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Sample records for carp cyprinus carpio

  1. Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

    2003-09-01

    Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus.

  2. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some

  3. Papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgoose, W H

    1992-02-22

    Over a period of two years four ornamental koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of one variety in a mixed population of 16 were affected with papillomas of the head and body. In one fish there was a transition of these tumours into a squamous cell carcinoma in the region of the head and posterior gill space, with deep invasion of the underlying bone. One of the fish recovered completely after the sloughing of the papillomas. In view of the progressive nature of the lesions, the condition was presumed to be due to an infectious agent, but transmission electron microscopy failed to reveal any virus particles. PMID:1566540

  4. Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobucar, Göran I V; Stambuk, Anamaria; Pavlica, Mirjana; Sertić Perić, Mirela; Kutuzović Hackenberger, Branimir; Hylland, Ketil

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with genotoxicity assessment of freshwaters using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were transplanted from a fish-farm to three differently polluted sites in eastern Croatia. Two polluted sites were situated in the river Drava, downstream from the cities of Belisće and Osijek, while the reference site was in the Nature Park Kopacki rit, a preserved wetland area with limited anthropogenic influence. Exposure lasted for 3 weeks and was repeated for 3 years (2002-2004). DNA damage was assessed in erythrocytes of the exposed animals by the Comet assay and micronucleus test (MNT). In order to evaluate possible differences in stress responses to polluted water in situ and in aquaria a laboratory exposure was performed with water from the studied location in the second year of the study. Carp from the sites with high anthropogenic influence (Belisće and Osijek) had higher average DNA damage as expressed in both the MNT and Comet assay. Of the two, the Comet assay appeared to be more sensitive following both caging and aquaria exposures. The results from this study suggest that 3 weeks caging exposure of C. carpio may be a useful strategy to monitor for genotoxic agents in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:19626438

  5. Data on the parasite fauna of the European common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio and Asian common carp Cyprinus carpio haematopterus support an Asian ancestry of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Molnár

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The common carp subspecies (Cyprinus carpio carpio has been regarded as an autochtonous species of Europe. Evidence obtained by comparing the parasite fauna of the European and the Asian subspecies (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus establish that such fish in the Far East harbour a significantly richer array of parasite species, and were the exclusive hosts of most of the specific parasites, including all monogenean and myxosporean spp., until recent intensive fish translocations from the Far East. I therefore propose that the common carp originated in the Far-East. The commoncarp would have originally inhabited only the Far East freshwaters, arriving in Europe in the Middle Ages by anthropogenic transfers. During the long trip from China to Europe, the common carp lost its original parasite fauna. In its new habitat, it acquired some parasite from the crucian carp, Carassius carassius, a closely related fish. Infection of the European subspecies with the Asian parasites that had been lost in Europe recommenced only in the middle of the last century, when the Amur wild carp and the coloured carp variations became introduced to Europe. The examination of the parasite fauna of fishes is an excellent tool for surveying the origin of fishes.

  6. Population genetics of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in coastal drainages in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Moran, C; Nicholas, F W

    2010-10-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio introduced in two drainages in eastern Australia are largely descended from European common carp, and in a third drainage they descend largely from East Asian common carp. The partial genetic differentiation among the species in those drainages is consistent with their origins.

  7. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  8. Herpesvirus-associated papillomas in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, P P; McNamara, T; Kress, Y

    1999-03-01

    From January through November 1994, 32% (7/22) of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) maintained in indoor aquariums developed proliferative cutaneous lesions that consisted of single to multiple 2-10-mm whitish to pink fleshy masses usually associated with fin rays. Although scaleless koi were more commonly affected (3/6) than were normally scaled koi (4/16), the difference in incidence rates was not significant (chi2 text, P > 0.05). Lesions typically resolved spontaneously in 1-3 wk, occasionally persisted for >3 mo, and recurred in several fish after 2-5 mo. Fish were otherwise asymptomatic. Wet mount preparations from lesions were densely cellular and consisted of hyperplastic epidermal cells of normal morphology without parasites or inflammatory cells. Histologically, biopsies were consistent with papillomas and were characterized by a marked benign epidermal hyperplasia without inclusion bodies or inflammatory infiltrate. Transmission electron microscopic examination revealed intranuclear and intracytoplasmic herpesvirus virions. Virus isolation attempts were unsuccessful. PMID:10367660

  9. Major histocompatibility complex genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van S.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The molecules encoded by Mhc genes play an essential role in the specific immune response, by presenting antigens to T lymphocytes. Knowledge of the Mhc of carp, therefore, cont

  10. Afferent and Efferent Connections of the Optic Tectum in the Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, P.G.M.

    1981-01-01

    The afferent and efferent connections of the tectum opticum in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied with the HRP method. Following iontophoretic peroxidase injections in several parts of the rectum anterograde transport of the enzyme revealed tectal projections to the lateral geniculate nucleu

  11. Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune factors are present before hatching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Grou, C.P.O.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Taverne, N.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Expression of the innate immune factors, complement factor 3 (C3), ¿2-macroglobulin (¿2M), serum amyloid A (SAA) and a complement factor 1 r/s ¿ mannose binding lectin associated serine protease-like molecule (C1/MASP2), was determined with Real Time Quantitative-PCR in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) ont

  12. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, H.B.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, C.C.A.W. van; Taverne-Thiele, A.J.; Rombout, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  13. The effect of oral immuno-stimulation in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.; Ribeiro, A.; Bowden, T.J.; Bavel, van C.; Taverne-Thiele, J.J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a 2-week period of oral immuno-stimulation from the age of 2 or 6 weeks post-fertilisation (wpf; before and after reaching the ability to produce antibodies) onwards was investigated on various immune functions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The immuno-stimulants Aeromonas salmon

  14. Development and application of genetically uniform strains of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, A.B.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of genetically uniform strains of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. is described. As in research on mammals, the use of genetically uniform fish could increase the quality (replicability, reproducability and repeatability) of experiments. Inbreeding was done by gynogene

  15. Expression of major histocompatibility complex genes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, P.N.S.

    1996-01-01

    The common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) has been the experimental animal of choice because many features of the immune system of this Cyprinid fish have been well characterized. The immune system consists of an integrated set of organs containing cells such as Ig + 

  16. Characterization of the stress response in 17a-hydroxylase deficient common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nematollahi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we describe interrenal hyperplasia in a teleost fish, the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L, caused by 17α-hydroxylase deficiency. Two homozygous, XX male inbred strains, “E5” and “E7”, consistently show 5-10 fold less plasma cortisol in response to net confinement compared to normal mal

  17. Ontogeny of the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system: Gene expression and experimental limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ontogeny of the immune system in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.). The work has been focused on innate immune responses during the wound healing processes and how the innate immune response develops with age and size of the fish. Newly hatched...

  18. Selective breeding for stress response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using androgenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to explore the genetic background of stress response in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and produce homozygous and heterozygous isogenic strains with divergent stress responses. As stressor a rapid temperature decrease (= cold shock) was used. As a preparatory step, a num

  19. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Liu, Guiming; Kuang, Youyi; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Xianhu; Ren, Lufeng; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Linhe; Zhao, Zixia; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Li, Chao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Zhanjiang; Fan, Zhonghua; Shan, Guangle; Li, Xingang; Wu, Shuangxiu; Song, Lipu; Hou, Guangyuan; Jiang, Yanliang; Jeney, Zsigmond; Yu, Dan; Wang, Li; Shao, Changjun; Song, Lai; Sun, Jing; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Xu, Liming; Sun, Fanyue; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Baosen; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yaping; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jintu; Gu, Ying; Lv, Weihua; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species.

  20. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Constanze Pietsch; Susanne Kersten; Hana Valenta; Sven Dänicke; Carsten Schulz; Patricia Burkhardt-Holm; Ranka Junge

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the u...

  1. Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Harwanto, Dicky; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-12-01

    The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of 0.5 mg/10 μL/g body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [105±18 s (Pleather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts.

  2. Acute toxicity test of pesticide abamectin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aliakbar Hedayati; Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Ahmad Mohamadi Yalsuyi; Safoura Abarghoei; Michael Hajiahmadyan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine acute toxicity of abamectin (abamectin used for agricultural fields and also is a common acaridae used in farms) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Methods: In this research, common carps were exposed to abamectin for 96 h. LC50 values of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h were attained by probit analysis software SPSS Version 16. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 15 mg/L) of abamectin for 96 h and physicochemical properties of water used for these experiments were stable and every mortality was recorded daily. Results:The 96 h LC50 of abamectin for Cyprinus carpio was 1.243 mg/L. Conclusions: Eventually toxicity values indicated that abamectin has same toxicity in studied other specie and we can state lower value of LC50 for studied specie in compare with most species.

  3. A History of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in Ireland: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brazier, B.; Caffrey, J.M.; Cross, T. F.; Chapman, D. V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper represents the most comprehensive and detailed summary of the history of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in Ireland to date. It charts the earliest known introductions of the species to Irish waters, the rise in popularity of recreational angling for the species from c. 1950 onwards, the work carried out to establish the species in Ireland and explains the primary causes of their more recent distribution increase. Much of the historical research material gathered on...

  4. Influence of music on the growth of koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Pisces: Cyprindae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, L.; Jeyakumar, A.; Pitchai, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of music on the growth of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio) by subjecting the fish to music. Weekly growth in weight was recorded and used to calculate the growth rate and specific growth rate. The difference in growth between the control and experiment groups of fishes was statistically tested for significance. It was observed that the growth of fish subjected to music was significantly higher.

  5. Toxic effects of chromic sulphate on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.H.; Lau, W.M.; Tong, T.Y.; Liu, W.K.; Luk, K.C.

    1982-02-01

    The effects of chromic sulphate, which is commonly used in the tanning of leather, on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio and the bighead, Aristichthys nobilis, were studied. C. carpio was found to be more susceptible than A. nobilis to chromic sulphate at the lowest concentration tested (100 mg/l) whereas results obtained at other concentration were similar for both species. Damage to the gills, liver and intestine was observed by histopathological examination. A wide range of chemicals is used in the different stages of treating leather and a possible treatment of the effluent from the tanneries is suggested.

  6. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Komen, H.; Jobling, S.; Sumpter, J.; Bowmer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17β-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp

  7. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.;

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  8. Antioxidant activity and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-09-01

    Previously, we have reported the composition, molecular mass distribution and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of common carp roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antioxidative activity and functional properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg) protein hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase, were evaluated. The three hydrolysates showed excellent antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner in various in vitro models such as 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6)-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating ability. Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased protein solubility of the hydrolysates to above 62 % over a wide pH range (2-12). Carp roe hydrolysates exhibited good foaming and emulsification properties. The results suggest that bioactive carp roe protein hydrolysates (CRPHs) with good functional properties could be useful in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. PMID:26344996

  9. Herpesviruses detected in papillomatous skin growths of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, R P; Groff, J M; Okihiro, M S; McDowell, T S

    1990-10-01

    Herpesviruses were found associated with epidermal hyperplasia of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) in northern California (USA). Papillomas were found principally on the caudal regions of the fish including the fins. The growths occurred most commonly in the fall and winter among populations of captive carp. Infected epidermal cells were characterized by greatly enlarged nuclei depleted of chromatin but with thickened nuclear membranes. Numerous virions were detected in infected cells. Herpesvirus nucleocapsids in the cell nucleus had a diameter of 109 nm. Virions with envelopes with a diameter of 157 nm were abundant in cytoplasmic vacuoles. The characteristics of the papillomatous growths and the viruses were consistent with descriptions of Herpesvirus cyprini known in koi carp populations in Japan and extends the range of this pathogen to koi carp to North America. PMID:2174469

  10. Minor effect of depletion of resident macrophages from peritoneal cavioty on resistance of common carp Cyprinus carpio to blood flagellates

    OpenAIRE

    Saeij, J.P.J.; Groeneveld, A.; Rooijen, van, J.; Haenen, O. L. M.; Wiegertjes, G. F.

    2003-01-01

    Carp Cyprinus carpio macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clodronate-liposomes for the in vivo study of the effect of macrophage depletion on the resistance of carp to infection with blood flagellate parasites. Clodronate released inside the cell induces apoptosis of (murine) macrophages. Following i.p. injection of carp with liposomes alone, but not with Trypanoplasma borreli, neutrophilic granulocytes rapidly migrated from the head kidney to the peritoneal cavity...

  11. Property Prediction of Dry Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio During Storage by Kinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is an important food resource in European and Asian countries. Nowadays, common carp after drying process is appreciated by the transportation agency and food industry because of its low transportation cost. Changes of acid value (AV, total bacterial count (TBC, and peroxide value (PV were reported in this study. We found that the changes of AV, TBC and PV of dry common carp fitted the first order reaction model and the reaction energies of changes of AV, TBC, and PV during storage were 4.56 kJ/mol, 2.21 kJ/mol, and 2.33 kJ/mol, respectively. This study will provide theoretical knowledge to food factories relating with dry fish storage and transportation.

  12. REARING EFFICIENCY AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR CARP SAPLING (CYPRINUS CARPIO LINNE, 1758 FROM RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS

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    ELPIDA PALTENEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. of 8 months older, rearing in recirculation system during 107 days period - he has been analysed from the point of view of feeding efficiency and nutritional quality of carp carcass. The stocking of breeding ponds has been made at 12.17 kg/m3 density, the initial average weight of fishes has been 82.2 g/ex., biochemical composition of carp carcass has been following: protein 14.35%, fat 1.10%, ash 1.67% and moisture 82.22%. Weekly, there has been analysed biochemical composition of meat and protein efficiency coefficient (PER, protein using efficiency (PUE, retained protein (RP. The nutritional quality of fish meat and appreciation coefficients of fish rearing they indicate a good capitalization of delivered food.

  13. STUDY OF THE ADAPTATION PROCESS IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L. AFTER HARVESTING

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    Milena Bušová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish is sensitive to exogenous and endogenous ammonia. Ammonia formed in fish as a product of metabolism of proteins may be under certain circumstances life-threatening. Ammonia autointoxication is a serious problem and can cause mass mortalities in fish farms. This study focused on the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in large-capacity breeding farms. It was focused on monitoring the blood ammonia levels in fish blood in the period of metabolic attenuation and the influence of harvesting and handling of fish on the fish's ability to withstand such changes. The study results confirmed the effect of sudden changes in water temperature to values of ammonia in the blood of fish. On the contrary, there were no dramatically increased concentrations of ammonia in the blood of fish nor symptoms of autointoxication. The measured ammonia concentrations ranged between 98.3 ± 56µmol/L and 141.4 ± 31 µmol/L in the monitored period, which corresponds with the study results of other authors. This study has confirmed good technological conditions in the market production of carp after harvesting and a good level of adaptation process of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. to these changes.

  14. Molecular characterisation of a disseminated Cryptosporidium infection in a Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Dorrestein, Gerry M; Ryan, Una

    2016-08-15

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of hosts, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in fish. Here we report a disseminated Cryptosporidium infection in a male Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio), with parasite stages identified deep within the epithelium of the intestine, kidneys, spleen, liver and gills causing severe granulomatous inflammatory lesions. Molecular characterization at two loci; 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and actin, revealed this to be a novel Cryptosporidium genotype, most closely related to Cryptosporidium molnari. PMID:27514884

  15. Influence of broodstock age on reproductive performance in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L. is a very important species in the ornamental fish culture. This fish, in relation to the variety of its colour patterns is very appreciated and it can obtain an higher market price compared to the common goldfish. In the last ten years, breeding goals have increasingly focused their attention to the morphological characteristics (Cherfas et al., 1992 and numerous research works were carried out on pigmentation and viability of different colour phenotypes (Jackson et al., 2000. More recently, several studies were set up in order to produce diploid gynogenotes and triploids (Rothbard et al., 1999...

  16. THE EFFECT OF FISH FEEDING WITH ADDITIVES NUPRO® AND BIO-MOS® ON THE RESULTS OF THE REARING OF AGE-1+ CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO)

    OpenAIRE

    А. Vaschenko; N. Matvienko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effect of feed fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing of age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Methodology. The study of the effect of feeding fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) of “Nyvka” scaled intrabreed type were performed based on the conventional methodology. The experiments were carried out in ponds condition of the research farm "Nyvka" of the Insti...

  17. Effects of food type on diel behaviours of common carp Cyprinus carpio in simulated aquaculture pond conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Meyer, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand behaviour patterns of common carp Cyprinus carpio in aquaculture ponds, their diel grazing, swimming, resting and schooling behaviours were observed in six 1 m(2) tanks under simulated pond conditions. Each tank was fertilized to stimulate natural food production before

  18. Interaction between the blood fluke, Sanguinicola inermis and humoral components of the immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.L.; Lewis, J.W.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Sanguinicola inermis on serum antibody and complement activity in Cyprinus carpio was assessed using an ELISA and haemolytic assays. Possible immune evasion strategies were assessed using immunodetection of host proteins on the surface of the parasite. Carp acclimatized to 20 or 25 °C

  19. Effect of heavy metals induced toxicity on metabolic biomarkers in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the pathological effects of a sub-lethal concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Total protein and levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the liver tissue were measured. Compared with the control group a significant decrease of total protein (p < 0.001 was ascertained in the experimental group. The ALP on the other hand was significantly higher (p < 0.001. The values of ALT, AST, and LDH significantly decreased in the first day and then progressively increased afterwards (p < 0.001. The above results on the biochemical profile indicate marked hepatotoxic effects of heavy metals in common carp.

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING TRANSMISSION AND SPREAD OF THE VIRUS SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kharkavlyuk

    2014-09-01

    Washington and Missouri states in 2004 and in Upper Mississippi in 2007. A SVC-like virus was found in cultivated shrimps in Hawaii. Natural outbreaks of a SVC infection were registered in following cyprinids: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi, Crucian carp (Carassius carassius, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Prussian carp (Carassius auratus, ide (Leuciscus idus, tench (Tinca tinca and bream (Abramis brama. SVCV transmission is horizontal but vertical transmission from the ovarial liquid of carp has been established as well. Among virus transmission vectors are invertebrate parasites Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea, Branchiura and Piscicola geometra (Annelida, Hirudinea. There is also mechanical transmission of the virus with the aid of fishing gears. The virus can persist in water and silt for a long period of time. Originality. Measures for the prevention of infection of specialized fish farms have been proposed based on the performed analysis. Practical value. The analysis allows developing modern methods of diagnostics and control of the virus spread.

  1. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu

    2009-11-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of sensory quality, as a result of changes in chemical constituents. PMID:19533401

  2. A review of introduction of common carp Cyprinus carpio in Pakistan: origin, purpose, impact and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Muhammd Naeem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Common carp Cyprinus carpio was introduced from Thailand to Pakistan in 1964 for the purpose of aquaculture. Due to its high tolerance to temperature and turbidity, and prolific pond breeding habit, it was established promptly in most of natural inland waters, including rivers, lakes, streams, canals, wetlands and even village ponds of the country. Although common carp became one of the most abundant cyprinid species in inland waters and important food fish in Pakistan, its impact is not well documented. Fish farming of common carp has been carried out in Pakistan since 1970; initially it grew slowly but now it is playing an important role in the economy of the country by employing more than 400,000 people. Nowadays, farming of freshwater carps is present throughout Pakistan, especially in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. There is a huge potential in common carp farming and it could help increase the livelihood of people and gross domestic product (GDP of the country as well. Still, there is a need to improve the fish farming practice to meet the world-class demands that could only be possible by the keen interest of policy makers and stake holders with better management.

  3. Benzocaine hydrochloride anesthesia in carp (Cyprinus carpio / Cloridrato de benzocaína na anestesia de carpas (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio da Rocha

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish anesthesia is indicated to allow the accomplishment of several procedures such as biometry, tagging, transportation, physical examination, surgical procedures, and reproductive management. The doses of benzocaine in the carp anesthesia (Cyprinus carpio were determined, carrying through six phases with 40 fish each. The average weight of carps in each phase was of 147.45±7.99g, 173.32±9.15g, 191.26±14.05g, 269.84±19.24g, 285.25±17.97g, and 300.91±16.45g. In each phase, fish had been captured and placed in four containers each one with different concentrations of benzocaine (100, 140, 180 and 220 mg/L respectively. The induction time (IT was registered for each fish and after that the anesthetic induction biometry was performed. In each phase the minimal dose of benzocaine was calculated using the Linear Response Plateau (LRP, in a model that included dose and IT. The LRP was calculated for each phase: 125.79mg/L in 114.33s, 155.68mg/L in 115.75s, 145.33mg/L in 102.52s, 149.50mg/L in 140.53s, 166.42mg/L in 116.15s, and 158.34mg/L in 102.00s. The optimal dose was related with the weight, resulting in the equation: dose=114.230+0.158 x weight (r2=0.53. The equation shows that an increase in the weight in 1g corresponds to an increase of 0.158 mg/L in the dose of benzocaine hydrochloride for carps.A anestesia em peixes é indicada para permitir a realização de diversos procedimentos como: biometria, marcação, transporte, exame físico, procedimentos cirúrgicos e manejo reprodutivo. Determinou-se a dose de benzocaína na anestesia de carpas (Cyprinus carpio, com a realização de seis etapas com 40 peixes cada. O peso médio das carpas em cada etapa foi de 147,45±7,99g, 173,32±9,15g, 191,26±14,05g, 269,84±19,24g, 285,25±17,97g, e 300,91±16,45g. Em cada etapa, os peixes foram capturados e colocados em quatro recipientes com benzocaína nas concentrações de 100, 140, 180 e 220 mg/L respectivamente. O tempo de indução (TI foi

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Debeljak

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Izvorni znanstveni članak THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FOOD ON THE PRODUCTION OF MARKET CARP (Cyprinus carpio L. Debeljak, Lj. Turk, M. Fašaić, K. Sotjić, B. Puni tekst (Hrvatski Str. 83 - 94 (pdf, 2.21 MB downloads: 471 Sažetak This research was carried out on 8 experimental fish-pounds with individual sizes of 0,1 ha-1 on fish farm Draganići during 1990 culturing season. Carp was reared under conditions of polyculture with total stock density 3250 ind × ha-1. (77 % carp, 2500 ind × ha-1 ; 23% -- 250 ind × ha-1 each species of herbivorous fish – silver carp, bighead, grass carp. The influence of fertilization and different feeding of fish was researched through these parameters: yield and increment of fish, individual weight, losses, food conversion, Fultons and Clark’s coefficient of carp. The hydrochemical conditions in individual pounds where researched too (tabl 2. The total increment of fish was 703 ind × ha-1 (I variant, without fertilization, feeding of carp with cereals, 1302 ind × ha-1 (variant II, fertilization, 500 kg × ha-1 NPK 17: 8: 9, feeding with cereals and 2537 kg × ha-1 (variant III, without fertilization, feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin. The increment of carps was 611.4; 897.8 and 1923.5 kg × ha-1 resp. The results of production are shown on tables 3, 4 and 5. The losses of carp were similar in all variants of fish-pounds (tabl. 4. The average individual weight of carp was 30% bigger in the fish pond with fertilization, and 154% in fish pond with feeding carp with pellets containing 20% protein of animal origin in compare to control variant 1. Food conversion was lower for 26% in the variant which was fertilized, and for 13% in the variant fed with protein pellets, in compare to control variant l. The Fulton's and Clark's condition coefficient of carp was similar in all experimental ponds except in the variant III. In this variant the Fulton's condition coefficient was

  5. Mucosal immune response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja

    level, respiratory burst assay for radical production measurement and image analysis. The results of this study showed that previous infections gave rise to changes regarding texture quality parameters in fresh fish meat, and were a starting point for use of immune modulators such as ß-glucans. Further......-like process in common carp. In order to reach these objectives, different methods were used such as real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) in order to measure the expression of immunerelated genes involved in wound healing process, ELISA for specific antibody detection, cortisol assay for measurement of stress...... injection of ß-glucan showed it has a biological effect on skin as well. Once again we observed immunological changes taking place in skin of common carp, with IgM/IgZ immunoglobulin switch-like process. Finally, ß-glucan seems to work in dose-dependent manner, with elevating cortisol level when injected...

  6. Genetic improvement of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vandeputte, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Common carp was the first domesticated fish species and is now a major species in worldwide aquaculture. Although research has generated a considerable body of knowledge about its genetics, genetic improvement programmes are virtually non-existent in this species and only crossbreeding is used in practice. The main reasons are the inefficiency of methods usually effective in other aquaculture species (monosexing, triploidy), and the bad image of selective breeding which is difficult to implem...

  7. The Utilization of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Flesh as Fish Ball

    OpenAIRE

    YANAR, Yasemen

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the sensory properties and shelf life of fish balls prepared from carp flesh were investigated. Four study groups were prepared with different combinations of ingredients: garlic, garlic-sunflower oil, onion and onion-sunflower oil. A control group was also prepared. At the end of the sensory evaluation, the groups received between 7.4 and 9.07 points from the panelists regarding appearance, texture, succulence, odour and flavour and general acceptance. The onion and garlic ...

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC ATTRIBUTES OF DIFFERENT CARP KOI FORMS (CYPRINUS CARPIO KOI

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    Lysak O. O.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Japanese carp or carp koi ( Cyprinus carpio koi – is a freshwater, partially saltwater fish which is a decorative subspecies of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L. namely a primary black form of carp koi that has its domestic name Magoi. Constant complex activity of abiotic and biotic factors together with husbandry and selectional activity of human caused significant changes in water ecosystems that impacted on the biology of carp koi subspecies (Cyprinus carpio koi and as a result caused the species-specific morphological adaptations in fish. Collection of materials was conducted from ornamental water ponds at the territory of Nemishaievo state agrotechnical college in the spring 2012. Author selected 3000 units of this year fish offsprings of carp koi with different colors. All the studied fish was divided into groups according to external indexes ( among them color in the following way: group I (sample – grey and white form (Hikarimuji which is the most similar to Magoi, group II – black and white form (Kumonryu, group III – black and yellow form ( Utsurimono, group IV – red and white form (Kohaku. For further researches scientists selected 25 exemplars of carp koi for each group. It is necessary to have a starting point (sample for statistical research of differences in carp koi forms. Sample or optimal form was determined by distances of deviations of scalar sums of form vectors of carp koi from nyvkivskyi carp. Morphometric study of carp koi was conducted according to 30 plastic attributes, in accordance with method proposed by I. F. Pravdin. In contrast with generally accepted relative magnitudes of indexes of plastic attributes of carp koi body were calculated from zoological (not standard length of the body of the fish that is connected with using koi as an object of decorative aquaculture. Statistic processing was conducted with using of average arithmetical discrepancy, root-mean-square error and variability index. Actuality of

  9. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp.

  10. Verification of protein sparing by feeding carbohydrate to common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Jinghui; Zhang, Baolong; Fang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Jinhui; Bai, Dongqing; Sun, Jinsheng; Qiao, Xiuting

    2016-06-01

    A 9-week feeding trial in floating freshwater cages (1.0 m×1.0 m×2.0 m) was conducted to study the effects of diff erent dietary levels of protein and starch on growth, body composition, and gene expression of enzymes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (mean body weight, 36.12±1.18 g) to evaluate the protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate. Four diets were formulated with corn starch as the carbohydrate source to obtain corn starch levels of 6.5%, 13%, 19.5%, or 26% and protein levels of 30.5%, 28.2%, 26.4%, and 24.2%. The results showed no diff erences in growth performance of fish fed the diets with diff erent protein and corn starch levels, but body composition and glucose metabolic enzyme activity of carp were significantly aff ected by the diff erent diets (Pdiet than those fed the low-corn starch diet (P0.05). In summary, the results indicate a protein-sparing effect by substituting carbohydrate in the diet of common carp.

  11. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Richterová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g L-1 on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg L-1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg L-1 gamma-cyhalothrin. All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg L-1 died soon after hatching; at 25 μg L-1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg L-1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes.

  12. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: a lakewide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stong, Todd; Alvarado Osuna, Claudia; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; Díaz Torres, José de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River. PMID:24007438

  13. PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA ND5/6 region among 3 subspecies of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and its application to genetic discrimination of subspecies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA ND5/6 region was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis among ten representative strains belonging to three subspecies (Cyprinus carpio carpio, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus and Cyprinus carpio rubrofuscus) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). A total of 2.4 kb fragment was amplified and subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis with nine restriction endonucleases subsequently. The results indicated that each subspecies owned one hyplotype and four restriction enzymes (DdeⅠ, HaeⅢ, TaqⅠand MboⅠ) produced diagnostic restriction sites which could be used for discriminating the three subspecies and as molecular genetic markers for assistant selective breeding of common carp.

  14. Antimicrobial effects of guava leaf (Psidium guajava Linn.) extract against Aeromonas hydrophila in fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Tangtongpirot, J.; Aroonseang, S.; Chansue, N.; Assawawongkasem, N.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of guava leaves in treatment or prevention of bacterial infection using methanol extracted guava leaves. Three hundred and eighty four fancy carps (Cyprinus carpio) with average weight of 25.5 g. were acclimated for 14 days before the experiment. Fish were divided into 32 groups of two replicates each with 6 fish. All experiments were done in replicate. Guava leaves were macerated and extracted by methanol distillation and evaporation t...

  15. Genetic potential analysis of German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning HOU; Xiaoshu HOU; Yong LI; Dayu LI; Fujun LIU; Ruixin MAO; Xiaowen SUN

    2008-01-01

    Using 30 microsatellite markers and combin-ing quantifiable characteristics such as body weight, body length and body width, we evaluated the genetic potential of 3 German mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) popula-tions. Number of effective alleles (Ae), observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity values and polymorphic information contents (PIC) were all calculated. Two hun-dred and eighty-seven alleles and 559 genotypes were detected. The DNA fragment length was 109-400 bp. The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium was checked and the phenomenon of some disequilibrium was studied accord-ing to the χ2test. The results showed that the level of genetic variability was moderate, but genetic potential of Shuanglai population was much lower than that of Huanxin and Songpu breeding populations. PIC of the three populations of German mirror carp were between 0.08787 and 0.5377, both highly and moderately poly-morphic markers were 13. The number of the Ae was between 1.1014 and 6.4665. The Ho and He heterozygos-ity values were 0.0968-0.9892 and 0.0926-0.8554, respect-ively. The linkage correlation was analyzed using the data of body weight, body length and body width, and 30 loci. The result showed that there existed 2 loci, HLJ319 and HLJ693, associated with body length. The HLJ693 locus was significantly correlated with body weight trait. The HLJ677 locus was linked with body width. And then the result was verified in Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) of common carp. It showed that the HLJ319 locus was sig-nificantly linked with body length, the same as the result of quantitative trait loci (QTL) location for common carp.

  16. Isolation and analysis of membrane lipids and lipid rafts in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Graham; Propsting, Marcus; Adamek, Mikolaj; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2014-03-01

    Cell membranes act as an interface between the interior of the cell and the exterior environment and facilitate a range of essential functions including cell signalling, cell structure, nutrient uptake and protection. It is composed of a lipid bilayer with integrated proteins, and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer comprises of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains. Lo microdomains, also named as lipid rafts are enriched in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and certain types of proteins, which facilitate cell signalling and nutrient uptake. Lipid rafts have been extensively researched in mammals and the presence of functional lipid rafts was recently demonstrated in goldfish, but there is currently very little knowledge about their composition and function in fish. Therefore a protocol was established for the analysis of lipid rafts and membranous lipids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues. Twelve lipids were identified and analysed in the Ld domain of the membrane with the most predominant lipids found in all tissues being; triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphoethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Four lipids were identified in lipid rafts in all tissues analysed, triglycerides (33-62%) always found in the highest concentration followed by cholesterol (24-32%), phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Isolation of lipid rafts was confirmed by identifying the presence of the lipid raft associated protein flotillin, present at higher concentrations in the detergent resistant fraction. The data provided here build a lipid library of important carp tissues as a baseline for further studies into virus entry, protein trafficking or environmental stress analysis.

  17. Only small fractions of soluble ß-glucan modulate the mucosal immune system in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    For decades the ability of β-glucans to modulate immunity through activation of innate cellular components has been observed. However, toxicological effects associated with the systemic administration and dose-related immune-suppression has also been described. The superior aim of this study...... is to understand the effect of β-glucan induced modulation in carp in relation to tissue regeneration, mucosal immunity and host-pathogen interactions. Expression profiles of immune related genes will be measured in fresh water specie – common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The methodology of the project involves...

  18. Expression of immune system-related genes during ontogeny in experimentally wounded common carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of full-thickness incisional wounding on expression of genes related to the immune system in larvae and juveniles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The wounds were inflicted by needle puncture immediately below the anterior part of the dorsal fin on days 7, 14, 28 and 49...... they were microscopically indistinguishable from normal tissue by day 3 post-wounding in all but the juvenile carp wounded on day 49 post-fertilization. In these juveniles the wounded area was still visible even 7days post-wounding. On the transcriptional level a very limited response was observed...

  19. Stock evaluation and development of a breeding program for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Karnataka, India: progress of a research project

    OpenAIRE

    Basavaraju, Y.; Penman, D.J.; Mair, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is the single most important species for aquaculture in the state of Karnataka, India, where it is generally grown in polyculture with Indian major carps. Precocious maturation and unwanted reproduction in the species have been identified as constraints to increase production in aquaculture and culture-based fisheries in Karnataka state. Stocks of C. carpio obtained from Hungary (Amur and P3), Indonesia (Rajdanu) and Vietnam (SV) are being assessed alongside two ...

  20. Selective breeding programme of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in Serbia: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Milan M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations between weight, length and height of common carp in Serbia (Cyprinus carpio L. during 3-year growth period. The 50 families of common carp were produced in 2007 and used for the estimation of genetic parameters. The fish were measured at tagging for weight, length and height (W0, L0, H0, then during the first autumn (W1, L1, H1 and during the second autumn (W2, L2, H2. Based on univariate models heritability estimates were high for all traits (0.39, 0.34 and 0.45 for W1, L1 and H1, respectively and also for the second production year (0.49, 0.47 and 0.44 for W2, L2 and H2, respectively. The genetic correlations were estimated using multivariate models and they were high between W1 and L1 and H1 (0.81 ± 0.06 and 0.91 ± 0.03 for L1 and H1, respectively, while between H1 and L1 were moderately correlated (0.54 ± 0.12. In the second production year genetic correlations were also high, between W2 and L2 and H2 (0.64 ± 0.09 and 0.74 ± 0.06, respectively, while between length and height they were lower (0.24 ± 0.15. Based on the current results improving growth rate of common carp through genetic selection is expected to be effective.

  1. Dispersion of the invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio in southern South America: changes and expectations, westward and southward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichigno, S; Cordero, P; Blasetti, G; Cussac, V

    2016-07-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio possess multiple traits that contribute to their success as an invasive species. They have been introduced across the globe, and abundant populations can have numerous negative effects. Although ecological niche-based modelling techniques have been used to predict the potential range of C. carpio invasion in U.S.A., occurrence and abundance patterns have not yet been considered on a regional scale. In the present review new locations are documented, the status of the southernmost population has been studied and the probability of new lakes and reservoirs being colonized by C. carpio has been obtained and related to environmental conditions. The new localities for C. carpio have expanded its distribution westward, into the Andean Region, and present results from the South American southernmost population have shown a well-established population. Analysis of presence data provided two principal results: (1) the probability of a site being with C. carpio can be inferred using environmental variables and (2) the probability of a site being with C. carpio is a useful tool for the prediction of future invasions. Selective fishing on the Negro basin could constitute a potential mitigation measure, decreasing the abundance of the species and thus reducing the species' potential for southward expansion. These results reinforce the idea that artisanal fisheries, food production and conservation interests should be taken into account by local government management agencies in any discussion regarding the southern distribution of C. carpio in the near future. PMID:27095064

  2. Molecular Characterization and Growth Association of Two Apolipoprotein A-Ib Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is functionally involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in vertebrates. In this study, two isoforms of apoA-Ib in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were characterized. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that C. carpio ApoA-Ib is relatively conserved within cyprinid fishes. During embryonic development, C. carpio apoA-Ib was first expressed at the stage of multi-cells, and the highest mRNA level was observed at the stage of optic vesicle. A ubiquitous expression pattern was detected in various tissues with extreme predominance in the liver. Significantly different expression levels were observed between light and heavy body weight groups and also in the compensatory growth test. Seventeen and eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in matured mRNA of the C. carpio apoA-Ib.1 and apoA-Ib.2, respectively. Two of these SNPs (apoA-Ib.2-g.183A>T and apoA-Ib.2-g.1753C>T) were significantly associated with body weight and body length in two populations of common carp. These results indicate that apoA-Ib may play an important role in the modulation of growth and development in common carp. PMID:27649163

  3. Biochemical and histopathological effects of glyphosate on carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesković, N K; Poleksić, V; Elezovíc, I; Karan, V; Budimir, M

    1996-02-01

    Glyphosate, also known by the trade names Roundup and Rodeo for agricultural use, is a broad-spectrum, translocated herbicide, used primarily in agricultural applications, and for vegetation control in non-crop areas. It is used as non-selective herbicide and for aquatic weed control in fish-ponds, lakes, canals, slow running water, etc. (USDA 1984). Glyphosate is perhaps the most important herbicide ever developed. Literature of toxicological and ecotoxicological properties of glyphosate is extremely sparse, considering its importance as herbicide. Generally, glyphosate is slightly toxic to mammals and fish, but it may have an impact on the aquatic environment and also on the other aquatic organisms (USDA 1984). Due to this, its toxicity investigation is very important. The study of sublethal effects is of special importance for toxicological evaluation of compound. The objective of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxic effects of sublethal glyphosate concentrations in water to carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), one of the commercially most important fish species populating freshwaters of Yugoslavia.

  4. Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

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    Byoungcheun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs. The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST, superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT. Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100 nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50 g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms.

  5. Purification and characterization of toxic waste in the aquatic environment using common carp, Cyprinus carpio

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    Hanan Abd Al-Gawad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The organophosphorus (OP pesticide (malathion is used heavily for many crops such as vegetable and cotton to control serious key insecticide in many areas of Egypt. This study has focused on the effect of malathion on aquatic environment and aquatic organisms. The experimental work was carried out using malathion at different dosage of water lasted 96h and was carried out undertaken laboratory conditions. It evaluated the sensitivity of organic toxic waste and their purification techniques for common carp, Cyprinus carpio by determining enzymes activity as biomarker indicators in various organs of the studied fish.The results showed that exposure to malathion caused a significant increase in enzyme activity and total protein contents in the investigated tissues and inhibition of brain and liver acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Moreover, among the tissues studied, it appeared that the brain, gills and liver were more sensitive to pollution and seemed to be the most appropriate tissues to monitor water pollution by OP pesticides. In this context for environmental biomonitoring, the evaluation of toxic waste purification can be done to assess sensitivity of aquatic organism in recycling water to meet national goals and environmental safety.

  6. Morphological variations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by ifxation and preservation in 10% formalin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Aliakbar Hedayati

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effects of morphological characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by fixation and preservation in 10% formalin. Methods: Fish samples were collected from the Research Center of Aquaculture of Barabadi Fazli martyr, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. After initial assay on morphological characters such as total length, standard length and head length, samples were fixed in 10% formalin for 12 weeks. After this period, samples were taken away from the formalin and the morphological characteristics and evaluation of color features were assayed once again. Results: The results indicated that shrinkage was usual in all the specimens and changes in body and fins color were clear and their color was opaque. Formalin preservation is usually causing a reduction in the length of fishes. Conclusions: Different rates of change in body length and color of preserved sample are observed after a standard period of preservation in different preservatives and it can be suggested that the decrease of color intensity in fixed samples in formalin does not have inhibition effects in color identification keys.

  7. Gut microbiota contributes to the growth of fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

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    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

  8. Protein sources and their significance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L. nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Marko B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most widely cultured fish species in the world. It is predominantly cultivated in the Balkans in the semiintensive system that is based on the utilization of natural food from the fish pond and supplemental feed (cereals, pelleted and extruded feed. Currently, an intensified type of semi-intensive production is starting to be more present in Serbia, where cereals, as the most common supplemental feed, are replaced by concentrated feed that fill in the lack of proteins from carps’ natural food in periods of its decreased production. The nutritional requirements for growth, reproduction and normal physiological functions of fish are similar to other animals, but generally fish need more proteins in their diet. Due to this, the efficiency in the use and utilization of proteins is more significant for fish than for other animals. The selection of supplemental feed in semi-intensive system of fish culture depends on the natural potential of the fish pond, culturing period, fish category, price and quality of feed.

  9. Effect of salicylic acid on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Divisova, Lenka; Stancova, Vlasta; Dobsikova, Radka; Tichy, Frantisek; Siroka, Zuzana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2015-07-01

    Environmental concentrations of pharmaceutical residues are often low; nevertheless, they are designed to have biological effects at low doses. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of salicylic acid on the growth and development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) early life stages with respect to antioxidant defence enzymes. An embryo-larval toxicity test lasting 34 days was performed according to OECD guidelines 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test). The tested concentrations were 0.004, 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 20mg/l of salicylic acid. Hatching, early ontogeny, and both morphometric and condition characteristics were significantly influenced by subchronic exposure to salicylic acid. Also, changes in antioxidant enzyme activity and an increase in lipid peroxidation were observed. The LOEC value was found to be 0.004 mg/l salicylic acid. The results of our study confirm the suggestion that subchronic exposure to salicylic acid at environmental concentrations can have significant effects on aquatic vertebrates.

  10. 蓝色鳞(Cyprinus carpio blue vat)的细胞遗传学分析%Cytogenetic Analysis of Blue Common Carp Cyprinus carpio blue var

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛淑群; 徐伟

    2011-01-01

    The diploid chromosome number, karyotype, and DNA content were studied in metaphase chromosome in kidney cells and blood of blue common carp Cyprinus carpio blue var injected with PHA and colchicin by airdrying technique. It was found that the diploid chromosome number was 2n=100. The karyotype was found to be composed of 30 m, 26sm and 44st+t chromosomes, and NF=156. The diploid nucleus DNA content was measured from the somatic cell of the blue common carp using flow cytometer (Beckman cellLab Quant, made in USA) and the DNA content (2.3 pg· N^+) in erythrocytes of chick (Gallus sp) as standard. The common carp had DNA content of3.99pg·N^-1, corresponding to the result measured chromosome number as ploidy.%采用体内注射PHA和秋水仙素,肾细胞短期培养,常规空气干燥法制备蓝色鳞鲤染色体,对100个中期分裂相记数统计,确定蓝色鳞鲤(Cyprinus carpio blue var)的染色体数为2n=100。测得核型参数按Levan等的染色体划分标准得出:蓝色鳞鲤有15对中部着丝点染色体(m);13对亚中部着丝点染色体(sin);22对端部和亚端部着丝点染色体(st,t),其染色体总臂数(NF)为156,蓝色鳞鲤核型公式为2n=30m+26sm+44st,t。采用流式细胞分析仪测定了蓝色鳞鲤的DNA含量,与鸡血细

  11. EVALUATION OF ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2 EFFECT ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABI DUMITRESCU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the scientific researches performed during the last years are focused on the determination of the negative effects caused by natural and antropogeneous chemical compounds on aquatic species; these species are more exposed to most pollutants than the land species, for the simple reason that the aquatic environment is the last destination for most residues. Our research team proposed to test the toxic effect caused by ethinylestradiol on embryo development in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Common carp embryos were purchased from the fish farm S.C. Acva Prod S.R.L. Cefa, Bihor County these were obtained by artificial reproduction. After taking and selection, the fecundated spawns were introduced in 10 Nunk culture plates of 45 ml, where we introduced 40 ml water, too. We created 3 batches, with two replications, namely: batch 1 – control, batch 2 – in water, we added ethinylestradiol (EE2 in concentration of 1.5 ng L-1 and batch 3 – we added in water a concentration of 7 ng L-1 EE2. During the incubation, the Nunk plates were kept in breeding aquariums, at a temperature of 24°C. Successive to the supervision of embryos in batch 3, 48 hours post-fecundation, we could observe evolution stagnations, 70% of them being in the stage of 40 somites of the segmentation period. At the same age, 100% of the control batch- embryos entered the stage of advanced faringula, and in batch 2 all embryos were in the stage of incipient faringula. 60-72 hours post-fecundation, all embryos in the batch 3 died, 90% in the 40 somite stage of the segmentation period and 10% in the stage of incipient faringula. 85 hours post-fecundation, all embryos belonging to the control batch were in the larva stage, while in batch 2, 90% were in the larva stage and 10% died in the stage of advanced faringula.

  12. Description of Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Lake Balaton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Csaba; Molnár, Kálmán; Cech, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. was detected in the gill filaments of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. collected in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Its oval plasmodia measuring 600-800 × 300-400 µm were located intravasally in the filamental arteries. The spores measured 11.2 ± 0.92 × 9.5 ± 0.41 × 7.4 ± 0.33 µm and had two equal polar capsules with six filamental turns. Both morphology and DNA sequence analysis revealed that M. balatonicus n. sp. is distinct from the ten species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 described from the European common carp and the 21 species described from the Asian common carp subspecies. Phylogenetic analysis placed M. balatonicus n. sp. in a clade of gill-infecting myxobolids.

  13. Histochemical Effects of “Verita WG” on Glycogen and Lipid Storage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Liver

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    Elenka Georgieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed in the present work is to study the effects of fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide (“Verita WG” on glycogen storage and expression of lipid droplets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. liver. Concentrations of the test chemical were 30 mg/L, 38 mg/L and 50 mg/L under laboratory conditions. We used PAS-reaction for detection of glycogen storage and Sudan III staining for detection of lipid droplets in common carp hepatocytes. Hence, we found that the amount of glycogen and the fat storage in the liver increased proportionally with the increased fungicide concentrations. We also found conglomerates of accumulated glycogen in certain hepatocytes at all used concentrations. Overall, the results demonstrated enhanced glyconeogenesis and fat accumulation in the common carp liver, exposed to the test chemical.

  14. RESEARCH ABOUT THE INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC SELENIUM ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCES OF THE COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO, LAUSITZ VARIETY, JUVENILES

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    ALINA RODICA ANI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research concerns the use of organic selenium (Se in the nutrition of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, variety Lausitz, during its sapling stage. The experimental work was carried out during 159 days in the Martinesti Fish Farm, near the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The total number of carp juveniles was organized in two batches: the experimental batch and the witness batch. Each group consists of 200 juveniles having a mean individual weight of 1.5 g. The rearing conditions were similar for the both groups, excepting the alimentation. The experimental batch received 0.03 mg organic Se (Sel-plex per kg of food. At the end of the experiment these juveniles reached an average weight of 354.619±0,088 g/specimen and a rate of survival of 99%, while the juveniles from the witness batch registered an average weight of 276.804±0,051 g/specimen and a rate of survival of 97%. The results reveal that the use of organic Se (Sel-plex in the nutrition of the common carp juveniles (Cyprinus carpio, variety Lausitz, leads to an increased body mass and to a lower mortality.

  15. Effect of Delayed Icing on Biogenic Amines Formation and Bacterial Contribution of Iced Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Vali Hosseini; Ali Hamzeh; Mehran Moslemi; Aria Babakhani Lashkan; Antonio Iglesias; Xesús Feás

    2013-01-01

    The variation of six biogenic amines (BAs) and total viable count (TVC) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored in ice with 0, 4 and 8 h delay before icing was evaluated in a period of 4 days. Delayed icing led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in TVC throughout the period of storage and showed a good correlation with BAs content. The obtained data showed that putrescine and cadaverine were predominant in all samples and it was indicated that they could be proper indicators to determine ...

  16. Swimming, grazing and social behaviour of rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in tanks under fed and non-fed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Fish behaviour was monitored in 1-m2 tanks each stocked with three 67-g rohu (Labeo rohita). In addition, 80-g common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were stocked at 0, 1 or 2 fish per tank. All tanks were fertilized prior to stocking to stimulate natural food production. In addition, half of the tanks were

  17. Effects of day and night on swimming, grazing and social behaviours of rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in simulated ponds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Hossain, M.Y.; Jo, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Diel rhythmicity of grazing, swimming, resting and social interactions of rohu (Labeo rohita) (weight 66.5¿68.3 g) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (79.9¿82.0 g) were observed in 1 m2 simulated ponds using video images. Fish behaviour was monitored during a full 24-h period, starting at 08:00 hours

  18. Growth, production and food preference of rohu Labeo rohita (H.) in monoculture and in polyculture with common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) under fed and non-fed ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Milstein, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out in 18 earthen ponds to investigate the effects of the addition of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and artificial feed on natural food availability, food utilization and fish production in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) ponds. Ponds were fertilized fortnightly with cow ma

  19. B-glucan-supplemented diets increase poly(I:C)-induced gene expression of Mx, possibly via Tlr3-mediated recognition mechanism in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco Gracia, J.A.; Miest, J.J.; Pionnier, N.; Pietretti, D.; Forlenza, M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously observed that in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), administration of ß-glucan (MacroGard®) as feed additive leads to a lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting that this immunostimulant may be preventing an acute and potentially dangerous response to infection, parti

  20. Acute exposure to the biopesticide azadirachtin affects parameters in the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara D; Leitemperger, Jossiele W; Flores-Lopes, Fábio; Menezes, Charlene C; Loebens, Luisa; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Rizzetti, Tiele M; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania L

    2016-02-01

    The biopesticide, azadirachtin (Aza) is less hazardous to the environment, but may cause several toxic effects in aquatic organisms. The Cyprinus carpio (n=12, for all concentrations) after 10days of acclimation under controlled conditions, were exposed at 20, 40, and 60μL/L of Aza during 96h. After this period, fish were anesthetized and euthanized then mucus layer and gills collected. In this study, the effects of exposure to different Aza concentrations were analysed through a set of biomarkers: Na(+)/K(+-)ATPase, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) and histological parameters and, yet, protein and glucose concentration in the surface area of mucous layer. Na(+)K(+-)ATPase was inhibited at 40 and 60μL/L compared to control. TBARS decreased at 40μL/L compared to control. PC, SOD and GST increased at 60μL/L in comparison to control. CAT increased at 20 and 60μL/L, and GPx increased in all Aza concentrations compared to control. NPSH decreased and AsA increased in all concentrations in comparison to control. Histological analyses demonstrated an increase in the intensity of the damage with increasing Aza concentration. Alterations in histological examination were elevation and hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the secondary filament, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous and chlorate cells and lamellar aneurism. Glucose and protein concentrations in mucus layer increased at 60μL/L compared to control. In general, we suggest that 60μL/L Aza concentration affected several parameters causing disruptions carp metabolism. PMID:26689640

  1. Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 oC to 15 oC did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. - Assimilation efficiency of Cd and Zn in food of carp is affected by metal load, prey type and temperature

  2. Protection against atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by oral administration of humus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hiroshi; Denso; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2007-04-01

    Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. In the present study, oral administration of humus extract to common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) induced effective protection against experimental atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection. Mortality of fish and development of skin lesions such as hemorrhages and ulcers were significantly suppressed in carp treated with 10%, 5% or 1% humus extract adsorbed on dry feeding pellets. The median surviving days was also greater in fish treated with 10% or 5% humus extract than in untreated fish. Atypical A. salmonicida was isolated from ulcerative lesions of part of dead fish, but Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium sp. were also isolated from these fish, verifying bacterial population changes during the progression of skin lesions. These results clearly show that treatment of fish with humus extract is effective in preventing A. salmonicida disease.

  3. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 μmol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 μmol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE-inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

  4. Metals Analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio from Shirinsu Wetland, Hamedan province, Iran

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    Soheil Sobhan Ardakani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Concentrations of Cd, Hg and As were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in muscle, liver and gill tissues of common carp from the Shirinsu Wetland during February to March 2013. Methods: Fish samples (Cyprinus carpio were caught from Shirinsu Wetland, western Iran from February to March 2013. Specimens were frozen in prewashed polyethylene bags and frozen samples brought to the laboratory in ice chests. Samples (2 g were digested with 5 ml of HNO 3 (65% v/v, 1 ml of H 2 O 2 (30% v/v with a microwave oven. A blank digest was carried out in the same way. The digestion program began at a potency of 1200W then ramped for 10 min, after which samples were held for 10 min at 1200W. The second step began at a potency of 0W and held for 15 min. All metal concentrations were determined on a wet weight basis as μg g −1 . Results: Metal levels measured in muscle tissue were in the following ranges (μg g −1 : Cd 0.007-0.011, Hg 0.006-0.01 and As not detected. In liver tissue were (μg g −1 : Cd 0.035-0.043, Hg and As not detected. In gill tissue were (μg g −1 : Cd 0.31-0.55, Hg 0.002-0.004 and As 0.001-0.003. The results presented on metal contents in the examined tissues give an indication of the environmental conditions. Concentrations of Cd, Hg and As obtained were far below the established values by the European Community Regulations. However, Cd level found in gill tissue was higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption and as such may cause a human health issue. Conclusion: Analytical data shows that the metal concentrations for the fish tissues were generally within the FAO/WHO, ASTDR and EEC recommended limits for fish. Therefore there is no serious health risk associated with the consumption of the three studied metals in the muscle and liver tissues analyzed.             

  5. Are fish immune systems really affected by parasites? an immunoecological study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flajšhans Martin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basic function of the immune system is to protect an organism against infection in order to minimize the fitness costs of being infected. According to life-history theory, energy resources are in a trade-off between the costly demands of immunity and other physiological demands. Concerning fish, both physiology and immunity are influenced by seasonal changes (i.e. temporal variation associated to the changes of abiotic factors (such as primarily water temperature and interactions with pathogens and parasites. In this study, we investigated the potential associations between the physiology and immunocompetence of common carp (Cyprinus carpio collected during five different periods of a given year. Our sampling included the periods with temporal variability and thus, it presented a different level in exposure to parasites. We analyzed which of two factors, seasonality or parasitism, had the strongest impact on changes in fish physiology and immunity. Results We found that seasonal changes play a key role in affecting the analyzed measurements of physiology, immunity and parasitism. The correlation analysis revealed the relationships between the measures of overall host physiology, immunity and parasite load when temporal variability effect was removed. When analyzing separately parasite groups with different life-strategies, we found that fish with a worse condition status were infected more by monogeneans, representing the most abundant parasite group. The high infection by cestodes seems to activate the phagocytes. A weak relationship was found between spleen size and abundance of trematodes when taking into account seasonal changes. Conclusions Even if no direct trade-off between the measures of host immunity and physiology was confirmed when taking into account the seasonality, it seems that seasonal variability affects host immunity and physiology through energy allocation in a trade-off between life important

  6. EVALUATION OF ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2) EFFECT ON EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO)

    OpenAIRE

    GABI DUMITRESCU; LILIANA PETCULESCU-CIOCHINA; VOIA S.; A. GROZEA; D. DRONCA; IULIANA CRETESCU; LILIANA BOCA

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, the scientific researches performed during the last years are focused on the determination of the negative effects caused by natural and antropogeneous chemical compounds on aquatic species; these species are more exposed to most pollutants than the land species, for the simple reason that the aquatic environment is the last destination for most residues. Our research team proposed to test the toxic effect caused by ethinylestradiol on embryo development in common carp (Cyprinus ca...

  7. Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás

    2009-10-14

    The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements.

  8. New type of pathogenicity of Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 infecting the skin of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao; Guo, Qingxiang; Wu, Zizhen; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 is a common parasite infecting the intestine of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., resulting in mass mortality or loss of economic value of cultured carp. In the present study, T. kitauei infecting host skin was detected. The morphological, molecular and histological data of this parasite in the new organ record are presented. Morphological analysis showed the current specimen morphologically similar to T. kitauei from the intestine. Despite the spore length and polar capsule length of the current specimen larger than those of T. kitauei from the intestine, ranges of dimensions overlap, which is more suggestive of intraspecific variation than distinct species. BLAST search revealed that the present small subunit ribosomal DNA gene sequence is identical to those of T. kitauei. Histologically, most of spores distributed in the stratum spongiosum of dermis, and some spores in the strata compactum of host skin were also observed. Above all, both morphology and molecular analysis indicated that the current species from the skin of common carp is conspecific with T. kitauei from the intestine of carp and organ habitats transfer of T. kitauei from host intestine to skin may have occurred.

  9. Integrated assessment of biomarker response in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to clomazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara; Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Guerra, Luciana; Lópes, Thais; Severo, Eduardo; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2015-05-01

    Clomazone is considered a potential contaminant of groundwater and is persistent in the environment. To verify the effects of clomazone in Cyprinus carpio and Rhamdia quelen, a method that combines biomarker responses into an index of "integrated biomarker response" (IBR) was used for observed biological alterations in these species. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver of carp and silver catfish decreased at both concentrations tested. However, in muscle it increased in carp at 3 mg/L and silver catfish at 6 mg/L. Protein carbonyl increased in liver (3 and 6 mg/L) and muscle (6 mg/L) of carp. In carp, superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased at 3 mg/L and catalase at 6 mg/L. In silver catfish, SOD in liver decreased at 3 mg/L. Glutathione-S-transferase increased at 3 mg/L in muscle of carp. Nonprotein thiol levels decreased at both concentrations in liver of silver catfish and muscle of carp. In silver catfish, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) decreased in brain at 6 mg/L. Nevertheless, AChE in muscle of both species increased at 3 and 6 mg/L. IBR was standardized scores of biomarker responses and was visualized using star plots. The IBR values shown that in carp there was predominantly an induction of parameters, whereas in silver catfish there was inhibition of these responses. In this way, IBR may be a practical tool for the identification of biological alterations in fish exposed to pesticides. In the present study, IBR was efficient for comparisons of fish species using clomazone. This study may serve as a base for evaluation of other pesticides in the rice field, environment, or laboratory experiment.

  10. THE EFFECT OF FISH FEEDING WITH ADDITIVES NUPRO® AND BIO-MOS® ON THE RESULTS OF THE REARING OF AGE-1+ CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Vaschenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of feed fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing of age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Methodology. The study of the effect of feeding fish with the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® on the results of the rearing age-1+ carp (Cyprinus carpio L. of “Nyvka” scaled intrabreed type were performed based on the conventional methodology. The experiments were carried out in ponds condition of the research farm "Nyvka" of the Institute of Fisheries during 3 months. For the experiments, we used 0.5 ha ponds, which were stocked with age-1 carp. The stocking density was 3000 individuals per ha or 1500 individuals per pond. Findings. The study demonstrated that feeding age-1+ carp with the balanced combined feed PKS 111 2/2/4 enriched with the food additives NUPRO® (5% and BIO-MOS® (2% increased the intensity of their growth compared to that in the control group of fish, which were fed with the combined feed of the same composition but without feed additives. Using these additives in the combined feed composition increased fish growth by 12.4% when BIO-MOS® was used and by 57.3% with NUPRO®. The fish output increased by 2% and 4%, respectively. Feed costs reduced by 2.8 an 2.6 versus 3 kg/ha in the control group. All hydrochemical indices in the experimental ponds were within normal limits and temperature condition was optimal for fish growth and metabolism. Therefore, adding these feed additives in age-1+ carp diet allows obtaining additional weight gain and more effective utilization of the feed used. Originality. The analysis of the effect of adding the additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® into combined on productive parameters of age-1+ carp of “Nyvka” scaled intrabreed type was carried out for the first time. Practical value. The feed additives NUPRO® and BIO-MOS® are recommended to be used when feeding age-1+ carp for increasing fish productivity and reducing feed costs.

  11. Changes in the Content of Biogenic Amines and Fatty Acids in High Pressure-Processed Carp Flesh (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    KříŽek, Martin; Matějkoá, Kateřina; Dadáková, Eva; Špička, Jiří; Vácha, František; Vrchotová, NaděŽda

    2015-08-01

    Biogenic amine and fatty acid contents were determined in vacuum-packed fillets of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Samples were pressure treated at 300 and 500 MPa and were stored at 3.5 and 12°C for up to 28 days (control, 0 MPa) and 70 days (pressure-treated). The content of eight biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, and phenylethylamine) were determined. Putrescine and cadaverine were influenced by all factors (temperature, pressurization level, and time of storage). Tyramine content was the most sensitive indicator of the improper status of sample; levels exceeding 10 mg/kg indicated both the loss of meat freshness and temperature abuse, in spite of persisting good sensory indices. Neither storage temperature nor pressurization level had a statistically important effect on the contents of fatty acids. Only polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased slightly if the storage time exceeded 42 days.

  12. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Infected with Flavobacterium columnare

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    Lijuan Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/ and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection.

  13. Seasonal and diel effects on acoustic fish biomass estimates: application to a shallow reservoir with untargeted common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemali, Imed; Yule, Daniel; Guillard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand how seasonal fish distributions affect acoustically derived fish biomass estimates in a shallow reservoir in a semi-arid country (Tunisia). To that end, sampling events were performed during four seasons (spring (June), summer (September), autumn (December) and winter (March)) that included day and night surveys. A Simrad EK60 echosounder, equipped with two 120-kHz split-beam transducers for simultaneous horizontal and vertical beaming, was used to sample the entire water column. Surveys during spring and summer and daytime hours of winter were deemed unusable owing to high methane flux from the sediment, and during the day survey of autumn, fish were close to the reservoir bottom leading to low detectability. It follows that acoustic surveys should be conducted only at night during the cold season (December–March) for shallow reservoirs having carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) as the dominant species. Further, night-time biomass estimates during the cold season declined significantly (P fish biomass in the Bir-Mcherga Reservoir was high (mean (± s.d.) 185 ± 98 tonnes (Mg)), but annual fishery exploitation is low (19.3–24.1 Mg) because the fish biomass is likely dominated by invasive carp not targeted by fishers. The results suggest that controlling carp would help improve the fishery.

  14. Involvement of the mitfa gene in the development of pigment cell in Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J H; Wen, S; Luo, C; Zhang, Y Q; Tao, M; Wang, D W; Deng, S M; Xiao, Y M

    2015-01-01

    A colored phenotype is an important feature of ornamental fish. In mammals, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) was found to regulate the development of melanocytes. In this study, the mitfa cDNA was first cloned from the Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), an important ornamental freshwater fish. The full-length cDNA of the mitfa gene contains 1634 bp, coding for 412 amino acids in Koi. The identity degree of mitfa amino acid sequences between the Koi carp and zebrafish is 92.9%. We tested the expression of the mitfa gene in several varieties of Koi using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and found that the mitfa gene is highly expressed in the skin tissues of the Taisho sanke and the Procypris merus. Interestingly, the mitfa gene was also expressed in the Kohaku and Yamabaki ogon, although melanocytes were not observed in the skin. Koi carp embryos were transparent and colorless, while after hatching, different types of pigment cells successively emerged in a fixed order. In Taisho sanke, melanocytes first appeared in the trunk at approximately 12 days of age. Subsequently, there was a large area of melanocytes by 30 days of age. The expression level of the mitfa mRNA was low in early embryos and newly hatched larvae, and increased to high levels in 30-day-old fry. The results show that the mitfa gene is involved in regulating fish body color in the development of both melanocytes and pigment cells. PMID:25867426

  15. Expression of the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in mucosal tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombout, J H W M; van der Tuin, S J L; Yang, G; Schopman, N; Mroczek, A; Hermsen, T; Taverne-Thiele, J J

    2008-05-01

    The mucosal immune system seems to be an important defence mechanism for fish but the binding of IgM in mucosal organs is poorly described in fish. In this study the gene encoding the polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor (pIgR) in carp has been isolated and sequenced from a liver cDNA-library and aligned with other species. The pIgR of carp consists of 2 Ig domains, a transmembrane and an intracellular region, together 327 amino acids. In situ hybridisations with sense and anti-sense DIG-labelled pIgR RNA probes were performed on liver, gut and skin of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and in these organs only anti-sense probes were found to hybridise. In liver the majority of hepatocytes was stained around the nucleus. In gut and skin, staining could be detected around the nucleus of the epithelial cells, but in gut also a subpopulation of lymphoid cells was stained in epithelium and lamina propria. The specific in situ hybridisation of the epithelia and hepatocytes coincides with the in situ binding of FITC-labelled carp IgM to the same cells. RT-PCR results indicate the expression of the pIgR gene in all lymphoid organs of carp, but not in muscle. Macrophages/neutrophils enriched by adherence or sorted B cells (MACS) did not show expression of the pIgR gene and are excluded as the pIgR expressing lymphoid cells in the intestine. The relevance of pIgR staining and gene expression in mucosal organs is discussed. PMID:18356080

  16. Detection of feeding behaviour in common carp Cyprinus carpio by using an acceleration data logger to identify mandibular movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiguchi, Y; Sugie, Y; Kojima, T; Naito, Y

    2012-05-01

    Miniaturized acceleration data loggers were attached to the lower mandible of common carp Cyprinus carpio to remotely identify feeding behaviour. Whether the acceleration signal could distinguish the quantity and quality of food was also investigated. The frequency and amplitude of the lower mandible stroke, calculated from surging acceleration determined by continuous wavelet transformation, significantly increased during the feeding period compared to that during the non-feeding period. These characteristic movement patterns were maintained for mean ±s.e. 187·3 ± 38·2 s when the fish were fed a single item of food and for mean ±s.e. 419·3 ± 28·6 s when they consumed multiple items. The dominant cycle and amplitude calculated according to feeding event duration, however, did not differ significantly between the two types of diets the fish consumed. Surging acceleration could detect mean ±s.e. 89·8 ± 13·5% of feeding events, although the false detection rate was mean ±s.e. 25·9 ± 10·9%. The results indicate that the mandible acceleration measurement method could be utilized to detect and record the feeding events in fishes that use a suction feeding mode similar to C. carpio. PMID:22551186

  17. The response of thyroid hormones, biochemical and enzymological biomarkers to pyrene exposure in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirdel, Iman; Kalbassi, Mohammad Reza; Shokri, Milad; Olyaei, Roya; Sharifpour, Issa

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are discharged into aquatic environments through anthropogenic activities mainly industrial and municipal effluents. There is little information on the adverse effects of pyrene, a member of the PAH family which is classified as a priority pollutant by the USEPA, on fish biochemical and physiological endpoints, particularly thyroid hormones. The present study investigated the effects of subacute semi-static pyrene exposure on biochemical, enzymological and ionoregulatory responses as well as thyroid hormones in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The fish (140±10g, 1(+) year) were exposed to 10, 50 and 100µg/l nominal concentrations of pyrene for 35 days. The results revealed that pyrene at these concentrations significantly altered plasma levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Moreover, plasma thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were significantly decreased in fish exposed to pyrene. In contrast, plasma electrolytes (sodium, potassium and calcium) levels remained statistically unchanged after exposure to the various pyrene concentrations. In conclusion, the studied biomarkers may be used as monitoring tools to evaluate pyrene toxicity. Pyrene induced diverse effects on the physiological endpoints of common carp, thus this chemical should be considered in toxicity studies concerning PAHs. Furthermore, this study confirmed that there was an interaction between pyrene and the thyroid system in fish. Therefore, the thyroid system may be used to assess the impact of pyrene on fish. PMID:27123973

  18. Seasonal Variations Of Heavy Metals In Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L., 1758 Collected From Sikkak Dam Of Tlemcen (Algeria

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    Derrag Zineb,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in the concentrations of six heavy metals (Cd, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni were determined from December 2010 to November 2011 in four different tissues (muscles, gills, gonads, and livers of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 from Sikkak dam at Ainyoucef (Wilaya of Tlemcen which is an important water source for irrigation and drinking in northwest part of Algeria. Heavy metals in fish samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS after dry digestion. One-way ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA were used to compare the data among seasons (level of 0,05. Mean concentrations were found to decrease in sequence of Cyprinuscarpio samples, in muscle and liver as Fe > Zn >Pb> Ni > Cu > Cd, in gills as Zn > Fe >Pb> Ni > Cu > Cd, and in gonads Fe > Zn > Ni >Pb> Cu > Cd. In samples Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations exceeded the tolerable values provided by FAO/WHO. The highest metals concentrations were found in liver followed by gills, by gonads, and by muscle. Heavy metal levels in tissues of carp were decreased in winter. The obtained results showed that the average values of Cd, Cu, Zn and Ni were at the highest levels in summer. The highest Pb levels were measured in the spring and Fe in autumn. It found that all tested metals in organs did not reveal any significant difference between different seasons (P > 0,05, (inter-season comparison.

  19. Antimicrobial effects of guava leaf (Psidium guajava Linn. extract against Aeromonas hydrophila in fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio

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    Tangtongpirot, J.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of guava leaves in treatment or prevention of bacterial infection using methanol extracted guava leaves. Three hundred and eighty four fancy carps (Cyprinus carpio with average weight of 25.5 g. were acclimated for 14 days before the experiment. Fish were divided into 32 groups of two replicates each with 6 fish. All experiments were done in replicate. Guava leaves were macerated and extracted by methanol distillation and evaporation to produce 12.99% of dried leave weight. The exposures were divided into oral route using 5% (MIC and 10 % (2xMIC. And 1000 ppm (MIC and 2000 ppm (2xMIC for dip and bath methods. MIC by agar dilution method was 1000 ppm. At the 1000 ppm concentration dipped for 5 minutes, fish lost consciousness but this was reversible when returned to freshwater, which may due to the antinociceptive effect. All fish died when dipped at 2000 ppm concentration. The relative percent survival (RPS of 5% feed mix group was significantly higher than the 10% feed mix group and higher when fed for longer time. All groups receiving guava leaf extract had significantly higher percent phagocytosis and percent chemotaxis than the controls (P<0.05. The results indicated that guava leaf extract can stimulate the non-specific immune responses and decrease the mortality rate of the bacterial infected carp. The effects were enhanced by the longer period of exposure.

  20. The accumulation and distribution of 60Co in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in water-fish compartment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In relation with nuclear safety assessment, the parameter of radionuclide transfer in the environment is significantly needed for internal doses estimation received by public trough environment - food product - human pathways. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published the transfer parameter data for temperate zone in Technical Report Series 472. In order to complete the IAEA data, especially for tropical region, the accumulation and distribution of 60Co in carp (Cyprinus carpio) was experimentally studied based on the water-fish compartment system. The carp were cultured in 500L water containing 60Co of about 30 Bq.mL-1 in a water tank. The 60Co concentration in fish and water were measured using gamma spectrometer. The 60Co was accumulated and distributed in the fish tissues with the concentration ratio (CR) of 3.08 mL.g-1 1.55 mL.g-1 and 1.14 mL.g-1 for internal organs, bones, and muscle, respectively. The CR of 60Co in the fish will be useful in internal radiation dose estimation to human trough water-fish-human pathway, and will also complete the IAEA transfer parameter data for tropical region. (author)

  1. Biological significance of [14C]phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of [14C]phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish

  2. Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, Christoph, E-mail: steinbach@frov.jcu.cz [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Fedorova, Ganna [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic); Prokes, Miroslav [Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Kvetna 8, 603 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Grabicova, Katerina; Machova, Jana; Grabic, Roman; Valentova, Olga; Kroupova, Hana Kocour [Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, CZ-38925 Vodnany (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-01

    Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L{sup −1} to μg L{sup −1}. In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC{sub 50} values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4 ± 9.2, 7.3 ± 1.5 and 4.8 ± 0.2 mg L{sup −1} for embryos (E5–E9) and common carp larvae L2 and L5, respectively. Lethal concentrations of verapamil decreased with an increase in the age of the fish. Acute exposure to verapamil significantly reduced the heart rate in the embryos and larvae. In an embryo-larval toxicity test (sub-chronic exposure), the bioconcentration, depuration, and toxic effects of verapamil were assessed in common carp. The fish were exposed to verapamil in a concentration of 0.463 (environmentally relevant), 4.63, 46.3 and 463 μg L{sup −1}. Verapamil had no effect on the accumulated mortality, hatching, condition factor, growth or ontogeny of the fish in any of the tested concentrations. In carp exposed to 463 and 46.3 μg L{sup −1} of verapamil, significantly higher occurrences of malformations and edemas were observed compared to the control. The bioconcentration factor of verapamil in whole fish homogenates ranged between 6.6 and 16.6 and was therefore below the critical value for hazard substances (BCF > 500). The half-life and the 95% depuration time for the tested compound were estimated to be 10.2 ± 1.6 days and 44.2 ± 8.6 days, respectively. No effects of verapamil on the studied endpoints were observed at environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Study of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of verapamil on early-life stages of common carp. • Acute exposure to verapamil reduced the heart rate in early-life stages of

  3. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758: Biochemical response

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    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinsetrase (AChE activities were measured. Behavioral changes in the fish were also recorded during the experiment. Unbalanced swimming, swimming in the surface water and hyperglycemia, increased blood triglyceride, and increased levels of AST, LDH and CK activities as well as decreased levels of AChE activity were important changes that were observed in the specimens exposed to chlorpyrifos during experimental periods. The most important alterations in the blood biochemical parameters were measured in the specimens exposed to 40 µg/L chlorpyrifos on the 20th and 30th day of the trial. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos as low as 40 µg/L may cause biochemical and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio.

  4. Modulation in hepatic and head kidney parameters of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) induced by copper and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautremepuits, Claire; Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Betoulle, Stéphane; Vernet, Guy

    2004-04-01

    Copper is used in treatment mixtures to control fungal diseases in vineyards plants. High concentrations of copper are inducing antioxidant stress in some aquatic ecosystems, and potential bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms has prompted the demand for alternative use of low toxic molecules in culture treatments. Chitosan is a biomolecule with antifungal and heavy metal ion chelating properties that may be used as a biopesticide. In this study, we investigate the potential toxicity of chitosan for aquatic animal health, alone or associated with copper. Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were exposed to different chitosan concentrations (from 37.5 to 375 mg/l) or to two sublethal copper concentrations (0.1 and 0.25 mg/l) or to chitosan and copper (75 and 0.1 mg/l, respectively). Antioxidant enzyme activities were enhanced in chitosan treated fish after 4 days and depressed after 8 days. This phenomenon indicated a non-negligible toxicity of chitosan in fish physiology. However, the mixture copper-chitosan seems to induce a lower degree of oxidative stress than each fungicide alone. These observations show that chitosan is a potentially noxious molecule for some fish and any industrial and/or agricultural uses of this compound will have to address this problem.

  5. Sublethal propoxur toxicity to juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758): biochemical, hematological, histopathological, and genotoxicity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Ali; Benli, A Çağlan Karasu; Ayhan, Ayşen; Memmi, Burcu Koçak; Selvi, Mahmut; Sepici-Dinçel, Aylin; Cakiroğullari, Gül Çelik; Erkoç, Figen

    2012-09-01

    The sublethal toxicological and genotoxic potential of propoxur, a widely used carbamate insecticide against household pests, in veterinary medicine, and in public health, was evaluated on carp as a model species (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) using the erythrocyte micronucleus test. Based on the 96-h lethal concentration, 50% (LC50) data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ECOTOX Database (10 mg/L), a sublethal exposure concentration of 5 mg/L was used under static bioassay laboratory conditions. Histopathological evaluation showed no significant changes in spleen, intestine, muscle, or skin tissues. However, the following conditions were recorded: hyperemia, branchitis in primary lamella, and telangiectasis, hyperplasia, fusion, epithelial lifting, and epithelial desquamation in secondary lamella of gill tissues; hemorrhage, destruction, prenephritis, and inflammation and desquamation in the tubules; edema in the kidney; passive hyperemia, albumin, and hydropic degeneration in the liver; and hyperemia, chromatolysis, and glial proliferation in brain tissues. No statistically significant increases in micronuclei frequencies were found. Hematological parameters showed decreased hematocrit values and mean corpuscular volume values, as well as increased erythrocyte and leukocyte counts compared with the control group (p Propoxur has an ecotoxicological potential on fish, a nontarget organism.

  6. Etiology and pathology of epidermal papillomas in allogynogenetic crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio (female) x Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis (male).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongda; Zhu, Guanglai; Fan, Liping; Zhang, Lianyi

    2009-01-28

    Allogynogenetic crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio (female) x Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis (male) is one of the main freshwater aquaculture species in China. In recent years, epidermal papillomas have been observed on the scales, fins and opercula of adult fish in many fish farms in the Chongming county of Shanghai, China. The disease appears in the late autumn of the first year and becomes more severe in winter. It gradually regresses in the late spring or summer of the second year, as water temperature increases. Our study revealed that the disease pathogen was likely to be a herpes-like virus, as indicated by enveloped viral particles in the cytoplasm, empty capsids in the nucleus and a virus-like morphology of the pathogen. The size of the enveloped herpes-like virus was 118.18 +/- 10.53 (SD) nm (n = 22) and its nucleocapsid was 78.64 +/- 7.74 nm (n = 22) in diameter. Histopathological examination of tumours revealed that both epithelial and stromal cells proliferated to form papillomas. The nuclei of epithelial tumour cells were irregular in shape and in size. Most of the mucous cells were located in clusters near the middle of each papilloma. Cytoplasmic organelles were sparse in tumour cells. Numerous granulocytes and lymphocytes infiltrated into the tumour tissue. There were no inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm and nuclei of tumour cells. The lesions only occurred in adult allogynogenetic crucian carp, even though they were cultured together with other fish species. There was marked variation in incidence: in some ponds, only a few fish were affected, while the incidence was up to 90% in other ponds. PMID:19301639

  7. 鲤鱼微卫星分子标记的筛选%Isolation of Microsatellite Markers in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏东旺; 楼允东; 孙效文; 沈俊宝

    2001-01-01

    A partial common carp genomic library was constructed.45 positive clones were isolated from screening about 2000 clones of the genomic library with a (CA)15 probe labelled at the 5 ' end with γ32P-ATP.Sequencing of these clones was performed with automated sequencer,and 22 microsatellites were isolated.17 primers were designed based on unique sequences flanking each motif with the software Primer3.PCR on Cyprinus carpio haematopterus was carried out with these primers,and all gave expected bands.Annealing temperature of these primers was between 50℃ and 53℃.

  8. Obtención, caracterización microbiológica y físico-química de ensilado biológico de carpa (Cyprinus carpio - Obtaining, characterization microbiological and physic-chemical of carp biological silage (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Herrero, Adriana L.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl propósito del presente estudio fue determinar los cambios en la calidad nutricional y composición química que ocurren durante el ensilado de desechos de carpa (Cyprinus carpio, y determinar cual de las dos proporciones de miel: yogur es la apropiada para su utilización como fuente proteica en la alimentación animal.SummaryThe purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in the nutritional quality and the chemical composition that occur during the ensilage of waste carp (Cyprinus carpio and establish which of the two honey proportions:

  9. Using mitochondrial nucleotide sequences to investigate diversity and genealogical relationships within common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, B T; Burridge, C P; Pham, T A; Austin, C M

    2005-02-01

    Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop (745 bp) and MTATPase6/MTATPase8 (857 bp) regions was used to investigate genetic variation within common carp and develop a global genealogy of common carp strains. The D-loop region was more variable than the MTATPase6/MTATPase8 region, but given the wide distribution of carp the overall levels of sequence divergence were low. Levels of haplotype diversity varied widely among countries with Chinese, Indonesian and Vietnamese carp showing the greatest diversity whereas Japanese Koi and European carp had undetectable nucleotide variation. A genealogical analysis supports a close relationship between Vietnamese, Koi and Chinese Color carp strains and to a lesser extent, European carp. Chinese and Indonesian carp strains were the most divergent, and their relationships do not support the evolution of independent Asian and European lineages and current taxonomic treatments.

  10. Oxidative stress and immune disturbance after long-term exposure to bisphenol A in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenhui; Chen, Jingsi; Li, Yijie; Chen, Zhong; Jiang, Lihui; Yang, Ming; Wu, Minghong

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, which poses an ecotoxicological risk to the health of aquatic organisms. However, the immunotoxic effects of its long-term exposure on fish have received limited attention. We examined a number of typical immune-related parameters and oxidative stress indices in the liver and blood serum of the red common carp (Cyprinus carpio), following a 30-day exposure to five different concentrations of BPA (0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000μg/L). A significant increase in the hepato somatic index was observed in fish upon exposure to 1000µg/L BPA, which correlated strongly with the accumulated BPA concentrations in fish bile. Induced oxidative stress was also apparent in the exposed fish liver, based on the enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation and inhibited activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Serum lysozyme and C-reaction protein levels increased at low concentrations of exposure; however, they were significantly suppressed upon exposure to high concentrations. A significant increase was observed in the levels of immunoglobulin M, complement component 3, and alkaline phosphatase, in both fish liver and serum at low doses of 0.1 and 1μg/L. This suggests that long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA (even as low as 0.1μg/L) could significantly disturb the immune response of fish. Moreover, RXRα expression in the liver was significantly altered upon BPA exposure and the trend underlying this change correlated closely with those of the most immune-related parameters, implying the involvement of the PPARγ/RXRα signaling pathway in regulating the immune response of fish upon long-term BPA exposure. In short, our results demonstrate the susceptibility of fish immune system to long-term BPA exposure. Therefore, the immunotoxicity of EDCs in aquatic organisms should not have been underestimated. PMID:27088622

  11. Effect of Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at Environmental Concentrations on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Josef Velisek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine’s herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5 mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029 mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07 mg/L, 1.4 mg/L, and 3.5 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC = 0.002 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC = 0.0001 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5 mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found.

  12. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Water, Sediments and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Fish Species from Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Ogendi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are potentially toxic to organisms causing lethal and sub lethal effects. Above threshold levels, these metals have been shown to adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Human health may also be impacted negatively through consumption of metal-contaminated foods and water. Lake Naivasha, Kenya, like many freshwater bodies in developing countries is a source of fish and water for human consumption in Naivasha town and its environs. Ironically, the lake receives untreated floricultural, agricultural and industrial effluents from its catchment area. In the recent past, there have been unconfirmed reports that fish from this lake are contaminated with heavy metals mainly Cu, Hg, Cd and Pb to levels that are harmful to humans. It is against this background that this study was conducted to determine the sources of the aforementioned heavy metals in the lake, their concentrations in water and sediments and in common carp (Cyprinus carpio that constitutes a major portion of the Lake Naivasha fishery. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected from purposefully selected sites in six sampling occasions during both the dry and wet seasons. Analyses for heavy metals in fish, sediment and water samples were done using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. The study findings indicate that the heavy metal concentrations in the water and sediments collected from impacted sites were significantly higher (p<0.05 compared to those from unexpected sites. In spite of this, the metal concentrations in water were significantly lower than those recommended by the WHO and USEPA as drinking water guideline values. Metal concentrations in C. carpio were also significantly lower (p<0.05 than the World Health Organization (WHO recommended levels for fish intended for human consumption. Based on these findings, it is safe to conclude that drinking water and fish collected from Lake Naivasha do not pose immediate health risks to human

  13. (Uncommon) Mechanisms of Branchial Ammonia Excretion in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Response to Environmentally Induced Metabolic Acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M; Hiroi, Junya; Wilson, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes generally increase ammonia excretion in acidic waters. The new model of ammonia transport in freshwater fish involves an association between the Rhesus (Rh) protein Rhcg-b, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), and a suite of other membrane transporters. We tested the hypothesis that Rhcg-b and NHE3 together play a critical role in branchial ammonia excretion in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to a low-pH environment. Carp were exposed to three sequential environmental treatments-control pH 7.6 water (24 h), pH 4.0 water (72 h), and recovery pH 7.6 water (24 h)-or in a separate series were simply exposed to either control (72 h) or pH 4.0 (72 h) water. Branchial ammonia excretion was increased by ∼2.5-fold in the acid compared with the control period, despite the absence of an increase in the plasma-to-water partial pressure NH3 gradient. Alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in the gills of fish exposed to pH 4 versus control water, suggesting that ammonia may be generated in gill tissue. Gill Rhcg-b and NHE3b messenger RNA levels were significantly elevated in acid-treated relative to control fish, but at the protein level Rhcg-b decreased (30%) and NHE3b increased (2-fold) in response to water of pH 4.0. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, NHE3b and Rhcg-b were found to be colocalized to ionocytes along the interlamellar space of the filament of control fish. After 72 h of acid exposure, Rhcg-b staining almost disappeared from this region, and NHE3b was more prominent along the lamellae. We propose that ammoniagenesis within the gill tissue itself is responsible for the higher rates of branchial ammonia excretion during chronic metabolic acidosis. Unexpectedly, gill Rhcg-b does not appear to be important in gill ammonia transport in low-pH water, but the strong induction of NHE3b suggests that some NH4(+) may be eliminated directly in exchange for Na(+). These findings contrast with previous studies in larval zebrafish

  14. Experimental Evidence for the Effects of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 on Freshwater Ecosystems: A Narrative Review with Management Directions for Turkish Inland Waters

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    Lorenzo VILIZZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of common carp Cyprinus carpio has become a priority issue in most of its native range and where it has been introduced. This is because of the effects (both documented and anecdotal on freshwater ecosystems that the species is able to exert. To provide a general framework for future management of introductions of this species, this study presents a near-comprehensive, “narrative” review (complementing a “systematic” review: Vilizzi, Tarkan, Copp 2015 of experimental studies of the impacts of common carp spanning almost nine decades. Based on 139 experiments presenting results for a total of 400 “assessments” aimed at evaluating the effects of C. carpio on selected ecological components, a conceptual model linking both abiotic (i.e. turbidity/suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and biotic components (i.e. phytoplankton/chlorophyll a, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, amphibians, waterfowl, fish was refined. Given the status of C. carpio as a species of low concern in Turkish inland waters and its overall unsuccessful recruitment in stocked reservoirs, in the light of the present findings it is suggested that environmental managers should consider targeting shallow (natural lakes for successful fisheries yields, but conditional upon careful assessment of the economic benefits vs. ecological risks involved.

  15. Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) disturbs osmotic balance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)--A potential cause of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negenborn, J; van der Marel, M C; Ganter, M; Steinhagen, D

    2015-06-12

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) causes a fatal disease in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi varieties which seriously affects production and trade of this fish species globally. Up to now, the pathophysiology of this disease remains unclear. Affected individuals develop most prominent lesions in gills, skin and kidney, in tissues which are involved in the osmotic regulation of freshwater teleosts. Therefore, here serum and urine electrolyte levels were examined during the course of an experimental infection of carp with CyHV-3. In infected carp an interstitial nephritis with a progressive deterioration of nephric tubules developed, which was paralleled by elevated electrolyte losses, mainly Na(+) in the urine. The urine/plasma ratio for Na(+) increased from 0.03 in uninfected carp to 0.43-0.83 in carp under CyHV-3 infection, while concentration of divalent ions were not significantly changed. These electrolyte losses could not be compensated since plasma osmolality and Na(+) concentration dropped significantly in CyHV-3 infected carp. This was most probably caused by the progressive deterioration of the branchial epithelium, which in teleosts plays a prominent role in osmoregulation, and which was seen concomitantly with decreasing electrolyte levels in the serum of carp under CyHV-3 infection. Immediately after infection with CyHV-3, by day 2 post exposure, affected carp showed severe anaemia and prominent leucocytosis indicating the development of an acute inflammation, which could intensify the observed hydro-mineral imbalances. The data presented here show that an infection with CyHV-3 induces an acute inflammation and a severe dysfunction of osmoregulation in affected carp or koi, which may lead to death in particular in the case of acute disease progression. PMID:25888311

  16. ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AMUR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO HAEMATOPTERUS REPRODUCED USING CRYOPRESERVED SPERM

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    N. Kolisnyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To reproduce Amur carp population using cryopreserved sperm and analyze some biological and fish culture peculiarities of the reproduced fish stock. Methodology. Generally accepted methods for fish culture [1]. Experimental reproduction was carried out in pond conditions of «Carpathian vodogray» LTD (Lisnevychi village, Pustomytivsky district, Lviv region. Hydrochemical analysis was carried out classically by O. Alуokin (1970 [2], hydrobiological studies in the fatting ponds according to V. Zhadin (1956, 1960 [3, 4]. Haemoglobin concentration was determined by hemocyanin method of G. Dervis, A. Vorobiov [5]. Blood for this method was collected from fish heart with the use of Pasteur pipettes in Eppendorf tubes with heparin. Following exterior morphometric parameters were analysed: body weight (m, g, standard fish body length (l, cm, largest body height (H, cm and body circumference (O cm. Following exterior indices were calculated based on these parameters: body depth index (l/H, body circumference index (l/O and Fulton’s condition factor (Kv. The study was carried out using two groups of carp: control and experimental. The first group was reproduced from the native sperm, the second from the cryopreserved sperm. Findings. Carp reproduction and growing was carried out using native and cryopreserved sperm. This work contains the results of growing 1+ Amur carp of experimental and control groups. Hydrochemical and hydrobiological parameters of the fattening ponds were studied. Peculiarities of the exterior and some hematological parameters of the carp of different origin were characterized. Originality. For the first time we performed a comparison of some biological parameters of Amur carp reproduced using native and cryopreserved sperm. Practical Value. Considering the economic importance of Amur carp due to its use in hybridization, reproduction of its population plays an important role in the development of the stocks of the pure

  17. SOME HEMATOLOGICAL VALUES OF TWO-YEAR OLD CARP (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Krešimir Fašaić

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out in three variants of experimental fish ponds in which different technologies were applied (l - without fertilizing, feeding of carp with cereals; II - fertilizing, feeding of carp with cereals; III - without fertilizing, feeding of carp with pellets containing 20% of protein. Carp was reared under conditions of policulture with total stock density 3250 ind. ha-1 (2500 ind•ha-1 carp 250 ind•ha-1 silver carp, 250 ind•ha-1 bighead and 250 ind•ha-1 grass carp. Average weights of fishes were from 29 to 77 g. The values of some hematological and biochemical indices of carp were estimated (hematocrit, hemoglobin, MCHC, total protein and total lipids. The mean value of concentration of hemoglobin was 111,80±18,38 gl-1 (variant I; 121,60±15,86 gl-1 (variant II and 122,00±15,61 gl-1 (variant III. Hematocrit value was 0,25±0,03 L˙L-1 0,30±0,03 L˙L-1 0,28±0,02 L˙L-1, and MCHC 0,23±0,01 L˙L-1; 0,23±0,01 L˙L-1; 0,25±0,01 L˙L-1 resp. The concentration of total protein in blood plasma of carp was 27,00±0,32 g˙L-1 (variant 1, 32,00±0,52 g˙L-1 (variant II and 34,00±1,02 g˙L-1 (variant III. The concentration oftotallipids was 10,1O±0,29 g˙L-1,11,20±1,60 g˙L-1 and 1l,20±1,60 g˙L-1 resp. The differences between means values of these indices found in carp of different variants were significant (P>0.05 only for values of total protein (table 3 in variant III where carp was fed with protein of animal origin.

  18. Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringø, Einar

    2014-10-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3%) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (SEM 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3% FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies. PMID:25313574

  19. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2016-04-01

    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource.

  20. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF PLANKTONIC CLADOCERAN DAPHNIA MAGNA FOR COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio FRY FEEDING

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    Ivan Bogut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and contents of amino acids and fatty acids in the planktonic cladoceran Daphnia magna were investigated, aiming to evaluate its value for feeding of young carp. Crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and moisture contents were analyzed according to standard laboratory procedures. Amino acids content was determined by LKB 4101 automatic analyzer and that of fatty acids by Chrompack CP 9000 chromatograph, using a flame ionizing detector. Protein contents amounted to 1.18 and 39.24% of fresh and dry mass, respectively. These amounts of proteins completely meet nutritional requirements both of carp fry and its older categories and other omnivorous fishes. Raw fat and fibre contents in dry weight were 4.98 and 4.32%, respectively, which is suitable for the commercial carp breeding. Methionine and phenylalanine are partially in deficit, whereas other essential amino acids identified in dry mass of Daphnia magna were present in amounts adequate for all carp categories. The proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in lipids of Daphnia magna were 18.70 and 66.20%, respectively. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, the omega–3 group was present with 27.30%. The omega–3 : omega–6 fatty acids ratio was 5.68:1, which fully meets the carp nutrition requirements.

  1. Investigation of the Selectivity Parameters for Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) in Seyhan Dam Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Özyurt, Caner Enver; Avşar, Dursun

    2005-01-01

    Selectivity studies are very important for sustainable fisheries. Therefore, in this study, selectivity parameters for the carp in Seyhan Dam Lake were estimated using gill nets having a mesh size of 28, 32, 40 and 45 mm. Gill nets used in pikeperch fishing of mesh size of 28, 30 and 32 mm could cause growth in the overfishing of carp. Therefore, it is recommended that longline fishing should be commonly used instead of gill nets on pikeperch fishing. Consequently gill nets having minimum 50 ...

  2. Differential transcription of multiple forms of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onara, Dalia F; Forlenza, Maria; Gonzalez, Santiago F; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Pilarczyk, Andrzej; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and beta chain of which the first includes the bioactive regions. Previously, three a2M alpha chain sequences were reported for East-Asian common carp. We studied a2M alpha chain variability in European common carp and report the cloning of a fourth a2M alpha chain with distinct sequence diversity in the bait region. The role of a2M in the immune response to parasites was studied in the liver of carp infected with Trypanoplasma borreli or with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Quantitative gene transcription analysis showed a differential regulation of the four isoforms, most clearly seen in infections with I. multifiliis. A2M3 was the only a2M isoform with a highly upregulated transcription during infection, suggesting that this particular isoform is of foremost biological importance.

  3. Differential transcription of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onara, D.F.; Forlenza, M.; Gonzalez, S.F.; Rakus, K.L.; Pilarczyk, A.; Irnazarow, I.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and

  4. Clones of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. New perspectives in fish research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, J.

    1990-01-01

    The absence of well defined inbred lines is an important problem associated with scientific research on fish. Inbred lines can be produced by conventional full-sib mating, but at least 10-15 generations are needed to produce homozygous inbred lines. Using common carp, which reach maturity at 1.5 yea

  5. Stress and stress disorders in a teleost fish, the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Unlike research using mammalian animal models such as rats or mice, experimental fish often come from wild or commercial sources, leading to a lack of well defined experimental animal models. Isogenic carp offer us a well defined fish model for physiological research. The aim of this thesis was to,

  6. Germ cell development in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkoop, van A.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of larval and juvenile gonads of a teleost fish, the common carp, with special attention to the differentiation of the primordial germ cells. The early gonadal development has received relatively little attention, hitherto, as the research on fish reproduction h

  7. Histological Alterations in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Gills as Potential Biomarkers for Fungicide Contamination

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    Stela Stoyanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to investigate the histological alterations in common carp gills caused by a fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide tested in laboratory conditions at 30, 38 and 50 mg/L concentration. In general, all the tested concentrations activated compensatory-adaptive mechanisms, which caused pathological changes in the fish gills. Results showed different histological alterations in the gill structure, which included lamellar lifting, edema, proliferation of the glandular cells and epithelium, covering the gill filament, fusion and degenerative alterations. Blood circulatory system showed vasodilatation of the secondary lamellae and aneurysms. Overall, there was enhancement of the gill histological changes, which was dose-dependent, i.e., proportional to the increasing fungicide concentrations. Thus, based on the results, it was concluded that the histological alterations in common carp gills could be applied as possible biomarkers in risk assessment and monitoring programs for pesticide contamination of aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Production of Fish Hydrolysates Protein from Waste of Fish Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) By Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dede Saputra; Tati Nurhayati3)

    2016-01-01

    Fish Protein Hydrolysates (FPH) is the mixed products of polypeptide, dipeptides, and amino acid. It can be produced from materials that contained of protein by acid reaction, base reaction or enzymatic hydrolysis. The objectives of this study were to study the production of FPH from fish carp meat at post rigor phase and viscera by enzymatic hydrolysis, to determine the specific activity of papain enzyme, and to determine the solubility of FPH. Capacity of fish hydrolyzing can be...

  9. MOST FREQUENT CARP (Cyprinus carpio L. DISEASES IN PONDS FROM 1994. TO 1998

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    Zdravko Petrinec

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish health monitoring was carried out in the period from 1994. to 1998. for 252 fresh water ponds. Findings about health status depended upon the quality of health control measures such as ichthyotechnic, ichthyosanitary and ichthyohygieni methods. Most frequently diagnosed diseases and their percentages of incidence were: carp erythrodermatytis in 5,82 %, ichthyophtiriasis in 13,51 %, trihodiniasis in 33,568 %, dactylogirosis and gyrodactilosis in 35,75 %, botriocephalosis in 14,99 % and swimbladder inflammation caused by Sphaerospora angulata in 17,77 % examined ponds.

  10. Vitamin D inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response potentially through the Toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway in the intestine and enterocytes of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Shi, Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Yin, Long; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Ye

    2015-11-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D both in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. In primary enterocytes, exposure to 10 mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/l increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in the culture medium (Pintestine of carp (Pintestine from the LPS-induced increase of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 mainly by downregulating TLR4, Myd88 and NF-κB p65 mRNA expression (Pintestine and enterocytes of juvenile Jian carp.

  11. Transgene for growth hormone in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) promotes thymus development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qionglin; WANG Yaping; JIA Weizhang; ZHU Zuoyan

    2003-01-01

    The transgenic carp were produced by microinjection of CAgcGHc into the fertilized eggs. Observation of the thymus development between the transgenics and non- transgenic controls was carried out. The thymus of one-year- old transgenics F1 showed a great increase in both size and weight. The unilateral thymus of the transgenics weighed from 190 to 295 mg with average 218.6 mg, whereas the unilateral thymus of the controls weighed 20-81 mg with average 42.5 mg; i.e. the thymus weight in the transgenics was 5.14 fold over that in the controls. The index of thymus/body weight in the transgenics was 2.97 fold over the controls. Light microscopy observation indicated that the thymus of the transgenics well developed with the thickened outer region and compactly arranged thymocytes, while the thymus in the controls were degenerating with the thinned outer region, scattered thymocytes and groups of fatty cells. Further analysis with the electron microscopy revealed that proliferous cells in the transgenics were mainly small lymphocytes and no pathological changes were found. The results confirmed that the "All-fish" GH-transgene promotes thymus development and thymocyte proliferation, and retards thymus degeneration. The study has laid a foundation for further analysis of the immunobiological function in GH- transgenic carp.

  12. Effect of heavy metals on the level of vitamin E, total lipid and glycogen reserves in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine some changes in the biochemical profile of the liver tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to a sublethal concentration of heavy metal mixture (cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead. The biochemical profile, specifically glycogen, total lipid and vitamin E content in the liver tissue was examined and compared to that of the control group. The exposed group showed a marked decline in glycogen and vitamin E reserves. Conversely an increase in total lipid in comparison to control was observed. The result reflects the sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to the effects of sublethal levels of combined heavy metals for this the widely consumed freshwater fish.

  13. Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of

  14. Βeta-glucans promote wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    -associated molecular pattern) cause inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate capability to modulate immune parameters during the wound healing processes of two commercially available β–glucans. In in vivo study, carps of ~50g were anaesthetised and wounded with 5mm biopsy punches. During the extent......-PCR for measuring the expression of immune and wound healing related genes (e.g. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8). The visual healing of the wounds was registered using a multispectral imaging device called a VideometerLab (Hørsholm, Denmark). Our results clearly show that both types of β–glucans promoted faster wound healing....... weight, water solubility, degree of branching and polymer length [3]. In vitro studies in mammals have shown that β-glucans directly activate leukocytes by increasing phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antiviral activity and reactive oxygen production. In addition, β-glucans affect the wound...

  15. Beta-glucan bath promote wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    -associated molecular pattern) cause inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate capability to modulate immune parameters during the wound healing processes of two commercially available β–glucans. In in vivo study, carps of ~50g were anaesthetised and wounded with 5mm biopsy punches. During the extent......-PCR for measuring the expression of immune and wound healing related genes (e.g. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8). The visual healing of the wounds was registered using a multispectral imaging device called a VideometerLab (Hørsholm, Denmark). Our results clearly show that both types of β–glucans promoted faster wound healing....... weight, water solubility, degree of branching and polymer length [3]. In vitro studies in mammals have shown that β-glucans directly activate leukocytes by increasing phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and antiviral activity and reactive oxygen production. In addition, β-glucans affect the wound...

  16. Two-Way Selection for Growth Rate in the Common Carp (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moav, R.; Wohlfarth, G.

    1976-01-01

    The domesticated European carp was subjected to a two-way selection for growth rate. Five generations of mass selection for faster growth rate did not yield any response, but subsequent selection between groups (families) resulted in considerable progress while maintaining a large genetic variance. Selection for slow growth rate yielded relatively strong response for the first three generations. Random-bred control lines suffered from strong inbreeding depression and when two lines were crossed, the F1 showed a high degree of heterosis. Selection was performed on pond-raised fish, but growth rate was also tested in cages. A strong pond-cage genetic interaction was found. A theoretical explanation was suggested involving overdominance for fast growth rate and amplification through competition of intra-group but not inter-group variation. PMID:1248737

  17. Relations between and among contaminant concentrations and biomarkers in black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from large U.S. rivers, 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental contaminant and biomarker monitoring data from major U.S. river basins were summarized for black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled over a nine year period. Cumulative frequency distributions revealed taxon differences for many organochlorine residue concentrations, elemental contaminant concentrations, and biomarkers, but few gender differences were evident for chemical concentrations. Concentrations of dacthal, pentachloroanisole, p,p???-DDE, endosulfan sulfate, barium, cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, selenium, vanadium, and zinc were greater in carp than bass, but concentrations of mercury and magnesium were greater in bass. Gender differences were evident in bass for mercury and in carp for zinc, but the differences were small compared to taxon differences. Greater vitellogenin concentrations, 17??-estradiol concentrations, 17??-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, and percent oocyte atresia in female carp compared to female bass may be related to the sequential spawning of carp. Regression analyses indicated that as much as 78% of biomarker variation was explained by chemical contaminant concentrations. Sites grouped consistently by river basin in the chemical contaminant principal components analysis (PCA) models and were driven by mercury, magnesium, barium, mirex, and oxychlordane. PCA models for the biomarkers did not group the sites by basin for either bass or carp. Statistical analyses and data interpretation were limited by the study design. The implications of these limitations are discussed. Recommendations to be considered during the planning of future monitoring studies include the exclusion of gender- and species-specific sampling for certain chemical contaminants considering analytical methods with appropriate sensitivities; and allowing for the addition of new chemical and biological variables as methods and information needs evolve. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

  19. Dietary microbial levan enhances cellular non-specific immunity and survival of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rairakhwada, Dina; Pal, A K; Bhathena, Z P; Sahu, N P; Jha, A; Mukherjee, S C

    2007-05-01

    A preliminary study with a 75days feeding trial was conducted to study the immunomodulatory effect of microbial levan on Cyprinus carpio juveniles. Five purified isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets with graded levels of levan, namely (T(1)) 0.1% levan, (T(2)) 0.2% levan, (T(3)) 0.5% levan, (T(4)) 1.0% levan, and a control group without levan were fed to five groups of fishes in triplicate. The total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content was significantly (p0.05) when compared with the control group. The respiratory burst activity (NBT) of blood phagocytes and lysozyme activity was also highest in T(3) group. The relative survival percentage after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila was highest (100%) in the T(3) group followed by 83.33% and 66.67% in the T(2) and T(4) groups, respectively. This suggests that microbial levan at 0.5% can be used as a dietary immunostimulant for C. carpio juveniles. This is the first report on microbial levan having an immunomodulatory effect on C. carpio. PMID:17158064

  20. Effects of incorporating in diets cold-pressed rapeseed cake on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, and body composition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurkiewicz Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative proteins from vegetal sources are being studied, because of the high costs and limited resources of fish meal. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of including cold-pressed rape cake (CPRC as a partial protein substitute in diets for common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Common carp fry were stocked into experimental ponds at a density of 30 fish per pond. The effects on growth, feeding efficiency, and fish body composition were studied for four amounts of CPRC (0, 70, 130, 200 g × kg-1. Statistically significant higher final weights (528-530 g were obtained with fish fed diets with 130 and 200 g × kg-1 CPRC. The fish growth rate was nearly identical in all variants (SGR of 3.3-3.4 % d-1. Similar results were presented in FCR at 1.3, and in PER at 2.2. Our results suggest that it is possible to include up to 200 g × kg-1 of CPRC in diets for two-year old common carp without significant effects on growth, nutritive efficiency, or the proximate composition of the fish.

  1. Effect of sub-acute exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles on oxidative stress and histopathological changes in Juvenile Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Linhua; WANG Zhenyu; XING Baoshan

    2009-01-01

    Increasing application of nanotechnology highlights the need to clarify and understand nanotoxicity. Mammalian and in vitro studies have raised concerns about the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), but there are limited data on ecotoxicity to aquatic organisms. In this work, the objective was to assess the sub-acute toxicity of TiO2 NPs to carp (Cyprinus carpio). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in liver, gill and brain tissues of carps varied with concentration of TiO2 NPs suspensions and exposure time (up to 8 d). As a result, 100 and 200 mg/L TiO2 NPs caused statistically significant decrease in SOD, CAT and POD activities and significant increase in LPO levels in tissues (P < 0.05), suggesting that the fish exposed to these two concentrations of TiO2 NPs suffered from the oxidative stress. The extent of depletion of antioxidant enzymes activities and the elevation of LPO in the liver was the greatest, indicating that the liver might be the most susceptible organ to TiO2 NPs exposure. In addition, carps had gill pathologies including edema and thickening of gill lamellae as well as gill filaments, and liver pathologies including necrotic and apoptosis hepatocytes after exposed to 100 and 200 mg/L TiO2 NPs for 20 d. These results indicate a potential risk from TiO2 NPs released into the aqueous environment.

  2. Does serotonin-modulating anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) influence the choice of turning direction in carps, Cyprinus carpio, in a T-maze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garina, D V; Nepomnyashchikh, V A; Mekhtiev, A A

    2016-08-01

    Serotonin-modulating anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) can impair the formation of memory traces in mammals and fish. We have studied the influence of SMAP on behavioral lateralization of juvenile carps Cyprinus carpio in a T-maze without food reinforcement in three experimental groups (n = 8 each): (1) negative control (intact animals); (2) experimental group (fish injected ICV with SMAP; 2 μl, 1.2 mg ml(-1)) and (3) active control group (fish injected ICV with inactivated SMAP). The behavioral lateralization of carps was observed on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th days after the injections. In each observation session, a fish was placed five times in a start chamber of the T-maze. The direction of the turn upon leaving the start chamber, as well as the latency from the opening of start chamber flap to the fish's turn was registered. The number of right turns (of all five turns observed during the session) was a criterion of lateralization. It was found that carps have no inherent preference for turning left or right. The SMAP injection did not influence the choice of turning direction, but increases latency values insignificantly. The results are important for the correct interpretation and clarification of data reporting the role of SMAP in training and formation of spatial memory of fish in a maze. PMID:26874505

  3. Hepatoprotective effects of a Chinese herbal formulation, Yingchen decoction, on olaquindox-induced hepatopancreas injury in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jishu; Li, Chao; Wang, Lihong; Ji, Hong; Zhu, Tianhe

    2015-02-01

    In order to identify effective hepatoprotective herbs for clinical application in fish farming, 200 mg/kg olaquindox (OLA) was added to a basal diet (group 1, control) to form OLA diet (group 2), then 1.35, 2.7 and 5.4 % (w/w) of a Chinese herbal formulation, Yingchen decoction (YCD), were added to the OLA diet to form three additional diets for groups 3, 4 and 5, respectively. A total of 375 juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) (52.12 ± 2.95 g/tail) were divided into five groups (triplicates per group) and fed the five diets mentioned above, respectively, for 6 weeks. At the termination of feeding experiment, serum biochemical indexes, viability of hepatocytes and the hepatopancreas microstructure for each group were detected and observed. The results showed that serum ALT and AST in group 2 were significantly higher than the control (P < 0.05). Plasma membranes hepatocyte nuclei in group 2 were found to be mostly indistinct, compared to group 1, and gradually recovered with the increasing supplementation of YCD in group 3, 4 and 5. The viability of isolated hepatocytes in group 2 was the lowest and gradually recovered with the increasing supplementation of YCD in group 3, 4 and 5. The results suggest that YCD protected the Jian carp hepatopancreas against injury from OLA, and that 5.4 % YCD would be the optimum dosage in a Jian carp diet. PMID:25477196

  4. Effect of dietary isoleucine on the immunity, antioxidant status, tight junctions and microflora in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Weidan; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Yongan; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary isoleucine (Ile) on the immune response, antioxidant status, tight junctions, and microbial population in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). A total of 1200 juvenile Jian carp with average initial weight 6.9 ± 0.03 g were fed semi-purified isonitrogenous diets containing 4.2 (unsupplemented control group), 7.0, 9.5, 11.9, 13.9 and 16.9 g Ile kg(-1) diet for 60 days. Results indicated that Ile supplementation decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl content, and the amounts of Escherichia coli and Aeromonas in the intestine (P intestine (P intestine were increased with increasing of dietary Ile up to a certain point (P intestine showed a downward trend (P intestinal immune function, antioxidant capacity and microbial population, and regulates gene expression of antioxidant enzyme, tight junctions, Nrf2, Keap1, p38 and ERK1 in the intestine of Jian carp.

  5. The effects of ciprofloxacin on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Plhalova, Lucie; Chromcova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Skoric, Misa; Marsalek, Petr; Praskova, Eva; Stepanova, Stanislava; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-07-01

    The authors performed a toxicity test with ciprofloxacin in fertilized eggs of common carp according to guideline 210 of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The tested concentrations were 1 μg L(-1) , 100 μg L(-1) , 500 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) . Accelerated hatching was found in all groups exposed to ciprofloxacin, but significant growth reduction was found only in the group exposed to the highest concentration (3000 μg L(-1) ). Increased numbers of macroscopic morphological anomalies were observed on day 6 of the test (after hatching). The highest numbers of macroscopic morphological anomalies were observed in the groups of free embryos and larvae exposed to ciprofloxacin concentrations of 100 μg L(-1) , 500 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) (20-23% of tested samples). A gradual decrease in glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in all experimental groups exposed to ciprofloxacin, but significant differences (p ciprofloxacin concentrations of 500 μg L(-1) and 3000 μg L(-1) (p ciprofloxacin. The lowest-observed-effect concentration of ciprofloxacin was 1 μg L(-1) . These results suggest that hatching, early ontogeny, occurrence of morphological anomalies, antioxidant and biotransformation enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation in fish can be affected by ciprofloxacin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1733-1740. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26632160

  6. Effect of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on the growth and proximate composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Sandeep; Masud, Sahar; Khan, Asma

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of chicken manure and inorganic fertilizer (single super phosphate and urea) on growth performance viz. increase in wet body weight, length, specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF), survival rate and proximate composition of Cyprinus carpio. Experimental water in tubs was treated in duplicates with low (PT) @8000 kgha , medium (PT2) @10,000 kgha(-1) and high (PT) @12,000 kg/ha doses of chicken manure and also with low, medium and high dose of inorganic fertilizer(urea + SSP) @ 104 kgha(-1) + 155 kgha(-1) (IT(1)), @218 kgha(-1) + 310 kg/ha (IT2) and 322 kgha(-1) +470 kgha(-1)(IT3) respectively, along with control. At the end of the experiment, C. carpio showed maximum growth in PT, with significant higher SGR and CF. Survival rate ranged beween 93.3 to 100 % in all the treatments. Level of crude protein and total fat were a2so highest in PT, Moisture and carbohydrate showed no significant changes while ash content changed significantly in all the treatments and control. These observations indicate that chicken manure alone was effective to stimulate productivity and growth of fish without affecting proximate composition of fish meat. PMID:26930873

  7. Effects of biofloc on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and liver histology of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings in zero-water exchange system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdegerami, Ebrahim H; Bakhshi, Farideh; Lakani, Forouzan Bagherzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Biofloc technology is considered as a method that degrades organic waste by microorganisms and produces microbial flocs. A 30-day experiment was performed to investigate the effects of partial replacement of daily feeding intake with biofloc on the growth performances, digestive enzymes activity and liver histology of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings. Two hundred and eight healthy fingerlings (58.6 ± 0.2 g) were randomly distributed in 12 tanks (30 L) at a density of 25.4 kg m(-3) and fed experimental treatments (100 % daily feeding rate as a control, biofloc + 75% daily feeding rate, biofloc + 50% daily feeding rate, biofloc + 25% daily feeding rate). At the end of experiment, the results indicated that the highest weight gain was observed in the fish fed BFT 75% and control which differed significantly from those fed BFT 25 % (P Diet BFT 75% improved total protease and pepsin activity compared with BFT 25 and 50% (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed in case of lipase, amylase and alkaline phosphatase activity between the treatments. In the liver, histological alterations were found in the treatments, and feeding the fish with BFT 75% significantly improved hepatocellular quantification and qualification than the other groups. The results obtained in this experiment suggest that the biofloc improves growth performances, digestive enzyme activity and liver condition of the common carp fingerlings when 25% of daily feeding rate (BFT 75%) was replaced with one carbohydrate such as molasses in zero-water exchange system. PMID:26530301

  8. Effects of date palm fruit extracts on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Khalili, Mohsen; Rufchaei, Rudabeh; Raeisi, Mojtaba; Attar, Marzieh; Cordero, Héctor; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of date palm fruit extracts (DPFE) on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio). One hundred and twenty specimens (4.06 ± 0.13 g) were supplied and allocated into six aquaria; specimens in three aquaria were fed non-supplemented diet (control) while the fish in the other 3 aquaria were fed with DPFE at 200 ml kg(-1). At the end of feeding trial (8 weeks) skin mucus immune parameters (total immunoglobulins, lysozyme, protease and alkaline phosphatase activity) and immune related gene expression (tumor necrosis factor α [tnfa], lysozyme [ly] and interleukin-1-beta, [il1b]) in the head-kidney were studied. The results revealed that feeding carp fry with 200 ml kg(-1) DPFE remarkably elevated the three skin mucus immune parameters tested (P diet, while the expression of ly remained similar (P > 0.05) compared to control fish (fed control diet). Furthermore, growth performance parameters were significantly improved in fry fed DPFE (P < 0.05). More studies are needed to understand different aspects of DPFE administration in fry mucosal immunity. PMID:26439417

  9. Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pietsch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 μg DON kg−1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism.

  10. Effects of sub lethal concentration of Chloramin T on growth, survival, haematocrit and some blood biochemical parameters in common carp fry (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad R. Imanpoor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was done in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, in 2009, during 8 weeks to survey effects of different concentrations of Chloramin T on fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758. According to the pre experiment data, lethal concentration, the lowest observed effect concentration, maximum allowable toxicant concentration and No Observed Effect Concentration of Chloramin T (Halamid in common carp (C. carpio fry were respectively 40.9, 27.1, 4.90 and 11.28 mg/L-1. Hence, the range of our experiment was between 0 to 25 mg L-1 which was divided to five treatments (0, 5, 10, 15 and 25 mg/L-1. At the end of experiment we calculated growth factor (special growth rate and food conversion ratio and stress indices (glucose total protein and percent of haematocrit and then they were compared with the controlled group. Our study results showed no significant difference between percentage of increase in body weight (280.4±25.79 - 200.4±10.16, special growth rate (2.34±0.25 - 1.96±0.06 and food conversion ratio (0.84±0.05 - 0.60±0.12 in experimental lots of fishes. There is also no significant difference between glucose (146.82±0.79 - 99.54±1.89 and total protein (3.61±0.45 - 2.82±0.06 in experimental groups (P>.05. However there is a significant difference between the percentages of haematocrit (57.34±4.99 - 40.74±2.17 and cholesterol (362.05±24.38 - 134.92±17.59 in these groups (P<0.05.

  11. Toxicity Testing and the Effect of Landfill Leachate in Malaysia on Behavior of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar Y.M. Alkassasbeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Landfill leachate had been implicated in environmental pollution, developmental anomalies, birth defect and surface and groundwater pollution worldwide. This study has been conducted to determine the toxicity of landfill leachate from three different landfills in Malaysia on fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae in combination with some physico-chemical parameters analysis. Approach: Leachates were collected from Air Hitam (AHL, Ampar Tenang (ATL and Sungai Sedu (SSL landfills. The experiments were performed as three replicates using a total of 180 carps for each definitive test. The semi-static renewal method of acute toxicity test was used. The data obtained were statically evaluated by the use of the EPA computer program based on Finney’s Probit Analysis Method. Results: The leachate used in this study had an invariable of (1640-7600 mg L-1 COD and (321.22-956.86 mg L-1 Ammonical-N. The 96 h LC50 values of landfills leachate from the three landfills using fry C. carpio individuals with an average weight of 0.92±0.24 g and average length of 3.83±0.19 cm were found to be 1.132, 2.0 and 3.822% respectively. Among the behavioral changes observed for the individual fish at different leachate concentrations, decline in general activity, loss of balance, breathing difficulties, excessive mucosal secretion and gathering at the surface for breathing. Conclusion: This study of acute toxicity to the recommended fish species, C. caprio, is considered the first in Malaysia. Further research with toxicity testing methods directly on fish will be very useful in assessing possible ecological risk assessment of landfill leachate.

  12. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  13. Obtención, caracterización microbiológica y físico-química de ensilado biológico de carpa (Cyprinus carpio) - Obtaining, characterization microbiological and physic-chemical of carp biological silage (Cyprinus carpio

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Herrero, Adriana L.; Manca, Emilio; Tabera, Anahí; Agüeria, Daniela; Sanzano, Pablo; Grosman, Fabián

    2011-01-01

    ResumenEl propósito del presente estudio fue determinar los cambios en la calidad nutricional y composición química que ocurren durante el ensilado de desechos de carpa (Cyprinus carpio), y determinar cual de las dos proporciones de miel: yogur es la apropiada para su utilización como fuente proteica en la alimentación animal.SummaryThe purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in the nutritional quality and the chemical composition that occur during the ensilage of waste carp...

  14. Effet of Mercuric Chloride and Cadmium Chloride on Gonadal Function and Its regulation in Sexually Mature Common Carp Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DilipMUKHERJEE; VinodKumar; 等

    1994-01-01

    Gnadal function in fish,Cyprinus carpio was significantly affected by sublethal doses of mecuric chloride(HgCl2)and cadmium chloride(CdCl2)in chronic(45days)exposure,Parameters investigated were nonesterified(NE)and esterified(E)cholesterol of ovary, liver and serum and ovarian 3β-Hydroxysteroid and 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme activity and servum and pituitary gonadotropin(GtH)levels.Both the pollutats were able to reduce the hypothalamic extract(HE)or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)induced pituiteray GtH release in vitro.Short term(96h)exposure of the fish to the polltants had no significant effect on the gonadal founction.In addition to the deleterious effect of pollutants on the gonadal steroidogenesis and pituitary gonadotropin release,using [4-14C] cholesterol as a tracer it was found that for 45 days exposure,HgCl2 had an adverse effect on the transport of cholesterol from circulation to ovary.

  15. Effects of vitamins E and Riboflavin (B2 and combinations of them on the hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifzadeh Seyedeh Atefeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of vitamins E, B2 and combinations of them on hematological parameters of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., were investigated during a 56-day experiment. The various dietary levels of vitamins E, B2 and their combination were used as experimental treatments, as follows: T1: vitamin E (80 mg, T2: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1, T3: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1, T4: vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1, T5: vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1, T6: vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1, T7: vitamin E (80 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (7 mg kg diet-1, T8: vitamin E (160 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (15 mg kg diet-1, T9: vitamin E (240 mg kg diet-1 + vitamin B2 (20 mg kg diet-1. One group not given vitamin supplements was the control. The values of red blood cells (RBC, hemoglobin (Hb, and hematocrit (Hct were higher in T7 than in the other experimental treatments. The values of white blood cells (WBC were higher in T2 than in the other treatments. The concentration of immunoglobulin (IgM was also lower in T10 than in the other experimental treatments. The highest values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular volume (MCV were observed in T2. No significant differences were noted among experimental groups in the values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC. This study showed that vitamin E and B2 supplements alter the hematological parameters of common carp.

  16. Effects of Pro-Tex on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and adult yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerrigter, Jeroen G J; van de Vis, Hans W; van den Bos, Ruud; Abbink, Wout; Spanings, Tom; Zethof, Jan; Martinez, Laura Louzao; van Andel, Wouter F M; Lopez-Luna, Javier; Flik, Gert

    2014-08-01

    Aquaculture practices bring several stressful events to fish. Stressors not only activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal-axis, but also evoke cellular stress responses. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is among the best studied mechanisms of the cellular stress response. An extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica), Pro-Tex, a soluble variant of TEX-OE(®), may induce expression of HSPs and reduce negative effects of cellular stress. Pro-Tex therefore is used to ameliorate conditions during stressful aquaculture-related practices. We tested Pro-Tex in zebrafish (Danio rerio), common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) exposed to aquaculture-relevant stressors (thermal stress, net confinement, transport) and assessed its effects on stress physiology. Heat shock produced a mild increase in hsp70 mRNA expression in 5-day-old zebrafish larvae. Pro-Tex increased basal hsp70 mRNA expression, but decreased heat-shock-induced expression of hsp70 mRNA. In carp, Pro-Tex increased plasma cortisol and glucose levels, while it did not affect the mild stress response (increased plasma cortisol and glucose) to net confinement. In gills, and proximal and distal intestine, stress increased hsp70 mRNA expression; in the distal intestine, an additive enhancement of hsp70 mRNA expression by Pro-Tex was seen under stress. In yellowtail kingfish, Pro-Tex reduced the negative physiological effects of transport more efficiently than when fish were sedated with AQUI-S(®). Overall, our data indicate that Pro-Tex has protective effects under high levels of stress only. As Pro-Tex has potential for use in aquaculture, its functioning and impact on health and welfare of fish should be further studied. PMID:24493298

  17. Defining global gene expression changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in female sGnRH-antisense transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio.

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    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish reproductive system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous study we injected 342 fertilized eggs from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio with a gene construct that expressed antisense sGnRH. Four years later, we found a total of 38 transgenic fish with abnormal or missing gonads. From this group we selected the 12 sterile females with abnormal ovaries in which we combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH and cDNA microarray analysis to define changes in gene expression of the HPG axis in the present study. As a result, nine, 28, and 212 genes were separately identified as being differentially expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary, of which 87 genes were novel. The number of down- and up-regulated genes was five and four (hypothalamus, 16 and 12 (pituitary, 119 and 93 (ovary, respectively. Functional analyses showed that these genes involved in several biological processes, such as biosynthesis, organogenesis, metabolism pathways, immune systems, transport links, and apoptosis. Within these categories, significant genes for neuropeptides, gonadotropins, metabolic, oogenesis and inflammatory factors were identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicated the progressive scaling-up effect of hypothalamic sGnRH antisense on the pituitary and ovary receptors of female carp and provided comprehensive data with respect to global changes in gene expression throughout the HPG signaling pathway, contributing towards improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and regulative pathways in the

  18. Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Gene and Their Associations with Growth Traits in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Xiu Feng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I plays an important role in the growth and development of vertebrates. To study polymorphisms of IGF-I, we screened a total of 4555 bp of genomic sequences in four exons and partial introns for the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in common carp (Cyprinus carpio. Three SNPs (g.3759T>G, g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C in intron 2 and a nonsynonymous SNP (g.7892C>T in exon 3 were identified in a pilot population including random parents and their progenies. 289 progenies were further genotyped for studying possible associations between genotypes or combined genotypes and growth traits. The results showed that the locus g.7627T>A was significantly associated with body weight and body length, and fish with genotype AA had a mean body weight 5.9% higher than those with genotype TT. No significant associations were observed between genotypes of other loci and growth traits. However, when both g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C were considered, the combined genotype TT/TT was extremely associated with the lowest values of body length and body weight and the highest K value in comparison with other diplotypes (p < 0.01. These results suggest that genotype AA at g.7627T>A and its combined genotypes with alleles from another locus have positive effects on growth traits, which would be a candidate molecular marker for further studies in marker-assisted selection in common carp.

  19. Response of plasma copper, ceruloplasmin, iron and ions in carp, Cyprinus carpio to waterborne copper ion and nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Aliakbar; Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Cyprinus carpio was exposed to 0.25mgL(-1) copper as either copper sulfate (CuSO4) or copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-Cu), and 25mgL(-1) copper as nano-Cu for 14days. CuSO4 and high concentration of nano-Cu led to a significant increase in plasma total copper levels. Plasma free copper levels increased significantly in all copper-exposed treatments. Except for low concentration of nano-Cu after 7 and 14days, copper exposure generally led to a significant decrease in plasma ceruloplasmin levels. Plasma iron levels increased significantly in CuSO4 (all times) and nano-Cu (7th and 14th days) treatments. A significant elevation in plasma total iron binding capacity (TIBC) was observed after 3days in the fish exposed to low concentration nano-Cu, and after 14days in all copper-exposed treatments. Transferrin saturation (TSA) ratio showed significant increase in CuSO4 (3rd and 7th days) and the high concentration nano-Cu (7th day) treatments. Decrease in plasma chloride (7th and 14th days) and sodium (14th days) was observed in CuSO4 treatment. In conclusion, the results suggest that ionic copper is mainly absorbed via fish gill, whereas, nano-copper are more likely absorbed via gut. Also, data suggest that ionic copper has more adverse effects on the examined plasma biochemical characteristics compared to the equivalent nano-copper concentration, which may be due to the lower copper absorption by fish in the nano-copper suspension.

  20. Effect of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on selected chemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and carp (Cyprinus carpio cuts freshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Jelena A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of food packing in modified atmosphere is to extend its sustainability by preventing both biochemical processes and growth of spoilage bacteria. Gases or their mixtures which are mostly used in the modified atmosphere food packing technology are carbon-dioxide (CO2, oxygen (O2 and nitrogen (N2. The aim of our research was to examine the influence of packaging in modified atmosphere and vacuum on the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N content and pH in muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, as well as to determine the most suitable gas mixtures for packing of these freshwater species. Three sample groups of trout and carp cuts were investigated. The first two groups were packaged in modified atmosphere with different gas ratios: 60%CO2+40%N2 (I group and 40%CO2+60%N2 (II group, whereas the samples from third, control group, (III group were vacuum packaged. During trials samples were stored in refrigerator at +3°C. Determination of TVB-N and pH was performed on 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. The obtained results indicate that the investigated mixtures of gases and vacuum as well had a significant influence on the values of TVB-N in trout and carp cuts samples. The lowest increase in TVB-N was established in trout and carp cuts samples from the group I, whereas the highest increase was established in samples from group III. Statistical significant difference (p < 0,001 between the average values of TVB-N for trout (I group: 18,17 ± 0,93; II group: 20,90 ± 0,81 and III group: 36,18 ± 2,65 mg N/100 g and carp cuts (I group: 26,74 ± 1,48; II group: 30,02 ± 0,31 and III group: 35,10 ± 1,75 mg N/100 g was established on 14th day. The lowest pH value was established in samples packaged in modified atmosphere with 60% CO2 +40% N2 (I group. On 14th day of testing the obtained value was 6,15 ± 0,09 for trout and 5,94 ± 1,11 for carp samples. Increase in pH value in trout samples packed in

  1. Anatoxin-a induces apoptosis of leukocytes and decreases the proliferative ability of lymphocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bownik, A; Rymuszka, A; Sierosławska, A; Skowroński, T

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta, Cyanoprocaryota, Cyanobacteria) (blue-green algae) are procaryotic phototrophic microorganisms playing an important ecological role in the freshwater and marine environment as primary producers. However, as a consequence of water eutrophication observed in many reservoirs in different parts of the world, these microorganisms form massive scums, known as water blooms, releasing cyanotoxins hazardous to fish and other aquatic organisms. Cyanotoxins are cyanobacterial secondary metabolites of various chemical structures harmful to humans, terrestial and aquatic animals such as fish. The most abundant cyanotoxins are microcystins and hepatotoxins inducing toxic changes in fish liver, kidney, gills, digestive tract and immune system. Very little is known on the effects of alkaloid neurotoxic anatoxin-a on fish and their immunity. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro influence of anatoxin-a on immune cells isolated from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The leukocyte intracellular level of ATP was reduced only at the highest concentration of anatoxin-a. Apoptotic and necrotic leukocytes were observed at the lower and the highest concentrations of anatoxin-a, respectively. Elevated activity of caspases 3/7 after 2 hours and a concentration-dependent decrease in the proliferative ability of T and B lymphocytes was also observed. The results suggest that anatoxin-a could be a possible immunotoxic agent in the aquatic environment and may increase the susceptibility of fish to infectious and neoplastic diseases. Therefore, constant monitoring of anatoxin-a and its producers in lakes and fish ponds should be performed. PMID:23214375

  2. Effects of phenol on ovarian P450arom gene expression and aromatase activity in vivo and antioxidant metabolism in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumana; Majumder, Suravi; Gupta, Shreyasi; Dutta, Sharmistha; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2016-02-01

    Ovarian cyp19a mRNA expression and P450 aromatase activity were measured in vivo in common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to phenol for 96 h. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and parameters of antioxidant defense system in serum ovary and liver of this fish after long-term phenol exposure were also studied. In vivo exposure of fish to sublethal dose of phenol for 96 h caused marked attenuation of ovarian cyp19a1a gene expression and P450 aromatase activity. Production of ROS like hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in serum, liver and ovary in fish exposed to phenol for 15 days elevated significantly from day 1 to day 7 with no further significant increase thereafter compared to their respective control values. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in serum and ovary decreased gradually and significantly from day 1 to day 4, which then increased significantly for the rest of the exposure days. Liver SOD activity seemed to be distinctly responsive to phenol. SOD activity in liver of phenol-exposed fish started to increase gradually from day 1 to 4 with no further increase thereafter. Catalase activities in all the tissues showed significant inhibition up to day 4 which then increased gradually and significantly up to day 15 of phenol exposure compared to their respective control values. From our results, it appears that sublethal dose of phenol has the endocrine disruptive potential and effect is mediated via inhibition of ovarian P450arom gene expression and aromatase activity in vivo. Sublethal dose of phenol also caused oxidative stress, and antioxidant systems are very much effective to prevent the damages caused by the generation of ROS.

  3. Intestinal disease of scattered mirror carp Cyprinus carpio caused by Thelohanellus kitauei and notes on the morphology and phylogeny of the myxosporean from Sichuan Province, southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingtong; Lu, Mingmiao; Quan, Keyan; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong; Wu, Shangong; Wang, Jiangyong; Wang, Guitang

    2016-05-01

    The mass mortality of pond-reared scattered mirror carp, Cyprinus carpio, caused by Thelohanellus kitauei, occurred at fish farms in Sichuan Province, southwest China. Morphological and molecular analyses were supplemented with histological evaluation of infected tissues to better understand the route of infection and the pathological effects of T. kitauei on the fish host. The intestine of the diseased host was full of large cysts of the myxosporean. The cysts range from 2 cm to 3.6 cm in diameter. Histopathology indicated that T. kitaue i first invaded the submucosa of the host intestine and then moved into the mucosa layers with the development of their spores, finally entering into the enteric cavity of the hosts after the disruption of mucosa layers. The pyriform spores of T. kitauei were surrounded by the transparent spore sheath, measuring 25.98 μm±0.95 μm in body length, 8.72 μm±0.51 μm in body width, and 7.86 μm±0.26 μm in body thickness. The single polar capsule was pyriform, measuring 14.73 μm±0.92 μm in length and 6.82 μm±0.45 μm in width, with eight to 10 turns of filament coils winding inside. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences indicated that minimal genetic differences were present between T. kitauei samples from South Korea and from China. Close affinity was found between the genus Thelohanellus and Myxobolus. Additionally, two polar capsule nuclei were found at the anterior end of the single polar capsule in spores of T. kitauei stained with hematoxylin and eosin, which suggested the separation of the genus Thelohanellus from Myxobolus.

  4. Differential modulation of ammonia excretion, Rhesus glycoproteins and ion-regulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following individual and combined exposure to waterborne copper and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Kapotwe, Mumba; Dabi, Shambel Boki; Montes, Caroline da Silva; Shrivastava, Jyotsna; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to understand the mode of interaction between waterborne copper (Cu) and high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure on freshwater fish, and how they influence the toxicity of each other when present together. For this purpose, individual and combined effects of Cu and HEA were examined on selected physiological and ion-regulatory processes and changes at transcript level in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to 2.6μM Cu (25% of the 96h LC50value) and to 0.65mM ammonia (25% of the 96h LC50value) singly and as a mixture for 12h, 24h, 48h, 84h and 180h. Responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea (Jurea) excretion rate, plasma ammonia and urea, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)), muscle water content (MWC) as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA, H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-3) and Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins were investigated under experimental conditions. Results show that Jamm was inhibited during Cu exposure, while HEA exposed fish were able to increase excretion efficiently. In the combined exposure, Jamm remained at the control levels indicating that Cu and HEA abolished each other's effect. Expression of Rhcg (Rhcg-a and Rhcg-b) mRNA was upregulated during HEA, thereby facilitated ammonia efflux out of gills. On the contrary, Rhcg-a transcript level declined following Cu exposure which might account for Cu induced Jamm inhibition. Likewise, Rhcg-a was also down-regulated in Cu-HEA co-exposed fish whilst a temporary increment was noted for Rhch-b. Fish exposed to HEA displayed pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity and stable plasma ion levels. In both the Cu exposure alone and combined Cu-HEA exposure, ion-osmo homeostasis was adversely affected, exemplified by the significant reduction in plasma [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)], and elevated plasma [K(+)], along with an elevation in MWC. These changes were accompanied

  5. Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur.

  6. Effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidase activity, and immune function in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ke; Wang, Qiu-Ju; Yang, Yi-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic use in livestock feed additives has resulted in harmful residue accumulation and spread of drug-resistance. We examined the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as a safer alternative to antibiotics in feeding the common carp. AMPs were added to common carp basal diets (Control) as additives at four concentrations: 100 mg kg(-1) (B1), 200 mg kg(-1) (B2), 400 mg kg(-1) (B3), 600 mg kg(-1) (B4) by dry weight of basal diet. After a 60-day feeding experiment, the final weight, DG and SGR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly higher than the control (p diet were significantly lower than the control (p diets showed significantly lower (p 0.05) in levels of uric ammonia, globulin, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase and blood glucose in all groups. The serum superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p alkaline phosphate activity of carps on B1 diets was significantly higher (p diets was significantly higher (p diets for common carp increased the final weight, DG, SGR and decreased the FCR. PMID:26386195

  7. Effects of adding various oils to the diet on growth, feed conversion and chemical composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, W; Wirth, M; Rennert, B

    1995-01-01

    The suitability of various vegetable and fish oils was tested as feed components for one-summer-old carp fingerlings. Five diets were used: a basal diet, which served as control feed, was supplemented with 10% corn-germ oil, 10% sunflower oil, 10% fish oil or 10% rapeseed oil, respectively. By means of the lipid supplementation the crude protein content decreased from 35.5% in the basal diet to 31.9% in the test diets, whereas the gross energy level increased from 16.3 to 18.9 MJ/kg. The diets were fed over a period of 84 feeding days and water temperature was 23 degrees C. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein utilization were superior in all groups of carp which received the fat-enriched high energy diets. Considering the gain in % of the initial weight, the control fish reached less than 400% whereas all carp in the test groups, which consumed the oil-enriched diets, reached 455 to 485%. A significant influence of the kind of lipid on growth and feed conversion could not be recognized. The lipid-enriched diets with higher energy content resulted in increased fat levels of the carp. Fatty acid composition of the carp reflected that of the diets. In the control group and the fish oil group the levels of palmitic, palmitoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid were especially high corresponding to the fatty acid profile of the diets. In carp fed the diets supplied with corn-germ oil and sunflower oil linoleic acid was dominant whereas the carp fed the rapeseed diet were characterized by a high level of oleic acid.

  8. 鱼油在鲤饲料中的适宜用量%Optimum level of fish oil supplementation in carp (Cyprinus carpio) feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任泽林; 郭庆; 霍启光; 卢建军

    2001-01-01

    在高蛋白质半纯化饲料中分别添加0、30、50、70、90 g/kg的未加抗氧化剂的新鲜鱼油,投喂58 g左右2龄鲤(Cyprinus carpio)鱼种46 d,结果表明:添加新鲜鱼油量为30 g/kg时,鲤生产性能最佳;鲤肝体比(HSI)、肝胰脏脂肪含量、肌肉营养不良症和肌肉渗出性损失随着鱼油添加量的增加而持续上升,而肌肉和肾脏氧化稳定性则随着鱼油添加量的增加而持续下降,当添加鱼油量升至30、70、70、50、70、70 g/kg时,上述6项指标与对照组差异显著(P<0.05)。综合各项指标,未添加抗氧化剂的新鲜鱼油在高蛋白质鲤饲料中适宜用量以不超过30 g/kg为宜。%Juvenile carp of 58 g were fed a high protein semi-purified feed supplemented with 0, 30, 50, 70, 90 g/kg fresh fish oil with no supplemention of antioxidant (Peroxide value,POV,0.64 mmol/kg ) for 46 days. The results showed that the carp had the best performance at 30 g/kg supplementation of fish oil. With the increment of fish oil supplementation, hepatopancreas somatic indices (HSI), fat content in hepatopancreas, muscular dystrophy and muscular exudative losses were increased, while oxidative stabilities of muscle and kidney were reduced. There were significant differences in fat content in hepatopancreas, muscular dystrophy, and oxidative stabilities of muscle and kidney between the control group (no fish oil supplementation) and the 70 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups (P<0.05). HSI of the control group was significantly different with that at 30 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the muscular exudative losses was significantly different at 50 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups(P<0.05). In conclusion, fresh fish oil with no supplemention of antioxidant should be supplemented in carp feed with high protein at no more than 30 g/kg.

  9. Transcriptional analysis of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) immune response to the fish louse Argulus japonicus Thiele (Crustacea: Branchiura)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forlenza, M.; Walker, P.; Vries, de B.J.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we investigated changes in transcription levels of a panel of selected immune relevant genes in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and skin samples collected from carp exposed to larval Argulus japonicus. We show that in skin up-regulation of gene transcription of the chemokine C

  10. Experimental study on the possibilities of direct transfer of caesium 137 from sediment to the carps (Cyprinus carpio L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrechts, A.; Foulquier, L.

    1983-06-01

    The exchanges of caesium 137 with the Rhone river water and deposits and its direct transfer from water and deposits to the carp are studied. The sediments have a high retention capacity for radiocaesium associated with fine particles and certain clays (illite). Caesium desorption from sediment to water is always very weak (less than 5% of the initial activity of the sediments; it varies with the agitation and salinity of the water. The transfer of caesium from the water to the carps is characterized by a regular increase of activity in the fish. After 63 days of experimentation, equilibrium has not been reached, the carp have retained only 1% of the water activity, and their concentration factor is about 4. The transfer of caesium from sediment to the fish is weak but regular. After 79 days of experimentation, equilibrium has not been reached. Less than 1% of the sediments activity is found in the fish; the transfer factor is about 10/sup -3/. Because of the high content of caesium 137 in sediments, the activity of the carp is increased and the concentration factor, calculated in relation to the surface water, is greater than 60.

  11. β-glucan enriched bath directly stimulates the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera;

    2013-01-01

    day 14. The results for the β-glucan treated wounds were more complex. The images showed significantly faster wound contraction in both treated groups compared to the control. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that a β glucan enriched bath promotes the closure of wounds in common carp...

  12. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of two new C-reactive protein genes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, A.; Cartwright, J.R.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Hoole, D.

    2012-01-01

    C-Reactive protein (CRP) plays an important role in the acute phase response. Transcripts encoding two new CRP-like molecules (ccCRP1 and ccCRP2) from European common carp have been characterized which has enabled seven CRP-like genes to be identified in zebrafish. 79.3% (ccCRP1) and 74.5% (ccCRP2)

  13. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of two new C-reactive protein genes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Alberto; Cartwright, Jamie R; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Hoole, David

    2012-05-01

    C-Reactive protein (CRP) plays an important role in the acute phase response. Transcripts encoding two new CRP-like molecules (ccCRP1 and ccCRP2) from European common carp have been characterized which has enabled seven CRP-like genes to be identified in zebrafish. 79.3% (ccCRP1) and 74.5% (ccCRP2) identity to CRP from East-Asian common carp occurs and fish CRP genes form a distinct clade. ccCRP2 gene organization comprises four exons and three introns, in contrast to the two exons/one intron organization of mammalian CRP genes. Gene expression assays showed both ccCRP-like molecules are constitutively expressed in liver, skin, gill, gut, muscle, kidney, spleen and blood. Protein levels of ccCRP in serum and spleen were significantly different from other organs analyzed, and levels were greatest in the liver. It is proposed that the two carp CRP genes defined differ in their expression profiles which may suggest differences in their biological activities.

  14. Characterization of transgene integration pattern in F4 hGH-transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo WU; Yong Hua SUN; Yan Wu WANG; Ya Ping WANG; Zuo Yan ZHU

    2005-01-01

    The integration pattern and adjacent host sequences of the inserted pMThGH-transgene in the F4 hGH-transgenic common carp were extensively studied. Here we show that each F4 transgenic fish contained about 200 copies of the pMThGH-transgene and the transgenes were integrated into the host genome generally with concatemers in a head-totail arrangement at 4-5 insertion sites. By using a method of plasmid rescue, four hundred copies of transgenes from two individuals of F4 transgenic fish, A and B, were recovered and clarified into 6 classes. All classes of recovered transgenes contained either complete or partial pMThGH sequences. The class Ⅰ, which comprised 83% and 84.5% respectively of the recovered transgene copies from fish A and B, had maintained the original configuration, indicating that most transgenes were faithfully inherited during the four generations of reproduction. The other five classes were different from the original configuration in both molecular weight and restriction map, indicating that a few transgenes had undergone mutation, rearrangement or deletion during integration and germline transmission. In the five types of aberrant transgenes, three flanking sequences of the host genome were analyzed. These sequences were common carp β-actin gene, common carp DNA sequences homologous to mouse phosphoglycerate kinase-1 and human epidermal keratin 14, respectively.

  15. Magnesium status in freshwater fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) and the dietary protein-magnesium interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, H; Meyer-Burgdorff, K H; Gunther, K D

    1991-04-01

    Common carp juveniles were fed for 9 weeks one of the eight semipurified diets containing graded levels of magnesium, 0.08, 0.6, 1.1, 3, 2 g Mg kg(-1) and 25 or 44% protein.Fish growth and feed utilization were significantly affected by both Mg and protein levels in the diets. Significant interaction between these two studied variables existed in relation to the fish performance as well as to mean deposition rate of several minerals in common carp body. The fish fed diets containing 0.08 g Mg kg(-1) had reduced growth and developed deficiency signs such as muscle flaccidity and skin hemorrhages.Results indicated that a minimum Mg level of 0.6 g Mg kg(-1) was required to elevate plasma and bone magnesium content and to reduce the whole body Ca concentration (hypercalcinosis symptom). Further increase of dietary Mg up to 3.2 g Mg kg(-1) improved growth rate of fish insignificantly, but the deposition rate of dietary Mg fell to as low as 7.4 and 10.7 percent in low- and high-protein diet fed fish, respectively. In Mg-deficient fish, considerable amount of magnesium was absorbed via extra-oral routes, however, this way of the covering magnesium need becomes insufficient in fast growing fish.

  16. Effect of Water Temperature on Feeding Rhythm in Common CarpCyprinus carpio haematopterus Temminck et Schlegel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Song-bo; Chen Wei-xing; Fan Zhao-ting

    2012-01-01

    Feeding rhythm of common carp was investigated from 4℃ to 34℃. The results indicated that there was a diel feeding rhythm for both adult (630-850 g) and youth (61-91 g) at all tested temperatures. There were two main activity peaks at 8:00-11:00 a.m. and 19:00-23:00 p.m., during which feeding quantities were 10.68%-32.53% and 16.25%-33.41% of the daily intake, respectively. When water temperature dropped to below 10℃, the feeding peak concentrated at 8:00-11:00 a.m. and 19:00 p.m. to 4:00 a.m. At 6℃, though both adult and youth would still feed, the feeding quantities were only 0.01% and 0.35% of body mass. Daily feeding rate of adult and youth reached 1.21% and 2.63% at 14℃, respectively. Both adult and youth carps reached the maximum daily feeding rate at 28℃, being 2.84% and 12.06% of body mass, respectively. The daily feeding rate of adult and youth reduced suddenly after at 34℃, and the daily feeding rate was only 0.74% and 9.45% of body mass, respectively. There was significant difference in daily feeding rate at different water temperatures (P〈0.05).

  17. Replacing moringa leaf (Moringa oleifera partially by protein replacement in soybean meal of fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundit Yuangsoi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics.The leaves are the protein source with an adequate profile of amino acids. The present study was undertaken in orderto determine the effect of a dietary of moringa leaves on digestibility and growth performance of fancy carp. Fish were fedwith diets containing isonitrogenouse and isoenergetic formulated by 20 and 50 g kg-1 of moringa leaves to replace protein insoybean. Fish were distributed in 500-liter tanks with flow-through water. Every fish was weighed and after the terminalexperiment, all groups’ livers and distal intestines were sampled. All fish grew normally (p>0.05 but fish fed with proteinreplacingmoringa leaves at 50 g kg-1 were noted to exhibit slightly poor growth performance and feed utilization. The studyindicated that the tested moringa leaf diet contains ingredients that could be used for fancy carp diets with possibly notover up to 20 g kg-1 soybean protein replacement without negative effect on growth and digestibility.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THE DEVELOPMЕNT OF POND FORAGE BASE WHEN REARING CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO FISH SEEDS AT FISH FARM «MERKURIY»

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    B. Grishin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the development of main components of natural forage base in nursery ponds during the period of rearing the carp fish seeds in monoculture. Methodology. Hydrobiological (bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and hydrochemical samples have been collected and processes according to generally accepted methods. Findings. Qualitative and quantitative parameters of the development of bacterio-, phyto-, zooplankton and zoobenthos in nursery ponds have been studied when rearing young-of-the-year Lubin few scale carp, Antoninsko-Zozulenets carp and their reciprocal crosses in monoculture (50 thousand fish/ha. General water mineralization in ponds was 292.7–315.7 mg/dm3 and according to O.A. Alekin’s classification, pond water belonged to hydrocarbonate class of calcium group. Water pH was 7.4–7.5. Permanganate values were 12.5–14.9 mgO/dm3. On average, average ammonium nitrogen content, nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen, mineral phosphorus, total iron did not exceed normative values. Qualitative and quantitative parameters of phyto-, bacterio-, zooplankton of nursery ponds have been studied. The seasonal development of phytoplankton was within 15.96–20.88 mg/dm3 with the predominance of Chlorococcales in the floristic spectrum. The development of bacterioplankton was within 5.08–5.81 mg/dm3. Zooplankton was dominated by cladoceran-copepod complex with average seasonal values of 5.27–17.20 g/m3. Zoobenthos was formed of Diptera larvae (Chironomidae and Chaoboridae with average seasonal biomasses of 0.51–1.8 g/m2. According to saprobic parameters, pond water belonged to β-mesosabrobic zone and corresponded to the water quality class II (“clean enough” category. Fish productivity of nursery ponds was within 617.2–815.2 kg/ha; output of carp young-of-the-year was within 39.82–43.56%, mean weight of young-of-the-year was 31.0–39.3 g. Originality. For the first time we carried out a

  19. Effects of Single and Joint Subacute Exposure of Copper and Cadmium on Heat Shock Proteins in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuyang; Guan, Xueting; Yao, Linlin; Zhang, Hong; Jin, Xian; Han, Ying

    2016-02-01

    Copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) are the most common heavy metals that are easily detected in aquatic environments on a global scale. In this paper, we investigated the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of HSPs (HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) in the liver of the common carp exposed to Cu, Cd, and a combination of both metals by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results indicated that in each exposure group, the mRNA levels of HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 were increased significantly compared to the corresponding controls after 96 h of exposure (P challenges of stressful environments. PMID:26105544

  20. Genetic analysis of "all-fish" growth hormone gene trans- ferred carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and its F1 generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant "all-fish" growth hormone gene (GH) was microinjected into the fertilized eggs of carp. A comparison between the growth traits of transgenics and non-transgenics was carried out, and the transgenic individuals with significant "fast-growing" effect were successfully gained. A comparison on the reproductivities was also given out between the transgenics and their non-transgenic siblings, and showed that the reproductive capacity of transgenics was substantially equivalent to those of the non-transgenics. On the other hand, the genetic separation and the characteristic distribution of the F1 generation were genetically analyzed, which gave solid evidence for the hypothesis that 2-3 chromosomes are integrated with transgene. In addition, the distinct biological effects for multi- site-integrated transgenes were further discussed. The present study opens a door for the breeding of "fast-growing" transgenic fish.

  1. The Protective Effect of Liquorice Plant Extract on CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Malekinejad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of liquorice plant extract (LPE on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in common carp was evaluated using fifty adult carps. The fish were cultured in a standard environment in terms of water flow rate, oxygen, pH, food and temperature. The fish were assigned into 5 groups (N = 10 as control, sham, and tests. The test groups were pre-treated for 3 h with various concentrations of LPE, 3 days before CCl4 exposure. The control and sham groups received normal saline before and after CCl4 exposure. To induce hepatotoxicity, animals in the sham and test groups were exposed against 100 l L-1 CCl4 for 45 min. The fish in all groups 1 h after CCl4 exposure were anesthetized and the blood samples were collected. Immediately the liver specimens were dissected out and were stored in 10 % formalin for further pathological studies. Determination of serum level of ALP and SGOT revealed that acute form of CCl4 exposure elevated significantly (P < 0.05 the serum level of either tested hepatic marker enzymes. While 3 days pretreatment with LPE prevented from ALP and SGOT enhancement. The pathological evaluation revealed that the CCl4 exposure resulted in a minor pathologic manifestation such as slight congestion, which the LPE pretreated groups showed the remarkable improvement. The anti-oxidant capacity of LPE was assayed by FRAP and DPPH methods. Both provided techniques showed that LPE exerts an excellent anti-oxidant effect. This data suggest that LPE exerts protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, the hepatoprotective effect of LPE may attribute to its antioxidant capacity.

  2. Effects of carbon tetrachloride on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Rui [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Wang, Jia-Hao; Liu, Ying-Juan [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Jeney, Galina [National Agricultural Research Center, Research Institute for Fisherie and, Aquaculture, Anna Light 8, Szarvas 5440 (Hungary); Xu, Pao, E-mail: xup@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); Yin, Guo-Jun, E-mail: yingj@ffrc.cn [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Fish Immunopharmacology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • We explored the underlying toxicology of CCl{sub 4} at the cellular and molecular levels. • QRT-PCR detected the gene expression of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines. • The apoptosis and necrosis occurred simultaneously in carp liver damage. • CCl{sub 4} activated the TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways. - Abstract: In the present study, the cellular and molecular mechanism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced hepatotoxicity in fish was investigated by studying the effects of CCl{sub 4} on the oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocyte apoptosis. Common carp were given an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl{sub 4} in arachis oil (0.5 ml/kg body weight). At 72 h post-injection, blood were collected to measure glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA), liver samples were taken to analyze toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/cREL). Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment of the primary hepatocytes with CCl{sub 4} at 8 mM. The results showed that CCl{sub 4} significantly increased the levels of GPT, GOT, MDA, TLR4 and CYP2E1, reduced the levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and T-AOC, and up-regulated the gene expressions of NF-κB/cREL and inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12. In vitro, CCl{sub 4} caused a dramatic loss in cell viability and induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Overall results suggest that oxidative stress lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α/NF-κB and TRL4/NF-κB signaling pathways play important roles in CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity in fish.

  3. Occurrence of glucocorticoids discharged from a sewage treatment plant in Japan and the effects of clobetasol propionate exposure on the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kei; Sato, Kentaro; Shibano, Takazumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Go; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi

    2016-04-01

    The present study evaluated the environmental risks to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) posed by glucocorticoids present in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent. To gather information on the seasonal variations in glucocorticoid concentration, the authors sampled the effluent of a Japanese STP every other week for 12 mo. Six of 9 selected glucocorticoids were detected in the effluent, with clobetasol propionate and betamethasone 17-valerate detected at the highest concentrations and frequencies. The present study's results indicated that effluent glucocorticoid concentration may depend on water temperature, which is closely related to the removal efficiency of the STP or to seasonal variations in the public's use of glucocorticoids. In a separate experiment, to clarify whether glucocorticoids in environmental water increase susceptibility to bacterial infection in fish, the authors examined the responses to bacterial infection (Aeromonas veronii) of common carp exposed to clobetasol propionate. Clobetasol propionate exposure did not affect bacterial infection-associated mortality. In fish infected with A. veronii but not exposed to clobetasol propionate, head kidney weight and number of leukocytes in the head kidney were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas these effects were not observed in infected fish exposed to clobetasol. This suggests that clobetasol propionate alleviated bacterial infection-associated inflammation. Together, these results indicate that susceptibility to bacterial infection in common carp is not affected by exposure to glucocorticoids at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  4. Cortisol affects metabolic and ionoregulatory responses to a different extent depending on feeding ration in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Hon Jung; Fazio, Angela; Faggio, Caterina; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-11-01

    Interacting effects of feeding and stress on corticoid responses in fish were investigated in common carp fed 3.0% or 0.5% body mass (BM) which received no implant, a sham or a cortisol implant (250 mg/kg BM) throughout a 168 hour post-implant period (168 h-PI). At 12h-PI, cortisol implants elevated plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate. Plasma osmolality and ions remained stable, but cortisol increased gill and kidney Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) and H(+) ATPase activities. Gill NKA activities were higher at 3%-BM, whereas kidney H(+) ATPase activity was greater at 0.5%-BM. Cortisol induced liver protein mobilization and repartitioned liver and muscle glycogen. At 3%-BM, this did not increase plasma ammonia, reflecting improved excretion efficiency concomitant with upregulation of Rhesus glycoprotein Rhcg-1 in gill. Responses in glucocorticoid receptors (GR1/GR2) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to cortisol elevation were most prominent in kidney with increased expression of all receptors at 24 h-PI at 0.5%-BM, but only GR2 and MR at 0.5%-BM. In the liver, upregulation of all receptors occurred at 24 h-PI at 3%-BM, whilst only GR2 and MR were upregulated at 0.5%-BM. In the gill, there was a limited upregulation: GR2 and MR at 72 h-PI and GR1 at 168 h-PI at 3%-BM but only GR2 at 72 h-PI at 0.5%-BM. Thus cortisol elevation led to similar expression patterns of cortisol receptors in both feeding regimes, while feeding affected the type of receptor that was induced. Induction of corticoid receptors occurred simultaneously with increases in Rhcg-1 mRNA expression (gill) but well after NKA and H(+) ATPase activities increased (gill/kidney).

  5. The influence of stocking density on the growth of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Enache

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects regarding the influence of stocking density on the breeding of the common carp in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. The experiment covered a 30 dayperiod. It was conducted in four aquaculture tanks, 500 L/tank, in the recirculating aquaculture pilot system of “Dunarea de Jos” University of Galați. Two kind of stocking density variants were compared: 64 kg/m3 in V1 (B1, B3 and 32 kg/m3 in V2 (B2, B4. The stocking density was: 491 fish in B1, average weight - 65 g/ fish; 245 fish in B2, average weight - 66 g/ fish; 211 fish in B3, average weight - 152 g/fish; 107 fish in B4, average weight - 150 g/fish. The technological indicators obtained revealed the following: the specific growth rate (SGR, calculated as a mean value on the two repetitions, was 1.28%/day in V1 and 1.49 %/day in V2, indicating better growth in V2; the food conversion ratio (FCR, calculated as the mean value of the two repetitions, was 1.28 in V1 and 1.06 in V2, expressing a higher efficiency in capitalization of food in V2. The mean biomass gain in V1 was 30.46 kg/m3 as compared to 18.55 kg/m3 in V2, almost perfectly correlated with the stocking density. The daily growth rate (DGR varied in a similar way, from 494.57 to 520.90 g/day in V1 and 302.4 to 315.9 g/day in V2. The experiment demonstrated a remarkable technological plasticity in both experimental variants, whereas, in terms of technological performance indicators, it was found that the application of lower stocking densities lead to higher crop biomass. The high stocking density means, therefore, large amounts of metabolic waste, removed from the breeding units through their effluent, the recirculating flow of which is 4m3/h, enough to ensure the whole volume of water in a growth tank to be changed every half hour.

  6. Changes in Biogenic Amines and ATP-Related Compounds and Their Relation to Other Quality Changes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) Stored at 20 and 0°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuemei; Qin, Na; Luo, Yongkang; Shen, Huixing

    2015-09-01

    Biogenic amines, ATP-related compounds, sensory attributes, total volatile basic nitrogen, microbial flora (total viable bacteria, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and H2S-producing bacteria), and free amino acids were determined in common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) stored at 20 and 0°C. Pseudomonas and H2S-producing bacteria became the dominant bacteria in carp stored at 20 and 0°C, whereas Aeromonas rapidly increased only in carp stored at 0°C. Inosine monophosphate, which is responsible for flavor and freshness, increased to a maximum of 2.37 l mol/g after 12 h at 20°C and to 4.72 l mol/g after 3 days at 0°C. Putrescine and cadaverine were the dominant amines in carp and their concentrations were significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with total volatile basic nitrogen and sensory scores in all samples during the storage. Significant correlations also were observed between histamine and total volatile basic nitrogen and sensory scores only in samples stored at 20°C. Arginine decreased while putrescine increased in all samples. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) in histidine was observed after 24 h of storage, which coincided with an increase in histamine after 36 h in samples stored at 20°C. Hypoxanthine concentrations were significantly correlated with the microbial species (P < 0.01) and sensory scores (P < 0.05) and seems to be a reliable marker for quality of carp fillets stored at 20 and 0°C.

  7. First detection and confirmation of spring viraemia of carp virus in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, K A; Dwilow, A G; Richard, J; Booth, T F; Beniac, D R; Souter, B W

    2007-11-01

    In June 2006, 150 wild common carp were sampled from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada. Tissue pools consisting of kidney, spleen and encephalon were screened for viruses as a condition facilitating the export of live carp to France. Cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of a viral infection, became evident after 8 days of incubation at 15 degrees C. Eighteen of 30 tissue pools (five fish per pool) eventually demonstrated viral CPE. The viral pathogen was initially cultured and isolated on the epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line and subsequently shown to produce CPE in the fathead minnow and bluegill fin cell lines. Electron microscopy demonstrated the virus to be a rhabdovirus. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and nucleotide sequence analysis identified the isolate as spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Phylogenetic analysis of a 533 bp region of the glycoprotein gene grouped the Canadian isolate in SVCV genogroup Ia together with isolates from Asia and the USA. Sequence comparisons revealed the Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario isolate to be most similar to an isolate obtained from common carp in the Calumet Sag Channel in Illinois in 2003 (98.9% nucleotide identity). This is the first report of the detection of SVCV in Canada. PMID:17958610

  8. Active Comparison of Digestive Enzymes in Digestive carpio, Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Grass Bighead Carp Aristichthys Tracts in Common Carp Cyprinus Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus and mobilis%鲤、鲢、鳙、草鱼消化道消化酶种类和活性的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕冰; 孙中武; 肖晓文; 尹洪滨

    2011-01-01

    The types of digestive enzymes were analyzed in digestive tracts of common carp Cyprinus carpio silver carp Hypophthalmichthys rnolitrix, bigheand carp A ristichthys mobilis, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the relative activities of the digestive enzymes were determined in the fishes by colorimetry and titration.The results showed that the order of the protease activity was arranged as common carp 〉silver carp 〉 bighead carp 〉 grass carp, and that for amylase activity as grass carp 〉 bighead carp 〉common carp 〉silver carp. The digestive enzyme expression in these fishes was found to be paralleled to the histology structure of digestive tracts. The maximal digestive enzymic activity was observed in the 2/5 parts in anterior end of the digestive tract (G1, G2), where was found to be the main place for digestion in those stomachless fishes, followed by the following 1/5 part of digestive tract (G3). The minimal digestive enzymic activity was occurred in the last 2/5 parts (G4, G5) of the intestines. The findings provide a theoretical basis for the nutritional physiology, the development of feedstuff and the management for germplasm in these fisheries.%采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳方法研究了鲤、鲢、鳙、草鱼亲鱼消化道消化酶的种类;用比色法及滴定法分别测其消化酶相对活性。结果表明:鲤、鲢、鳙、草鱼4种鱼消化道的蛋白酶、淀粉酶活性与食性有明显的相关性。其中,蛋白酶活性依次为鲤〉鲢〉鳙〉草鱼;淀粉酶活性依次为草鱼〉鲤〉鳙〉鲢。脂肪酶活性与食性的关系不明显。四种鱼消化酶的表达与消化道的组织结构特征相一致,消化道前2/5部位(G1、G2)的消化酶活性最高,是无胃鱼消化道的主要消化场所。消化道中央部位(G3)的消化酶活性次之,能将未消化完全的食糜进一步消化,而消化道后段(

  9. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) response to two pieces of music ("Eine Kleine Nachtmusik" and "Romanza") combined with light intensity, using recirculating water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsoglou, Sofronios E; Karakatsouli, Nafsika; Papoutsoglou, Eustratios S; Vasilikos, Georgios

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate the effects of music on fish physiology, bearing in mind available information regarding the involvement of endogenous and exogenous factors in fish farming. Therefore, Cyprinus carpio (50.5 +/- 0.36 g) were reared in a recirculating water system under 80 and 200 lux and subjected to no music at all (control, ambient noise only), 4 h of Mozart's "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik", or 4 h of anonymous "Romanza-Jeux Interdits" for 106 days. Both music treatments resulted in increased growth performance at both light intensities, with Romanza treatment at 200 lux resulting in better growth performance than Mozart treatment. Furthermore, feed efficiency for the Romanza groups was significantly better than for the control. Although no significant music effect was apparent for brain neurotransmitters, lower anterior intestine alkaline protease levels were detected for both music treatments. Taking into consideration the numerous advantages of recirculating water systems, it should be emphasised that fish response to music expresses the results of various physiological and biochemical processes, especially when fish notably respond differently when subjected to two different pieces of music.

  10. Effect of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on embryonic of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L%阿特拉津和毒死蜱对鲤胚胎发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英; 赵荣伟; 郝其睿; 姜旭阳; 张红

    2015-01-01

    研究旨在探讨不同浓度阿特拉津(Atrazine, ATR)、毒死蜱(Chlorpyrifos, CPF)及其混合物对鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)胚胎发育、孵化率及抗氧化能力的影响。将鲤受精卵分别暴露在各自浓度为12.5、25、50、100、200μg·L-1的ATR、CPF及ATR-CPF 1��1混合液中,经96 h试验,观察发育形态,统计死亡率和畸形率,检测全鱼抗氧化能力。在暴露试验中,各处理组死亡率和畸形率随药物浓度增长呈上升趋势;初孵仔鱼体内SOD、GPx和CAT活性整体呈下降趋势。结果表明,阿特拉津和毒死蜱对鲤受精卵具有一定的致死、致畸效果,且两者生物毒性具有一定的叠加效应和协同作用,氧化胁迫是阿特拉津和毒死蜱对鲤发挥毒性作用的重要机制之一。%This study was aimed to explore the influence of different concentrations of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and a mixture of them on embryonic development, hatchability and antioxidant capacity of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp fertilized eggs was exposed to the concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200μg·L-1 ATR, CPF and ATR-CPF 1��1 mixture, respectively. After 96 h exposure, we observed their development of shape, and counted the death rate and aberration rate of the zygotes, detected antioxidant capacity of whole fish. In the exposure test, Mortality and malformation rate of treatment groups grow along with the drug concentration was on the rise;SOD, GPx and CAT activities in the newly hatched larvae of common carp as a whole were on the decline. The results indicated that ATR and CPF had some lethal and teratogenic effect on zygote of common carp, moreover, to a certain degree extent, the biotoxicity of these two toxic substances had additive effect and synergy, oxidative stress was one of the pivotal mechanism which ATR and CPF brought toxic effect to common carp.

  11. 锦鲤组织细胞体外培养的初步研究%Study on the in vitro Primary Culture of Tissue Cells from Ornamental Carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付思思; 吴志新; 王敏; 汤蓉

    2012-01-01

    为建立来源于锦鲤的细胞系,本文采用组织块法,对来源于锦鲤(Cyprinus carpio)鳍条、吻端、肌肉、心脏、鳔、肠道、卵巢等组织的细胞进行原代培养和传代培养.在25℃下,添加20%胎牛血清、0.2μg/mL表皮生长因子(EGF)和25ng/mL成纤维生长因子(FGF)的L-15培养基中进行培养.结果显示,鳍条、心脏、鳔、吻端、肌肉、肠道、卵巢分别在原代培养第3、6、12、13、15、3、3天,有细胞从组织块迁出;对长至单层的鳍条、心脏、肌肉细胞进行传代培养,鳍条细胞已传至第39代,心脏和肌肉细胞分别传到第2代和第4代;鳍条、心脏和肌肉细胞分别呈现上皮细胞样、上皮细胞样和上皮细胞样与成纤维状混合型.第6代锦鲤鳍细胞的染色体计数,结果显示,细胞染色体数目分布范围为55~154条,2n=100.病毒敏感性实验,发现锦鲤鳍条细胞对草鱼出血病病毒(GCRV)和鲤春病毒血症病毒(SVCV)都敏感,且在24h内出现细胞病变(CPE);但对斑点叉尾鮰病毒(CCV)不敏感.锦鲤鳍条细胞系的建立为后期建立更多的锦鲤细胞系和鱼类病毒研究奠定了基础.%To establish cell lines from ornamental carp (Cyprinus carpio), primary cultures of fin, snout, muscle, heart, swim bladder, intestine and ovary of ornamental carp were initiated at 25℃ in L-15 medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum, 0. 2μg/mL epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 25 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor (FGF) by using the tissue explants technique. The cells of fin, heart, swim bladder, snout, muscle intestine and ovary tissue migrated out around the tissues at day 3, 6, 12, 13, 15, 3 and 3 respectively. The confluent mpnolayers of cells were rinsed twice with 0. 25% trypsin-EDTA solution. The second generation of heart cells, the third generation of muscle cells and the thirty-ninth generation of fin cells were obtained. The morphologies of heart cells and fin cells were both epithe

  12. Genetic diversity of Cyprinus carpio from Ohrid Lake, estimated by four microsatellite loci

    OpenAIRE

    ADIOLA BIBA; ANILA HODA; EDIT VARDHAMI

    2014-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L) is an important fish species of Ohrid lake. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of common carp using microsatellite markers. A total of 30 individuals were genotyped for 4 microsatellite loci (MFW1, MFW6, MFW7, MFW18). All the microsatellite loci were polymorphic. A total of 84 alleles were distinguished. The allelic number varied from 19 to 23 with mean allelic number of 21. The effective number of alleles varied from 9.92 to 11....

  13. 七种染料对鲤鱼肝微粒体芳烃羟化酶的诱导%THE INDUCTION OF ARYL HYDROCARBON HYDROXYLASE(AHH)OF CARP(CYPRINUS CARPIO) LIVER MICROSOME BY SEVEN DYES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐楠; 王春霞; 莫争; 呼世斌

    2001-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase(AHH)activity of carp(Cyprinus Carpio)liver microsome induced by seven dyes was examined.The all tested dyes induced AHH activity to different extent.The AHH activity increased according to the increase of the dye concentration.The intense of AHH activity induced by seven dyes was as following order:acid red B>acid complex blue RRN>weak acid brilliant red B>reactive brilliant red K-2BP>reactive brilliant red K-2G,acid mordant red S-80>disperse red E-4B.The intense of AHH activity was related to the toxicity of the chemicals.%以鲤鱼肝微粒体为实验体系,研究了七种染料化合物对其芳烃羟化酶(AHH)的诱导,发现七种染料都可以诱导AHH的活性,随染料浓度增大AHH的活性升高.七种染料对AHH活性诱导能力大小为:酸性红B>派拉丁蓝RRN>普拉红B>活性艳红K-2BP>活性艳红K-2G,媒介大红S-80>分散红E-4B,与其毒性大小相关.

  14. Effect of dietary glutamine on growth performance, non-specific immunity, expression of cytokine genes, phosphorylation of target of rapamycin (TOR), and anti-oxidative system in spleen and head kidney of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai; Zhang, Jing-Xiu; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary glutamine on the growth performance, cytokines, target of rapamycin (TOR), and antioxidant-related parameters in the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed the basal (control) and glutamine-supplemented (12.0 g glutamine kg(-1) diet) diets for 6 weeks. Results indicated that the dietary glutamine supplementation improved the growth performance, spleen protein content, serum complement 3 content, and lysozyme activity in fish. In the spleen, glutamine down-regulated the expression of the interleukin 1 and interleukin 10 genes, and increased the level of phosphorylation of TOR protein. In the head kidney, glutamine down-regulated the tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 10 gene expressions, phosphorylated and total TOR protein levels, while up-regulated the transforming growth factor β2 gene expression. Furthermore, the protein carbonyl content was decreased in the spleen of fish fed glutamine-supplemented diet; conversely, the anti-hydroxyl radical capacity and glutathione content in the spleen were increased by glutamine. However, diet supplemented with glutamine did not affect the lipid peroxidation, anti-superoxide anion capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activities in the spleen. Moreover, all of these antioxidant parameters in the head kidney were not affected by glutamine. Results from the present experiment showed the importance of dietary supplementation of glutamine in benefaction of the growth performance and several components of the innate immune system, and the deferential role in cytokine gene expression, TOR kinase activity, and antioxidant status between the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp.

  15. Effect of Dietary Alanyl-glutamine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestinal Tract, Antioxidant Status and Plasma Non-speciifc Immunity of Young Mirror Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hong; Zhu Qing; Wang Chang-an; Zhao Zhi-gang; Luo Ling; Wang Lian-sheng; Li Jin-nan; Xu Qi-you

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous alanyl-glutamine (Aln-Gln) was evaluated for its effects on growth performance, intestinal structure and function, antioxidant status and non-specific immunity of young carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Six diets supplemented with 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, or 15.0 g• kg-1 of Aln-Gln were fed to fish for 12 weeks. Supplementation with 7.5, 10.0, or 15.0 g• kg-1 of Aln-Gln significantly increased weight gain rate (WGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), but feed conservation rate (FCR) and survival were not affected (P>0.05). The intestinal fold height and number, digestive enzyme, Na+, K+-ATPase activities was found to be significantly high (P<0.05) with increasing dietary Aln-Gln supplementation up to 7.5 g• kg-1, but there were no significant differences for Aln-Gln supplementation from 7.5 to 15.0 g• kg-1. The glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the intestine, hepatopancreas, plasma and muscles. The plasma complement-3 (C3) and complement-4 (C4) levels were significantly (P<0.05) improved at 5.0 g• kg-1 level and decreased when over 7.5 g• kg-1. The plasma lysozyme (LSZ) activity increased significantly (P<0.05) at 7.5, 10.0, or 15.0 g• kg-1level. In summary, the results showed that Aln-Gln improved growth performance, development and function of the intestine, the activity of the antioxidant defense system and the plasma non-specific immunity of the carps. The optimal Aln-Gln level was 8.24 g• kg-1 diet for WGR based on broken-line regression model analysis.

  16. α-酮戊二酸对松浦镜鲤肠道形态与功能的影响%Effects of α-ketoglutarate Supplementation on Intestinal Morphology and Function of Songpu Mirror Carp(Cyprinus carpio Songpu)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋南; 魏玉强; 徐奇友; 张冬梅

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary effects of α-ketoglutarate ( AKG) supplementation and protein source treatments on the intestinal morphology and function of Songpu mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio Songpu). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain two protein sources( soybean meal or fish meal + soybean meal) and two levels of α-ketoglutarate( 0% or 1.5%). A total of 400 Songpu mirror carp with an average initial body weight of ( 217.93 ±0.78) g was divided into 4 groups reared in a recycling system and fed one of the four experimental diets at water temperature of 23 ℃ for 10 weeks with 5 replicates per group and 20 fish per replicate. The results showed that fold height of hindgut and muscular thickness of foregut and Na+, K+-ATPase activity in foregut were significantly improved by AKG( P 0.05). The activities of protease and lipase in foregut and midgut were shown to be significantly increased in the fish fed the diets containing the diets supplemented with AKG ( P 0.05);饲料中蛋白源添加AKG能显著提高松浦镜鲤前肠和中肠蛋白酶、脂肪酶活性(P<0.05),蛋白源和AKG对后肠蛋白酶活性具有显著交互作用(P<0.05)。综上所述,饲料中添加1.5%AKG可以促进松浦镜鲤肠道发育,增强肠道消化酶活性。

  17. Evaluation of DNA Damage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. by Comet Assay for Determination of Possible Pollution in Lake Mogan (Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Çok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of the aquatic environment with various concentrations of pollutants results in unexpected threats to humans and wildlife. The consequences of exposure and metabolism of pollutants/xenobiotics, especially carcinogens and mutagens, can be suitably assessed by investigating severe events, such as DNA damage; for example, DNA adducts and DNA strand breaks. One of the commonly used techniques to detect DNA damage in aquatic organisms is single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay. This study was carried out using Cyprinus carpio in order to identify the possible pollution in Lake Mogan, near Ankara, Turkey, where the city's sewer system and pesticides used in agriculture are believed to be the common causes of pollution. From the comet assay, the tail length (μm, tail intensity (%, and tail moment values of fish caught from Lake Mogan were found to be 31.10 ± 10.39, 7.77 ± 4.51, 1.50 ± 1.48, respectively, whereas for clean reference sites they were found to be 22.80 ± 1.08, 3.47 ± 1.59, 0.40 ± 0.51, respectively. The values are statistically different from each other (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0013, respectively. These results indicate that Lake Mogan may be polluted with substances that have genotoxic effects and constitute an early warning for the lake system. Further detailed research is needed to establish the source of the pollution and the chemicals responsible.

  18. Amelioration of cadmium-induced changes in biochemical parameters of the muscle of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio by Vitamin C and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of administering antioxidants, including vitamin C and chitosan on oxidative stress markers in muscle as edible tissues of Cyprinus carpio exposed to cadmium chloride. In this experiment, by exposing to 0.2 mg/L cadmium chloride for 21 days, fish were fed a normal diet, diet containing chitosan (1000 mg/kg diet, vitamin C (1000 mg/kg diet or both vitamin C and chitosan. Oxidative stress markers, including the activity of catalase, total antioxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA as well as biochemical parameters, including the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE were measured. Fish exposure to cadmium chloride significantly increased AST, LDH, CPK, catalase, and MDA activity, while it significantly decreased AST and AChE activity, and levels of total antioxidant in muscle cells. Administration of chitosan or vitamin C alone or in combination with each other to fish exposed to cadmium chloride was effective in regulating ALT, CPK, and catalase activity. Although administration of vitamin C and chitosan caused a significant decrease in MDA, AST and LDH, these enzymes were still significantly higher than those in the control group. Administration of vitamin C and chitosan had no significant effects on the activity of AChE and levels of total antioxidant. Although, chitosan alone could not prevent oxidative stress damages in muscle tissues of cadmium-treated fish, administration of vitamin C combined with chitosan may increase the efficiency of antioxidant defense system and improve the detoxification system in the muscles of fish exposed to cadmium chloride.

  19. Fish abundance differences and relations to primary production in two variants of pond stocking with common carp(Cyprinus carpio L., grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val. and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis Rich. larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumen K. Kalchev

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A fish pond experiment was conducted in two ponds which were stocked with 0 aged common carp and bighead carp larvae in numeric abundance ratio 3:1 (variant 1 while in other two ponds the ratio was 1:3 in favor of bighead carp (variant 2. To each of the two stocking variants we added one and the same number of 0 aged grass carps and 1+ or 2+ common carps. The experiment lasted 4 months (May to September and was repeated in two consecutive years (2007, 2008. The second year variant 2 was conducted in three ponds. The fish ponds belonged to the experimental facilities of the Institute for Fishery and Aquaculture, Bulgaria. The plankton primary production and other related variables were measured approximately fortnightly and continuously throughout the experiment duration. At the end of experiment number and yield of fishes were measured and survival rates were calculated. Survival rate of bighead carp and yield of common carp and bighead carp of variant 1 were significantly higher than those of variant 2. The yield of bighead carp larvae did not, while that of common carp, grass carp and total fish yield correlated significantly and positively with plankton primary production. The yield of accidentally fallen into ponds of crucian carps (Carassius carassiusLin. correlated strongly negatively with 1+/2+ common carps, which was indication for the strong food completion between them.

  20. Resistência da pele de carpa espelho (Cyprinus carpio specularis curtida pelas técnicas ao cromo e bioleather - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1711 Resistance of the carp mirror skin (Cyprinus carpio specularis tanned by chromium and bioleather technique - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1711

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Telmo Agostin Schmidt

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a técnica de curtimento bioleather e o curtimentocom sais de cromo, em peles de carpa espelho (Cyprinus carpio specularis. As peles foram retiradas com o auxílio de uma máquina, identificadas e congeladas. Em seguida, foram curtidas por meio de duas técnicas diferentes. O passo seguinte foi retirada dos corpos de prova, que foram levados para o laboratório, climatizado em torno de 23ºC e umidade relativa, do ar de 50%, conforme NBR 10455 (1988, por 24 horas. Para os testes de resistência à tração, ao alongamento e à determinação da força de rasgamento progressivo, utilizou-se o dinamômetro EMIC. Foram retiradas amostras da região dorsal do couro para análise de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. As amostras foram secas em ponto crítico com CO2 e metalizadas com íons de ouro-paládio. Em seguida as amostras foram elétron-micrografados com o JEOL-JSM 5410. Observou-se o entrelaçamento e sobreposição das camadas das fibras colágenas, que proporcionam maior resistência ao couro, constatada pelos testes realizados. Os couros curtidos com a técnica bioleather apresentaram maiores valores no teste de tração (20,45 N/mm2 em comparação ao cromo (12,32 N/mm2. Não houve diferença na elongação entre os tratamentos (bioleather = 72,52%; cromo = 84,74%. Para o teste de rasgamento progressivo, o curtimento ao cromo foi superior (26,28 N/mm, comparado ao bioleather (11,96 N/mm. Entretanto, os dois curtimentos podem ser utilizados nas peles dessa espécie de peixe para a confecção de vestuários.The objective of the work was to evaluate the tanning technique to bioleather and with chromium salts, in carp mirror skins (Cyprinus carpio specularis. The skins wore removed by means of a machine, identified and congealed. Next they were tanned by the two techniques. The test bodies wore removed and taken to the laboratory climatized around 23ºC and relative humidity of the 50% air, as ABNT

  1. MAPPING AND GENETIC EFFECT ANALYSIS ON QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI RELATED TO FEED CONVERSION RATIO OF COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.)%鲤饲料转化率性状的QTL定位及遗传效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宣朋; 张晓峰; 李文升; 张天奇; 李超; 孙效文

    2012-01-01

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), one of the most important species for aquaculture in China, is a widespread freshwater fish of eutrophic waters in lakes and large rivers. The wild populations are considered vulnerable to extinction, but the species has also been domesticated and introduced into environments worldwide, and is often considered as an invasive species. However, genetic degeneration, such as low growth rate, small body size, weak disease-resistance, etc., emerged in common carp with the rapid development of its farming scale. Quantitative traits (for example, the feed conversion ratio of common carp) refer to phenotypes that vary in degree and can be attributed to polygenic effects, I.e., product of two or more genes, and their environment. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) are stretches of DNA containing or linked to the genes that underlie a quantitative trait. Mapping regions of the genome that contain genes involved in specifying a quantitative trait is done using molecular tags such as SSR, EST or more commonly SNPs. This is an early step in identifying and sequencing the actual genes underlying trait variation. Researches of genetic diversity, kin discrimination, strain identification, genetic linkage map construction, trait-related marker screening, genetic evaluation and QTL are the effective way to solve these problems of breeding in common carp. In this paper, a group of F2 hybrids German mirror carp including 68 individuals was used to construct a linkage map by using 560 markers (174 SSR markers, 41EST-SSR markers and 345 SNP markers). Quantitative traits loci (QTLs) associated with feed conversion ratio were identified by interval mapping and MQM mapping of the software MapQTL5.0. A linkage group wide permutation test (1000 replicates) determined the significance of the maximum LOD value over the various intervals analyzed for each linkage group. The results indicated that fifteen QTLs were identified for feed conversion ratio on nine

  2. 盐碱池塘养殖鲤肠道菌群的分子分析%Molecular Analysis of Intestinal Microflora in Common Carp(Cyprinus carpio L.) from Saline-alkali Ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄进强; 刘哲; 王建福; 蔡原; 冯志云

    2013-01-01

    为了了解盐碱池塘养殖鲤肠道细菌群落组成及多样性,提取鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)肠道细菌基因组DNA,选用细菌通用引物对16S rRNA基因进行了PCR扩增,构建了细菌16S rRNA基因克隆文库.通过对阳性克隆子进行限制性片段长度多态性分析(RFLP),选出有代表性的克隆子进行测序、BLAST比对分析和构建系统发育树.本研究从16S rRNA基因文库中共筛选出176个阳性克隆,经RFLP分析得到28个不同分类操作单元(operational taxonomic unite,OTU)(GenBank登录号:JX262557~JX262584),文库覆盖度为88.6%.16S rRNA序列系统发育分析发现,盐碱塘养殖鲤肠道细菌归属于变形细菌门(Proteobacteria)(包含Alpha和Gamma亚群)、厚壁细菌门(Firmicutes)、拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes)和梭杆菌门(Fusobacteria)4个门,分别占克隆总数的89.9%、7.9%、1.1%和1.1%.其中,变形细菌门的α-变形菌纲(占克隆总数的88.1%)为优势类群,气单胞菌属为优势菌属.本研究揭示了盐碱池塘养殖条件下健康鲤肠道细菌群落组成.%In order to investigate composition and diversity of intestinal bacteria of common carp(Cyprinus carpio L.) reared in saline-alkaline ponds,the 16S rRNA genes were amplified from the total DNA of intestinal bacteria in common carp by PCR with bacteria-specific primers and a clone library was constructed.Positive clones were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP),and the representative clones with unique patterns were sequenced,BLAST and then constructed phylogenetic tree.A total of 28 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs)(GenBank accession No.JX262557~JX262584) were sequenced from 176 clones of the clone library.The clones coverage value (C=88.6%) and rarefaction analysis both showed that the clone library covered the majority intestinal bacteria.Sequence alignment showed that the most bacteria exhibited high similarity (>98%) with known bacterial 16S rRNA genes retrieved from

  3. Effects of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and feed addition in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) ponds on nutrient partitioning among fish, plankton and benthos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Wahab, M.A.; Milstein, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of introducing common carp (CC) and of adding artificial feed to fertilized rohu ponds on water quality and nutrient accumulation efficiency were studied. All ponds were stocked with 15 000 rohu ha¿1. Treatments included ponds with rohu alone, rohu plus 5000 common carp ha¿1 and rohu plu

  4. Substrate mobilization and hormonal changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, L) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L) during deep hypoxia and subsequent recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanRaaij, MTM; VandenThillart, GEEJM; Vianen, GJ; Pit, DSS; Balm, PHM; Steffens, B

    1996-01-01

    Common carp (at 20 degrees C) and rainbow trout (at 15 degrees C) were fitted with an indwelling cannula in the dorsal aorta. The fish were exposed to a controlled decline of water pO(2) followed by 90 min deep hypoxia at 0.3 kPa (carp) or 4.8 kPa (trout). Thereafter, normoxic recovery was monitored

  5. The growth characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio in the northern part of the Small Island of Brăila Natural Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. Gheorghe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper are presented the results of the growth parameters for the carp population. The study was realized in the 2006-2009 period on a total number of 367 carp specimens caught into the Danube river km 170-196 (the arms: Cravia, Calia, and Fundu Mare Island. In order to estimate the population growth characteristic of the carp population the following relationship was determined: length - weight (L-W using equation W = a * Lb . The value of the coefficient b indicates an allometric increase, meaning the length increases faster than weight. Moreover, the good value of this coefficient, considered also as a condition factor (b = 2.845, shows us good growth conditions for this species in the researched area. Estimation of the growth parameters (von Bertalanffy L∞, k, to, led to obtaining of comparable values with other nearby regions carp populations.

  6. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Azolla microphylla based gold nanoparticles against acetaminophen induced toxicity in a fresh water common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Kunjiappan

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized GNaP protects liver against oxidative damage and tissue damaging enzyme activities and could be used as an effective protector against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in fresh water common carp fish.

  7. THE ANALYSIS OF THE FLOW INTENSITY OF FREE-RADICAL PROCESSES IN HEPATOPANCREAS TISSUES OF AND SKELETAL MUSCLES OF AGE-2 CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO OF DIFFERENT GENESIS

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    I. Osoba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform determination of the content of individual lipid peroxidation products in hepatopancreas tissues and skeletal muscle of carp of different genesis. Methods. Determination of free radical products of lipid peroxidation in hepatopancreas tissues of and skeletal muscle of carp was performed by spectrophotometric analysis. In particular, the content of malondialdehyde was determined by reaction with thiobarbituric acid, which at high a temperature in acidic medium proceeds with the formation of colored trimethine complex. The intensity of the formation of lipid hydroperoxides was determined after precipitation of proteins by a solution of trichloroacetic acid and lipid extraction by ethanol with following interaction of the studied extracts of ammonium thiocyanate. To determine the content of diene conjugates in tissues, we used a method, which is based on the formation of conjugated double bonds accompanied by the appearance of a new absorption maximum in the spectrum range of λmax = 233 nm. The results. As a result of the studies it was found that the content of malondialdehyde in skeletal muscle of two-year scaly and framed carp of Nesvich zonal type is likely lower in comparison with that of skeletal muscle of Amur wild carp and the carp hybrid grows relatively group - hybrid carp .It was marked the growth in the content of diene conjugates in skeletal muscle of Lyubin Nesvich scaly carp compared to framed ones.It was shown the tissue specificity savings to individual products of lipid peroxidation in experimental groups of fish. The scientific novelty. For the first time, a comparative analysis of the contents of individual products of free radical oxidation in tissues of age-2 scaly carp and framed Nesvich zonal and Lyubin interbreed type with groups such as the Amur wild carp and carp hybrid has been perfomed. Factors providing such intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in tissues of the studied age-2 groups of fish

  8. Changes in the microbial communities of air-packaged and vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Qian; Li, Dongping; Liu, Xiaochang; Luo, Yongkang

    2015-12-01

    The dominant microbiota of air-packaged (AP) and vacuum-packaged (VP) common carp fillets during storage were systematically identified. Culture-dependent methods were used for microbial enumeration and 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Different packaging conditions affected the growth of microbiota and the shelf life of carp. Shelf-life of AP and VP fillets was 8 and 12 days, respectively. Vacuum packaging delayed the increase of biogenic amines levels compared to air packaging, especially for cadaverine and tyramine levels. In the present study, a total of 13 different genera comprised the microbial communities of fresh carp fillets and Acinetobacter dominated the indigenous flora of carp. However, variability in bacterial community composition was observed in these two packaging conditions. Pseudomonas were the only microbiota found in the spoiled AP carp, whereas Carnobacterium followed by Aeromonas were found mainly in VP samples. Other genera Shewanella, Lactococcus, and Pseudomonas were also found in low numbers at the end of the VP fillets' shelf life. Additional microbial enumeration observed the highest Pseudomonas counts (8.77 log CFU/g on day 8) in AP samples and a relatively high level of lactic acid bacteria (7.74 log CFU/g on day 12) in VP samples.

  9. GROWING OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO IN PONDS OF IRKLIIV HERBIVOROUS FISHES HATCHERY USING TRADITIONAL ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krazhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Growing of young-of-the-year Nivka scaled carp in polyculture with herbivorous fishes with a study of feeding, growth of young-of-the-year carp, fish productivity of nursery ponds when using traditional organic fertilizers ? poultry droppings, cattle compost. Methodology. Generally accepted hydrochemical, hydrobiological, and fisheries methods have been used in the study. Findings. Growing of young-of-the-year carp was accompanied by studies of parameters of development of natural food bae (bacterio-, phyto-, zooplnakton, zoobenthos, feeding of young-of-the-year carp and fish productivity of nursery ponds when using traditional organic fertilizers such as poultry droppings at a concentration of 0.12 tons/ha and cattle compost at a concentration of 3.0 tons/ha. It was found that application of these fertilizers resulted in similar qualitative and quantitative development of hydrobionts in both ponds, natural food in the gut content of young-of-the-year carp reached 40%, total fish productivity was 1500-1612 kg/ha, mean weight of young-of-the-year was 51.0 ± 4.39 g and 47.0 ± 4.1 g. Consumption of poultry droppings is 25 times lower than that of cattle compost. Originality. Parameters of the growth of bacterio-, phyto-, zooplankton, zoobenthos and growth of carp in polyculture with the use of traditional organic fertilizers in controlled conditions of modern fisheries management with water supply from the Kremenchug reservoir have been determined. Practical value. Application of poultry droppings (from 0,12 t/ha and cattle compost (3,0 tons/ha in nursery ponds with water supply from the Kremenchug reservoir in Irkliiv herbivorous fishes hatchery resulted in similar quantitative indexes of development of natural food base and fish productivity. In order to save and receive fish production at a level of 1.62 tons/ha, it is recommended to apply poultry droppings at indicated amounts.

  10. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of changes in serum levels of growth hormone (cGH) in common carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gang; CHEN LiHua; ZHONG Shan; LI Qi; SONG ChaoJun; JIN BoQuan; ZHU ZuoYan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to purify the common native carp growth hormon.e (ncGH), produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), and further enhance the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for ncGH. Additionally, we investigated changes in serum ncGH levels in carps raised in different environmental conditions. The recombinant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) growth hormone was purified and used as antigen to immunize the rabbit. The natural ncGH was isolated from the pituitaries of common carp. SDS-PAGE and Western blot utilizing the polyclonal anti-rgcGH antibody confirmed the purification of ncGH from pituitaries.Purified ncGH was then used as an immunogen in the B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. A total of 14 hybridoma cell lines (FMU-cGH 1-14) were established that were able to stably secrete mAbs against ncGH. Among them, eight clones (FMU-cGH1-6, 12 and 13) were successfully used for Western blot while nine clones (FMU-cGH 1 -7, 9 and 10) were used in fluorescent staining and immunohistochemIstry. Epitope mapping by competitive ELISA demonstrated that these mAbs recognized five different epitopes. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for detection of ncGH was developed using FMU-cGH12 as the coating mAb and FMU-cGH6 as the enzyme labeled mAb. This detection system was found to be highly stable and sensitive, with detection levels of 70 pg/mL. Additionally, we found that serum ncGH levels in restricted food group and in the net cage group increased 6.9- and 5.8-fold, respectively, when compared to controls, demonstrating differences in the GH stress response in common carp under different living conditions.

  11. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of changes in serum levels of growth hormone (cGH) in common carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to purify the common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to common native carp growth hormone (ncGH), and further enhance the sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for ncGH. Additionally, we investigated changes in serum ncGH levels in carps raised in different environmental conditions. The recombinant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) growth hormone was purified and used as antigen to immunize the rabbit. The natural ncGH was isolated from the pituitaries of common carp. SDS-PAGE and Western blot utilizing the polyclonal anti-rgcGH antibody confirmed the purification of ncGH from pituitaries. Purified ncGH was then used as an immunogen in the B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. A total of 14 hybridoma cell lines (FMU-cGH 1-14) were established that were able to stably secrete mAbs against ncGH. Among them, eight clones (FMU-cGH1-6, 12 and 13) were successfully used for Western blot while nine clones (FMU-cGH 1-7, 9 and 10) were used in fluorescent staining and immunohistochemistry. Epitope mapping by competitive ELISA demonstrated that these mAbs recognized five different epitopes. A sensitive sandwich ELISA for detection of ncGH was developed using FMU-cGH12 as the coating mAb and FMU-cGH6 as the enzyme labeled mAb. This detection system was found to be highly stable and sensitive, with detection levels of 70 pg/mL. Additionally, we found that serum ncGH levels in restricted food group and in the net cage group increased 6.9-and 5.8-fold, respectively, when compared to controls, demonstrating differences in the GH stress response in common carp under different living conditions.

  12. 饲料脂肪水平对锦鲤体色和几项免疫指标的影响%Effects of dietary lipid levels on body pigmentation and immune indicators in Koi carp Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙向军; 罗琳; 姜志强; 孙砚胜; 史东杰; 梁拥军

    2011-01-01

    研究了在螺旋藻添加的质量分数为12%时,饲料脂肪水平(5.36%、7.74%、10.52%、12.85%和15.45%均为质量分数)对红白锦鲤Ornmmental carp幼鱼(初始体质量为5.85g±0.19 g)体色和免疫指标的影响.每组设3个重复,每个重复组饲养10尾锦鲤,表观饱食投喂60d.结果表明:当饲料中脂肪水平为10.52%时,试验鱼皮肤中类胡萝卜素含量显著高于其它试验组(P<0.05),体表红质的α*值最高;试验鱼肝胰脏中超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶的活力随脂肪水平的升高而下降,饲料脂肪水平对碱性磷酸酶、乳酸脱氢酶等免疫指标没有产生显著影响(P>0.05).上述研究说明,在配合饲料中添加一定量的螺旋藻时,锦鲤着色效果最好时的适宜饲料脂肪水平为10.52%,提高饲料脂肪水平不会持续提高锦鲤对螺旋藻的利用效率.%A feeding trial with triplication was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lipid levels on body pigmentation and immune indicators in koi carp Cyprinus carpio. The koi carp with initial body weight of (5. 85±0. 19) g were fed five diets containing 12% Spirulina and different lipid levels (5.36% ,7.74% ,10.52% ,12.85%, and 15.45% ) to apparent satiation at 15-25℃ for 60 days. The results showed that there was significantly higher concentration of carotenoid in the skin of the fish fed the diet containing 10. 52% lipid (with the maximal value) than that in the fish fed the other experimental diets (P<0. 05). The superoxide dismutase ( SOD) and catalase ( CAT) activities were found to be decreased with the increase in dietary lipid levels. No significant differences in alkaline phosphatase ( AKP) ,and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were observed in the fish fed different diets (P>0.05). It was concluded that the diet containing 10.52% lipid level showed improvement of body color in the koi carp fed the diet containing equivalent Spirulina.

  13. Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295r adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4'-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a maximum of 3% to 4% (at 100 μM) compared with 8% for BPA relative to the maximum induction by 17β-estradiol (E2, 1 μM). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was a potent antagonist of vtg production with an IC50 of 5.5 μM, virtually 100% inhibition of vtg at 20 μM, and an inhibitive (IC50) potency about one-tenth that of the known ER antagonist tamoxifen (IC50, 0.6 μM). 2,2'-Diallyl bisphenol A, 4,4'-(1,4-phenylene-diisopropylidene)bisphenol, BPRO, and BHF were much less inhibitory with IC50 concentrations of 20-70 μM, and relative potencies of 0.03 and 0.009 with tamoxifen. Bisphenol ethoxylate showed no anti-estrogenicity (up to 100 μM), and 4,4'-isopropylidene-diphenol diacetate was only antagonistic at 100 μM. When comparing the (anti)estrogenic potencies of these bisphenol A analogues/diphenylalkanes, anti-estrogenicity occurred at lower concentrations than estrogenicity. 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dimethylphenol) (IC50, 2.0 μM) reduced E2-induced (EC50, 100 nM) vtg production due to concentration-dependent cytotoxicity as indicated by a parallel decrease in MTT activity and vtg, whereas the remaining diphenylalkanes did not cause any cytotoxicity relative to controls. None of the diphenylalkanes (up to 100 μM) induced EROD activity indicating that concentration-dependent, CYP1A enzyme-mediated metabolism of E2, or any Ah-receptor-mediated interaction with the ER, was not a likely explanation for the observed anti-estrogenic effects. At concentrations as great as 100

  14. Reproductive Responses of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in Cages to Influent of the Las Vegas Wash in Lake Mead, Nevada, from late Winter to early Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the potential for contaminants in Las Vegas Wash (LW) influent to produce effects indicative of endocrine disruption in vivo, adult male and female common carp were exposed in cages for 42-48 d at four sites and two reference locations in Lake Mead.

  15. Association study between single nucleotide polymorphisms in leptin and growth traits in Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y; Li, H; Li, J; Yu, F; Yu, J

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone that affects the regulation of body weight, energy expenditure, fat metabolism, food intake, and appetite. In this study, we cloned the jlLEP-A1 and jlLEP-A2 genes in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) and performed an association analysis between identified polymorphisms and growth traits. Three polymorphisms in exons of jlLEP-A1 (A1-T113C) and jlLEP-A2 (A2-G415A and A2-G427A) were identified, and genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 263 female and 294 male Jian carp. All three SNPs were missense mutations. Association analysis revealed that the three SNPs were significantly associated with growth traits in male Jian carp. Only SNP A1-T113C was significantly associated with growth traits in female Jian carp. Analysis of diplotypes derived from jlLEP-A2 SNPs revealed an association with growth traits in male but not female Jian carp. These results demonstrate that polymorphisms in the leptin gene are associated with growth traits and may be used for marker-assisted selection programs in Jian carp breeding and production. PMID:27525905

  16. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoran, Jenna, E-mail: J.F.Corcoran@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Winter, Matthew J., E-mail: M.Winter@exeter.ac.uk [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Lange, Anke, E-mail: A.Lange@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Cumming, Rob, E-mail: Rob.Cumming@astrazeneca.com [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Owen, Stewart F., E-mail: Stewart.Owen@astrazeneca.com [AstraZeneca Global Environment, Brixham Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Charles R., E-mail: C.R.Tyler@exeter.ac.uk [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • CFA appears to have a low propensity to bioconcentrate and has a plasma half-life of <4 days in carp. • CFA increases levels of mRNA of a number of genes known to be regulated by PPARα in mammals. • PPARα activation changes levels of mRNA of genes involved with several detoxification/ biotransformation system components in carp. • CFA alters levels of mRNA and activity of the inducible β-oxidation pathway enzyme Acox1, a known indicator of peroxisome proliferator exposure. - Abstract: In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA

  17. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPARα-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CFA appears to have a low propensity to bioconcentrate and has a plasma half-life of <4 days in carp. • CFA increases levels of mRNA of a number of genes known to be regulated by PPARα in mammals. • PPARα activation changes levels of mRNA of genes involved with several detoxification/ biotransformation system components in carp. • CFA alters levels of mRNA and activity of the inducible β-oxidation pathway enzyme Acox1, a known indicator of peroxisome proliferator exposure. - Abstract: In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPARα ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 μg/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPARα target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPARα in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA

  18. The influence of stocking density on the growth of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in a recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Ionica Enache; Victor Cristea; Tudor Ionescu; Săndita Ion

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents some aspects regarding the influence of stocking density on the breeding of the common carp in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). The experiment covered a 30 dayperiod. It was conducted in four aquaculture tanks, 500 L/tank, in the recirculating aquaculture pilot system of “Dunarea de Jos” University of Galați. Two kind of stocking density variants were compared: 64 kg/m3 in V1 (B1, B3) and 32 kg/m3 in V2 (B2, B4). The stocking density was: 491 fish in B1, avera...

  19. Assessment of the effect of temperature on the carp physiology (Cyprinus carpio, L., 1758 fed with probiotics in condition of a recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BOCIOC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the effect of temperature on the physiology of the carp, special attention was awarded to leukograma and absolute number of leukocytes of carp blood. Body's reaction to stress factors action involves physiological changes, including changes in blood composition and immune mechanisms. The hematological analysis has been effectuated in the experiment that took place during 60 days, in four breeding units of 500 litters in volume each. Four kinds of variants were compared: V1-pellets with 30% crude protein, without probiotics; V2-pellets with 30% crude protein, with probiotics of 2.24×109 CFU/kg food; V3-pellets with 30% crude protein, with probiotics of 3.84×109 CFU/kg food; and V4-pellets with 30% crude protein, with probiotics of 7.04×109 CFU/kg food. We used BioPlus®2B probiotics (a mixture of Bacillus licheniformis (DSM 5749 and Bacillus subtilis (DSM 5750. The microscopic examination of blood smears, which were coloured with May-Grunewald Giemsa panoptic method (both at the beginning and at the end of each experimental stage, we found that lymphocytes were predominant in comparison with other types of leukocytes, the absolute number being: V1 73.3 – 85.9%; V2 65.3 – 84.7%; V3 67.0 – 87.5%; V4 71.3 – 88.3%. It was noticed that eosinophilic granulocytes and basophils from the fish blood, were presented in a low number (0.1–0.8%, (0.2 – 0.4% respectively, also at the beginning of the experiment and in the end of the two phases. The glucose concentration in blood registered higher values, across to normal values reported by literature for carp, also in control group (V1 – 101.8 mg/dl as well as variants with different concentrations of probiotic (V2 – 104.6 mg/dl, V3 – 102.2 mg/dl, V4 – 116.2 mg/dl. The mean values of protein level were in the normal limits for carp, between 3.9 g/dl and 4.9 g/dl, aspect which suggests that fish present a normal physiological condition. In conclusion, probiotics can

  20. Comparaison de populations de carpe commune (Cyprinus carpio à taille commerciale : intérêt d'une approche globale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA V.

    1999-07-01

    Une discrimination géographique des populations est possible mais elle repose sur une approche globale intégrant l'ensemble des paramètres. Les différences semblent essentiellement liées aux conditions environnementales et permettent de distinguer les lots issus des régions où l'élevage est plus intensif et traditionnellement centré sur la carpe (Dombes, Forez, Lorraine et les lots correspondant à un élevage plus extensif et davantage orienté vers le marché du repeuplement (Allier, Brenne, Poitou-Charentes.

  1. Cloning and expression analysis in mature individuals of two chicken type-Ⅱ GnRH (cGnRH-Ⅱ) genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuangfei; HU Wei; WANG Yaping; ZHU Zuoyan

    2004-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone(GnRH)is a conservative neurodecapeptide family,which plays a crucial role in regulating the gonad development and in controlling the final sexual maturation in vertebrate.Two differing cGnRH-Ⅱ cDNAs of common carp,namely cGnRH-Ⅱ cDNA1 and cDNA2,were firstly cloned from the brain by rapid amplification of cDNA end(RACE)and reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).The length of cGnRH-Ⅱ cDNA1 and cDNA2 was 622 and 578 base pairs(bp),respectively.The cGnRH-Ⅱ precursors encoded by two cDNAs consisted of 86 amino acids,including a signal peptide,cGnRH-Ⅱ decapeptide and a GnRH-associated peptide(GAP)linked by a Gly-Lys-Arg proteolytic site.The results of intron trapping and Southern blot showed that two differing cGnRH-Ⅱ genes in common carp genome were further identified,and that two genes might exist as a single copy.The multi-gene coding of common carp cGnRH-Ⅱ gene offered novel evidence for gene duplication hypothesis.Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR,expression and relative expression levels of cGnRH-Ⅱ genes were detected in five dissected brain regions,pituitary and gonad of common carp.With the exception of no mRNA2 in ovary,two cGnRH-Ⅱ genes could be expressed in all the detected tissues.However,expression levels showed an apparent difference in different brain regions,pituitary and gonad.According to the expression characterization of cGnRH-Ⅱ genes in brain areas,it was presumed that cGnRH-Ⅱ might mainly work as the neurotransmitter and neuromodulator and also operate in the regulation for the GnRH releasing.Then,the expression of cGnRH-Ⅱ genes in pituitary and gonad suggested that cGnRH-Ⅱ might act as the autocrine or paracrine regulator.

  2. 虾青素对锦鲤血液及抗氧化指标的影响%Effect of dietary axtaxanthin on hematic and immune parameters of Ornamental Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔培; 刘芳; 杨广; 姜志强

    2013-01-01

    The study was to reasearch effects of dietary axtaxanthin on body pigmentation and growth of ommmental carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (initial mean body weight:7.31±0.12).Fish was fed with different axtaxanthin dosage (0,100,400、700、1 000、1 300、1 600 mg· kg-1) and fed to apparent satiety to these groups of 10 fishes for 60 days.The results showed that the numbers of red cells and the hemoglobin content were increased significantly for feeding 700-1 600 mg· kg-1 axtaxanthin while no effects on ALT.The GLU increased obviously in the 700 mg·kg-1 group and the activity of AKP was significantly higher than that in control group.The activity of SOD in X2 group was lower obviously than that in control and other groups except X1 group.No significant effects on LDH and CAT.The results showed that dietary astaxanthin was effective in improving immunity of ommmental carp and the recommended dietary dosage was 700 mg·kg-1.%以初始体重为(7.31±0.12)g的红白锦鲤幼鱼为试验对象,研究虾青素不同添加量(0、100、400、700、1 000、1 300、1 600 mg· kg-1)对锦鲤血液和免疫指标的影响.每组设3个平行,每个平行饲养10尾鱼,表现饱食投喂60d.结果表明,在饲料中添加700~1 600 mg·kg-1 (X3~X6组)虾青素,可显著提高锦鲤血红蛋白含量和红细胞数,在此范围对谷丙转氨酶(ALT)活力无显著影响,添加700 mg·kg-1 (X3组)虾青素,可以显著提高锦鲤血糖(GLU)含量,同时,碱性磷酸酶(AKP)活性显著高于对照组.超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力在虾青素添加量为400 mg· kg-1(X2组)时,显著低于对照组和除100 mg·kg-1(X1组)外的其他试验组(P<0.05).添加虾青素没有对锦鲤乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)产生影响.上述研究说明,在饲料中添加虾青素可提高锦鲤免疫功能,综合经济效益角度建议,饲料中虾青素的适宜添加量为700 mg·kg-1.

  3. Reliability of non-lethal assessment methods of body composition and energetic status exemplified by applications to eel (Anguilla anguilla) and carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    ),bioelectric impedance-based assessments of body composition (BIA), and microwave-based “fat” meters(FM). Previous studies have revealed mixed findings as to the reliability of each of these. We compared theperformance of Kn, BIA and FM at different temperatures to predict energetic status of the whole bodiesof live eel...... mass as an index of energetic status of a fish. FM readings were found to predict relative dry mass ofwhole body in eel (R2= 0.707) and carp (R2= 0.676), and dorsal white muscle of carp (R2= 0.814) well. Bycontrast, BIA measurements and Knwere much less suited to identify variation in relative dry mass....... BIA-based models were also temperature-dependent. As a result, a regression model calibrated at 10◦C andapplied to BIA measurements at 20◦C was found to underestimate energetic status of a fish. By contrast,no effects of temperature on FM calibration results were found. Based on our study, the FM...

  4. Comparative study on effects of dietary with diphenyl diselenide on oxidative stress in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver catfish (Rhamdia sp.) exposed to herbicide clomazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Toni, Cândida; Santi, Adriana; Lópes, Thais; Barbosa, Nilda Berenice Vargas; Neto, João Radünz; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2013-09-01

    The study investigated the capacity of diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] (3.0mg/kg), on reduce the oxidative damage in liver, gills and muscle of carp and silver catfish exposed to clomazone (192h). Silver catfish exposed to clomazone showed increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) in liver and muscle and protein carbonyl in liver and gills. Furthermore, clomazone in silver catfish decrease non-protein thiols (NPSH) in liver and gills and glutathione peroxidase and ascorbic acid in liver. (PhSe)2 reversed the effects caused by clomazone in silver catfish, preventing increases in TBARS and protein carbonyl. Moreover, NPSH and ascorbic acid were increased by values near control. The results suggest that (PhSe)2 attenuated the oxidative damage induced by clomazone in silver catfish. The clomazone no caused an apparent situation of oxidative stress in carp, showing that this species is more resistant to this toxicant. Altogether, the containing (PhSe)2 diet helps fish to increase antioxidants defenses.

  5. Identification of Citrobacter freundii from Ornamental CarpCyprinus carpio L. )%锦鲤弗氏柠檬酸杆菌的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翠珍; 房海; 葛慕湘; 王秀云

    2011-01-01

    对从病死锦鲤(cyprinuscarpioL.)肝组织中分离的2株菌(编号:HC050630B-1,HC050630B-2)进行了形态特征、主要理化特性、对健康鲤鱼的致病作用、药物敏感性等方面的检验;同时测定了HCOS0630B-1株菌的16SrRNA基因序列,构建了系统发育树。结果表明,2株被检菌为弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter加吼蒯),对健康鲤鱼有致病作用;所测菌株的16SrRNA基因序列长度1458bp,在GenBank中登录号为EF669481,该菌株16SrRNA基因序列与GenBank数据库中柠檬酸杆菌属细菌的16SrRNA基因序列同源性在99%;药敏试验结果显示,对供试的头孢噻肟等21种药物呈现高度敏感或敏感,对头孢唑啉等5种呈低度敏感,对四环素等11种耐药。%Two strains ( HC050630B-1 ,HC050630B-2) isolated from the liver of diseased ( or dead) ornamen- tal carp were examined,including their morphological characteristics,physiological and biochemical character- istics ,pathogenicity to healthy carp and antibiotic sensitivity. In addition,the 16S rRNA gene of HC050630B-1 were sequenced,and molecular phylogenetic tree was constructed. The results showed that the two examined strains were identified as Citrobacter freundii, and had strong pathogenicity to healthy carp. The length of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of examined strain is 1 458 bp. Its database accession numbers in NCBI is EF669481 ,and the similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of examined strain with the 16S rRNA gene of Citrobacter from GenBank database is 99%. The antibiotic sensitivity using 37 antimicrobial agents showed that isolates were high sensitive or sensitive to 21 agents including cefotaxime, slight sensitive to 5 agents including cefazolin, and resistant to 11 agents including tetrecycline.

  6. Molecular cloning, immunohistochemical localization, characterization and expression analysis of caspase-9 from the purse red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dian; Xu, Zhen’e [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyan [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Wang, Hongmei [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Wang, Yannan [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Min, Weiping, E-mail: weiping.min@gmail.com [Medical College of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Institute of Immunotherapy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Jiangxi Academy of Medical Sciences, Nanchang 330006 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •The cDNA of caspase-9 in common carp was cloned. •The evolutionary conservation including caspase recruitment domain, large and small subunits was clarified. •The mRNA level of caspase-9 cannot be used as a major marker at an earlier point in the apoptotic cascade. •Caspase-9 cleavage form was detected. •Immunopositive staining was limited to the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells. -- Abstract: Caspase-9, the essential initiator caspase is believed to play a central role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signaling. In this study, we isolated the caspase-9 gene from common carp, one of the most important industrial aquatic animals in China using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid sequence of caspase-9, composed of 436 amino acids, showed approximately 47.6% identity and 64.7% similarity to human caspase-9. It also possessed a conserved caspase-associated recruitment domain (CARD), a large subunit and a small subunit. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that caspase-9 formed a clade with cyprinid fish caspase-9. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that caspase-9 transcripts were not significantly increased in kidney after exposure to cadmium (Cd). Whereas caspase-9 cleaved fragments were detected using Western blot analysis with the same Cd treatment condition. Furthermore, the result of immunohistochemical detection showed immunoreactivities were predominantly limited to the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and no remarkable changes of immunopositive staining were observed after Cd treatment. Accordingly, the results signify that caspase-9 may play an essential role in Cd induced apoptosis.

  7. Impact of acute Cd²⁺ exposure on the antioxidant defence systems in the skin and red blood cells of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, Ágnes; Hermesz, Edit

    2015-05-01

    Cd(2+)-induced oxidative stress and its effects on the expression of stress biomarkers and on macromolecule damage in the skin and blood of common carp were studied. Both tissues play important roles in the defence mechanisms against external hazards, serving as an anatomical barrier and as connecting tissue between the organs. In the skin, the production of peroxynitrite anion and hydrogen peroxide was almost doubled after exposure to 10 mg/L Cd(2+). The accumulation of these oxidant molecules suggests an intensive production of superoxide anion and nitrogen monoxide and the development of oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. Although the metallothioneins and the components of the glutathione redox system were activated in the skin, the accumulation of reactive intermediates led to the enhanced damage of lipid molecules after 24 h of metal exposure. In the blood, the basal levels of metallothionein messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were 2-2.5-fold of that measured in the skin. This high level of metallothionein expression could be the reason that the blood was less affected by an acute Cd(2+) challenge and the metallothionein and glutathione systems were not activated.

  8. The effect of temperature on carp (Cyprinus Carpio, L., 1758 microbiota, reared in intensive conditions, by using the BioPlus® 2B probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA BOCIOC

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 60-days experimental trial was conducted to examine the influence of probiotic BioPlus® 2B, in different concentration, on the gut microbial load and the organic load of technological water used for carp growth, in low water temperature (13.5-16.8 0C conditions. Four variants were tested, as follows: V1-pellets with 30% crude protein, without probiotics; V2-pellets with 30% crude protein, with probiotics of 2.24×109 CFU/kg food; V3-pellets with 30% crude protein, with probiotics of 3.84×109 CFU/kg food; and V4-pellets with 30% crude protein, with probiotics of 7.04×109 CFU/kg food. BioPlus® 2B probiotics (a mixture of Bacillus licheniformis (DSM 5749 and Bacillus subtilis (DSM 5750 were used. In order to determine the total number of germs (NTG, microbiological analyses were made. As a result, it can be stated that during the first experimental stage, gut microbial load had registered a significant increase (p <0.05 compared to the initial values (from the 1×10-5 CFU/g dilution to the1×10-7 CFU/g dilution in case of all fish samples corresponding to the variants where different concentrations of probiotic were administered. The results obtained from the microbial water load evaluation, that corresponds to each experimental variant, shows that the control variant (V1 has a lower average microbial water load (4.1 × 10-3 CFU/ml, compared with other experimental variants V3 (8.6 × 10-3 CFU/ml and V4 (7.6 × 10-3 CFU/ml, where feed with different concentrations of probiotic was administered. In conclusion, the total number of germs (NTG in experimental variants with different concentrations of probiotic, initially showed an upward trend compared to the control variant, with a higher load in case of V4 variant, where the highest concentration of probiotic was administrated. The reduced microbial load that appeared at the end of the experimental period is justified by the inhibitory action of temperature, seen as an interference factor.

  9. 类胡萝卜素在锦鲤组织器官中的沉积与分布%Deposition and distribution of carotenoids in different tissues of ornamental carp Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜志强; 崔培; 秦强; 刘芳; 高小强; 田青杰; 周小龙

    2012-01-01

    在6个90L蓝色方形水槽中各放养22尾锦鲤Cyprinus carpio幼鱼,初始体质量为(7.31±0.12)g,在水温相同的环境条件下先用添加虾青素(130 mg/kg)和螺旋藻(质量分数为12%)2组饲料饲喂21 d,再用没有添加虾青素和螺旋藻的基础饲料饲喂20 d,每个试验组设3个平行,研究了虾青素和螺旋藻对锦鲤各组织器官中类胡萝卜素含量的影响以及在锦鲤各组织器官中的代谢途径.结果表明:投喂添加着色剂的饲料后,锦鲤各组织器官中的类胡萝卜素含量均随投喂时间的延长而升高;类胡萝卜素在锦鲤各组织器官中的含量从高至低依次为皮肤>鳍>肝胰脏>眼>肌肉,皮肤和鱼鳍是锦鲤色素沉积的主要部位;锦鲤的眼、肌肉、肝胰脏中色素的沉积随着饲养时间的延长变化不显著,而锦鲤的背鳍、尾鳍和皮肤随饲养时间的延长变化较显著;停喂添加着色剂的饲料后,锦鲤各组织器官中的类胡萝卜素含量均随停喂时间的延长而降低.以虾青素作为着色剂时,锦鲤体表类胡萝卜素含量于饲喂第9天开始显著升高;而以螺旋藻为着色剂时,锦鲤体表类胡萝卜素含量于饲喂第13天开始显著升高,锦鲤对虾青素的沉积速度比螺旋藻快.%A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary astaxanthin and Spirulina on the carote noids contents and the metabolic pathways in different tissues of ornmmental carp Cyprinus carpio with initial body weight of (7.31±0.12) g. The fish were stocked into 90 L blue plastic tanks at a rate of 22 individuals/tank and fed the diets containing astaxanthin (130 mg/kg) and Spirulina( 12% ) for 21 days, and then fed the diet without astaxanthin and Spirulina for 20 days. The results showed that the carotenoid contents in different tissues of the fish were found to increase with increase in feeding period. The total deposition of the carotenoid content was mainly concentrated in

  10. 鲤病原鳗利斯顿氏菌的分离鉴定及生物学特性研究%Study on biological characteristics of pathogenic Listonella anguillarum isolated from carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓君; 阎斌伦; 邴旭文; 毕可然; 秦蕾; 秦国民

    2009-01-01

    Dominant bacteria were isolated from diseased carp, and have strong pathogenicity to carp by artificial challenge. The biological characteristics were examined, including morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics; the 16S rRNA and gyrB gene were partially sequenced and compared with sequences deposited in databases, then the molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed. The sequenced 16S rRNA gene of isolate (GenBank accession No. FJ824662) was 1449 bp in length, the sequenced gyrB gene of isolate (GenBank accession No.GQ452957) was 1202 bp in length, and two genes all exhibited high similarity (over 97%) with the 16S rRNA and gyrB gene of Listonella anguilla-rum from GenBank database, respectively. Detection of the activity of extracellulase and hemolysin showed that the isolate could produced diastase, proteinase, DNase, lecithinase and haemolysin, but no lipase, with p-haemolysis in containing 7% defibrinated rabbit blood agar plates, and 4 isolates could be amplified hemolysin gene and metalloprotease gene. The results revealed that the identified strains belonged to Languillnrum of Listonella ( MacDonell and Colwell 1986) based on their phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Drug resistance of the isolate to 49 antimicrobial agents were detected, the results showed that isolates were resistant to 12 agents including penicillin G; were sensitive to 5 agents including clindamycin; were high sensitive to 32 agents including enoxacin.%从患病鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)体内分离到一株优势生长菌,人工感染试验证明该菌对鲤有较强的致病性.对分离菌进行了形态特征、理化特性等生物学性状检验;测定了分离菌的16S rRNA和gyrB基因的部分序列,并与相关细菌16S rRNA和gyrB基因序列进行比对后,构建了基于两种基因的系统发生树.结果显示:分离菌所扩增的16S rRNA和gyrB基因序列与GenBank数据库中鳗利斯顿氏菌的16S rRNA和gyrB基因序列相似性均在97%

  11. Molecular cloning of the obese gene from Cyprinus carpio and its expression in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Hanchuan; Long Liangqi; Ding Guang

    2006-01-01

    Aiming to analyze the characteristics of the Cyprinus carpio obese gene structure and the biological activity of its expression product,we amplified the carp obese gene using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from carp mesentery adipose tissue RNA.Sequence analysis revealed that it has a length of 438 nt,which encodes a 146-amino acid peptide.When nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence were compared with homologous sequences from those of humans,pigs,and rats,they displayed a fairly high degree of conservation (the homology of the nucleotide sequence was 84%,86%,and 95%,respectively,while that of the amino acid sequence was 84%,82%,and 96%,respectively,for humans,pigs,and rats).The cDNA fragment was inserted into the expression vector pET-28a,and the resulting plasmid was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) by isopropylthiogalactoside induction.Resuits of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that a fusion protein was specifically expressed in E.coli BL21 (DE3).The weight of the fusion protein was about 20 kDa,and a 16-kDa protein was expressed from the carp obese gene.By gel thin-layer scanning analysis,the amount of target protein was determined to be about 20%.The purified product was found to be biologically active and to reduce the food intake and body weight of mice during tests.

  12. Identification and characterization of a LTR retrotransposon from the genome of Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liping; Yin, Guojun; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Ding, Weidong

    2016-06-01

    A Ty3/gypsy-retrotransposon-type transposon was found in the genome of the Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in a previous study (unpublished), and was designated a JRE retrotransposon (Jian retrotransposon). The full-length JRE retrotransposon is 5126 bp, which includes two long terminal repeats of 470 bp at the 5' end and 453 bp at the 3' end, and two open reading frames between them: 4203 bp encoding the group-specific antigen (GAG) and polyprotein (POL). The pol gene has a typical Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon structure, and the gene order is protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase (PR-RT-RH-IN). A phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene showed that it has similarities of 40.7, 40, and 32.8 %, to retrotransposons of Azumapecten farreri, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, and Xiphophorus maculatus, respectively. Therefore, JRE might belong to the JULE retrotransposon family. The copy number of the JRE transposon in the genome of the Jian carp is 124, determined with real-time quantitative PCR. The mRNA of the JRE retrotransposon is expressed in five Jian carp tissues, the liver, kidney, blood, muscle, and gonad, and slightly higher in the kidney and liver than in the other tissues.

  13. Organophosphorous residue in Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansoreh Shayeghi; Mehdi Khoobdel; Fatemeh Bagheri; Mohammad Abtahi; Hojjatollah Zeraati

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the amount of azinphos methyl and diazinon residues in two river fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, in the north of Iran. Methods: This study was done during 2006-2007. In this survey, 152 water and fish samples from Gorgan and Qarasu rivers, north of Iran, were investigated. Sampling was done in three predetermined stations along each river. Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) were extracted from the fishes and the water of rivers. After extraction, purification and concentration processes, the amount and type of insecticides in water and fish samples were determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Results:There was a significant difference in the residue of the insecticides in the water and fish samples between summer and other seasons in the two rivers. The highest amount of insecticides residue was seen during summer. In both rivers, the amount of diazinon and azinphos methyl residues in the two fishes was more than 2 000 mg/L in summer. There was no significant difference in insecticides residue between the fishes in two rivers. The diazinon residue was higher than the standard limits in both rivers during the spring and the summer, but the residual amount of azinphos methyl was higher than the standard limits only during the summer and only in Qarasu River. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the amount of OPs in the water and the two fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, is higher than the permitted levels.

  14. Metal levels in Trachurus trachurus and Cyprinus carpio in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mehmet; Bal, Tulin; Yaman, Ibrahim H

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of five toxic metals were determined in two fish species from Turkish cities during 2010-2011. The obtained lead concentrations for all of the studied Trachurus trachurus (mean 777 μg kg(-1)) and Cyprinus carpio (mean 439 μg kg(-1)) samples were found to be higher than the maximum level (ML) of 300 μg kg(-1), while Cd concentrations in the same samples were lower than the ML. Mean chromium (501 μg kg(-1)), Ni (272 μg kg(-1)) and Cu (785 μg kg(-1)) concentrations in T. trachurus were significantly higher than in C. carpio (336 μg Cr kg(-1), 229 μg Ni kg(-1) and 394 μg Cu kg(-1)), similar to those of Pb and Cd. Measured Pb concentrations in T. trachurus tissues are significantly higher than the ML, while those of Cd in both T. trachurus and C. carpio species were lower than the ML values.

  15. Manejo de microembalses para el cultivo extensivo de carpa común (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 en la región de Zacapu, Michoacán, México Water basins management for extensive aquaculture of common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 in the region of Zacapu, Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bel Huipe-Ramos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio aporta, mediante pruebas experimentales, una estimación de la capacidad de carga de los microembalses de la región de Zacapu, Michoacán para ser utilizada en la acuicultura extensiva y semintensiva de carpa común (Cyprinus carpió. Un análisis factorial (3 × 3 con tres densidades (D B = 0.5 org. · m-2, D M = 1 org. · m-2 y D A = 2 orgs. · m-2 y tres regímenes de alimentación (R0= sin fertilizar o con el alimento natural, R F= con fertilización y R+= suplementada con subproductos agrícolas incluyó nueve tratamientos combinados entre densidades y regímenes alimenticios con tres réplicas en cada caso. La combinación de baja densidad y alimentación natural, análoga a una acuicultura extensiva en microembalses, alcanzó un rendimiento máximo equivalente a 5,000 orgs.· ha-1 . Pruebas empíricas realizadas a la par en siete microembalses temporales (This study provides an assessment of the carrying capacity of water bodies in the area of Zacapu, Michoacan for extensive and semintensive aquaculture with carp (Cyprinus carpió by means of experimental trials in 27 ponds. A 3 × 3 factorial analysis with three densities (D B = 0.5 org. · m-2, D M=1 org. · m-2 and D A= 2 orgs. · m-2 and three feeding regimes (R0 = without fertilization, R F = fertilization and R+ = farming by-products included nine combined treatments between densities and feeding regimes with three replicates for each case. The combination of low density and natural food, analog to an extensive aquaculture in small water reservoirs, attained a maximum yield equivalent to 5,000 orgs.· ha-1 . Empirical trials accomplished at seven temporary basins (<10 ha under conditions of different stocking densities from 1,500 to 6,000 orgs.· ha-1 lead to fairly similar yields to those obtained in the ponds. Thus, the general index used in Mexico for extensive aquaculture of 1 org. · m² overloads the regional temporary ecosystems and only the possibility

  16. Proteomic analysis of hepatic tissue of Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlin Jiang

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of industry and agriculture and associated pollution, the cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu have become a major threat to aquatic wildlife and human health. In this study, the ecotoxicological effects of cyanobacterial blooms on cage-cultured carp (Cyprinus carpio L. in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were investigated. Microcystins (MCs, major cyanobacterial toxins, have been detected in carp cultured at different experimental sites of Meiliang Bay. We observed that the accumulation of MCs in carp was closely associated with several environmental factors, including temperature, pH value, and density of cyanobacterial blooms. The proteomic profile of carp liver exposed to cyanobacterial blooms was analyzed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry. The toxic effects of cyanobacterial blooms on carp liver were similar to changes caused by MCs. MCs were transported into liver cells and induced the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. MCs and ROS inhibited protein phosphatase and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH, directly or indirectly resulting in oxidative stress and disruption of the cytoskeleton. These effects further interfered with metabolic pathways in the liver through the regulation of series of related proteins. The results of this study indicated that cyanobacterial blooms pose a major threat to aquatic wildlife in Meiliang Bay in Lake Taihu. These results provided evidence of the molecular mechanisms underlying liver damage in carp exposed to cyanobacterial blooms.

  17. Vitellogenin induction in Cyprinus carpio treated with 17 {beta} Estradiol and 4-Nonylphenol; Induzione della vitellogenina in esemplari di Cyprinus carpio trattati sperimentalmetne con 17 {beta} Estradiolo e 4-Nonilfenolo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, S. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali; Fossi, M. C. [Messina Univ., Messina (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale ed Ecologia Marina; Mori, G. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali; Bjornstad, A. [Rogaland Research, Stavanger (Norway)

    2001-01-01

    A major problem of freshwater environments is the massive discharge of surfactants such as alkylphenols that have been shown to have estrogenic activity. One marker of the effects of estrogenic compounds is induction of vitellogenin (Vtg), a yolk protein precursor of lower viviparous vertebrates. The aim of the present study was to validate induction of Vtg in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a biomarker for monitoring freshwater ecosystems. Sexually undifferentiated specimens of common carp were treated experimentally with 17 {beta},-Estradiol and increasing doses of 4-Nonylphenol and levels plasma Vtg were measured in order to: 1) validate an E.L.I.S.A. assay for plasma Vtg in the common carp using the polyclonal rabbit anti-salmon Vtg antibody; 2) check the sensitivity of carp juveniles in producing Vtg in response to estrogen stimulation. [Italian] Uno dei maggiori problemi legati alla salute degli ecosistemi acquatici e' la presenza di composti di sintesi con attivita' estrogenica quali, ad esempio, gli alchilfenoli polietossilati. Tra i piu' interessanti strumenti di indagine capaci di individuare gli effetti di tali composti sulle comunita' naturali c'e' l'induzione, nei vertebrati ovipari, della vitellogenina (Vtg; proteina precursore delle proteine del tuorlo) un importante biomarker specifico di effetto per composti estrogenici. Lo scopo del presente studio e' stato quello di validare l'induzione della Vtg nella carpa comune (Cyprinus carpio) come biomarker per il monitoraggio degli ecosistemi acquatici interni. Esemplari sessualmente immaturi di carpa comune sono stati trattati sperimentalmente con 17 {beta}, -Estradiolo e dosi crescenti di 4-Nonilfenolo al fine di: 1) mettere a punto il test E.L.I.S.A. per la valutazione dei livelli plasmatici di Vtg nella carpa utilizzando l'anticopro policlonale Rabbit anti Salmon Vtg; 2) verificare le capacita' di risposta a stimoli estrogenici nella specie

  18. Common Carp Abundance, Biomass, and Removal from Dewey and Clear Lakes on the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Does Trapping and Removing Carp Payoff?

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a nonnative invasive nuisance species to North America. Many authors have documented the detrimental affects of common carp invasions...

  19. Genetic diversity of Cyprinus carpio from Ohrid Lake, estimated by four microsatellite loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADIOLA BIBA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L is an important fish species of Ohrid lake. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of common carp using microsatellite markers. A total of 30 individuals were genotyped for 4 microsatellite loci (MFW1, MFW6, MFW7, MFW18. All the microsatellite loci were polymorphic. A total of 84 alleles were distinguished. The allelic number varied from 19 to 23 with mean allelic number of 21. The effective number of alleles varied from 9.92 to 11.84 with a mean of 11.66. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.32 to 0.73 with mean value of 0.57. The loci were highly informative. The PIC values ranged from 0.89 to 0.91 with mean of 0.90. The values of Shannon information index (I ranges from 2.63 to 2.78. The population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE for all of four loci. The mean expected heterosygosity value (0.91 was higher the mean observed heterosygosity (0.57. The mean fixation index (F over the loci was 0.37. A bottleneck analysis is carried out, which shows no recent bottleneck. Factorial Correspondence Analysis (FCA shows a close relationship between individuals.

  20. Mass mortality in ornamental fish, Cyprinus carpio koi caused by a bacterial pathogen, Proteus hauseri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Swaminathan, T Raja; Kumar, Rahul G; Dharmaratnam, Arathi; Basheer, V S; Jena, J K

    2015-09-01

    Moribund koi carp, Cyprinus carpio koi, from a farm with 50% cumulative mortality were sampled with the aim of isolating and detecting the causative agent. Three bacterial species viz., Citrobacter freundii (NSCF-1), Klebsiella pneumoniae (NSKP-1) and Proteus hauseri [genomospecies 3 of Proteus vulgaris Bio group 3] (NSPH-1) were isolated, identified and characterized on the basis of biochemical tests and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene using universal bacterial primers. Challenge experiments with these isolates using healthy koi carp showed that P. hauseri induced identical clinical and pathological states within 3 d of intramuscular injection. The results suggest P. hauseri (NSPH-1) was the causative agent. In phylogenetic analysis, strain NSPH-1 formed a distinct cluster with other P. hauseri reference strains with ≥99% sequence similarity. P. hauseri isolates were found sensitive to Ampicillin, Cefalexin, Ciprofloxacin and Cefixime and resistant to Gentamycin, Oxytetracycline, Chloramphenicol, and Kanamycin. The affected fish recovered from the infection after ciprofloxacin treatment. PMID:26028178

  1. Toxicity of uranium and plutonium to the developing embryos of fish. [Cyprinus carpio, Pimephales promelas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, J.E.; Kaye, S.V.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1976-07-01

    The radiological and chemical toxicity of plutonium and uranium to the developing embryos of fish was investigated using eggs from carp, Cyprinus carpio, and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas. Freshly fertilized eggs were developed in solutions containing high specific activity /sup 238/Pu or /sup 232/U or low specific activity /sup 244/Pu, /sup 235/U, or /sup 238/U. Quantitative tests to determine the penetration of these elements through the chorion indicated that plutonium accumulated in the contents of carp eggs reaching a maximum concentration factor of approximately 3.0 at hatching. Autoradiographs of 16 ..mu.. egg sections showed that plutonium was uniformly distributed in the egg volume. Uranium localized in the yolk material, and the concentration factor in the yolk sac remained constant during development at approximately 3.3. Doses from /sup 238/Pu which affected hatchability of the eggs were estimated to be 1.6 x 10/sup 4/ rads and 9.7 x 10/sup 3/ rads for C. carpio and P. promelas, respectively; doses from /sup 232/U were 1.3 x 10/sup 4/ rads for C. carpio and 2.7 x 10/sup 3/ rads for P. promelas. A greater number of abnormal larvae than in control groups was produced by /sup 238/Pu doses of 4.3 x 10/sup 3/ rads to carp and 5.7 x 10/sup 2/ rads to fathead minnows; 3.2 x 10/sup 3/ rads and 2.7 x 10/sup 2/ rads were estimated from /sup 232/U. Eggs that were incubated in 20 ppM /sup 244/Pu did not hatch. This mortality may have been the result of chemical toxicity of plutonium. Concentrations of 60 ppM of /sup 235/U and /sup 238/U did not affect egg hatching. Based on these data, concentrations in fish eggs were calculated for representative concentrations of uranium and plutonium in natural waters and the corresponding dose levels are below those levels at which observable effects begin to occur.

  2. Toxicological effects of ammonia on gills of Cyprinus carpio var. communis (Linn.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Senthamilselvan Devaraj; Chezhian Arulprakasam; Arul Pandian Kandhan; Kabilan Neelamegam; Rajalakshmi Kalaiselvan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To monitor the response of gills of Cyprinus carpio var. communis to LC50 levels of ammonia over a period of 96 h by bath exposure, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: Cyprinus carpio procured from a local fish farm in Vadalore, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India were acclimatized under laboratory conditions for 20 d. Fish were placed into experimental tanks with 20 L of water and 22 mg/L ammonia. A total of 10 fish were collected from each experimental tank every 24 h for histopathological studies. Results:Histopathological studies showed these changes in the gills:secondary lamellar fusion, haemorrhage, oedema, epithelial hyperplasia, and chloride cell proliferation. Occasionally, multifocal necrosis of inter-lamellar regions of gill filaments but with no apparent haemorrhage was observed under electron microscopy. Conclusion:The present study shows that histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in gills are useful indicators for ammonia toxicity in Cyprinus carpio.

  3. 鱼肉酶解物及壳聚糖对鲤鱼涂膜保鲜效果的研究%Effect of hydrolysate of fish flesh and chitosan on coating preservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio ) with shelf life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王航; 罗永康; 胡素梅; 陆伟

    2012-01-01

    以感官评分、挥发性盐基氮、菌落总数、K值为指标,研究比较了鱼肉酶解物和壳聚糖为原料的涂膜液对鲤(Cyprinus carpio)(4℃)冷藏过程中品质变化的影响.结果显示:贮藏期间,对照组的感官评分显著低于各涂膜组(P<0.05).贮藏前8d,涂膜组能够显著抑制K值的升高(P<0.05).鱼肉酶解物和壳聚糖涂膜组均能够显著抑制细菌的生长,而贮藏2~6d内鱼肉酶解物涂膜鲤鱼的菌落总数显著低于壳聚糖涂膜组(P<0.05).贮藏后期,鱼肉酶解物组能延缓TVB-N值的升高,壳聚糖涂膜组能够显著抑制TVB-N值的升高(P<0.05).鱼肉酶解物可作为一种新的可食性涂膜材料,用于延长鲤鱼的贮藏期.%The sensory scores, total bacteria count, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) and the K value were used to e-valuate the quality of common carp during cold storage (4 ℃ ) , and the different effects were compared between the groups which were coated with hydrolysate of fish flesh and chitosan. During storage, sensory scores of the control group was significantly lower than the film groups ( P < 0. 05 ). In the first eight days, the film groups restrained the growing K value significantly ( P < 0. 05 ) . Coating could effectively inhibited the increase of total bacteria count, and during 2 to 6 days, the common carp which were coated with hydrolysate of fish flesh gave lower bacteria count than chitosan ones (P < 0. 05 ) . In the post-storage, the common carp coated with hydrolysate of fish flesh could effectively slow down the increase of TVB-N, and the group coated with chitosan restrained the growing of TBV-N value significantly. The hydrolysate of fish flesh can be used as a new material of edible film to extend the shelf life.

  4. What you should know about carp: its origin, varieties, physical appearance, feeding habits

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses the different varieties of carp, their origin, physical appearance and feeding habits. The species discussed are grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

  5. 鲤耐低温候选基因CcSCD全长cDNA的克隆及功能预测%Isolation and Characterization of Full Length cDNA Sequence of A Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Gene Responding to Low Temperature from Common Carp(Cyprinus carpio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常玉梅; 徐丽华; 李世国; 唐然; 梁利群

    2012-01-01

    The gene of stearoyl-CoA Desaturase(SCD) as a rate limiting enzyme involved in desaturation of saturated fatty acids plays vital roles in maintaining membrane fluidity and is considered as a key candidate which helps to improve cold tolerance.A SCD cDNA from common carp(Cyprinus carpio)(CcSCD) brain at cooling temperature was characterized and the transcription expression profiles were examined in the common carp exposed to cold(6℃) and warm(23℃) temperatures using real time RT-PCR.A full-length CcSCD cDNA was shown to be comprised of 2618 bp,including an open reading-frame of 975 bp and deduced 324 amino acid residues.Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the SCD protein sequences of the common carp and grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella) were clustered together,sharing the highest level of similarity(88%).The quantified results showed that under cooling temperature,CcSCD transcripts were significantly up-regulated(P〈0.01),in comparison to transcripts of samples from normal temperature.The findings help to establish a transgene construction and to apply genetic manipulation to identify functions of CcSCD gene of fish during cold response in future.%硬酯酰辅酶A脱氢酶(Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase,SCD)是参与脂肪酸脱氢反应的限速酶和关键酶,此酶编码基因SCD对增加膜磷脂的不饱和脂肪酸成分,提高细胞膜在低温下的流动性发挥重要作用,可能是抗寒过程中的关键基因成员。本研究采用cDNA末端快速扩增技术(Rapid Amplifications of cDNAEnds,RACE)克隆了鲤(Cyprinus carpio)脑组织CcSCD基因的全长cDNA序列,采用实时荧光定量PCR技术检测该基因在低温(6℃)和常温(23℃)条件下的转录表达差异,对其蛋白编码序列的结构和功能进行了预测分析。结果显示,CcSCD基因cDNA全长2618bp,包含一个由324个氨基酸残基组成的长度为975bp的阅读框(ORF);蛋白分子进化树显示鲤的SCD和草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

  6. Evaluation of gamma radiation induced genetic damage in the fish Cyprinus carpio using comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides released from various sources including the industries, as well as, accidental release during a nuclear disaster can contaminate inland water bodies. Suitable bio-monitoring methods/biomarkers are the need of the day to assess the impact of high/low levels of radiation exposure in aquatic environment. Fishes are very important as a group of ecologically and commercially important non-human biota and are often used as a bioindicators of aquatic pollution. Present work was carried out to assess the genotoxic effect of gamma radiation on fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio (common carp) in vivo using comet assay. Fishes were irradiated with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy of gamma rays using a teletherapy machine and comet assay was performed on nucleated erythrocytes after 24, 48 and 72 h of irradiation . A significant increase in % tail DNA was observed at all the doses of gamma radiation as compared to controls indicating radiation induced DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum % tail DNA was observed at 24 h which gradually declined till 72 h, in a time-dependent manner. This decrease in damage may indicate repair of the damaged DNA and or loss of heavily damaged cells, over a period of time. The study reveals that the comet assay may be used as a sensitive and rapid method to detect genotoxicity of gamma radiation and other environmental pollutants in sentinel species. (author)

  7. RESPONSE OF CYPRINUS CARPIO TO PHENOL AND FURFURAL SHOCK LOADS IN PACT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesdaghinia

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment efficiency, design factors and kinetic coefficients were studied using two pilots of activated sludge (AS and powdered activated carbon technology (PACT, for treating Tehran Oil Refinery effluent, in a duration of more than 12 months In order to evaluate the performance of each system against growth inhibitor shock loads, different concentrations of phenol and furfural (10-300 mg/l were applied, following a series of experiments in which, treated effluents from the two systems were used as influent water into two aquariums containing freshwater Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio of 9-15g weight, 6-9 cm length and with a fish density of 5g/1. Results of fish fatal rates with 125 and 250-mg/l phenol were 16% and 38% for AS system and 5.6% and 8% for PACT system, respectively. Changing the growth inhibitor to furfural, with a concentration of 100 mg/I, led to the fatal rates of 100% and 0% for AS and PACT systems, respectively. Increasing furfural load to 300 mg/I destroyed only 20% of fish in PACT pilot.

  8. Detection of micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio exposed to metallic mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, J C; Ferrari, I; Spanó, M A; Centeno, A J

    1997-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio fish (carp), exposed to elemental or metallic mercury (Hg0) at concentrations of 2.0, 20.0, and 200.0 mg per liter of water, were kept in concrete tanks for 159 days. Ten fish were used for each concentration level. Thirteen samples of peripheral blood were collected from each animal through gill puncture, 12 during the first 90 days of the experiment, and the last one at the end of the experiment. The micronucleus test (MNT) was designed to study dose and time yield effects of mercury after indirect exposure in vivo. The results indicated that for a concentration of 2.0 mg Hg0/l, there was no significant increase in frequency of micronuclei (MN), but at higher concentrations (20.0 and 200.0 mg Hg0/l) there was a significant increase in MN frequencies. This effect was higher after 31 days of exposure, followed by slight stabilization and gradual decrease. PMID:9366907

  9. Herbicide clomazone effects on δ-aminolevulinic acid activity and metabolic parameters in Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Murussi, Camila; Toni, Cândida; Araújo, Maria do Carmo Santos; Farias, Iria Luiza; Perazzo, Giselle Xavier; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate δ-aminolevulinic acid (δ-ALA-D) activity and metabolic parameters of Cyprinus carpio exposed to clomazone herbicide. Fish were exposed 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of clomazone for 192 h. Results indicated that δ-ALA-D activity was decreased in the gills at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg L(-1). Liver glycogen increased, while muscle and gill glycogen levels decreased at 5, 10 and 20 mg L(-1). Glucose was increased in the gills and plasma. Lactate decreased in the gills and liver and increased in the muscle. Protein and amino acids levels increased in the liver and gills and decreased in the muscle. At a clomazone concentration of 20 mg L(-1), ammonia increased in the gills and muscle and decreased in the liver. The results indicated that the metabolic parameters of glycogen, lactate, protein and amino acids in liver, muscle and gills, blood glucose levels, and the enzyme δ-ALA-D in gills may be useful indicators of clomazone toxicity in carp.

  10. Assessment of the toxicity of waste water from a textile industry to Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopadevi, H; Somashekar, R K

    2012-03-01

    Static, short-term, acute toxicity tests were performed over a period of 96 hrs using different concentrations of influent and effluent of textile industry waste water with the objective of evaluating their acute toxicity on fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio (common carp). The LC50 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr of influent and effluent were 25.9, 21.10, 15.66, 11.11% (v/v) and 63.18, 54.89, 48.62, 36.04% (v/v), respectively. The acute toxic unit TUa values for 24, 48, 72, 96 hr for influent and effluent are 3.85, 4.73, 6.38, 8.99 and 1.58, 1.82, 2.05, 2.77, respectively. Correspondingly, the TF was found to be 1, 1.22, 1.65 and 2.33 for influent, and for effluent 1, 1.15, 1.29 and 1.75. Total efficiency of the treatment was 69.16% and the safe concentration of effluent is set to be 3.60%. These data are highly useful in establishing limits of acceptability by the aquatic animals. The need to introduce toxicity evaluation assay for confirming the quality of effluent from the point view of effective environmental safe limits and to ensure integrity of aquatic environment, is stressed. PMID:23033675

  11. 蚕蛹基础日粮中添加不同脂肪源对框鳞镜鲤生长、体成分及健康状况的影响%EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LIPID SOURCES IN THE SILKWORM PUPA-BASED DIET FOR MIRROR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO VAR. SPECULARIS) ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, BODY COMPOSITION AND HEALTH STATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小飞; 田晶晶; 吉红; 李南充; 钟雷; 方程; 刘超

    2013-01-01

    将324尾健康框鳞镜鲤Cyprinus carpio var. specularis (10.70±0.70) g随机平均分配在室内循环水养殖系统的12个养殖缸里。在蚕蛹基础饲料中分别添加2%的大豆油(SO)、菜籽油(RO)、鱼油(FO)及混合油(MIX,大豆油∶菜籽油∶鱼油=1∶1∶1),配制4组等氮(36.5%)等脂(7.0%)饲料,饲养58d后,探讨框鳞镜鲤对不同脂肪源的利用效果。结果表明:(1)大豆油组终末体重显著大于混和油组,肠长比显著大于其他各组,肥满度和肠指数显著大于鱼油组(P0.05);(3)肝胰脏和肌肉脂肪酸组成基本反映了饲料的脂肪酸组成;肝胰脏PUFA水平大豆油和菜籽油组相近,均显著高于鱼油组(P0.05);(5)组间血清T-SOD活性没有显著差异(P>0.05),大豆油组GSH-XP活性显著大于其他各组(P0.05)。综上所述,框鳞镜鲤对大豆油的利用效果最好,其次是菜籽油、鱼油和混合油利用效果较差。%A total of 324 healthy mirror carps Cyprinus carpio var. specularis [initial weight: (10.70±0.70) g] were randomly and equally distributed in 12 breeding cylinders with the indoor circulating water system. 2% soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), fish oil (FO), and mixed oil (MIX, in which soybean oil, rapeseed oil and fish oil are 1∶1∶1) were added to the silkworm pupa based diet respectively, and four groups of isonitrogenous (36.5%crude protein), and isolipidic (7%crude fat) experimental diets were formulated. They were fed to apparent satiation three times a day for 58 days, and the effects of different lipid sources on growth performance, body composition and health status were dis-cussed. The following results were concluded. Firstly, the final weight of SO group was significantly heavier than that of the MIX group (P0.05). Thirdly, fatty acids composition in hepatopancreas and muscle generally reflected the composition in the diet; polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in hepatopancreas showed similar level between fish fed SO and RO

  12. PEMBERIAN TOTAL FENOL TERIPANG PASIR (Holothuria scabra UNTUK MENINGKATKAN LEUKOSIT DAN DIFERENSIAL LEUKOSIT IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio YANG DIINFEKSI BAKTERI Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Suhermanto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishery commodities are most likely to be increased production of carp (Cyprinus carpio. Intensification of cultivation which raises new problems with fish disease outbreaks caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. Providing of immunostimulatory bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra can enhance non-specific immune responses in the goldfish as a mechanism of defense against disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the role and optimal dose of total phenols sea cucumber in enhancing non-specific immune response seen from the hematology parameters Extraction of bioactive components from sea cucumber prepared by using methanol and fractionated with ethyl acetate solvent (v/v. Identification of total phenols in ethyl acetate fraction performed using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and infrared. Total phenol produced was tested on carp with intraperitonial injection, the concentration of 0.09, 0.18 and 0.27 mg phenol/kg fish. Challenge test was done by using the Aeromonas hydrophila (107 cells/ml through the immersion method. The observations included hematological parameters and total plasma proteins.The observations of hematological parameters that Leukocytes, Neutrophils pre-and post-infection were significantly increased. Lymphocyte pre infection was increased significantly and post-bacterial infection was decreased significantly. Eosinophils, Monocytes pre-and post-bacterial infection were not differ significantly between treatment. The use of phenolic compounds at 0.09 mg / kg can be increase of non-specific immune response in carp (Cyprinus carpio. Key Words : Total phenol, Aeromonas hydrophila, Cyprinus carpio, nonspecific immune response 

  13. Effects of different inorganic arsenic species in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) tissues after short-time exposure: Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and biological responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura-Lima, Juliane [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, 60100, Ancona (Italy); Monserrat, Jose M., E-mail: josemmonserrat@pesquisador.cnpq.b [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    Differences in the toxicological and metabolic pathway of inorganic arsenic compounds are largely unknown for aquatic species. In the present study the effects of short-time and acute exposure to As{sup III} and As{sup V} were investigated in gills and liver of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), measuring accumulation and chemical speciation of arsenic, and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase omega (GST OMEGA), the rate limiting enzyme in biotransformation of inorganic arsenic. Oxidative biomarkers included antioxidant defenses (total glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), total scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and lipid peroxidation products. A marked accumulation of arsenic was observed only in gills of carps exposed to 1000 ppb As{sup V}. Also in gills, antioxidant responses were mostly modulated through a significant induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity which probably contributed to reduce ROS formation; however this increase was not sufficient to prevent lipid peroxidation. No changes in metal content were measured in liver of exposed carps, characterized by lower activity of GST OMEGA compared to gills. On the other hand, glutathione metabolism was more sensitive in liver tissue, where a significant inhibition of glutathione reductase was concomitant with increased levels of glutathione and higher total antioxidant capacity toward peroxyl radicals, thus preventing lipid peroxidation and ROS production. The overall results of this study indicated that exposure of C. carpio to As{sup III} and As{sup V} can induce different responses in gills and liver of this aquatic organism. - Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) presented marked differences between gills and liver after arsenic exposure in terms of antioxidant responses and also in biotransformation.

  14. 3×3完全双列杂交F1不同阶段生长特点的分析%CHARACTERS OF DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGE ON THE F1 PROGENY OF 3×3 FULL DIALLEL CROSS IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏胜彦; 董在杰; 袁新华; 徐跑; 马庆男; 张建桥; 刘伟; 马良骁

    2012-01-01

    为了了解鲤杂交F1不同组合、不同阶段生长性状的变化情况,研究以建鲤、黄河鲤和黑龙江野鲤3个鲤品种双列杂交F1为试验材料,通过组合、组合内性别间、性别、不同时期体重、体增重以及协方差分量的分析,来确定完全双列杂交F1生长性状的变化特点,以及在此过程中起重要作用的影响因素.结果表明:不同时期各个组合体重不同,不同时期组合内性别间体重差异不同;不同时期不同性别间体重差异不同;不同协方差分量,同一组合PIT标记17个月时的体重的最小二乘估计值不同,同一个协方差分量,9个组合中极值估计值出现的组合也不同;除PIT标记17个月后的体厚作为协方差分量外,性别之间体重没有差异,其余分量均是雌鱼体重显著高于雄鱼体重.这些说明选取合适的协方差分量对组合的选择和育种的结果有重要影响.%Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var.jian) examined and approved in 1990, was the first approved aquatic specie using integrated genetic breeding technology. Jian carp is a good stock of cultivated fish species which has good growth traits and good disease-resisitant performance. Although Jian carp has been disseminated wildly, there still has a great need to enhance fine growth performance through continuous selection and genetic improvement. Huanghe carp is a remarkable local specie of common carp in northern China, which possesses good meat quality, strong cold resistance and high efficiency of food conversion. Heilongjiang carp has high frigid resistance, good quality and growth trait. Specific hybridization is an effective pathway for growth improvement in common carp breeding programs. In most cases, obvious heterosis may be observed in hybrids in growth rate, compared to their parents, suggesting a potential resolution to current problems. Generally, the growth pattern of hybrids and their parental species usually reflect that the hybrids were

  15. Isolation,Identification and Drug Susceptibility Test of Salmonella and Shigella from the Intestine of Carp(Cyprinus carpio)%鲤鱼肠道中沙门氏菌、志贺氏菌分离鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡秀彩; 胡宏晓; 吕爱军

    2011-01-01

    从江苏省某市菜市场采集商品规格(体重0.5~0.6kg)的鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio),利用SS选择培养基分离纯化获得107株肠道细菌,对其中2个典型菌株(编号CS-1、CS-2)进行细菌形态学观察、生化试验及药敏试验等研究.结果表明,CS-1、CS-2菌株均为革兰氏阴性小杆菌,均能利用葡萄糖产气,MR试验阳性、氧化酶和VP试验阴性;其中CS-1菌株吲哚产生阴性,硫化氢、半固体试验阳性;CS-2菌株则相反,初步鉴定CS-1为沙门氏菌,CS-2为志贺氏菌.药敏试验结果显示,CS-1、CS-2两菌株对先锋必素、先锋霉素Ⅳ、头孢孟多、头孢噻吩、呋喃妥因、氧哌嗪青霉素等药物高度敏感;对氯沽霉素、洁霉素、灭滴灵、利福平、红霉素等药物不敏感.该研究对水产品食品安全检疫及鱼类疾病防治等具有重要参考价值.%In this study, SS agar was used for selective isolation of bacteria from the intestine of carp (Cyprinus carpio) (body weight 0.5 to 0.6 kg) sold in the open-air market of Jiangsu province. One hundred and seven strains of bacteria were gained, of which two typical strains were named CS-1 and CS-2, respectively. The results of the physiobiochemical characteristics and the antimicrobial susceptibility assay showed that they were all Gram staining negative and small rod-shaped bacteria, and produce acids and gas by using glucose, MR test were positive, oxidase and VP test were negative. The motility test and H2 S were positive, and indole was negative for CS-1 strain, while CS-2 strain were reversed. Preliminary identification of the strains of bacteria, CS-1 and CS-2 belong to Salmonellas and Shigella species, respectively. Further drug sensitivity test results revealed that two strains were highly sensitive to cefoperazone, cephalexin Ⅳ, cefamandole, cephalothin, nitrofurantoin and piperacillin, but they were resistant to clindamycin, lincomycin, metronidazole, rifampin, erythromycin. This study may provide

  16. Efeito da Niclosamida no Controle de Girinos de Anuros na Propagação de Pós-Larvas de Carpa Comum (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Var. Specularis Effect of the Niclosamida on the Control of Tadpole of Anurous in the Propagation of Post-Larvae of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio Linnaeus, 1758 Var. Specularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Graeff

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi testar a influência de um molusquicida (niclosamida no controle dos girinos, sem comprometer o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência da carpa comum na fase de desenvolvimento do ovo até a idade de 28 dias. Foram conduzidos seis experimentos, envolvendo seis fases de desenvolvimento dos girinos e peixes (ovo, 7, 12, 21, 27 e 34 dias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos (0,00; 0,10; 0,15; 0,20; e 0,25 ppm de niclosamida e quatro repetições. Foram utilizados 20 aquários de seis litros, sendo todos abastecidos até o início do experimento, quando então era interrompido o fluxo de água. A eficiência da niclosamida no período de fertilização e eclosão de ovos de girinos e carpa não ocorreu. Na primeira semana de vida, os níveis de 0,25; 0,20; e 0,10 ppm mostraram efeito sobre os girinos aos 48, 65 e 115 minutos após a aplicação do produto respectivamente, mas apresentaram-se sem efeito sobre as pós-larvas de carpa comum. A dosagem de 0,15 ppm de niclosamida, aos 27 dias, tendeu a provocar maior mortalidade de girinos, com maior sobrevivência de pós-larvas de carpa comum, e a de 0,10 ppm, o melhor resultado na idade de 21 dias das pós-larvas de carpa comum e girinos.The objective of the research was to test the effect of a molusquicida (Niclosamida in the tadpoles control and not to compromise the development and survival of common carps in the egg development until 28 days age. Six experiments were carried out and involved six tadpoles and fishes development phases (egg, 7, 12, 21, 27 and 34 days. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments (0.00, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 ppm niclosamida and four replicates, was used. Post-larvae and tadpoles stayed together in a density of 100 units of each from a nursery production. Twenty aquariums of six liters were all supplied until the beginning of the experiment, when the water flow was

  17. Monoclonal antibodies against goldfish (Carassius auratus) immunoglobulin: application to the quantification of immunoglobulin and antibody-secreting cells by ELISPOT and seric immunoglobulin and antibody levels by ELISA in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwicki, A K; Vergnet, C; Charlemagne, J; Dunier, M

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against heavy and light chains of goldfish immunoglobulin (Ig) were characterized by a Western blot technique. A complete cross-reactivity was observed between carp and goldfish Ig. These mAbs were used for the quantification of carp Ig and anti-Yersinia ruckeri antibodies by ELISA. An ELISPOT assay was also developed in carp to quantify Ig-secreting cells (ISC) and antibody-secreting cells (ASC). The number of ASC was maximum on day 18 post-vaccination and decreased to the basal level on day 28. The antibody levels in sera were maximum on day 18 and slowly decreased until day 28. PMID:7951348

  18. Dimethoate Induced Behavioural Changes in Juveniles of Cyprinus carpio var. communis under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayoom, Imtiyaz; Shah, Feroz A; Mukhtar, Malik; Balkhi, Masood H; Bhat, Farooz A; Bhat, Bilal A

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate acute toxicity of dimethoate on juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. communis. Fishes weighing 10 ± 2 gms were selected and mortality data was statistically evaluated by Finney's Probit Method. The 96-hour LC50 value for Cyprinus carpio was found as 1.1 ppm in static bioassay system. Mean values of physicochemical parameters of aquarium waters determined during bioassay depicted slight variation indicating that the mortality in aquarium fishes occurred due to pesticide exposure and not suffocation. Lab. temperature ranged from 12 to 13°C; water temperature ranged from 11 to 12°C; dissolved oxygen ranged from 3.90 to 4.56 mg/L; pH ranged from 6.90 to 7.05; total dissolved solids ranged from 2.66 to 3.0 × 10(3) mg/L, while CO2 remained at a constant value of 2.0 mg/L. The fishes elicited various behavioural responses such as uncoordinated movements, convulsions, excessive mucus secretion, and imbalanced swimming which ended in a collapse to the bottom of the aquarium. Prior to death, the clinical signs like scale erosion, pale body colour, and hemorrhagic patches over the body were noticed which became more vivid up to the termination of experiments. Results of the study indicate potential toxicity of dimethoate in fingerlings of common carp for which the natural waterbodies must be continuously monitored to reduce its impact across food chains.

  19. Dimethoate Induced Behavioural Changes in Juveniles of Cyprinus carpio var. communis under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Feroz A.; Mukhtar, Malik; Balkhi, Masood H.; Bhat, Farooz A.; Bhat, Bilal A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate acute toxicity of dimethoate on juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. communis. Fishes weighing 10 ± 2 gms were selected and mortality data was statistically evaluated by Finney's Probit Method. The 96-hour LC50 value for Cyprinus carpio was found as 1.1 ppm in static bioassay system. Mean values of physicochemical parameters of aquarium waters determined during bioassay depicted slight variation indicating that the mortality in aquarium fishes occurred due to pesticide exposure and not suffocation. Lab. temperature ranged from 12 to 13°C; water temperature ranged from 11 to 12°C; dissolved oxygen ranged from 3.90 to 4.56 mg/L; pH ranged from 6.90 to 7.05; total dissolved solids ranged from 2.66 to 3.0 × 103 mg/L, while CO2 remained at a constant value of 2.0 mg/L. The fishes elicited various behavioural responses such as uncoordinated movements, convulsions, excessive mucus secretion, and imbalanced swimming which ended in a collapse to the bottom of the aquarium. Prior to death, the clinical signs like scale erosion, pale body colour, and hemorrhagic patches over the body were noticed which became more vivid up to the termination of experiments. Results of the study indicate potential toxicity of dimethoate in fingerlings of common carp for which the natural waterbodies must be continuously monitored to reduce its impact across food chains. PMID:27563689

  20. Malheur - Common Carp Movement Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  1. Effects of fluoride on liver apoptosis and Bcl-2, Bax protein expression in freshwater teleost, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Wang, Jundong; Jia, Ruhui; Xue, Wenjuan; Luo, Yongju; Gan, Xi

    2013-05-01

    Fish take up fluoride directly from water and are the target organisms for fluoride pollution in the aquatic ecosystems. This study was conducted to evaluate oxidative stress, histopathological changes, apoptosis and Bcl-2, Bax expression in the livers of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to fluoride. Our results showed that after 90 d of exposure, the inhibition of SOD, GSH activities and a dose-dependent stimulation of MDA levels in the liver tissues indicated that fluoride caused oxidative stress in the fish. Microscopic examinations showed that damages to the liver tissues and cell organelles in the liver tissues increased with exposure concentration. A positive correlation was observed between the apoptosis index and fluoride levels in the livers (r=0.995). There was a negative correlation between the fluoride concentration of water and the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-2/Bax (r=-0.98, r=-0.96). A positive correlation was showed between the fluoride concentration of water and the expression of Bax (r=0.96) after 90 d of exposure. Our results suggested that the common carp could tolerate relatively high levels of fluoride but adverse effects of fluoride occurred in the livers of the fish after 90 d of exposure. The apoptosis of liver cells had an important causative role in the process of fluoride-induced pathological changes of liver. PMID:23415306

  2. Comparative study of ß-glucan induced respiratory burst measured by nitroblue tetrazolium assay and real-time luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera; Pietretti, D.; Wiegertjes, G. F.;

    2013-01-01

    in the clearance of pathogens and tissue regeneration processes. Therefore, the respiratory burst and associated ROS constitute important indicators of fish health status. This paper compares two methods for quantitation of ROS produced during the respiratory burst in common carp: the widely used, single......The respiratory burst is an important feature of the immune system. The increase in cellular oxygen uptake that marks the initiation of the respiratory burst is followed by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide which plays a role...... kidney cells of carp. However, whereas the NBT assay was shown to detect the production of only superoxide anions, the real-time luminol-enhanced assay could detect the production of both superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide. Only the chemiluminescence assay could reliably record the production of ROS...

  3. Different Sources and Levels of Vitamin C in Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var.Jian) : A Comparison of Their Effects on Growth Performance and Digestion Function%不同来源和剂量维生素C对建鲤生长性能和消化功能影响的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘扬; 池磊; 冯琳; 周小秋

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the effects of different sources and levels of vitamin C on growth performance and digestive function of Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Six hundred Jian carp with initial average body weight of (12.63 ±0.04) g were randomly allocated to 4 groups (with 3 replicates per group and 50 fish per replicate). The Jian carp were fed with practice diets supplemented with different levels (75 or 150 mg/kg diet) of ethylcellulose-coated ascorbic acid (EC-AA) or L-ascorbyl polyphosphate (LAPP) for 8 weeks. When supplemented with 75 mg/kg vitamin C in diets, specific growth rate (SGR) , feed intake (FI) , protein production value ( PPV) and lipid production value (LPV) of carp in LAPP group were all significantly higher than those in EC-AA group (P0. 05). However, compared with the EC-AA diet, the LAPP diet could significantly enhance the activities of tryspin and chymotrypsin in intestine, folds height in mid and distal intestine segments, activities of AKP in distal intestine, Na+ ,K +-ATPase in proximal intestine and y-GT in different intestine segments (P <0.05). In conclusion, the effect of LAPP is better than EC-AA for Jian carp, and the LAPP supplementation of 75 mg/kg vitamin C can more significantly improve the growth performance and digestion function of Jian carp. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2011, 23 (8):1332-1341 ]%本试验旨在研究不同来源和水平维生素C对建鲤生长性能和消化功能的影响.选用平均体重为( 12.63±0.04)g的健康建鲤600尾,随机分为4组(每组设3个重复,每个重复50尾),分别饲喂添加不同来源[乙基纤维素包被维生素C( EC-AA)和维生素C磷酸酯钙盐(LAPP)]和剂量(75和150 mg/kg)的维生素C的实用饲料,试验期为8周.结果表明,饲料维生素C水平为75 mg/kg时,LAPP组建鲤在特定生长率(SGR)、摄食量(FI)、蛋白质沉积率(PPV)和脂肪沉积率(LPV)上均显著高于EC -AA组(P<0.05).同时,LAPP饲料较EC-AA

  4. Radio Telemetry Study of Common Carp in Clear Lake, Iowa, To Guide Future Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a highly competitive freshwater fish capable of rapidly establishing populations in new, unexploited and disturbed habitats...

  5. Viability of male gametes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) along the Lower Colorado River from the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Havasu NWR, and Lake Mohave of Lake Mead National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    To contribute to an investigation on possible endocrine impacts in three sites along the lower Colorado River in Arizona, especially in male fishes, this study addressed the null hypothesis that aquatic species in southern sites did not exhibit evidence of endocrine disruption as compared with those in nonimpacted sites. The results presented are intended to provide managers with science-based information and interpretations about the reproductive condition of biota in their habitat along the lower Colorado River to minimize any potential adverse effects to trust fish and wildlife resources and to identify water resources of acceptable quality. In particular, these data can inform decision making about wastewater discharges into the Colorado River that directly supplies water to Arizona refuges located along the river. These data are integral to the USFWS proposal entitled 'AZ - Endocrine Disruption in Razorback Sucker and Common Carp on National Wildlife Refuges along the Lower Colorado River' that was proposed to assess evidence of endocrine disruption in carp and razorback suckers downstream of Hoover Dam.

  6. Microcystin-LR induced reactive oxygen species mediate cytoskeletal disruption and apoptosis of hepatocytes in Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlin Jiang

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are a group of cyclic hepatotoxic peptides produced by cyanobacteria. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR contains Leucine (L and Arginine (R in the variable positions, and is one of the most common and potently toxic peptides. MC-LR can inhibit protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A activities and induce excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The underlying mechanism of the inhibition of PP1 and PP2A has been extensively studied. The over-production of ROS is considered to be another main mechanism behind MC-LR toxicity; however, the detailed toxicological mechanism involved in over-production of ROS in carp (Cyprinus carpio L. remains largely unclear. In our present study, the hydroxyl radical (•OH was significantly induced in the liver of carp after a relatively short-term exposure to MC-LR. The elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS production may play an important role in the disruption of microtubule structure. Pre-injection of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC provided significant protection to the cytoskeleton, however buthionine sulfoximine (BSO exacerbated cytoskeletal destruction. In addition, the elevated ROS formation induced the expression of apoptosis-related genes, including p38, JNKa, and bcl-2. A significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed at 12-48 hours. Our study further supports evidence that ROS are involved in MC-LR induced damage to liver cells in carp, and indicates the need for further study of the molecular mechanisms behind MC-LR toxicity.

  7. Effects of Ala-Gln feeding strategies on growth, metabolism, and crowding stress resistance of juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Mei; Guo, Gui-Liang; Sun, Li; Yang, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Gui-Qin; Qin, Gui-Xin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different L-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln) feeding strategies on the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance related parameters in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) under crowded condition (80 g/L). Juvenile Jian carp (initial weight 26.1 ± 0.6 g) were distributed into five groups which fed with graded concentrations (0% or 1.0%) of Ala-Gln for eight weeks. Control group (I, 0/0) fed with control diet (0% Ala-Gln) throughout the feeding trial. The other four groups employed different control and experimental diet feeding strategies ranging from two weeks control diet fed and two weeks experimental diet (1% Ala-Gln) fed (II, 0/2) to eight weeks experimental diet fed (V, 4/4). Results revealed that Mean weight gain (MEG) under all different feeding strategies of Ala-Gln were significantly higher than that of the control group (p blood total protein of groups II, III and V were significantly higher than that in groups I and IV (p glucose, cortisol and catecholamine in fish. The mRNA expression of GR1a, GR1b and GR2 were also significantly changed in Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p control group (p optimal feeding strategy was alternatively fed with control diet and then experimental diet at an interval of two weeks for juvenile Jian carp under crowded condition. PMID:26945938

  8. Molecular Cloning and Characterization Analysis of NLR-C Gene in Cyprinus Carpio L.%鲤鱼NLR-C基因分子克隆及其特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珍; 杨桂文; 黄建勋; 彭少卿; 安利国

    2013-01-01

    We identified a NLR-C gene from carp (Cyprinus Carpio L. ) with RT-PCR and RACE, and analyzed the expression of this gene by qRT-PCR. In healthy carp,the transcript was detected with highest expression in brain and PBL,and higher in head kidney , gill, hindgut and oral epithelial. Analysis of expression of the NLR-C gene in carps after infection with Vibrio anguillarum reveales a significant up-regulation in liver,spleen,head kidney and hindgut tissues, suggesting that it is involved in the immune response of carp against the bacterial pathogen.%利用RT-PCR和RACE技术克隆得到鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpioL.)NLR-C基因cDNA全长.经qRT-PCR检测发现,NLR-C基因在鲤鱼血液和脑中表达最高,在头肾、鳃、后肠和口腔上皮中有较高表达.采用鳗弧菌(V.anguillarum)刺激后,NLR-C mRNA在肝、脾、头肾和后肠中的表达有不同程度升高.结果显示,NLR-C基因参与鲤鱼天然免疫应答过程,具有抵御病原微生物侵袭的作用.

  9. Transgenes in F4 pMThGH- transgenic common carp (Cy- prinus carpio L.) are highly polymorphic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To gain information on the integration pattern of pMThGH-tansgene, 50 transgenes were recovered from F4 generation of pMThGH transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and 33 recovered genes were analyzed. The restriction maps of these recovered genes were constructed by digestion with five kinds of enzymes. These transgenes can be classified into 4 types according to their restriction maps. Only one type of transgenes maintains its original molecular form, whereas the other three types are very different from the original one and vary each other on both molecular weight and restriction maps. This implies that the sequences of most transgenes have been deleted and/or rearranged during integration and inheritance. The results of PCR am-plification and Southern blot hybridization indicate that MThGH in TypeI transgene keeps intact but most of its se-quence has been deleted in other three types. All these results suggest that transgenes in F4 generation of transgenic carp are highly polymorphic. Two DNA fragments concerning integration site of transgenes were cloned from recovered transgenes, and found to be homologous to the 5′UTR of β-actin gene of common carp and mouse mRNA for receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), respectively.

  10. Isolation,determination and immunostimulatory effects of a specific thermophilac strain on carp, Cyprinus carpio%1株嗜高温菌的分离、鉴定和免疫增强活性成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建玲; 雷毅; 阴耀邦; 王高学

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 This paper intends to determine the bioactiuity and enhancement on non-specific immunity and survival of secondary metabolite of strain SX-4 on carp(Cyprinus carpio).【Method】 A thermophilic strain SX-4 able to produce immunostimulatory metabolite was isolated from sludge sample of hot spring and identified by comparison with 16S rRNA sequences(99% of homology) as Anoxybacillus flavithermus.【Result】 Through bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanol extract from its cell-free culture,one bacterial extract with the capacity of improving the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance(relative percent survival=66.67%) was obtained.【Conclusion】 There is a possibility of using this extract as a better natural immunostimulant,which could have a promising role in aquaculture to prevent diseases and disease outbreaks.%【目的】从温泉的底泥中分离、鉴定能产生免疫增强活性胞外代谢产物的嗜高温菌,并对其胞外代谢产物的免疫增强活性和抗病性进行研究。【方法】通过菌株个体形态、菌落形态和生理生化特性,初步排除从陕西西安东大温泉的底泥分离菌株中的重复菌株;以白细胞吞噬活性、白细胞杀菌活性、血清溶菌酶和血清SOD活性为指标进一步筛选获得目的菌株,采用个体形态、群落形态、生理生化特性和分子生物学方法对目的菌株进行初步鉴定;通过大孔吸附树脂浓缩活性成分,硅胶柱层析,以白细胞吞噬活性、白细胞杀菌活性、血清溶菌酶和血清SOD活性、免疫相关基因

  11. Malheur - Telemetry Targeted Carp Movement and Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  12. Purification of Type V Collagen from Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Muscle and Preparation of Polyclonal Antibody%鲤鱼肌肉Ⅴ型胶原蛋白的分离纯化及其抗体制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐超; 鲍俊旺; 蔡秋凤; 张凌晶; 刘光明; 曹敏杰

    2015-01-01

    The type V collagen from common carp muscle was extracted by pepsin digestion and salt pre⁃cipitation . SDS⁃PAGE analysis revealed that the protein contains at least two differentαchains (α1 andα2 ) . The molecular mass ofα1⁃chain was about 135 ku, while that ofα2⁃chain was around 120 ku. The character⁃istic of type V collagen is typical with triple helical structure and its denaturation temperature is 30�5℃ as as⁃sessed by circular dichroism. Purified type V collagen was used as an antigen to immunize a New Zealand rab⁃bit subcutaneously to prepare a specific polyclonal antibody. The specificity of the anti⁃collagen ( V) poly⁃clonal antibody was confirmed by Western blotting and it specifically reacted with type V collagen from fish.%通过酸溶、胃蛋白酶酶解和氯化钠盐析等方法,从鲤鱼肌肉中纯化得到了 V型胶原蛋白. SDS-PAGE电泳图谱分析发现,其至少由2条α链(α1和α2)组成,其中α1分子质量约为135 ku,α2分子质量约为120 ku.通过圆二色光谱仪分析其二级结构,发现其具有胶原蛋白三股螺旋结构的典型特征,其热变性温度为30�5℃.将V型胶原蛋白作为抗原免疫新西兰大白兔,成功制备了多克隆抗体.采用免疫印迹法对该多克隆抗体的特异性进行分析,证明其仅与鱼类V型胶原蛋白产生反应,特异性良好.

  13. 锦鲤酪氨酸酶基因序列分析及其在不同锦鲤品系不同组织中的表达%Analysis of tyrosinase gene and tissue expression in five different strains of Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio Koi)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍; 胡红霞; 孙向军; 牛翠娟

    2012-01-01

    Black is an important body color of Koi (Cyprinus carpio Koi) which is performed through melanin synthesized by melanocyte, and tyrosinase is an important rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis. It's unclear of genetic mechanism of Koi body color. The present work obtained Koi tyrosinase (Tyr) gene sequence and investigated the expression of Tyr gene in different strains and tissues using semi-quantitative PCR, trying to reveal the relationship between the pigment control genes and the body color. The results showed 1 779 bp of Tyr gene, including a 1 608 bp open reading frame encoding 535 amino acids. Sequence analysis of cDNA and protein and phylogenetic analysis indicated that conservation of Tyr is higher in teleost than between teleost and other vertebrates. Semi-quantitative analysis showed the highest Tyr expression in the eye and black skin, intermediate in brain, red and yellow skin, and the lowest in liver and heart. There was no significant difference of Tyr expression between the same tissues of eyes, liver, heart, brain from different Koi carps, but differentiated in the skins with the highest in black skin, followed by red and yellow skin and small amount in white skin. The different expression was related to tissue function. The role of tyrosinase in non-melanoma cells was unclear. There possibly exist multiple forms of tyrosinase, some of which is inhibited, or the xanthophores and erythrophores could be translated into functional melanocytes.%为了解色素控制基因与体色分布的关系,实验用分子克隆技术得到了锦鲤酪氨酸酶(tyrosinase,Tyr) cDNA基因序列,并利用半定量PCR的方法分析了酪氨酸酶基因在锦鲤不同品系和组织中的表达差异.实验得到了长约1 779 bp锦鲤酪氨酸酶cDNA基因,其包括长1 608 bp开放阅读框,编码535个氨基酸.cDNA、蛋白水平序列分析和系统发育分析都表明酪氨酸酶在鱼类间的保守性要高于鱼类与其他脊椎动物间的保守性.

  14. Effects of cadmium and copper on sialic acid levels in blood and brain tissues of Cyprinus carpio L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Utku Gner; Elvan Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on sialic acid levels of brain and blood tissues of Cyprinus carpio.Methods:Adult carps were exposed to 0.1, 0.5 mg/L Cu, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L Cd and 0.1 mg/L Cu+0.1 mg/L Cd under static experiment conditions for 1 week. At the end of exposure period, heavy metal accumulations and sialic acid levels in blood and brain tissues of the test animals were analyzed.Results:Cu and Cd accumulated in tissues in a dramatically increasing dose-dependent manner. Sialic acids level of the fish exposed to 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L Cu and Cd and control grups for 1 week were 0.834, 1.427, 0.672, 0.934, 2.968, 4.714 mg/mL respectively. The results also showed that Cu has an antagonistic effect on tissue sialic acid level.Conclusions:We propose that Cd and Cu make a complex with sialic acids of membranes in the tissues researched. This complex between metal ions and sialic acid migth account for the cellular toxicity based on Cu and Cd.

  15. Study on HSP70 Gene Expression in Different Tissue of Cyprinus carpio%鲤鱼HSP70基因组织表达差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林亚秋; 李瑞文

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate whether HSP70 can be used as a stress monitoring indicator in Cyprinus carpio breeding. [Method] Based on HSP70 sequence of Cyprinus carpio (AY120894), one pair of primers was designed and synthesized, while the total RNA of liver tissues in Cyprinus carpio was extracted. Some cDNA fragments of Cyprinus carpio HSP70 were cloned by RT-PCR, and its differential expression in various tissues such as heart, intestine, mucus, gonad, swim bladder, gill and fin in Cyprinus carpio was also studied. [Result] The cDNA sequence of 480 bp was obtained from Cyprinus carpio HSP70 gene by RT-PCR amplification. Homology comparison between the deduced amino acid sequence after sequencing and that of other types of fish showed that the homology among Cyprinus carpio, Danio rerio, Ohcorhynehus mylciss, Paralichthys olivaceus, Xiphophoorus maculates and Carassius auratus was 96%, 98%, 98%, 96%, 96% and 96% respectively. The expression of HSP70 was detected in eight tissues of Cyprinus carpio. The expression was the highest in heart, followed by swim bladder and fin, but there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). There was no significant difference among the expression in three tissues of intestine, mucus and fat (P>0.05), but their expression was significantly higher than those in gonad and gill (P<0.05). [Conclusion] HSP70 gene expression is a suitable criterion for monitoring the stress degree, stress capacity and healthy conditions in Cyprinus carpio breeding.

  16. Roles of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) in Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglapsuwan, Monwadee; Kongmee, Pataraporn; Suanyuk, Naraid; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan

    2016-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio (koi) is one of the most popular ornamental fish. A major problem for C. carpio farming is bacterial infections especially by Aeromonas hydrophila. Previously studies had shown that the Phagocytosis Activating Protein (PAP) gene was involved in the innate immune response of animals. Therefore, we attempted to identify a role for the PAP gene in the immunology of C. carpio. The expression of the PAP was found in C. carpio whole blood and increased when the fish were stimulated by inactivated A. hydrophila. In addition, PAP-phMGFP DNA was injected as an immunostimulant. The survival rate and the phagocytic index were significantly increased in the A. hydrophila infected fish that received the PAP-phMGFP DNA immunostimulant. A chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle was then developed and feeded into fish which infected with A. hydrophila. These fish had a significantly lower mortality rate than the control. Therefore, this research confirmed a key role for PAP in protection fish from bacterial infection and the chitosan-PAP-phMGFP nanoparticle could be a good prototype for fish immunostimulant in the future. PMID:26748248

  17. Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttenhuis, B.T.

    2005-01-01

    The production of farmed fish has increased considerably over the past years, and is now providing a significant contribution to the food market. Mortality however, can be high especially in young fish. The administration of immuno-stimulants via the food can be a sustainable approach especially in

  18. Innate immune receptors in carp: recognition of protozoan parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, C.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis reports on pattern recognition receptors involved in the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to two protozoan parasites Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. The immune responses of carp are fundamentally different when comparing these two extracellular blood

  19. Cloning and study of adult-tissue-specific expression of Sox9 in Cyprinus carpio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Du Qi-Yan; Wang Feng-Yu; Hua Hui-Ying; Chang Zhong-Jie

    2007-08-01

    The Sox9 gene is one of the important transcription factors in the development of many tissues and organs, particularly in sex determination and chondrogenesis. We amplified the genomic DNA of Cyprinus carpio using degenerate primers, and found that there were two versions of Sox9 in this species: Sox9a and Sox9b, that differ in having an intron of different length (704 bp and 616 bp, respectively) in the conserved HMG box region that codes for identical amino acid sequences. We used a two-phase rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) for the isolation of full-length cDNA of Sox9b. Sequence analyses revealed a 2447-bp cDNA containing 233-bp 5′ untranslated region, a 927-bp 3′ untranslated region, including poly(A), and a 1287 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 428 amino acids. The HMG box of 79 amino acid motif was confirmed from positions 96–174. Sequence alignment showed that the identity of amino acids of Sox9 among ten animal species, including C. carpio, is 75%, indicating that the Sox9 gene is evolutionarily quite conserved. The expression level of Sox9b gene varied among several organs of adult C. carpio, with the level of expression being highest in the brain and testis.

  20. Effects of Yeast Nucleotide on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Immune Indices of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)%酵母核苷酸对鲤生长性能、体组成及血清免疫指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向枭; 周兴华; 陈建; 郑宗林

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究酵母核苷酸对鲤生长性能、体组成及血清免疫指标的影响.以600尾健康的鲤[平均体重(1.09±0.07)g;平均体长(3.60±0.34)cm]为试验对象,随机分为6组(每组3个重复,每个重复30尾),分别投喂在基础饲料中添加0(对照组)、258、516、774、1 032、1 290 mg/kg酵母核苷酸(以有效成分计)的试验饲料,养殖50 d.结果表明:与对照组相比,各酵母核苷酸添加组的增重率(WGR)、特定生长率(SGR)、蛋白质效率(PER)(258 mg/kg组除外)均显著升高(P<0.05),饵料系数(FCR)则显著降低(P<0.05).当酵母核苷酸添加量为516 mg/kg时,鲤的增重率、特定生长率、蛋白质效率均达到最大(分别为372.03%、3.10%/d和195.74%),饵料系数达到最低(1.42),与其他各组差异显著(P<0.05).以增重率、特定生长率、蛋白质效率及饵料系数为指标,利用折线模型分析表明,鲤生长性能最佳时酵母核苷酸添加量为519.85~535.54 mg/kg.对鲤体组成分析表明,酵母核苷酸对鱼体粗灰分和水分含量影响不显著(P>0.05),当酵母核苷酸添加量在516~1 290 mg/kg时鱼体粗蛋白质和粗脂肪含量显著高于对照组(P<0.05).与对照组相比,各酵母核苷酸添加组的血清溶茵酶、超氧化歧化酶、过氧化氢酶活性显著升高(P<0.05),并随酵母核苷酸水平的增加先增加后降低.酵母核苷酸添加量为774~1 290 mg/kg时,血清溶茵酶、超氧化歧化酶活性较高;在酵母核苷酸添加量为516~1 032 mg/kg时,血清过氧化氢酶活性较高.综合考虑生长性能和免疫能力,鲤饲料中酵母核苷酸的适宜添加量为519.85~774.00 mg/kg.%The experiment was conducted to study the effects of yeast nucleotide on growth performance, body composition and serum immune indices of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) . Six hundred healthy common carp [ average body weight of (1. 09 ±0. 07) g and average body length of (3. 60 ±0. 34) cm] were

  1. Genetic Status of the Original Population of Barbless Carp Cyprinus pellegrini%大头鲤原种种群的遗传现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐卫星; 陈毅峰

    2012-01-01

    大头鲤(Cyprinus pellegrini)是一种云南高原湖泊特有的国家Ⅱ级重点保护鱼类.土著种大头鲤与外来种鲤(C.carpio)的渐渗杂交在星云湖野生种群中已经广泛发生.本研究结合形态和微卫星及线粒体DNA分析检测了螺蛳铺大头鲤原种种群的遗传现状.结果显示,螺蛳铺大头鲤样本所有个体在形态上位于大头鲤与鲤的参照样本之间;在微卫星因子对应分析中也显示,其位于大头鲤与鲤的参照样本之间,但与大头鲤参照样本较为相似;在线粒体DNA分析中显示,都具有鲤的单倍型.中间性形态特征以及核基因组成与线粒体基因组成的不一致现象,表明螺蛳铺大头鲤样本均为杂种个体.因此,螺蛳铺大头鲤原种种群可能是一个杂种种群,有必要重新建立大头鲤人工繁殖计划.%Barbless Carp (Cyprinus pellegrini) , which is endemic to lakes of Yunnan plateau, is categorized into the second grade in the list of China key protected animal species. Introgressive hybridization between native Barbless Carp and exotic Common Carp (C. carpio) has occurred extensively in Xingyun Lake. This study assessed the genetic status of the Luosipu original population of Barbless Carp based on morphological, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses. Morphological analyses showed that all individuals of the Luosipu Barbless Carp sample were strictly intermediate between reference samples of Barbless and Common Carp. Factorial correspondence analysis of microsatellite data indicated that all individuals of the Luosipu Barbless Carp sample fell in between reference samples of Barbless and Common Carp, but were very near to the former. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed that all individuals of the Luosipu Barbless Carp sample had the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of Common Carp. There was obvious inconsistency between nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structures in Luosipu Barbless Carp sample. These results suggest that

  2. Uptake of 137Cs in cultured fresh water fish (Cyprinus carpio): physiological and histological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted in fresh-water fish (Cyprinus carpio) cultured, in small water tanks, artificially contaminated with radioactive 137Cs (3000 Bq/1) to determine the uptake of 137Cs and its physiological and histological effects in different fish organs. It was found that 137Cs was located in muscular tissues, gills, head muscles, liver and kidneys. Moderate amounts were found in spleen, eyes, gonads, intestine and urinary bladder. It seems that sorption was of much less importance than ingestion in the uptake of 137Cs. The histological examination in musculature tissue, revealed an acute hyperemia with focal haemorrages which may be due to allergic effects of 137Cs. Hyperemia and focal fatty degeneration of hepatic cells was also noted in the liver which may be due to toxic effects of 137Cs. Diffused hyperemia has also occurred in the brain and focal degeneration of epithelial cells of renal tubules. (Author)

  3. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Interleukin 10 (IL-10) Full-length cDNA from Cyprinus carpio L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangru FENG; Yilong CHEN; Xiao ZHAO; Wendong WANG; Junhui ZHANG; Zhenguo YANG SUN; Shengmei JIA; Qiang LU

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] This study aimed to obtain IL-IO (interleukin 10) full-length cD- NA of common carpCyprinus carpio L.) and conduct the sequence analysis. []~lethod] The differentially expressed cDNA fragment was obtained by DD-RTPCR (differential display RT-PCR). The cDNA library of peripheral blood leukocytes which were separated from common carp and stimulated by mitogen was screened with a probe labeled with DIG (digoxigenin). The IL-IO full-length cDNA was cloned from 0.8x104 pfu of recombinant phages, and the sequence analysis and homology com- parison were carried out. [Result] Sequence analysis indicated that the IL-IO full- length cDNA of common carp was 1 117 bp long, containing a.55 bp 5'-UTR, a 522 bp 3"-UTR, and a 540 bp open reading frame(ORF) encoding 179 amino acids. In addition, there were three mRNA instability motifs (ATTTA) in the 3"-untranslated region. The deduced protein sequence shared typical sequence features of the IL-IO family. Homology comparison indicated that the obtained sequence shared 89.1% homology with the carp IL-IO gene from GenBank. [Conclusion] This study laid foun- dation for further study of the expression manner, functional characteristic and regu- lation mechanism of IL-IO in vivo and the interaction mechanism in the inflammatory reaction and immune response.

  4. Toxicity profile of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for fungi and Cyprinus carpio fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneidi, Ibrahim; Hayyan, Maan; Mohd Ali, Ozair

    2016-04-01

    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds. PMID:26743645

  5. Genetic diversity and selective breeding of red common carps in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S. F.; C. H. Wang

    2001-01-01

    China has a very rich genetic diversity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the red common carp plays an important role in Chinese aquaculture and genetic studies. Selective breeding, particularly crossbreeding has been applied successfully to red common carps in China, and the products of these efforts have been in commercial use since the 1970s. However, knowledge of the quantitative and molecular genetics of these carps is limited. Studies were therefore undertaken to: (1) understand the ...

  6. Effects of garlic stem powder and oregano leaf powder on growth performance,digestive enzyme activity and serum biochemical indexes of the carp(Cyprinus carpio L.minor)%大蒜茎粉和牛至草粉对镜鲤生长性能、消化酶活性以及血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐玲; 徐奇友

    2010-01-01

    试验研究了大蒜茎粉和牛至草粉对镜鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.minor)生长性能、消化酶活性及血清生化指标的影响,为进一步开发利用天然植物添加剂提供理论参考.试验共设7个处理组:G1空白对照组,G2添加10 ms/kg黄霉素,G3、G4分别添加0.5%和2.5%大蒜茎粉,G5、G6分别添加0.1%和0.5%牛至草粉,G7添加0.5%大蒜茎粉和0.5%牛至草粉.每个处理设3个重复,每个重复10尾鱼,初始体重为(201.45±16.25)g,试验共进行8周.结果表明:与G1和G2相比,G3显著提高了特定生长率和增重率,显著降低了饵料系数(P0.05).结论:饲料中添加0.5%大蒜茎粉可以有效提高镜鲤生长性能,但是添加牛至草粉促生长作用不明显.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of koi (Cyprinus carpio) spleen tissue upon cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) infection using next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xuezhu; Yi, Yang; Weng, Shaoping; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Hetong; He, Jianguo; Dong, Chuanfu

    2016-02-01

    Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can infect and specifically cause a huge economic loss in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi variety. The molecular mechanisms underlying CyHV-3 infection are not well understood. In this study, koi spleen tissues of both mock and CyHV-3 infection groups were collected, and high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the transcriptome level. A total of 105,356,188 clean reads from two libraries were obtained. After the de novo assembly of the transcripts, 129,314 unigenes were generated. Of these unigenes, 70,655 unigenes were matched to the known proteins in the database, while 2190 unigenes were predicted by ESTScan software. Comparing the infection group to the mock group, a total of 23,029 significantly differentially expressed unigenes were identified, including 10,493 up-regulated DEGs and 12,536 down-regulated DEGs. GO (Gene Ontology) annotation and functional enrichment analysis indicated that all of the DEGs were annotated into GO terms in three main GO categories: biological process, cellular component and molecular function. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis of the DEGs showed that a total of 12,002 DEG unigenes were annotated into 256 pathways classified into 6 main categories. Additionally, 20 differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. As the first report of a transcriptome analysis of koi carp with CyHV-3 infection, the data presented here provide knowledge of the innate immune response against CyHV-3 in koi carp and useful data for further research of the molecular mechanism of CyHV-3 infection. PMID:26690666

  8. Isolation and characterization of a ranavirus from koi, Cyprinus carpio L., experiencing mass mortalities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M R; John, K R; Mansoor, M M; Saravanakumar, R; Sundar, P; Pradeep, V

    2015-04-01

    We investigated mass mortalities of koi, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, experienced in South Indian fish farms by virus isolation, electron microscopy, PCR detection, sequencing of capsid protein gene and transmission studies. Samples of moribund koi brought to the laboratory suffered continuous mortality exhibiting swimming abnormalities, intermittent surfacing and skin darkening. Irido-like virus was isolated from the infected fish in the indigenous snakehead kidney cell line (SNKD2a). Icosahedral virus particles of 100 to 120 nm were observed in the infected cell cultures, budding from the cell membrane. Virus transmission and pathogenicity studies revealed that horizontal transmission occurred associated with mortality. PCR analysis of infected fish and cell cultures confirmed the presence of Ranavirus capsid protein sequences. Sequence analysis of the major capsid protein gene showed an identity of 99.9% to that of largemouth bass virus isolated from North America. Detection and successful isolation of this viral agent becomes the first record of isolation of a virus resembling Santee-Cooper Ranavirus from a koi and from India. We propose the name koi ranavirus to this agent.

  9. Células sangüíneas, eletrólitos séricos, relação hepato e esplenossomática de carpa-comum, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae na primeira maturação gonadal - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1661 Blood cells, seric electrolyte and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae common carp hepatosomatic and splenosomatic relation in the first gonadal maturation - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1661

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio de Campos Filho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados em ambos os sexos de Cyprinus carpio o fator relativo de condição (Kn, a relação hepato (RHS e esplenossomática (RES, o eritrograma, trombograma, leucograma, a localização de glicogênio pelo método de PAS em trombócitos e leucócitos e os níveis séricos de proteína total e de eletrólitos. O Kn nas fêmeas foi maior que nos machos. Os valores médios da RES nas fêmeas foram inferiores aos dos machos, enquanto que o número de leucócitos, linfócitos e neutrófilos foram superiores; porém os níveis séricos de magnésio e de cloreto nos machos foram maiores quando comparados aos das fêmeas. Os valores médios da RHS, hematócrito, concentração de hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, concentração da hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, número de eritrócitos, trombócitos, monócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos granular PAS-positivos (LG-PAS, níveis séricos de proteína total, sódio, potássio e cálcio não evidenciaram diferença estatisticamente significativa (P>0,05, entre machos e fêmeas. O método de PAS mostra grânulos de glicogênio no citoplasma de trombócitos, eosinófilos e neutrófilos. Entretanto, no citoplasma dos LG-PAS foram detectados grânulos de glicoproteínas neutras. Monócitos, linfócitos foram PAS negativos. Nos teleósteos o amadurecimento das gônadas apresenta forte relação com o fator de condição. Na fase de reprodução nem sempre é possível detectar os efeitos do sexo isoladamente no hemograma, pois muitas vezes esse pode não ser o único fator ocasionando dimorfismoThis research studied the condition (Kn relative factor, the hepatosomatic (HSR, the splenosomatic (SSR relation, the erythrocytes, thrombocytes and leukocytes number, the glicogen locality by PAS method in thrombocytes and leucocytes and the total protein and electrolytes serices levels in both Cyprinus carpio L. sex. The female Kn showed higher value than the males. The female HSR average

  10. Histopathological changes induced by environmental stress in common carp, Japanese coloured carp, European eel, and African catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakolczai, J

    1997-01-01

    Histopathological changes caused by stress during catching and transport were examined in four fish species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the Japanese coloured carp (koi, the coloured variant of the Asian carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus), the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In all species, the goblet cells of the gills and skin were decreased in number and slight detachment of the epithelium of the secondary gill lamellae was seen. Loss of goblet cells and detachment of the columnar epithelial cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of common carp and coloured carp. It is supposed that these lesions may affect ion transport and respiration in the gills and disturb normal intestinal function, thus serving as a starting point for different diseases.

  11. In vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles on acetaminophen - induced hepatocyte damage in Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjiappan, Selvaraj; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib; Chowdhury, Ranjana

    2015-06-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of gold nanoparticles (GNaP) biosynthesized through the mediation of Azolla microphylla and A. microphylla extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.). The gold nanoparticles (100, 150, 200 μg/ml) and A. microphylla extract powder (100, 200, 400 μg/ml) were added to the primary hepatocytes in different conditions: treatment I (before 12 mM acetaminophen), treatment II (after 12 mM acetaminophen), and treatment III (both before and after 12 mM acetaminophen), and incubated. Among these, control group treated with 12 mM acetaminophen produced significantly elevated levels (50-80%) of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), catalase (CAT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and significantly decreased the levels (60-75%) of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Treatment with methanol extract of A. microphylla phytochemically biosynthesized gold nanoparticles (100, 150, 200 μg/ml) and A. microphylla methanol extract powder (100, 200, 400 μg/ml) significantly improved the viability of cells in a culture medium. It also significantly reduced the levels of LDH, CAT, GOT, GPT, and MDA, and significantly increased the levels of SOD and GSH-Px. In conclusion, gold nanoparticles biosynthesized through A. microphylla demonstrated effective hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects than methanol extract of A. microphylla. PMID:25862331

  12. Hematologia de Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae e Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae mantidos em diferentes condições de manejo e alimentação no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil = Haematology of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae maintained in different conditions of handling and feeding from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ghiraldelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia do Nilo e Cyprinus carpio (carpa comum capturados em diferentes propriedades de Blumenau, Joinville e Ituporanga, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os resultados foram relacionados às condições de manejo e alimentação a que os animais estavam expostos. Além de ração, as propriedades A e C de Blumenau alimentavam seus peixes com vísceras de peixes, arroz cozido, sobras de alimento do restaurante e ração artesanal. A e C de Ituporanga eram caracterizadas pela consorciação com suínos como principal fonte de alimento alimento e em Joinville as propriedades caracterizavam-se pelo fornecimento de ração comercial como o único alimento aos peixes. O percentual de hematócrito e o número de eritrócitos nastilápias da região de Joinville foram maiores do que nas demais. Nas propriedades A e C de Blumenau e nas de Ituporanga foram observados os maiores valores na contagem total de leucócitos. As tilápias expostas a dejetos de suínos apresentaram também maior número delinfócitos. Os valores hematológicos de carpas não apresentaram variações significativas que pudessem ser relacionadas com o ambiente.This work evaluated the haematological parameters in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Cyprinus carpio (carp captured from the different owners in the cities of Blumenau, Joinville and Ituporanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The results were related to handling and feeding that the fish were exposed. Not only the ration, but also entrails, cooked rice, restaurant scraps and ration made in fish farm were used in the feeding of fish in the facilities A and C of Blumenau. However, A and C in Ituporanga were characterized by pigmanure as the main source of feeding. In Joinville the diet was characterized by ration as the main source of food. Hematocrit and the erythrocyte number were higher in fish from Joinville than the others. The highest

  13. Molecular Characterization and Histopathology of Myxobolus koi Infecting the Gills of A koi Cyprinus carpio, with an Amended Morphologic Description of the Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Myxobolus sp., morphologically resembling M. toyamai, M. longisporus, and M. koi, was isolated from the gills of a koi, Cyprinus carpio that died in an ornamental pond. Large plasmodia were localized within lamellae, causing severe disruption of the normal branchial architecture, sufficient to com...

  14. Effect of Astralagus radix on proliferation and nitric oxide production of head kidney macrophages in Cyprinus carpio: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo-Jun, Y.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Yue-Ming, L.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Pao, X.; Hong-qi, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro effect of Astragalus radix water extract onthe non-specific immune responses of macrophages isolated from the head kidney of Cyprinus carpio was evaluated. Astragalus radix extract stimulated the proliferation of the head kidney macrophages, and it alone had no effect on nitrogen burst

  15. L-肉碱强化卤虫对草鱼、鳙鱼和鲤鱼开口苗中长链脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of L-carnitine enriched Artemia on medium and long chain fatty acids composition in first feeding larvae of grass carp,bighead carp and common carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella,Aristichysn obilis,Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉珂; 蔺丽丽; 宋丹; 裴怀全; 朱成成; 张东鸣

    2012-01-01

    【目的】研究L-肉碱强化卤虫对草鱼、鳙鱼和鲤鱼开口苗中长链脂肪酸组成的影响。【方法】用0(对照,CK),1,100,1 000 mg/L的L-肉碱分别强化卤虫无节幼体(Artemia sp.)12 h,投喂3种鱼开口苗21 d,测定鱼开口苗体内的脂肪酸含量,分析中长链脂肪酸(C14-C24)的组成。【结果】草鱼和鳙鱼开口苗的1和100 mg/L处理组的C18∶2n-6、C18∶3n-3、C20∶4n-6、DHA和EPA含量较对照组显著增加(P<0.05);3种鱼开口苗的1 mg/L处理组的C14-C24脂肪酸总含量、饱和脂肪酸和单不饱和脂肪酸含量较其他3组大多显著降低(P<0.05);草鱼和鳙鱼开口苗的100 mg/L处理组的多不饱和脂肪酸、n-3+n-6族脂肪酸以及DHA+EPA含量较对照组显著升高(P<0.05);L-肉碱强化的卤虫对鲤鱼开口苗多不饱和脂肪酸、n-3+n-6族脂肪酸及DHA+EPA含量没有显著影响(P>0.05)。【结论】在本试验条件下,以100 mg/L L-肉碱强化卤虫无节幼体投喂鱼开口苗,可显著改善草鱼和鳙鱼开口苗的中长链脂肪酸组成,但对鲤鱼开口苗中长链脂肪酸组成的影响较小。%【Objective】Effects of L-carnitine enriched Artemia on medium and long chain fatty acids composition in first feeding larvae of three freshwater fish were studied.【Method】The experimental larvae were reared in a 50 L tank with stocking density of 40 fish/L at(25±1) ℃ for 21days.The newly hatched Artemia nauplii,enriched with 4 levels(0,1,100,1000 mg/L)of L-carnitine at(25±1) ℃ for 12 h,were used as starter food for rearing larvae.The medium and long chain fatty acids composition(C14-C24)in the experimental larvae were determined by GC and evaluated.【Result】Linoleic acid,linolenic acid,arachidonic acid,EPA and DHA content were significantly(P〈0.05)improved by feeding 1and 100 mg/L L-carnitine enriched nauplii than the control group in the first feeding larvae of grass carp

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES CONCERNING PARASITIC DIVERSITY OF COMMON CARP AND KOI CARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA RADU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments carried on ponds of CCDP Nucet, researches being axled on comparative and comprehensive analysis of pathologic incidences on common and Japanese carp. This researches present theoretical and empirical convenience, because allow to elaborate of prophylaxis and disease control on. The ichthyo-pathologic exam was carried on for 271 exemplars of common carp, subspecies Cyprinus carpio carpio and 31 exemplars of ornamental carp (koi carp. There were identified 30 species of allogenic parasites, 9 species of parasites characteristic for carp as well as some common species of parasites with broad dissemination on cultured fish. All analyzed exemplars of showed parasitic infestation, but with a different extent of extensively and intensively. The most important epidemiologic factors from the analyzed ponds that increase the parasitic invasions were represented by the presence of infested fish, rearing in policulture of species and ages, as well as by the high density, water quality, thermic and flow fluctuations.

  17. Fullerene inhibits benzo(a)pyrene Efflux from Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes by affecting cell membrane fluidity and P-glycoprotein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiqing; Hu, Xialin; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Jin; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-05-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) can protect cells by pumping out toxic compounds, and has been found widely expressed in fish tissues. Here, we illustrate the P-gp efflux ability for benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the hepatocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after exposing to fullerene aqueous suspension (nC60). The results revealed that nC60 increased the membrane fluidity by decreasing the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, and increased the cholesterol contents. These findings, combined with 10-38% and 70-75% down-regulation of P-gp mRNA and protein respectively, suggested that nC60 caused inhibition on P-gp efflux transport system. Therefore, we further investigated the cellular efflux ability for BaP. Results showed unequivocally that nC60 is a potent P-gp inhibitor. The retaining BaP amounts after efflux were elevated by 1.7-2.8 fold during the 10 day exposure. Meanwhile, 5mg/L humic acid (one of the important fractions of natural organic matter, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environment) alleviated the nC60 damage to hepatocytes in terms of oxidative damage, cholesterol increment, and P-gp content reduction; and finally attenuated the suppressed P-gp efflux ability. Collectively, this study provides the first evidence of nC60 toxicity to P-gp functionality in fish and illustrates the possible mechanism of the suppressed P-gp efflux ability for BaP.

  18. Analysis of koi herpesvirus latency in wild common carp and ornamental koi in Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Rong; Bently, Jennifer; Beck, Linda; Reed, Aimee; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R; Kent, Michael L; Rockey, Daniel D; Jin, Ling

    2013-02-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection is associated with high mortalities in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. Although acute infection has been reported in both domestic and wild common carp, the status of KHV latent infection is largely unknown in wild common carp. To investigate whether KHV latency is present in wild common carp, the distribution of KHV latent infection was investigated in two geographically distinct populations of wild common carp in Oregon, as well as in koi from an Oregon-based commercial supplier. Latent KHV infection was demonstrated in white blood cells from each of these populations. Although KHV isolated from acute infections has two distinct genetic groups, Asian and European, KHV detected in wild carp has not been genetically characterized. DNA sequences from ORF 25 to 26 that are unique between Asian and European were investigated in this study. KHV from captive koi and some wild common carp were found to have ORF-25-26 sequences similar to KHV-J (Asian), while the majority of KHV DNA detected in wild common carp has similarity to KHV-U/-I (European). In addition, DNA sequences from IL-10, and TNFR were sequenced and compared with no differences found, which suggests immune suppressor genes of KHV are conserved between KHV in wild common carp and koi, and is consistent with KHV-U, -I, -J.

  19. Two unisexual artificial polyploid clones constructed by genome addition of common carp (Cyprinus carp) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清江; 叶玉珍; 董新红

    2003-01-01

    A polyploid hybrid fish with natural gynogenesis can prevent segregation and maintain their hybrid vigor in their progenies. Supposing the reproduction mode of induced polyploid fish being natural gynogenesis, allopolyploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp into allopolyploid was performed. The purpose of this paper is to describe a lineage from sexual diploid carp transforming into allotriploid and allotetraploid unisexual clones by genome addition. The diploid hybrid between common carp and crucian carp reproduces an unreduced nucleus consisting of two parental genomes. This unreduced female pronucleus will fuse with male pronucleus and form allotriploid zygote after penetration of related species sperms. Allotriploid embryos grow normally, and part of female allotriploid can produce unreduced mature ova with three genomes. Mature ova of most allotriploid females are provided with natural gynogenetic trait and their nuclei do not fuse with any entrance sperm. All female offspring are produced by gynogenesis of allotriploid egg under activation of penetrating sperms. These offspring maintain morphological traits of their allotriploid maternal and form an allotetraploid unisexual clone by gynogenetic reproduction mode. However, female nuclei of rare allotriploid female can fuse with penetrating male pronuclei and result in the appearance of allotetraploid individuals by means of genome addition. All allotetraploid females can reproduce unreduced mature eggs containing four genomes. Therefore, mature eggs of allotetraploid maintain gynogenetic trait and allotetraploid unisexual clone is produced under activation of related species sperms.

  20. Physico-Chemical, Functional and Antioxidant Properties of Roe Protein Concentrates from Cyprinus carpio and Epinephelus tauvina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galla Narsing Rao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Roe protein concentrates prepared from Cyprinus carpio (CRPC and Epinephelus tauvina (ERPC were investigated for physico-chemical characteristics, functional properties and antioxidant activity. Cyprinus and Epinephelus roes yielded 19.5% and 21.5% of protein concentrates possessing 70.71% and 85.9% protein, respectively. Moisture sorption isotherms of roe protein concentrates indicated the non-hygroscopic nature of CRPC with initial moisture content (IMC of 8%, which equilibrated at 63% RH and hygroscopic nature of ERPC with IMC of 4.9%, which equilibrated at 42% RH. Water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, foam capacity and lower foam stability and emulsifying capacity were found in ERPC than in CRPC respectively. Maximum solubility of protein was 17.79% and 16.89% at pH 12, observed in CRPC and ERPC respectively. Higher buffer capacity was observed in both roe protein concentrates in alkali medium. Antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH radical scavenging activity was higher, and ferric reducing power was observed to be lower in ERPC.

  1. Tissue biochemical alterations of Cyprinus carpio exposed to commercial herbicide containing clomazone under rice-field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Roberta; Moraes, Bibiana Silveira; Loro, Vania Lucia; Pretto, Alexandra; Menezes, Charlene; Sartori, Gerson Meneghetti Sarzi; Clasen, Bárbara; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Marchesan, Enio; Zanella, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate toxicological responses of Cyprinus carpio exposed to the commercial herbicide clomazone (500 mg l(-1)). Fish were exposed to 0.5 mg l(-1) of the formulated herbicide for 7, 30, and 90 days. Fish were exposed to clomazone in field conditions (7, 30, or 90 days trapped in submersed cages together with rice crops) and in laboratory conditions where the fish were placed in 45-l tanks with tap water only for 7 days. Fish exposed for 7, 30, or 90 days showed no alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity under field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, decreased muscle AChE activity was observed only after 7 days of exposure. During the same evaluation period (7 days), oxidative stress parameters changed under both field and laboratory conditions; however, metabolic parameters were altered only under field conditions. Disorders in oxidative stress parameters and metabolism were evident in different tissues up to day 90 after treatment. These overall results show that AChE activity changed only under laboratory conditions. Oxidative stress, along with metabolic parameters, may be good indicators of herbicide contamination in C. carpio under rice-field conditions.

  2. COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

  3. ENTRAINMENT OF THE BREATHING RHYTHM OF THE CARP BY IMPOSED OSCILLATION OF THE GILL ARCHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGRAAF, PJF; ROBERTS, BL

    1991-01-01

    Artificial oscillation imposed onto the gill arches could modify the respiratory rhythm in the carp Cyprinus carpio. The degree of modification depended upon the frequency and amplitude of the applied movement. Oscillation at frequencies close to the spontaneous respiratory rhythm and at amplitudes

  4. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  5. VARIASI KOMBINASI TEPUNG LABU KUNING (Cucurbita moschata D.) DAN TEPUNG AZOLLA (Azolla pinnata R.br.) PADA KECERAHAN WARNA IKAN KOI (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Utami, Diah Ayu Tri

    2014-01-01

    Warna memegang peranan penting dalam menentukan kualitas ikan koi (Cyprinus carpio L.), bahkan dipandang sebagai komponen penting dalam proses seleksi ikan hias. Permasalahan yang sering timbul adalah memudarnya warna ikan bila dipelihara dalam jangka waktu yang lama. Penelitian ini menambahkan tepung labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata D.) dan tepung Azolla (Azolla pinnata R.Br.) ke dalam pakan buatan. Dengan penambahan tepung labu kuning dan tepung Azolla ini memungkinkan ikan memperoleh lebih ...

  6. Effect of mola (Amblypharyngodon mola Ham.) on the growth and production of carps in polyculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kohinoor, A.H.M.; Islam, M.L; Wahab, M. A.; Thilsted, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of introduction of mola (Amblypharyngodon mala) in polyculture with rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) was studied in semi-intensive culture system in the pond complex of the Fisheries Faculty, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Mala, a small indigenous fish was found to exert a negative impact on growth and production of carps. After four months' rearing, significant difference (P

  7. Impact of exotic carps in the polyculture with indigenous carps: competition for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiquee, M M R; Rahman, M F; Jahan, N; Jalal, K C A; Amin, S M N; Arshad, A

    2012-06-15

    The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp. PMID:24191618

  8. Trypanoplasma borreli cystein proteinase activities support a conservation of function with respect to digestion of host proteins in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruszczyk, A.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Jurecka, P.M.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanoplasma borreli is an extracellular parasite that is transmitted by a leech vector and is naturally found in the blood of cyprinid fish. High parasitemia and associated severe anemia together with splenomegaly are typical of infection of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Papain-like cysteine pro

  9. Hematologia de Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae e Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae mantidos em diferentes condições de manejo e alimentação no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i4.162 Haematology of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae maintained in different conditions of handling and feeding from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.162

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Maia Yamashita

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia do Nilo e Cyprinus carpio (carpa comum capturados em diferentes propriedades de Blumenau, Joinville e Ituporanga, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os resultados foram relacionados às condições de manejo e alimentação a que os animais estavam expostos. Além de ração, as propriedades A e C de Blumenau alimentavam seus peixes com vísceras de peixes, arroz cozido, sobras de alimento do restaurante e ração artesanal. A e C de Ituporanga eram caracterizadas pela consorciação com suínos como principal fonte de alimento alimento e em Joinville as propriedades caracterizavam-se pelo fornecimento de ração comercial como o único alimento aos peixes. O percentual de hematócrito e o número de eritrócitos nas tilápias da região de Joinville foram maiores do que nas demais. Nas propriedades A e C de Blumenau e nas de Ituporanga foram observados os maiores valores na contagem total de leucócitos. As tilápias expostas a dejetos de suínos apresentaram também maior número de linfócitos. Os valores hematológicos de carpas não apresentaram variações significativas que pudessem ser relacionadas com o ambiente.This work evaluated the haematological parameters in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Cyprinus carpio (carp captured from the different owners in the cities of Blumenau, Joinville and Ituporanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The results were related to handling and feeding that the fish were exposed. Not only the ration, but also entrails, cooked rice, restaurant scraps and ration made in fish farm were used in the feeding of fish in the facilities A and C of Blumenau. However, A and C in Ituporanga were characterized by pig manure as the main source of feeding. In Joinville the diet was characterized by ration as the main source of food. Hematocrit and the erythrocyte number were higher in fish from Joinville than the others. The highest

  10. Full length cDNA cloning and sequencing of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I gene from Cyprinus carpio var. jian%建鲤MHC class Ⅰ基因全长cDNA的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凯; 张成锋; 王建新; 李冰; 朱健

    2011-01-01

    采用同源克隆和末端快速扩增(RACE)方法克隆了建鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.jian)MHC class Ⅰ基因全长cD-NA并进行了序列分析.结果显示:实验得到了1914 bp的建鲤的MHC class Ⅰ全长cDNA序列;建鲤MHC class Ⅰ基因包括1044 bp的开放阅读框(ORF),118 bp的5'非编码区(UTR)以及752 bp的3'非编码区(UTR),含有保守的半胱氨酸残基,N-糖基化位点.氨基酸序列比对结果显示,建鲤MHC class Ⅰ与日本鲤的MHC class Ⅰ相似性最高,为66.0%;与虹鳟、大西洋鲑、青鳉、红鳍东方鲀的相似性分别为54.5%、57.9%、44.3%、42.0%,与小鼠、大鼠、人的相似性分别为29.1%、28.7%、29.7%.%Major histocompatibility complex(MHC) is one of crucial immune factors in vertebrates. The full-length eDNA of the Cyprinus carpio var. jian MHC class I that was cloned by homology cloning and RACE PCR approach is 1914 bp,The sequencing results showed that Cyprinus carpio var. jian MHC class I gene including 1044 bp ORF, 118 bp 5' terminal UTR and 752 bp 3' terminal UTR, and the conserved cysteine residues, N-glycosylation sites. The alignment result of aminoacids sequences showed that the identity between Cyprinus carpio var. jian MHC class I and Japan carp was 66. 0%which was the highest, and the identity with Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo salar, Oryzias latipes, Takifugu rubripes was 54.5%, 57.9%, 44.3%, 42.0%, and the identity with Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Homo sapiens was only 29. 1%, 28.7%, 29. 7%, respectively.

  11. Biomarkers of Cytotoxic, Genotoxic and Apoptotic Effects in Cyprinus carpio Exposed to Complex Mixture of Contaminants from Hospital Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Néstor, Corina G; Morales-Avila, Enrique; Gómez-Olivan, Leobardo M; Galár-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Neri-Cruz, Nadia

    2016-03-01

    Hospital wastewater is an important source of emerging contaminants. Recent studies emphasize the importance of assessing the effects of mixtures of contaminants rather than environmental risk of their individual components, as well as the determination of intrinsic toxicity of wastewater. Mixtures of pollutants has possible interactions that have notable environmental side effects. The aim of this study is an attempt to characterize biomarkers in Cyprinus carpio related to the exposure to a complex mixture of contaminants found in hospital wastewater. Results of a particular hospital effluent show the presence of traces of heavy metals, high chlorine concentration and emerging contaminants such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The LC50 was of 5.49 % at 96 h. The cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic biomarkers increase when fishes were exposed to wastewater (1/10 CL50) from hospital wastewater. This study emphasizes the importance of identifying and quantifying the effects of contaminants as pharmaceuticals, disinfectants and surfactants in order to design and implement an ecotoxicological plan. PMID:26754545

  12. ESTIMATION OF VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS IN THE FISH FLESH FROM WILD AND FARMED CIRRHINA MRIGALA AND CYPRINUS CARPIO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahid Mahboob; Bilal Hussain; Zahid Iqbal; Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of fish meat using gas chromatography is described. Flavor is the sensation arising from the interplay of the signals of sensing smell, taste and irritating stimuli from food stuff. For human, flavor and nutrition are inseparable. In fish, trace amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the major compounds to affect consumer's preference, which are produced during storage and spoilage. In the present study, volatile compounds were extracted by Likens-Nickerson con-current distillation apparatus from wild and farmed Cirrhina mrigala and Cyprinus carpio. The quantitative and qualitative estimation of volatiles was made by gas chromatography. Wild and farmed fish of different fish sizes were compared for these compounds (appearing in the form of peaks), which were identified from their retention time by comparing with the stand-ards. Fifteen major VOCs were found in these species which included hexadecane, 3-octanol, hexanal, decane, 3-hexene-1-ol, 2-undecanone, 2-heptanone, butanal, 2-nonanone, 1-heptanal, furaldehyde, 3-methyl-1-butanal, trans-3-hexene-1-ol, octanal and decanal. These compounds varied qualitatively and quantitatively in both wild and farmed fish of different fish sizes.

  13. Effects of chlorinated drinking water on the xenobiotic metabolism in Cyprinus carpio treated with samples from two Italian municipal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Silvia; Canistro, Donatella; Vivarelli, Fabio; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water (DW) disinfection represents a milestone of the past century, thanks to its efficacy in the reduction of risks of epidemic forms by water micro-organisms. Nevertheless, such process generates disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which are genotoxic both in animals and in humans and carcinogenic in animals. At present, chlorination is one of the most employed strategies but the toxicological effects of several classes of DBPs are unknown. In this investigation, a multidisciplinary approach foreseeing the chemical analysis of chlorinated DW samples and the study of its effects on mixed function oxidases (MFOs) belonging to the superfamily of cytochrome P450-linked monooxygenases of Cyprinus carpio hepatopancreas, was employed. The experimental samples derived from aquifers of two Italian towns (plant 1, river water and plant 2, spring water) were obtained immediately after the disinfection (A) and along the network (R1). Animals treated with plant 1 DW-processed fractions showed a general CYP-associated MFO induction. By contrast, in plant 2, a complex modulation pattern was achieved, with a general up-regulation for the point A and a marked MFO inactivation in the R1 group, particularly for the testosterone metabolism. Together, the toxicity and co-carcinogenicity (i.e. unremitting over-generation of free radicals and increased bioactivation capability) of DW linked to the recorded metabolic manipulation, suggests that a prolonged exposure to chlorine-derived disinfectants may produce adverse health effects.

  14. Effects of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) stocking and artificial feeding on water quality and production in rohu-common carp bi-culture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Wahab, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research showed that stocking 1.5 rohu (Labeo rohita) and 0.5 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) m¿2 yields the highest production in small holder ponds in Bangladesh. The present study looked into the effects of additional stocking of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica) in fed or non-fed ponds

  15. The Major Portal of Entry of Koi Herpesvirus in Cyprinus carpio Is the Skin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, B.; Raj, V. Stalin; Michel, B.; Fournier, G.; Thirion, M.; Gillet, L.; Mast, J.; Lieffrig, F.; Bremont, M.; Vanderplasschen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV), recently designated Cyprinid herpesvirus 3, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in koi and common carp. In the present study, we investigated the portal of entry of KHV in carp by using bioluminescence imaging. Taking advantage of the recent cloning of the KHV genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), we produced a recombinant plasmid encoding a firefly luciferase (LUC) expression cassette inserted in the intergenic region between open reading frame (ORF) 136 and ORF 137. Two viral strains were then reconstituted from the modified plasmid, the FL BAC 136 LUC excised strain and the FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain, including a disrupted and a wild-type thymidine kinase (TK) locus, respectively. In vitro, the two recombinant strains replicated comparably to the parental FL strain. The FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain was shown in vitro to induce a bioluminescent signal allowing the detection of single positive cells as early as 24 h postinfection, while in vivo, it induced KHV infection in carp that was indistinguishable from that induced by the parental FL strain. To identify the KHV portal of entry, carp were analyzed by bioluminescence imaging at different times postinfection with the FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain. These analyses demonstrated that the skin of the fish covering the fins and also the body is the major portal of entry for KHV in carp. Finally, to further demonstrate the role of the skin as the KHV portal of entry, we constructed an original system, nicknamed “U-tube,” to perform percutaneous infection restricted to the posterior part of the fish. All the data obtained in the present study demonstrate that the skin, and not the gills, is the major portal of entry for KHV in carp. PMID:19153228

  16. Potensi Fitoplankton sebagai Sumber Daya Pakan pada Pemeliharaan Larva Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio di BBPBAT Sukabumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Widiana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main problem encountered in producing larvae  is the larvae  that got low due to high mortality. One attempt to overcome this problem is the use of phytoplankton as natural feed. The purpose of this study is to determine phytoplankton community structure and potential as a resource phytoplankton feed on larval rearing carp. The research was conducted in April 2012. The results showed that the phytoplankton found in the larval rearing pond goldfish are Class Bacillariophyceae (1 genera, Chlorophyceae (13 genera, and Cyanophyceae (7 genera. Phytoplankton Chlorophyceae group is a group that has the highest abundance of larval rearing carp pond. Diversity index of phytoplankton in pond carp larvae ranged from 0.65 to 1.64 (Low Diversity. Based on the preponderance index carp larvae utilize phytoplankton as natural feed by selecting the class Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceaea in early growth until the time nursery a preponderance index value respectively 87.76% and 12.23%.

  17. Optimalisering van de groei bij de karper (Cyprinus carpio L.) : een op de visteelt gericht onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, E.A.

    1974-01-01

    In course of time carp culture - in Europe already practiced since the Middle Ages - has been subjected to different patterns of intensification e.g. fertilization of ponds and supplementary feeding. Mechanisation in pond farm management has also proved to be important.The aim of these measures has

  18. Activity of Superoxide Dismutase in Different Tissues of Cyprinus carpio var under Acid and Aluminum Stress%酸和铝胁迫对锦鲤不同组织SOD活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小玲; 洪华嫦; 王方园; 丁林贤; 林红军; 高杨

    2012-01-01

    This paper report on an experimental study about the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in carp's organs (brain, kidney and liver), which were exposed to aid and/or Al. The results showed that SOD activity of brain was remarkably inhibited the first day after the exposures to acid and/or Al; however, SOD recovered and returned to being almost normal the third day for the test group of joint exposure to acid and Al, and SOD recovered the ninth day for the test group of singly exposure to acid or Al. The effects of the exposure on SOD activity of kidney and liver of carp (Cyprinus carpio var) were also described.%该实验目的是研究酸(pH=5,Al=0 μg/L)、铝(pH=7,Al=800 μg/L)单独及联合(pH=5,Al=800 μg/L)作用下,锦鲤鱼脑、肾、肝超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性的反应变化情况.结果表明,与对照组(pH=7,Al=0 μg/L)相比,锦鲤鱼脑无论在酸、铝单独作用还是联合作用下,SOD活性在染毒第1天均显著降低(P<0.01),但随后酸铝联合组、单独作用组分别在3d、9d恢复正常;肾SOD则只有在酸铝联合作用下,且只有在染毒第1天产生显著抑制(P<0.01),随后也恢复正常;肝SOD则无论在何种情况下,均无抑制现象发生.

  19. Reutilización del agua residual tratada en la Unidad Académica Profesional Amecameca de la UAEM en la producción de Cyprinus carpio specularis para consumo humano. (“Sewage water second use, treated in Amecameca at the Academic Unit UAEM in the production of Cyprinus carpio specularis human intake”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Hernández, Armando

    2006-07-01

    July 2004 and finished in November 2005 consisted on the following: carp (Cyprinus carpio specularis was raised using the water coming from the UAP Amecameca treatment plant which has a electrofloculation anaerobic-aerobic process. The water was concentrated at 10% proportions (treated water physic and chemic factors were constantly measure (DBO5, DQO, OD, NH3-, NO2-, NO3-, pH, conductivity, temperature, suspended solids, dissolved solids, turbidityand biological factors ( totally coliforms and fecal coliforms. Carps were nourished also with feeding portions of corn, and worms both produced at the UAP Amecameca. Bird food was included too. It was concluded that when we used recycled water the carps obtained are human intake as stated by the Mexican Official Rule (NOM-112-SSA!-1004. However the quantity of production obtained was not as good as the one produced in a current water which parameters are just competent. Lab analysis reported the following parasites in the fish (Lernaea cyprinacea and acuatic louse (Argulus sp, a negative gram bacillus identified as Shigella boydi. Regarding the diet under the three intakes feeding the carps, and once the basic needs were covered body weight growth from Junuary to July 2005 as much as 35 g. minimum and 45 maximum. Results show that there was a slight body weight growth in those fish fed with corn and worm flour. However when variety of analysis was performed it did not show an important variation.

  20. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for the Toxicity of Substituted Benzenes to Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANG-HUA LU; CHAO WANG; XING YUAN; PEI-ZHEN LAN

    2005-01-01

    Objective To measure the 96h-LC50 values of 32 substituted benzenes to the carp and to study the relationship between quantitative structure-activity and structural parameters of chemicals. Methods The acute toxicity values of 32 substituted benzenes to the carp were determined in a semistatic test. The energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, and the highest occupied molecular orbital, the dipole moment and the molecular weight of substituted benzenes were calculated by the quantum chemical method MOPAC6.0. Results The range of the toxicity of studied compounds was broad, and the most toxic compound was pentachlorophenol, while the least toxic compound was 4-methylaniline. By the stepwise regression analyses, a series of Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) equations were derived from all compounds and subclasses. The equation log1/LC50=0.759logP +2.222 (R2 (adj)=0.818) was found to fit well and the average predicted percentage error was 6.16%. Conclusion The toxicity of anilines and phenols to the carp could be modeled well by logP alone, whereas the toxicity of the halogenated benzenes and nitrobenznes not containing hydroxyl or amino group can be controlled by hydrophobic and electronic factors.

  1. Toxicity of furadan (carbofuran 3% g in Cyprinus carpio: Haematological, biochemical and enzymological alterations and recovery response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathan Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Furadan, a carbamate pesticide is widely used in paddy fields and it has been detected in ground, surface and rain waters. In this study, fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio were exposed to different concentrations of furadan ranging from 25 to 50 mg L−1 for 96 h and the acute toxicity was calculated as 43.651 mg L−1. To assess the effect of furadan, fish were exposed to two concentrations of furadan (8.730 mg L−1, Treatment I and 4.365 mg L−1, Treatment II and certain haematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters were evaluated at the end of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods with a recovery period of 96 h. A significant (p < 0.05 decrease in haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (Hct, red blood cells (RBC, plasma protein and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT activity in gill, liver and kidney (except at the end of 96 h in Treatment I were noted in both the concentrations tested while white blood cells (WBC and glucose level were significantly increased after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure periods when compared to untreated groups. A mixed trend in mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT activity in gill, liver and kidney was noted. During the recovery study period (96 h MCHC and plasma glucose level was recovered to some extent whereas the other parameters remain altered. The alterations of these parameters can be used to assess the toxic levels of the pesticide furadan on aquatic biota.

  2. Behavioral Responses of the Freshwater Fish, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) Following Sublethal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos

    OpenAIRE

    Halappa, Ramesh; David, Muniswamy

    2009-01-01

    Common carp fingerlings were exposed to different concentrations (0.120 to 0.200 mg/L) of an organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (20% EC) for 96 h. The acute toxicity (LC50) of chlorpyrifos by static renewal (semi-static) bioassay test was found to be 0.160 mg/L. One-seventh (0.0224 mg/L) and one-fourteenth (0.0112 mg/L) of the 96 h LC50 were selected as sublethal concentrations for subacute studies. The fish were exposed to both the sublethal concentrations for 1, 7 and 14 days and allow...

  3. Experimental investigation of cobalt-60 accumulation and elimination in Cyprinus carpio (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When introduced in cation form, 60Co showed a distinct tendency to form anion or neutral complexes (50% and 20%, respectively); this was favorized by a high biomass content per liter of water. The ionic evolution of the radionuclide did not affect its accumulation level in the fish. Direct contamination predominated (70%) and the concentration factor at equilibrium was 10. Nutritional transfer from Limnaea to carp, after ingestion of 45 contaminated rations in 63 days, resulted in a low radionuclide retention factor (3 x 10-3) that was not subject to bioamplification. Cobalt-60 was primarily eliminated via urine (60%), while the fecal matter contained only 20% of the radioactive isotope ingested in the food. The 60Co content of carp contaminated from the water increased proportionally with the temperature. However, the 60Co concentration did not vary significantly with the thermal factor, and the radionuclide concentration factor ranged from 4 to 6 between 80C and 250C. Decontamination was generally a two-phase process characterized by a short biological half-life (60Co contained in the fish. The high 60Co content of the digestive tract may be explained by fecal excretion of the radioactive isotope (30-40% of the elimination). The kidneys act as radionuclide elimination regulators via the urinary system

  4. Receptor-Mediated and Lectin-Like Activities of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) TNF-¿

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forlenza, M.; Magez, S.; Scharsack, J.P.; Westphal, A.H.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wiegertjes, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Functional characterization of TNF- in species other than mammalian vertebrates is limited, and TNF- has been studied in a limited number of fish species, primarily in vitro using recombinant proteins. Studies on TNF- from different fish species so far pointed to several inconsistencies, in particul

  5. Beta-Glucan induced immune modulation of wound healing in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera

    but not in animals. β-glucans are commonly used as immune modulators, but the mechanisms through which the modulation is achieved remains to be understood. Wound healing and tissue regeneration are essential mechanisms to ensure the survival and health of any organism. Studies based in mammalian systems have shown...

  6. Β-glucan-induced stimulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during tissue regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    for extraction of damageassociated molecular patterns, handling and maintenance of cellular cultures, application of protocols for quantification of respiratory burst and the usage of real‐time quantitative PCR to quantify expression of genes of interest (IL‐1β, IL‐10, IL‐8, TNF‐α, TGF‐β, COL‐1A, MMPP9, FGFs...... and IGFs). This study will provide further understanding on the effect of β‐glucan as a modulator, which could improve fish welfare and health as well as having an economic potential for the production in aquaculture industry....

  7. Therapeutic Effect of Phyllanthus emblica on Disease Induced Common Carp Cyprinus carpio by Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valsa Judit Anto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fresh water fish are the important source of animal protein in human population. Fish can adapt themselves to adverse environmental conditions by changing their physiological activities. Immunostimulants like amla (Phyllanthus emblica has the additional effects such as enhancement of growth and increase in the survival rate of the fish under stress. Hematological studies on fish have assumed greater significance due to increasing emphasis on pisciculture and greater awareness on natural freshwater resources in the tropics. The present study focuses on the disease curing effect of the extracts of amla and its role on survival and mortality, opercular movement, oxygen consumption and hematological parameters, such as, leucocytes count and hemoglobin content.

  8. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758): Biochemical response

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Banaee; Behzad Nematdoust Haghi; Ahmed Th. A. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT)...

  9. Titin isoforms and kinematics of fast swimming carp larvae (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierts, I.L.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Titin, a striated-muscle specific protein spanning the distance between Z- and M-lines of sarcomeres, is held responsible for developing passive tension and for maintaining the central position of thick filaments in contracting sarcomeres. Different muscles express titin isoforms of different molecu

  10. Are fish immune systems really affected by parasites? an immunoecological study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Flajšhans Martin; Tolarová Soňa; Hyršl Pavel; Morand Serge; Rohlenová Karolína; Šimková Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The basic function of the immune system is to protect an organism against infection in order to minimize the fitness costs of being infected. According to life-history theory, energy resources are in a trade-off between the costly demands of immunity and other physiological demands. Concerning fish, both physiology and immunity are influenced by seasonal changes (i.e. temporal variation) associated to the changes of abiotic factors (such as primarily water temperature) and...

  11. 铜离子对转基因和非转基因红鲤行为的影响%Effect of Copper (II)on the Behavior of Transgenic and Non-transgenic Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈佳品; 薛良义

    2015-01-01

    在构建转基因红鲤的基础上,采用生物预警系统比较和分析了非转基因和转基因红鲤(Cyprinus carpio)在不同铜离子浓度条件下的游速和活动范围的变化。转基因红鲤和非转基因红鲤孵育自同一批受精卵,转基因红鲤体长(5.31±0.64)cm、体重(3.40±0.55)g,非转基因红鲤体长(4.58±0.59)cm、体重(2.40±0.58)g。Cu-SO4的浓度设置0(对照)、5、15、25、35和45μg/L共6组。生物预警系统包括储水池、数字摄像仪和数据运算处理器,可以记录鱼的二维移动轨迹,并计算出鱼的平均游速。试验结果表明,非转基因和转基因红鲤的平均游速分别为:对照组1、1.57 BL/s,5μg/L 组1.24、1.07 BL/s,15μg/L 组1.61、1.03 BL/s,25μg/L 组1.50、1.59 BL/s,35μg/L组1.62、1.61 BL/s,45μg/L组1.25、1.97BL/s。非转基因和转基因红鲤的活动范围:除35μg/L组外,其他组的坐标X值非转基因与转基因红鲤间差异都极显著(P<0.01);对照组、5和25μg/L浓度组,转基因红鲤坐标X值极显著高于非转基因红鲤;15和45μg/L 浓度组,非转基因红鲤坐标X值极显著高于转基因红鲤。低于45μg/L时,铜离子没有对转基因和非转基因红鲤产生明显的毒性;在45μg/L浓度组,转基因红鲤对铜离子不敏感,而非转基因红鲤较敏感。%Copper is a major contaminant in water,and can affect the behavior and metabolism of fish.Cyprinus carpio is a common ornamental fish,and capable of adapting to poor quality water.To date,the effect of copper (II)on the behavior of Cyprinus carpio has not been reported.After establishing transgenic Cyprinus carpio,we compared the swimming behavior of both non-transgenic and transgenic Cyprinus carpio under different concentra-tions of copper (II)ions.The average swimming velocity (ASV)and the range of activity of non

  12. Use of oxidative stress biomarkers in Cyprinus carpio L. for the evaluation of water pollution in Ataturk Dam Lake (Adiyaman, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Hasan; Fırat, Özgür; Fırat, Özge

    2014-03-01

    Adiyaman city, which is located in the north of the Ataturk Dam Lake, has no wastewater purification facilities which results in municipal, agricultural, and industrial wastewater discharges directly entering the reservoir. To assess the pollution in the dam lake, we used several oxidative stress biomarkers in blood tissue of Cyprinus carpio. Fish samples were taken from Sitilce, polluted area by untreated wastewaters, and Samsat, relatively clean area, in the reservoir in August 2012. The activity of catalase and level of malondialdehyde increased while activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione level decreased in fish from Sitilce site when compared to Samsat site. The findings of the present investigation suggest that the presence of certain prooxidative compounds that can lead to oxidative stress in the fish at the Sitilce site and oxidative stress biomarkers may be important in order to evaluate the effects of untreated wastewaters on living organisms in the dam lake. PMID:24381981

  13. Impact of low dose of organophosphate, monocrotophos on the epithelial cells of gills of Cyprinus carpio communis Linn.--SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, M S; Sharma, M L; Ravneet

    2007-07-01

    The paper deals with the deleterious changes at ultrastructural level of the epithelial cells of gills of Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. upon exposure to 1/10th of LC50 of monocrotophos which is considered to be insignificant concentration from toxicological point of view. The gills of the fish are the primary corridor formolecularexchange between the internal milieu of a fish and its environment. Gills perform numerous functions such as oxygen uptake and CO2 excretion, osmoregulation, acid-basic balance, excretion of nitrogenous compounds and taste. Hazardous chemicals present in water may alter the morphology of the epithelial cells of gills of the fish, which may affect the process of diffusion of gases and ultimately the overall health of the fish. To prove this fact Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. was kept in water for 30 days having low concentration of 0.038 ppm (1\\10th of LC50) of monocrotophos and an attempt was made to study the different types of degenerations produced in the epithelial cells of gills as compared to the normal epithelial cells of gills of this culturable fish using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) technique. The ultrastructural changes due to the toxic exposure at finer scale were thinning of microridges, upliftment of epithelial cells, development of hyperplasia, decrease in the density of mucous cells which are considered to be the first line of defence and total dystrophy of epithelial tissue. Thus, it is opined that a low concentration of monocrotophos has the potential to bring different type of degenerations at finer scale hence affecting the fish's health drastically and altering the fitness of the fish in water even having insignificant amount of this toxicant in the ambient water PMID:18380092

  14. 鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源变迁及其原因初探%Preliminary Investigation on the Changes of cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus Resources in Poyang Lake and Its Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱芳; 陈文静; 傅义龙; 周辉明

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to protect and exploit reasonably the resources of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus in Poyang Lake. [ Method ] Based on analyzing the data of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus resources in Poyang Lake from 1959 to 2006,the change situations of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus resources in Poyang Lake in nearly 50 years were studied. The causes of the changes were preliminarily investigated and some relevant measures were put forward. [ Result ] the individual size and age of sexual maturity had gotten smaller and smaller, although Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus have become the dominant population in Poyang Lake in the past fifty years. The resources showed the severe recession conditions. The causes were mainly due to low water level of Poyang Lake in dry season, water pollution, and over-fishing and illegal fishing gear and methods and other aspects. [ Conclusion ] The range of egg-laying field of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus in Poyang Lake should be confirmed. And the direct discharge of industrial sewage, municipal sewage and agricultural non-point Pollution in the basin of Poyang Lake should be strictly controlled.%[目的]保护和合理开发利用鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源.[方法]在分析1959-2006年鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源数据的基础上,分析近50年鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼资源变迁情况,并初步探讨了该变化的发生原因及相关应对措施.[ 结果]50来鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼虽成为优势种群,但其个体越来越小,性成熟年龄也越来越小,资源呈现出严重衰退状况.其原因主要是由于鄱阳湖枯水期水位过低,水质污染,加上过度捕捞以及非法渔具渔法的滥用等方面引起的.[结论]应明确鄱阳湖鲤、鲫鱼产卵场的范围,严格控制鄱阳湖流域工业污水、城市污水以及农业面污染源的直接排放.

  15. Relationship between IGF2a intron 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms and growth performance of Cyprinus carpio%鲤IGF2a基因内含子3的单核苷酸多态性与福瑞鲤生长性状的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏胜彦; 董在杰; 朱文彬; 袁新华

    2014-01-01

    Summary Carp production occupies important status in our country.As a new improved variety,FFRC strain carp (Cyprinus carpio) grows faster and has stronger resistance than other varieties of carp.Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) plays the role of a middle messenger for the growth hormone by single nucleotide polymorphism and expression variation.It has been expressed in a variety of species as well as in the carp.Two distinct genes encoding IGF2 peptides (IGF-2a,and IGF-2b)from common carp have been cloned and identified.This article investigated the carp IGF2a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and growth traits correlation between FFRC strain carp,intron 3 SNP of IGF2a gene about C.carpio var.FFRC strain carp as experimental materials.When they were grown up to 1 0 g,all fish were tagged by passive integrated transponder (PIT) approach.Then the same environment was created to rear such fish for five months using commercial feed. A total of 32 carp were selected randomly and measured to have the growth performance records from the concrete tanks in Yixing,which are affiliated to the Freshwater Fisheries Research Center,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences.These fish were slaughtered and immediately dissected to collect 50 100 mg breast muscle.After the DNA extraction and PCR amplification,using TaKaRa kits,the SNP and the relationships between such locus and C.carpio var.FFRC strain carp were analyzed by sequence and bioinformatics' software.The relationships between SNP detected and FFRC strain carp growth traits were also analyzed by SAS 8.0. In the present study,DNA sequence(468 bp)of common carp IGF2a intron 3 was isolated and 4 SNPs in common carp IGF2a were found and named by their location.Of them,heterozygous A/G genotype located 2 5 6 2 5 7 could reduce the body mass and body length of FFRC strain carp;nevertheless,the mass reduction rate is higher than the body length, however both body mass and body length reduction was not significant.The body

  16. Estimation de la survie des alevins de carpe (C. carpio au cours de leur premier mois d'existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOREAU J.

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available Des observations réalisées sur deux stations piscicoles de Madagascar, dans des étangs ne recevant ni engrais ni nourriture, révèlent qu'au cours de leur premier mois les alevins de carpe (C. carpio subissent des mortalités voi-sines de 50 %. Ces dernières sont encore plus élevées en début et en fin de saison de reproduction. Au début, les fortes mortalités sont dues à la température trop basse et aux disponibilités alimentaires insuffisantes ; en fin de saison de reproduction, la température trop élevée et la mauvaise qualité des œufs sont sans doute en cause. Une fumure adéquate des étangs de grossissement des alevins et une alimentation correcte des géniteurs permettront peut-être de diminuer ces mortalités.

  17. Morphological and quantitative analysis of myenteric plexus neurons of intestinal bulb of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae Análise morfológica e quantitativa dos neurônios do plexo mientérico do bulbo intestinal de Cyprinus Carpio. (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Marega

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The myenteric plexus shows morphologic and quantitative variability in the alimentary canals of different species of animals. We have quantified and analyzed the morphology of the myenteric plexus of ten adult Cyprinus carpio intestinal bulbs, by means of histological cross sections stained with HE and Van Gieson methods, as well as Giemsa-stained whole mount preparations. The myenteric plexus, located between the longitudinal and circular layers of the muscular tunic, is formed by isolated neurons and ganglia. Percentages of small, medium and large neurons were 21%, 63.4% and 15.6%, respectively, with a prevalence of intermediary cytoplasmic basophily and peripheral nuclei. Neuronal density in 6.92mm2 of intestinal bulb was of 2,040 neuronsO plexo mientérico apresenta variabilidade morfológica e quantitativa ao longo do tubo digestório das diferentes espécies animais. No presente trabalho quantificamos e analisamos a morfologia dos neurônios do plexo mientérico de dez bulbos intestinais de Cyprinus carpio, por meio de cortes histológicos corados com HE e Van Gieson e de preparados de membrana corados pelo método de Giemsa. O plexo mientérico foi localizado entre os estratos longitudinal e circular da túnica muscular, sendo constituído por neurônios isolados e por gânglios. As porcentagens de neurônios pequenos, médios e grandes foram 21%, 63,4% e 15,6%, respectivamente, predominando neurônios com basofilia citoplasmática intermediária e núcleo em posição periférica. A análise quantitativa revelou a presença de 2.040 neurônios/6,92mm2 de bulbo intestinal

  18. UJI APLIKASI VAKSIN HYDROVAC UNTUK PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT MERAH PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio DAN GURAME (Osphronemus gouramy DI BALAI BENIH IKAN PANDAK KABUPATEN BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Indrawati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Uji aplikasi vaksin ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian vaksin hydrovac terhadap perkembangan kesehatan ikan mas dan gurami, serta mendapatkan informasi tentang cara pengendalian, melalui tindakan pencegahan ikan air tawar yang terserang wabah penyakit Aeromonas hydrophila. Sebanyak 39 ekor ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio dengan bobot rata-rata 1 kg dan panjang rata-rata 30 cm dan108 ekor ikan gurami (Osphronemus gouramy L. dengan bobot rata-rata 250 g dan panjang rata-rata 10 cm yang berasal dari Balai Benih Ikan (BBI Pandak Kabupaten Banyumas, digunakan sebagai ikan uji. Vaksin yang digunakan adalah “vaksin hydrovac” yang diproduksi oleh Laboratorium Patologi Ikan. Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar, Bogor. Vaksin diaplikasikan dengan cara dicampur pelet dengan dosis 2--3 mL per kilogram bobot badan ikan yang diberikan selama 5--7 hari berturut-turut dan setelah satu bulan kemudian dilakukan vaksinasi ulangan (booster terhadap ikan yang telah divaksin dengan cara yang sama. Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa ikan baik ikan mas maupun gurame yang divaksin menunjukkan angka sintasan yang cukup tinggi apabila dibandingkan dengan ikan yang tidak divaksin. Mortalitas ikan uji yang tidak divaksin terjadi mulai minggu ke-5 dan ke-6.

  19. Effects of carbon nanomaterials fullerene C60 and fullerol C60(OH)18–22 on gills of fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In consequence of their growing use and demand, the inevitable environmental presence of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns about their potential deleterious effects to aquatic environments. The carbon NM fullerene (C60), which forms colloidal aggregates in water, and its water-soluble derivative fullerol (C60(OH)18–22), which possesses antioxidant properties, are known to be photo-excited by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. To investigate their potential hazards to aquatic organisms upon exposure to UV sunlight, this study analyzed (a) the in vitro behavior of fullerene and fullerol against peroxyl radicals (ROO·) under UV-A radiation and (b) the effects of these photo-excited NMs on oxidative stress parameters in functional gills extracted from the fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae). The variables measured were the total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The obtained results revealed the following: (1) both NMs behaved in vitro as antioxidants against ROO· in the dark and as pro-oxidants in presence of UV-A, the latter effect being reversed by the addition of sodium azide, which is a singlet oxygen (1O2) quencher; (2) fullerene induced toxicity with or without UV-A incidence, with a significant (p 1O2 generation; and (3) fullerol also decreased GCL activity and GSH formation (p 1O2 formation.

  20. The dynamics of the plankton for the second summer of carp polyculture with phytoplankton consumer species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GHEORGHE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The biologic processes in water are strictly dependent on physical-chemical factors. By maintaining the balances of the environmental factors, it can ensures the micro and macro fauna development with direct implication on breeding and developing the fishy material.The aim of this article was to monitor and register the plankton dynamics in six rearing ponds for the polyculture of carp (Cyprinus carpio with Asian complex species: silver carp (H. molitrix, grass carp (Ct. idella and bighead carp (A. nobilis. The experiment took place in six ponds of C.C.D.P. Nucet, during a period of 120 days.At the end of the experiment one determined that the evolution of both phytoplankton and zooplankton was in a close correlation with both the variation of physical-chemical factors as well as with thetechnology of the fishy material in these ponds.

  1. Supplementation of microbial levan in the diet of Cyprinus carpio fry (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to sublethal toxicity of fipronil: effect on growth and metabolic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Pal, A K; Sahu, N P; Jha, A K; Akhtar, M S; Mandal, S C; Das, P; Prusty, A K

    2013-12-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary microbial levan on growth performance and metabolic responses of Cyprinus carpio fry exposed to sublethal dose (1/10th LC₅₀) of fipronil [(±)-5-amino-1-(2,6-dichloro-α,α,α-trifluoro-p-tolyl)-4-trifluoromethylsulfinylpyrazole-3-carbonitrile]. Two hundred and twenty five fry were randomly distributed in five treatments in triplicates. Four purified diets were prepared with graded levels of microbial levan. Five different treatment groups were levan control L₀P₀ (basal feed + 0 % levan without exposure to pesticide); pesticide control L₀P₁ (basal feed + 0 % levan with exposure to pesticide); L₀.₂₅P₁ (basal feed + 0.25 % levan with exposure to pesticide); L₀.₅₀P₁ (basal feed + 0.50 % levan with exposure to pesticide); and L₀.₇₅P₁ (basal feed + 0.75 % levan with exposure to pesticide). Weight gain% and specific growth rate were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in levan fed groups compared to their non-levan fed counterpart. Highest (p < 0.05) content of ascorbic acid in muscle, liver and brain tissues was observed with higher level of dietary levan. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreased with the increasing level of dietary levan in the liver and muscle. Aspartate aminotransferase activity exhibited a second order polynomial relationship with the dietary levan, both in liver (Y = -1.001x² + 5.366x + 5.812, r² = 0.887) and muscle (Y = -0.566x² + 2.833x + 6.506, r² = 0.858) while alanine aminotransferase activity showed third order polynomial relationship both in liver (Y = 1.195x³ - 12.30x² + 35.23x + 9.874, r² = 0.879) and muscle (Y = 0.527x³ - 8.429x² + 31.80x + 8.718, r² = 0.990). Highest (p < 0.05) superoxide dismutase activity in gill was observed in the group fed with 0.75 % levan supplemented diet. Overall results indicated that dietary microbial levan at 0.75 % in C. carpio fry ameliorated the negative effects of fipronil and

  2. Observation on the Embryonic Development of Cyprinus carpio vat.color%瓯江彩鲤胚胎发育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚俊杰; 何登菊; 赵云龙; 牟洪民; 冯亚楠; 朱俊华

    2012-01-01

    经人工催产、人工授精获得受精卵,对瓯江彩鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.color)的胚胎发育过程和各发育时期外部形态特征进行系统观察,并研究了不同温度条件下其胚胎发育的特点.结果表明,瓯江彩鲤受精卵圆球形、淡黄色、沉性卵、强黏性;卵径为1.72 mm,吸水后卵径达2.67 mm;受精后开始形成卵间隙,且植物极的大于动物极的;卵间隙形成的过程中出现卵黄的收缩,略变小.瓯江彩鲤胚胎发育过程可分为8个大的时期,水温18℃时需98 h48min出膜,水温23℃和26℃时分别需要62 h 20 min、48 h45 min出膜.不同温度条件下,瓯江彩鲤胚胎发育早期(胚盘-原肠胚)在18℃恒定水温条件下存活率最高,发育后期阶段(神经胚-出膜)在23℃恒定水温条件下存活率最高.%The fertilized eggs were obtained by injecting exterior hormone into the parent fish and using artificial propagating technology, as well as the embryonic development and its morphological character under different temperatures were systematically observed in the present work. The results indicated that mature fertilized eggs were yellowish, elliptical, and strong viscosity as a kind of deep egg. The egg had an initial average size of 1. 72 mm, and bulged to 2. 67 mm in diameter after absorbing water. Immediately after fertilization, the perivitelline space started to develop, but the vegetal pole was larger than that at the animal pole. During the perivitelline space formation, the egg yolk of Cyprinus carpio var. color slightly shrank in size. The process of embryonic development could be divided into eight principle stages. The embryonic period from fertilization to hatching, lasted 98 h 48 min at 18℃ , 62h 20min at 23℃ and 48h 45 min at 26℃. The highest survivorship of the eggs to early stages (blastoderm-gashula) occurred at 18 ℃ , but to the later stages (neurula-hatchitig) the highest survivorship occurred at 23℃.

  3. The Anesthesia Effects of Clove Oil on Koi Carp (Cy prinus carpio)%丁香酚对锦鲤麻醉效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志明; 胡盼; 姜志强; 刘东超; 丁慧萍

    2014-01-01

    水温18~20℃条件下,测定了丁香酚对锦鲤的麻醉效果。锦鲤体长12~15 cm ,质量30~40 g。通过预试验设计的丁香酚质量浓度梯度为10、30、60、100、200 m g/L。根据锦鲤的行为特征变化将麻醉及复苏过程各分成五个阶段。试验结果显示,随着丁香酚质量浓度30~200 mg/L的逐渐升高,锦鲤达到A4期麻醉状态的时间由32.27 min缩短至4.10 min ,复苏时间由8.26 min延长至13.38 min (P<0.01)。30 mg/L丁香酚液麻醉锦鲤60 min以及60 mg/L麻醉30 min ,锦鲤复苏率均为100%;100 mg/L麻醉20 min ,锦鲤复苏率为60%;200 mg/L麻醉10 min ,锦鲤复苏率为80%,麻醉15 min ,复苏率仅20%。经丁香酚液深麻的锦鲤置于空气中,随着丁香酚质量浓度30~200 m g/L的逐渐升高,锦鲤苏醒弹动时间由2.1 min延长至25.8 min(P<0.05)。不同质量浓度丁香酚麻醉锦鲤24 h ,丁香酚质量浓度大于35 mg/L时,锦鲤全部死亡,30 mg/L时,复苏率为60%,丁香酚质量浓度为10、15、20、25 mg/L时,复苏率均为100%。分别用5、10、15、20、25 mg/L丁香酚液麻醉锦鲤,耗氧率及排氨率均随质量浓度的升高而降低( P<0.05)。试验结果表明,锦鲤麻醉运输适宜质量浓度为15~20 m g/L ,锦鲤人工操作适宜质量浓度100 mg/L。%T he effects of clove oil (10 mg/L ,30 mg/L ,60 mg/L ,100 mg/L and 200 mg/L ) on anesthesia was investigated in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) with body length of 12-15 cm and body weight of 30-40 g at water temperature of (18-20 ℃) .The anesthesia and recovery process were both divided into five stages according to the characteristics of the fish behavior .The anesthesia induction period was found to be shortened from 32 .27 min at 30 mg/L of clove oil to 4 .10 min at 200 mg/L of clove oil ,w hile the recovery time was found to be significantly prolonged from 8 .26min at 30 mg/L of clove oil to

  4. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  5. HEMATOLOGICAL BLOOD PARAMETERS OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARPS (CYPRINIDAE REARED USING FISH RANCHING TECHNOLOGY IN THE SOUTHERN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Volichenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the hematological characteristics of blood young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology in the southern Ukraine and to establish certain correlations between the main fish technical features of the studied groups of the young-of-the-year fish. Methodology. The studies were based on field and experimental methods adopted for fisheries, biochemical and statistical studies. Findings. The paper contains the data on mean fish weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of serum of young-of-the-year carps reared using fish ranching technology. Based on a comparative analysis of the obtained data, we detected significant peculiarities and qualitative difference in the absence of foam cells and basophils, which distinguish carp from the group of herbivorous fish, established significant correlations between mean fish weight and hematologic indices of blood. Marked by fish-breeding relationships with signs like weight and some parameters of blood components in all studied fish: hemoglobin in the range from 0.7858 to 0.9943, number of erythrocytes from 0.7843 to 0.9942, lymphocytes from 0.7848 to 0.9949, сholеsterol from 0.7640 to 0.9616 and triglycerides of 0.7499 in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and 0.9616 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio. To show these relationships graphically, we used regression analysis and the obtained regression equations can give an accurate assessment of the quality of fish seeds through hematological blood parameters and mean weight. Originality. The analysis of hematological parameters of blood of young-of-the-year carps: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella reared using fish ranching technology in the south of Ukraine was performed for the first time. Practical value. The obtained data allow scientifically recommending them as a component of

  6. Comparative thyroidology : thyroid gland location and iodothyronine dynamics in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Peters) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, E.J.; Nguyen, N.K.; Boogaart, M. van den; Spanings, F.A.; Flik, G.; Klaren, P.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    In teleosts, the thyroid gland is mostly found in the subpharyngeal region. However, in several species thyroid follicles are found in, for example, heart, head kidney and kidney. Such heterotopic thyroid follicles are active, and considered to work in concert with the subpharyngeal thyroid. In Moza

  7. Feminisation of young males of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4-tert-pentylphenol during sexual differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Komen, H.; Gerritsen, A.G.M.; Bowmer, T.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, a hierarchy of techniques has become available for detecting chemicals which may cause endocrine disruption in the aquatic environment. The molecular structure of a chemical provides a first indication about estrogenic activity, i.e. their likelihood of interfering with the female h

  8. The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) affects embryonic and larval development in common carp Cyprinus carpio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Pristin, M.G.; Ende, S.S.W.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of substances in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) may impair the growth and welfare of fish. To test the severity of contaminants accumulated in RAS, early-life stages of fish were used. Ultrafiltered water from two Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), one RAS with a high

  9. CULTIVATION OF CLADOCERAN (CLADOCERA FOR INCREASING PROVISION OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO WITH NATURAL FEEDS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tuchapska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Natural feeds are important in pond fish diet because they contain all nutrients necessary for fish growth and development. The share of natural feeds in fish diet has great effect on fish growth and immunity, assimilation of artificial feeds. The main way of assured procurement of natural feeds for fish feeding at different stages of their development is artificial cultivation of aquatic organisms. However, cultivation of natural feeds is not virtually performed in aquaculture enterprises of Ukraine, therefore an analysis of available data on zooplankton cultivation is important for looking for optimal and economically profitable methods of enrichment of pond fish diet with natural feeds. Methodology. Methods of cladoceran cultivation were the object of the study, material for the study – literature data on ways and methods of zooplankton cultivation. Findings. Cultivation of various species of zooplankton is performed for feeding of pond fish on different life stages. Main object of cultivation in aquaculture is Daphnia magna Straus, juvenile forms of which are consumed by fish larvae, while adult organisms are the most valuable for yearlings and older fish. The efficiency of hydrobiont cultivation highly depends on the selected object, containers, where cladocerans are cultivated, optimum conditions, peculiarities of water supply, species, and application of fertilizers and feeds. Originality. The highest production of zooplankton can be obtained when cultivating D. magna in tanks with continuous flow and in net cages installed in ponds under condition of ensuring requirements of the culture in bacterial and algae feeds (due to application of fertilizers and feeding with feeds and microalgae taking into account their presence in water, which is in the tank-cultivator. Practical value. Simplicity of the methods and high efficiency of zooplankton cultivation for preparation of pond fish juveniles is the basis of its wide use in current economical conditions. Cladoceran cultivation is especially important during the period of its active consumption by fish in summer months, when a depletion of the natural forage base occur in ponds.

  10. Plasma lactate and stress hormones in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during stepwise decreasing oxygen levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vianen, GJ; Van den Thillart, GEEJM; Van Kampen, M; Van Heel, TI; Steffens, AB

    2001-01-01

    By measuring the lactate response it is possible to determine whether a teleost is able to adapt to a certain oxygen level. It is hypothesized that recovery will occur at oxygen levels above the critical oxygen level (PO2)(crit) reflected by a transient lactate increase. In contrast, continuous lact

  11. 鲢、鲤和鲫肝细胞原代培养%PRIMARY HEPATOCYTE CULTURE OF HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX,CYPRINUS CARPIO AND CARASSIUS AURATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李效宇; 刘永定; 宋立荣

    2001-01-01

    @@微囊藻毒素(Microcystins)是一类淡水水体中危害很严重的生物毒素(Biotoxin),由微囊藻毒素所引发的环境问题及其对人类健康的危害正日益受到科学家的关注[1]。已知微囊藻毒素作用的靶器官为肝脏,以往的研究多集中在微囊藻毒素对动物肝脏组织的损伤,如口服或腹腔注射毒素,引起肝组织结构破坏、肝出血甚至肝坏死,但用整体实验动物或器官研究微囊藻毒素毒理学较难深入,因此建立毒理学实验模型十分重要。肝脏作为动物体内最重要的解毒器官,是研究微囊藻毒素毒理学的主要对象。一般毒理学实验都采用肝脏原代培养细胞,因为原代培养细胞生理生化及遗传特性稳定,适于研究外界毒物的毒性、毒理及肝细胞对毒物的应答和解毒机理。本实验通过对鲢(Hypophthalmichthy molitrix Carier et Valencienines)、鲤(Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus)和鲫(Carassius auratus Linnaeus)肝脏原代细胞培养,以建立稳定的毒理学实验模型,为微囊藻毒素毒理学研究奠定基础。

  12. First records of introduced carps (Teleostei, Cyprinidae in the natural habitats of Mirim and Patos Lagoon estuary, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre M. Garcia

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first record in the wild of occurrence of four carp species (bighead Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845, common Cyprinus carpio carpio Linnaeus, 1758, silver Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus (Valenciennes, 1844 in the Mirim Lagoon and Patos Lagoon estuary. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that during periods of elevated rainfall and freshwater discharge, exotic species could be easily transported from overflowed ponds and lakes into the Mirim-Patos Lagoon and then estuarine area.Este trabalho registra a ocorrência de quatro espécies de carpas (cabeça-grande Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845, comum Cyprinus carpio carpio Linnaeus, 1758, prateada Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844, e capim Ctenopharyngodon idellus (Valenciennes, 1844 em ambientes naturais da Lagoa Mirim e do estuário da Lagoa dos Patos. Os resultados reforçam a hipótese de que durante períodos de excesso de chuvas e elevada descarga continental, espécies exóticas poderiam ser facilmente transportadas de tanques de cultivos e lagos transbordados para a Lagoa Mirim e a região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos.

  13. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-09-01

    Biological invasions represent a serious threat for aquaculture because many of introduced parasites may negatively affect the health state of feral and cultured fish. In the present account, the invasive tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), which was originally described from North America and has been introduced to Europe including the British Isles with its specific host, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), is reported from Africa for the first time. Its recent introduction to South Africa, where it was found in four localities where common carp is cultured, is another evidence of insufficient prophylactic measures and inadequate veterinary control during transfers of cultured fish, especially common carp, between continents. Together with the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, A. huronensis is another fish tapeworm with ability to spread throughout the globe as a result of man-made introductions of its fish hosts.

  14. Assessment of synthetic organic compounds, and endocrinology and histology of carp in Lake Mead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevans, H.; Goodbred, S.; Miesner, J.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigated the presence and biologic effects of synthetic organic compounds transported by Las Vegas Wash to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Water, bottom sediment, and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed for synthetic organic compounds. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample the water column. Blood samples were collected from Carp for analysis of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. Samples of external abnormalities and organs (liver, gill, kidney, small intestine, and gonad) were collected for histologic analysis. Compounds known to affect endocrine systems (PAHs, phthalate esters, PCBs, dioxins and furans) were detected in SPMD, bottom-sediment, and/or carp samples. The number and concentrations of compounds generally were greater in samples from Las Vegas Wash and Bay, than in samples from Callville Bay, a reference site in Lake Mead. High levels of PAHs detected in SPMDs from Callville Bay could indicate the existence of contaminant sources other than Las Vegas Wash.

  15. Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos

    2014-04-01

    This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 μg/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 μg/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids.

  16. Determination of some heavy metals levels in common carp fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Abdulrahman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at fish laboratory of Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimaniya using commercial dry yeast in three concentration (0%, 3%, and 5% for 12 weeks to study their effects on concentration of some heavy metals (namely Cr, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mg of common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio. The experiment was included three treatments each in three replicates (plastic tanks in which 10 fingerlings common carp of the same size and average weight (3.5 gram were stocked in each aquarium. The actual experimental feeding trials lasted three months. Results indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals differ among the treatments.

  17. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV.

  18. Species Composition and Parasitic Characteristics of Parasites of Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus in Ergis River%额尔齐斯河鲤鱼寄生虫的种类组成及寄生特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓玲; 焦丽; 郝翠兰; 汪博良; 贾舒安; 岳城

    2012-01-01

    [目的]调查研究额尔齐斯河(中国段)鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus)寄生虫种类组成及寄生特性.[方法]按照鱼类寄生虫的常规调查及研究方法,于2009年4月至2010年1月分四季,对额尔齐斯河111尾鲤鱼进行剖检,分析其寄生虫的种类组成及其感染情况.[结果]共检出寄生虫8种,分别为伸展指环虫(Dactylogyrus extensus)、日本真双身虫(Eudiplozoon nipponicum,)、复口吸虫幼虫(Diplostomum larva sp.)、鲤蠢绦虫幼虫(Caryophyllaeus larva sp.)、线虫幼虫(Nematoda larva sp.)、泡吻棘头虫(Pomphorhynchus laevis sp.)、鳋(Ergasilidae larva sp.)、椭圆尾鲺(Argulus ellipticaudatus).隶属于4门、6纲、8目、8科、8属.[结论]伸展指环虫在夏季、秋季、冬季三季均有感染,感染率较高,Berge - Parker优势指数在群落中最大,为鲤鱼寄生虫群落中的优势种;泡吻棘头虫集中在春、夏季感染,感染率均大于10%,在春季的感染率最高;复口吸虫幼虫和鲤蠢绦虫幼虫都仅在一季发现,感染率和感染强度相对较高;日本真双身虫、线虫幼虫、鳋、椭圆尾鲺感染率和感染强度相对较低.%[Objective] The purpose of this project was to investigate and research the species composition and parasitic characteristics of parasites of Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus in Ergis River, China. [Method] By the routine methods of investigation and research on fish parasites, composition and infection in four different seasons from April, 2009 to January 2010, 111 Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus were anatomized to have their parasites species analyzed. [ Result ] The result showed that 8 species of parasites were: Dactylogyrus exten, Eudiplozoon nipponicum, Diplostomum larva sp. , Caryophyllaeus larva sp. , Nematode larva sp. , Pomphorhynchus laevis sp. , Ergasilidae larva sp. , Argulus ellipticaudatus. They belong to 8 phyla, 8 classes, 8 orders, 6 families, 4 genera. [Conclusion] Dactylogyrus extensus is the dominant species

  19. Inhibition Effect of Eugenol on Na+-K+-ATPase Activity in Brain and Spinal Cord of Cyprinus carpio%丁香酚对鲤鱼脑和脊髓中钠钾泵活性的抑制效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文渊; 吕世明; 谭艾娟; 林艳红; 安苗; 华夏; 李博岩; 焦亚琴

    2015-01-01

    为探明钠钾泵(Na+-K+-ATP 酶)是否为丁香酚作用的靶位之一,以了解丁香酚的作用机制和进一步开发利用提供参考,将体重900~1000 g、体长40~45 cm 的鲤鱼随机分为对照组(10尾,不含丁香酚乳剂的水溶液)和丁香酚处理组(30尾),测定其不同麻醉时期(诱导期、麻醉期和恢复期)鲤鱼大脑、中脑、间脑、小脑、延脑和脊髓中 Na+-K+-ATP 酶的活性。结果表明:经丁香酚麻醉后不同麻醉时期鲤鱼各脑和脊髓中 Na+-K+-ATP 酶活性均不同程度下降,丁香酚的抑制作用随麻醉程度加深而加强,在麻醉期时抑制作用最强,与对照组比,丁香酚处理组各脑和脊髓中酶活性在麻醉期性均极显著下降(P <0.01);与麻醉期比,恢复期除间脑和延脑外,其余各脑组织和脊髓中酶活性均呈极显著升高(P <0.01)。在麻醉的各时期丁香酚对鲤鱼各脑和脊髓中的 Na+-K+-ATP 酶有明显的抑制作用,对鲤鱼的麻醉作用可能与其抑制脑 Na+-K+-ATP 酶的活性有关。%The Na+-K+-ATPase activity in brain, midbrain, interbrain, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and spinal cord of Cyprinus carpio treated with eugenol at different anesthesia stages (induction stage,narcosis stage and restoration stage)was detected to probe the effect of eugenol on Na+-K+-ATPase activity and provide a reference for further development and utilization of eugenol.The results showed that the Na+-K+-ATPase activity in brain,midbrain,interbrain,cerebellum,medulla oblongata and spinal cord of C.carpio treated with eugenol reduces at different anesthesia stages to varying degrees, and the inhibition effect of eugenol increases with increase of anesthesia degree.That is,the inhibition effect of eugenol is the maximum at narcosis stage.The Na+-K+-ATPase activity in brain,midbrain, interbrain,cerebellum,medulla oblongata and spinal cord of Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus

  20. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  1. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Mahon

    Full Text Available In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish (Carassius auratus. All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  2. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  3. 鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)血清生长激素变化的酶联免疫吸附测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚; 陈丽华; 钟山; 李琦; 宋朝君; 金伯泉; 朱作言

    2008-01-01

    本研究的目标是纯化鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)生长激素,用于制备抗鲤鱼生长激素的单克隆抗体,建立鲤鱼生长激素的酶联免疫吸附测定(enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent assays,ELISA)技术,并用所建立的技术检测不同环境下养殖的鲤鱼的血清生长激素水平的变化.利用柱纯化技术纯化酵母表达草鱼(Ctenopharyngodonidella)生长激素,免疫新西兰白兔(Oryctolagus cuniculus),获得抗草鱼生长激素多克隆抗体.摘取鲤鱼垂体,从中提取生长激素,经层析纯化后,以变性聚丙烯凝胶电泳判断其分子量和纯度,并利用抗草鱼生长激素多克隆抗体以Western blot验证.纯化并经鉴定的鲤鱼生长激素作为免疫原被用于B淋巴细胞杂交瘤技术.共建立14株能够稳定分泌抗鲤鱼生长激素单克隆抗体的杂交瘤细胞系(FMU-cGH1~FMU-cGH14),其中8个克隆(FMU-cGH1~FMU-cGH6,FMU-cGH12和FMU-cGH13)成功用于Western blot分析,9个克隆(FMU-cGH1~FMU-cGH7,FMU-cGH9和FMU-cGH10)可用于荧光标记和免疫组织化学分析.利用竞争性ELISA进行表位分析,结果表明这些单克隆抗体能够识别5个不同的表位.利用其中的FMU-cGH12作为包被抗体,FMu-cGH6作酶标抗体,建立了能够检测鲤鱼生长激素含量的ELISA技术.这一检测系统被证明具有高度的稳定性和灵敏度,能够检测并定量低至70 pg/mL的生长激素.利用这一检测技术,发现限制进食和网箱养殖的鲤鱼其生长激素含量都有明显提高,分别为对照的6.9和5.8倍,显示不同生长环境下鲤鱼生长激素水平具有不同的反应.

  4. 建鲤基因组中一个ty3-gypsy反转录转座子的发现与分析%Isolation and analysis of aty3-gypsy retrotransposon from the genome ofCyprinus carpio var.jian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁炜东; 曹丽萍; 曹哲明; 邴旭文

    2016-01-01

    转座子是动植物基因组的重要组成部分,在前期研究中发现建鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.jian)基因组中存在一个ty3-gypsy反转录转座子类型的转座子,并将其命名为JRE转座子(Jian carp Retrotransposon, JRE )。为了研究JRE反转录转座子在建鲤基因组中的功能,采用 PCR 扩增、荧光定量 PCR 和原位杂交等方法对 JRE 转座子的特性进行了研究。JRE反转录转座子全长5126 bp,具有5¢端470 bp和3¢端453 bp长末端重复片段(long terminal repeat end, LTR),中间的开放阅读框(ORF)包括核心蛋白基因(gag)和酶基因区域(pol),其长度为4203 bp。pol基因具有典型的ty3-gypsy 反转录转座子结构,基因顺序为 PR-RT-RH-IN 基因。对 pol 基因的同源分析表明,其与虾夷扇贝(Mizuh-opecten yessoensis)、栉孔扇贝(Azumapecten farreri)、大堡礁海绵(Xiphophorus maculates)和斑剑尾鱼(Xiphophorus maculates)pol基因相似性分别为40.7%、40.0%、32.8%和30.1%,因此JRE可能属于JULE反转录转座子家族。采用实时定量 PCR对 JRE 转座子在建鲤基因组内的拷贝数进行了测定,结果表明其拷贝数为124,同时对不同组织中的mRNA表达量的研究表明, JRE转座子在建鲤肝、肾、血、肌肉、性腺5种组织中均有表达,在肾和肝中表达量略高。染色体原位杂交结果表明, JRE转座子在建鲤的染色体上随机分布,没有明显的规律性。本研究表明, JRE转座子具有典型的反转录转座子结构,属于JULE转座子的分枝,在染色体上的分布不多,其转录活性并不是很高,对我们了解建鲤基因组构成和特点增加了知识储备,同时为利用转座子的活性进行转基因研究提供了一种新的途径和工具。%Transposable elements are major constituents of eukaryote genomes and have a significant effect on genome structure and stability. They also contribute to the genetic diversity and evolution of organisms. Knowledge of their distribution

  5. 鲤肠道小肽转运载体PepT1多克隆抗体的制备及其组织表达分析%Preparation of the antibody and tissue distribution of the peptide transporter PepT1 inCyprinus carpio L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫潇; 杨丽萍; 郑文佳; 孙君君; 卢荣华; 聂国兴

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a PepT1 antibody for fish has hindered analysis of PepT1 protein expression by immune tissue chemistry or western blot. We analyzed the expression and distribution of PepT1 in Cyprinus carpio L. at the transcriptional and protein levels. The immunogenic cDNA of PepT1 was obtained by PCR and the fragments were inserted into a pET-32a (+) Vector and transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta. The target polypeptide was expressed after induction with 1‰ IPTG. The molecular weight of the recombinant protein was measured by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The purified PepT1 recombinant protein was used to immunize New Zealand long-eared rabbits by ear vein injection combined with subcutaneous injection for 38 d to obtain rabbit anti carp PepT1 polyclonal antibody. Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate the antibody titers, immunohistochemistry was used to check the tissue expression of PepT1, and real-time fluorescent quanti-tative PCR was used to evaluate the expression of PepT1 at the transcriptional level. The molecular weight of the target polypeptide was ~28 kDa, and the antibody titer was 4×105, suggesting that activity was high. The PepT1 protein was expressed in the foregut, midgut, hindgut, spleen, hepatopancreas, and kidneys. The level of expres-sion was remarkably higher in the foregut and midgut than in other tissues, which may be due to their roles in ab-sorption of peptides during digestion. The positive immune staining region in the renal tissue was obvious and clear, and consistent with short peptides being re-absorbed by PepT1 distributed on the renal tubular basement membrane. Additionally, the PepT1 transporter was also expressed in the hepatopancreas and spleen, both metab-olically active tissues in carp. In conclusion, the rabbit anti-carp PepT1 polyclonal antibody prepared in this study can effectively identify PepT1 from different tissues of carp. The expression pattern of PepT1 is similar to that at the

  6. Histological Investigations on an Intestinal Level in Common Carp, One Summer Old, Fed with Organic Selenium (Selplex) Supplemented Fodder

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel Şara; Alina Rodica Ani (Toma); Florin Molnar; Erol Gabor

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex) on the intestinal mucosa and theimpact on the growth and consumption performances in one summer old common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Lausitzand Galitian varieties. The research were conducted on a number of 392 fish, Lausitz variety divided in 2 groups andon 192 fish, Galitian variety, divided into 2 groups. The fish were raised in 2 ponds (one pond for the control groupand one pond for the experimental group), in...

  7. ABUNDANCE OF FOUR EXOTIC FISH SPECIES CYPRINUS CARPIO, CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA, HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS IN THE URPOD BEEL OF GOALPARA DISTRICT OF ASSAM

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Choudhury; Puranjit Das; Umesh C.Goswami

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the abundance of four exotic fish namely, common carp, grass carp, silver carp and bighead carp in the Urpod beel of Goalpara district of Assam. The Urpod beel has a rich ichthyofaunal diversity and available almost all native fish species of Assam. During last few years the beel become habitat of some exotic fish species and their numberhas been increasing day by day, causes disturbances to the native fish species. The rate of exotic fish infesta...

  8. Tracing the biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in common carp (Cryprinus carpio): Enantiomeric fraction and compound-specific stable carbon isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Sun, Run-Xia; Chen, Hua-Shan; Li, Zong-Rui; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-09-01

    Metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish are difficult to detect in vivo due to the complexity of biometabolism. In the present study, atropisomeric fraction analysis of chiral PCB congeners and compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) were applied to trace the biotransformation of PCBs in fish by exposure of common carp (Cryprinus carpio) to the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1242. Stereoselective elimination of the chiral PCB congeners 91, 95, and 136 was observed, indicating a stereoselective biotransformation process. The δ(13)C values of PCBs 5/8, 18, and 20/33 in fish were increased compared with those in the spiked food, while PCBs 47/48 and 49 showed significant heavy isotope depletion. These results suggested a significant biotransformation of the corresponding individual PCB congeners although the potential PCB metabolites, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and methylsulfone PCBs (MeSO2-PCBs), were not detected in the fish tissue samples throughout this experiment. The results of the present study demonstrated that a combination of chiral analysis and CSIA is a promising new approach for investigating the biotransformation of PCBs in biota. PMID:27341148

  9. Effects of M-cresol on Activity of Total ATPase During the Early Development of Cyprinus carpio var.color%间甲酚对瓯江彩鲤早期发育总 ATP 酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊华; 梁琍; 姚俊杰; 冯亚楠

    2014-01-01

    Activity of total adenosine triphosphatase ( ATPase) was determined during the early development of Cyp-rinus carpio var.color exposed to 7 mg/L, 13 mg/L and 19 mg/L m-cresol at the temperature of (20 ±2)℃.The influence of m-cresol on the total ATPase was analyzed through biochemical and static toxicological methods .The results showed that the activity of total ATPase had no significant difference in the fertilized eggs and the mature eggs of Cyprinus carpio var.color( P>0.05) .However, the activities of total ATPase in all treatment groups dem-onstrated obvious dose-effect relationship and stage-effect relationship in response to m-cresol during the early de-velopment of Cyprinus carpio var.color.In general, the activity of total ATPase decreased with the extension of de-velopmental time and increasing of m-cresol concentration from gastrula stage of the early development of Cyprinus carpio var.color.%在水温(20±2)℃条件下,设置7 mg/L、13 mg/L、19 mg/L的间甲酚(m-cresol)浓度梯度,研究了瓯江彩鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.color)早期发育过程中总ATP酶活性变化及间甲酚对总ATP酶影响。结果表明,瓯江彩鲤总ATP酶活性在成熟卵和受精卵中无显著差异(P>0.05);各浓度组总ATP酶活性表现为良好的剂量-效应和发育时期-效应关系;总体上看,瓯江彩鲤早期发育从原肠胚期开始,总ATP酶活性随着发育时间的延长和暴露浓度的增加而降低。

  10. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF CARP REARING DURING WINTER PERIOD IN THE CONDITIONS OF A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. STEFAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of carp culture are highly diversified, ranging from the extensive production in pond or open water with no fertilization or supplemental feeding to highly intensive systems in concrete tanks or cages. Among the different carp species, common carp is the best species reared in intensive monoculture, the others (Chinese and Indian carps being usually cultivated in polyculture (P. Kestemont, 1995. An experiment was conducted in inside recirculation system conditions to identify the technological performances on carp growth and survival at the Fishing and Aquaculture Department, Galati, during winter period (February, 2007 – March, 2007. The 1-year-old carp (Cyprinus carpio 4792g; 4594 g; 4561 g and 4525 g (total weight grew to 7384g; 7017g; 6924g and 7125 g in 44 days in aquarium 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In all aquariums, the fish appeared healthy and no mortality was observed. Feed conversion efficiencies (FCE had similar values among all aquariums, the highest FCE being found in B4 aquarium with 1, 57 value. Water quality parameters were acceptable range for fish culture. Results show that the carp rearing during winter period in the inside recirculation system is a very good economic solution.

  11. Effects of cottonseed meal hydrolysate on growth performance and biochemical indices of Cyprinus carpio var.Jian%棉粕酶解蛋白肽对建鲤生产性能和生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏薇; 刘文斌; 乔秋实; 李贵锋; 张永静

    2012-01-01

    以2%棉粕酶解蛋白肽(以下简称蛋白肽)分别等质量替代基础日粮中2%鱼粉和2%植物蛋白原料(1.0%豆粕+0.5%菜粕+0.5%棉粕),考察蛋白肽对(48.56±1.39)g建鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.Jian)生长性能、血清及肠道相关酶活的影响.结果表明:蛋白肽替代鱼粉或植物蛋白后试验组增重率和特定生长率均显著性高于对照组(P<0.05),同时饵料系数显著降低(P<0.05);蛋白肽可降低脏体比和肝体比,并显著性提高鱼体粗蛋白含量(P<0.05);同时可提高试验组建鲤血清溶菌酶、碱性磷酸酶和肠道中蛋白酶的活性.%The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary protein resources replaced by cottonseed meal hydrolysate on growth performance, serum biochemical indices and intestinal digestive enzyme activities of Cyprinus carpio var. Jian (48. 56 ± 1. 39) g. Fish were divided into 3 groups and fed with different diets. Group I was fed with basal diet, group H with the basal diet in which 2% fish meal was replaced by equivalent cottonseed meal hydrolysate, and group Ⅲ with the basal diet in which 2% plant protein resources (1 % soybean meal + 0. 5% rapeseed meal +0.5% cottonseed meal) was replaced by equivalent cottonseed meal hydrolysate. The result showed that weight gain ratios and specific growth rates of group Ⅱ and Ⅲ were significantly higher than that of group I ( P < 0. 05 ). Feed conversion ratios of group Ⅱ and Ⅲ were significantly lower than that of group I ( P < 0. 05 ). Viscera somatic index and hepato somatic index of group Ⅱ and Ⅲ were lower than that of group I . Protein contents of whole fish of group Ⅲ and Ⅲ were significantly higher than that of group I ( P < 0. 05 ). Activities of Lysozyme, Alkaline phosphatase in serum and protease in intestine of group Ⅱ and Ⅲ were higher than that of group Ⅰ.

  12. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  13. Magnetic alignment in carps: evidence from the Czech christmas fish market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hart

    Full Text Available While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential.

  14. Influence of Interposition of Pink Muscle Fiber into Dorsal Ordinary Muscle on Increasing Rate of K-value in Carp (Cultured)

    OpenAIRE

    Osamu, Yada; Mutsuhide, Tsuchimoto; Mutsuyosi, Tsuchimoto; Qin, Wang; Paula, Andrea, Gomez, Apablaza; Abdul, Jabarsyah; Katsuyasu, Tachibana

    2002-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of the interposition of pink muscle fiber into the dorsal ordinary muscle on the post-mortem temporal change of K-value, using carp (cultured) Cyprinus carpio, the dorsal muscle was divided into five muscle parts toward depth with the naked eye, as follows: the dark muscle part (P-1), the intermediate muscle part (P-2), and three ordinary muscle parts (P-3, P-4, P-5). The muscle fiber types in these parts were discriminated by the inactivation of actomyosin A...

  15. 冷藏鲤鱼和罗非鱼优势腐败菌腐败能力分析%Analysis of Spoilage Ability of Dominant Spoilage Bacteria from Stored Chilled Cyprinus carpio and Oreochromis niloticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许振伟; 李学英; 杨宪时; 郭全友; 姜朝军

    2012-01-01

    通过分析接种腐败菌的鲤鱼和罗非鱼无菌鱼块贮藏中感官、腐败代谢产物和腐败菌的变化,以腐败菌的生长动力学参数和腐败代谢产物的产量因子(YTVBN/CFU)为指标,探讨冷藏鲤鱼和罗非鱼优势腐败菌假单胞菌和腐败希瓦氏菌的腐败能力。结果表明:接种腐败希瓦氏菌和恶臭假单胞菌的鲤鱼无菌鱼块的货架期分别为132h和162h,此时的TVBN值为27.12mg/100g和22.51mg/100g,腐败希瓦氏菌和恶臭假单胞菌菌数为8.961g(CFu/g)和9.071g(CFU/g),产量因子YTVBN/CFU为9.28×10^-9mgTVBN/CFU和1.81×10^-8mgTVBN/CFU。接种荧光假单胞菌和腐败希瓦氏菌的罗非鱼无菌鱼块的货架期分别为132h和144h,此时的TVBN值为23.46mg/100g和24.30mg/100g,荧光假单胞菌和腐败希瓦氏菌菌数为8.831g(CFU/g)和9.121g(CFU/g),产量因子YIWBNICWJ为1.67×10^-8mgTvBN/CFU和9.10×10^-9mgTVBN/CFU。结合两种养殖鱼冷藏过程中的菌相变化和腐败菌在腐败过程中的作用,初步得出冷藏罗非鱼和鲤鱼的特定腐败菌是假单胞菌,两种腐败菌都具有较强的腐败能力。%Sensory quality, the growth kinetic parameters of spoilage bacteria and the yield factor of metabolic products, YTVBN/CFU, were assayed on sterile Cyprinus carpio and Oreochromis niloticus tissue blocks inoculated with spoilage bacteria during chilled storage. The spoilage ability of two dominant spoilage bacteria, Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella putrefaciens, were analyzed on Cyprinus carpio and Oreochromis niloticus stored aerobically under chilled conditions. The post-inoculation shelf-lives of sterile Cyprinus carpio tissue blocks inoculated with Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas putida were 132 h and 162 h, respectively, the TVBNs 27.12 mg/100 g and 22.51 mg/100 g, the bacterial counts 8.96 lg(CFU/g) and 9.07 lg(CFU/ g) and the YTWBN/CFU values 9.28

  16. 建鲤催乳素基因全长cDNA的克隆及序列分析和组织表达%Full-length cDNA cloning and tissue expression of PRL from Cyprinus carpio var. Jian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰; 李冰; 张成锋; 朱健

    2012-01-01

    To reveal the gene sequences of prolactin and its expression in osmotic regulation tissue of Cyprinus carpio var.Jian,the full-length cDNA encoding prolactin was cloned from Cyprinus carpio var.Jian using homology cloning and RACE PCR approach.The prolactin was 1 028 bp in length,including 51 bp 5'terminal UTR,633 bp encoding region and 344 bp 3'terminal UTR.Phylogenetic analysis using MEGA 4 software showed that the putative prolactin amino acid sequence and other teleosts have the high similarity of 55.02%-94.76%.The prolactin amino acid sequence of Cyprinus carpio var.Jian and that of Ctenopharyngodon idella were close to each other in similarity of 94.76%.For other fishes,the similarity was 94.26%,90.00%,70.53%,70.53%,65.70%,63.90%,63.29%,62.93%,62.38%,62.32%,55.02% with Schizothorax prenanti,Danio rerio,Salmo salar,Oncorhynchus mykiss,Anguilla japonica,Oreochromis Niloticus,Epinephelus coioides,Acanthopagrus schlegelii,Paralichthys olivaceus,Sparus aurata,Takifugu rubripes,respectively.Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that prolactin genes were expressed in the pituitary,brain,liver,kidney,intestines,gonad,spleen and gills.The prolactin transcript was detected at a high level in pituitary,moderate in brain,gills,spleen,liver,kidney and intestines,and low in gonad.This suggests that the pituitary gland is the main expression site of prolactin in Cyprinus carpio var.Jian.The prolactin transcript was detected in the gonads,liver,and spleen suggests that there may exist many physiological functions about prolactin in fish.%为了解催乳素(prolactin,PRL)的基因序列以及在建鲤渗透调节组织中的表达情况,采用同源克隆和末端快速扩增(rapidamplication of cDNA ends,RACE)的方法分离克隆了建鲤(Cyprinuscarpio var.Jian)PRL基因全长cDNA,得到1 028bp的全长cDNA,包括633bp的开放阅读框(ORF),51bp的5′末端非编码区(UTR)以及344bp的3′末端非编码区(UTR)。对该基因序列和

  17. ABUNDANCE OF FOUR EXOTIC FISH SPECIES CYPRINUS CARPIO, CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA, HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS IN THE URPOD BEEL OF GOALPARA DISTRICT OF ASSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Choudhury

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find out the abundance of four exotic fish namely, common carp, grass carp, silver carp and bighead carp in the Urpod beel of Goalpara district of Assam. The Urpod beel has a rich ichthyofaunal diversity and available almost all native fish species of Assam. During last few years the beel become habitat of some exotic fish species and their numberhas been increasing day by day, causes disturbances to the native fish species. The rate of exotic fish infestation in the beel was determined through field investigation and catch record from January 2011 to December 2011 in the fish landing centres of the beel. Abundance Index was calculated for the four exotic species from each catch data. A marked seasonal variation of the fish catch of native and exotic fishes was noticed. Among the four exotic species common carp recorded highest catch (4.99% of total catch and bighead recorded lowest (2.84% of total catch.

  18. Comparative mapping for bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) against model and non-model fishes provides insights into the genomic evolution of cyprinids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuankun; Tong, Jingou; Yu, Xiaomu; Guo, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Comparative mapping provides an efficient method to connect genomes of non-model and model fishes. In this study, we used flanking sequences of the 659 microsatellites on a genetic map of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to comprehensively study syntenic relationships between bighead carp and nine model and non-model fishes. Of the five model and two food fishes with whole genome data, Cyprinus carpio showed the highest rate of positive BLAST hits (95.3 %) with bighead carp map, followed by Danio rerio (70.9 %), Oreochromis niloticus (21.7 %), Tetraodon nigroviridis (6.4 %), Gasterosteus aculeatus (5.2 %), Oryzias latipes (4.7 %) and Fugu rubripes (3.5 %). Chromosomal syntenic analyses showed that inversion was the basic chromosomal rearrangement during genomic evolution of cyprinids, and the extent of inversions and translocations was found to be positively correlated with evolutionary relationships among fishes studied. Among the five investigated cyprinids, linkage groups (LGs) of bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idella exhibited a one-to-one relationship. Besides, LG 9 of bighead carp and homologous LGs of silver carp and grass carp all corresponded to the chromosomes 10 and 22 of zebrafish, suggesting that chromosomal fission may have occurred in the ancestor of zebrafish. On the other hand, LGs of bighead carp and common carp showed an approximate one-to-two relationship with extensive translocations, confirming the occurrence of a 4th whole genome duplication in common carp. This study provides insights into the understanding of genome evolution among cyprinids and would aid in transferring positional and functional information of genes from model fish like zebrafish to non-model fish like bighead carp. PMID:25627158

  19. Draining and liming of ponds as an effective measure for containment of CyHV-3 in carp farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Agnes; Fabian, Marc; Runge, Martin; Böttcher, Kerstin; Bräuer, Grit; Füllner, Gert; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    Infections of common carp Cyprinus carpio and koi, its coloured morphotypes, with the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can induce severe clinical signs and increased mortality in affected stocks. This may significantly challenge the economic basis of carp farming in Central Europe. To limit virus spread in carp farms, effective disinfection measures for ponds stocked with infected populations are required. In the traditional European pond aquaculture of carp, draining and liming of ponds with quicklime (CaO) up to pH 12 is a well-established disinfection measure against various pathogens. The present field study investigated whether these measures are sufficient for the inactivation of CyHV-3 infectivity in carp ponds. After draining and liming, the ponds were stocked with carp fry from a CyHV-3-negative stock, and 2 ponds were examined for the presence of CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences during the growth period of the carp and in the harvested stock. Wild fish (from the ponds, and feeder and drainage canals) and water samples (from the ponds) were also examined for CyHV-3-specific DNA sequences; and naïve carp were cohabited with wild fish, or exposed to the pondwater samples, to test for the presence of infectious virus. All examined samples remained negative for CyHV-3 throughout the study. This indicates that draining and liming with quicklime can be a suitable disinfection measure for ponds after a CyHV-3 outbreak in carp aquaculture. PMID:27503923

  20. A dense genetic linkage map for common carp and its integration with a BAC-based physical map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. RESULTS: The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. CONCLUSION: We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for

  1. Induction of gynogenesis in red crucian carp using spermatozoa of blunt snout bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuandong; LIU Yun; TAO Min; LIU Shaojun; ZHANG Chun; DUAN Wei; SHEN Jiamin; WANG Jing; ZENG Chen; LONG Yu

    2007-01-01

    Gynogenetic diploid was induced in red crucian carp (RCC) ( Carassius auratus Red Variety) eggs using UV-irradiated spermatozoa from blunt snout bream (B) (Megalobrama amblycephala ) or from mirror carp (C) (Cyprinus carpio. L). Spermatozoa were genetically inactivated by an appropriate UV dosage, and then the maternal DNA was duplicated with cold shock at 0-4 ℃. When using the spermatozoa of B, the fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival at first feeding were 52.6 ± 3.0 %, 23.6 ± 4.1 % and 15.7 ± 3.4 %, respectively, and the survival at first feeding was significantly higher than that ( 11.3 ± 2.2 % ) when using the spermatozoa of C (Cyprinus carpio. L). According to the morphological characteristics, the chromosome number and the degree of gonadal development, gynogenetic RCC could be distinguished from the control hybrids of RCC♀ × B ♂ . The individuals with red body color, 100 chromosomes and normal gonadal development were successful gynogenetic RCC, while the individuals with 124 or 148 chromosomes and delayed gonadal development were hybrids of (RCC × B). The triploid hybrids (RCC × B) (2 years old) were sterile, but the tetraploid hybrids (RCC × B) were sexually mature age of two. In the present study, compared to the spermatozoa of C, the advantages of spermatozoa of B as the activation source were that could increase the survival at first feeding of gynogenetic individuals and simplify the confirmation of gynogenetic status, which suggested that the spermof B was an effective activation source for inducing gynogenesis in crucian carp.

  2. WATER BLOOM OF BLUEGREEN ALGE IN CARP FISHPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Mihaljević

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The massive development of bluegreen algae (Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria, the so--called water bloom, is a frequent phenomenon in fishpond ecosystems. This study analyses water bloom development in three carp fishponds owned by a fishbreeding company at Donji Miholjac (Croatia, where one-year-old carps (Cyprinus carpio , were bred in defferent fishstock densities. Analyses of physicallychemical properties of water and phytoplankton biomass were per- formed in fortnight intervals from May till October, 1992. In all there investigated fishponds the water bloom of bluegreen algae developed, but at a different time and showing a different qualitative composition. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 250 kg/ha water bloom consisted of the species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and the biggest biomass (131.92 mg/I was found in August. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 437 kg/ha a water bloom consisting of species from the genues Anabaena and species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae developed at the end of July. In the fishpond with the so--called intensive breeding (fishstock density of 750 kg/ha water bloom of the species Microcystis aeruginosa developed as late as September. The beginning of water bloom development was caused by the low value (lower than 7 of the ratio between the quantities of total phosphorus and total nitrogen. However, the qualitative composition of water bloom was influenced by one-year-old carp fingerlings density.

  3. Expression of sglt1 gene in Cyprinus carpio and preparation of its polyclonal antibody%鲤肠道sglt1基因的表达与抗体制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂国兴; 王贝; 闫潇; 侯彩霞; 张建新; 张新胜; 郑俊林; 王俊丽

    2012-01-01

    钠/葡萄糖共转运载体1( sodium/glucose cotransporter 1,Sglt1)是协助葡萄糖吸收的主要蛋白.实验首先采用RT-PCR获取sglt1基因全长,克隆至PGME-T载体进行序列及免疫原性分析,选择长度为92个氨基酸(544 ~637)的多肽作为目的片段(sglt1-P)),扩增sglt1-P,引入双酶切位点EcoR I和HindⅢ后,连接至pET-32a(+)上,构建表达载体pET-32a(+)-sglt1-P,转化至E.coli Rosetta中,获得重组基因工程菌,通过IPTG诱导表达,获得目标多肽,并以此为抗原制备Sglt1特异性抗体.SDS-PAGE电泳分析表明,目标多肽分子量约为30 ku.采用耳缘静脉结合皮下注射,免疫新西兰长耳兔,免疫总时长为38 d.制备了鲤Sglt1抗体,ELISA测得效价为1∶105;免疫组化结果表明,抗体具有较高亲和力和特异性,可以应用于鲤Sglt1的表达定位研究.该抗体的获得为鲤肠道Sglt1表达及转运活性的系统研究奠定了基础,同时,获取的Sglt1抗体亦可用于其它鱼类Sglt1转运蛋白表达定位和定量研究.%The high-affinity Na+/glucose contransporter Sgltl is one of the important members of the sodium: solute symporter family (SSF), belonging to the homologous family 5(SLC5). The Sgltl plays an important role in accumulating glucoses from intestinal or kidney epithelial cells against an adverse concentration gradient and maintaining the adjustment of metabolism. So far, few studies on Na+/glucose cotransporter have been reported in the freshwater fishes. This research would develop special antibodies of Sgltl, which could supply the foundation for the research of glucose metabolism in Cyprinus carpio intestines on molecular level. To study the molecular mechanism of glucose metabolism in freshwater fishes,the full-length cDNA of sgltl in C. Carpio with an ORF of 1 977 bp was cloned and the antigenicity of Sgltl was first predicted. 92 (544 - 637 ) amino acids with strong antigenicity and immunogenicity were selected as target section of sgltl in C

  4. 2种大豆蛋白替代鱼粉蛋白对鲤蛋白酶和淀粉酶活力的影响%Effects of Replacement of Fish Meal with Two Soybean Protein Sources on the Activities of Protease and Amylase in Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莉芳; 赵晗; 秦贵信; 庾成龙; 赵元; 孙玲

    2011-01-01

    为研究不同大豆蛋白源对鲤(Cyprinus carpio)蛋白酶活力和淀粉酶活力的影响,将初始体质量为(100.25±0.98)g的健康鲤180尾随机分为3组,每组3次重复,以鱼粉为动物蛋白源(对照组),全脂豆粉、去皮豆粕为植物蛋白源(全脂豆粉和去皮豆粕分别替代20%鱼粉蛋白),配制3种等蛋白(36%)、等能(15.2 MJ/kg)的半精制饲料,在室内单循环控温养殖系统中进行为期6周的饲养试验,然后分别采用福林-酚试剂法、碘-淀粉比色法测定鲤肝胰脏和肠道蛋白酶与淀粉酶的活力.结果表明:不同大豆蛋白源对鲤蛋白酶活力影响不同,对淀粉酶活力影响不显著.全脂豆粉组鲤肝胰脏、前肠蛋白酶活力与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05);中肠和后肠蛋白酶活力显著下降(P<0.05).去皮豆粕组肝胰脏和肠道蛋白酶活力与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05).2种大豆蛋白源对鲤肝胰脏和前肠、中肠、后肠淀粉酶活力影响不显著(P>0.05).%The effects of different soybean protein in diets on the activities of protease and amylase in Cyprinus carpio were investigated in this study.A growth trial was conducted on Cyprinus carpio with the initial weight of (100.25 ± 0.98) g for 6 weeks at controlled temperature in single recirculating system.Fish meal was used as animal protein.180 healthy Cyprinus carpio were randomly allocated to three treatments(3 × 3).The fish was fed semi-synthesized diets of three isonitrogenous (36%) and isoenergetic (15.2 MJ/kg) diets formulated with fish meal as animal protein, fall-fat soybean meal and dehulled soybean as plant protein formulated with replacement level 20% fall-fat soybean meal and dehulled soybean meal for fish protein, respectively.The activities of protease and amylease in Cyprinus carpio were tested using the Folin-phenol reagent method and Iodine-starch color method after growth experiment.The results showed that the effects of different sources of dietary

  5. 丙氨酰-谷氨酰胺对建鲤体外培养淋巴细胞增殖的影响%Effect of Ala-GIn on lymphocyte proliferation of Cyprinus carpio var. Jian in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂芹; 芦洪梅; 韩宇田; 牛小天; 李子平; 赵朝阳; 秦贵信

    2012-01-01

    【目的】探讨丙氨酰-谷氨酰胺(Ala-Gln)对免疫抑制和应激建鲤体外培养淋巴细胞增殖的调控作用。【方法】通过对建鲤注射环磷酰胺和皮质醇来建立免疫抑制和应激模型,以注射生理盐水为对照,分离头肾、脾脏和外周血淋巴细胞进行体外培养,测定培养液中不同浓度Ala-Gln(0.0,2.0,4.0,6.0,8.0和10.0mmol/L)对淋巴细胞转化率的影响。【结果】免疫抑制模型及应激模型中,建鲤头肾、脾脏和外周血的淋巴细胞转化率均显著低于对照组(P%0.05),Ala-Gln浓度在0.0-8.0mmol/L时,可以促进免疫抑制建鲤的淋巴细胞增殖(P<0.05),在0.0-6.0mmol/L时,可以促进应激建鲤的淋巴细胞增殖(P<0.05),随着Ala-Gln浓度的进一步增大,淋巴细胞转化率不再继续增大(P>O.05)。【结论】Ala-Gln对离体培养免疫抑制和应激条件下的建鲤淋巴细胞增殖具有明显的促进作用,是有潜力的鱼用抗应激免疫增强剂。%[Objective] The effect of Ala-Gln on lymphocytes proliferation of Cyprinus carpio var. Jian in vitro was investigated By models of immunosuppression and stress. [Method] Models of immunosup- pression and stress were established by injecting cyclophosphamide and cortisol,and the injection of saline was taken as control. Lymphocytes of head kidney,spleen and blood were separated and cultured in vitro in media containing different Ala-Gln(0. 0,2. 0,4. 0,6. 0,8. 0 and 10.0 mmol/L), lymphocyte proliferation was determined in different Ala-Gln concentrations of two models. [Result] Lymphocyte transformation in head Kidney, spleen and blood of control group was higher than that of immunosuppression and stressmodels(P〈0.05), Lymphocyte proliferation of immunosuppression was significantly promoted at the range from 0.0 to 8.0 mmol/L Ala-Gln (P〈0.05) ,Lymphocyte proliferation of stress was

  6. Experimental infection of six North American fish species with the North Carolina strain of spring Viremia of Carp Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Sanders, George E.; Conway, Carla M.; Binkowski, Fred P.; Winton, James R.; Kurath, Gael

    2015-01-01

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen associated with disease outbreaks in cultured and wild fish worldwide. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio carp), and koi (C. carpio koi) suffer the highest mortalities from SVCV infections, while other cyprinid fish species have varying susceptibility. Although salmonid fish typically are considered refractory to infection by SVCV, there have been a few reports suggesting infection has occurred in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). There have been no reports of Percid fish being infected with SVCV. Since the first North American outbreak of SVCV at a North Carolina koi farm in 2002 there have been eight subsequent detections or outbreaks of SVCV among fish species from the families of Cyprinidae andCentrarchidae within the US and Canada. Thus, this exotic virus is considered a potential threat to native and cultured fish populations in North America. We performed multiple experimental challenges with fish species from three families (Salmonidae, Cyprinidae, and Percidae) to identify the potential risk associated with SVCV exposure of resident fish populations in North America.

  7. Effects of farm and commercial inputs on carp polyculture performance: participatory trial in an experimental field station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Hernández

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The carp polyculture production system is the most widely used system by small-scale fish farmers in southern Brazil (States of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The aim of this study was to compare biotechnical and economic parameters between a farm system (FS using farm inputs (chicken manure, maize and grass and a commercial system (CS using commercial inputs (triple super phosphate, ammonium nitrate and balanced food feeding to apparent satiation. The experiment was carried out for 196 days in earthen ponds of 500 m², with three replicates per system. The stocking density was 2,000 fish ha-1, consisting of 35% grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, 30% of mirror common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis, 20% of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis and 15% silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. In both systems, a low level of total phosphorus in water (0.06 mg L-1 and in the sediment (4 mg L-1 was observed. Production was significantly increased in the CS (76 kg 500 m(-2196 days-1 than in the FS (43 kg 500 m-2 196 days-1. Costs and revenues were higher in the CS and profits were similar in the two systems. Similar profits do not mean that CS is necessarily more convenient. Advantages and drawbacks for small-scale farmers considering labor, land and availability of money are discussed.

  8. Influence of sectioning location on age estimates from common carp dorsal spines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Carson J.; Klein, Zachary B.; Terrazas, Marc M.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Dorsal spines have been shown to provide precise age estimates for Common CarpCyprinus carpio and are commonly used by management agencies to gain information on Common Carp populations. However, no previous studies have evaluated variation in the precision of age estimates obtained from different sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. We evaluated the precision, relative readability, and distribution of age estimates obtained from various sectioning locations along Common Carp dorsal spines. Dorsal spines from 192 Common Carp were sectioned at the base (section 1), immediately distal to the basal section (section 2), and at 25% (section 3), 50% (section 4), and 75% (section 5) of the total length of the dorsal spine. The exact agreement and within-1-year agreement among readers was highest and the coefficient of variation lowest for section 2. In general, age estimates derived from sections 2 and 3 had similar age distributions and displayed the highest concordance in age estimates with section 1. Our results indicate that sections taken at ≤ 25% of the total length of the dorsal spine can be easily interpreted and provide precise estimates of Common Carp age. The greater consistency in age estimates obtained from section 2 indicates that by using a standard sectioning location, fisheries scientists can expect age-based estimates of population metrics to be more comparable and thus more useful for understanding Common Carp population dynamics.

  9. 不同蛋白水平的虾青素饲料对锦鲤体色、生长及免疫的影响%Effects of dietary protein levels on body pigmentation, growth and immunology of ornamental carp( Cyprinus carpio L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔培; 姜志强; 王雪; 张源真; 高小强; 田青杰

    2012-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary protein levels on body pigmentation, growth and immunology of ornamental carpCyprinus carpio L. ) (initial mean body weight: 5.85 ±0.19 g). The diet contained 130 mg/kg astaxanthins: Fish were fed with different protein levels (25.49% ,30.84% ,35.04% ,40.68% ,45.88% ) and fed to apparent satiety to these groups of 20 fish for 60 days. The results showed that: The value of a * was highest in the protein level of 35.04% , no significant differences compared with protein level 40.68 % ( P 〈 0.05 ) , but obviously higher than other experimental groups (P 〉 0.05 ). The concentration of carotenoid in the skin of fish had significant differences from other experimental groups (P 〈 0.05 )at the same level while the highest value in the group protein level 45.88%. The highest body weight gain and feed conversion ratio occurred in the protein level 35.04%. There were no significant effects on LZM, CAT and LDH ( P 〉 0.05 ). While the activity of SOD decreased obviously at the protein level of 45. 88% ( P 〈 0. 05 ). The results of this study also illustrated that the utilization of astaxanthin of ornamental carp( Cyprinus carpio L)did not improve constantly with the increase of protein level in diet.%以初始体重为(5.85±0.19)g的红白锦鲤幼鱼为实验对象,研究虾青素有效添加量为130 mg/kg时,饲料蛋白水平(25.49%、30.84%、35.04%、40.68%、45.88%)对锦鲤体色、生长及免疫的影响。每组设3个平行,每个平行饲养20尾鱼,表观饱食投喂60 d后,实验结果显示:饲料蛋白水平为35.04%时,实验鱼体表红质a*值最高,与蛋白水平40.68%组间无显著差异(P〉0.05),但显著高于其他实验组(P〈0.05),与此同时,皮肤中类胡萝卜素含量显著升高(P〈0.05),最大值出现在蛋白水平45.88%组。蛋白水平为35.04%时,实验鱼的增重率(RWG)、特

  10. First detection of koi herpesvirus from koi, Cyprinus carpio L. experiencing mass mortalities in Iran: clinical, histopathological and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati-Holasoo, H; Zargar, A; Ahmadivand, S; Shokrpoor, S; Ezhari, S; Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, H A

    2016-10-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) is the aetiological agent of an emerging disease (KHVD) associated with mass mortalities in koi and common carp and reported from at least 30 countries. We report the first detection of KHV from koi in Iran using clinical, histopathological and molecular studies. KHV-infected fish showed reduced swimming activity, sunken eyes and increased mucus production on skin and fins. On post-mortem examination, gill necrosis was observed in the majority of fish. Histopathologically, the gill showed diffuse necrosis of the branchial epithelial cells. Margination of chromatin was detected in gills, kidney, heart, spleen, intestine and brain. In addition, sequence analyses of the TK gene, ORF 136 and marker I and II, demonstrates that Iranian KHV isolates were identical and classified as variant A1 of TUSMT1 (J strain) and displayed the I(++) II(+) allele of this Asian genotype.

  11. Cloning of the Koi Herpesvirus Genome as an Infectious Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Demonstrates That Disruption of the Thymidine Kinase Locus Induces Partial Attenuation in Cyprinus carpio koi▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, B.; Fournier, G.; Michel, B.; Delforge, C.; Raj, V. Stalin; Dewals, B.; Gillet, L.; Drion, P.; Body, A.; Schynts, F.; Lieffrig, F.; Vanderplasschen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) is the causative agent of a lethal disease in koi and common carp. In the present study, we describe the cloning of the KHV genome as a stable and infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone that can be used to produce KHV recombinant strains. This goal was achieved by the insertion of a loxP-flanked BAC cassette into the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. This insertion led to a BAC plasmid that was stably maintained in bacteria and was able to regenerate virions when permissive cells were transfected with the plasmid. Reconstituted virions free of the BAC cassette but carrying a disrupted TK locus (the FL BAC-excised strain) were produced by the transfection of Cre recombinase-expressing cells with the BAC. Similarly, virions with a wild-type revertant TK sequence (the FL BAC revertant strain) were produced by the cotransfection of cells with the BAC and a DNA fragment encoding the wild-type TK sequence. Reconstituted recombinant viruses were compared to the wild-type parental virus in vitro and in vivo. The FL BAC revertant strain and the FL BAC-excised strain replicated comparably to the parental FL strain. The FL BAC revertant strain induced KHV infection in koi carp that was indistinguishable from that induced by the parental strain, while the FL BAC-excised strain exhibited a partially attenuated phenotype. Finally, the usefulness of the KHV BAC for recombination studies was demonstrated by the production of an ORF16-deleted strain by using prokaryotic recombination technology. The availability of the KHV BAC is an important advance that will allow the study of viral genes involved in KHV pathogenesis, as well as the production of attenuated recombinant candidate vaccines. PMID:18337580

  12. Pelacakan Gen Aerolysin dari Aeromonas hydrophila pada Ikan Mas yang Diberi Pakan Ekstrak Bawang Putih (DETECTION OF AEROLYSIN GEN FROM AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA IN COMMON CARP FED WITH GARLIC EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iesje Lukistyowati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram negative and opportunistic bacteria, which could cause fish mortalityin a short time from 80%-100%. One virulent factor of A. hydrophila on common carp (Cyprinus carpio Lthat could cause fish mortality is aerolysin. This research used a synthetic primers of oligonukleotide todetect aerolysin, a specific genomes of A. hydrophila on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. The commoncarps have been feed a woof that contain garlic extract during 30 days before they challenged with A.hydrophila. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was used to detect an aerolysin gen from A. hydrophila. Theelectrophoresis result showed aerolysin gene of Aeromonas hydrophila from Veterinary Faculty of GadjahMada University (FKH-UGM isolate was amplified with 462 bp of molecule weight. While the aerolysingen was detected in the fish kidney with 900 bp of molecule weight. Further, DNA sequence analysis of thePCR product of A. hydrophila from FKH – UGM isolate showed homolog with isolate A. hydrophila subsphydrophila ATCC 7966 complete genome with score 55.4 (71%.

  13. Effects of carbon nanomaterials fullerene C{sub 60} and fullerol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22} on gills of fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socoowski Britto, Roberta; Longaray Garcia, Marcia; Martins da Rocha, Alessandra [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Artigas Flores, Juliana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Pinheiro, Mauricio V. Brant [Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil); Monserrat, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L., E-mail: josenclerf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    In consequence of their growing use and demand, the inevitable environmental presence of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns about their potential deleterious effects to aquatic environments. The carbon NM fullerene (C{sub 60}), which forms colloidal aggregates in water, and its water-soluble derivative fullerol (C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22}), which possesses antioxidant properties, are known to be photo-excited by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. To investigate their potential hazards to aquatic organisms upon exposure to UV sunlight, this study analyzed (a) the in vitro behavior of fullerene and fullerol against peroxyl radicals (ROO{center_dot}) under UV-A radiation and (b) the effects of these photo-excited NMs on oxidative stress parameters in functional gills extracted from the fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae). The variables measured were the total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The obtained results revealed the following: (1) both NMs behaved in vitro as antioxidants against ROO{center_dot} in the dark and as pro-oxidants in presence of UV-A, the latter effect being reversed by the addition of sodium azide, which is a singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) quencher; (2) fullerene induced toxicity with or without UV-A incidence, with a significant (p < 0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation (with greater damage under illumination), a decrease in GCL activity, and the depletion of GSH stocks (under illumination), all of which were attributed to {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation; and (3) fullerol also decreased GCL activity and GSH formation (p < 0.05) but without lipid damage. The overall results show that fullerene can be toxic with or without light incidence, whereas UV radiation seems to play a key role in the environmental toxicity of carbon NMs through {sup 1}O{sub 2} formation.

  14. 幼建鲤的烟酸需要量%Dietary Niacin Requirement of Juvenile Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳; 周小秋; 冯琳; 刘扬; 姜俊

    2008-01-01

    本研究旨在确定幼建鲤最佳生长时的烟酸需要量和探索饲料中烟酸对幼建鲤生长、饲料利用率和消化能力的影响.选用平均体重(13.95±0.04)g幼建鲤900尾随机分为6组投喂不同烟酸水平的饲料(烟酸含量分别为11.30、14.87、24.90、35.33、44.59和59.66 mg/kg),进行10周的饲养试验.结果表明,随着饲料中烟酸水平的提高,幼建鲤的增重率、特异生长率、饲料转化率以及蛋白质、脂肪和灰分的沉积效率显著增加(P0.05);同时,肝体指数、肝胰脏的蛋白质含量和肠道蛋白质含量显著上升(P0.05);并且饲料中较高水平烟酸能够显著增强幼建鲤肠道胰蛋白酶,脂肪酶、碱性磷酸酶、钠钾ATP酶和γ-谷氨酰转肽酶的活性(P<0.05).综上所述,增加饲料中烟酸水平能够显著提高幼建鲤的生长、饲料利用率和肠道消化吸收酶活力;应用折线法确定出幼建鲤达最佳生长时烟酸需要量为31.12 mg/kg饲料.

  15. Effects of Pro-Tex on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and adult yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerrigter, J.G.J.; Vis, van de J.W.; Bos, van den R.; Abbink, W.; Spanings, T.; Zethof, J.; Louzao Martinez, L.; Andel, van W.F.M.; Lopez-Luna, J.; Flik, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture practices bring several stressful events to fish. Stressors not only activate the hypothalamus–pituitary–interrenal-axis, but also evoke cellular stress responses. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is among the best studied mechanisms of the cellular stress response. An extract

  16. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of TLR9, MyD88 and TRAF6 genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of innate immune pathways is critical for early host defense but there is limited understanding of how teleost fish recognize pathogen molecules and activate these pathways. In mammals, cells of the innate immune system detect pathogenic molecular structures using pattern recognition rece...

  17. Relationship between digestive tract structure and feeding habits in common carp, grass carp, silver carp and bighead carp%鲤、鲢、鳙、草鱼消化道结构与食性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕冰; 孙中武; 毛天强; 尹洪滨; 王鲁杰

    2011-01-01

    本文通过组织解剖与切片法测量了鲤、草、鲢、鳙的相关生物学参数,系统观察了四种鱼的消化道肌肉层、肠绒毛以及粘液细胞的显微结构及分布特点,探究其与食性的相互关系.结果显示:鲤比肠长1.0,环行肌较纵行肌发达,肠绒毛丰富,粘液细胞均匀分布在整个消化道中;草鱼比肠长2.13,消化道组织结构均一,肌肉壁中纵行肌所占比例高,粘液细胞体积小,分散于整个消化道中,肠绒毛极发达;鲢比肠长8.49,环行肌极发达,粘液细胞集中于消化道前段,肠绒毛由前至后逐渐呈短粗状;鳙比肠长4.58,环行肌极为发达,粘液细胞数量多且均匀地分布于消化道前、中段,肠绒毛较为稀疏短粗,粘液细胞较少.这四种鱼消化道的组织结构特征与各自食性密切相关.%Microstructures of musculi, villus intestinalis, and mucous cells were measured and observed in digestive tracts of common carp Cyprinus carpio, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon ideallus,silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis by paraffin section,and H E and AB staining methods to evaluate the relationship between digestive tract and feeding habits.Results showed that a ratio of intestine length to body length was found to be 1.0 in common carp whose circular smooth muscle was more developed than the longitudinal muscle. There were large quantity of villi in the common carp intestine in which the mucous cells were uniformly distributed. Grass carp had the ratio of intestine length to body length=2.13, and the more developed longitudinal muscle than circular smooth muscle. There were relatively small mucous cells and uniform distribution in the whole digestive tiact with developed villus intestinalis in grass carp. The ratio of intestine length to body length was found to be 8.49 in silver carp which had very developed circular smooth muscle. The mucous cells of silver carp were shown to be mainly distributed in

  18. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J Eichmiller

    Full Text Available Although environmental DNA (eDNA has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp', an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA, in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5, indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart.

  19. Comparative genomics in cyprinids: common carp ESTs help the annotation of the zebrafish genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Hamsa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic annotation of sequenced eukaryotic genomes integrates a combination of methodologies such as ab-initio methods and alignment of homologous genes and/or proteins. For example, annotation of the zebrafish genome within Ensembl relies heavily on available cDNA and protein sequences from two distantly related fish species and other vertebrates that have diverged several hundred million years ago. The scarcity of genomic information from other cyprinids provides the impetus to leverage EST collections to understand gene structures in this diverse teleost group. Results We have generated 6,050 ESTs from the differentiating testis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio and clustered them with 9,303 non-gonadal ESTs from CarpBase as well as 1,317 ESTs and 652 common carp mRNAs from GenBank. Over 28% of the resulting 8,663 unique transcripts are exclusively testis-derived ESTs. Moreover, 974 of these transcripts did not match any sequence in the zebrafish or fathead minnow EST collection. A total of 1,843 unique common carp sequences could be stringently mapped to the zebrafish genome (version 5, of which 1,752 matched coding sequences of zebrafish genes with or without potential splice variants. We show that 91 common carp transcripts map to intergenic and intronic regions on the zebrafish genome assembly and regions annotated with non-teleost sequences. Interestingly, an additional 42 common carp transcripts indicate the potential presence of new splicing variants not found in zebrafish databases so far. The fact that common carp transcripts help the identification or confirmation of these coding regions in zebrafish exemplifies the usefulness of sequences from closely related species for the annotation of model genomes. We also demonstrate that 5' UTR sequences of common carp and zebrafish orthologs share a significant level of similarity based on preservation of motif arrangements for as many as 10 ab-initio motifs. Conclusion

  20. Effect of feeding carp with fat-supplemented pelleted diets on histological appearance of the intestine and hepatopancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Epler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty two-year-old carps, Cyprinus carpio L. were kept in a closed water circulation system for five months. Fish were assigned to five groups (12 fish per group and fed ad libitum on Aller Classic pelleted feed for carp: standard or standard pelleted mixture supplemented with 6% oils. The control group (IK received standard pellets, group IIS+Rz – sunflower oil + rapeseed oil (50% : 50%; group IIIS+L – sunflower oil + linseed oil (80% : 20%; group IVR – fish oil; and group VSK – pork scratchings at the level of 6%. At the end of the experiment, 10 carps from each group were slaughtered and their body length and weight were measured to calculate mean body weight gains and mean individual gains. Fragments of intestine and hepatopancreas were histologically and morphometrically analyzed. The mean weight gains of fish at the end of the experiment, which were the highest for diet IIIS+L, and the lowest for VSK and IK diets, were fully confirmed by histological analysis, which showed that the lowest gains in biomass and mean individual weight were due to digestive disturbances associated mainly with lipid metabolism. These disturbances did not occur in groups IIS+Rz, IIIS+L and IVR.

  1. Cloning, characterization and promoter analysis of common carp hairy/Enhancer-of-split-related gene, her6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jing Liu; Yong-Hua Sun; Na Wang; Ya-Ping Wang; Zuo-Yan Zhu

    2006-12-01

    Some members of hairy/Enhancer-of-split-related gene (HES) family have important effects on axial mesoderm segmentation and the establishment and maintenance of the somite fringe. In fishes, the her6 gene, a member of the HES family, is the homologue of hes1 in mammals and chicken. In this study, the her6 gene and its full-length cDNA from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were isolated and characterized. The genomic sequence of common carp her6 is approximately 1.7 kb, with four exons and three introns, and the full-length cDNA of 1314 bp encodes a putative polypeptide of 271 amino acids. To analyse the promoter sequence of common carp her6, sequences of various lengths upstream from the transcription initiation site of her6 were fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (eGFP) and introduced into zebrafish embryos by microinjection to generate transgenic embryos. Our results show that the upstream sequence of 500 bp can direct highly efficient and tissue-specific expression of eGFP in zebrafish embryos, whereas a fragment of 200 bp containing the TATA box and a partial suppressor of hairless paired site sequence (SPS) is not sufficient to drive eGFP expression in zebrafish embryos.

  2. Activities of two lipases and effects of m-cresol on them during early development of Cyprinus carpio var.color%瓯江彩鲤早期发育中两种脂酶活性及间甲酚对其活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊华; 姚俊杰; 冯亚楠; 邹芳芳; 莫巨鼎

    2014-01-01

    Activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were determined during early development of Cyprinus carpio var.color, and the effects of m-cresol on them were studied through a biochemical and static toxicological methods.The results showed that lipases were present in the mature eggs and fertilized eggs , and activities of lipase was the highest in the gastrula stage; after being exposed to the m-cresol at the concentration of 7 mg/L, 13 mg/L and 19 mg/L at the temperature (20 ±2) ℃, activity of lipase first rose and then declined with the increase of m -cresol concentration , HL activity of 19 mg/L concentration group in embryonic stage was significant ly different from other groups ( P<0.05 ).Compared to control group , LPL activity of 7 mg/L concentration group in embryonic and larval stage showed significant differences ( P<0.05 ).%采用生化和静态急性毒性实验方法,研究了瓯江彩鲤( Cyprinus carpio var.color)早期发育过程中脂蛋白脂酶和肝脂酶活性变化及间甲酚对它们活性的影响。结果显示,脂酶在瓯江彩鲤成熟卵和受精卵中均有活性,脂蛋白脂酶和肝脂酶的活性在胚胎发育过程中总体上呈上升趋势,原肠胚期酶活性最高;在水温(20±2)℃条件下,经7 mg/L、13 mg/L和19 mg/L的间甲酚暴露,脂酶活性随着间甲酚的浓度升高先升高后下降,19 mg/L浓度组中肝脂酶活性在胚胎期与其他组均有显著差异( P<0.05);与对照组相比,7 mg/L浓度组脂蛋白脂酶活性在胚胎和仔鱼期均有显著差异( P<0.05)。

  3. Full length cDNA cloning and tissue expression of PRLR in Cyprinus carpio var. jian%建鲤催乳素受体基因全长cDNA的克隆、序列分析与组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    , kidney, and intestine suggesting that the primary function of PRLR in C. carpio var. jian is in osmotic regulation. The PRLR transcript was detected in the gonads, liver, and spleen, suggesting that prolactin has a range of physiological functions in fish. Our results have provided valuable insight into the mechanisms of osmotic regulation in C. carpio var. jian.%  为了解催乳素受体(Prolactin Receptor, PRLR)的基因序列及其在建鲤(Cyprinus carpio var. jian)渗透调节组织中的表达情况,采用同源克隆和末端快速扩增(rapid amplication of cDNA ends, RACE)的方法分离克隆了建鲤PRLR基因全长cDNA,得到2440 bp的全长cDNA,包括1821 bp的开放阅读框(ORF),213 bp的5′末端非编码区(UTR)以及406 bp 的3′末端非编码区(UTR)。对该基因序列和推测的氨基酸序列进行同源性比对和系统分析显示:建鲤与其他硬骨鱼类该基因的氨基酸序列相似度在37.46%~87.25%,与鲤(Cyprinus carpio)的氨基酸相似度最高(87.25%),鲫(Carassius auratus)次之(86.86%),和金头鲷(Sparus aurata)的相似度较低(41.87%),和人(Homo sapiens)最低(37.46%),表明不同物种间的PRLR的氨基酸序列具有较高的保守性。用实时定量PCR (RT-PCR)检测该基因在建鲤脑、肠、鳃、性腺、肝、脾、肾、皮肤中催乳素受体的相对表达量,其中鳃、肾、肠3个主要渗透调节组织的表达量较高,这表明建鲤的渗透调节组织是PRLR的主要表达场所,从定量角度提示了催乳素(prolactin, PRL)通过 PRLR 的表达,作用于渗透调节组织从而行使其渗透压调节功能。本研究旨在为进一步探索建鲤的渗透调控机制提供基础依据。

  4. Fish as aquatic “sniffer dogs”: Olfactory-mediated behaviors and conditioning of common carps to cadaver odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even with the aide of modern technology, the search for cadaver or human remains underwater is still assisted by sniffer dogs mainly because of their superior sense of olfaction. However, dogs rely on volatile organic compounds in the air and that this may constraint their ability when searching for submerged cadavers. On the other hand, it has long been recognized that fishes use olfaction to sample odors from their surroundings to accomplish a task and are capable of acquiring new skills through training or conditioning. Despite decades of experimental and observational studies of the olfactory sensitivities of fishes, its potential application to forensic sciences has never been truly explored. In this pioneering research, we explore the possibility of using fish olfaction in detecting cadaver odors (porcine origin, using common carps Cyprinus carpio as model species in a series of experiments under laboratory conditions. We first observed the innate behavior of carps towards cadaver odors. Afterwards, the carps were trained in two-choice chamber experimental tanks by appetitive olfactory conditioning and odor masking methods. We also experimented on the effects of cadaver odors by early exposure using eggs and larval impregnation techniques, and observing the behaviors when they develop to early juveniles. In general, we found out that common carps are naturally repelled to cadaver odors. However using our devised conditioning protocol, results show that the conditioned carps were able to learn to be attracted to cadaver odors despite their innate aversion. The development of fish for cadaver detection is a simple but innovative idea and that it may present a cost-effective and reliable solution for the shortcomings of the existing methods in underwater cadaver search. We anticipate that this research will open up a variety of different studies in pursuit of developing fishes as biosensors and its application to forensic sciences.

  5. Acute toxicity and tissue injury studies of ivermectin for Songpu mir-ror carp (Cyprinus specularis songpu)%伊维菌素对松浦镜鲤的急性毒性与组织损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冰; 王荻; 卢彤岩

    2015-01-01

    分别以1.30 mg/kg、1.69 mg/kg、2.19 mg/kg、2.86 mg/kg、3.71 mg/kg、4.83 mg/kg、6.27 mg/kg、8.16 mg/kg剂量的伊维菌素(ivermectin)对松浦镜鲤(Cyprinus specularis songpu)进行口灌,并设置空白对照和溶剂对照,给药后连续观察96 h,记录各组鱼的行为和死亡情况。用 SPPS 软件计算得出松浦镜鲤口灌伊维菌素的96 h LD50为4.04 mg/kg,95%可信区间为3.42~4.80 mg/kg。对给药组和对照组鱼进行血细胞分析,发现随着给药剂量的增加,红细胞数无明显变化,血红蛋白浓度呈上升趋势,而白细胞数呈下降趋势。通过组织切片观察,发现伊维菌素给药剂量为4.83 mg/kg 时松浦镜鲤体内组织开始出现明显的病理变化。大剂量口灌伊维菌素后,松浦镜鲤肠绒毛出现坏死、脱落现象,肝细胞萎缩、肝血窦变大,肾小管上皮细胞变性、坏死,心肌纤维萎缩、变性。本研究通过探讨伊维菌素对松浦镜鲤的毒性效应,旨在为松浦镜鲤养殖过程中科学合理的使用伊维菌素提供基础数据和科学依据。%In order to evaluate the toxic effects of ivermectin for Songpu mirror carp, the acute toxicity and tissue injury of ivermectin for Songpu mirror carp was studied. Ivermectin was given by oral administration to Songpu mirror carp at the dosage of 1.30 mg/kg, 1.69 mg/kg, 2.19 mg/kg, 2.86 mg/kg, 3.71 mg/kg, 4.83 mg/kg, 6.27 mg/kg, 8.16 mg/kg re-spectively. Blank control and solvent control were sited also. After given ivermectin, the fish were investigated in 96 h;the dead fish were sacrificed at once. Through calculating by SPSS, the 96h LD50 and 95% confidence of LD50 of iver-mectin for Songpu mirror carp were 4.04 mg/kg and 3.42~4.80 mg/kg, respectively. The results show that with the in-crease of the dose, the number of red blood cells had no obvious change, the hemoglobin concentration had rised and the white blood cell count had decreased, according to analysis blood cell of the administration

  6. Carbofuran promotes biochemical changes in carp exposed to rice field and laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Bárbara; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Murussi, Camila; Pretto, Alexandra; Menezes, Charlene; Dalabona, Fabrícia; Marchezan, Enio; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2014-03-01

    Effects of carbofuran commercial formulation on oxidative stress parameters were studied in carps (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to 50µg/L for 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were increased in the brain of fish after 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. In the liver and muscle, TBARS levels increased after 7 and 30 days under laboratory conditions, whereas in rice field the levels increased only after 30 days. Protein carbonyl content in the liver increased after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was decreased in the brain and muscle after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions evaluated. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in the liver after 7 and 30 days under rice field condition, whereas under laboratory condition this enzyme increased only after 30 days. The catalase (CAT) activity in the liver decreased after 30 days under rice field condition, whereas no changes were observed under laboratory conditions. In rice field, glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreased after 7 days but increased after 30 days, whereas no change was observed in fish exposed to carbofuran under laboratory conditions. These results suggest that environmental relevant carbofuran concentrations may cause oxidative stress, affecting biochemical and enzymatic parameters on carps. Some parameters could be used as biomarkers to carbofuran exposure.

  7. Rapid growth cost in "all-fish" growth hormone gene transgenic carp: Reduced critical swimming speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DeLiang; FU CuiZhang; HU Wei; ZHONG Shan; WANG YaPing; ZHU ZuoYan

    2007-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that there is a trade-off between benefits and costs associated with rapid growth. A trade-off between growth rates and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) had been also reported to be common in teleost fish. We hypothesize that growth acceleration in the F3 generation of "all-fish"growth hormone gene (GH) transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) would reduce the swimming abilities. Growth and swimming performance between transgenic fish and non-transgenic controls were compared. The results showed that transgenic fish had a mean body weight 1.4-1.9-fold heavier,and a mean specific growth rate (SGR) value 6%-10% higher than the controls. Transgenic fish,however, had a mean absolute Ucrit (cm/s) value 22% or mean relative Ucrit (BL/s) value 24% lower than the controls. It suggested that fast-growing "all-fish" GH-transgenic carp were inferior swimmers. It is also supported that there was a trade-off between growth rates and swimming performance, i.e.faster-growing individuals had lower critical swimming speed.

  8. Survey of Saprolegnia sp. in cage cultured carp in Tikves Lake in 2005 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Cvetkovic

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish cage culture is one of the most intensive and productive aquaculture methods. Besides all production advantages, this system is facing with health problems in cultured fish due to lack of prophylactic measures and increased disease susceptibility as a result of the culture technology. In order to determine the presence of the Saprolegniosis in the warm water cage culture systems, a two year monitoring was conducted. The survey included investigation in 12 carp (Cyprinus carpio cage culture systems in Tikves Lake in the period 2005 and 2006. The objects of examination were only the growing categories of carp (yearlings. From each farm 30 specimens were examined. The survey included clinical and pathological examination as well as routine laboratory diagnostics – microscopic examination and isolation of the agent on fungal specific nutrient agar. The conducted research, demonstrated 91,66% prevalence of the causitive agent in the investigated farms in 2005 and the prevalence of 33,33% in 2006. Although the disease was present in 2005 and 2006, obtained results demonstrated deviation in the appearance and presence of Saprolegnia sp. in the investigated period. The determined difference was a consequence of the applied ichtyotechnical and ichtyosanitary prophylactic measures, resulting with significantly lower prevalence in 2006.

  9. The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Terbuthylazine on Early Developmental Stages of Common Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Štěpánová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of terbuthylazine in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test. The exposure to terbuthylazin showed no effect on mortality, but significant differences (P<0.0001 were revealed on weight and growth parameters at concentrations of 520 and 820 μg/L. The inhibition of specific growth rate at concentrations of 520 and 820 μg/L was 14% compared to the control group. No significant negative effects on total body length and body weight were observed at lower concentrations (0.9 and 160 μg/L. The concentrations 520 and 820 μg/L were associated with a delay in development compared to other experimental groups and controls. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and determination of developmental stages, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC of terbuthylazine was estimated at 160 μg/L and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC was 520 μg/L. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of terbuthylazine in Czech rivers does not impact growth, development, morphology, or histology of carp embryos and larvae.

  10. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) Plays a Critical Role in the Softening of Common Carp Muscle during Chilled Storage by Degradation of Type I and V Collagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Zhang, Qian; Weng, Ling; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proposed to play important roles in the degradation of collagens, thus causing the post-mortem softening of fish muscle, although the specific mechanism remains largely unresolved. Previously, we reported the existence of gelatinase-like proteinases in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle. The primary structures of these proteinases, however, have never been investigated. In the present study, two MMPs with molecular masses of 66 and 65 kDa were purified to homogeneity from common carp muscle by ammonium sulfate fractionation and a series of column chromatographies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS) analysis indicated that they are completely identical to MMP-2 from common carp. During chilled storage of common carp at 4 °C, the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 increased to 212% in 12 h while the texture profile increased over the first 2 h and gradually decreased. On the other hand, type V collagen was purified to homogeneity and a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein was prepared. Both type I and V collagens were effectively hydrolyzed by MMP-2 at 30 °C and even at 4 °C. Furthermore, injection of metalloproteinase proteinase inhibitor EDTA into the blood vessel of live common carp suppressed post-mortem tenderization significantly. All of these results confirmed that MMP-2 is a major proteinase responsible for the degradation of collagens, resulting in the softening of fish muscle during chilled storage. PMID:26653826

  11. 鲤鱼冻血细胞培养及染色体制备条件优化研究%Optimum Conditions Research on Frozen Blood Cell Cultivation and Chromosome Preparation of Common Carp( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晶; 张桂贤; 李运东; 刘青; 陈维伟

    2012-01-01

    鱼类染色体制备方法中,外周血淋巴细胞培养法远远优于PHA体内注射法,使用冻血省力省功。由于外周血培养需要一定的条件和技术。该文就鲤鱼血液保存方法、细胞培养温度、秋水仙素处理浓度及滴加时间、低渗温度、固定处理次数等条件进行分析,得到较好的鲤鱼全血细胞培养及染色体标本制备方法,可为鲤鱼分子细胞遗传的后续研究奠定基础。%Among fish chromosomes preparation methods ,the peripheral blood lymphocyte cuhure method is far superior to the PHA shots in the body.Frozen blood is easier to get ,but peripheral blood cultivation need some conditions and techniques. This experiment analyzed the common carp blood conservation techniques,cell culture temperature,concentrations of colchicine and adding-time,hypotonic treatment temperature,fixed processing times and so on.It got a good carp complete blood incubation and chromosome preparation methods,which laid the foundation of the follow-up molecular cytogenetics research of carp.

  12. Food Fish Polyculture of Songpu Mirror Carp with Changfeng Silver Carp in a Pond%松浦镜鲤与长丰鲢食用鱼混养试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王吉桥; 徐奇友; 石连玉; 闫有利; 张玉满; 韩毓; 耿旭玉; 于清翔; 戴占贺

    2013-01-01

    2012年5~10月,在面积为0.19hm2的试验池1中放养体质量160g的松浦镜鲤(Cyprinus carpio Songpu)117,700尾·hm-2,混养体质量160g的长丰鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)春片、乌子头和鳙(Aristichthys no-bilis)夏花鱼种。在面积为0.19hm2的试验池2中放养体质量149.5g的松浦镜鲤3,450尾·hm-2,只混养鲢和鳙夏花,采用常规饲养方法。2012年10月2日,试验池1平均每hm2产鱼21,025.5kg,其中松浦镜鲤平均全长34.3cm,体质量1425g,产量18,294.0kg;长丰鲢春片平均体质量674g,平均产量1,816.5kg,长丰鲢夏花平均全长18.6cm,体质量112.4g,平均产量592.5kg;鳙夏花平均全长达12.1cm,体质量39.9g,平均产量322.5kg。试验池2平均每hm2产鱼3,069.0kg,其中松浦镜鲤平均全长35.0cm,体质量1225g,平均产量2,766.0kg;鲢夏花平均全长达11.3cm,体质量24.9g,平均产量130.5kg;鳙夏花平均全长达11.1cm,体质量35.1g,平均产量172.5kg。试验表明,高密度养殖的松浦镜鲤产量显著高于密度低时,长丰鲢夏花的出池体质量是普通鲢的4.5倍,特殊生长率(6.27%·d-1)是普通鲢(3.5%·d-1)的1.79倍。文中还讨论了松浦镜鲤养殖池的水质和技术特点。%Songpu mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio Songpu) juveniles with initial body weight of 160g was stocked into Test Pond 1 at a rate of 17,700 individuals·hm-2, and polycultured with Changfeng silver carp(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) juveniles with initial body weight of 160g and 0.10g and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) with initial body weight of 0.16g from May to October in 2012. In Test Pond 2, however, Songpu mirror carp juveniles weighing 149.5 g was stocked at a rate of 3,450 individuals·hm-2, and polycul-tured with silver carp and bighead carp summerlings. Average fish yield of 21,025.5 kg·hm-2 was harvested in Test Pond 1 on 2 Octo-ber, 2012, including 18,294.0kg of Songpu mirror carp with final

  13. Genetic evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio bloch) as revealed by RAPD assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Wang, Y; Gui, J F

    2000-11-01

    Sex evolution has been a debating focus in evolutionary genetics. In lower vertebrates of reptiles, amphibians, and fish, a species or a bioform reproduces either sexually or asexually but never both. A few species were found to consist of all females in fish. These all-female species can propagate by asexual reproduction modes, such as gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. However, the coexistence of sexuality and asexuality in a single species was recently noted only in a cyprinid fish silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio. This fish had been demonstrated to be capable of gynogenesis stimulated by sperm from other related species. Surprisingly, natural populations of this fish consist of a minor but significant portion (approx. 20%) of males. As different clones with specific phenotypic and genetic characteristics have been found, and RAPD markers specific to each clone have recently been identified, this fish offers many advantages for analyzing whether or not genetic recombination occurs between different clones. In this study, artificial propagation was performed in clone F and clone D. Ovulated eggs from clone F were divided into two parts and respectively inseminated with sperm from a clone D male and from a red common carp (Cyprinus carpio) male. The control clone D individuals were selected from gynogenetic offspring of clone D activated by sperm of red common carp. The phenotype and sex ratio in the experimental groups were also observed. Using RAPD molecular markers, which allow for reliable discrimination and genetic analysis of different clones, we have revealed direct molecular evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in the gynogenetic silver crucian carp and confirmed a previous hypothesis that the silver crucian carp might reproduce both gynogenetically and gonochoristically. Therefore, we conclude that the silver crucian carp possesses two reproductive modes, i.e., gynogenetic and gonochoristic reproduction. The response mechanism of two

  14. Characterization of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1(GHS-R1) genes and weight gain associated SNP loci in Cyprinus carpio var.jian%建鲤生长激素促泌素受体1基因的特性及其与增重相关SNP位点的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞菊华; 李红霞; 李建林; 唐永凯; 董在杰

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHS-Rs) are endogenous receptors for growth hormone secretion (ghrelin) that belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor family. GHS-Rs play a role in regulating animal growth and energy homeostasis. GHS-R is a candidate quantitative trait loci related to obesity and growth in mammals. We used RT-PCR and PCR to isolate two JlGHS-RlsJlGHS-Rla and 1b. The open reading frames of jlGHS-Rls encode 360 amino acids that share 96% identity. In addition, there are two jlGHS-Rls transcription variants, an alternatively spliced 191 bp fragment from 490 nt to 680 nt in ORF with GT-AG at both ends. These transcripts led to a premature termination of translation, encoding 184 aa, and only contained three and a half transmembrane regions, which differs from the reported intron retaining variants among tilapia. The ORF of jlGHS-Rls was separated by one intron, locating between the first and second base of A260 coden. The introns of la and lb were 676 bp and 885 bp in length, respectively. We found 32 SNPs on two jlGHS-Rls in the Cyprinus carpio var.jian population using alignment sequences from different individuals. We then genotyped 9 SNPs using PCR-RFLP. We encountered each genotype in 322 individuals, but there was an obvious bias in the distribution. The la-1C386T and Ib-E1_G1S9T sites were significantly associated with juvenile and adult fish weight gain (P<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Individuals with CC and GG genotypes grew faster than other individuals. In addition, a further five sites were correlated with weight gain at certain stages or sex. To determine the applicability of the markers obtained in this experiment, we tested 610 individuals from seven additional families using four markers. The C386T and G159T sites remained significantly correlated with weight gain. Therefore, these two sites can be used as references for the molecular breeding of Cyprinus carpio vax.jian.%GHS-R基因在哺乳类为候选的肥胖和生长数

  15. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity in carp brain and muscle after acute exposure to diafuran Atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase em cérebro e músculo de carpas após exposição aguda ao diafuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Ineu Golombieski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sublethal adverse effects may result from exposure of aquatic organisms to insecticides at environmentally relevant concentrations. Fingerlings of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Valenciennes, 1844, and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, Richardson, 1845 were exposed to diafuran, an insecticide widely used during rice cultivation in Southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between the lethal concentration (LC50 of diafuran and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in brain and muscle tissues of these species as a possible early biomarker of exposure to this insecticide. LC50 was determined for fish exposed to diafuran concentrations during 96 h (short term: common carp: control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mg L-1; grass carp: control, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 3.5 mg L-1 and, bighead carp: control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg L-1, as well as the determination of AChE at concentrations near LC50 for these species. LC50 values (nominal concentrations were 1.81 mg L-1 for the common carp, 2.71 mg L-1 for the grass carp and, 2.37 mg L-1 for the bighead carp. All carps exposed to diafuran were lethargic (lower concentrations or immobile. Diafuran inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity in brain (~38% and muscle (~50% of all species. Muscle of bighead carp under control treatment showed higher specific AChE activity than brain (14.44 against 5.94 µmol min-1 g protein-1, respectively. Concentrations of diafuran used for rice cropping may affect Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Aristichthys nobilis behaviors and the AChE activities in brain and muscle of these species may be an early biomarker of toxicity of this insecticide.Exposição a inseticidas em concentrações elevadas no ambiente podem ocasionar efeitos adversos subletais em organismos aquáticos. Alevinos de carpa húngara (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758, carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon

  16. Perfil de ácidos graxos e composição centesimal de carpas (Cyprinus carpio) alimentadas com ração e com dejetos suínos Fatty acid profile and proximate composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio) feed artificial food and pig manure

    OpenAIRE

    Janice Izabel Druzian; Cristiane Michele Marchesi; Adilma Regina Pippa Scamparini

    2007-01-01

    Este estudo investigou o efeito da alimentação com dejetos suínos na composição centesimal e no perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo de carpas. Amostras de carpas com 4-10 meses de idade, recolhidas em Santa Catarina, foram filetadas, trituradas e acondicionadas em atmosfera de nitrogênio (-18°C). Os valores (%) de umidade, proteína e cinzas foram: 72,24; 14,85; e 2,16, respectivamente, para carpas alimentados com ração; e 83,33; 14,48; e 3,49 para carpas alimentadas com dejetos suínos. Os ...

  17. Pathogenesis of spring viremia of carp virus in emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque and white sucker Catostomus commersonii (Lacepede).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misk, E; Garver, K; Nagy, E; Isaac, S; Tubbs, L; Huber, P; Al-Hussinee, L; Lumsden, J S

    2016-06-01

    Spring viremia of carp (SVC) is a reportable disease to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) as it is known to cause significant international economic impact. In Canada, the first and only isolation of SVC virus (SVCV) was in 2006, from common carp Cyprinus carpio L., at Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario. The susceptibility of fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque and white sucker Catostomus commersonii (Lacepede) to intraperitoneal injection of the Canadian isolate (HHOcarp06) was evaluated using experimental infection, virus isolation, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Emerald shiner and fathead minnow were most susceptible with 43 and 53% cumulative mortality, respectively, compared with koi at 33%. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that koi had high viral loads throughout the experiment. At 34 days post-infection, SVCV was detected from sampled emerald shiner and white sucker in very low titre and was not detected from fathead minnow. Koi, fathead minnow and emerald shiner had gross lesions typical of SVC disease. The histopathological picture was mostly dominated by necrotic changes in kidney, spleen, liver, pancreas and intestine. IHC further confirmed SVCV infection, and staining was largely correlated with histological lesions. PMID:26411333

  18. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge contaminants survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bullheads (Ictalurus sp.), carp (Cyprinus carpio), a quillback (Carpiodes cyprinus), a bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), and a turtle were collected from...

  19. The Influence of Temperature and Starvation on Resting Metabolic Rate and Spontaneous Activity in Juvenile Cyprinus carpio%温度和饥饿对鲤鱼幼鱼静止代谢率及自发运动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付成; 曹振东; 付世建

    2012-01-01

    The resting metabolic rate (RMR) of both starvation (2 weeks) and control juvenile Cyprinus carpio [body mass 10.36 ± 0. 22 g, n = 88] were measured at both 15 and 25t , respectively. The spontaneous activity indicated by fin ( both pectoral and tail fins) beat frequency during movement ( FBFmovemenl) , average fin beat times during whole 10 min observation period (FBF10min) and percent time spent moving (PTM) were measured at the same time. Both the temperature and starvation showed significant effects on RMR ( P < 0. 05). The RMR of starved fish exhibited a similar 19% - 20% decrease compared to that of control fish at both 15 and 25℃ , respectively, while the RMR of control and starved fish increase by about 80% -83% with the increase of temperature. The starvation has significantly different effect on spontaneous activity at different temperature (P < 0. 05). When acclimated at 15℃ , starvation treatment showed no effect on FBFmovement while it elicited a significantly lower PTM, resulting in a significantly lower FBF10min in starved fish. However, starvation treatment showed no effect on PTM while it elicited a significantly higher FBFmovement, resulting in a significantly higher FBF10min in starved fish acclimated at 25℃. It suggested that when undergo starvation, the juvenile C. Carpio reduce its spontaneous activity to save energy at 15℃ , but increase its spontaneous activity possibly for food hunting at 25 ℃ . The different responses of spontaneous activity to starvation of fish acclimated at different temperature may be related to the richness of food resources and physiological status condition of fish in wild environment at different temperature. However, starved fish showed a similar RMR response to temperature change when compared to control fish.%分别在15和25℃条件下对鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)幼鱼[体重(10.36±0.22)g,n=88]进行2周的饥饿处理(饥饿组)或持续投喂(对照组),然后对

  20. Genetic Diversity and Sequence Variation of Mitochondrial COI Gene Segments of Qingshui River Cyprinus carpio%清水江鲤鱼线粒体COI基因序列变异及遗传多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向燕; 朱玲; 胡世然; 张宗慧

    2013-01-01

    To provide a molecular biological reference for phyletic evolution and diverse research on Qingshui River C.carpio,mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit Ⅰ (COI) gene segments(about 900 bp) of the Qingshui River cyprinid were sequenced and analyzed.The results were as follows:the length of the targeted sequence varied from 898 to 902bp,and the percentage of A+T and G+C were 55.3% and 44.6% respectively; 33 polymorphic loci,which were consisted of 24 transitions,6 transversions and 3 transitions coexisted with transversions,were detected in the sequence of the population; The nucleotide diversity(Pi) and the average number of nucleotide differences(K) of the 38 individuals was 0.00451 and 4.038,respectively; All individuals were merged into 25 haplotypes; The haplotypic diversity(Hd) was 0.964,and the average genetic distance between all haplotypes was 0.005; In the neighbor joining(NJ)phylogenetic tree,all but one haplotypes clustered into two branches.All above indicated that the Qingshui River C.carpio exists abundant variation in COI sequence and relatively low genetic diversity.%为清水江鲤鱼的系统进化和多样性研究提供分子生物学依据,对清水江鲤鱼线粒体细胞色素氧化酶亚基Ⅰ(COI)基因序列的变异及遗传多样性进行了研究.结果表明:38个清水江鲤鱼个体中COI序列长度在898~902bp,碱基A+T和G+C的平均含量分别为55.3%和44.6%;在检测到的33个多态位点中,完全转换、完全颠换、转换与颠换共存位点数分别为24个、6个、3个;核苷酸多样性(Pi)和平均核苷酸差异数(K)分别为0.00451和4.038;38个个体分属25个单倍型,单倍型多样度(Hd)高达0.964,平均遗传距离为0.005;构建的邻接(NJ)系统树中,除1个单倍型外,其余24个聚为2个分支.清水江鲤鱼COI序列变异较丰富,但其遗传多样性较低.

  1. Toxicity, distribution, accumulation and cooking loss of malathion in tissues of tilapia and common carp fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan, I. M.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of malathion as an organophosphorus pesticide to both of the tested fish species, i.e. Tilapia nilotica (tilapia and cyprinus carpio (Common carp was followed by estimating the LC50 at intervals from 24h up to 96h. Tilapia was much more susceptible to malathion toxicity when compared with carp and the available data proved that the LG50 of malathion to common carp fish was 5-7 times the LC50 for tilapia. Accumulation of malathion pesticide in some organs (muscles, gills, intestine and liver of both fish species was studied after application of 200, 300 and 400 ppb malathion in water for 28 days. A proportional relation was found in the two fish species between exposure time and the applied concentrations. The rate of malathion accumulation was higher in liver followed by intestine and gills whereas the lowest concentration was found in muscles. Accumulated malathion in tilapia muscles was higher than carp; while a reversible trend was observed in most other organs. Cooking of the same fish species reduced effectively malathion content in their muscles. Frying of fish in oil lead to a higher loss percent of malathion than did the other methods of cooking.

    La toxicidad aguda de malatión, pesticida organofosforado, para las dos especies de pescado analizadas, Tilapia nilotica (tilapia y Cyprinus carpio (carpa común, fue seguida por estimación de la CL50 a intervalos desde las 24h hasta las 96h. Tilapia fue mucho más susceptible a la toxicidad del malatión cuando se comparó con carpa, y los datos disponibles proporcionaron que la CL50 del malatión para carpa común fue de 5-7 veces la GL50 para tilapia. La acumulación del pesticida malatión en algunos órganos (músculos, agallas, intestino e hígado de ambas especies de pescado fue estudiada después de la aplicación de concentraciones de 200, 300 y 400 ppb de malatión en agua durante 28 días. Se encontró una relaci

  2. Hematological profile in juvenile carp reared under a recirculating system condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Docan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the influence the density of population and fish sizehas on the physiological condition of Cyprinus carpio in the light of the hematological coefficient and theerythrocyte constants. The physiology of the blood is an important parameter in order to define thegeneral condition of the organism for all teleostean fish. The investigations of the metabolic profile of theblood aimed at determining the hematologic answer of the carp under the conditions of its exposure tothe controlled modification of the following technological factors: size class, stocking density. The lowvalue of the hematocrit (27% in both experiments suggests a condition of anemia or the dehydration ofthe organism. The values registered by the hemoglobin were different, according to the size of the fish,varying between 5.22 and 5.34 g/dL blood for fish with size 65-66 g/fish, respectively 6.7-7.02 g/dLblood for fish with size 150-152 g, being with 29.92% higher in the case of fish with a larger size. Theaverage number of red blood cell counts is constant for both experiments and these values are fallinginto the normal physiological gap. Erythrocyte constants (MCV, MCH and MCHC vary according to thetwo size classes: MCH grows by 31.53% and MCHC by 28.60% with the individual growth of the carp.MCV presents values between 186.48 and 199.73 (μm3, normal value for the studied species. Thepresent study outlines the fact that the main hematological parameters vary according to the size class,the results being related to the results obtained following the investigation of the metabolic profile in thelight of the technological parameters.

  3. 青土霉素废水出水对锦鲤肝脏抗氧化酶活性和丙二醛含量的影响%Effects of Wastewater Effluent of Penicillin and Oxytetracycline on SOD,CAT Activities and MDA Content in Liver Tissue of Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志刚; 沈洪艳; 高吉喜; 王勇军; 赵秀梅; 尚亚楼

    2013-01-01

    An exposure experiment was made to study the effect of different concentrations of mixed wastewater effluent of penicillin and oxytetracycline on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT),and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver tissue of Cyprinus carpio.The results showed that mixed wastewater effluent of penicillin and oxytetracyline had little effect on SOD activity,significant induction only occurred in 1/16 φ(96 h LC5o) group on the eighth day.The CAT activity of the 1/16 φ(96 h LC50)and the 1/256 φ(96 h LC50) groups were similar,according to the "up-down-up" cyclical fluctuation law,the 1/4 φ(96 h LC50) group showed bimodal trends on the fourth day and the eighth day.The MDA content of the 1/256 φ(96 h LC50) group showed a single peak trend on the sixth day,the trends of the 1/16 and 1/4 φ(96 h LC50) groups showed "up-flat-up",on the early (2 d) and late (10 d) stage of exposure,the MDA content of the groups of all concentrations showed an effect-dosage relationship,the greater the exposure concentration,the stronger the oxidative damage to the body.The exposure experiment results suggested that CAT activity fluctuated markedly,it indicated the the body suffered from a strong oxidative damage,different levels of oxidative stress appeared in the liver tissue of Cyprinus carpio.When the wastewater concentration reached a certain level,the body oxidative damage was obvious.When the oxyteracycline concentration exceeded the load range of free radical scavenging,the significant oxidative damage would appear again.CAT activity and MDA content were more sensitive to mixed wastewater effluent of penicillin and oxytetracycline,it will be able to reflect the oxidation stress,so it is suitable for aquatic biological index of monitoring penicillin and oxytetracycline pollution in water environment.%采用暴露实验方法,研究青、土霉素混合废水出水不同暴露浓度对锦鲤肝脏组织中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢

  4. Clone, expression, purification and activity characterization of Jian carp(Cyprinus carpio var.Jian) Cathepsin L%建鲤组织蛋白酶L的克隆表达、纯化及活性特征鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冉; 陈治光; 蒋然然; 陈秀华; 李树红; 李新; 钟海霞; 但静

    2015-01-01

    首先采用TA克隆技术克隆建鲤组织蛋白酶L(Cathepsin L,CAT L)成熟肽基因片段并进行双酶切鉴定,进而构建表达载体CAT L-pET-30a并转入宿主菌E.coli BL21,经1 mmol/L异丙基-β-D-硫代吡喃半乳糖苷(IPTG)在37℃诱导2h表达重组CAT L蛋白.而后经尿素梯度洗涤和镍离子亲和层析纯化目的蛋白,并利用SDS-PAGE检测诱导效果和纯化过程.最后以荧光合成肽底物(Z-Phe-Arg-MCA)测活法鉴定建鲤重组CAT L的热稳定性、pH稳定性,以及鱼糜生产和冻藏中常用添加剂对其活性稳定性的影响.双酶切鉴定结果表明成功克隆了目的基因片段,与鲤鱼CAT L基因序列相似性为99.11%.SDS-PAGE分析表明经诱导、尿素梯度洗涤及亲和层析后,成功获得高度纯化目的蛋白,分子量约28 ku.活性鉴定结果表明重组CAT L在20~50℃及pH3.0~6.5范围内稳定;氯化钠、焦磷酸钠对重组CAT L活性的抑制作用呈现剂量依赖关系,而各浓度蔗糖、山梨醇则对其活性无明显作用.本研究成功克隆、表达和纯化了建鲤CAT L,并阐明了热、pH及鱼糜生产和冻藏中常用添加剂对该酶稳定性的不同影响.

  5. EROD Induction in Liver Microsome of Carp (Cyprinus carpio ) by Nitroaromatic Hydrocarbons in Vitro%硝基芳烃对鲤鱼肝EROD活性影响的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王咏; 徐镜波; 王春霞; 王子健

    2001-01-01

    在体外实验条件下,研究了9种硝基芳烃化合物对鲤鱼肝脏7-乙氧基异吩唑酮-脱乙基酶(EROD)的影响.结果表明,9种硝基芳烃化合物对EROD均有激活作用,在实验浓度范围内,EROD活性与浓度之间存在剂量-效应关系.实验发现苯环上同一位置的取代基不同或同一取代基在苯环上的位置不同,对EROD的激活程度的影响也不同.

  6. Molecular characterization of LEAP-2 cDNA in common carp (cyprinus carpio L.) and the differential expression upon a vibrio anguillarum stimulus; indications for a significant immune role in skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang Guiwen,; Guo, H.; Li, H.; Shan, S.; Zhang, X.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; An, L.

    2014-01-01

    LEAP-2 is a cysteine-rich cationic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) playing an important role in host innate immune system. LEAP-2 genes have been identified from higher vertebrates and several fish species. Here we report the cloning and identification of two LEAP-2 cDNA sequences from the liver of comm

  7. β-Alanine does not act through branched-chain amino acid catabolism in carp, a species with low muscular carnosine storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geda, F; Declercq, A; Decostere, A; Lauwaerts, A; Wuyts, B; Derave, W; Janssens, G P J

    2015-02-01

    This study was executed to investigate the effect of dietary β-alanine (BA) on amino acid (AA) metabolism and voluntary feed intake in carp (Cyprinus carpio) at mildly elevated temperature to exert AA catabolism. Twenty-four fish in 12 aquaria were randomly assigned to either a control diet or the same diet with 500 mg BA/kg. A 14-day period at an ideal temperature (23 °C) was followed by 15 days at chronic mildly elevated temperature (27 °C). After the 15 days, all fish were euthanised for muscle analysis on histidine-containing dipeptides (HCD), whole blood on free AA and carnitine esters. The carnosine and anserine analysis indicated that all analyses were below the detection limit of 5 µmol/L, confirming that carp belongs to a species that does not store HCD. The increases in free AA concentrations due to BA supplementation failed to reach the level of significance. The effects of dietary BA on selected whole blood carnitine esters and their ratios were also not significant. The supplementation of BA tended to increase body weight gain (P = 0.081) and feed intake (P = 0.092). The lack of differences in the selected nutrient metabolites in combination with tendencies of improved growth performance warrants further investigation to unravel the mechanism of BA affecting feed intake. This first trial on the effect of BA supplementation on AA catabolism showed that its metabolic effect in carp at chronic mildly elevated temperature was very limited. Further studies need to evaluate which conditions are able to exert an effect of BA on AA metabolism.

  8. β-Alanine does not act through branched-chain amino acid catabolism in carp, a species with low muscular carnosine storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geda, F; Declercq, A; Decostere, A; Lauwaerts, A; Wuyts, B; Derave, W; Janssens, G P J

    2015-02-01

    This study was executed to investigate the effect of dietary β-alanine (BA) on amino acid (AA) metabolism and voluntary feed intake in carp (Cyprinus carpio) at mildly elevated temperature to exert AA catabolism. Twenty-four fish in 12 aquaria were randomly assigned to either a control diet or the same diet with 500 mg BA/kg. A 14-day period at an ideal temperature (23 °C) was followed by 15 days at chronic mildly elevated temperature (27 °C). After the 15 days, all fish were euthanised for muscle analysis on histidine-containing dipeptides (HCD), whole blood on free AA and carnitine esters. The carnosine and anserine analysis indicated that all analyses were below the detection limit of 5 µmol/L, confirming that carp belongs to a species that does not store HCD. The increases in free AA concentrations due to BA supplementation failed to reach the level of significance. The effects of dietary BA on selected whole blood carnitine esters and their ratios were also not significant. The supplementation of BA tended to increase body weight gain (P = 0.081) and feed intake (P = 0.092). The lack of differences in the selected nutrient metabolites in combination with tendencies of improved growth performance warrants further investigation to unravel the mechanism of BA affecting feed intake. This first trial on the effect of BA supplementation on AA catabolism showed that its metabolic effect in carp at chronic mildly elevated temperature was very limited. Further studies need to evaluate which conditions are able to exert an effect of BA on AA metabolism. PMID:25549626

  9. Histological Investigations on an Intestinal Level in Common Carp, One Summer Old, Fed with Organic Selenium (Selplex Supplemented Fodder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Şara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to analyze the effect of organic Selenium (SelPlex on the intestinal mucosa and theimpact on the growth and consumption performances in one summer old common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lausitzand Galitian varieties. The research were conducted on a number of 392 fish, Lausitz variety divided in 2 groups andon 192 fish, Galitian variety, divided into 2 groups. The fish were raised in 2 ponds (one pond for the control groupand one pond for the experimental group, in a semi-intensive polyculture system. The rearing conditions wereidentical for the 2 groups. The fodder for the experimental group was supplemented with Selenium (0.03mg/kgfodder. At the end of the experiment, the Selenium supplementation had a positive influence on the height of theintestinal villi. The experimental group (both varieties showed significant differences compared with the controlgroup. The mean height of the intestinal microvilli from the experimental group, Lausitz variety, was 2.328μm,0.95% bigger compared to the same variety of the control group. The Galitian variety showed a mean height of themicrovilli of 2.227μm, 0.72% biger than the same variety of the control group. This development of the villistructures in the experimental groups led to an increase in the absorption surface of the intestine which explains theaccelerated growth and the improvement of the feed conversion ratio.

  10. 水温和饲料蛋白质水平对松浦镜鲤幼鱼肠道消化酶活性的影响%Effects of Water Temperature and Dietary Protein Level on Intestinal Digestive Enzyme Activities of Juvenile Songpu Mirror Carp (Cyprinus specularis Songpu)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金凤; 赵志刚; 罗亮; 徐奇友

    2013-01-01

    本试验旨在研究水温和饲料蛋白质水平对松浦镜鲤(Cyprinus specularis Songpu)幼鱼肠道消化酶活性的影响.选取平均体重为(10.11±1.07)g的松浦镜鲤幼鱼1350尾,随机分成15组,每组3个重复,每个重复30尾鱼.试验鱼在不同水温(18、23和28℃)下饲喂不同蛋白质水平(30.0%、32.0%、34.0%、36.0%和38.0%)的5种饲料.试验期为60 d.结果表明:水温对松浦镜鲤幼鱼肠道蛋白酶、淀粉酶和脂肪酶活性均有显著或极显著影响(P <0.05或P<0.01).饲料蛋白质水平对前肠、中肠和后肠蛋白酶以及前肠淀粉酶活性有显著或极显著影响(P<0.05或P<0.01).除了前肠蛋白酶活性外,水温和饲料蛋白质水平的交互作用对各肠段蛋白酶、淀粉酶和脂肪酶活性均未产生显著影响(P>0.05).同一水温下,随饲料蛋白质水平的升高,肠道蛋白酶、淀粉酶和脂肪酶活性均呈现先升高后降低的变化趋势;同一饲料蛋白质水平下,肠道蛋白酶和淀粉酶活性随水温升高而升高,而脂肪酶活性则随水温的升高而降低.由此得出,水温和饲料蛋白质水平与松浦镜鲤幼鱼肠道消化酶活性关系密切;根据肠道蛋白酶活性,松浦镜鲤幼鱼最佳饲料蛋白质水平在水温18℃下为35.83% ~ 36.96%,23℃下为37.40%~39.58%,28℃下为36.79% ~39.99%.%This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of water temperature and dietary protein level on intestinal digestive enzyme activities of juvenile Songpu mirror carp ( Cyprinus specularis Songpu). A total of 1 350 juvenile Songpu mirror carp with an average body weight of (10.11 ±1. 07) g were randomly assigned to 15 groups with 3 replicates per group and 30 fish per replicate. Juvenile Songpu mirror carp were fed five diets containing 30. 0% , 32. 0% , 34. 0% , 36. 0% and 38. 0% protein, respectively, and reared at different water temperatures (18, 23 and 28 ℃) for 60 days. The results

  11. Qualidade da polpa da carpa Húngara transportada viva ou no gelo Hungarian carp minced quality transported live or on ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Martinez Echevenguá

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi estudado o efeito do método de transporte (peixe vivo ou no gelo na qualidade da polpa da carpa húngara Cyprinus carpio proveniente de cultivos em que eram alimentadas com ração, dejetos de suínos ou dejetos de frangos. A polpa foi moída, embalada a vácuo em embalagem de polietileno e conservada sob refrigeração 2±1°C. Foram realizadas análises de rendimento de carcaça e composição proximal do músculo. As análises de BVT (bases voláteis totais, pH, IP (índice de peróxidos e TBA (ácido tiobarbitúrico da polpa foram realizadas no 1°, 4°, 7°, 15° e 30° dias de conservação. O rendimento da polpa das carpas cultivadas com dejetos de suínos e transportadas no gelo foi estatisticamente superior às transportadas vivas, atingindo 41,5%. As alimentadas com ração e com dejetos de frango não revelaram efeitos dos métodos de transporte (P>0,05. As principais frações nutritivas (proteínas e lipídios não mostraram efeitos (P>0,05 do método de transporte avaliado. As BVT, pH, IP e TBA evidenciaram interações (PThe objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of rearing method (fed on dry diet, pig manure, or chicken manure and the method of transport (live fish or on ice on the quality of minced meat of Hungarian carp Cyprinus carpio. In order to obtain the minced meat, the muscle was triturated, vacuum wrapped in polyethylene packing and conserved under refrigeration 2±1°C. Analyses of carcass yield and muscle proximal composition were carried out. The effect of storage time (1, 4, 7, 15, and 30 days was analyzed in terms of TVB (total volatile bases, pH, PI (peroxides value and TBA (thiobarbituric acid. Carcass yield of the carps cultivated on pig manure and transported on ice was statistically higher than those transported alive, reaching 41.5%. However, there was no significant difference of carcass yield of carps fed on dry diet or chicken manure independent of the transport

  12. Effect of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on common carp's liver%毒死蜱和阿特拉津对鲤肝脏的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英; 郝其睿; 魏菁; 赵荣伟; 牟振波; 徐革锋; 刘洋

    2015-01-01

    探讨阿特拉津(Atrazine,ATR)、毒死蜱(Chlorpyrifos,CPF)及其混合物对鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)肝脏和血液相关指标的影响。将实验鲤分别暴露于不同浓度的阿特拉津、毒死蜱及其混合物中,并分别于175、350和525 d采集其肝组织、血液等样品。结果表明,阿特拉津和毒死蜱在鲤肝组织中均有残留,残留量随暴露时间及浓度的增加而降低;与对照组比较,各染毒组碱性磷酸酶、谷丙转氨酶及血糖水平显著升高,总蛋白、白蛋白水平下降,抗氧化能力下降,且毒死蜱与阿特拉津混合后毒性作用更强,说明两者的毒性有叠加作用;染毒后,肝脏ER-α和VTG-II基因表达水平升高。结果显示,鲤肝脏对阿特拉津和毒死蜱有较强的代谢能力,阿特拉津和毒死蜱在鲤肝脏无富集作用;阿特拉津和毒死蜱使鲤肝功能受损,抗氧化能力降低;ER-α和VTG-II基因的高调表达显示出阿特拉津和毒死蜱对鲤亦有环境雌激素作用。%In this study our purpose is to discuss the effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos and their mixture to related index of common carp's liver and blood. Exposeed experimental carps respectively in atrazine, chlorpyrifos and their mixture of different concentrations, and collected samples of common carp's liver and blood at 175, 350 and 525 d. Results showed that both atrazine and chlorpyrifos had re-sidual in common carp's liver and the residual quantity reduced with the exposure time and the concen-tration increasing. Compared to the control group, the alkaline phosphatase, glutamic-pyruvic transami-nase and blood glucose levels of each infected group had significant rise, while the total protein and al-bumin levels declined. Moreover, the toxicity of the mixture of atrazine and chlorpyrifos was stronger than that prior to the blending, which illustrated the toxicity of the two have superposition. After infected, the expression

  13. Cadmium Accumulation in Different Carp Tissues and Its Effect on Blood Plasma Indicators of Carps%镉在鲤鱼组织内的蓄积及对血浆指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓莹; 吴萍; 祝溢锴; 王菁; 李林枫; 周岩民

    2011-01-01

    随着工业的迅速发展,水环境中的镉污染日趋严重,镉的蓄积性强,毒性高.为了进一步研究镉在鱼类不同组织内的蓄积及其对血浆指标的影响,以鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)为受试生物,设置3个浓度梯度,镉浓度分别为0(对照组)、5和50 μg· L-1,试验周期为30 d.结果显示,随着暴露时间的延长,染毒组鲤鱼鳃、肝胰脏和肾脏中镉蓄积量与对照组相比均显著升高(P<0.05),其中肾脏蓄积量最大,其次为肝胰脏和鳃,且50 μg· L-染毒组各组织镉蓄积量显著高于5 μg·L-1染毒组(P<0.05);30 d时,5和50μg·L-1染毒组鳃、肝胰脏和肾脏中镉蓄积量分别为对照组的12.3和43.5倍、5.1和27.3倍、11.9和70.8倍;鲤鱼肌肉中仅检测到微量镉(0.02 ~ 0.04 mg·kg-1),且暴露时间和镉暴露浓度不影响肌肉中镉的蓄积量.整个试验期间,各染毒组血浆中钙和磷含量、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、丙二醛(MDA)含量和谷草转氨酶(GOT)活性与对照组相比无显著差异(P>0.05).研究表明,不同程度的水体镉污染均能造成鲤鱼各组织(肌肉除外)内较高浓度的镉蓄积,但对血浆指标无显著影响.%With the rapid development of industry, cadmium (Cd) pollution is increasingly serious. Cadmium is highly toxic and readily accumulates in organisms. To investigate the cadmium accumulation in different fish tissues and its effect on blood plasma indicators, carps (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 0 (control group), 5 and 50 μg· L-1 Cd2 + for 30 days. Results showed that compared with the control group, the cadmium accumulation levels increased significantly in the gills, hepatopancreas and kidney with the extension of exposure time (p 0.05). It was demonstrated that exposure to cadmium at different levels would cause high cadmium accumulation in different tissues (except muscles) of carps, but had little significant effect on the blood plasma parameters.

  14. 温度和饲料蛋白质水平对松浦镜鲤幼鱼血清生化指标的影响%Effects of temperature and dietary protein content on the blood biochemical parameters in juvenile Songpu mirror carp Cyprinus specularis Songpu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金凤; 徐奇友; 王常安; 赵志刚; 罗亮

    2013-01-01

    The effects of water temperature (18, 23 ℃, and 28 ℃ ) and dietary protein levels (30% , 32% , 34% , 36% and 38%) on blood biochemical parameters were investigated in juvenile (body weight 10. 11 g±l. 07 g) Songpu mirror carp Cyprinus specularis Songpu reared in recirculating tanks at a rate of 30 individuals per tank with triplication for 60 d. The results showed that total protein (TP) and triglyceride (TG) levels in the juveniles were increased with the increase in dietary protein levels at 18 ℃, while glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (AST) activity decreased with the increase in dietary protein levels at 18 ℃. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol (CHOL) levels at all temperature (P>0.05) , and urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CREA), blood glucose (GLU) , and albumin (ALB) levels, and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (ALT) activity, and athero-genic lipoprotein profile (ALP) levels were increased then decreased with increase in dietary protein levels. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in protein treatments. Under the same protein level, TG, BUN, CREA, TP, ALB, ALT and AST levels were significant decreased (P<0.05) with the increase in temperature, while ALP level were significant increased(P<0.05). At 23 ℃ , GLU and GGT levels were significant higher than that in the other temperature treatments. There was better nutritive metabolism of Songou mirror carp at 23 ℃ than at 18 and 28 X ,and the optimal dietary protein level was found to be 32% at 18 ℃ , 34% at 23 ℃ and 34% at 28 ℃.%研究了在不同温度(18、23、28℃)下,饲喂5种蛋白质水平(质量分数为30%、32%、34%、36%和38%)的饲料对松浦镜鲤Cyprinus specularis Songpu幼鱼(10.11 g±1.07 g)血清生化指标的影响.试验分为15组,每组设3个重复,每个重复放30尾鱼,饲养试验共进行60 d.结果表明:18℃下,鱼血清总蛋白(TP)和甘油三酯(TG)含量随饲料蛋白质水平的升高而升高,血清谷

  15. Umatilla - Rough Fish Eradication

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to enhance environmental conditions in the McCormack Slough on Umatilla NWR, the population of rough fish, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and...

  16. Patterns of metal composition and biological condition and their association in male common carp across an environmental contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Reynaldo; Rosen, Michael R; Orsak, Erik L; Goodbred, Steven L; May, Thomas W; Alvarez, David; Echols, Kathy R; Wieser, Carla M; Ruessler, Shane; Torres, Leticia

    2012-02-01

    There is a contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) that is partly driven by municipal and industrial runoff and wastewater inputs via Las Vegas Wash (LVW). Adult male common carp (Cyprinus carpio; 10 fish/site) were collected from LVW, Las Vegas Bay (receiving LVW flow), Overton Arm (OA, upstream reference), and Willow Beach (WB, downstream) in March 2008. Discriminant function analysis was used to describe differences in metal concentrations and biological condition of fish collected from the four study sites, and canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between metal and biological traits. Metal concentrations were determined in whole-body extracts. Of 63 metals screened, those initially used in the statistical analysis were Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn. Biological variables analyzed included total length (TL), Fulton's condition factor, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hematocrit (Hct), and plasma estradiol-17β and 11-ketotestosterone (11kt) concentrations. Analysis of metal composition and biological condition both yielded strong discrimination of fish by site (respective canonical model, p<0.0001). Compared to OA, pairwise Mahalanobis distances between group means were WBcarp collected along a contaminant gradient in LMNRA have distinct, collection site-dependent metal and morpho-physiological profiles that are significantly associated with each other. These associations suggest that fish health and reproductive condition (as measured by the biological variables evaluated in this study) are

  17. Induction of Gynogenesis in Japanese Crucian Carp (Carassius cuvieri)%人工诱导雌核发育日本白鲫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙远东; 张纯; 刘少军; 陶敏; 曾琛; 刘筠

    2006-01-01

    Diploid gynogenesis was induced in Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) eggs using UV-irradiated genetically inactive spermatozoa from mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) or blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), with or without cold shock. The optimal radiation dosage was 4 200 mJ/cm2 and 3 600 mJ/cm2 for mirror carp and blunt snout bream sperm, respectively.At this dosage and without cold shock, the yields were (32.4±3.3)% vs. (33.8±1.4)% gynogenetic haploids and (0.7±0.3)% vs.(0.5±0.3)% hybrid diploids, respectively. At the optimal UV dosage but with cold shock (2 min after fertilization, 0-4℃ for 40 min), the hatching rates were (27.8±2.1)% and (29.4 ±3.3)%, respectively. From hatching to feeding, (15.7±3.4)% and (23.6±4.1)% normal gynogenetic diploids were recorded, respectively. Survival of normal gynogenetic diploids was 56% out of the hatched fry when using irradiated spermatozoa of mirror carp, which was lower than that (up to 80%) when using irradiated spermatozoa of blunt snout bream. This indicated that the sperm of blunt snout bream, with distant genetic relation to the maternal Japanese crucian carp, was more effective than that of mirror carp to induce diploid gynogenesis. The nature of the gynogenetic progeny was identified with external appearance, chromosome number and gonad structure. The presence of only females in gynogenetic progeny probably suggested XX genotype in the female Japanese crucian carp. The gynogenetic diploids have potential values such as faster growth and stronger disease resistance than the normal Japanese crucian carp. All gynogenetic progeny possessed 100 chromosomes whereas all J × B crosses were triploid with 124 chromosomes. The formation of the new triploid hybrids in J × B crosses may be usefulin aquaculture.%分别用遗传失活的散鳞镜鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)、团头鲂(Megalobrama amblycephala)精子诱导日本白鲫(Carassiuscuvieri)进行雌核发育.未经冷休克处理,用UV照射过

  18. Crescimento de jundiá e carpa húngara criados em sistema de recirculação de água Jundiá growth and Common Carp reared in recirculated water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviani Corrêia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar o crescimento e o rendimento de carcaça e a composição corporal de juvenis de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen e carpa húngara (Cyprinus carpio criados em sistema de recirculação de água, em mono e bicultivo, durante 60 dias, na fase de recria. Cinco tratamentos com três repetições foram testados: 100C=100% carpa; 100J=100% jundiá; 50C50J=50% carpa 50% jundiá; 75C25J=75% carpa 25% jundiá e 25C75J=25% carpa 75% jundiá, sendo utilizados 20 peixes por unidade experimental. Foram avaliados o peso (P, a biomassa total (BT, o fator de condição (FC, a conversão alimentar aparente (CAA, a taxa de crescimento específico (TCE, o rendimento de carcaça (RC, o índice digestivo-somático, o índice hepato-somático, o quociente intestinal, as composições centesimais dos peixes, as taxas de deposição de proteína e a gordura corporal. Não foram observadas diferenças no peso, no FC e na TCE dos jundiás (P>0,05. Para essas variáveis, as carpas submetidas ao tratamento 25C75J apresentaram valores significativamente maiores (PA study was conducted to evaluate growth, carcass yield and body composition of jundiá and common carp raised in mono or duoculture in a recirculated water system, for 60 days, during the growing. Five treatments were tested with three replicates: 100C=100% carp; 100J=100% jundiá, 50C50J=50% carp 50% jundiá; 75C25J=75% carp 25% jundiá and 25C75J=25% carp 75% jundiá. Twenty fishes were distributed in each experimental unit. It was evaluated weight (W, total biomass (TB, condition factor (CF, feed conversion rate (FCR, specific growth rate (SGR, carcass yield (YC, digestive-somatic index, hepatossomatic index, intestinal quotient and the proximate composition and body deposition of protein and fat. Considering jundiá performance, no statistical difference was observed for W, CF and SGR (P>0.05. Common carp from treatment 25C75J showed the highest values (P<0

  19. The Effects of Exercise Training on the Morphological Parameter of Juvenile Common Carp%运动锻炼对鲤鱼幼鱼形态参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫冠杰; 曹振东; 彭姜岚; 付世建

    2011-01-01

    为考查运动锻炼对鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)幼鱼形态特征的影响,在25℃条件下将60尾体长为(7.1±0.39)cm的实验鱼,以60%临界游泳速度(Ucrit)持续运动锻炼15 d,每天锻炼时间分别为6 h和12 h,对照组锻炼时间为每天0 h;随后分别进行有关形态特征图像及相关参数的测定.结果显示,6 h和12 h实验组的叉长(FL)、尾柄侧面积(S')的值与对照组相比均显著增大(p<0.05);而头高(HD)、体高(BD)和体高比体长(H/L)的值都显著减小(p<0.05);6 h和12 h实验组之间比较,12 h处理组的BD值和H/L值比6 h处理组的显著变小(p<0.05);其中,与对照组相比6 h和12 h组S'值增加的比率为5.8%和9.5%,而H/L值分别降低3.4%和6.9%.研究认为,运动锻炼对实验鱼的形态特征及相关参数均产生影响,且这种影响随锻炼强度的提高而增大;运动锻炼对鲤鱼幼鱼产生的这种影响可能会使它们的游泳运动速度及能量效率得到显著提高.%To investigate the effects of exercise training on the morphological parameter of juvenile common carp ( Cyprinus carpio),the morphological images and related parameters were measured in juvenile common carp ( body length, (7.1 ± 0.39) cm, n = 60) after exercise training for 15 days. The exercise training water flow rate was 60% critical swimming speed ( Ucrit ) and the exercise training duration was 0 h (control), 6 h and 12 h daily and the water temperature was maintained at 25 ℃ conditions. The results revealed that the fork length (FL) and the caudal area (S') of 6h and 12 h exercise trained groups increased significantly (p <0.05), while head depth (HD), body depth (BD) and the body depth: body length ratio (H/L) reduced significantly (p <0.05), respectively,compared with those of the control group. Between the two experimental treatment groups, the values of BD and H/L of 12 h exercise trained group were significantly smaller than those of 6 h exercise trained group (p < 0

  20. Effects of Different Dietary Carbohydrate-to-Lipid Ratios on Growth, Body Composition and Digestive Enzyme Activities of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpoio)%饲料不同糖脂比对鲤鱼生长、体成分及消化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲木; 李长娥; 刘宏超; 张宝龙; 程镇燕; 孙金辉; 白东清; 乔秀亭

    2016-01-01

    降趋势,糖脂比为27.2的组显著低于其他各组( P<0.05);而后肠淀粉酶活性以糖脂比为15.0的组为最低,显著低于除糖脂比为9.6的组外的其他各组( P<0.05)。各组织脂肪酶活性变化趋势相似,均随饲料糖脂比的升高而呈先上升后下降趋势,最高值均出现在饲料糖脂比为15.0时。综合考虑生长、体成分、血清生化指标、消化酶活性,鲤鱼饲料中适宜的糖脂比为6.8~15.0。%This study determined the effects of different dietary carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratios on growth, body composition and digestive enzyme activities of common carp ( Cyprinus carpoio) . Common carp with the aver⁃age body weight of (44.45±1.60) g were randomly divided into 5 groups with 3 replicates in each group and 70 fish in each replicate. The fish in those groups were fed 5 different experimental diets with the carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratios of 5.2, 6.8, 9.6, 15.0 and 27.7, respectively. The growth experiment lasted for 63 d. The re⁃sults showed as follows: 1 ) the maximum weight gain ratio ( WGR ) , specific growth rate ( SGR ) and the minimum feed conversion rate ( FCR) were observed in common carp fed the diet with 6.8 carbohydrate⁃to⁃lip⁃id ratio, and the WGR and SGR in 6.8 carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratio group were significantly higher than those in other groups ( P0.05). 3) With the increase of diary carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratio, serum total cholesterol content was firstly decreased and then increased, and the lowest value was found in 15.0 carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratio group which was significant⁃ly higher than that in 5.2 and 27.7 carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratio groups ( P<0.05);the highest serum triglyceride content was found in 6. 8 carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratio group, and significantly higher than that in other groups ( P<0.05);the highest serum glucose content was found in 27.7 carbohydrate⁃to⁃lipid ratio group, and signifi⁃cantly higher than that in

  1. A Study on the Metabolic Residue Rule of Norfloxacin Nicotinate in Common Carp%烟酸诺氟沙星在松浦镜鲤体内代谢残留规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段可馨; 韩冰; 王荻; 卢彤岩

    2016-01-01

    分析烟酸诺氟沙星在松浦镜鲤体内代谢残留规律,准确制定该种药物的休药期,为有效、安全、合理地使用烟酸诺氟沙星提供准确科学的理论依据。选用松浦镜鲤( Cyprinus carpio L.)为实验对象,连续5 d 口灌30 mg/(kg·d)烟酸诺氟沙星(norfloxacin nicotinate,NFX)后,分别于给药后1,2,3,4,5,6,7,9,11,13,15,20,25 d采集鲤血浆、肌肉、皮、肝和肾5种组织,通过高效液相色谱法检测其各组织内烟酸诺氟沙星的残留量。烟酸诺氟沙星在鲤体内吸收分布迅速,代谢较为缓慢,各组织分布量由多到少依次为:肾脏、肝胰脏、肌肉、皮肤、血浆,为避免组织内残留过多药物,建议休药期为24 d。%The aim of this study is to study the residual rule of norfloxacin nicotinate in common carp,for⁃mulate the withdrawal time of norfloxacin accurately and provide a precision and scientific theory basis for u⁃sing this medicine reasonably,safely and effectively.In the experiment,common carp(Cyprinus carpio L.)was taken as the target,the fish were drenched with the medicine 30 mg/( kg ·d) for 5 days,then their kidney,liv⁃er,muscle,skin and blood were collected at the 1st,2nd,3rd,4th,5th,6th,7th,9th,11th,13th,15th,20th,25thday af⁃ter the medication.The residual of norfloxacin nicotinate in the above 5 kinds of tissues was detected by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).Norfloxacin nicotinate was absorbed by the tissues rapidly but me⁃tabolized slowly.The distribution of the medicine was in the order:kidney>liver>muscle>skin>blood.In order to avoid excessive medicine residues within the tissues,the 24 days of withdrawal time is proposed.

  2. 基于ISSR标记的不同体色瓯江彩鲤种质鉴定%Application of ISSR marker in germplasm identification of color patterns of Oujiang color carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕耀平; 胡则辉; 项松平; 黄佩佩

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) technique were applied to analyze the genetic diversity among 5 color patterns of Oujiang color carp, designated as whole red,whole white, red color with small black spots, white color with large black patches,red color with large black patches, fourteen specific and stable primers were screened from 60 primers and a total of 125 loci were generated, of which 85 loci (68%) were polymorphic. The results indicated that effective number of alleles (Ne), expected heterozygosity(h) and Shannon's information index (Ⅰ) were 1. 479 3,0. 273 9 and 0. 401 0,respectively. Genetic similarity (GS) and genetic distances (GD) were calculated by using Nei's matching coefficient, the average GD among 5 color patterns of Oujiang color common carp is 0. 342 4. When NJ and UPGMA cluster analysis were applied, Oujiang color carp were divided into two groups, named whole white, white color with large black patches and whole red in one group,red color with small black spots and red color with large black patches in the other group. Subsequently, the 3 polymorphic bands amplified from the primer 848 were employed to construct the DNA fingerprints of the 5 color patterns of Oujiang color carp. Among the constructed DNA fingerprints,each color pattern of Oujiang color carp had its unique fingerprinting pattern and could be easily distinguished from each other. Taken together,the results in this study show that the ISSR marker is a useful technique for identification of Oujiang color carp,offering the more correct and quicker results.%应用ISSR分子标记技术对5种体色瓯江彩鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.color)(“全红”、“粉玉”、“粉花”、“麻花”和“大花”)进行遗传多样性分析,筛选出的14条引物在5种体色瓯江彩鲤中共检测到125个位点,多态位点比率达68%,有效等位基因数为1.479 3,期望杂合度为0.273 9,Shannon多样性指数为0.401 0;5种不同体色瓯江彩鲤

  3. Potted Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 4 silver carp of about 200 grams each, mushrooms, winter bamboo shoots, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, broth, salt and MSG (optional). Method: 1. After cleaning the carp place them in a pot; add in all other ingredients and some broth, Seal the opening of the pot with kraft paper

  4. Contrast Test of the Economic Benefit of the Pond Fish- farming Modes Taking the Grass Carp and the Cyprinus Carpio as the Main Fish Seed Respectively%池塘主养草鱼与主养鲤鱼模式经济效益的对比试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志远; 续满光; 任惠民

    2004-01-01

    试验表明:池塘养殖草鱼的比较效益明显高于养殖鲤鱼.总结出一些池塘主养革鱼规范化的技术操作模式,解决了池塘主养鲤鱼效益低下的矛盾,提高了单位水体的经济效益.

  5. 大蒜茎粉和牛至草粉对镜鲤抗氧化、非特异免疫以及肌肉品质的影响%Effects of Garlic Stem Powder and Oregano Leaf Powder on Antioxidant Capacity,Non-specific Immune Performance and Meat Quality of the Carp(Cyprinus specularis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐奇友; 唐玲; 王常安; 许红; 孙大江

    2010-01-01

    试验研究了大蒜茎粉和牛至草粉对镜鲤(Cyprinus specularis)抗氧化能力、非特异免疫性能及肌肉品质的影响.试验共设7个处理组:G1空白对照组,G2添加黄霉素10 mg/kg,G3、G4分别添加大蒜茎粉0.5%和2.5%,G5、G6组分别添加牛至草粉0.1%和0.5%,G7混合添加大蒜茎粉0.5%和牛至草粉0.5%.每个处理设3个重复,每个重复10尾鱼,初始体重为(201.45±16.25)g,试验共进行8周.结果表明:与G1空白组对比,G3、G4和G6显著提高了肝胰脏SOD活性(P0.05).在饲料中添加大蒜茎粉和牛至草粉提高镜鲤非特异免疫性能,改善鱼体肌肉品质.

  6. 四倍体鲫鲤、三倍体湘云鲫染色体减数分裂观察%Chromosome pairing in meiosis Ⅰ in allotetraploid hybrids and allotriploid crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯; 何晓晓; 刘少军; 孙远东; 刘筠

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, the chromosome pairing during meiosis Ⅰ(MⅠ)of spermatocytes in allotetraploid hybrids of the red crucian carp (Carassius auratus, red var.)(♀)×common carp Cyprinus carpio (♂), allotriploid crucian carp, diploid red crucian carp and common carp was investigated. As the control groups, their chromosome number in metaphase of mitosis was also examined. During MⅠ, the homologous chromosomes of allotetraploid hybrids were paired, showing 100 bivalents, no univalent, trivalent and quadrivalent being found. The chromosome spreads of the allotriploid in MⅠconsisted of 50 bivalents and 50 unsynapsed univalent. Both in diploid red crucian carp and diploid common carp, only 50 bivalents were observed respectively. In the control groups, the metaphase spreads of chromosomes in mitosis in allotetraploid hybrids, allotriploids, diploid red crucian carp and common carp were 4n=200, 3n=150, and 2n=100, respectively. In all the different species, the bivalent number in MⅠ agreed with the chromosome number in mitosis. The 200 chromosomes the allotetraploids possessed only formed 100 bivalents during MⅠ, indicating that they were able to produce stably diploid gametes, maintaining the tetraploidy from one generation to the next one. The coexistence of bivalents and univalent in MⅠin triploid crucian carp resulted in the failure to form the normal mature gametes, providing the evidence on the chromosome level for the sterility of the triploids[Acta Zoologica Sinica 51(1):89-94,2005].%用精巢细胞直接制片法观察了异源四倍体鲫鲤、三倍体湘云鲫和二倍体红鲫、湘江野鲤精母细胞染色体第一次减数分裂中期配对情况;作为对照,观察了上述四种鱼肾细胞的有丝分裂中期染色体.在精母细胞第一次减数分裂中,异源四倍体鲫鲤同源染色体两两配对,形成100个二价体,没有观察到单价体、三价体和四价体;三倍体湘云鲫精母细胞形成50个二价体和50

  7. Parasites of South African freshwater fish. VII. Nematodes of some scaled fishes from the Hartbeespoort Dam, Transvaal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomker, J

    1994-06-01

    The nematode parasites of 16 large-scaled yellowfish, Barbus marequensis, six silverfish, Barbus mattozi, six small-scaled yellowfish, Barbus polylepis, 52 canary kurper, Chetia flaviventris, 11 carp, Cyprinus carpio, 45 Mozambique bream, Oreochromis mossambicus and a single-banded bream, Tilapia sparrmani, caught in the Hartbeespoort Dam, Transvaal, were collected, identified and counted. Contracaecum spp. larvae were recovered from one O. mossambicus, 40 Chetia flaviventris, three Cyprinus carpio, one B. marequensis and five B. mattozi, Rhabdochona esseniae from five B. marequensis, Rhabdochona spp. from one O. mossambicus and four Cyprinus carpio, and unidentified nematode larvae from two O. mossambicus, three Chetia flaviventris, two Cyprinus carpio and from the single T. sparrmani. Burdens in the infected fishes were generally small, and small-scaled yellowfish did not harbour any worms. Only Mozambique bream and canary kurper were caught at regular intervals, but even in these species no pattern of seasonal prevalence of the nematodes was evident. PMID:7596571

  8. RESPONSE OF CYPRINUS CARPIO TO PHENOL AND FURFURAL SHOCK LOADS IN PACT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mesdaghinia; N. Djaafarzadeh; S Nasseri

    1999-01-01

    Treatment efficiency, design factors and kinetic coefficients were studied using two pilots of activated sludge (AS) and powdered activated carbon technology (PACT), for treating Tehran Oil Refinery effluent, in a duration of more than 12 months In order to evaluate the performance of each system against growth inhibitor shock loads, different concentrations of phenol and furfural (10-300 mg/l) were applied, following a series of experiments in which, treated effluents from the two systems we...

  9. Imaging a spinal fracture in a Kohaku Koi (Cyprinus carpio): techniques and case history report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ornamental pet fish was diagnosed with a spinal fracture and subluxation involving truncal vertebrae 5 and 6 (T5-T6) using conventional radiography, nuclear scintigraphy, and computed tomography. Attempts to evaluate the dynamic nature of the lesion using conventional fluoroscopy in the unanesthetized, moving patient were? unsuccessful, Adaptation of imaging techniques to accommodate a fish patient was not difficult and diagnostic images were obtained. The use of multiple imaging techniques was useful in the diagnosis and determination of the treatment plan of the spinal fracture in this patient

  10. Isolation and expression analysis of Sox10 gene relating body color variation in Oujiang color common carp%瓯江彩鲤体色相关基因Sox10的分离与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李康乐; 胡建尊; 颜标; 王成辉

    2013-01-01

    The numerous and diverse body color of fish was not only excellent materials to study the molecular mechanism of body color and body color inherence, body color evolution, and it was also an ideal model to diagnosis disease. Now, five basic and stable body color patterns have existed in Oujiang color common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color), namely“Quanhong”,“Dahua”,“Mahua”,“Fenyu”and“Fenhua”, respectively. This fish can be a very good model and material for studying body color inheritance. At the melanin synthesis signaling pathway, skin color was regulated by a small group genes. Sox10 gene plays an important role in the formation of melanin, it regulates the birth, migration and differentiation of melanin. However, the effect of Sox10 gene on body color has not been reported. Four healthy lines of Oujiang color carp (“Quanhong”, “Dahua”, “Fenyu”,“Fenhua”) were collected from the provincial farm of the Zhejiang. Then the skin, muscle, eye, gill, kidney, swim bladder, heart, and liver were taken out, furthermore, the black skin and red skin were sampled separately of“Dahua”, the same with black skin and white skin of“fenhua”. Total RNA was extracted using Trizol, and reverse transcribed into the First-strand cDNA. Primers were designed by Primer5 program, and the right products were purified and sequenced. The obtained sequence was analyzed by Bioedit, Clustalw, Mega and other bioinformatics softwares. The total length of Sox10 gene cloned in Oujiang color common carp is 2 830 bp which contains 9 bp 5’ untranslated regions (UTR) and 1 375 bp 3’-UTR, and 1 446 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 481 amino acids. The phylogenetic analyses showed that there were 59%−94%similarities in amino acid sequence with some of previously reported other species. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the gene was highly expressed in skin, muscle, eyes and swim bladder, weakly expressed in gill and heart and no expression were found in

  11. One carp, two carp: are there more carp in the Wailoa River?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Bruce C; Nico, Leo; Tagawa, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The February, 2015 issue of Hawaii Fishing News included the annual list of Hawai`i records for the largest fish of various species caught in the state. Among the new records was one for a 15-pound grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) caught by Avery Berido in the Wailoa River at Hilo on September 13, 2013. A photograph taken by Mr. Berido of the record grass carp garnered our attention because pictured fish looked quite similar to another Asian carp species, the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). Mr. Berido informed us that he also captured a 10-pound grass carp from the same river in June, 2013. After close examination of all of the photographs provided by Mr. Berido, we concluded that both fish from the Wailoa River were unusually dark grass carp, not black carp.

  12. 活体和施肥管理体系下锦鲤池塘产量、水质及细菌学参数%Fish Production,Water Quality and Bacteriological Parameters of Koi Carp Ponds Under Live-food and Manure Based Management Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prithwiraj Jha; Sudip Barat; Chitta R.Nayak

    2008-01-01

    为探讨在观赏池塘中的投放浮游动物以及直接投放动物粪便对锦鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)的生长及产量的影响,在池塘中进行了为期11周的实验.实验按如下四种管理系统进行处理:1.给幼体锦鲤投喂浮游动物饲料(LF组);2.直接投放家禽粪便(PM组);3.直接投放牛粪(CD组);4.不投放任何食物,仅进行常规管理(C组).每组实验重复三次.同时检测非自养细菌及致病微生物(如:Aeromonas sp.和Pseudomonas sp.)的生长状况,以此了解池塘的管理状况.在LF组中,其水体含氧量较高,与其它组相比具显著差异(P<0.05).而PM、CD组与LF、C组比较,在PO4-P,NH4-N,NO3-N,NO2-N的关系,导电率、碱度以及生化需氧量等较高,且差异显著(P<0.05),在池塘底部淤泥中的总氮量及有机碳百分率方面PM、CD与LF组相比,具有显著差异(P<0.05).PM与CD组与其它组相比在池塘中的非自养细菌(Aeromonas sp.和Pseudomonas sp.)的繁殖率较高,皆具显著差异P<0.05).LF组中锦鲤的体重增长率较其它组高(P<0.05).锦鲤幼体在C及LF组中的成活率分别为:67.21%和90.11%.结果提示:提高锦鲤幼体的存活率及其产量可通过对水质的管理(即保持优良水质)及提高池塘中浮游生物丰富度加以获得.值得注意的是:LF组中非自养细菌(Aeromonas sp.与Pseudomonas sp.)比率的过低将导致细菌性疾病的发生.%To test the effectiveness of introducing live zooplankton against direct manuring in ornamental fish ponds upon their survival and production,larvae of koi carp,Cyprinus carpio L.,were cultured for 11 weeks in earthen ponds maintained according to four management regimes:(1)live zooplankton fed to carp lalwae(LF);(2)direct fertilization with poultry manure(PM);(3)direct fertilization with cowdung(CD);and(4)a conffol treatment(C).There were three replicates for each treatment.The growth of heterotrophic bacteda and pathogenic microorganisms like Aeromonas sp.and Pseudomonas sp

  13. Activation of a sensorimotor pathway in response to a water temperature drop in a teleost fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, E.H. van den; Verhoye, M.; Peeters, R.R.; Meek, J.; Flik, G.; Linden, A. van der

    2006-01-01

    When common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., experience a rapid temperature drop, the cerebral blood volume is strongly reduced to dampen the temperature drop in the brain. Simultaneously, the preoptic area and pituitary gland are activated to launch whole-body adaptive responses. However, the preferred re

  14. Stress physiology in fish : central regulation and organismal adaptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, Juriaan Rogier

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to investigate the central regulation of the stress 428042response and consequent organismal adaptations in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. In chapter 2 the control by CRH of ACTH release from the pituitary PD is investigated. It further describes the immunohistoch

  15. The role of ecological context and predation risk-stimuli in revealing the true picture about the genetic basis of boldness evolution in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Krause, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    To showcase the importance of genotype × environment interactions and the presence of predation risk in the experimental assessment of boldness in fish, we investigated boldness in terms of feeding behavior and refuge use in two genetically different populations of juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio)...

  16. Current lineages of the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line are contaminated with fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, J.; Batts, W.; deKinkelin, P.; LeBerre, M.; Bremont, M.; Fijan, N.

    2010-01-01

    Initially established from proliferative skin lesions of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line (Fijan, Sulimanovic, Bearzotti, Muzinic, Zwillenberg, Chilmonczyk, Vautherot & de Kinkelin 1983) has become one of the most widely used tools for research on fish viruses and the diagnosis of fish viral diseases.

  17. Comparative studies on the feeding capacity of silver carp and bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Li, De-Shang

    1994-06-01

    Study of the feeding capacity of silver carp and bighead carp by means of experimental ecology showed that the filtering frequency of silver carp was slightly greater than that of bighead carp, but that the latter's suction volume was much greater than the former's so the filtering rate (filtering frequency multiplied by the suction volume) of silver carp was smaller than that of bighead carp. The filtering efficiency of silver carp for phytoplankton was greater than that of bighead carp for them. The removal rates of silver carp for phytoplankton were greater than those of bighead carp, but for zooplankton the former were smaller than the latter. For food particles about 70 μm both removal rates were almost equal. The feeding habits of the two species in natural waters is also discussed in the paper.

  18. Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    OpenAIRE

    George, Amy E.; Duane C Chapman

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H . molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked ...

  19. Consequences of the size structure of fish populations for their effects on a generalist avian predator

    OpenAIRE

    Kloskowski, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    Size-structured interspecific interactions can shift between predation and competition, depending on ontogenetic changes in size relationships. I examined the effects of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), an omnivorous fish, on the reproductive success of the red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisegena), an avian gape-limited predator, along a fish size gradient created by stocking distinct age-cohorts in seminatural ponds. Young-of-the-year (0+) carp were an essential food source for young grebes. Only...

  20. Apparent Digestibility of Nutrients in Six Kinds of Non-conventional Protein Ingredients for Jian Carp%建鲤对6种非常规蛋白质原料中营养物质的表观消化率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丹妮; 姜雪姣; 刘文斌; 鲁康乐; 乔秋实

    2011-01-01

    Apparent digestibility of dry matter ( DM), crude protein ( CP), ether extract ( EE), amino acid ( AA), total phosphorus (TP) and gross energy (GE) of blood meal, silkworm pupa meal, expanded feather meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, protein peptide and corn gluten meal were determined for Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in this experiment. The trial diets were consisted in 70% basal diet and 30% test ingredient containing 0.5% chromic oxide as an inter marker. Two hundred and ten fish with the average body weight of (220.53 ±4.67 ) g were randomly divided into 7 groups with 3 replicates per group and 10 fish per replicate.Fish in each replicate were reared in an indoor aquarium ( 3.0 m × 0.8 m × 0.8 m). After 1 week feeding with trial diets, the fecal samples were collected by siphon, then the apparent digestibility of nutrients were determined. The results showed that the apparent digestibility of DM, CP, AA, EE, TP and GE for Jian carp were ranged from 63.11% to 94.57%, 66.51% to 92.85%, 69.73% to 93.20%, 66.48% to 88.32%,29.04% to 98.92% and 58.67% to 91.92%, respectively. The apparent digestibility of nutrients in corn gluten meal were the highest, which is significantly higher than those in other test ingredients ( P < 0.05 ). The apparent digestibility of CP in expanded feather meal was the lowest (66.51%) and the ones in other ingredients were more than 75%. The apparent digestibility of TP in protein peptide was 54.13% and the ones in blood meal, silkworm pupa meal and expanded feather meal were all above 40%, while the one in hydrolyzed feather meal was the lowest (29.04%). In conclusion, corn gluten meal is a high quality protein source for Jian carp, and it can be used to instead of part of fish meal in actual feed production. While, because of the different produce processes of feather meal, the nutrient composition is different among the products, and that lead to the different apparent digestibility

  1. 瓯江彩鲤体色调控相关因子MC1R的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of color-related regulation factor MC1R in Oujiang color common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建尊; 李康乐; 项松平; 王剑; 朱丽艳; 王成辉

    2013-01-01

    黑素皮质素1受体(melanocortin 1 receptor,MCIR)是动物黑色素合成通路中的关键基因之一,对动物的体色和毛色有重要影响.瓯江彩鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.color)具有5种基本体色类型(“全红”、“粉玉”、“大花”、“粉花”和“麻花”),其中后3种带有黑色斑点或斑块,是研究动物黑色素合成机制的良好材料之一.克隆了瓯江彩鲤的MC1R基因,并进行了“全红”、“大花”、“粉玉”、“粉花”4种体色间的表达差异分析.研究发现,瓯江彩鲤的MC1R基因的全长cDNA序列为1 914 bp,包括637 bp 5’-UTR(非转录区)、311 bp3’-UTR及966 bp ORF(开放阅读框).该基因由一个外显子编码(321个氨基酸),有7个跨膜结构域.瓯江彩鲤与鲫的编码区核苷酸同源性达98%,与斑马鱼达93%;不同体色间的编码区只存在一个核苷酸无义突变(C/G),因而氨基酸序列完全相同.qRT-PCR表明,MC1R基因在眼睛的表达量显著高于皮肤、肌肉、鳃、肾脏、鳔、心、肝等组织(P<0.05);但在4种体色间不存在显著的表达差异(P>0.05).研究结果表明:瓯江彩鲤体色类型中的黑色斑块不是由MC1基因直接决定,还有待对其它体色相关基因或调控因子的研究.研究亮点:对在黑色素合成通路中起着类似“开关”作用的MC1R基因进行了克隆、序列分析和瓯江彩鲤体色间的表达差异分析,排除了MC1R基因与瓯江彩鲤黑色斑纹的直接相关性,为鱼类体色变异相关基因研究积累了有益资料.%Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R),one of the key genes in animal melanin synthesis pathway,plays an important role in determining animal body color and coat color.Oujiang color common carp (Cyprinus carpio var.color),characterized as five kinds of body color patterns with black patches (e.g."whole red","whole red with big black patch","whole red with scattered black spots"," whole white" and "whole white with big black patch

  2. Comparison of multiple genes of spring viremia of carp viruses isolated in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warg, Janet V; Dikkeboom, Audrey L; Goodwin, Andrew E; Snekvik, Kevin; Whitney, John

    2007-08-01

    Five spring viremia of carp viruses (SVCV), Rhabdovirus carpio, were isolated in the United States (US) between 2002 and 2004. Single tube reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to generate overlapping cDNA fragments from the US isolates of SVCV. Multiple pairs of specific primers were designed to amplify a portion of the phosphoprotein gene, the matrix gene, and the glycoprotein gene of SVCV genogroup Id (corresponding to nucleotides 2174-4942 of GenBank accession NC_002803). Sequences were proofread and aligned to generate a consensus sequence for each isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of the 2705 nucleotide consensus sequence revealed that all five US isolates belong to SVCV genogroup Ia, Asian origin isolates, and a PCR primer binding site unique to SVCV genogroup Ia was identified.

  3. 草鱼胰岛素样生长因子1受体基因cDNA全序列的克隆及功能%cDNA cloning and function of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor gene (Igf-Ir) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春雪; 蒋霞云; 陈杰; 邹曙明

    2014-01-01

    本研究采用cDNA末端快速扩增法(RACE)克隆了草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)IGF-IR基因全长cDNA序列,并对该基因在草鱼不同时期胚胎和成鱼不同组织中的表达进行了分析。序列分析表明,草鱼IGF-IR基因cDNA序列全长5741 bp,包括5′端非翻译区822 bp,3′端非翻译区581 bp,开放阅读框4338 bp,共编码1445个氨基酸。序列比对结果显示,草鱼 IGF-IR 可能属于 a 型,该基因编码的氨基酸序列与鲤(Cyprinus carpio)IGF-IRa、斑马鱼(Danio rerio)IGF-IRa和人类(Homo sapiens)IGF-IR的相似性分别为95%、93%和66%,具有较高的同源性,表明该基因在长期进化中具有较高的保守性。RT-PCR结果表明,该基因从16 hpf(hours post fertilization)胚胎期到出苗期都有表达,在成鱼大部分组织中均有表达。原位杂交结果显示,草鱼IGF-IR mRNA在不同时期胚胎组织中广泛存在,其中在脑部、脊索和尾部等生长旺盛组织的细胞中表达量较高。本研究为进一步探索草鱼IGF-IR基因在生长发育信号通路中的作用和育种提供了基础资料。%The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) is an important component of the insulin-like growth fac-tor system, which plays a key role in embryonic growth, formation of the nervous system, skeletal muscle development, and also appears to contribute to the establishment and progression of tumors. Despite its importance, little is known about the tissue distribution and expression pattern of IGF-IR during embryonic development in most commercially important cultured fish species. We isolated a 5 741 bp IGF-IR full-length cDNA from grass carp(Ctenopha ryngodon idellus). The IGF-IR cDNA included an 822 bp complete 5′untranslated region (5′UTR), a 581 bp 3′UTR, and a 4 338 bp open reading frame (ORF) region which encoded a 1 445 amino acid protein. The mature peptide contained seven structural domains including two Recep-L-domains, one Furin-like domain, three FN3

  4. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and Crisp Grass Carp

    OpenAIRE

    Ermeng Yu; Jun Xie; Guangjun Wang; Deguang Yu; Wangbao Gong; Zhifei Li; Haiying Wang; Yun Xia; Nan Wei

    2014-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass c...

  5. Prevalence of Argulus foliaceus in ornamental fishes [goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Koi (Cyprinus carpio)] in Kerman, southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khovand, H

    2015-12-01

    The genus Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura), or fish louse, are common parasites of freshwater fish. This parasite have a direct life cycles and mature females leave the host and lay several hundred eggs on vegetation and various objects in the water. It caused pathological changes due to direct tissue damage and secondary infections. Besides the damage and stress caused by Argulus itself, one of the main worries for fish producers are the associated secondary infestations and infections that can result from infestation with this ecto-parasite. From 300 samples, only 20 (6.67 %) samples were infested with this parasite and 280 (93.33 %) not infested. In the present study, Argulus foliaceus was reported on goldfish and Koi which this was first recorded in Kerman, southeast of Iran. According to the presented study, it is clear that A. foliaceus can act as a potential risk factor for natural ecosystems and native fish population of Iran and other countries, that should be mentioned to prevent the burst of new parasitic fauna to Iran and different countries as well as stop direct economic losses caused by mortality derived from infestation with this ecto-parasite. PMID:26688652

  6. Neurotoksičnost fumonizina B1 u šaranske mlađi (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačić, Sanja; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Pertinec, Zdravko; Šegvić Klarić, Maja

    2009-01-01

    Odavno je poznato da okoliš ima važnu ulogu u razvoju neurodegenerativnih bolesti kao što su Alzheimerova i Parkinsonova bolest te multipla skleroza. Mikotoksin fumonizin B1 (FB1) tvori nekoliko vrsta Fusariuma, najčešće F. verticillioides, koja je najučestaliji kontaminant kukuruza. Ovaj mikotoksin odgovoran je za leukoencefalomalaciju konja, mula i magaradi povezanu s konzumacijom kukuruza kontaminiranog s FB1. U ovom su radu prikazani rezultati kronične eksperimentalne toksikoze mlađ...

  7. Reproductive condition and occurrence of intersex in bighead carp and silver carp in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, D.M.; Chapman, D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive biology of the exotic bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the Missouri River. In order to fill this gap in understanding, herein is described the reproductive condition of these Asian carps. Evidence is presented which indicates that bighead and silver carp in the Missouri River have a protracted spawning period that extends from early spring through fall and some individual bighead and silver carp are spawning multiple times during a reproductive season. Although bighead and silver carps are successfully maturing and spawning in the Missouri River some reproductive abnormalities such as intersex, atresia, and sterility were observed. Knowledge of the reproductive activity of these invasive carps may be useful to resource managers tasked with their control. Furthermore, the reproductive abnormalities observed should be considered when evaluating the environmental condition of the Missouri River relative to supporting a healthy fish fauna. ?? Springer 2006.

  8. Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

  9. Vliv sádkovaní kapra na obsah a složení tuku

    OpenAIRE

    TRYBULOVSKÝ, Filip

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis deals with purging of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), and examines its effect on the content and composition of fatty acids and fat content. The goal of this experiment is to prove that purging has a positive effect on the carp flesh quality; that the progress and result of purging can be influenced by the input fish quality; and determining optimum time for carp purging with regard to the content and composition of fatty acids. The raising of fish was done at the pon...

  10. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  11. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  12. COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF INTESTINAL HELMINTHS IN THE COMMON CARP FROM THE DANJIANGKOU RESERVOIR,CHINA%丹江口水库鲤肠道寄生蠕虫群落结构与季节动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高典; 王桂堂; 吴山功; 邹红; 习丙文; 李文祥

    2012-01-01

    Change of the environment by natural barriers (e.g. lakes, mountain ranges) and/ or human activities (e.g. major roads, agriculture, dam) can lead to the difference on diversity and change of seasonal dynamics of parasite communities by affecting population size and dispersal pattern of species in nature. In order to study the influence of characteristics on parasite communities in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Area, we investigated the infra- and component communities of intestinal helminths in the common carp Cyprinus carpio before the Middle Route of the South to North water Transfer Project was constructed in the Hanjiang River from February 2004 to November 2005. In investigation, a total of 11 species of intestinal helminths were recorded from 206 fish, including 3 digeneans, 5 nematodes, 2 acantho-cephalans and 1 cestode and the statistical analysis of infective status of helminth population and community were performed at the same time. The total prevalence was 45.63%, and the mean abundance of helminthes and the intensity of infection being 4.23±12.65 and 9.29±17.48 respectively. Among the 11 species sampled, Aspidogaster ijimai had the highest total prevalence (25.24%) and mean abundance (1.76±6.46), while Carassatrema lamellorchi had the highest mean intensity (25.00±46.68). The frequency distribution of helminths was over-dispersed in most of species as measured by the variance to mean ratio except that in low infective abundance, i.e. Cucullanus cyprini. The species diversity index of helminths communities was 4.63 as measured by Shanon-Wiener Index, and the species equitability index was 0.60. The analysis of seasonal dynamics of helminth community diversity showed that it possessed a fluctuant and irregular seasonal changes about helminth species composition and number. In common, each fish was infected with 1 to 4 species of helminths. In the helminth component communities, Aspidogaster ijimai was the dominant species, and the subdominant species

  13. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E; Chapman, Duane C

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region's economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm". Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and "warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  14. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E George

    Full Text Available As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region's economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm". Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and "warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  15. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  16. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaisen, Furhan T; Al-Rubaie, Abdul-Razzak L

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided. PMID:27559480

  17. Performance of orangefin labeo, Labeo calbasu (Hamilton 1822 as a component of polyculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibha Chetia Borah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the performance of orangefin labeo, Labeo calbasu (Hamilton, 1822 as a component of conventional composite carp culture system. The species was included as 50% substitution to common carp (Cyprinus carpio in view of its omnivorous feeding habit and bottom dwelling nature. The total production was 0.55% higher in the experimental culture (with L. calbasu and Cyprinus carpio than in the control (common carp only. The difference in the production was however not significant statistically. The comparative economics revealed 5.30% higher return from the experimental unit. Comparison of growth pattern and survival rates of other five species of carps indicated that inclusion of L. calbasu did not have any adverse impact on the other carps. Growth rate of other carps was observed to be higher in the experimental set by 0.05% on an average than the control. Calculated profit per hectare was found to be 9.2% higher in experimental plot than in the control. Although the gross production and return in the experimental unit was not significantly higher than the control, the data supported that L. calbasu is compatible to other component species in composite carp culture system and its inclusion will enhance the economic viability of the system.

  18. Carp Control on Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the past few years the two pools at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge have become heavily infested with Carp. These fish enter the pools over the tops of...

  19. Bighead carp - its maturation and ovulation

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The paper investigates the effects of intraperitoneal injections of LHRH-a and domperidone (DOM), given singly or in combination at two injections, on oocyte maturation and spawning in bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis.

  20. Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

  1. Ontogenetic changes in meristic measurements of silver carp and bighead carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Li, Si-Fa

    2010-04-01

    The study analyzed 30 exterior meristic characters for 255 silver and bighead carp samples of 1- to 5-year-old collected from the National Primary Breeding Farm at Laojianghe Lake at the Middle Reach of the Yangtze River. Multivariate analysis was performed. In silver carp, the Euclidean distance was the greatest between the 1-year-old group and other age groups. Silver carp individuals were correctly classified at 98.0% accuracy with a discriminant function established by discriminant analysis based on meristic measurements. Similarly, bighead carp had the greatest distance between 1- to 2-year-old group and other age groups. Individuals of bighead carp were correctly classified at 90.7% accuracy by the discrimination function. The data showed that morphological transformation occurred during the life history of silver and bighead carp development. Eighteen meristic measurements showed highly significant differences, while four showed a significant difference between the two silver carp groups. Ten parameters decreased, while twelve measurements increased during development. In bighead carp, fourteen parameters were significantly different, while three parameters were significantly different between the two groups. Twelve parameters were significantly decreased and another five were increased during development. The results suggest allometric growth should be taken into account when identifying species, analyzing population differences and establishing germplasm standards based on morphology. PMID:20545007

  2. Rapid establishment of pure lines of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molirix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongwei; YE Yuzhen; ZHOU Jianfeng; WU Qingjiang

    2004-01-01

    The diversity of gynogenetic, artificial sex reversal and natural silver carp and bighead carp is examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method.All of the 187 bands are obtained and 19 (10.16%) of them are polymorphic in gynogenetic silver carp.Meanwhile 32 (15.61%) out of 205 bands are polymorphic in control group.In gynogenetic bighead carp a total of 232 bands are identified and 11 (4.74%) out of them are polymorphic, while 25 (10.37%) out of 241 bands are polymorphic in control group.The genetic distance of four populations is calculated and it is 0.102 and 0.023 for gynogenetic silver carp and gynogenetic bighead carp respectively.The values of natural silver carp and bighead carp are 0.161 and 0.104.From the UPGMA trees constructed based on genetic distance, the sex reversal individuals that match with the gynogenetic female individuals are picked out.A new breeding process of establishing a pure line is developed.

  3. Another case of human gnathostomiasis in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margono, S S; Idris, K N; Brodjonegoro, M S

    1978-09-01

    A male Gnathostoma spinigerum was removed from the abdominal wall of a 29-year-old woman, who was in the habit of eating "naniura", a dish containing raw carp (Cyprinus carpio). After the removal of the worm she still had pain in her chest and noticed intermittent swelling of her right lower arm. Probably the patient still had one or more Gnathostoma worms migrating i