: A case study in hybridizing Cyprinus carpio and Carassius gibelio (Cyprinidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, A.; Vojtek, L.; Halačka, Karel; Hyršl, P.; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 435, č. 1 (2015), s. 381-389 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hybridization * Cyprinids * Blood biochemistry * Hematology * Immunity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.893, year: 2015

  18. Efeito de vitaminas adicionadas ao diluente ACP-104 sobre a qualidade do sêmen criopreservado de carpa comum - Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R.A. Linhares

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi alcançado com a divisão da pesquisa em dois experimentos: (1 aperfeiçoar o protocolo de congelação utilizando água de coco em pó (ACP-104 como diluente para a criopreservação seminal de carpa comum; (2 avaliar o efeito da suplementação das vitaminas C (ácido ascórbico ou E (α-tocoferol sobre os melhores diluidores testados no experimento 1 na qualidade do sêmen pós-descongelado da espécie. Para o experimento 1, foram formados oito pools de sêmen, provenientes de 14 machos selecionados. As amostras seminais coletadas foram avaliadas quanto à motilidade total, à velocidade, ao percentual de espermatozoides normais e à vitalidade espermática antes e depois da criopreservação seminal. Esta foi realizada em meio ACP-104 acrescido de dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO, ou etilenoglicol (EG, ou glicerol, ou metanol, todos à concentração de 10%, diluídos em 1:3 (sêmen:diluidor. As amostras foram, então, congeladas em vapor de nitrogênio líquido em dry shipper e estocadas em nitrogênio líquido (-196°C. Para o experimento 2, foram formados oito pools provenientes da coleta de sêmen de 15 machos. As amostras seminais foram avaliadas seguindo as mesmas análises do experimento 1, acrescentando-se a duração da motilidade total. A criopreservação seminal utilizou-se do meio ACP-104 acrescido de DMSO ou EG, suplementado ou não com vitamina C ou E. Os melhores resultados encontrados no experimento 1 foram obtidos com o DMSO e o EG. Estes não diferiram significativamente entre si para a motilidade total (24% e 28%; P>0,05 e a normalidade espermática (32% e 26%; P>0,05, respectivamente. Para o experimento 2, o EG suplementado com vitamina E produziu significativamente resultados superiores de motilidade total, normalidade espermática e duração da motilidade em relação ao DMSO, concluindo-se que o EG deve ser, portanto, o crioprotetor de escolha a ser utilizado com o ACP-104 suplementado ou não com vitamina E.

  19. Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. VARIOUS FACTORS AFFECTING DRESSING PERCENTAGE OF COMMERCIALLY CULTURED CYPRINID FISH IN CARP FISH PONDS IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Marković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield carcass of all categories of cyprinid fish reared in ponds in Serbia. Samples of two and three-year old carp, two-year old silver carp and grass carp were taken in the winter from a pond where the production is organized in a semi­intensive system. The three­year old carp was sampled from two ponds. In one case, it fed on barley, maize and wheat in the following proportions 40:30:30, while in the second case it fed on complete diet mixtures. Also, the samples of two­year old carp were taken from ponds where they fed on complete feed mixture. Dressing percentage was the most favourable in common carp (67%, followed by silver carp (62%, and it was the least in grass carp (60% (p<0.01. The best yield (66% was obtained in two-year old carp, followed by one-year old carp (64%, and the worst yield was determined in three-year old carp (58% (p<0.01. Carcasses yield was better in two-year old carp fed on pelleted feed (68% than in carp of the same age fed on grains (66% (p<0.01. The values of dressing percentage measured in three-year old carp reared in the semi-intensive system was 56%, and 59% in three-year old carp fed on pelleted complete feed mixture. Fish species, age, system of husbandry and diet showed a significant effect on carcasses yield. The highest dressing percentage and weight of fillets was noted in two-year old carp fed on complete feed, and it was a result of lower weight of internal organs and associated fat. The obtained results may be helpful in creating the best strategy for the selection of raw fish for fish manufacturing.

  1. Level of Heavy Metals in Two Highly Consumed Fish Species at District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Hassan, Said; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2016-01-01

    The current study was designed to assess heavy metals' concentration in muscle tissues of two Chinese carps, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), available to consumers in markets at district Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Fish specimens were collected from three main markets in the study area namely; Chakdara, Timergara and Khall. Heavy metals including; manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and cobalt (Co) were investigated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Cobalt was not detected in any of the fish specimens while the rest of the metals were lying within the permissible limits suggested by FAO/WHO and ITS for food/fish consumption. The results showed a statistically significant (pmetals. In common carp, the heavy metal accumulation was in order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu>Cd, while in silver carp the order was Fe>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cd>Cu. Higher concentration of Pb, Mn, Zn, Cu and Cd was recorded in muscle of common carp while the concentration of Fe was higher in silver carp, indicating higher potential of accumulation of heavy metals in common carp. Statistically significant (pmetals was in the suggested permissible limits and poses no threat if consumed. In order to maintain the heavy metals level within permissible limits, proper care should be taken along with regular assessment.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Aoki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2 using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth.

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Catfish and Carp Collected from the Rio Grande Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert J. Gonzales

    2008-05-12

    Concern has existed for years that the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a complex of nuclear weapons research and support facilities, has released polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the environment that may have reached adjacent bodies of water through canyons that connect them. In 1997, LANL's Ecology Group began measuring PCBs in fish in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of ephemeral streams that cross LANL and later began sampling fish in Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs, which are situated on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL, respectively. In 2002, we electroshocked channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and common carp (Carpiodes carpio) in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL and analyzed fillets for PCB congeners. We also sampled soils along the Rio Chama and Rio Grande drainages to discern whether a background atmospheric source of PCBs that could impact surface water adjacent to LANL might exist. Trace concentrations of PCBs measured in soil (mean = 4.7E-05 {micro}g/g-ww) appear to be from background global atmospheric sources, at least in part, because the bimodal distribution of low-chlorinated PCB congeners and mid-chlorinated PCB congeners in the soil samples is interpreted to be typical of volatilized PCB congeners that are found in the atmosphere and dust from global fallout. Upstream catfish (n = 5) contained statistically (P = 0.047) higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 2.80E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream catfish (n = 10) (mean = 1.50E-02 {micro}g/g-ww). Similarly, upstream carp (n = 4) contained higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 7.98E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream carp (n = 4) (3.07E-02 {micro}g/g-ww); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.42). The dominant PCB homologue in all fish samples was hexachlorobiphenyls. Total PCB concentrations in fish in 2002 are lower than 1997; however, differences in analytical methods and other uncertainties

  4. NITRO MUSK BOUND TO CARP HEMOGLOBIN ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitroaromatic compounds including synthetic nitro musks are important raw materials and intermediates in the synthesis of explosives, dyes, and pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care-products (PPCPs). The nitro musks such as musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) are extensively used as fragrance ingredients in PPCPs and other commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (4-AMX) metabolite as well as a 2- amino-MK (2-AMK) metabolite were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry' (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM) in both the electron ionization (ElMS) and electron capture (EC) negative ion chemical ionization (NICIMS) modes. Detection of 4-AMX and 2-AMK occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolites, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released metabolites were extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. A comparison between the El and EC approaches was made. EC NICIMS detected both metabolites whereas only 4-AMX was detected by ElMS. The EC NICIMS approach exhibited fewer matrix responses and provided a lower detection limit. Quantitation in both approaches was based on internal standard and a calibration plot. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Q

  5. P-001: Koi herpes virus world wide: results of the global KHV questionnaire 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haenen, Olga; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    KOI HERPES VIRUS WORLD WIDE: RESULTS OF GLOBAL KHV QUESTIONNAIRE 2007-2009 O. Haenen*,1 and N. J. Olesen2 (and our colleagues who completed the questionnaire) 1 Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR, NRL for Fish and Shellfish Diseases, P.O. Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands. 2......, including Koi Herpes virus (KHV), which causes the notifiable KHV disease (KHVD) in koi and carp (Cyprinus carpio). In Sept 2007, at the last EAFP Conference at Grado, results of the detailed EPIZONE questionnaire on KHV disease in 2006-2007 were presented. In March 2009 a follow up KHV questionnaire...

  6. The role of ecological context and predation risk-stimuli in revealing the true picture about the genetic basis of boldness evolution in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Krause, Jens

    2011-01-01

    To showcase the importance of genotype × environment interactions and the presence of predation risk in the experimental assessment of boldness in fish, we investigated boldness in terms of feeding behavior and refuge use in two genetically different populations of juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio......) in two replicated experimental conditions in ponds and laboratory tanks. The populations were expected to exhibit genetic differences in boldness due to differential evolutionary adaptation to low-predation-risk pond aquaculture conditions. Boldness was measured in variants of open-field trials...

  7. Vliv přikrmování na produkční ukazatele ryb

    OpenAIRE

    ZEMAN, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of supplementary feeding of multi-species stocks with various densities on productive indicators of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and conversion of feeding. The chosen issue has been researched as a feeding experiment for 145 days at the joint-stock company Rybářství Třeboň, in four ponds of the Naděje fish pond system (Nadějská rybniční soustava) and two control fish ponds situated in the near of the village Ponědrážka. In the ponds, there were two d...

  8. Vegetable and cereal protein exploitation for fish feed

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available for optimal growth (g kg−1) (Values adapted from Cowey, 1978 and Jauncey, 2000) Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) 400–460 Carp (Cyprinus carpio) 380 Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) 400 Eel (Anguilla japonica) 445 Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa... to increase the protein content from 21 to 32% (DM) using this technique. In a feeding trial with rainbow trout, a basal fish feed diet was replaced by a diet containing 30% dry BSG or dry high protein BSG (HP-BSG). The c17.indd 423 6/29/2009 7:53:54 PM...

  9. Genetic diversity and variation of mitochondrial DNA in native and introduced bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Fa; Yang, Qin-Ling; Xu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Hui; Chapman, Duane C.; Lu, Guoping

    2010-01-01

    The bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is native to China but has been introduced to over 70 countries and is established in many large river systems. Genetic diversity and variation in introduced bighead carp have not previously been evaluated, and a systematic comparison among fish from different river systems was unavailable. In this study, 190 bighead carp specimens were sampled from five river systems in three countries (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur rivers, China; Danube River, Hungary; Mississippi River basin, USA) and their mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene and D-loop region were sequenced (around 1,345 base pairs). Moderate genetic diversity was found in bighead carp, ranging from 0.0014 to 0.0043 for nucleotide diversity and from 0.6879 to 0.9333 for haplotype diversity. Haplotype analysis provided evidence that (1) multiple haplotype groups might be present among bighead carp, (2) bighead carp probably originated from the Yangtze River, and (3) bighead carp in the Mississippi River basin may have some genetic ancestry in the Danube River. The analysis of molecular variance showed significant genetic differentiation among these five populations but also revealed limited differentiation between the Yangtze and Amur River bighead carp. This large-scale study of bighead carp genetic diversity and variation provides the first global perspective of bighead carp in the context of biodiversity conservation as well as invasive species control and management.

  10. The thermoluminescence of carp otoliths: A fingerprint in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... This paper reports a pilot study on the thermoluminescence (TL) of carbonate minerals of carp otoliths from the heavily polluted Baiyangdian Lake (BYD) in Hebei Province and non-polluted Miyun Water. Reservoir (MY) in Beijing Municipality of China. Analyses on trace elements of otoliths and water show.

  11. Incidence of feeding, growth and survival of the toothed carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of survival and growth in the toothed carp, Aphyosemion gardneri larvae grown on the freshwater rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus and on commercial diet were obtained. The freshwater rotifers were first isolated and cultured in the laboratory in a rich medium containing algae and Baker's yeast.

  12. The development of the nasal capsule of the silver carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the nasal capsule, including the procartilaginous as well as some mesenchymatous developmental stages, is described in the Chinese silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val.). In the nasal capsule a primitive feature, namely the presence of a complete paraphysial bridge was observed.

  13. The development of the nasal capsule of the silver carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the nasal capsule, including the procartilaginous as well as some mesenchymatous developmental stages, is described in the chinese silver carp,. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (VaL). In the nasal capsule a primitive feature, namely the presence of a complete paraphysial bridge was observed.

  14. Effect of montmorillonite on arsenic accumulation in common carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of montmorillonite (MMT) on dietary arsenic (As(III)) accumulation in tissues of common carp was investigated. Growth rates and survival do not appear to be sensitive indicators of dietary As(III) toxicity under lower exposure concentration. However, the toxicity increases as As(III) exposure concentration increase, ...

  15. Effect of montmorillonite on arsenic accumulation in common carp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... The effect of montmorillonite (MMT) on dietary arsenic (As(III)) accumulation in tissues of common carp was investigated. Growth rates and survival do not appear to be sensitive indicators of dietary As(III) toxicity under lower exposure concentration. However, the toxicity increases as As(III) exposure.

  16. The thermoluminescence of carp otoliths: A fingerprint in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports a pilot study on the thermoluminescence (TL) of carbonate minerals of carp otoliths from the heavily polluted Baiyangdian Lake (BYD) in Hebei Province and non-polluted Miyun Water Reservoir (MY) in Beijing Municipality of China. Analyses on trace elements of otoliths and water show that the heavy ...

  17. Separation and identification of carp pituitary proteins and glycoproteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryšlavá, H.; Janatová, M.; Čalounová, G.; Selicharová, Irena; Barthová, J.; Barth, Tomislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 9 (2005), 430-437 ISSN 1212-1819 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF3028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : carp hormones * glycoproteins * oligosaccharide chains Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.254, year: 2005

  18. Cloning, characterization and promoter analysis of common carp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To analyse the promoter sequence of common carp her6, sequences of various lengths upstream from the transcription initiation site of her6 were fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (eGFP) and introduced into zebrafish embryos by microinjection to generate transgenic embryos. Our results show that the ...

  19. New monoclonal antibody against carp sperm creatine kinase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubek, Pavel; Elzeinová, Fatima; Linhart, O.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2005), s. 154 ISSN 0271-7352. [European Congress of Reproductive Immunology /3./. 05.09.11-05.09.15, Essex] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/03/0178 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : monoclonal antibody * carp sperm * creatine kinase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Proximate composition of fresh water bighead carp, Aristichthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy-six Bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis, of different body sizes were selected for analysis of body composition parameters' variables in relation to body size and condition factor. Each fish was measured, weighed, dried and powdered for the analysis of water, ash, fat and protein contents. It was observed that for ...